Science.gov

Sample records for world economic crisis

  1. Influenza H1N1 and the world wide economic crisis--a model of coherence?

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T

    2009-11-01

    A recent published model described the phenomenon of a global panic reaction (GPR) on the stock markets based on two remarkable stock market crashes in the months of January and March [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U, Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses; 2008]. This model was completed by a therapeutic approach following typical elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [Sperling W, Biermann T, Maler JM, Global panic reaction - a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis. Med Hypotheses; 2009]. The phenomenon of a global panic reaction due to economic crises seems to have even larger implications on human health as well. It is well known that acute and chronic distress is competent to suppress the immune system by various mechanisms that are discussed in detail. This global panic reaction - that has also been observed in former times - might therefore be responsible for the new variation of recent influenza pandemic coming from Mexico. PMID:19515500

  2. Facing the Crisis: Third World Agriculture in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajit; Tabatabai, Hamid

    1990-01-01

    Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the world economic crisis. Discusses how the economic crisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economic crisis. (JOW)

  3. The World Debt Crisis and Its Resolution. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 231.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Mathew; Stallings, David

    The conclusion of this study of 79 developing countries was that forgiving some of the indebtedness of developing countries may stimulate mutually beneficial trade among all nations. the international debt-repayment problems of Poland in 1981 and was followed by problems in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina in 1982. This crisis has proven to be a more…

  4. Addressing the world water crisis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  5. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Argyrakis, Panos; Rozenblat, Céline; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-11-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between a given pair of countries and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis that originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, such as the recent crisis. Surprisingly, we also show that countries with a much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the k-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of 'centrality' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central ones. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12, only six are large economies, while the other six are medium/small ones, a result that could not have been otherwise anticipated. Furthermore, we use our model to predict the crisis spreading potential of countries belonging to different shells according to the crisis magnitude.

  6. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  7. Crisis of a crowded world.

    PubMed

    Chen, V

    1994-08-01

    The debate ranges on about whether population growth is good or bad or neutral. Population experts have a new focus on the environment, education, and women's health, while giving continued attention to population control. Solutions are not apparent from Marxist or capitalist perspectives. The question is not free market and limits, but what lifestyles will be adopted by the mass population in developing countries. The Malthusian dilemma of balancing population and resources will remain. The problems of world population growth, natural resource conservation, and economic development are of such a magnitude that it will take international cooperation to provide solutions. The Cairo UN International Conference on Population and Development will begin to lay the foundation for a workable consensus. If 119 million people from Bangladesh or the 1.2 billion Chinese adopt Western life styles, there will be a devastating impact on environmental quality, not only from the numbers, but from the outdated and inefficient technologies. For example, in Mexico, cars do not have catalytic converters, which lack contributes to sever air pollution problems. In the United States, population growth is the 3rd fastest after Canada and Australia, and each American consumes vast amounts of natural resources. Environmental conservation might be better served if American population growth were curbed. It is the style of life and the level of life that is important, rather than sheer numbers. Population has grown from 1.7 billion in the world in 1900 to 5.7 billion at present. Population will double again by 2050. The increase in numbers is accompanied by longer life expectancy, even with AIDS and the diseases. Africa has some of the fastest growing populations, and there is considerable poverty, disease, and lack of social services. There is ample evidence of environmental destruction and industrial pollution. PMID:12318863

  8. Crisis Paper Number 38. World Food Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This paper is thirty-eighth in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multinational view by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers of several countries. The issue presented here is the problem of world food shortages, which is briefly introduced in relation to the attemps at the Rome Conference to…

  9. Leaders Urge Colleges to Think Globally Despite Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth; Wheeler, David

    2008-01-01

    The global economic crisis has accelerated the fear that the United States' international power is fading. It has also made clear the need for American higher education to engage more deeply with the rest of the world, not run from it. That was the consensus among a group of presidents and provosts who met in New York this month as part of "Higher…

  10. The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Roncaioli, Mattia; Fiz Perez, Javier; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In 2008 a deep economic crisis started in the US and rapidly spread around the world. The crisis severely affected the labor market and employees’ well-being. Hence, the aim of this work is to implement a systematic review of the principal studies that analyze the impact of the economic crisis on the health of workers. We conducted our search on the PubMed database, and a total of 19 articles were selected for review. All studies showed that the economic crisis was an important stressor that had a negative impact on workers’ mental health. Most of the studies documented that a rise in unemployment, increased workload, staff reduction, and wages reduction were linked to an increased rate of mood disorders, anxiety, depression, dysthymia, and suicide. Some studies showed that problems related to the crisis may have also affected the general health of workers by increasing the risk of such health problems as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Finally, some studies looked at the impact of the crisis on health care services. These studies demonstrated that the reduction in public expenditure on health care services, and the reduction of public hospital budgets due to the recession, led to organizational problems (eg, medical supply shortages). PMID:27143898

  11. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  12. Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

  13. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  14. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

  15. How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

  16. Understanding World Economic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  17. World of Work Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneke, Judith S.

    1976-01-01

    The World of Work Economic Education (WOWEE), a state-wide action-research project in operation in Illinois, is discussed in relation to its objectives, concepts, purpose, and how it makes use of varied areas of expertise. (HD)

  18. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  19. World Hunger Crisis Kit. Hope for the Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…

  20. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  1. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  2. Contribution to a Holistic Response to the International Financial and Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Boubacar

    2009-01-01

    The response to the ongoing international crisis is a holistic response due to the multiple effects impacting on the various segments of societies around the world. Since 1945, the world has to perform again, a new leap in terms of development process based on the pressing need for socio-economic reconstruction. The level of globalisation and…

  3. Education in a World Wracked by Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that there have been major challenges to, and changes in, the role that education now plays in societies around the world. Pointing to growing social inequalities in countries like the USA and Europe, she explores the dynamics that have given rise to these education inequalities through a critical focus on five crises. She…

  4. Reconstructing Economics in Light of the 2007-? Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    The lessons learned from the recent financial crisis should significantly reshape the economics profession's thinking, including, importantly, what we teach our students. Five such lessons are that we live in a monetary economy and therefore aggregate demand and policies that affect aggregate demand are determinants of real economic outcomes; that…

  5. Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an economic…

  6. Food and nutrition security and the economic crisis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Soekirman

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia has been afflicted by an economic crisis since July 1997. The economic crisis was preceded by a long drought associated with El Nino. The result has been a decline in food production, especially rice. In the eastern part of the country, especially in Irian Jaya, there was food insecurity during the early stages of the economic crisis. When the crisis escalated to become an economic, social and political crisis in 1998, food insecurity spread to other provinces, especially to urban areas in Java. The crisis led to increasingly high inflation. unemployment, poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. The official figures indicate that poverty in Indonesia increased from 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996 to 36.5 million (17.9%) in 1998. Food production decreased by 20-30% in some parts of the country. Compared with prices in January 1998, food prices had escalated 1.5- to threefold by August/November 1998 when acute food shortages occurred, especially in urban Java. Coupled with a drop in purchasing power, the higher food prices worsened health, nutritional status and education of children of urban poor and unemployed families. Despite social and political uncertainties, the Indonesian Government has taken prompt action to prevent a worsening of the situation by massive imports of rice, instituting food price subsidies for the poor and launching social safety net programmes to cope with food shortages and malnutrition. The present paper attempts to highlight the impact of the economic crisis on food insecurity and malnutrition in Indonesia. PMID:11708583

  7. [Public health in major socio-economic crisis].

    PubMed

    Cosmacini, G

    2014-01-01

    The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions. PMID:25486685

  8. Competition in the economic crisis: Analysis of procurement auctions

    PubMed Central

    Gugler, Klaus; Weichselbaumer, Michael; Zulehner, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of the recent economic crisis on firms׳ bidding behavior and markups in sealed bid auctions. Using data from Austrian construction procurements, we estimate bidders׳ construction costs within a private value auction model. We find that markups of all bids submitted decrease by 1.5 percentage points in the recent economic crisis, markups of winning bids decrease by 3.3 percentage points. We also find that without the government stimulus package this decrease would have been larger. These two pieces of evidence point to pro-cyclical markups. PMID:25673884

  9. [Population and crisis. Economic inflexibility or demographic subordination].

    PubMed

    Morelos, J B

    1989-01-01

    Much speculation, fact-based and subjective, has centered on the links between population and economic crisis, and between population and progress. In the past, famines directly affected the size and dynamics of population in affected regions, and such cycles inspired theories that regarded subsistence as the adjustment mechanism for demographic regimes. Population has alternatively been viewed as a crucial factor of production and a force for modernization and progress. After World War I and the Great Depression, many economists believed that population growth would be indispensable for renewing economic expansion. The favorable view of population growth in Mexico led to measures to repatriate emigrants, attract immigrants, and improve health conditions. The gross national product grew by around 6.0% annually on average between 1940 and 1960, and the per capita GNP by about 3%. Demographic dynamics acquired momentum by the 1960s, with high growth rates, a young age structure, considerable demographic inertia, and relative predominance of the urban population. Indications began to appear that a primarily economic solution to achieving full development would be unlikely. The polarization of development, distributive insufficiency, distortions in exchange relations for agricultural products, and incorporation of inappropriate technologies were factors decreasing the ability of the economy to respond adequately to population demands. National development was insufficient to meet growing demographic pressures in the labor market, educational system, housing, and urban services. The adjustment programs reduced even further the flexibility of the government to respond to pressures. Expectations for the future have been seriously compromised by the fall of real incomes. PMID:12158103

  10. University Presidential Rhetoric and the 2008-2009 Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitullo, Elizabeth; Johnson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of Association of American Universities university presidents' public communications in response to the 2008-2009 economic crisis. The authors present findings from a thematic analysis of 111 letters. The authors highlighted 22 themes and present them within three major categories: factors external to the university;…

  11. Poverty crisis in the Third World: the contradictions of World Bank policy.

    PubMed

    Burkett, P

    1991-01-01

    Politicians, the mainstream media, and orthodox social science have all been telling us of a final victory of capitalism over socialism, suggesting that capitalism is the only viable option for solving the world's problems. Yet, the global capitalist system is itself entering the third decade of a profound structural crisis, the costs of which have been borne largely by the exploited and oppressed peoples of the underdeveloped periphery. While the World Bank's latest World Development Report recognizes the current poverty crisis in the third world, its "two-part strategy" for alleviating poverty is based on an inadequate analysis of how peripheral capitalist development marginalizes the basic needs of the third world poor. Hence, the World Bank's assertion that free-market policies are consistent with effective antipoverty programs does not confront the class structures and global capitalist interests bound up with the reproduction of mass poverty in the third world. The World Bank's subordination of the basic needs of the poor to free-market adjustments and reforms in fact suggests that the real purpose of its "two-part strategy" is to ensure continued extraction of surplus from third world countries by maintaining the basic structure of imperialist underdevelopment. PMID:1917207

  12. [Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].

    PubMed

    Tomasina, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested. PMID:23258747

  13. [Economic crisis and mental health. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel

    2014-06-01

    Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people. PMID:24661346

  14. [Economic crisis and communicable diseases. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Llácer, Alicia; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Martínez-Navarro, Ferrán

    2014-06-01

    Past economic crises have increased the impact of communicable diseases especially on groups particularly vulnerable to the social and health consequences of the recession. However, it has been shown that the impact of these crises largely depends on the response of governments and the inhabitants of affected countries. We describe the consequences of the current crisis in the causal chain of infectious disease, including the response of the health system, and explore whether there is evidence of its impact in Spain. It is assumed that the possible effect of the crisis on living and working conditions is due to individual and social debt coupled with high unemployment as defining features of the crisis. We highlight the potential negative consequences of healthcare cuts on vulnerable populations, which have been partly excluded with the recent reform of health coverage. We compare mortality and morbidity data between two periods: before and after 2008, integrating, where possible, observed trends and institutional reports. Overall, no effect on infectious disease has been detected so far, although some signs of worsening, which could be compatible with the effects of the crisis, have been observed and need to be monitored and confirmed. We review the limitations of data sources that may not be sufficiently sensitive or up-to-date to detect changes that may require a latency period to become manifest. Instead of cutting resources, surveillance of these diseases should be improved, and an equitable social health response, which targets the population most affected by the crisis, should be guaranteed. PMID:24863999

  15. Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, L M

    1987-01-01

    The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The

  16. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  17. Detecting early signs of the 2007–2008 crisis in the world trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, Fabio; di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-07-01

    Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008–2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995–2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles.

  18. Detecting early signs of the 2007-2008 crisis in the world trade.

    PubMed

    Saracco, Fabio; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008-2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles. PMID:27461469

  19. Detecting early signs of the 2007–2008 crisis in the world trade

    PubMed Central

    Saracco, Fabio; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008–2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995–2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles. PMID:27461469

  20. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  1. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  2. Cold hearths and barren slopes: The woodfuel crisis in the Third World

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, B.

    1986-01-01

    With depleting forests and rapidly shrinking supplies of firewood and charcoal, a vast section of the Third World population, still dependent primarily and often solely on such woodfuels for its domestic energy, is facing a crisis. Drawing upon evidence from across Asia, Africa and parts of Latin America, Dr. Bina Agarwal analyses the scale of this other energy crisis, its complex causes, its consequences, and the solutions being offered for its alleviation. Most attempts by governments and international agencies to promote afforestation and improved woodburning stoves as solutions, are found to have had little success. In particular, they seldom reach and benefit the rural poor who are the principal sufferers. Why have these efforts failed. The socio-economic inequalities and poverty that characterize most Third World societies, impinge both on the causes of the crisis and on the effectiveness of schemes to alleviate it. Class and gender biases usually underlie such schemes, which are also typified by a tip-down method of planning and implementation.

  3. Water and energy: a crisis in Third World development

    SciTech Connect

    Taubenblatt, S.A.

    1981-07-01

    The Third World faces a crisis of both water quantity and quality. The supplies needed for drinking and for agricultural and industrial growth will have a deficit of 145 million tons by 1990 unless better use is made of available resources. Increasing salinity and past neglect of waste disposal and drainage have created serious drinking water and sanitation problems that are intensified by population and urbanization trends. The political implications of water policies indicate a need for more cooperation. Rising energy costs on oil-importing developing countries have diverted investment from social programs and increased the demand for alternative energy sources. Programs such as the Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) direct their financing efforts to promote the least-costly energy alternatives available and give special consideration to potential environmental impacts. (DCK)

  4. World economics for mankind's frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Edward R.

    2007-04-01

    In Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, No. 5, March 2006, at ISSN0094-5765 there appears the article entitled “Will space actually be the Final Frontier of humankind?” written by Giancarlo Genta, and Michael Rycroft. This Acta Astronautica article requires amplification on the economic side. The writer of this article was personally present at the Apollo 11th launchings for the first landing on the Moon, by Buzz Aldrin and others. The Apollo 11 take off to the Moon, from Cape Carnival, did not leave the situation “so humankind seems forever to be bound to its own planet!” There was nothing pessimistic about the launch of Apollo 11. It is written that there was a lack of vision at that time, which is also not correct. The ‘Final Frontier’ myth was never mentioned on that occasion. At Apollo 11 we did take planet earth's “first faltering step for mankind” on the path towards a space faring civilization, exactly as these two authors later correctly mention. Now with the US Presidential initiatives “Moon, Mars and Beyond,” the authors suggested that it “will depend on social, political and economic issues rather than technological and scientific ones.” This Academy Note respectfully submits that all of these factors social, political and economic issues, plus psychological and scientific ones, instead of, “rather than technical and scientific ones” are going to be the determining factors of the speed of progress of the exploration of the entire universe, and particularly the sun in our Milky Way Galaxy. Russia and Ukraine are now on same, deep-space policy directions. The attention of the readers of this Academy Note is called to the current “Cosmic Collision” excellent presentation at the Hayden Planetarium, located at the Museum of National History in the City of New York. It shows the past, the present and the future of international humankind in exploring space and the creation of the universe, with particular reference to the protons of our

  5. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

  6. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: "Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?" PMID:21230150

  7. Proactive Communication in a Crisis-Driven World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinz, Karen H.

    1999-01-01

    Administrators can prepare for crisis situations by conducting safety assessments at all schools and district facilities, involving community resources, updating district and school discipline and crisis-communication plans, establishing a crisis-intervention team, providing staff training, establishing "suspicious behavior" reporting procedures,…

  8. Stock markets and criticality in the current economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Zembrzuski, Marcelo; Correa, Fabio C.; Lamb, Luis C.

    2010-12-01

    We show that the current economic crisis has led the market to exhibit a non-critical behavior. We do so by analyzing the quantitative parameters of time series from the main assets of the Brazilian Stock Market BOVESPA. By monitoring global persistence we show a deviation of power law behavior during the crisis in a strong analogy with spin systems (from where this concept was originally conceived). Such behavior is corroborated by an emergent heavy tail of absolute return distribution and also by the magnitude autocorrelation exponent. Comparisons with universal exponents obtained in the international stock markets are also performed. This suggests how a thorough analysis of suitable exponents can bring a possible way of forecasting market crises characterized by non-criticality.

  9. [Trends in environmental risks in the context of the economic crisis. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Querol, Xavier; Esplugues, Ana

    2014-06-01

    This article aims to analyze the impact of the economic and financial crisis on environmental determinants of health. The World Health Organization estimates that between 13% and 27% of the disease burden in countries could be prevented by improving the environment. These effects are larger in vulnerable populations, especially among the poorest. In the last decade, outdoor air pollution (the most significant environmental health risk in most European countries) has declined, mostly due to the European policy of reducing emissions and to the decrease in activity following the economic crisis. During the last few years, this improvement in air quality has occurred simultaneously with a reduction in investment in environmental protection and could therefore be offset in the medium-term. The economic crisis has not reduced the trend for higher temperatures in Spain and Europe because climate change is a global phenomenon that is not directly related to local emissions. To reduce the risk of an increase in the health impact of environmental factors, certain key aspects should be considered, such as the need to maintain or develop adequate monitoring and control systems and the opportunity to implement policies that help improve the quality of the environment and reduce the vulnerability of different population groups in a cross-disciplinary framework of transparency and citizen participation. PMID:24863994

  10. Consumer reactions and economic consequences of the BSE crisis.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, W

    2001-01-01

    Meat demand has been affected by safety controversies that have struck the European meat chain during the last decade. The major issue was the occurrence of the BSE crisis, with its major impact in mainland Europe from 1996 on. Much research has addressed concern over declining consumer confidence in the meat food category and what can be done to counter the deteriorating image for fresh meat. This contribution focuses on consumer reactions and consequent economic implications of the BSE crisis in Belgium. With respect to consumer reactions, the reported data and analyses result from consumer studies that are on going since 1996 until today. The studies combine econometric demand analyses based on time series data with descriptive analyses of consumer survey data. The findings show shifts of consumer attitude and perception in line with mass media coverage. In the case of beef, a negative press to advertising ratio of five is found, with the total gain attributed to advertising being five times lower in absolute value than the total loss resulting from negative publicity. In terms of economic impact, direct and indirect costs are discussed. Most of those cost items have not yet been quantified comprehensively. Based on all findings from an economic perspective, it is clear that taking away the grounds for negative press, as well as searching for better and more effective ways of communication emerge as major recommendations for the meat industry, and particularly for the beef sector. PMID:11813505

  11. Ukrainean crisis: History, demography, economics, science, personal impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    An overview of the Economic and Demographic situation in Ukraine has been given. Some historical-scientific aspects of the actual crisis has been revealed. Between them: The soveitization of the Science, when scientists of Ukrainean origin work outside its borders, while the most influent and proliferous scientists inside the Country are of Russian origin. The percentage of astronomers of Russian origin is as great as ~40% while the percentage of the Russian population in Ukraine is about 20%. Another problem consist in low knowledge of the Ukrainean language by scientists working inside the Country.

  12. Crisis Speeches Delivered during World War II: A Historical and Rhetorical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Tomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical analyses of speeches made by United States presidents and world leaders abound, particularly studies about addresses to nations in times of crisis. These are important because what presidents say amidst uncertainty and chaos defines their leadership in the eyes of the public. But with new forms of crisis rhetoric, our understanding of…

  13. Summary of the June 2009 Educationtoday Crisis Survey: Initial Reflections on the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Kiira

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides initial reflections on the impact of the economic crisis on education across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) area by analysing the OECD educationtoday crisis survey responses of June 2009. It first looks at the impact of the crisis on education demand and participation, after which the focus…

  14. Student Aid and Access in the Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Most economists expect the current economic downturn to be one of the most severe since World War II. In fact, there is a very real danger that the changing circumstances of students, families, state and federal governments, and educational institutions could interact to significantly diminish educational opportunity in the United States. The most…

  15. Does the Financial Crisis Affect How Economic Theory Should Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, Alexander C., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.

  16. The Economic Crisis and Other Challenges in Accessing Science and Technological Information in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stueart, Robert D.

    This paper discusses access to scientific and technical information in Asia. The first section considers the economic crisis, including the growth in information service as a major indicator of the success or failure of the economies of developing countries. Libraries' response to the economic crisis is addressed in the second section, including…

  17. Entropy analysis in foreign exchange markets and economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jin-Gi; Yim, Kyubin; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in 11 foreign exchange markets by using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity algorithm and several entropy values such as the Shannon entropy, the approximate entropy, and the sample entropy. With daily data in 11 foreign exchange markets from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2011, we observe that mature markets have higher LZ complexities and entropy values than emerging markets. Furthermore, with sliding time windows, we also investigate the temporal evolutions of those entropies from Jan. 1994 to Sep. 2011, and we find that, after an economic crisis, the approximate entropy and the sample entropy of mature markets such as Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom suddenly become lower.

  18. Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries

    PubMed Central

    Stuckler, David; Yip, Paul; Gunnell, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

  19. The other crisis: the economics and financing of maternal, newborn and child health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian; Axelson, Henrik; Tan, B-K

    2011-07-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008/2009 was the largest economic slowdown since the Great Depression. It undermined the growth and development prospects of developing countries. Several recent studies estimate the impact of economic shocks on the poor and vulnerable, especially women and children. Infant and child mortality rates are still likely to continue to decline, but at lower rates than would have been the case in the absence of the GFC. Asia faces special challenges. Despite having been the fastest growing region in the world for decades, and even before the current crisis, this region accounted for nearly 34% of global deaths of children under 5, more than 40% of maternal deaths and 60% of newborn deaths. Global development goals cannot be achieved without much faster and deeper progress in Asia. Current health financing systems in much of Asia are not well placed to respond to the needs of women and their children, or the recent global financial and economic slowdown. Public expenditure is often already too low, and high levels of out-of-pocket health expenditure are an independent cause of inequity and impoverishment for women and their children. The GFC highlights the need for reforms that will improve health outcomes for the poor, protect the vulnerable from financial distress, improve public expenditure patterns and resource allocation decisions, and so strengthen health systems. This paper aims to highlight the most recent assessments of how economic shocks, including the GFC, affect the poor in developing countries, especially vulnerable women and children in Asia. It concludes that conditional cash transfers, increasing taxation on tobacco and increasing the level, and quality, of public expenditure through well-designed investment programmes are particularly relevant in the context of an economic shock. That is because these initiatives simultaneously improve health outcomes for the poor and vulnerable, protect them from further financial

  20. Psychological Health Before, During, and After an Economic Crisis: Results from Indonesia, 1993 – 2000

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jed; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical health, and child education have been established in several studies. The crisis also adversely impacted the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population. Comparing responses of the same individuals interviewed before and after the crisis, we document substantial increases in several different dimensions of psychological distress among male and female adults across the entire age distribution. In addition, the imprint of the crisis can be seen in the differential impacts of the crisis on low education groups, the rural landless, and residents in those provinces that were most affected by the crisis. Elevated levels of psychological distress persist even after indicators of economic well-being such as household consumption had returned to pre-crisis levels, suggesting the deleterious effects of the crisis on the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population may be longer lasting than the impacts on economic well-being. PMID:25892838

  1. A Crisis Framework Applied to Macrosociological Family Changes: Marriage, Divorce, and Occupational Trends Associated with World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    1975-01-01

    A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)

  2. Risk perception and the economic crisis: a longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk.

    PubMed

    Burns, William J; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups. PMID:22150242

  3. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  4. Public procurement of health technologies in Greece in an era of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Kastanioti, Catherine; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Stasinopoulos, Dionysis; Kapetaneas, Nikolaos; Polyzos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Public procurement is generally an important sector of the economy and, in most countries, is controlled by the introduction of regulatory and policy mechanisms. In the Greek healthcare sector, recent legislation redefined centralized procurement through the reestablishment of a state Health Procurement Committee (EPY), with an aim to formulate a plan to reduce procurement costs of medical devices and pharmaceuticals, improve payment time, make uniform medical requests, transfer redundant materials from one hospital to another and improve management of expired products. The efforts described in this paper began in early 2010, under the co-ordination of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and with the collaboration of senior staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Commission (EC) and the European Central Bank (ECB). The procurement practices and policies set forth by EPY and the first measurable outcomes, in terms of cost savings, resulting from these policies are presented. The importance of these measures is discussed in light of the worst economic crisis faced by Greece since the restoration of democracy in 1974, as a result of both the world financial crisis and uncontrolled government spending. PMID:22502936

  5. The Effect of an Economic Crisis on Educational Outcomes: An Economic Framework and Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    This article first provides an economic framework for understanding how an economic crisis affects children's educational outcomes; this framework shows that there are both negative (harmful) effects and positive (beneficial) effects on educational outcomes. A review of the empirical evidence suggests that the negative effects are typically…

  6. The influence of the sun, moon, climate and economic conditions on crisis incidence.

    PubMed

    Snoyman, P; Holdstock, T L

    1980-10-01

    Investigated the relationship between 2,344 cases of crisis incidence over a 1-year period (1976) and geophysical, climatic and seasonal conditions. Results revealed an intricate interactive effect between the variables of sex, nature of crisis, period of analysis, and environmental conditions. Males crisis became more likely, with downward economic trends or decreased solar activity. In contrast to female incidence of crisis, which peaked in spring, that of males peaked in autumn. Increased solar activity was related strongly to the incidence of crisis experienced by people who were retarded, abused drugs and were guilty of assault and/or rape. The waxing of the moon was related closely to cases of assault and/or rape, while retardates were influenced further by the moisture content in the air. Temporal considerations revealed a positive relationship between full moon and crisis incidence on alternate months only. Generally, the increased cloud cover, rainfall and temperature in summer, gave rise to more crisis consultations. Finally, geophysical, climatic and economic conditions also were seen to act in conjunction with each other to influence crisis incidence. PMID:7440740

  7. World Refugee Crisis: Winning the Game. Facts for Action #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxfam America, Boston, MA.

    Definitions, statistics, and problems of world refugees are presented in this document for high school global education classes. Although various agencies have determined different definitions of the term, the authors consider as refugees all those forced to flee their native land in order to survive. For most refugees the attraction of a higher…

  8. Population: The U.S. Problem--The World Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegan, Lawrence R., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Population problems in both the United States and throughout the world are summarized and analyzed, pictorially and narratively, in this special newspaper supplement to "The New York Times", April 30, 1972. Part I presents the U. S. problem, with the following contributions: excerpts from President Richard Nixon's message to Congress on…

  9. Indonesian heath care and the economic crisis: is managed care the needed reform?

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, D R; Jacobalis, S

    1999-03-01

    The ramifications of the current economic crisis are being felt throughout Asia, but problems are particularly acute in Indonesia; in the midst of high inflation and unemployment the government is considering expanding managed care reform. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the recent economic crisis on the health sector in Indonesia, and analyze the potential for implementing effective reform following the managed care model. The health sector is discussed, highlighting pre-existing problems in the health care supply environment. The determinants of the economic crisis are summarized, and the broad impacts of the crisis to date on the health sector are assessed. Next the prospects for success of current managed-care reform proposals are examined in some detail: viability of expanded managed care reform measures are assessed in light of the continuing crisis and its likely impacts on the consumers and suppliers of health care. Analysis of the potential impact of the continuing crisis focuses on key participants in health care reform: households, the government, and private health care providers. In conclusion the potential viability of managed care appears poor, given the current economic, political, and institutional conditions and likely future impacts, and suggest some alternative reform measures. PMID:10351668

  10. The Global Economic Crisis, Poverty and Education: A Perspective from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nambissan, Geetha B.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…

  11. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  12. The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    While the economic downturn has appropriately become the top priority of policy makers, one element of the crisis has gone largely unnoticed: its impact on children and youth. Largely due to the economic and housing crises, many school districts across the country report increases in the number of homeless students in the classroom. "The Economic…

  13. Managing More than the Money: Superintendents' Perceptions of Their Leadership during Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taibi-Lewis, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Research on the process and effects of school budget development by superintendents during the current economic crisis is limited. This study sought to determine the job satisfaction, efficacy, and longevity of school superintendents during economic crises. Using data from an original survey instrument TRIPLEM (Managing More than the Money…

  14. "Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…

  15. Feeling the Crunch: Education Policy and Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The global capitalist crisis is impacting dramatically across nation states and their economies. Although a complete collapse of the system appears to have been avoided by decisions to take co-ordinated interventionist action to shore up short term demand, governments have generally rejected the more radical actions required to address the…

  16. The Impact of Current Economic Crisis on Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda; Okpala, Amon O.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study was to examine the impact of the recession on (1) community college funding, (2) community college student support services, and (3) on student enrollment. This study relied on data from document analysis and interview of community college personnel and students. The current crisis has resulted in a steep budget reduction to…

  17. International Economics: A Path to Understanding the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankrim, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    Explains that economics is the science of choice based on the limited resources of the world, and that teaching about how the world's people make those choices creates better global understanding. Advocates teaching economics with an international perspective because most national economies are no longer self-contained but internationally…

  18. Soils of the tropics and the world food crisis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Buol, S W

    1975-05-01

    The properties and potential of soils of the tropics are poorly understood. The old idea that laterite is formed when tropical soils are cleared is true of only a small proportion of the area. In most features, soils in the tropics are similar or equivalent to soils in the temperate regions. Specifically, soil organic matter contents, commonly believed to be low in the tropics, are essentially similar to those of the temperate regions. While the basic concepts about physical and chemical behavior developed in the nonglaciated temperate regions are directly applicable to the tropics, the development of soil management practices for sustained food production involves different strategies because of environmental and economic constraints. A major distinction is made between the development of high base status and low base status soils. With the former, soil management practices should be aimed at maximizing the potential of high-yielding varieties and improving intercropping systems with relatively intensive fertilizer inputs. With the low base status soils of the vast savanna and jungle areas energyrelated inputs should be optimized by (i) selecting of crop varieties and species more tolerant to nutritional deficiencies or toxicities, (ii) applying fertilizers at lower rates than those recommended by classic marginal analysis, and (iii) increasing the efficiency of applied fertilizers in such soils. PMID:17740015

  19. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review

    PubMed Central

    Van Hal, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. PMID:25657601

  20. European economies in crisis: A multifractal analysis of disruptive economic events and the effects of financial assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siokis, Fotios M.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze the complexity of rare economic events in troubled European economies. The economic crisis initiated at the end of 2009, forced a number of European economies to request financial assistance from world organizations. By employing the stock market index as a leading indicator of the economic activity, we test whether the financial assistance programs altered the statistical properties of the index. The effects of major financial program agreements on the economies can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the agreement. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties for all periods under investigation. In two of the three investigated economies, financial assistance along with governments’ initiatives appear to have altered the statistical properties of the stock market indexes increasing the width of the multifractal spectra and thus the complexity of the market.

  1. [The economic-financial crisis and health in Spain. Evidence and viewpoints. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Cortès-Franch, Imma; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the SESPAS 2014 Report are as follows: a) to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on health and health-related behaviors, on health inequalities, and on the determinants of health in Spain; b) to describe the changes in the Spanish health system following measures to address the crisis and assess its potential impact on health; c) to review the evidence on the health impact of economic crises in other countries, as well as policy responses; and d) to suggest policy interventions alternative to those carried out to date with a population health perspective and scientific evidence in order to help mitigate the impact of the economic downturn on health and health inequalities. The report is organized in five sections: 1) the economic, financial and health crisis: causes, consequences, and contexts; 2) the impact on structural determinants of health and health inequalities; 3) the impact on health and health-related behaviors, and indicators for monitoring; 4) the impact on health systems; and 5) the impact on specific populations: children, seniors, and immigrants. There is some evidence on the relationship between the crisis and the health of the Spanish population, health inequalities, some changes in lifestyle, and variations in access to health services. The crisis has impacted many structural determinants of health, particularly among the most vulnerable population groups. Generally, policy responses on how to manage the crisis have not taken the evidence into account. The crisis may contribute to making public policy vulnerable to corporate action, thus jeopardizing the implementation of healthy policies. PMID:24863987

  2. [Sexual and reproductive health and the economic crisis in Spain. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Isabel; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia

    2014-06-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economic crisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economic crisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economic crisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. PMID:24864000

  3. Education in Togo: From Its Creation Until the Period of Socio-Political and Economic Crisis of 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bafei, Pouzon-Ani

    2011-01-01

    In order to study in long-term the impact of the socio-political and economic crisis on the public policy of Togolese educational system, this article tries to relate the history of Togolese education since its creation until the beginning of the period of the socio-political and economic crisis of 1990. Being given that one of the primordial…

  4. [Impact of the economic crisis on the right to a healthy diet. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Antentas, Josep Maria; Vivas, Esther

    2014-06-01

    The present article analyzes the impact of the economic crisis on food consumption in Spain, the most affected social profiles, and the consequences of changing patterns of food consumption on health. This article is based on official reports and previous empirical studies. The crisis has affected diet and food consumption. Families are attempting to spend less money on food. Food insecurity is rising and the most affected groups are those spending a higher proportion of their income on food. Cuts in food spending run parallel with unhealthy eating habits that encourage obesity. Consequently, the crisis contributes to undermining the right to a healthy diet, recognized by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the United Nations. PMID:24863995

  5. On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

    2012-05-01

    The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out

  6. Economic Crisis and Inequality of Educational Opportunity in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Research in the industrialized world shows that the influence of family background on educational attainment has remained stable or declined over time. In contrast, very little is known about the developing world. Using high-quality data sets and a standard protocol, this article offers a comparative analysis of trends in educational…

  7. Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    WAHLBECK, KRISTIAN; MCDAID, DAVID

    2012-01-01

    The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in times of economic downturn. It indicates that good mental health cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. The determinants of mental health often lie outside of the remits of the health system, and all sectors of society have to be involved in the promotion of mental health. Accessible and responsive primary care services support people at risk and can prevent mental health consequences. Any austerity measures imposed on mental health services need to be geared to support the modernization of mental health care provision. Social welfare supports and active labour market programmes aiming at helping people retain or re-gain jobs can counteract the mental health effects of the economic crisis. Family support programmes can also make a difference. Alcohol pricing and restrictions of alcohol availability reduce alcohol harms and save lives. Support to tackle unmanageable debt will also help to reduce the mental health impact of the crisis. While the current economic crisis may have a major impact on mental health and increase mortality due to suicides and alcohol-related disorders, it is also a window of opportunity to reform mental health care and promote a mentally healthy lifestyle. PMID:23024664

  8. The Resilience of Recently Graduated and Unemployed Dutch Academics in Coping with the Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Hahurij, Lisa; Wichgers, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Some years after the world-wide crisis starting in 2008, also many recently graduated Dutch academics were confronted with the problem of how to cope with getting a job. This article focuses on the coping strategies they use when searching after a job, spending the day, and coping with limited financial means. 91 graduated academics completed a…

  9. Accelerating and Braking in Times of Economic Crisis: Organisational Learning in a Top Management Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallo, Andreas; Kock, Henrik; Nilsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of an industrial company's top management team (TMT) that fought to survive an economic crisis. Specifically, the article seeks to focus on describing the TMT's composition, group processes, and work during a period of high external pressure; analysing the TMT's work in…

  10. The Global Economic Crisis and Educational Development: Responses and Coping Strategies in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economic crisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in…

  11. [Population distribution and economic crisis in the 1980s: dichotomies and speculations].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Chiapetto, C

    1990-01-01

    The author attempts to determine whether the economic crisis of the 1980s has caused an increase or a decrease in population concentration in Mexico. Theories related to the topic are summarized, and data on past and current trends in population and economy in Mexico are analyzed. A forecast of future trends in population distribution and urbanization is also provided. PMID:12316454

  12. As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

  13. Rationale for Students Preparation and Entrepreneurship Education in the Face of Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuma, Nwite

    2016-01-01

    The rationale for students preparation in job creation through entrepreneurship education was examined. Problems of unemployment among Nigerian university graduates and challenges to entrepreneurship in the face of global economic crisis were also highlighted. The persistent problem of unemployment among University graduates and its attendant…

  14. The Effects of the Economic Crisis on Inter-Ethnic Relations in Cypriot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vryonides, Marios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the effects of the current economic crisis in the way teenagers experience and report interethnic relations with emphasis on interethnic violence in the school environment in Cyprus. It will report findings from an EU funded project which was recently completed (2012) titled: "Children's voices: Exploring…

  15. The Impact of the Economic Crisis on Elementary and Secondary Education Funding: Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    In Fall 2008, the Ontario government's ability to maintain and enhance a school system was tested as the economy suffered one of its most extreme downturns. This paper discusses the action adopted by the government. The unique measures undertaken by the government to lessen the impact of the economic crisis on students' learning is highlighted.

  16. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933

  17. The Economic Crisis and Acute Myocardial Infarction: New Evidence Using Hospital-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Objective This research sought to assess whether and to what extent the ongoing economic crisis in Italy impacted hospitalizations, in-hospital mortality and expenditures associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods The data were obtained from the hospital discharge database of the Italian Health Ministry and aggregated at the hospital level. Each hospital (n = 549) was observed for 4 years and was geographically located within a “Sistema Locale del Lavoro” (SLL, i.e., clusters of neighboring towns with a common economic structure). For each SLL, the intensity of the crisis was determined, defined as the 2012–2008 increase in the area-specific unemployment rate. A difference-in-differences (DiD) approach was employed to compare the increases in AMI-related outcomes across different quintiles of crisis intensity. Results Hospitals located in areas with the highest intensity of crisis (in the fifth quintile) had an increase of approximately 30 AMI cases annually (approximately 13%) compared with hospitals in area with lower crisis intensities (p<0.001). A significant increase in total hospital days was observed (13%, p<0.001) in addition to in-hospital mortality (17%, p<0.001). As a consequence, an increase of around €350.000 was incurred in annual hospital expenditures for AMI (approximately 36%, p<0.001). Conclusions More attention should be given to the increase in health needs associated with the financial crisis. Policies aimed to contrast unemployment in the community by keeping and reintegrating workers in jobs could also have positive impacts on adverse health outcomes, especially in areas of high crisis intensity. PMID:26574745

  18. World Economic Plants: a standard reference, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication provides essential reference data for over 12,000 vascular plants of commercial importance from all parts of the world. It presents up-to-date scientific names for these economically important plants arranged alphabetically. The botanic and economic coverage encompasses plants or ...

  19. Economic crisis and counter-reform of universal health care systems: Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Regina Ribeiro Parizi; Louvison, Marília Cristina Prado

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis that has been affecting Europe in the 21st century has modified social protection systems in the countries that adopted, in the 20th century, universal health care system models, such as Spain. This communication presents some recent transformations, which were caused by changes in Spanish law. Those changes relate to the access to health care services, mainly in regards to the provision of care to foreigners, to financial contribution from users for health care services, and to pharmaceutical assistance. In crisis situations, reforms are observed to follow a trend which restricts rights and deepens social inequalities. PMID:26083942

  20. Suicide in Portugal: Spatial determinants in a context of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula; Costa, Cláudia; Cardoso, Graça; Loureiro, Adriana; Ferrão, João

    2015-09-01

    This study compares the existing statistical association between suicide mortality and the characteristics of places of residence (municipalities), before and during the current economic crisis, in Portugal. We found that (1) the traditional culture-based North/South pattern of suicidal behaviour has faded away, while the socioeconomic urban/rural divide has become more pronounced; (2) suicide is associated with higher levels of rurality and material deprivation; and (3) recent shifts in suicidal trends may result from the current period of crisis. Strategies targeting rural areas combined with public policies that address area deprivation may have important implications for tackling suicide. PMID:26277771

  1. Economic crisis and counter-reform of universal health care systems: Spanish case

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Regina Ribeiro Parizi; Louvison, Marília Cristina Prado

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis that has been affecting Europe in the 21st century has modified social protection systems in the countries that adopted, in the 20th century, universal health care system models, such as Spain. This communication presents some recent transformations, which were caused by changes in Spanish law. Those changes relate to the access to health care services, mainly in regards to the provision of care to foreigners, to financial contribution from users for health care services, and to pharmaceutical assistance. In crisis situations, reforms are observed to follow a trend which restricts rights and deepens social inequalities. PMID:26083942

  2. Community-based school feeding during Indonesia's economic crisis: implementation, benefits, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Studdert, Lisa J; Soekirman; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-01

    The Indonesian Government initiated a community-based national school-feeding program in 1996. Implementation was decentralized and involved multiple participants. In 1998 we evaluated the implementation of the program and the perceived benefits for community stakeholders using a survey of principals in 143 randomly selected schools and follow-up with in-depth interviews and observations in a subsample of 16 communities. The evaluation covered the period of the 1998 Asian economic crisis, affording the opportunity to assess its impact on the program. The program was implemented in all targeted schools, with excellent community participation. Feeding was sustained through the crisis, in spite of a dramatic escalation in food costs. The families of schoolchildren, farmers, and those who prepared food received economic benefits. The snacks replaced those sold at schools and were of better nutritional value. The children benefited because the snacks compensated for losses in the home diet resulting from the economic crisis. Characteristics of the program that may be important in explaining its success include the involvement of a range of community stakeholders, engagement with existing village administrative structures, scope for local community adaptation and innovation, and the use of local foods that dispersed benefits and ensured sustained implementation during the crisis. PMID:15214261

  3. Health protection in times of economic crisis: challenges and opportunities for Europe.

    PubMed

    McDaid, David; Quaglio, Gianluca; Correia de Campos, António; Dario, Claudio; Van Woensel, Lieve; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Reeves, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    STOA, the European Parliament's technology assessment body, and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies recently organised a workshop on the impacts of the economic crisis on European health systems. Evidence of the impact of the recent financial crisis on health outcomes is only just beginning to emerge. Data suggests that this latest recession has led to more frequent poor health status, rising incidence of some communicable diseases, and higher suicide rates. Further, available data are likely to underestimate the broader mental health crisis linked to increased rates of stress, anxiety, and depression among the economically vulnerable. Not only does recession affect factors that determine health, but it also affects the financial capacity to respond. Many European governments have reduced public expenditure on health services during the financial crisis, while introducing or increasing user charges. The recession has driven structural reforms, and has affected the priority given to public policies that could be used to help protect population health. The current economic climate, while challenging, presents an opportunity for reforming and restructuring health promotion actions and taking a long-term perspective. PMID:23986120

  4. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  5. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  6. The Political Response of Spanish Youth to the Socio-Economic Crisis: Some Implications for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Gonzalo; Belando-Montoro, María R.; Guío, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the current socio-economic crisis on Spanish youth and their political response to it. It does so in three consecutive stages. In the first, it analyses the repercussion of the crisis on young people using information from certain social indicators (employment, mobility and education). It then outlines the…

  7. Impact of the Economic Crisis on Higher Education in East Asia: Country Experiences. Policy Forum on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, N. V., Ed.

    This volume contains 8 papers presented at the January 2001 United Nations Policy Forum. The first paper provides an overview of major changes in the higher education sector in the selected countries consequent upon the economic crisis in the region. The subsequent papers analyze the crisis and its impact on higher education in individual…

  8. Energy use in the developing world: A crisis of rising expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P. )

    1991-04-01

    The world is facing a serious short-run energy supply problem. The Persian Gulf crisis has not caused this problem, but it does serve to underline its seriousness. The expectation is that in the longer term the energy situation will ease because of new technical developments, which will assist in the transformation out of the current fuels cycle to a radically new one. The short-run problem is particularly difficult because the societies most affected are those that can least afford to be without the energy essential for their climb out of mass poverty. There appears to be a potentially severe shortage of liquid fuels that will become progressively worse over the next 20 years. The rich countries will be able to command their share with ease. It is the Third World countries that will suffer the most.

  9. [The impact of the economic crisis on health systems of OECD countries].

    PubMed

    Paris, Valérie

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes measures adopted by OECD countries in the health sector in response to the economic crisis which began in 2008: increase and diversification of revenues collected for health, increases in user charges, reductions in staff, salaries and prices of health goods and services; and policies aiming to increase health systems efficiency. It then reviews the impact of these policies on health spending trends. PMID:25311027

  10. Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Lucas, Patricia J.; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

  11. Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lucas, Patricia J; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000-50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children's health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

  12. Potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on human-mediated dispersal of marine non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Floerl, Oliver; Coutts, Ashley

    2009-11-01

    The global economy is currently experiencing one of its biggest contractions on record. A sharp decline in global imports and exports since 2008 has affected global merchant vessel traffic, the principal mode of bulk commodity transport around the world. During the first quarter of 2009, 10% and 25% of global container and refrigerated vessels, respectively, were reported to be unemployed. A large proportion of these vessels are lying idle at anchor in the coastal waters of South East Asia, sometimes for periods of greater than 3 months. Whilst at anchor, the hulls of such vessels will develop diverse and extensive assemblages of marine biofouling species. Once back in service, these vessels are at risk of transporting higher-than-normal quantities of marine organisms between their respective global trading ports. We discuss the potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on the spread of marine non-indigenous species via global commercial shipping. PMID:19706355

  13. Equity during an economic crisis: financing of the Argentine health system.

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment. PMID:20452070

  14. Was the economic crisis of 2008 good for Icelanders? Impact on health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Ólafsdóttir, Þórhildur; Reichman, Nancy E

    2014-03-01

    This study uses the 2008 economic crisis in Iceland to identify the effects of a macroeconomic downturn on a range of health behaviors. We use longitudinal survey data that include pre- and post-reports from the same individuals on a range of health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors. We find that the crisis led to large and significant reductions in health-compromising behaviors (such as smoking, drinking alcohol or soft drinks, and eating sweets) and certain health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruits and vegetables), but to increases in other health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fish oil and recommended sleep). The magnitudes of effects for smoking are somewhat larger than what has been found in past research in other contexts, while those for alcohol, fruits, and vegetables are in line with estimates from other studies. Changes in work hours, real income, financial assets, mortgage debt, and mental health, together, explain the effects of the crisis on some behaviors (such as consumption of sweets and fast food), while the effects of the crisis on most other behaviors appear to have operated largely through price increases. PMID:23659821

  15. Economic crisis detected from space: Air quality observations over Athens/Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrekoussis, M.; Richter, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Lelieveld, J.; Barrie, L.; Zerefos, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Using both satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns and a number of economic metrics, we investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. The multiannual analysis shows that NO2 columns over Athens have been significantly reduced in the range 30-40%. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, and SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that the economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants in large parts of Greece.

  16. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  17. Financial Bubbles, Real Estate Bubbles, Derivative Bubbles, and the Financial and Economic Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier; Woodard, Ryan

    The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and bolster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economic crisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement have led to an illusion of a "perpetual money machine" allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the "good times" but that huge liabilities were. The most "interesting" present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.

  18. World marrow donor association crisis response, business continuity, and disaster recovery guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pingel, Julia; Case, Cullen; Amer, Beth; Hornung, Raymond A; Schmidt, Alexander H

    2012-12-01

    Multiple institutions, such as donor registries, donor centers, transplantation centers, collection centers, and courier companies, are involved in the international exchange of hematopoietic stem cells. The ability to safely and efficiently ensure continued operation of a donor registry relies on an organization's resiliency in the face of an incident that could impede donor search, donor selection, stem cell collection, or transportation. The Quality Assurance Working Group of the World Marrow Donor Association has developed guidelines on how to establish an organizational resiliency program intended for donor registries initiating an emergency preparedness process. These guidelines cover the minimal requirements of preparedness in prevention and mitigation, crisis response, business continuity, and disaster recovery, and the need for continued maintenance and revision. Issues of international cooperation are addressed as well. PMID:22967871

  19. Analysis of World Economic Variables Using Multidimensional Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Machado, J.A. Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177

  20. Analysis of world economic variables using multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Machado, J A Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177

  1. Economical crisis detected from space: Trends in air quality of Athens in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Zerefos, Christos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Lelieveld, Jos; Barrie, Leonard; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2013-04-01

    Data from three satellite spectrometers (SCIAMACHY, GOME2 and OMI) have been analyzed together with a number of economic metrics to investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. Athens is a heavily polluted city due to the extensive number of registered vehicles, the presence of industrial regions close to the city, the complex topography of the area favouring pollutant accumulation, the intense photochemical processes favoured by high temperature and insolation and the reception of transboundary pollution. The multiannual analysis shows a significant 30-40% reduction of primary gaseous pollutants in the form of NO2 tropospheric columnar densities observed over Athens, during the economic recession period, indicating large reductions in pollutant emissions. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3±0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2±0.1ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3±0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants not only in Athens but also in large parts of Greece.

  2. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended. PMID:26771628

  3. A "More General Crisis": Hannah Arendt, World-Alienation, and the Challenges of Teaching for the World as It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This article is part of a special issue on the 50th anniversary of the publication of Hannah Arendt's essay, "The Crisis in Education" and her book The Human Condition. Despite the proliferation of books and articles on Arendt's work since the mid-90s, "The Crisis in Education" does not figure all that much in writing on…

  4. Understanding of headache patterns modification in an emergency department during the economic crisis of Greece.

    PubMed

    Bougea, Anastasia; Spantideas, Nicolaos; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Massou, Efthalia; Xirou, Sophia; Thomaidis, Thomas; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Kararizou, Evangelia

    2016-08-01

    Very few neurological research is published regarding health effects of global economic crisis. Our aim was to assess the impact of economic recession on frequency and severity of headaches. We also tested if depression, anxiety and experiences associated with crisis, such as unemployment, were reflected in headaches. This is a retrospective observational study in the Emergency setting of tertiary Clinic from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2009 and from 1 January 2010 until 31 December 2011. Demographic data were collected of 1094 consecutive adult patients with headache. Multinomial logistic regression performed to examine if hospital anxiety depression (HAD), HAD anxiety, experience of serious life events, year of survey had influence on type of headache. The total number of headache cases increased significantly from 2008 to 2011 (p < 0.001). Tension type and medication overuse headaches remained unchanged over time (p > 0.05), while migraines decreased. Secondary and not otherwise specified (NOS) increased significantly (p < 0.05). The most common, overtime, was Tension type headache, followed by migraines (in 2008, 2011) and NOS (2010). Chi square test showed significant correlation between type of headache and year, as well medication type and year (p < 0.05). Common analgesics, the most common medication, increased five times during survey period (77 % 2008 to 87.6 % 2011). Multivariate analysis revealed stronger association for experience serious events with NOS vs. tension type headache [odds ratio (OR) 0.13; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.03, 0.7]. This is the first study showing that the prolonged economic crisis affected headache frequency accompanied by a higher use of analgesics. PMID:27059047

  5. When the collective acts on its components: economic crisis autocatalytic percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantono, S.; Solomon, S.

    2010-07-01

    Agent-based models have improved the standards for empirical support and validation criteria in social, biological, cognitive and human sciences. Yet, the inclusion, in these models, of vertical interactions between various aggregation levels remains a challenge. We study analytically, numerically and by simulation the generic consequences of interactions between the collective and its individual components: the appearance of an autocatalytic loop between the dynamics of the collective and its components; the system, which is dominated by a limited number of factors amplified by this collective<-->individuals autocatalytic loop; the microscopic features, which are not involved in the autocatalytic loop and are irrelevant at the systemic level; and how the above clarify the interplay between macroscopic predictable features and the ones dependent on random unpredictable individual events. Using the social and market percolation framework, we study the dramatic effects of the collective<-->individuals autocatalytic loop on economic crisis propagation: the percolation transition becomes discontinuous; there are a few relevant regions and regimes corresponding to a quite diverse range of response policy options; there are stability ranges where appropriate policies can help to avoid macroscopic crisis percolation; and beyond those regions the systemic crisis might become unstoppable.

  6. Reflecting the Context of MPA Education in the Time of Economic Crisis in Public Sectors in Britain and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Chrissie; Berg, Mireille van den

    2013-01-01

    The reality of the economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public sector funding in some European countries means that the context for public management education is significantly changing. In a period of economic constraint there is the obvious questioning of the cost of public management education programmes and even more of their relevance and…

  7. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  8. The superpowers in crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Krickus, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses how the domestic political, economic, and socio-cultural problems afflicting the US and the USSR may threaten the security of each country and jeopardize world peace. Contents (partial): The Soviet Union in Crisis: An economy in crisis; A minority in their ''own country;'' Eastern Europe: An asset or liability; What is to be done.; The American Predicament: American liberalism; Ronald Reagan and the conservative counter-reformation; Taking stock; International Implications; Domestic strife; implications for the superpower rivalry; Global economic disorder and the American predicament; Conclusions.

  9. Has the Spanish economic crisis affected the duration of sickness absence episodes?

    PubMed

    Murcia López, Guillermo; Delclós Clanchet, Jordi; Ubalde López, Mònica; Calvo Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-07-01

    The global economic crisis has had particularly intense effects on the Spanish labor market. We investigated whether the duration of non-work related sickness absence (SA) episodes in salaried workers had experienced any changes before and after the crisis started. This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis conducted in a dynamic cohort in 2006 and 2010. Database was provided by eight mutual insurance companies, covering 983,108 workers and 451,801 SA episodes. Descriptive analysis and crude, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards modeling were performed, to quantify the changes in duration of SA episodes between 2006 and 2010, stratified by sex. There was a higher number of episodes in 2010 for both sexes, but especially for women. Unadjusted median duration in men was similar for both years, while for women it was shorter in 2010. Final multivariate models show a greater risk of longer episode duration for men in 2010 (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.95-0.95), but a shorter one for women (HR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.07). Once the economic crisis started affecting the Spanish labor market, the number of SA episodes in women equalized with those in men. There was a decrease of episodes in the youngest age groups, in the construction and in temporary contracts. The relative ranking of leading diagnoses was similar in both years with an increase in infectious, nervous system and respiratory diseases and in mental disorder episodes for both sexes, but especially for women. The risk of longer episode duration was greater in 2010 among men, but smaller in women. PMID:27209364

  10. The World - Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know.

    PubMed

    Ausman, James I

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print "fiat" (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything

  11. The World – Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know

    PubMed Central

    Ausman, James I.

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print “fiat” (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of

  12. Economic Crisis, Restrictive Policies, and the Population’s Health and Health Care: The Greek Case

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Gavana, Magda; Ierodiakonou, Ioanna; Waitzkin, Howard; Benos, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    The global economic crisis has affected the Greek economy with unprecedented severity, making Greece an important test of the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and a population’s well-being. Suicide and homicide mortality rates among men increased by 22.7% and 27.6%, respectively, between 2007 and 2009, and mental disorders, substance abuse, and infectious disease morbidity showed deteriorating trends during 2010 and 2011. Utilization of public inpatient and primary care services rose by 6.2% and 21.9%, respectively, between 2010 and 2011, while the Ministry of Health’s total expenditures fell by 23.7% between 2009 and 2011. In a time of economic turmoil, rising health care needs and increasing demand for public services collide with austerity and privatization policies, exposing Greece’s population health to further risks. PMID:23597358

  13. Economic crisis, restrictive policies, and the population's health and health care: the Greek case.

    PubMed

    Kondilis, Elias; Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Gavana, Magda; Ierodiakonou, Ioanna; Waitzkin, Howard; Benos, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The global economic crisis has affected the Greek economy with unprecedented severity, making Greece an important test of the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and a population's well-being. Suicide and homicide mortality rates among men increased by 22.7% and 27.6%, respectively, between 2007 and 2009, and mental disorders, substance abuse, and infectious disease morbidity showed deteriorating trends during 2010 and 2011. Utilization of public inpatient and primary care services rose by 6.2% and 21.9%, respectively, between 2010 and 2011, while the Ministry of Health's total expenditures fell by 23.7% between 2009 and 2011. In a time of economic turmoil, rising health care needs and increasing demand for public services collide with austerity and privatization policies, exposing Greece's population health to further risks. PMID:23597358

  14. [The Spanish economic crisis and its consequences on social spending. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem

    2014-06-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the factors that the author believes should be considered when analyzing the multiple interrelations between the economic crisis and its effects on public finances, social spending, and the health and welfare of Spaniards. For the sake of brevity, a linear argument is followed, with the basic contents of the message, leaving some of the more controversial issues whose interpretation may be heavily influenced by ideology to the discussion. The core of the argument is that, despite the double dip of the Spanish recession, healthcare has survived the consequences of the crisis fairly well. This is particularly the case when the situation is analyzed in terms of the share of public expenditure to GDP and in per capita terms, given the evolution of these ratios, although the final effect is unknown in terms of the actual and potential beneficiaries. This relatively low incidence so far on the health of Spaniards is basically due to family networks, pooling their incomes, and to the acceptance by Spanish health professionals of budget cuts, which have allowed services and their apparent quality to be maintained, contrasting with private employment and public finances. Obviously, this is not a guarantee of sustainability unless economic growth recovers. Even if the Spanish economy and public finances improve, the composition of health care delivery needs to be reevaluated to achieve a new allocation between public and private responsibilities for healthcare in accordance with the social development of the 21st century. PMID:24863990

  15. World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

  16. External and internal reality: the impact of the current socio-economic crisis on the analytic dyad.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Anna

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the impact of the current economic crisis on the psychic functioning of the patient and the analyst, their relationship and collaboration. This intrusion of 'external reality' is multidimensional, and thus with multiple meanings. The critical role of the economic factor brings various dimensions of money into play, such as self-preservation, power as well as aspects of psychosexual development. In addition, the crisis involves symbolic loss of basic ideals such as honesty and social responsibility. Patient and analyst are affected in similar and different ways in their respective roles as well as according to the specific intrapsychic functioning of each. Moreover, unique characteristics of the crisis often create a crisis in the analysis. In order to avoid deformation of the analytic relationship, the analytic dyad must examine and work through the multiple meanings of the crisis as well as the meaning of the impact of the crisis on the analytic relationship for both patient and analyst. This complex transference- countertransference interplay poses specific challenges to the analyst. After discussion of these issues, clinical material is presented that demonstrates how they appear in analytic practice today. PMID:25376265

  17. The mental health consequences of the economic crisis in Europe among the employed, the unemployed, and the non-employed.

    PubMed

    Buffel, Veerle; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Applying a multi-level framework to the data from the European Social Survey's Round 3 (2006) and Round 6 (2012), we assessed the crisis by increases in rates of unemployment, while also controlling for countries' pre-crisis economic conditions. We found a positive relationship between depression and an increase in national unemployment rates. This relationship can be only partly ascribed to an increase in the number of unemployed and those employed in nonstandard job conditions-with the exception of the self-employed and women working part-time. The crisis effect is more pronounced among men and those between 35 and 49years of age. Moreover, in strongly effected countries, the crisis has changed the relationship between part-time work and depression, between depression and certain subcategories of the unemployed (looking for a job or not looking), and between depression and the non-employed. PMID:26463548

  18. The World Population Crisis. What It Is and Where to Get Information About It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1968

    1968-01-01

    The present and future outlines of the population crisis are described in an article by Philip Hauser, and the role of responsible citizens in this crisis is the topic of an article by John D. Rockefeller III. Following this introduction is a complete resource guide for teachers. All classes of materials are reviewed, including background…

  19. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001

  20. Medical supplies shortages and burnout among greek health care workers during economic crisis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

  1. The anxieties of globalization: antidepressant sales and economic crisis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the role of market research firms in shaping the actions of key players in the pharmaceutical arena. It focuses on strategies for marketing novel antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs) to doctors in Buenos Aires during the Argentine financial crisis of 2001, posing the question of whether increased antidepressant sales were due to the social situation or to promotional practices. This case demonstrates how 'pharmaceutical relations' - interactions between doctors and pharmaceutical companies - are structured by a gift economy whose effects are monitored through the sales numbers produced by database firms. It suggests that the use of these numbers takes on special importance given the distinctiveness of both the Argentine context and the antidepressant market. More generally, the case points to the interpretive flexibility of psychotropic medication. In the Argentine setting, doctors' prescription of SSRIs was dependent neither on a diagnosis of depression nor on a biological understanding of mental disorder. These drugs found a different means of entering the professionally mediated marketplace: doctors understood and used SSRIs as a treatment not for a lack of serotonin in the brain, but for the suffering caused by the social situation - the sense of insecurity and vulnerability that the economic and political crisis had wrought. PMID:15297998

  2. An Examination of Leaders' Perceptions and Strategies in Addressing Faculty Recruitment, Retention and Support in Times of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little-Wiles, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Using the embedded case study method, this investigation described the experiences, relationships, and perspectives of administrative leaders within the higher education environment during the most recent economic crisis, specifically attempting to answer the question of, "How does an economic crisis, like the most current recession, impact a…

  3. A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. Methods The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. Results In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. Conclusions The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory

  4. Assessment of alcohol use in health professionals during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Saridi, Maria; Karra, Aphrodite; Kourakos, Michael; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of alcohol in health professionals during the economic crisis in Greece. The sample included 579 health professionals. Despite the fact that alcohol consumption was low and women held more negative views on the effectiveness of its use compared to men, they consumed more than men both in quantity (mean 1.57 vs 1.46, p=0.291) and in frequency (mean 1.98 vs 1.73, p=0.132). Employees with a higher level of education expressed more opposition to the use of alcohol than those with a basic level of education (93.5% vs 66.7%, p=0.004). There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed after a stressful event and the frequency with which this amount of alcohol consumption occurred in workers. PMID:27081734

  5. Specialty choice in times of economic crisis: a cross-sectional survey of Spanish medical students

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jeffrey E; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz; Ortún, Vicente; Barber, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinants of specialty choice among graduating medical students in Spain, a country that entered into a severe, ongoing economic crisis in 2008. Setting Since 2008, the percentage of Spanish medical school graduates electing Family and Community Medicine (FCM) has experienced a reversal after more than a decade of decline. Design A nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted online in April 2011. Participants We invited all students in their final year before graduation from each of Spain's 27 public and private medical schools to participate. Main outcome measures Respondents’ preferred specialty in relation to their perceptions of: (1) the probability of obtaining employment; (2) lifestyle and work hours; (3) recognition by patients; (4) prestige among colleagues; (5) opportunity for professional development; (6) annual remuneration and (7) the proportion of the physician's compensation from private practice. Results 978 medical students (25% of the nationwide population of students in their final year) participated. Perceived job availability had the largest impact on specialty preference. Each 10% increment in the probability of obtaining employment increased the odds of preferring a specialty by 33.7% (95% CI 27.2% to 40.5%). Job availability was four times as important as compensation from private practice in determining specialty choice (95% CI 1.7 to 6.8). We observed considerable heterogeneity in the influence of lifestyle and work hours, with students who preferred such specialties as Cardiovascular Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynaecology valuing longer rather than shorter workdays. Conclusions In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, job availability has assumed critical importance as a determinant of specialty preference among Spanish medical students. In view of the shortage of practitioners of FCM, public policies that take advantage of the enhanced perceived job availability of FCM may help steer medical school

  6. The Global Economic Crisis: Setbacks to the Educational Agenda for the Minority in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingubu, Moses Shiasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper captures the impact of the Global Economic Crisis on educational programs serving minority groups in developing countries. It has been established that the most vulnerable groupings include nomadic and pastoralist communities, slum dwellers, children in war zones, and women. Various educational interventions such as mobile schooling,…

  7. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  8. Did Social Safety Net Scholarships Reduce Drop-Out Rates during the Indonesian Economic Crisis? Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Lisa A.

    This paper uses regression and matching techniques to evaluate Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Program. The program aimed to prevent large numbers of children from dropping out of school as a result of the Asian economic crisis of 1998. It was expected that families would find it difficult to keep their children in school and that…

  9. Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates. PMID:22066128

  10. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment. PMID:19200631

  11. Changes in occupational safety and health indices after the Korean economic crisis: analysis of a national sample, 1991-2007.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young; Park, Jae-Beom; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Kyung-Jong

    2010-11-01

    We examined how the deregulation of South Korea's labor laws during the country's 1997 to 1998 economic crisis affected occupational safety and health. Although the economic index improved after the reforms, the total injury rate declined slowly and the incidence of occupational disease increased. The withdrawal of support for occupational safety and health is likely to have a sustained effect on public health. PMID:20339078

  12. Google matrix of the world network of economic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandiah, Vivek; Escaith, Hubert; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-07-01

    Using the new data from the OECD-WTO world network of economic activities we construct the Google matrix G of this directed network and perform its detailed analysis. The network contains 58 countries and 37 activity sectors for years 1995 and 2008. The construction of G, based on Markov chain transitions, treats all countries on equal democratic grounds while the contribution of activity sectors is proportional to their exchange monetary volume. The Google matrix analysis allows to obtain reliable ranking of countries and activity sectors and to determine the sensitivity of CheiRank-PageRank commercial balance of countries in respect to price variations and labor cost in various countries. We demonstrate that the developed approach takes into account multiplicity of network links with economy interactions between countries and activity sectors thus being more efficient compared to the usual export-import analysis. The spectrum and eigenstates of G are also analyzed being related to specific activity communities of countries.

  13. World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

  14. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. PMID:26766910

  15. Dynamical analogy between economical crisis and earthquake dynamics within the nonextensive statistical mechanics framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Zitis, Pavlos I.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2013-07-01

    The field of study of complex systems considers that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may be used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Several authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and the dynamics of economic (financial) systems can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. We apply concepts of the nonextensive statistical physics, on time-series data of observable manifestations of the underlying complex processes ending up with these different extreme events, in order to support the suggestion that a dynamical analogy exists between a financial crisis (in the form of share or index price collapse) and a single earthquake. We also investigate the existence of such an analogy by means of scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes). We show that the populations of: (i) fracto-electromagnetic events rooted in the activation of a single fault, emerging prior to a significant earthquake, (ii) the trade volume events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, and (iii) the price fluctuation (considered as the difference of maximum minus minimum price within a day) events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, follow both the traditional Gutenberg-Richter law as well as a nonextensive model for earthquake dynamics, with similar parameter values. The obtained results imply the existence of a dynamic analogy between earthquakes and economic crises, which moreover follow the dynamics of seizures, magnetic storms and solar flares.

  16. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high

  17. [The impact of the economic crisis on the health and healthcare of the immigrant population. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Aller, Marta-Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    Despite the economic crisis, the immigrant population of Spain continues to be high, with 5.7 million persons (11.4%). This population, whose health needs are similar to those of the general population, is more vulnerable due to their exposure to worse social determinants (living and working conditions together with a higher risk of exclusion from social services). In this article, we analyze how the economic crisis affects or can affect the health of the immigrant population in Spain by examining distinct population-specific or institutional factors that influence the effects of the crisis and the available data. The available evidence is limited, but several effects can be identified: firstly, some social determinants, such as higher unemployment rates and worse working conditions, have deteriorated, which can be expected to lead to a worsening of health status. These consequences have already been described for mental health or have been estimated for infectious diseases. Secondly, political decisions have had a direct impact, excluding-with some exceptions-undocumented immigrants from the right to health care. Finally, the lower priority given to adapting health services to the specific characteristics of the immigrant population (most of whom are documented) together with the introduction of new barriers, has hampered or will hamper access to health care. As a result, the economic crisis can be expected to have a greater impact on the immigrant population. PMID:24704282

  18. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II. Strategies for Teaching Economics: World Studies (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.

    Part of the Master Curriculum Guide Project, this guide presents concept-based activities in economics for use with students in grades nine through 12. The activities are related to global aspects of economic development. The objective is to provide detailed classroom lessons illustrating ways of applying economic analysis to world history and to…

  19. Research in the Real World: Studying Chicago Police Department's Crisis Intervention Team Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police agencies across the country are struggling to respond to significant number of persons with serious mental illness, who are landing on their doorsteps with sometimes tragic consequences. Arguably, the most widely adopted approach, the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model, is a specialized police-based program designed to improve officers'…

  20. Modeling of Economy Considering Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Lev F.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss main modeling's problems of economy dynamic processes and the reason forecast's absence of economic crisis. We present a structure of complexity level of system and models and discuss expected results concerning crisis phenomena. We formulate the basic perspective directions of the mathematical modeling of economy, including possibility of the analysis of the pre crisis, crisis and post crisis phenomena in economic systems.

  1. Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

  2. Unemployment in Scandinavia during an economic crisis: cross-national differences in health selection.

    PubMed

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    Are people with ill health more prone to unemployment during the ongoing economic crisis? Is this health selection more visible among people with low education, women, or the young? The current paper investigates these questions in the Scandinavian context using the longitudinal part of the EU-SILC data material. Generalized least squares analysis indicates that people with ill health are laid off to a higher degree than their healthy counterparts in Denmark, but not in Norway and Sweden. Additionally, young individuals (<30 years) with ill health have a higher probability of unemployment in both Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Neither women with ill health, nor individuals with low educational qualifications and ill health, are more likely to lose their jobs in Scandinavia. Individual level (and calendar year) fixed effects analysis confirms the existence of health selection out of employment in Denmark, whereas there is no suggestion of health selection in Sweden and Norway, except among young individuals. This finding could be related to the differing labor market demand the three Scandinavian countries have experienced during and preceding the study period (2007-2010). Another possible explanation for the cross-national differences is connected to the Danish "flexicurity" model, where the employment protection is rather weak. People with ill health, and hence more unstable labor market attachment, could be more vulnerable in such an arrangement. PMID:25689668

  3. Determinants of child malnutrition during the 1999 economic crisis in selected poor areas of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bardosono, Saptawati; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah; Lukito, Widjaja

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence at the national level that suggests the 1999 Indonesian economic crisis impact was very heterogeneous both between urban and rural areas and across regions. A cross sectional study of the nutritional status of children and its determinants was performed in urban poor areas of Jakarta, and rural areas of Banggai in Central Sulawesi, and Alor-Rote in East Nusa Tenggara. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to obtain 1078 households with under-five children in the urban poor area of Jakarta, and 262 and 631 households with under-five children each for the rural areas of Banggai and Alor-Rote, respectively. Data collection for both studies was performed from January 1999 to June 2001. The study shows that wasting affected more children in the urban poor areas of Jakarta than in the other study areas. On the other hand, stunting and anemia were significantly more severe among children 6-59 months of age in the rural area of Alor-Rote compared to the other study areas. The high prevalence of infectious diseases was significantly related to the higher prevalence of wasting in the study areas of Jakarta and Banggai, and also significantly related to the higher prevalence of stunting and anemia in the study area of Alor-Rote. To avert this kind of health impact of a economic downturn, there is a need to improve the nutritional and health status of under-five children and their mothers through the existing health care system, provide basic health services and improve the capacity of health staff across Indonesia as part of the decentralization process. PMID:17704034

  4. Teaching World Economics: An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Middle Level Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltz, Colleen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studying global economic system helps middle-school students unravel complexities of world economics by focusing on other countries, their motivations as consumers, and their decision-making processes. By examining interrelationship of economics and everyday life, students can see their place in economic chain. Concepts such as marketing, stock…

  5. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module IV, Entrepreneurship and the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students understand the marketplace; manage resources; apply…

  6. The impact of the global economic crisis on HIV and AIDS programmes directed at women and children in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Serieux, John; Njelesani, Mwansa; Chompolola, Abson; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple case study approach, the authors found that from mid-2008 to mid-2009 the Zambian economy was indeed buffeted by the global economic crisis. During that period the case study subjects experienced challenges with respect to the funding, delivery and effectiveness of services that were clearly attributable, directly or indirectly, to the global economic crisis. The source of funding most often compromised was external private flows. The services most often compromised were non-medical services (such as the delivery of assistance to orphans and counselling to HIV-positive mothers) while the more strictly medical services (such as antiretroviral therapy) were protected from funding cuts and service interruptions. Impairments to service effectiveness were experienced relatively equally by (HIV-positive) pregnant women and lactating mothers and children orphaned through HIV. Children living with AIDS were least affected because of the primacy of ARV therapy in their care. PMID:26223326

  7. Socio economic crisis and mortality. Epidemiological testimony of the financial collapse of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gurfinkel, Enrique P; Bozovich, Gerardo E; Dabbous, Omar; Mautner, Branco; Anderson, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Background Natural disasters, war, and terrorist attacks, have been linked to cardiac mortality. We sought to investigate whether a major financial crisis may impact on the medical management and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes. Methods We analyzed the Argentine cohort of the international multicenter Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). The primary objective was to estimate if there was an association between the financial crisis period (April 1999 to December 2002) and in- hospital cardiovascular mortality, with the post-crisis period (January 2003 to September 2004) as the referent. Each period was defined according to the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product. We investigated the demographic characteristics, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, morbidity and mortality. Results We analyzed data from 3220 patients, 2246 (69.8%) patients in the crisis period and 974 (30.2%) in the post-crisis frame. The distribution of demographic and clinical baseline characteristics were not significantly different between both periods. During the crisis period the incidence of in-hospital myocardial infarction was higher (6.9% Vs 2.9%; p value < 0.0001), as well as congestive heart failure (16% Vs 11%; p value < 0.0001). Time to intervention with angioplasty was longer during the crisis, especially among public sites (median 190 min Vs 27 min). The incidence proportion of mortality during hospitalization was 6.2% Vs 5.1% after crisis. The crude OR for mortality was 1.2 (95% C.I. 0.87, 1.7). The odds for mortality were higher among private institutions {1.9 (95% C.I. 0.9, 3.8)} than for public centers {1.2 (95% C.I. 0.83, 1.79)}. We did not observe a significant interaction between type of hospital and crisis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the financial crisis may have had a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization, and higher incidence of medical complications. PMID:16351728

  8. World-System Mobility and Economic Growth, 1980-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rob

    2010-01-01

    World-system scholars have traditionally emphasized the stability of the core/periphery hierarchy. However, prior network studies employing both categorical and continuous measures of world-system position reveal substantial mobility across time, whereby a number of developing states have become more integrated in the world economy over the past…

  9. Changes in the household calorie supply during the 1994 economic crisis in Mexico and its implications on the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Méndez, Oscar

    2004-07-01

    To characterize the effects of the 1994 economic crisis on calorie sources of Mexican households, five nutrition surveys done every leap year (1992-2000) in national representative samples (> 10,000 households) were analyzed. Each household was visited during 7 days to collect data on foods purchased, exchanged or home-grown and their monetary value. We selected 88 food items to calculate kilocalories/ person/day and cost in pesos/megacalorie (CPMC) for rural-urban strata (localities < 2500, > or = 2500). The food items were classified in 8 groups and the summation of kilocalories and CPMCs of items in each group were our units of analysis. Linear regressions for 1992-2000 were performed, and slopes and intercepts were used to characterize changes. Available calories showed very little change at the height of the economic crisis. Expensive calories (meat in urbans, eggs and milk in rurals, and industrialized meat and soft drinks in both) tended to increase, whereas the most inexpensive staples (cereals, legumes, sugars) decreased their share in both strata. An increase in obesigenic calories was seen, notably in soft drinks, despite a cost increase second only to meat. Main conclusions were: (1) the economic crisis did not affect total calories availability in Mexican households; (2) the 1992-2000 trends in calorie sources were contrary to any crisis effect in rurals and urbans (i.e., expensive foods increased and inexpensive staples decreased); (3) there were sizable rural-urban differences in number, source, and cost of calories; and (4) obesigenic calories increased and soft drinks emerged as a food with its own dynamic. PMID:15387484

  10. Enduring an Economic Crisis: The Effect of Macroeconomic Shocks on Intragenerational Mobility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Hsin

    2010-11-01

    After the burst of its "bubble" economy in 1989, Japan experienced an astonishingly long economic recession whose gravity surpassed any seen in the industrialized world since the 1930s. While this recession is likely to have important consequences on the well-known workplace arrangements and career mobility patterns in that country, systematic analyses of such consequences are nearly absent. This study examines changes in the rates and directions of job mobility in Japan using work history data collected in 2005 from a nationally representative sample of men and women. I find evidence that Japanese firms have largely retained the core elements of the permanent employment system. The norm that stresses men's loyalty to their employers, however, appears to have weakened, resulting in higher voluntary job turnover among male workers. In addition, the gender gap in lifetime mobility processes has narrowed, but not because Japanese women have gained opportunities in the workplace. Rather, economic stagnation has led to greater fluctuations in employment and wages over men's life course, thereby closing the gender gap. Beyond illustrating the changing stratification process in Japan, the findings have general implications for understanding how economic crises impact employment relations, institutional transformations, and social change in advanced industrialized countries. PMID:21278839

  11. Enduring an Economic Crisis: The Effect of Macroeconomic Shocks on Intragenerational Mobility in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2010-01-01

    After the burst of its “bubble” economy in 1989, Japan experienced an astonishingly long economic recession whose gravity surpassed any seen in the industrialized world since the 1930s. While this recession is likely to have important consequences on the well-known workplace arrangements and career mobility patterns in that country, systematic analyses of such consequences are nearly absent. This study examines changes in the rates and directions of job mobility in Japan using work history data collected in 2005 from a nationally representative sample of men and women. I find evidence that Japanese firms have largely retained the core elements of the permanent employment system. The norm that stresses men’s loyalty to their employers, however, appears to have weakened, resulting in higher voluntary job turnover among male workers. In addition, the gender gap in lifetime mobility processes has narrowed, but not because Japanese women have gained opportunities in the workplace. Rather, economic stagnation has led to greater fluctuations in employment and wages over men’s life course, thereby closing the gender gap. Beyond illustrating the changing stratification process in Japan, the findings have general implications for understanding how economic crises impact employment relations, institutional transformations, and social change in advanced industrialized countries. PMID:21278839

  12. Impact of the economic crisis on the health of older persons in Spain: research clues based on an analysis of mortality. SESPAS report 2014.

    PubMed

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Llácer, Alicia; Béland, Francois

    2014-06-01

    Older adults are seldom considered in studies on the health impact of economic recessions or crises. However, they constitute a population group that is highly vulnerable to decreases in investment in health and social services and social security. Our aim is to examine the relationship between the economic crisis starting in 2008 and the health status of older adults in Spain. More specifically, we analyze changes in trends of mortality in relation to the crisis, the specific impact of winter on mortality and gender differences in the crisis' impact on mortality. Using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Spain on people over 60 years of age, the number of monthly deaths by age and sex from January 2005 to December 2012 was analyzed. Interrupted time series analyses and the "difference in differences" method were used. During the crisis, for adults 60 years and older: 1) the observed mortality seems to be decreasing at a slower rate than what would have been expected in the absence of the crisis; 2) there has been an increase in winter mortality; 3) the impact of the crisis has been greater for female than for male mortality. These results suggest sizable effects of the economic crisis on the mortality of older adults and argue for research done using more detailed analyses integrating economic indicators. PMID:24864003

  13. Trading around the World. Introducing Economics into the Middle School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Harlan R.

    This booklet is to help Indiana middle school teachers fill the gap in economics education in their curriculum by supplementing world geography and world history courses. The booklet is composed of five different teaching units: (1) "Economic Survival: Resources, Production, and Scarcity"; (2) "Working and Living Together: The Importance of…

  14. The Economics of the Duration of the Baseball World Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Alexander E.; Lowenthal, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    This note examines some statistical features of the major league baseball World Series. We show that, based upon actual historical data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that the two World Series teams are evenly matched. Yet, we can also calculate the relative strengths of the teams that would best match the actual outcomes, and we find that those…

  15. A World Bazaar: Learning about Community, Geography, and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how teachers, students, and other community members collaborated in the planning and preparation of World Bazaar, a project aimed to immerse elementary students into modern and ancient cultures through reading, writing, researching, using maps, and seeing videos. On the day of the World Bazaar, the courtyard…

  16. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module II, Your Economic Decisions and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

  17. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Arruti, A; Fernández-Olmo, I; Irabien, A

    2011-05-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. PMID:21376438

  18. In Order to Save the World for Human Habitation, We Must Stop Teaching Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raymond C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews 11 normative principles of capitalist economics. Contends that these principles form the basis for much of economics education in the United States and Western society. Argues that to save the world from massive environmental degradation, economics education must be completely restructured to focus on ecological concerns. (CFR)

  19. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities. PMID:23066563

  20. "One of the Most Sensible Utterances that Has Come from Anybody in a Long Time:" Jesse H. Newlon's "The Teaching Profession and the World Crisis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Alan W.

    2006-01-01

    As Jesse H. Newlon prepared to speak at Teachers College on July 10, 1940, he apparently did not appreciate the impact his words would make. He had not prepared a complete text of his remarks, as was his habit for important speeches, speaking instead from a three-page outline. His ultimate title, "The Teaching Profession and the World Crisis," was…

  1. World Economic Geography: Responding to the Needs of Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Arthur, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Offers a rationale for increased teaching of global economic geography, identifies its natural constituencies, and defines the scope and content of such undergraduate courses. Concludes that such courses offer a good way to help internationalize undergraduate education in the United States in addition to providing an opportunity to highlight…

  2. The Economic Crisis of 1968 and the Waning of the "American Century."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that the escalating costs of international commitments (primarily the Vietnam War) and domestic programs resulted in a chronic balance-of-payments deficit that signaled the end of "growth liberalism." Provides an in-depth look at Lyndon Johnson's efforts to address this crisis amidst growing political opposition. (MJP)

  3. Historically Black Colleges and Universities in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasman, Marybeth

    2009-01-01

    Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have suffered disproportionately in the current financial crisis. The difficult situations at these institutions have many causes, but they stem in large part from the commitment of HBCUs to serving disadvantaged students and from the history of underfunding and discrimination that disadvantages…

  4. Soil Erosion: Quiet Crisis in the World Economy. Worldwatch Paper 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.; Wolf, Edward C.

    Although soil erosion is a natural process, it has increased to the point where it far exceeds the natural formation of new soil. However, with only occasional exceptions, national agricultural and population policies have failed to take soil depletion into account. Projections of world food production always incorporate estimates of future…

  5. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  6. Honeybee economics: optimisation of foraging in a variable world.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees fast and efficient exploitation of nectar and pollen sources is achieved by persistent endothermy throughout the foraging cycle, which means extremely high energy costs. The need for food promotes maximisation of the intake rate, and the high costs call for energetic optimisation. Experiments on how honeybees resolve this conflict have to consider that foraging takes place in a variable environment concerning microclimate and food quality and availability. Here we report, in simultaneous measurements of energy costs, gains, and intake rate and efficiency, how honeybee foragers manage this challenge in their highly variable environment. If possible, during unlimited sucrose flow, they follow an 'investment-guided' ('time is honey') economic strategy promising increased returns. They maximise net intake rate by investing both own heat production and solar heat to increase body temperature to a level which guarantees a high suction velocity. They switch to an 'economizing' ('save the honey') optimisation of energetic efficiency if the intake rate is restricted by the food source when an increased body temperature would not guarantee a high intake rate. With this flexible and graded change between economic strategies honeybees can do both maximise colony intake rate and optimise foraging efficiency in reaction to environmental variation. PMID:27320240

  7. Women and the environment: A reader - crisis and development in the Third World

    SciTech Connect

    Sontheimer, S.

    1992-01-01

    Sontheimer's collection of essays explores the complex interrelationships between Third World women and their ecological base of survival. Designed to bring together a broad selection of information from available literature, this volume provides an overview of current situations. Divided into four sections - women's use and management of land, forests, and water; and women's initiatives to repair environmental damage - the book may help erase misconceptions and show the important role of women in international environmental matters.

  8. Changes in morbidity and medical care utilization after the recent economic crisis in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hanjoong; Chung, Woo Jin; Song, Young Jong; Kang, Dae Ryong; Yi, Jee Jeon; Nam, Chung Mo

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine and quantify the impact of the recent economic crisis on morbidity and medical care utilization in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: 22 675 people from 6791 households and 43 682 people from 12 283 households were questioned for two nationwide surveys that took place in 1995 and 1998, respectively. A separate sample pretest-posttest design was used and we conducted c2 test and logistic regression analysis after controlling for the maturation effect of the morbidity and medical care utilization. FINDINGS: The morbidity rates of chronic disease and acute disease increased significantly by 27.1% and 9.5%, respectively, whereas the utilization rates of outpatient and inpatient services decreased by 15.1% and 5.2%, respectively. In particular, the pace of decline in the utilization rate of outpatient services varied depending on the type of disease: morbidity rates for mental and behavioural disorders were 13.7%; for cardiovascular disease, 7.1%; and for injury, 31.6%. CONCLUSION: After the Republic of Korean economic crisis, the morbidity and medical care utilization rates changed significantly but the degree of change depended on the type of disease or service. The time-dependent relationship between the national economy and the morbidity and medical care utilization rates needs to be further investigated. PMID:14576888

  9. Comparison of the financial performance of Islamic and conventional bank in Malaysia during and after economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Jaffar, Aidatullaini; Abdullah, Nur Lina; Harun, Nurzalina

    2013-09-01

    This paper is a continuation of our former work. In this paper, we compare the financial performance of the two banking systems that exist in Malaysia over two periods of time, during economic crisis (1997-1999) and after economic crisis (2001-2003). In order to see the conventional as well as Islamic bank's performance over these two periods of time, the study uses 10 financial ratios which are broadly categorized into 4 groups: (a) profitability ratios; (b) liquidity ratios; (c) risk and solvency ratios; and (d) efficiency ratios. Next, the study used T-test in determining the significance of the differential performance of the two banks over two periods of time. By using inter-bank comparison, the study found that, conventional bank has better performance, efficient, more profitable and has greater risk as compared to Islamic bank. However, in terms of utilizing asset, Islamic bank is better than conventional bank. As an overall, conventional bank is better in much aspect due to the longer history and experience in the industry than Islamic bank that start their operation in 1983.

  10. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  11. Some Basic Readings and References in World-of-Work Economic Education, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson State College, ARadelphia, AR. M.H. Russell Center for Economics Education.

    Publications in this annotated bibliography were selected to cover subject matter relating to the world of work and the broader socioeconomic environment in which man works and lives. Its readings and references deal with the content of world-of-work economic education rather than with teaching strategies and techniques. The bibliography is basic,…

  12. Honeybee economics: optimisation of foraging in a variable world

    PubMed Central

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees fast and efficient exploitation of nectar and pollen sources is achieved by persistent endothermy throughout the foraging cycle, which means extremely high energy costs. The need for food promotes maximisation of the intake rate, and the high costs call for energetic optimisation. Experiments on how honeybees resolve this conflict have to consider that foraging takes place in a variable environment concerning microclimate and food quality and availability. Here we report, in simultaneous measurements of energy costs, gains, and intake rate and efficiency, how honeybee foragers manage this challenge in their highly variable environment. If possible, during unlimited sucrose flow, they follow an ‘investment-guided’ (‘time is honey’) economic strategy promising increased returns. They maximise net intake rate by investing both own heat production and solar heat to increase body temperature to a level which guarantees a high suction velocity. They switch to an ‘economizing’ (‘save the honey’) optimisation of energetic efficiency if the intake rate is restricted by the food source when an increased body temperature would not guarantee a high intake rate. With this flexible and graded change between economic strategies honeybees can do both maximise colony intake rate and optimise foraging efficiency in reaction to environmental variation. PMID:27320240

  13. World Wide Web Resources for Teaching and Learning Economics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFossen, Phillip J.

    Technological resources abound for teachers of all subject areas, but for many reasons, such instructional technology seems to lend itself well to the social studies including economics. To help teachers efficiently use the latest economics resources available on the World Wide Web, this Digest identifies four sites that offer knowledge of…

  14. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  15. [Prevention in times of economic crisis and spending review. The Lazio Region as a study case].

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Marco; Marzuillo, Carolina; De Vito, Corrado; Matarazzo, Azzurra; Massimi, Azzurra; Villari, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    With cutbacks being implemented across a wide range of social and government programs throughout Europe and the rest of the world, preventive services have become more vulnerable. In this context, it is essential to properly focus the debate on public healthcare expenditure, stressing that financing preventive services is not merely a cost, but an investment in citizen well-being as well as economic stability and development. In Italy indeed all seem to agree on three priorities: i) strengthening prevention activities; ii) reorganization of hospital care; and iii) reinforcement of primary care. A plenty of data are available in Italy from some recently published authoritative reports. Given that health policies should be driven by a solid evidence base, it is important to look at the available data to understand if these priorities are justified. The Lazio Region, which is particularly under pressure since it is one of the regions with a formal regional recovery plan (Piano di Rientro), was chosen as a case-study. In the Lazio Region public health care expenditure is particularly high, but the health care expenditure for prevention activities is among the lowest of the Italian Regions. Major weakness points documented by the essential levels of care indicators included recommended vaccinations coverage, oncological screening programs, residential beds for the elderly and persons with disability and hospital care efficiency. Avoidable mortality is higher in the Lazio than in the rest of the country, as well as the prevalence of some major behavioral risk factors. Even if all data available support the choice to consider prevention activities as a priority, it is essential to increasing the value of prevention, investing money in preventive interventions of proven effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and promoting synergies with institutions outside the health care sector, implementing in a more efficient way the principle of Health in All Policies. PMID:24548905

  16. Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

    2011-12-01

    We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

  17. World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

  18. Serious crisis in the practice of international health by the World Health Organization: the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Debabar

    2006-01-01

    The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is the latest effort by the World Health Organization to improve health and narrow health inequalities through action on social determinants. The CSDH does not note that much work has already been done in this direction, does not make a sufficient attempt to analyze why earlier efforts failed to yield the desired results, and does not seem to have devised approaches to ensure that it will be more successful this time. The CSDH intends to complement the work of the earlier WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which has not had the desired impact, and it is unclear how the CSDH can complement work that suffers from such serious infirmities. Inadequacies of both commissions reflect a crisis in the practice of international health at the WHO, stemming from a combination of unsatisfactory administrative practices and lack of technical competence to provide insights into the problems afflicting the most needy countries. Often the WHO has ended up distorting the rudimentary health systems of the poor countries, by pressuring them into accepting health policies, plans, and programs that lack sound scientific bases. The WHO no longer seems to take into account historical and political factors when it sets out to improve the health situation in low-income countries--which is supposed to be the focus of the CSDH. An alternative approach is suggested. PMID:17175839

  19. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions. PMID:19630256

  20. Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993–2010) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea. PMID:23171369

  1. The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

  2. [Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992

  3. How Does the Economic Crisis Affect the Psychological Well-Being? Comparing College Students and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…

  4. Cognitive social capital and mental illness during economic crisis: a nationwide population-based study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou, Marina; Madianos, Michael; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Patelakis, Athanasios; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing financial crisis in Greece has yielded adverse effects on the mental health of the population. In this context, the particular study investigates the link between two indices of cognitive social capital; namely interpersonal and institutional trust, and the presence of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. A random and representative sample of 2256 respondents took part in a cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey the time period February-April 2011 (Response Rate = 80.5%), after being recruited from the national phone number databank. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview, while for interpersonal and institutional trust the pertinent questions of the European Social Survey were utilized. Socio-demographic variables were also encompassed in the research instrument, while participants' degree of financial strain was assessed through the Index of Personal Economic Distress. Both interpersonal and institutional trust were found to constitute protective factors against the presence of major depression, but not against generalized anxiety disorder for people experiencing low economic hardship. Nonetheless, in people experiencing high financial strain, interpersonal and institutional trust were not found to bear any association with the presence of the two disorders. Consistent with these, the present study shows that the effect of social capital on mental health is not uniform, as evident by the different pattern of results for the two disorders. Furthermore, cognitive social capital no longer exerts its protective influence on mental health if individuals experience high economic distress. As a corollary of this, interventions aiming at mitigating the mental health effects of economic downturns cannot rely solely on the enhancement of social capital, but also on alleviating economic burden. PMID:24444849

  5. Why Did a U.S. Secondary School District Retain Teacher-Librarians in a Time of Economic Crisis? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2010-01-01

    The number of U.S. teacher-librarians has greatly diminished despite advocacy efforts by stakeholders. This case study investigated the factors that led governing board members in a mid-sized urban high school district to retain certified teacher-librarian positions despite a major economic crisis. Themes constructed through the analysis were:…

  6. Barriers and Incentives to Orphan Care in a Time of AIDS and Economic Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Caregivers in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian H.; Phillips, Carl V.; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J.; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment,…

  7. Economic adjustment and the future of health services in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, A P

    1990-01-01

    Hard economic times in the Third World in the 1980s found many countries unable to maintain previous levels of health and social services in the face of the mounting service cost of their external debt and declining export earnings. The economic adjustment policies promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on the basis of market ideology were not able alone to improve the economic status of the debtor countries and did have deleterious effects on their health services and the health status of their population. Less pressure to privatize health services, more aid from abroad for the public sector, and a reallocation of scarce government resources from military to social purposes would help to rectify the situation, although sustained long-run improvement would still depend on the external factors that determine economic prosperity, and the prognosis in this respect is uncertain. PMID:2289958

  8. Sickness and sickness absence of remaining employees in a time of economic crisis: a study among employees of municipalities in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigursteinsdóttir, Hjördís; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on sickness and sickness absence among employees of 20 municipalities in Iceland who remained at work after the economic crisis in October 2008. The aim was to examine the impact of economic crisis on sickness and sickness absence of "survivors" working within the educational system (primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers) and the care services (elderly care and care of disabled people) operated by the municipalities. The study was based on mixed methods research comprising a balanced panel data set and focus groups. An online survey conducted three times among 2356 employees of 20 municipalities and seven focus group interviews in two municipalities (39 participants). The generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the quantitative data, and focused coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. The main finding showed that the economic crisis had negative health implications for the municipal employees. The negative effects grew stronger over time. Employee sickness and sickness absence increased substantially in both downsized and non-downsized workplaces. However, employees of downsized workplaces were more likely to be sick. Sickness and sickness absence were more common among younger than older employees, but no gender differences were observed. The study demonstrates the importance of protecting the health and well-being of all employees in the wake of an economic crisis, not only those who lose their jobs or work in downsized workplaces. This is important in the immediate aftermath of a crisis, but also for a significant time thereafter. This is of practical relevance for those responsible for occupational health and safety, as most Western countries periodically go through economic crises, resulting in strains on employees. PMID:25795993

  9. Impact of the economic crisis on children's health in Catalonia: a before–after approach

    PubMed Central

    Rajmil, Luis; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Fernández de Sanmamed, María-José; Mompart-Penina, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyse changes in the family living conditions of children in Catalonia between 2006 and the 2010–2012 period, and to study associations between these changes and health outcomes. Design A before–after analysis of two cross-sectional surveys. Setting Population younger than 15 years of age from Catalonia, Spain. Participants Representative samples of children in the 2006 Catalan Health Survey (ESCA), baseline, before the crisis; n=2200) and the first four waves of ESCA 2010–2012 (after start of the crisis, n=1967). Main outcome measures Overweight/obesity, health behaviour, mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were used to analyse the influence of changes in family conditions on outcome measures, including interaction terms to describe the potential influence of the study period on the results. Results The percentage of unemployed families rose from 9.1% (2006) to 20.6% (2010–2012), with inequalities by level of education. Overweight/obesity increased from 18.4% (95% CI 16.5% to 20.4%) to 26.9% (24.6% to 29.2%) in 2010–2012, and inequalities related to maternal education and employment status persisted. Eating habits have improved in 2010–2012 in disadvantaged families (ie, junk food consumption improved in families with a maternal primary education level; beta (B)=2.85; 0.83 to 4.88, for the survey interaction by primary education level). An improvement in HRQOL was found in the second survey (B=6.07; 4.15 to 7.99), although children whose mothers had a primary education showed poorer HRQOL scores in this survey than in 2006 (B=−4.14; −7.17 to −1.12). Conclusions Although some health-related behaviour improved during the study period, childhood obesity increased and inequalities in HRQOL appeared. Policy measures that fight against these inequalities should be urgently implemented to avoid their negative impact on the health of future generations of

  10. Gambling in the Mist of Economic Crisis: Results From Three National Prevalence Studies From Iceland.

    PubMed

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Hayer, Tobias; Brosowski, Tim; Meyer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    In October 2008 all three major banks in Iceland went bankrupt with serious consequences for Icelandic society. The national currency lost more than half of its value and there was a sharp increase in household debts and prices for domestic goods. Very little is known about the potential effects of economic recessions on gambling participation and problem gambling. This study reports on the results of three national prevalence studies conducted before and after the economic collapse in Iceland. The same methodology and measures were used in all three studies to ensure their comparability and the studies included in total N = 8.249 participants. There was an increase in past year gambling participation which extended across most gambling types. Only participation on EGMs declined significantly after the economic collapse. Past year prevalence of problematic gambling increased but further examination revealed that this increase is most probably explained by an increase in card and internet gambling among young men. Moreover, those who experienced financial difficulties due to the economic recession were 52% more likely to have bought a lottery ticket during the recession compared to those who were not affected financially. Overall, the results indicate that serious national economic recessions have differential effects on gambling behavior. PMID:25656216

  11. World Population Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid population growth, rising competition for resources, and increasing environmental deterioration are intertwined factors in the human predicament that feed political tensions and conflicts of the late twentieth century. Outlines dimensions of this predicament (including data on population, growth, military spending, quality of life, and…

  12. World Eco-Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, David A., Ed.; Skolnikoff, Eugene B., Ed.

    The essays contained in this volume are concerned with the existing and potential role of international organizations in coping with the environmental impact of the widespread application of science and technology. The results of the study are designed to be useful to policy-makers and students of international organizations. The essays are…

  13. From universal health insurance to universal healthcare? The shifting health policy landscape in Ireland since the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis. PMID:26777302

  14. Economic Aspects of Higher Education Taken Under the World War II Bill of Rights. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggertsson, Thrainn

    The aim of this thesis is to bring to bear the concepts, tools, and theories of human capital and human resources economics to evaluate the Federal Government's massive involvement in higher education under the World War II GI Bill of Rights. The major findings include estimates of total human capital formation by education, both during and after…

  15. International Organizations, the "Education-Economic Growth" Black Box, and the Development of World Education Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article has four sections. First, the author presents a theoretical discussion of the different explanations regarding the explosion of education after World War II. She explains how the actor-network theory--a theory of knowledge and of agency--enables people to understand the formation of the education-economic growth black box. The…

  16. Food for the World's Hungry. Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Maxwell S.

    A review of the food crisis is concisely presented in this brief brochure. It is one of a series to educate the American public on vital economic and social problems. The background of the world food shortage and its causal factors are discussed. Suggestions for overcoming the crisis, such as political changes, land reform, public services,…

  17. No Time for Timidity: A "Buffett" Approach to Weathering the Economic Crisis and Coming out Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesel, Richard A.; Strauss, David W.; Edwards, Benjamin G.

    2009-01-01

    The counterintuitive approach of the world's greatest value investor, Warren Buffett, may be the best hope for colleges and universities during this recession. Buffett's time-tested philosophy of seeking value and investing for the long term remains a sound approach, even if his short-term returns have declined along with those of the rest of the…

  18. Economic Crisis, Technology and the Management of Education: The Case of Distributed Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 crash has been likened to that of 1929. Does it have consequences for the management of education, and in particular for distributed leadership? Informed by evolutionary economics, it is argued that 2008 marked the end of the installation period of a major technological innovation, namely ICT. In the aftermath of the crash, a period of…

  19. The Economic Crisis and the Scientific, Technical and Cultural Information Services in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez de Zamora, Rosa Maria

    1990-01-01

    Describes the effects of economic factors on information services in Mexico. Topics discussed include librarians' salaries; inadequate library budgets; acquisitions in academic libraries; the development of public libraries; library networks; national databases; microcomputers and library automation; library research; effects of devaluation; and…

  20. The Quiet Crisis: The Impact of the Economic Downturn on the Nonprofit Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; McNaught, Mary; Reed, Bruce; Dunkelman, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This report was written to shine a spotlight on the under-reported plight of America's nonprofit organizations and to make recommendations for how the nation can respond. In the wake of the economic downturn, hospitals, nursing homes, nursery schools, senior centers, soup kitchens, and other nonprofit organizations have been hit by a triple…

  1. How Arizona's Dropout Crisis Affects Communities, Creates Economic Losses for the State of Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One-in-five of Arizona's youth did not complete high school and a similarly large proportion of the state's youth is disconnected from either work or education. These youth face higher risks of unemployment and economic insecurity and are more reliant on government supports. This situation, which fails to ensure that the state's youth are…

  2. The Chocolate Milk Crisis: A Consumer Economics Simulation Unit for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrico, Patricia; Karsotis, A. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulation game developed to introduce elementary school students to basic economic concepts, including scarcity, availability, resource utilization, trade-offs, and demand and barter. The simulation, based on a shortage of chocolate milk in the elementary school lunch room, stressed problem solving skills. (DB)

  3. Ernie Erg's Second Primer on the Economics of the Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Ila

    This unit is intended to teach about scarce resources and to relate them to basic economics and energy conservation. The content and activities of the unit are introduced through conversation and readings flexible enough for free student expression. The purpose of the study is to provide students with enough information about present and emerging…

  4. Solar Energy Economics Revisited: The Promise and Challenge of Orbiting Reflectors for World Energy Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, Kenneth W.; Gilbreath, William P.; Bowen, Stuart W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting, large-area, low mass density reflector satellites which provide nearly continuous solar energy to a world-distributed set of conversion sites is examined under the criteria for any potential new energy system: technical feasibility, significant and renewable energy impact, economic feasibility and social/political acceptability. Although many technical issues need further study, reasonable advances in space technology appear sufficient to implement the system. The enhanced insolation is shown to greatly improve the economic competitiveness of solar-electric generation to circa 1995 fossil/nuclear alternatives. The system is shown to have the potential for supplying a significant fraction of future domestic and world energy needs. Finally, the environmental and social issues, including a means for financing such a large shift to a world solar energy dependence, is addressed.

  5. 10th World IHEA and ECHE Joint Congress: health economics in the age of longevity.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Getzen, Thomas E; Torbica, Aleksandra; Anegawa, Tomofumi

    2014-12-01

    The 10th consecutive World Health Economics conference was organized jointly by International Health Economics Association and European Conference on Health Economics Association and took place at The Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland in July 2014. It has attracted broad participation from the global professional community devoted to health economics teaching,research and policy applications. It has provided a forum for lively discussion on hot contemporary issues such as health expenditure projections, reimbursement regulations,health technology assessment, universal insurance coverage, demand and supply of hospital services, prosperity diseases, population aging and many others. The high-profile debate fostered by this meeting is likely to inspire further methodological advances worldwide and spreading of evidence-based policy practice from OECD towards emerging markets. PMID:25301000

  6. [Economic crisis, poverty and childhood. What are the expected short- and long-term effects for the "children of the crisis"? SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Flores, Manuel; García-Gómez, Pilar; Zunzunegui, María-Victoria

    2014-06-01

    The way a person will develop over the lifespan is largely determined by the first few years of life. A substantial share of the inequalities in health and socioeconomic status observed in adult life originate during childhood (and even while in utero). In this paper, we first review the literature on the impact of childhood conditions throughout the life cycle. We next discuss some of the social and biological mechanisms behind the transmission of the effects of poverty during the prenatal period, childhood, and adulthood. We then analyze several international experiences aimed at reducing intergenerational transmission of poverty. The article ends with some critical thoughts and policy recommendations to avoid the possible long-term effects of the current crisis on the health and socioeconomic status of the "children of the crisis" in Spain. PMID:24864002

  7. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  8. [Health promotion and prevention in the economic crisis: the role of the health sector. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Villegas-Portero, Román; Gosalbes Soler, Victoria; Martínez-Pecino, Flora

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews trends in lifestyle factors and identifies priorities in the fields of prevention and health promotion in the current economic recession. Several information sources were used, including a survey of 30 public health and primary care experts. Between 2006 and 2012, no significant changes in lifestyle factors were detected except for a decrease in habitual alcohol drinking. There was a slight decrease in the use of illegal drugs and a significant increase in the use of psychoactive drugs. Most experts believe that decision-making about new mass screening programs and changes in vaccination schedules needs to be improved by including opportunity cost analysis and increasing the transparency and independence of the professionals involved. Preventive health services are contributing to medicalization, but experts' opinions are divided on the need for some preventive activities. Priorities in preventive services are mental health and HIV infection in vulnerable populations. Most experts trust in the potential of health promotion to mitigate the health effects of the economic crisis. Priority groups are children, unemployed people and other vulnerable groups. Priority interventions are community health activities (working in partnership with local governments and other sectors), advocacy, and mental health promotion. Effective tools for health promotion that are currently underused are legislation and mass media. There is a need to clarify the role of the healthcare sector in intersectorial activities, as well as to acknowledge that social determinants of health depend on other sectors. Experts also warn of the consequences of austerity and of policies that negatively impact on living conditions. PMID:24656990

  9. The effects of economic development and world-system on occupational sex segregation.

    PubMed

    Hahm, I

    1991-12-01

    In order to better integrate women's subordinate status into the world system, the author examined how processes of the new international division of labor and consequent underdevelopment affect women's overall economic status and occupational sex segregation (OSS). For the empirical test, panel regression analyses were used with 71 crossnational cases for the periods of 1960-80 and 1970-80. The results of the analyses clearly show that world-system position and economic development proved to have important consequences for OSS. However, the results unexpectedly showed a negative relation for multinational corporation dependency, which is stronger for the longer term period than for the shorter term. Of the intervening variables, the effects of female labor force participation show a negative effect on OSS, and those of the female share of the service sector show a strong positive effect on OSS at either point in time. Fertility did not show any significant effects on OSS. PMID:12285492

  10. The influence of the environmental management system on the environmental impact of seaport companies during an economic crisis: Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Anne, Olga; Burskyte, Vilma; Stasiskiene, Zaneta; Balciunas, Arunas

    2015-01-01

    Freight handling in EU ports fell by more than 12 % during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009 after almost a decade of continuous growth. The decrease of freight handling in the Klaipeda seaport, the only port in Lithuania, was 6.7 % and happened due to the dominant outward movement of goods (mainly oil products). The Klaipeda seaport, due to its peculiarity, is the only ice-free port in the northern part of Baltic Sea. The present study explores the environmental impact of Klaipeda seaport activities from 2001 to 2011. Moreover, it compares the environmental effectiveness of environmental protection strategies used in the four biggest companies that, in fact, cover about 88 % of total activities (except general cargo) of the seaport. The first group of targeted companies used an environmental protection strategy to implement an ISO 14001-based environmental management system, and the second group selected to follow environmental management practices without certification. The paper analyses the development of the companies' activities in regard to the change of environmental effectiveness. The paper evaluates the pressure of the economic crisis on the companies' activities and its influence on environmental decisions, with particular interest in the ability of different environmental protection systems to resist and handle the expected performance. The study identified a significant decrease in companies' activities during the crisis period. However, the economic activities and environmental effectiveness demonstrated similar short-term tendencies in regard to the environmental strategy selection but differed in long-term perspective. PMID:25109472

  11. The social impact of energy, telecommunications, and civil aviation of Third World economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation shows that the telecommunications plays an important part in the development of a country's economy. Dealing strictly with the Third World or developing nations, inferences were made at the national level as to how improved communications should be a requirement for all countries. As the technology improves, greater achievements will be forthcoming, especially if the social issues of education, social services, health care, and income distribution are addressed. Several social issues need special attention if the Third World is to become a major player in the world economy. Starting with the large population base, methods to control the birth rate are essential. Lead and lag studies were done to appraise the state of the business cycle through the peaks or valleys of economic activity. Leading indicators measure anticipation of economic climate whereas lagging indicators are sluggish to reactions and used to confirm changes. Coincident indicators show economic performance and the strength of a country's output. These indicators were done for savings, investment, energy, telecommunications, and civil aviation.

  12. The end of the era of generosity? Global health amid economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kammerle; Garrett, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade donor commitments to health have increased by 200 percent. Correspondingly, there has been a swell of new players in the global health landscape. The unprecedented, global response to a single disease, HIV/AIDS, has been responsible for a substantial portion of this boon. Numerous health success have followed this windfall of funding and attention, yet the food, fuel, and economic crises of 2008 have shown the vulnerabilities of health and development initiatives focused on short term wins and reliant on a constant flow of foreign funding. For too long, the international community has responded to global health and development challenges with emergency solutions that often reflect the donor's priorities, values, and political leanings, rather than funding durable health systems that can withstand crises. Progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals has stalled in many countries. Disease specific initiatives have weakened health systems and limited efforts to improve maternal and child health. As we enter this era of scarce resources, there is a need to return to the foundations of the Alma Ata Declaration signed thirty years ago with the goal of providing universal access to primary healthcare. The global health community must now objectively evaluate how we can most effectively respond to the crises of 2008 and take advantage of this moment of extraordinary attention for global health and translate it into long term, sustainable health improvements for all. PMID:19134211

  13. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  14. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  15. Black carbon aerosols over an urban area in south-eastern Spain: Changes detected after the 2008 economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Foyo, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) concentrations performed at Granada, an urban location in southeast Spain, using a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer from December 2005 to November 2008, are analysed and discussed here. The daily mean BC concentrations showed considerable day-to-day variations and were found to vary from low values of 0.5 μg m -3 to high values of 8.6 μg m -3, with overall mean and standard deviation of 3.0 ± 1.5 μg m -3. The annual mean BC concentrations were similar during 2006 and 2007 (3.2 ± 1.4 μg m -3 and 3.1 ± 1.6 μg m -3, respectively), but decreased by about 16-18% to 2.6 ± 1.4 μg m -3 in 2008. This reduction is not only observed in the mean value, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. A Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level confirms that the BC concentration difference between 2006 and 2007 is statistically no significant while the BC concentration in 2008 tends to be less than that in 2006-2007. Analysis of meteorological conditions suggested that although the day-to-day variations in BC concentrations were driven mostly by meteorology, the reduction in the use of fossil fuels due to economic slowdown contributed significantly to the observed decrease in BC concentrations in 2008. Under conditions dominated by local source emissions, the effect of the economic crisis on BC concentration was more pronounced. For the three analysed years, BC concentrations obtained during winter were higher than those measured during summer, probably due to increased emissions from domestic heating and less intense vertical mixing in winter season, which lead to the confinement of the BC particles near the surface. The monthly mean BC concentrations were lower in 2008 than in 2006-2007 for almost every month of the year. In all years BC concentrations exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, with two maxima and two minima within a day. There were no differences among the daily patterns for 2006, 2007 and 2008 except for

  16. OECD Educationtoday Crisis Survey 2010: The Impact of the Economic Recession and Fiscal Crisis on Education in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damme, Dirk V.; Karkkainen, Kiira

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Directorate for Education surveyed the impact of the economic recession on education for the first time in June 2009. Responses were received from seventeen OECD member countries, the Flemish Community of Belgian and two Canadian provinces. The results of the survey reflect the…

  17. Crisis, What Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Responding to the recent work of Andrew Gamble, the article discusses the extent to which the British situation can be described in terms of crisis. It suggests that an essential element of crisis is that of political and social contestation, and explores the terms on which contestation is taking shape in and around British education.

  18. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Methods Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Results Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. Conclusion The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator. PMID:26217479

  19. Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and

  20. Moving beyond Stylized Economic Network Models: The Hybrid World of the Indian Firm Ownership Network1

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Dalhia; Moody, James

    2014-01-01

    A central theme of economic sociology has been to highlight the complexity and diversity of real world markets, but many network models of economic social structure ignore this feature and rely instead on stylized one-dimensional characterizations. Here, the authors return to the basic insight of structural diversity in economic sociology. Using the Indian interorganizational ownership network as their case, they discover a composite—or “hybrid”—model of economic networks that combines elements of prior stylized models. The network contains a disconnected periphery conforming closely to a “transactional” model; a semiperiphery characterized by small, dense clusters with sporadic links, as predicted in “small-world” models; and finally a nested core composed of clusters connected via multiple independent paths. The authors then show how a firm’s position within the mesolevel structure is associated with demographic features such as age and industry and differences in the extent to which firms engage in multiplex and high-value exchanges. PMID:25418990

  1. Politics and economics of American arms transfers in the post World War Two era

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The major economic and political theories about arms transfers are extracted from the literature. These theories are then tested to see how accurate they are in explaining arms transfers. The method used for this testing is to create analytic measures for each theory and then to compare actual data on arms transfers with the assumptions and predictions of each theory. Results of this study indicate that none of the economic or political theories on American arms transfers provide a sufficient explanation for the developments in arms transfers since World War II. To explain arms transfers in the face of the failure of commonly accepted theories, an alternative view is suggested. This alternative theory argues that arms transfers must be viewed in the light of a broad understanding of the evolution of American foreign policy and political ideology since World War II. In support of this theory the history of the arms trade and the relationship between the arms trade and American foreign policy are examined.

  2. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Real, Eva; Jover, Lluís; Verdaguer, Ricard; Griera, Antoni; Segalàs, Cinto; Alonso, Pino; Contreras, Fernando; Arteman, Antoni; Menchón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse) due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis. Methods Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression) between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days) due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008–2012. Results Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables). Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to ‘improvement’) and with working in the transport sector and public administration. Conclusions Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders. PMID:26730603

  3. Structural Position in the World System and Economic Growth, 1955-1970: A Multiple-Network Analysis of Transactional Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, David; Kick, Edward L.

    1979-01-01

    Addresses world-system/dependency theories of differential economic growth among nations and identifies reservations concerning the current empirical status of these theories. Presents a model which relates the world system to blockmodel analysis by considering four types of international networks--trade flows, military interventions, diplomatic…

  4. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module V, Citizen Participation in Canada's Market-Based Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students understand the marketplace; manage resources; apply…

  5. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module I, The Canadian Marketplace and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

  6. Changes in Access to Health Services of the Immigrant and Native-Born Population in Spain in the Context of Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Malmusi, Davide; Ronda, Elena; Ballesta, Mónica; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012). Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1) to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2) to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3) to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012. PMID:25272078

  7. Economic Crisis, Accountability, and the State's Coercive Assault on Public Education in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    This article examines education accountability as a mechanism of coercive neoliberal urban governance in the USA. Drawing on Gramscian theory of the "integral state" as the dialectical synthesis of coercion, consent, and resistance, the author argues that as the crisis gives the state less room to win consent, it intensifies coercion as…

  8. Can a Public Scholarship Program Successfully Reduce School Drop-Outs in a Time of Economic Crisis? Evidence from Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role played by Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Program in reducing school drop-out rates during the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their children in school and drop-out rates would be high. The scholarships are found to have been effective in…

  9. Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... A A A Text Size What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  10. Writing experience: does ethnography convey a crisis of representation, or an ontological break with the everyday world?

    PubMed

    Ho, Wing-Chung

    2008-11-01

    This paper is premised on the "ontological break" as coined by Alfred Schutz that disconnects two realms: the "world of consociates" where social reality is directly experienced face-to-face in the vivid present, and the "world of contemporaries" where the other is interpreted in terms of "types." It is argued that this break is a suggestive vehicle for conducting a meta-exposition of major claims which problematize the traditional authority of ethnography. In the light of the break, the postmodernist attempts to attain or retain the here-and-now understanding of subjective meaning, or "voice" in ethnographies are but epistemological impossibilities. It is concluded that the postmodernist privileging of a "naive ethnography" which emphasizes "experiential," "interpretive," "dialogical," and "polyphonic" processes is neither able to deliver on its promise at the methodic level, nor amendable to Schutz's ontological break at the theoretical level. PMID:19579364