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The author sees 1980 as a troubled economic time for the world. He examines the position of US labor and the dollar in the currency market. The trouble is pinpointed as the volatility of financial markets; the inelasticity of energy demand in view of higher prices, and the protectionism of American unions and corporations. (PSB)
The International Monetary Fund has made available the December 1997 issue of the WorldEconomic Outlook. This report contains the interim assessment by the IMF staff on the financial turmoil in Asia and its implications on global and regional economies. The report discusses the events leading up to the Asian financial crisis and how the crisis evolved; it also assesses the spillover effects from the Asian crisis to the developed economies. Revised estimates for global growth rates in light of the Asian crisis are provided.
At the end of 2007, subprime mortgage crisis broke out in America, and then it gradually evolved into global economiccrisis and spread to other countries. The international financial situation has been deteriorating sharply and has rapidly evolved into the most serious international economiccrisis since the \\
The global economiccrisis of 2008–2009 seemed a crisis not just of economic performance but also of the system's underlying political ideology and economic theory. But a second Great Depression was averted, and the radical shift to New Deal-like economic policies predicted by some never took place. Perhaps the correct response to the crisis is simply careful management of the
The global economiccrisis that started in late 2008 has led to a sharp curtailment of international trade, including a short-term decline in the value of global agricultural trade of around 20 percent. While not uniform across commodities and regions, th...
Noting that economiccrisis until recently was considered a peculiar characteristic of free-enterprise economies, this article provides factual information demonstrating the economiccrisis in the planned economies of eastern Europe. It describes in detail the consequences of the crisis for education in Poland. (JDH)
Sub-Saharan Africa is facing deep economiccrisis. A situation has reached where there is total stagnation with zero per cent growth rate and no hope of recovery. Hunger is hovering over vast areas of Africa threatening the lives of 150 million people and every day people are dying of starvation. It is said, that nature and international economic relations are
Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the worldeconomiccrisis. Discusses how the economiccrisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economiccrisis. (JOW)
Discusses the economic situation in the non-Arab nations of Africa. Presents two opposing views of the efforts of the World Bank at adjusting the financial programs of governments of developing countries. Suggests that perhaps with cooperation the cycle of poverty and disease can be broken in Africa. (DK)
At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…
Argues that current economic problems may be an indication of deep, long term economiccrisis. Points out implications of economic crises for families and human services, and suggests four options for responding as a society to economic hard times. (RH)
This paper provides a short study of Indonesia's economic performance before July 1997 and an early diagnosis of the economiccrisis in Indonesia, which occurred from July 1997 to March 1998. After achieving remarkable economic development success over th...
WorldEconomic Forum is a nonprofit organization dedicated to "economic growth and social progress." The forum is located in Geneva, Switzerland, and its members include those in business, politics, and the academic world. The WorldEconomic Forum Website contains a variety of information about the Forum as well as information about global economics. Latest news is highlighted, with reports from several recent economic summits including photographs and Webcasts. A menu at the top left corner of the site directs users to the rest of the site, including resources about regional networks, reports and publications, and centers and projects.
East Asia in 1997 became the second recent victim of financial crisis following the collapse of Mexico's currency and stock market in 1994. This study examines the strategic implications of the ongoing economic and monetary crisis in Asia. It discusses po...
This publication has recently been made available by the International Monetary Fund. WorldEconomic Outlook is a semi-annual report that provides "IMF staff economists' analyses of global economic developments during the near and medium term." It also surveys the creation of the European Monetary Union (EMU), exchange rate arrangements and economic performance in developing countries, and monetary policies in the transition economies. WEO contains a statistical appendix on various global macroeconomic variables.
The global economiccrisis has accelerated the fear that the United States' international power is fading. It has also made clear the need for American higher education to engage more deeply with the rest of the world, not run from it. That was the consensus among a group of presidents and provosts who met in New York this month as part of "Higher…
Lack of food is rarely the reason people go hungry1. Even now, there is enough food in the world, with a bumper harvest this year, but more people cannot afford to buy the food they need. Even before the recent food price spikes, an estimated billion people were suffering from chronic hunger, while another two billion were experiencing malnutrition, bringing
An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economiccrisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…
There is a common belief that economiccrisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…
The Turkish economy remained an inward-oriented closed economy until the government launched an economic reform and stabilization program on January 24, 1980, to liberalize the Turkish economy. The stabilization program has a favorable impact on the Turki...
The world is facing an unprecedented global economiccrisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economiccrisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485
This article aims to highlight the impact of the economiccrisis in the economy at the microeconomic level. The crisis that began in 2007 as a financial crisis, naturally grown into an economic one. Reduced availability of capital has reduced demand from vendors. It also worsened the possibility of rational adaptation, because the company had to deal with only short-term
Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economiccrisis raging outside the…
International economists and political scientists analyze the influence of political and economic forces on the world in an effort to explain why the old international economic order has collapsed and what can and should be done about it. The impact of these forces is examined for each of the functional components of the world economy: international monetary system, world trade,
Serious crises and disasters have micro and macro social arrangements that differ from routine situations, as the field of disaster studies has described over its 100-year history. With increasingly pervasive information and communications technology (ICT) and a changing political arena where terrorism is perceived as a major threat, the attention to crisis is high. Some of these new features of
Leysia Palen; Sarah Vieweg; Jeannette Sutton; Sophia B. Liu; Amanda Hughes
The response to the ongoing international crisis is a holistic response due to the multiple effects impacting on the various segments of societies around the world. Since 1945, the world has to perform again, a new leap in terms of development process based on the pressing need for socio-economic reconstruction. The level of globalisation and…
One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…
This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).
This paper introduces the details and characteristics of disclosures of crisis management scenarios and simulations of countries and regions based on some of the information collected in research activities for a project on constructing a new macroeconomic model and identifying the right economic policies to take in times of crisis. The paper also identifies some of the implications to Japan's
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) released the May 1999 issue of the WorldEconomic Outlook, a biannual assessment of the worldeconomic situation. Overall, the IMF predicts a few years of slow growth, but no dramatic global recession. The full text of the 255-page report is available in .pdf format in six parts at the IMF site. Users can also access the WEO Database, which contains data in nine categories in comma delimited, .csv text file format. Explanatory notes on each data set and tips on viewing and saving data tables are provided.
The economiccrisis that continues to affect countries across the world has taken a hard toll on humanitarian organizations in Europe. In October 2009, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released this 20-page report on just that subject. The report looks at 52 countries across the region (including several in Central Asia), and it is primarily focused on presenting findings from long-form interviews, rather than large statistical data sets. The report has some troubling findings, including the observation that "there seems to be an increasing trend of insecurity, leading to increases in mental health problems, alcohol and substance abuse, social isolation and generalized stress." Visitors will appreciate the fact that the report draws on a number of case studies and the first-hand observations of social service providers and administrators.
Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an economic…
The economics profession appears to have been unaware of the long build-up to the current worldwide financial crisis and to have significantly underestimated its dimensions once it started to unfold. In our view, this lack of understanding is due to a misallocation of research efforts in economics. We trace the deeper roots of this failure to the profession’s insistence on
David Colander; Hans Föllmer; Armin Haas; Michael Goldberg; Katarina Juselius; Alan Kirman; Thomas Lux; Brigitte Sloth
Indonesia has been afflicted by an economiccrisis since July 1997. The economiccrisis was preceded by a long drought associated with El Nino. The result has been a decline in food production, especially rice. In the eastern part of the country, especially in Irian Jaya, there was food insecurity during the early stages of the economiccrisis. When the crisis escalated to become an economic, social and political crisis in 1998, food insecurity spread to other provinces, especially to urban areas in Java. The crisis led to increasingly high inflation. unemployment, poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. The official figures indicate that poverty in Indonesia increased from 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996 to 36.5 million (17.9%) in 1998. Food production decreased by 20-30% in some parts of the country. Compared with prices in January 1998, food prices had escalated 1.5- to threefold by August/November 1998 when acute food shortages occurred, especially in urban Java. Coupled with a drop in purchasing power, the higher food prices worsened health, nutritional status and education of children of urban poor and unemployed families. Despite social and political uncertainties, the Indonesian Government has taken prompt action to prevent a worsening of the situation by massive imports of rice, instituting food price subsidies for the poor and launching social safety net programmes to cope with food shortages and malnutrition. The present paper attempts to highlight the impact of the economiccrisis on food insecurity and malnutrition in Indonesia. PMID:11708583
The present global economiccrisis raises new concerns for social workers. One of its most visible results is the further socioeconomic decline and marginalization of excluded populations. This article suggests that the current circumstances require a much more engaged, egalitarian, and reflexive practice-a practice, based on social rights, that matches the magnitude of the crisis and its negative impact on traditional social work constituencies. Consequently, the article suggests the concept of inclusive social work practice (ISWP), a conceptual framework whose main principles respond to four processes of social exclusion closely related to the present global crisis: extreme social isolation, growing dependency, multiple deprivation, and internalized oppression. The author describes the impact of the global crisis on patterns of social exclusion and presents the methodological foundations of the ISWP framework. PMID:24450021
When an economiccrisis hits, a primary policy concern in developing countries is how social services can be protected and, in particular, how access to health and education for the poor can be maintained. Using the Indonesian Social Safety Net (SSN) as case study, this dissertation investigates the effectiveness of targeted demand side interventions in health and education as a
An important aspect of the impact of the economiccrisis is how pay in the public sector responds ? in the face not only of the evolution of pay in the private sector, but also extreme pressure on public spending (of which pay is a very large proportion) as fiscal deficits soar. What are the effects on the income distribution
This paper reports on a study of Association of American Universities university presidents' public communications in response to the 2008-2009 economiccrisis. The authors present findings from a thematic analysis of 111 letters. The authors highlighted 22 themes and present them within three major categories: factors external to the university;…
Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people. PMID:24661346
Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel
Past economic crises have increased the impact of communicable diseases especially on groups particularly vulnerable to the social and health consequences of the recession. However, it has been shown that the impact of these crises largely depends on the response of governments and the inhabitants of affected countries. We describe the consequences of the current crisis in the causal chain of infectious disease, including the response of the health system, and explore whether there is evidence of its impact in Spain. It is assumed that the possible effect of the crisis on living and working conditions is due to individual and social debt coupled with high unemployment as defining features of the crisis. We highlight the potential negative consequences of healthcare cuts on vulnerable populations, which have been partly excluded with the recent reform of health coverage. We compare mortality and morbidity data between two periods: before and after 2008, integrating, where possible, observed trends and institutional reports. Overall, no effect on infectious disease has been detected so far, although some signs of worsening, which could be compatible with the effects of the crisis, have been observed and need to be monitored and confirmed. We review the limitations of data sources that may not be sufficiently sensitive or up-to-date to detect changes that may require a latency period to become manifest. Instead of cutting resources, surveillance of these diseases should be improved, and an equitable social health response, which targets the population most affected by the crisis, should be guaranteed. PMID:24863999
In the late 20th century, no region of the world has been more successful in improving the standard of living of its populations than the Asia-Pacific. If national security is in large part a function of national well- being, then East Asia has enjoyed an...
The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economiccrisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economiccrisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”
This article aims to analyze the impact of the economic and financial crisis on environmental determinants of health. The World Health Organization estimates that between 13% and 27% of the disease burden in countries could be prevented by improving the environment. These effects are larger in vulnerable populations, especially among the poorest. In the last decade, outdoor air pollution (the most significant environmental health risk in most European countries) has declined, mostly due to the European policy of reducing emissions and to the decrease in activity following the economiccrisis. During the last few years, this improvement in air quality has occurred simultaneously with a reduction in investment in environmental protection and could therefore be offset in the medium-term. The economiccrisis has not reduced the trend for higher temperatures in Spain and Europe because climate change is a global phenomenon that is not directly related to local emissions. To reduce the risk of an increase in the health impact of environmental factors, certain key aspects should be considered, such as the need to maintain or develop adequate monitoring and control systems and the opportunity to implement policies that help improve the quality of the environment and reduce the vulnerability of different population groups in a cross-disciplinary framework of transparency and citizen participation. PMID:24863994
Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Querol, Xavier; Esplugues, Ana
Administrators can prepare for crisis situations by conducting safety assessments at all schools and district facilities, involving community resources, updating district and school discipline and crisis-communication plans, establishing a crisis-intervention team, providing staff training, establishing "suspicious behavior" reporting procedures,…
In Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, No. 5, March 2006, at ISSN0094-5765 there appears the article entitled ``Will space actually be the Final Frontier of humankind?'' written by Giancarlo Genta, and Michael Rycroft. This Acta Astronautica article requires amplification on the economic side. The writer of this article was personally present at the Apollo 11th launchings for the first landing on
Valid assessment of household food security is important, particularly in rapidly changing circum- stances such as the economiccrisis that struck Indonesia in 1998. The Cornell-Radimer tool for measuring household food security has now been used in several social and economic settings. An adaptation of this tool was used in the context of the economiccrisis of Java, Indonesia in
Lisa J. Studdert; Edward A. Frongillo; Pascale Valois
An overview of the Economic and Demographic situation in Ukraine has been given. Some historical-scientific aspects of the actual crisis has been revealed. Between them: The soveitization of the Science, when scientists of Ukrainean origin work outside its borders, while the most influent and proliferous scientists inside the Country are of Russian origin. The percentage of astronomers of Russian origin is as great as ~40% while the percentage of the Russian population in Ukraine is about 20%. Another problem consist in low knowledge of the Ukrainean language by scientists working inside the Country.
In Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, No. 5, March 2006, at ISSN0094-5765 there appears the article entitled “Will space actually be the Final Frontier of humankind?” written by Giancarlo Genta, and Michael Rycroft. This Acta Astronautica article requires amplification on the economic side. The writer of this article was personally present at the Apollo 11th launchings for the first landing on the Moon, by Buzz Aldrin and others. The Apollo 11 take off to the Moon, from Cape Carnival, did not leave the situation “so humankind seems forever to be bound to its own planet!” There was nothing pessimistic about the launch of Apollo 11. It is written that there was a lack of vision at that time, which is also not correct. The ‘Final Frontier’ myth was never mentioned on that occasion. At Apollo 11 we did take planet earth's “first faltering step for mankind” on the path towards a space faring civilization, exactly as these two authors later correctly mention. Now with the US Presidential initiatives “Moon, Mars and Beyond,” the authors suggested that it “will depend on social, political and economic issues rather than technological and scientific ones.” This Academy Note respectfully submits that all of these factors social, political and economic issues, plus psychological and scientific ones, instead of, “rather than technical and scientific ones” are going to be the determining factors of the speed of progress of the exploration of the entire universe, and particularly the sun in our Milky Way Galaxy. Russia and Ukraine are now on same, deep-space policy directions. The attention of the readers of this Academy Note is called to the current “Cosmic Collision” excellent presentation at the Hayden Planetarium, located at the Museum of National History in the City of New York. It shows the past, the present and the future of international humankind in exploring space and the creation of the universe, with particular reference to the protons of our sun, for our Milky Way Galaxy.
This paper provides initial reflections on the impact of the economiccrisis on education across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) area by analysing the OECD educationtoday crisis survey responses of June 2009. It first looks at the impact of the crisis on education demand and participation, after which the focus…
The report contains information about the impact of the economiccrisis on strategic choices made in the revised regional plan for Twente (Netherlands). Contents: A new-style regional plan; The impact of the economiccrisis on strategic choices; Spatial d...
It has become common to listen to arguments that great transformations of the economic-institutional system will happen, that it will be similar to what happened after the Great Depression of 1929 and the crisis of 1974–1975. There are essentially two reasons for such perception: the depth of the present international economiccrisis and the impossibility of sustaining an accumulation model
This paper discusses access to scientific and technical information in Asia. The first section considers the economiccrisis, including the growth in information service as a major indicator of the success or failure of the economies of developing countries. Libraries' response to the economiccrisis is addressed in the second section, including…
Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.
We investigate the relative market efficiency in 11 foreign exchange markets by using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity algorithm and several entropy values such as the Shannon entropy, the approximate entropy, and the sample entropy. With daily data in 11 foreign exchange markets from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2011, we observe that mature markets have higher LZ complexities and entropy values than emerging markets. Furthermore, with sliding time windows, we also investigate the temporal evolutions of those entropies from Jan. 1994 to Sep. 2011, and we find that, after an economiccrisis, the approximate entropy and the sample entropy of mature markets such as Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom suddenly become lower.
Ha, Jin-Gi; Yim, Kyubin; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Woo-Sung
The “crisis exaggerators” are telling us that current economic conditions amount to an “unprecedented” global economic recession. This is historically incorrect. What is unprecedented is the degree to which economic commentators and political leaders are talking up economic downturn. What is their agenda? Could it be an attempt to prepare the way for an “unprecedented” degree of government intervention in
Summary.Clinical social workers are ill?prepared by education or practice experience to deal with spiritual issues, in particular those surrounding the death of a young client. This paper presents a case study of the work of a clinical social worker through the psychospiritual crisis of the dying and death of her adolescent client. The study employs extensive clinical material to trace
In the wake of the global financial crisis, the actions of leading central banks appear to have modified some of the long-established relationships between risk and return. But those principles may reassert themselves in the coming years as the financial environment returns to longstanding earlier patterns. PMID:24851463
Economists and political scientists have begun to isolate the causes and implications of the spread of the global financial crisis in late 2008. Critical attention—often accompanied by strident disagreement—has also focused on the efficacy of various domestic plans implemented in response to the crisis. International economic lawyers have started to explore the legal implications of these developments. Our analysis offers
While the economic downturn has appropriately become the top priority of policy makers, one element of the crisis has gone largely unnoticed: its impact on children and youth. Largely due to the economic and housing crises, many school districts across the country report increases in the number of homeless students in the classroom. "The Economic…
This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economiccrisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…
This article first provides an economic framework for understanding how an economiccrisis affects children's educational outcomes; this framework shows that there are both negative (harmful) effects and positive (beneficial) effects on educational outcomes. A review of the empirical evidence suggests that the negative effects are typically…
Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…
Librarians and publishers have a history of working together—and independently—to improve journal access and economics. In the recent period of economiccrisis, stakeholders have found innovative ways to reduce pressures and continue joint efforts for the benefit of our shared research and student customers.
This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economiccrisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…
Research on the process and effects of school budget development by superintendents during the current economiccrisis is limited. This study sought to determine the job satisfaction, efficacy, and longevity of school superintendents during economic crises. Using data from an original survey instrument TRIPLEM (Managing More than the Money…
Madagascar was severely affected by the economiccrisis that hit sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s. The crisis, exacerbated\\u000a by a high degree of political instability, led to food shortages in the mid-1980s. The impact on mortality is not well known,\\u000a owing to a lack of statistics for the whole island. Systematic analysis of the registers of the Municipal Hygiene Office
After the unanticipated financial crisis of Korea in 1997, lots of debates have been held on why and how it came upon. Most of debates including hearings of National Assembly focused their attention on why policy makers could not forecast and avoid the financial cirsis. No one, if any, asks whether or not there were systems thinking in the mind
Resumen Esta investigación propone una vía para la evaluación del impacto de corto plazo que la crisis financiera y económica internacional, transmitida esencialmente a través del canal comercial, puede tener sobre un conjunto de ocho economías latinoamericanas. Para el efecto se emplea un modelo del sector real, el modelo GTAP, caracterizado por ser de alcance global y operar bajo el
The global capitalist crisis is impacting dramatically across nation states and their economies. Although a complete collapse of the system appears to have been avoided by decisions to take co-ordinated interventionist action to shore up short term demand, governments have generally rejected the more radical actions required to address the…
The focus of the study was to examine the impact of the recession on (1) community college funding, (2) community college student support services, and (3) on student enrollment. This study relied on data from document analysis and interview of community college personnel and students. The current crisis has resulted in a steep budget reduction to…
Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda; Okpala, Amon O.
This booklet focuses on demographic change during the 1980s and 1990s, with special emphasis on the social and political pressures of accelerated demographic growth. It is intended for use in classrooms, community discussion groups, and seminars. Two world population trends are designated as most likely to dominate the demographic picture in the…
The benefits that the third world may reap in various areas from the development of satellite technology, including Solar Power Satellites (SPS), are examined. The areas considered include disaster warning, environmental monitoring, agriculture, education, communications, resource surveying, medicine, new materials, and energy development.
The objectives of the SESPAS 2014 Report are as follows: a) to analyze the impact of the economiccrisis on health and health-related behaviors, on health inequalities, and on the determinants of health in Spain; b) to describe the changes in the Spanish health system following measures to address the crisis and assess its potential impact on health; c) to review the evidence on the health impact of economic crises in other countries, as well as policy responses; and d) to suggest policy interventions alternative to those carried out to date with a population health perspective and scientific evidence in order to help mitigate the impact of the economic downturn on health and health inequalities. The report is organized in five sections: 1) the economic, financial and health crisis: causes, consequences, and contexts; 2) the impact on structural determinants of health and health inequalities; 3) the impact on health and health-related behaviors, and indicators for monitoring; 4) the impact on health systems; and 5) the impact on specific populations: children, seniors, and immigrants. There is some evidence on the relationship between the crisis and the health of the Spanish population, health inequalities, some changes in lifestyle, and variations in access to health services. The crisis has impacted many structural determinants of health, particularly among the most vulnerable population groups. Generally, policy responses on how to manage the crisis have not taken the evidence into account. The crisis may contribute to making public policy vulnerable to corporate action, thus jeopardizing the implementation of healthy policies. PMID:24863987
Spot market prices of oil have fallen considerably from the peak levels reached in 1973. Forecasts of reduced demand and projected supply availabilities for 1974 indicate a probable further weakening of price. For illustrative purposes, the analysis incorporates alternative price assumptions of $8.50 and $4.50 a barrel FOB for light Arabian crude. Over the longer term, as alternative sources of oil and other energy supplies become available, the prospects are good for a continuing softening in the world oil market. Government actions such as those included in the US Project Independence will provide a powerful complement to private market forces in bringing about this result. Yet energy will cost more than it has in the past, and particularly in the short run the higher costs of imported oil will lead to a substantial worsening of the trade balances of oil importing countries. The higher costs will generate both additional inflation and slower rates of real economic growth. The poorer developing nations will be extremely hard hit.
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economiccrisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economiccrisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economiccrisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. PMID:24864000
The present article analyzes the impact of the economiccrisis on food consumption in Spain, the most affected social profiles, and the consequences of changing patterns of food consumption on health. This article is based on official reports and previous empirical studies. The crisis has affected diet and food consumption. Families are attempting to spend less money on food. Food insecurity is rising and the most affected groups are those spending a higher proportion of their income on food. Cuts in food spending run parallel with unhealthy eating habits that encourage obesity. Consequently, the crisis contributes to undermining the right to a healthy diet, recognized by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the United Nations. PMID:24863995
On 11 August, 1982, the Finance Minister of Mexico, Silvia Herzog, informed the International Monetary Fund that Mexico was unable to meet its principle payments to its major creditors. The economiccrisis that ensued affected not just Mexico but the enti...
There are many direct and indirect reasons for the current global economiccrisis. Amongst them, the i nformation asymmetry and the market failure in the financial m arket is critical. As one of the reasons as well as alternative solutions, the paper aims to empirically test the intermediary fir ms in the field web-marketing version of traditiona l export. The
In an attempt to overcome the impact of the economiccrisis that emerged in 2007–2008, the triple helix model (THM) is increasingly being used as an inspiration source for local development policy, even though many localities and regions have not been able to create and sustain the innovation dynamics and sub-dynamics described and prescribed by the model. In fact, in
This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economiccrisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in…
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of an industrial company's top management team (TMT) that fought to survive an economiccrisis. Specifically, the article seeks to focus on describing the TMT's composition, group processes, and work during a period of high external pressure; analysing the TMT's work in…
In Fall 2008, the Ontario government's ability to maintain and enhance a school system was tested as the economy suffered one of its most extreme downturns. This paper discusses the action adopted by the government. The unique measures undertaken by the government to lessen the impact of the economiccrisis on students' learning is highlighted.
Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…
This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933
Complex economic dynamics is studied by a forced oscillator model of business cycles. The technique of numerical modeling is applied to characterize the fundamental properties of complex economic systems which exhibit multiscale and multistability behaviors, as well as coexistence of order and chaos. In particular, we focus on the dynamics and structure of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles within
Abraham C.-L. Chian; Erico L. Rempel; Colin Rogers
Research in the industrialized world shows that the influence of family background on educational attainment has remained stable or declined over time. In contrast, very little is known about the developing world. Using high-quality data sets and a standard protocol, this article offers a comparative analysis of trends in educational…
For the decade 2000-2010, suicidal rates appear to be both low and stable in Greece and unrelated to the socioeconomic environment. It is highly possible that the recent crisis caused a significant increase in dysphoria, stress, depression and maybe suicidal ideation in the general population, but completed suicides do not seem to have increased so far. Measures are needed to make sure there will be no increase in completed suicides in the near future, since historically, periods of socioeconomic instability might be related to increased suicidality. Community interventions reduce stigma and enhance help-seeking. However, only those including the creation of social support networks are essential in the fight against suicidality. PMID:23223905
The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economiccrisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out to be quite correct.
In spite of the rapid economic development experienced by Paraguay during recent years, the country's health conditions remain among the poorest in Latin America. This article strives to explain, by presenting a model of Paraguay's economic and health care systems, why health care and economic growth have not advanced at the same rate. By examining various economic and health care indicators, hospital registries, family planning activities, and statistics on drinking-water and health care services distribution among central departments with established populations, as well as recently populated peripheral areas, the conclusion is reached that the country's poor health conditions might be the direct result of accelerated expansion of the agricultural frontier. In closing, recommendations are made for updating health statistics via new health survey, improved training for rural health care personnel, and closer coordination among the four public hospital systems in the cities. PMID:8373530
STOA, the European Parliament's technology assessment body, and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies recently organised a workshop on the impacts of the economiccrisis on European health systems. Evidence of the impact of the recent financial crisis on health outcomes is only just beginning to emerge. Data suggests that this latest recession has led to more frequent poor health status, rising incidence of some communicable diseases, and higher suicide rates. Further, available data are likely to underestimate the broader mental health crisis linked to increased rates of stress, anxiety, and depression among the economically vulnerable. Not only does recession affect factors that determine health, but it also affects the financial capacity to respond. Many European governments have reduced public expenditure on health services during the financial crisis, while introducing or increasing user charges. The recession has driven structural reforms, and has affected the priority given to public policies that could be used to help protect population health. The current economic climate, while challenging, presents an opportunity for reforming and restructuring health promotion actions and taking a long-term perspective. PMID:23986120
McDaid, David; Quaglio, Gianluca; Correia de Campos, António; Dario, Claudio; Van Woensel, Lieve; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Reeves, Aaron
A critical update to the International Monetary Fund's WorldEconomic Outlook (described in the October 9, 1998 Scout Report), the WorldEconomic Outlook (WEO) and International Capital Markets (ICM) Interim Assessment examines recent international financial developments and provides revised economic forecasts for emerging and mature economies. The report includes a chapter on "systemic issues" and the "policy requirements" needed to curtail further market turbulence, but ends on a positive note with a modest dip in 1999 projected growth for the world economy from 1998 estimates at 2.2 percent.
Nouriel Roubini, Associate Professor of Economics and International Business, Stern School of Business, New York University, has put together an impressive collection of articles relating to the Asian economic and currency crisis. The articles include news reports, International Monetary Fund (IMF) reports, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) working papers and also research articles by Professor Roubini himself. The site is divided into several sections including basic readings, global effects, country analyses, the role of the IMF, systemic risk and short-term capital flows, case studies of exchange rate collapse, and the debate over flexible and fixed exchange rates.
The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…
Characterizes influences of the economic and political climate on universities and students in western Europe. As a result of university budget cuts, unemployment among educated youth, and increases in the cost of living, university students are experiencing a sense of uselessness, lost status, and confused identity. (Author/DB)
This volume contains 8 papers presented at the January 2001 United Nations Policy Forum. The first paper provides an overview of major changes in the higher education sector in the selected countries consequent upon the economiccrisis in the region. The subsequent papers analyze the crisis and its impact on higher education in individual…
Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives
\\u000a The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities\\u000a (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is\\u000a continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending\\u000a programs have been launched worldwide
The impacts of predicted climate change will not be distributed evenly around the world. As post-Kyoto negotiations unfold, relating the geographical distribution of projected impacts to responsibility for emissions among world regions is essential for achieving an equitable path forward. This article surveys the current knowledge of regional climate consequences, and delves into the regional predictions of economic assessment models
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economiccrisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economiccrisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000-50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economiccrisis has harmed children's health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:24960216
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economiccrisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economiccrisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economiccrisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses.
The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded.
Tilton, J.E.; Eggert, R.G. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA). Dept. of Mineral Economics); Landsberg, H.H. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (USA))
This new Asian Update from the Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) features three articles on the Asian economiccrisis written by authorities on economic and business development in Asia. As with the other Asian Updates, this latest offering provides valuable and insightful background and analysis on events in Asia for a wide audience, including scholars, students, policy makers, the media, and businesses. In addition to the articles, users will find a bibliography and contact information for a list of specialists in the field.
This study uses the 2008 economiccrisis in Iceland to identify the effects of a macroeconomic downturn on a range of health behaviors. We use longitudinal survey data that include pre- and post-reports from the same individuals on a range of health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors. We find that the crisis led to large and significant reductions in health-compromising behaviors (such as smoking, drinking alcohol or soft drinks, and eating sweets) and certain health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruits and vegetables), but to increases in other health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fish oil and recommended sleep). The magnitudes of effects for smoking are somewhat larger than what has been found in past research in other contexts, while those for alcohol, fruits, and vegetables are in line with estimates from other studies. Changes in work hours, real income, financial assets, mortgage debt, and mental health, together, explain the effects of the crisis on some behaviors (such as consumption of sweets and fast food), while the effects of the crisis on most other behaviors appear to have operated largely through price increases. PMID:23659821
Using both satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns and a number of economic metrics, we investigate the impact of the economiccrisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. The multiannual analysis shows that NO2 columns over Athens have been significantly reduced in the range 30-40%. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, and SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economiccrisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that the economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants in large parts of Greece.
Vrekoussis, M.; Richter, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Lelieveld, J.; Barrie, L.; Zerefos, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.
In recent publications it has been suggested that the health of the European population is deteriorating as a consequence of the economiccrisis. Such deterioration would be manifested by an increase in mortality, particularly in those countries applying austerity measures. It has also been suggested that as a consequence of these policies, suicides have skyrocketed and the situation could become a public health catastrophe of the kind that occurred in the 1990s in the countries formerly part of the USSR. These affirmations have no basis in the existing data. Statistics indicate that in European countries in general and especially in those most affected by the crisis, general mortality has decreased and the health of the population has improved in 2007-2010. Paradoxically, the crisis has had a beneficial effect on health in these countries. Such findings are in substantial agreement with previous studies that have shown throughout various periods within market economies that recessions are favorable to health while periods of economic expansion are harmful. PMID:24823606
The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and bolster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economiccrisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement have led to an illusion of a "perpetual money machine" allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the "good times" but that huge liabilities were. The most "interesting" present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.
On December 2 the World Bank released a new 200 page annual report on the global economy which contained thinly veiled criticism of the International Monetary Fund and US Treasury's handling of the Asian financial crisis. The crucial mistake, the report maintains, was their decision to push Asian nations into easing their interest rates, which set off the almost-worldwide recession. While it warns that a substantial danger remains that the world could fall into recession in 1999, the report predicts that the economies of most of the distressed nations will improve into 2000. In addition to an analysis of the short- and long-term prospects of the developing world, the report offers policy suggestions for preventing or managing future crises. At the site, the users will find the full text of the report, a summary, the foreword, press releases in multiple languages, and a PowerPoint slide show.
Data from three satellite spectrometers (SCIAMACHY, GOME2 and OMI) have been analyzed together with a number of economic metrics to investigate the impact of the economiccrisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. Athens is a heavily polluted city due to the extensive number of registered vehicles, the presence of industrial regions close to the city, the complex topography of the area favouring pollutant accumulation, the intense photochemical processes favoured by high temperature and insolation and the reception of transboundary pollution. The multiannual analysis shows a significant 30-40% reduction of primary gaseous pollutants in the form of NO2 tropospheric columnar densities observed over Athens, during the economic recession period, indicating large reductions in pollutant emissions. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3±0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2±0.1ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economiccrisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3±0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants not only in Athens but also in large parts of Greece.
The author discusses how the domestic political, economic, and socio-cultural problems afflicting the US and the USSR may threaten the security of each country and jeopardize world peace. Contents (partial): The Soviet Union in Crisis: An economy in crisis; A minority in their ''own country;'' Eastern Europe: An asset or liability; What is to be done.; The American Predicament: American liberalism; Ronald Reagan and the conservative counter-reformation; Taking stock; International Implications; Domestic strife; implications for the superpower rivalry; Global economic disorder and the American predicament; Conclusions.
Background. Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is a novel concept under scrutiny for a definite inclusion in the psychiatric taxonomy, after showing correlations with overt expressions of psychopathology. This study aims to assist the scientific dialogue concerning IAD while presenting comparative data on adolescent psychopathology before and during a major economiccrisis that has affected Greece from 2010 onwards. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study of a high school student population, aged 12-18, on IAD which follows-up a 2006 survey, and is carried out 5 years later at the same school classes. A comparison on psychopathological symptoms between the two samples is carried out to confirm any underlying correlations with IAD while providing some first insight on any effects of the economiccrisis on adolescent psyche. Results. Results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population paralleling the increase in Internet availability at home. Adolescents affected with IAD present with more psychopathological symptoms. A comparison between the 2006 and 2011 samples reveals lower rates of general psychopathology but similar burden of reported symptoms. Conclusions. Those findings are discussed in the framework of adolescent coping to adversity, individual reactions to major crises, as well as the general debate regarding the value of IAD as a distinct diagnosis. The effects of the economiccrisis may have triggered an adaptive response in the adolescent population although IAD as a distinct nosological entity is clearly linked to more symptoms of overt psychopathology. Directions are offered for further research in countries affected by crises. PMID:23962651
Siomos, K; Floros, G; Makris, E; Christou, G; Hadjulis, M
This article assesses the importance of economic factors for the development of British Middle Eastern policy during the 1967 Arab-Israeli crisis, based on newly declassified government documents. Policy shifted from threatening unilateral action against Nasser to multilateralism and neutraliry shortly before the June war. Economic considerations will be put in the context of anti-interventionist voices in the cabinet, in the
Financial markets rely on confidence and confidence is supported by the presumption that financial statements are accurate and reflect the economic reality. Financial scandals from 2001-2002 as well as the recent economiccrisis have raised questions about the integrity of accounting information provided to investors and other categories of users. In this context, our study aims to analyze the extent
C?t?lina Gorgan; Vasile Gorgan; Valentin Florentin Dumitru; Ileana Cosmina Pitulice
Agent-based models have improved the standards for empirical support and validation criteria in social, biological, cognitive and human sciences. Yet, the inclusion, in these models, of vertical interactions between various aggregation levels remains a challenge. We study analytically, numerically and by simulation the generic consequences of interactions between the collective and its individual components: the appearance of an autocatalytic loop between the dynamics of the collective and its components; the system, which is dominated by a limited number of factors amplified by this collective<-->individuals autocatalytic loop; the microscopic features, which are not involved in the autocatalytic loop and are irrelevant at the systemic level; and how the above clarify the interplay between macroscopic predictable features and the ones dependent on random unpredictable individual events. Using the social and market percolation framework, we study the dramatic effects of the collective<-->individuals autocatalytic loop on economiccrisis propagation: the percolation transition becomes discontinuous; there are a few relevant regions and regimes corresponding to a quite diverse range of response policy options; there are stability ranges where appropriate policies can help to avoid macroscopic crisis percolation; and beyond those regions the systemic crisis might become unstoppable.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1996 and 1998. Six 24-hour recalls were performed during the second trimester of pregnancy among 450 women in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia. The objectives of the study were to assess the food intake and food pattern among pregnant women before and during the economiccrisis. Before the crisis, rich women had the highest intakes of animal foods, fats and oils, and sugar. Food intake among the urban poor and the rural landless poor subgroups was influenced by the emerging economiccrisis. Although the price of rice increased, the intake of rice also increased among all subgroups. Rural poor women with access to rice fields increased their intake of rice and decreased their intake of nonrice staple foods (p < .05). There were significant decreases in the consumption of chicken by rich women and rural poor women with access to rice fields (p < .05). Rice was a strongly inferior good and remained an important supplier of energy, protein, and carbohydrate. Nuts and pulses were important suppliers of calcium and iron, and vegetables were an important supplier of vitamin A. Rich women increased their intake of nuts and pulses, vegetables, fats and oils, and sugar when their intake of rice increased (p < .05). The food patterns were based on rice, nuts and pulses, and vegetables, i.e., plant food. All but the rich women decreased their intake of nutritious foods such as meat, chicken, and fruits. The intake of nuts and pulses and of vegetables increased, whereas the intake of cooking oil and sugar remained constant. PMID:14564930
This article offers a brief summary of the factors that the author believes should be considered when analyzing the multiple interrelations between the economiccrisis and its effects on public finances, social spending, and the health and welfare of Spaniards. For the sake of brevity, a linear argument is followed, with the basic contents of the message, leaving some of the more controversial issues whose interpretation may be heavily influenced by ideology to the discussion. The core of the argument is that, despite the double dip of the Spanish recession, healthcare has survived the consequences of the crisis fairly well. This is particularly the case when the situation is analyzed in terms of the share of public expenditure to GDP and in per capita terms, given the evolution of these ratios, although the final effect is unknown in terms of the actual and potential beneficiaries. This relatively low incidence so far on the health of Spaniards is basically due to family networks, pooling their incomes, and to the acceptance by Spanish health professionals of budget cuts, which have allowed services and their apparent quality to be maintained, contrasting with private employment and public finances. Obviously, this is not a guarantee of sustainability unless economic growth recovers. Even if the Spanish economy and public finances improve, the composition of health care delivery needs to be reevaluated to achieve a new allocation between public and private responsibilities for healthcare in accordance with the social development of the 21th century. PMID:24863990
The global economiccrisis has affected the Greek economy with unprecedented severity, making Greece an important test of the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and a population's well-being. Suicide and homicide mortality rates among men increased by 22.7% and 27.6%, respectively, between 2007 and 2009, and mental disorders, substance abuse, and infectious disease morbidity showed deteriorating trends during 2010 and 2011. Utilization of public inpatient and primary care services rose by 6.2% and 21.9%, respectively, between 2010 and 2011, while the Ministry of Health's total expenditures fell by 23.7% between 2009 and 2011. In a time of economic turmoil, rising health care needs and increasing demand for public services collide with austerity and privatization policies, exposing Greece's population health to further risks. PMID:23597358
In 2009, a group of talented photojournalism students from North Carolina fanned out across the landscape "to document the human face of the economiccrisis in North Carolina's Triangle region." It's a fascinating project, and given the power of images, it's an excellent way to examine the circumstances of the region. Visitors can click through the photographic essays via the "Featured" section. Each of these profiles looks at a different aspect of the economic struggles faced by area residents, and there are a few extra features, including poems, essays, and interviews. First-time visitors to the site might want to look at "Adopting a Neighborhood" and "My Homeless Children" as they start their journey. Overall, this is a thoughtful project and one that might inspire others to take a closer look at their own communities.
Written by John Birchall, a senior Economics and Business examiner and author, (as well as the author of Biz/ed's "In the Know" column), this is intended to be a first-person view of economic history in the time period directly after World War II. The history is divided into an introduction and four sections. The author explains that, as an economics teacher, he found the most difficult aspect of his job was the fact that his students lacked a general awareness of economic history, and with this document, he has attempted to show the ways in which this period of economic history affected his life. Birchall's casual writing style makes this article a fascinating and engaging read.
This paper uses tests for multiple structural breaks at unknown points in the sample period, and band-pass filtering techniques, to investigate changes in UK economic performance since the end of World War II. Empirical evidence suggests that the most recent decade, associated with the introduction of an inflation-targeting regime, has been significantly more stable than the previous post-WWII era. For
The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economiccrisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print “fiat” (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economiccrisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economiccrisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything without the responsibility to work or pay for these entitlements, has touched many countries and people with a few exceptions. This problem is the result of a worldwide breakdown of ethics and morality in society and a desire of the few for centralized control and power over the people. No country has instituted a solution to these problems that results in reducing expenditures or the growing debts. As many have stated in this paper, this policy cannot be sustained. The result of this scenario will be a worldwide economiccrisis. Fundamental to this impending economiccrisis is the failure of centrally controlled economies and socialistic programs. Those selected groups, who benefit from having control, are the politicians, bankers, some selected industry leaders, and socialist planners, who will stop at nothing to maintain power and control over the people. Liberty of the people is in jeopardy worldwide. Read the evidence presented and decide if this summary is correct. The troubling question is, “What will happen if the world economy collapses?” Will this crisis be a time for the few to take more control of the people through fear, crisis decisions, misinformation, prevention of the public from protecting themselves with guns, and pervasive spying technology on each citizen or will more democratic governments arise from the failure of centralized control, the welfare state, and the loss of liberty? Such crises have been repeated throughout 4000 years of recorded history. What happened in those past times? Read the quotations of Vladimir Lenin, developer of Marxism–Leninism, the foundation of Communism and judge what you have read from his statements. An alternative to this dismal scenario is little discussed also in the Press. Why not? In the past 150 years, the alternative has happened with a rapid growth in democracy, communications technology, and life expectancy from advances in science and medicine. To unleash this huge human potential, at this time, will require individual freedom to create and innovate with the oppor
The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economiccrisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print "fiat" (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economiccrisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economiccrisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything without the responsibility to work or pay for these entitlements, has touched many countries and people with a few exceptions. This problem is the result of a worldwide breakdown of ethics and morality in society and a desire of the few for centralized control and power over the people. No country has instituted a solution to these problems that results in reducing expenditures or the growing debts. As many have stated in this paper, this policy cannot be sustained. The result of this scenario will be a worldwide economiccrisis. Fundamental to this impending economiccrisis is the failure of centrally controlled economies and socialistic programs. Those selected groups, who benefit from having control, are the politicians, bankers, some selected industry leaders, and socialist planners, who will stop at nothing to maintain power and control over the people. Liberty of the people is in jeopardy worldwide. Read the evidence presented and decide if this summary is correct. The troubling question is, "What will happen if the world economy collapses?" Will this crisis be a time for the few to take more control of the people through fear, crisis decisions, misinformation, prevention of the public from protecting themselves with guns, and pervasive spying technology on each citizen or will more democratic governments arise from the failure of centralized control, the welfare state, and the loss of liberty? Such crises have been repeated throughout 4000 years of recorded history. What happened in those past times? Read the quotations of Vladimir Lenin, developer of Marxism-Leninism, the foundation of Communism and judge what you have read from his statements. An alternative to this dismal scenario is little discussed also in the Press. Why not? In the past 150 years, the alternative has happened with a rapid growth in democracy, communications technology, and life expectancy from advances in science and medicine. To unleash this huge human potential, at this time, will require individual freedom to create and innovate with the opportunity for risk
The economiccrisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economiccrisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economiccrisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001
Greece has been seriously affected by the economiccrisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country.
Greece has been seriously affected by the economiccrisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306
Background The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economiccrisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. Methods The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. Results In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. Conclusions The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess precisely. It would be useful to test out the framework against other country experiences and refine the measures and indicators. Further research on both the comparative resilience of different health systems and building resilience in preparation for crises is encouraged.
In 1997-1998 a widespread economiccrisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economiccrisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economiccrisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economiccrisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economiccrisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment. PMID:19200631
Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A
The financial crisis in Greece is largely impinging on the health and mental health of the population, raising concerns about a potential rise in suicide rates. The aim of this study was to explore changes in suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts between 2009 and 2011 in a representative sample of the population and in several population subgroups. The socio-economic predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in 2011 were also investigated. Two nationwide cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2011 using the same methodology. A random and representative sample of 2192 and 2256 people, respectively, took part in the surveys. Between 2009 and 2011, there was a substantial increase in the prevalence of suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts. People suffering from depression, men, married individuals, people experiencing financial strain, people with low interpersonal trust, and individuals with a history of suicide attempts were particularly vulnerable.
This study aims to analyze the public pension schemes in Romania in the light of the challenges presented by global economiccrisis and by the Romanian reform inequities and inconsistencies that have been a part of this field since 2001. The contents of this paper examine four types of pension schemes in some Member States (MS) of the European Union
This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economiccrisis in 2008-2009.…
This paper captures the impact of the Global EconomicCrisis on educational programs serving minority groups in developing countries. It has been established that the most vulnerable groupings include nomadic and pastoralist communities, slum dwellers, children in war zones, and women. Various educational interventions such as mobile schooling,…
Over the past several years, China has enjoyed one of the worlds fastest growing economies and has been a major contributor to worldeconomic growth. However, the current global financial crisis threatens to significantly slow China's economy. Several Chi...
Over the past several years, China has enjoyed one of the world's fastest growing economies and has been a major contributor to worldeconomic growth. However, the current global financial crisis threatens to slow China's economy. Although its exposure to...
Despite the economiccrisis, the immigrant population of Spain continues to be high, with 5.7 million persons (11.4%). This population, whose health needs are similar to those of the general population, is more vulnerable due to their exposure to worse social determinants (living and working conditions together with a higher risk of exclusion from social services). In this article, we analyze how the economiccrisis affects or can affect the health of the immigrant population in Spain by examining distinct population-specific or institutional factors that influence the effects of the crisis and the available data. The available evidence is limited, but several effects can be identified: firstly, some social determinants, such as higher unemployment rates and worse working conditions, have deteriorated, which can be expected to lead to a worsening of health status. These consequences have already been described for mental health or have been estimated for infectious diseases. Secondly, political decisions have had a direct impact, excluding-with some exceptions-undocumented immigrants from the right to health care. Finally, the lower priority given to adapting health services to the specific characteristics of the immigrant population (most of whom are documented) together with the introduction of new barriers, has hampered or will hamper access to health care. As a result, the economiccrisis can be expected to have a greater impact on the immigrant population. PMID:24704282
Vázquez, María Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Aller, Marta-Beatriz
The field of study of complex systems considers that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may be used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Several authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and the dynamics of economic (financial) systems can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. We apply concepts of the nonextensive statistical physics, on time-series data of observable manifestations of the underlying complex processes ending up with these different extreme events, in order to support the suggestion that a dynamical analogy exists between a financial crisis (in the form of share or index price collapse) and a single earthquake. We also investigate the existence of such an analogy by means of scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes). We show that the populations of: (i) fracto-electromagnetic events rooted in the activation of a single fault, emerging prior to a significant earthquake, (ii) the trade volume events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, and (iii) the price fluctuation (considered as the difference of maximum minus minimum price within a day) events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, follow both the traditional Gutenberg-Richter law as well as a nonextensive model for earthquake dynamics, with similar parameter values. The obtained results imply the existence of a dynamic analogy between earthquakes and economic crises, which moreover follow the dynamics of seizures, magnetic storms and solar flares.
Potirakis, Stelios M.; Zitis, Pavlos I.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos
Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economiccrisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economiccrisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.
Success in navigating through a crisis situation requires good planning, sound judgment, and swift reaction. Some organizations, however, do not plan and are still able to successfully communicate in times of uncertainty. On January 29, 2006, 72 miners were trapped in a potash mine operated by Mosaic more than 1km below the surface in Esterhazy (Canada). Within hours, media from
Older adults are seldom considered in studies on the health impact of economic recessions or crises. However, they constitute a population group that is highly vulnerable to decreases in investment in health and social services and social security. Our aim is to examine the relationship between the economiccrisis starting in 2008 and the health status of older adults in Spain. More specifically, we analyze changes in trends of mortality in relation to the crisis, the specific impact of winter on mortality and gender differences in the crisis' impact on mortality. Using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Spain on people over 60 years of age, the number of monthly deaths by age and sex from January 2005 to December 2012 was analyzed. Interrupted time series analyses and the "difference in differences" method were used. During the crisis, for adults 60 years and older: 1) the observed mortality seems to be decreasing at a slower rate than what would have been expected in the absence of the crisis; 2) there has been an increase in winter mortality; 3) the impact of the crisis has been greater for female than for male mortality. These results suggest sizable effects of the economiccrisis on the mortality of older adults and argue for research done using more detailed analyses integrating economic indicators. PMID:24864003
To characterize the effects of the 1994 economiccrisis on calorie sources of Mexican households, five nutrition surveys done every leap year (1992-2000) in national representative samples (> 10,000 households) were analyzed. Each household was visited during 7 days to collect data on foods purchased, exchanged or home-grown and their monetary value. We selected 88 food items to calculate kilocalories/ person/day and cost in pesos/megacalorie (CPMC) for rural-urban strata (localities < 2500, > or = 2500). The food items were classified in 8 groups and the summation of kilocalories and CPMCs of items in each group were our units of analysis. Linear regressions for 1992-2000 were performed, and slopes and intercepts were used to characterize changes. Available calories showed very little change at the height of the economiccrisis. Expensive calories (meat in urbans, eggs and milk in rurals, and industrialized meat and soft drinks in both) tended to increase, whereas the most inexpensive staples (cereals, legumes, sugars) decreased their share in both strata. An increase in obesigenic calories was seen, notably in soft drinks, despite a cost increase second only to meat. Main conclusions were: (1) the economiccrisis did not affect total calories availability in Mexican households; (2) the 1992-2000 trends in calorie sources were contrary to any crisis effect in rurals and urbans (i.e., expensive foods increased and inexpensive staples decreased); (3) there were sizable rural-urban differences in number, source, and cost of calories; and (4) obesigenic calories increased and soft drinks emerged as a food with its own dynamic. PMID:15387484
In 1987/1988, New York City experienced an unexpected health care crisis: a severe and prolonged communitywide shortage of inpatient hospital beds. A rapid rise in hospital occupancy rates dramatically ended a long-term decline in hospital utilization and left health care providers and policymakers baffled about both cause and remedy. This article describes the course of a short-term, intensive, midcrisis study that unraveled the reasons for the high occupancy rates. As a case study for a research effort that successfully yielded valid and timely results, this article illuminates the research design and methodological decisions that lay behind the findings and discusses the implications of those decisions. Key to the success of the study were a mandate to diagnose the crisis, a statewide patient discharge data base, our previous hands-on experience with that data base, active support for the study from the community of health care providers, and strong results.
In 1987/1988, New York City experienced an unexpected health care crisis: a severe and prolonged communitywide shortage of inpatient hospital beds. A rapid rise in hospital occupancy rates dramatically ended a long-term decline in hospital utilization and left health care providers and policymakers baffled about both cause and remedy. This article describes the course of a short-term, intensive, midcrisis study that unraveled the reasons for the high occupancy rates. As a case study for a research effort that successfully yielded valid and timely results, this article illuminates the research design and methodological decisions that lay behind the findings and discusses the implications of those decisions. Key to the success of the study were a mandate to diagnose the crisis, a statewide patient discharge data base, our previous hands-on experience with that data base, active support for the study from the community of health care providers, and strong results. PMID:2254088
Migration's social value is generally assessed from the perspective of the receiving country. At this time the policies of rich countries allow fewer immigrants to enter than would enter under a laissez faire policy, but this may be a suboptimal policy for the world population as a whole. Those who now migrate from poor to rich countries and those who are prevented from doing so by restrictive laws certainly believe that their economic situation would be improved by such migration. A scheme for improving the worldwide welfare while making appropriate allowance for the preferences of those in the rich countries is discussed. The scheme deals with the migration of poorly schooled and semiskilled people and not the well educated. As the rich countries will not voluntarily open their borders to such immigration, a change in the international system is suggested, giving some power of taxation to an international body. This body would then pay the rich countries to take in immigrants by holding an auction among the rich countries for the immigration contracts. The scheme is analyzed, and it is argued that in the long run this approach is not as politically impossible as it initially seems. The discussion reviews the problem, the system, and the possibilities (the power of migration, the mechanisms in migration's power to raise productivity, earning patterns of immigrant cohorts, and additional possible tests) and the relative effectiveness of migration verses education in the less developed countries. It seems reasonable to send the migrants to countries that want them or can be made to want them, and an auction is a device to determine who wants something relative to someone else. A Supranational Planning Authority (SPA) could hold an auction at which countries would submit the price (per migrant or per migratory family) at which they will undertake the task of relocating migrants. The conditions of the contract would be specified, including the kind and location of housing and amenities for the migrants and the kind of occupational training they would receive. Such a contract could be a profitable means of earning foreign currency for a country. Another side benefit of the scheme is its possible use as an anticyclical device. A difficult question is the lenght (or permanence) of migratory residents. Clearly, a migration scheme will be adopted in the near future, and if it can be implemented it might work wonders for the economic development of the world. PMID:12264900
After the burst of its "bubble" economy in 1989, Japan experienced an astonishingly long economic recession whose gravity surpassed any seen in the industrialized world since the 1930s. While this recession is likely to have important consequences on the well-known workplace arrangements and career mobility patterns in that country, systematic analyses of such consequences are nearly absent. This study examines changes in the rates and directions of job mobility in Japan using work history data collected in 2005 from a nationally representative sample of men and women. I find evidence that Japanese firms have largely retained the core elements of the permanent employment system. The norm that stresses men's loyalty to their employers, however, appears to have weakened, resulting in higher voluntary job turnover among male workers. In addition, the gender gap in lifetime mobility processes has narrowed, but not because Japanese women have gained opportunities in the workplace. Rather, economic stagnation has led to greater fluctuations in employment and wages over men's life course, thereby closing the gender gap. Beyond illustrating the changing stratification process in Japan, the findings have general implications for understanding how economic crises impact employment relations, institutional transformations, and social change in advanced industrialized countries. PMID:21278839
Asserts that AIDS could undermine decades of progress toward improved health and sustained economic development in third world countries. Discusses the spread of AIDS, its multiplier effect, its impact on women and children, and international responses to the crisis. (TW)
World-system scholars have traditionally emphasized the stability of the core/periphery hierarchy. However, prior network studies employing both categorical and continuous measures of world-system position reveal substantial mobility across time, whereby a number of developing states have become more integrated in the world economy over the past…
The world rice market was aflame last spring and for several months it looked as if the trading edifice that had exhibited such resilience over the last two decades was going to burn to the ground. World prices trebled within less than four months and reached a 30-year inflation-adjusted high. Many market observers thought the previous record set in 1974
Providing enough food to meet the needs of an ever-increasing world population is one of the greatest challenges mankind has ever faced. Half the world's population, 2 billion people, suffers from chronic malnutrition, and at least 460 million people are actually starving--they do not get enough calories of dietary energy. What is being done about this problem, and who is
This article examines the description of economiccrisis in The New York Times with examples of articles that appeared in the years 2008 and 2009. There are three dimensions the crisis as an event is described; one of them is the description of crisis as a movement or a development of international and global extension (spatial dimension). The second is
This general guide to a grade 4 social studies course outlines goals, content, and teaching methods on the theme Communities Around the World, with an economic emphasis. Different communities are used as vehicles to teach about contrasting economic systems and the relationship between the economic system and the rest of culture. Four major units…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.
The collapse ofthe Soviet Union in the early 1990.1' eliminated important markets and subsidies for the Cuban economy. throwing the country into a crisis. The Cuban government's response to the food and fuel shortage was to implement a unique national program to increase food production. A vital part of this program was the development of the Department of Urban Agriculture,
This paper analyzes whether Turkish firms experienced a credit crunch at the outset of the global crisis. Our hypothesis is that if a credit crunch was experienced in Turkey, firms that are more dependent on external finance for investment and working capital must have been affected more severely. Hence, we should observe a higher drop in their stock returns during
Mehmet Kerim Gokay; Zumrut Imamoglu; Baris Soybilgen
The paper examines the extent of the current global crisis and the contagion effects it induces by conducting an empirical investigation of the extreme financial interdependences of some selected emerging markets with the US. Several copula functions that provide the necessary flexibility to capture the dynamic patterns of fat tail as well as linear and nonlinear interdependences are used to
Riadh Aloui; Mohamed Safouane Ben Aïssa; Duc Khuong Nguyen
The financial crisis that began in Thailand in mid-1997 has now become a global one. It has consumed governments upset defense planning and the regional standing of major powers in Asia, and is forcing us to rethink Asia's entire past and future political...
Resumen: esta investigación proporciona una vía para la evaluación del impacto de corto plazo que la crisis financiera y económica internacional, transmitida esencialmente a través del canal comercial, puede tener sobre la economía colombiana. Para el efecto se emplea un modelo del sector real, el modelo GTAP, caracterizado por ser de alcance global y operar bajo el supuesto de retornos
This study provides an empirical investigation of the determinants of the growth of investment in Mexico, especially after the Tequila crisis. The paper uses the Generalized Method of Moments estimator to determine if investment can be explained with a standard investment function. The model predicts well the recovery of investment; the tradable sector has an accelerator effect that exceeds that
Daniel Lederman; Ana María Menéndez; Guillermo Perry; Joseph Stiglitz
Background Compulsory admission to psychiatric hospitals may be distressing, disruptive to patients and families, and associated with considerable cost to the health service. Improved patient experience and cost reductions could be realised by providing cost-effective crisis planning services. Methods Economic evaluation within a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing Joint Crisis Plans (JCP) plus treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU alone for patients aged over 16, with at least one psychiatric hospital admission in the previous two years and on the Enhanced Care Programme Approach register. JCPs, containing the patient's treatment preferences for any future psychiatric emergency, are a form of crisis intervention that aim to mitigate the negative consequences of relapse, including hospital admission and use of coercion. Data were collected at baseline and 18-months after randomisation. The primary outcome was admission to hospital under the Mental Health Act. The economic evaluation took a service perspective (health, social care and criminal justice services) and a societal perspective (additionally including criminal activity and productivity losses). Findings The addition of JCPs to TAU had no significant effect on compulsory admissions or total societal cost per participant over 18-months follow-up. From the service cost perspective, however, evidence suggests a higher probability (80%) of JCPs being the more cost-effective option. Exploration by ethnic group highlights distinct patterns of costs and effects. Whilst the evidence does not support the cost-effectiveness of JCPs for White or Asian ethnic groups, there is at least a 90% probability of the JCP intervention being the more cost-effective option in the Black ethnic group. Interpretation The results by ethnic group are sufficiently striking to warrant further investigation into the potential for patient gain from JCPs among black patient groups. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11501328
This paper is a continuation of our former work. In this paper, we compare the financial performance of the two banking systems that exist in Malaysia over two periods of time, during economiccrisis (1997-1999) and after economiccrisis (2001-2003). In order to see the conventional as well as Islamic bank's performance over these two periods of time, the study uses 10 financial ratios which are broadly categorized into 4 groups: (a) profitability ratios; (b) liquidity ratios; (c) risk and solvency ratios; and (d) efficiency ratios. Next, the study used T-test in determining the significance of the differential performance of the two banks over two periods of time. By using inter-bank comparison, the study found that, conventional bank has better performance, efficient, more profitable and has greater risk as compared to Islamic bank. However, in terms of utilizing asset, Islamic bank is better than conventional bank. As an overall, conventional bank is better in much aspect due to the longer history and experience in the industry than Islamic bank that start their operation in 1983.
Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Jaffar, Aidatullaini; Abdullah, Nur Lina; Harun, Nurzalina
What began as a bursting of the U.S. housing market bubble and a rise in foreclosures has ballooned into a global financial and economiccrisis. The world now appears to have entered a global recession that is causing widespread business contraction, incr...
Baade R. A. and Matheson V. A. (2004) The quest for the cup: assessing the economic impact of the World Cup, Reg. Studies38, 343–354. Hosting the World Cup, the world’s second largest sporting event, is a potentially expensive affair. The co-hosts of the 2002 games, Japan and South Korea, spent a combined US$4 billion building new facilities or refurbishing old
Based on a many-industry Chamberlinian-Ricardian trade model with iceberg trade costs, this note examines the impact of two modes of economic integration: a reduction in trade costs, and technical standardization due to information spillover. It is shown that these two modes of economic integration have opposing effects on specialization patterns: while trade liberalization narrows the range of industries with intra-industry
Proposes two approaches to using role-playing in the history classroom: (1) providing factual information to the students; and (2) allowing them to discover the experiences of historical actors. Expounds that the recommended role-playing simulations help students discover why Canadians were divided over the conscription issue in World War I. (CMK)
Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment estimates. While petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the U.S. may run into import deficits particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from Canada. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as Stanford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and others have also used the estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates, converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. A transition to increased use of natural gas is expected, but gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame. A coal bridge-to-the-future model as well a realistic view of non-renewable resources in the future will be discussed. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in the petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resource yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU, including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences, have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits are also underway. Digital products from the World Energy Project may be downloaded at (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/energy/WorldEnergy/WEnergy.html).
The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economiccrisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…
We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economiccrisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economiccrisis time period.
WebEc is "...an effort to categorize free information in economics on the WWW." Bill Goffe, author of Resources for Economists on the Internet (discussed in the May 31, 1996 Scout Report) notes WebEc is "...a particularly good place to look for a broader array of business and economic resources." In addition to every known facet of economics, other supporting sections are also listed. Produced as a joint and volunteer effort, the intended audience is academic economists. WebEc is a part of NetEc, which also provides information on printed working papers (BibEc), on electronic working papers (WoPEc) and code for econometrics (CodEc).
With cutbacks being implemented across a wide range of social and government programs throughout Europe and the rest of the world, preventive services have become more vulnerable. In this context, it is essential to properly focus the debate on public healthcare expenditure, stressing that financing preventive services is not merely a cost, but an investment in citizen well-being as well as economic stability and development. In Italy indeed all seem to agree on three priorities: i) strengthening prevention activities; ii) reorganization of hospital care; and iii) reinforcement of primary care. A plenty of data are available in Italy from some recently published authoritative reports. Given that health policies should be driven by a solid evidence base, it is important to look at the available data to understand if these priorities are justified. The Lazio Region, which is particularly under pressure since it is one of the regions with a formal regional recovery plan (Piano di Rientro), was chosen as a case-study. In the Lazio Region public health care expenditure is particularly high, but the health care expenditure for prevention activities is among the lowest of the Italian Regions. Major weakness points documented by the essential levels of care indicators included recommended vaccinations coverage, oncological screening programs, residential beds for the elderly and persons with disability and hospital care efficiency. Avoidable mortality is higher in the Lazio than in the rest of the country, as well as the prevalence of some major behavioral risk factors. Even if all data available support the choice to consider prevention activities as a priority, it is essential to increasing the value of prevention, investing money in preventive interventions of proven effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and promoting synergies with institutions outside the health care sector, implementing in a more efficient way the principle of Health in All Policies. PMID:24548905
Di Marco, Marco; Marzuillo, Carolina; De Vito, Corrado; Matarazzo, Azzurra; Massimi, Azzurra; Villari, Paolo
This paper examines the economic consequences of mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) reporting around the world. We analyze the effects on market liquidity, cost of capital, and Tobin's \\
HOLGER DASKE; LUZI HAIL; CHRISTIAN LEUZ; RODRIGO VERDI
European economic growth in the quarter of a century that ended in 1973 outstripped growth in any period of comparable length before or since. The elements of Europe's growth miracle -- wage moderation, high investment and rapid export growth -- were delivered by a tailor-made set of domestic and international arrangements -- on the domestic side the social market economy,
At the recent World Trade Organization (WTO) ministerial meeting in Doha, Qatar, WTO members called for the launch of negotiations on disciplines relating to competition based on explicit consensus on modalities to be agreed at the fifth WTO ministerial meeting in 2003. WTO discussions since 1997 have revealed little support for ambitious multilateral action. Proponents of the WTO antitrust disciplines
Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economiccrisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea.
The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is the latest effort by the World Health Organization to improve health and narrow health inequalities through action on social determinants. The CSDH does not note that much work has already been done in this direction, does not make a sufficient attempt to analyze why earlier efforts failed to yield the desired results, and does not seem to have devised approaches to ensure that it will be more successful this time. The CSDH intends to complement the work of the earlier WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which has not had the desired impact, and it is unclear how the CSDH can complement work that suffers from such serious infirmities. Inadequacies of both commissions reflect a crisis in the practice of international health at the WHO, stemming from a combination of unsatisfactory administrative practices and lack of technical competence to provide insights into the problems afflicting the most needy countries. Often the WHO has ended up distorting the rudimentary health systems of the poor countries, by pressuring them into accepting health policies, plans, and programs that lack sound scientific bases. The WHO no longer seems to take into account historical and political factors when it sets out to improve the health situation in low-income countries--which is supposed to be the focus of the CSDH. An alternative approach is suggested. PMID:17175839
In trying to address the public health crisis from the lack of potable water, millions of tube wells have been installed across the world. From these tube wells, natural groundwater contamination from arsenic regularly puts at risk the health of over 100million people in South and Southeast Asia. Although there have been many research projects, awards and publications, appropriate treatment technology has not been matched to ground level realities and water solutions have not scaled to reach millions of people. For thousands of people from Nepal to India to Cambodia, hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) resins have provided arsenic-safe water for up to nine years. Synthesis of HAIX resins has been commercialized and they are now available globally. Robust, reusable and arsenic-selective, HAIX has been in operation in rural communities over numerous cycles of exhaustion-regeneration. All necessary testing and system maintenance is organized by community-level water staff. Removed arsenic is safely stored in a scientifically and environmentally appropriate manner to prevent future hazards to animals or people. Recent installations have shown the profitability of HAIX-based arsenic treatment, with capital payback periods of only two years in ideal locations. With an appropriate implementation model, HAIX-based treatment can rapidly scale and provide arsenic-safe water to at-risk populations. PMID:24321388
The economiccrisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992
The worldeconomic-political system seems to be in a process of structural change. To some observers these developments are producing an increasing need for an expanded Nordic cooperation in the area of trade and international economic affairs. One manifestation of this has been the calls for the establishment of a true home market for Scandinavian exporting firms. The desirable, or
The number of U.S. teacher-librarians has greatly diminished despite advocacy efforts by stakeholders. This case study investigated the factors that led governing board members in a mid-sized urban high school district to retain certified teacher-librarian positions despite a major economiccrisis. Themes constructed through the analysis were:…
The ongoing financial crisis in Greece has yielded adverse effects on the mental health of the population. In this context, the particular study investigates the link between two indices of cognitive social capital; namely interpersonal and institutional trust, and the presence of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. A random and representative sample of 2256 respondents took part in a cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey the time period February-April 2011 (Response Rate = 80.5%), after being recruited from the national phone number databank. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview, while for interpersonal and institutional trust the pertinent questions of the European Social Survey were utilized. Socio-demographic variables were also encompassed in the research instrument, while participants' degree of financial strain was assessed through the Index of Personal Economic Distress. Both interpersonal and institutional trust were found to constitute protective factors against the presence of major depression, but not against generalized anxiety disorder for people experiencing low economic hardship. Nonetheless, in people experiencing high financial strain, interpersonal and institutional trust were not found to bear any association with the presence of the two disorders. Consistent with these, the present study shows that the effect of social capital on mental health is not uniform, as evident by the different pattern of results for the two disorders. Furthermore, cognitive social capital no longer exerts its protective influence on mental health if individuals experience high economic distress. As a corollary of this, interventions aiming at mitigating the mental health effects of economic downturns cannot rely solely on the enhancement of social capital, but also on alleviating economic burden. PMID:24444849
Purpose – Libraries in Greece are mostly financed by public sources, with private funding covering only a very small proportion of their budget. The deteriorating, slowly growing economic environment in Greece places additional pressure on the already understaffed and underfinanced public libraries. This paper aims at demonstrating that the tough economic conditions may provide a setting for innovation and quality
Scott Simkins, Assistant Professor at the Department of Economics at North Carolina A & T State University, created this metasite to provide easy access to basic economic and financial information for students. Links to US government publications, economic statistics, and financial market information, among others, are clearly organized and annotated. A "Student Resources" list provides links to economic textbooks (full text), while a "Current News" directory of Internet news sources encourages students to stay abreast of the latest world developments. Educators may also find a "Teacher Resources" list of discussion group and course material links useful.
Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.
Primary Health Care, proclaimed by WHO in 1978, is a health strategy that aims to achieve the ultimate objective "Health For All", with underlying political concerns for ideals such as social justice, equity and human rights. Meanwhile, "globalization", urged by the U.S.A., other developed countries and multinational corporations, has since promoted liberalization of trade, capital and finance, which has in the past few decades been sweeping all over the world. With this "new economic liberalism", values that put much emphasis on economic efficiency are now at the forefront. The World Bank, which supports the tendency along with the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, has become an influential actor in helping developing countries to prosper economically. The World Bank, whose basic idea is that investment in health is basic for economic growth, has in the 1990s also exerted considerable influence on the international health sector with its overwhelming provision of financial assistance. Instead of political concerns like equity and human rights, 'economic concerns' such as fairer budget allocation, cost-effectiveness, cost reduction and efficiency have now become main points for discussion in the international health field. This shift in emphasis poses fundamental questions for the core goal of the World Health Organization; "Health For All". PMID:14699857
Objectives To analyse changes in the family living conditions of children in Catalonia between 2006 and the 2010–2012 period, and to study associations between these changes and health outcomes. Design A before–after analysis of two cross-sectional surveys. Setting Population younger than 15?years of age from Catalonia, Spain. Participants Representative samples of children in the 2006 Catalan Health Survey (ESCA), baseline, before the crisis; n=2200) and the first four waves of ESCA 2010–2012 (after start of the crisis, n=1967). Main outcome measures Overweight/obesity, health behaviour, mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were used to analyse the influence of changes in family conditions on outcome measures, including interaction terms to describe the potential influence of the study period on the results. Results The percentage of unemployed families rose from 9.1% (2006) to 20.6% (2010–2012), with inequalities by level of education. Overweight/obesity increased from 18.4% (95% CI 16.5% to 20.4%) to 26.9% (24.6% to 29.2%) in 2010–2012, and inequalities related to maternal education and employment status persisted. Eating habits have improved in 2010–2012 in disadvantaged families (ie, junk food consumption improved in families with a maternal primary education level; beta (B)=2.85; 0.83 to 4.88, for the survey interaction by primary education level). An improvement in HRQOL was found in the second survey (B=6.07; 4.15 to 7.99), although children whose mothers had a primary education showed poorer HRQOL scores in this survey than in 2006 (B=?4.14; ?7.17 to ?1.12). Conclusions Although some health-related behaviour improved during the study period, childhood obesity increased and inequalities in HRQOL appeared. Policy measures that fight against these inequalities should be urgently implemented to avoid their negative impact on the health of future generations of Catalans.
Rajmil, Luis; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Fernandez de Sanmamed, Maria-Jose; Mompart-Penina, Anna
Describes a simulation game developed to introduce elementary school students to basic economic concepts, including scarcity, availability, resource utilization, trade-offs, and demand and barter. The simulation, based on a shortage of chocolate milk in the elementary school lunch room, stressed problem solving skills. (DB)
The counterintuitive approach of the world's greatest value investor, Warren Buffett, may be the best hope for colleges and universities during this recession. Buffett's time-tested philosophy of seeking value and investing for the long term remains a sound approach, even if his short-term returns have declined along with those of the rest of the…
Hesel, Richard A.; Strauss, David W.; Edwards, Benjamin G.
During the past thirty years, the illegal drug industry has marked Colombia's development. In no other country has the illegal drug industry had such dramatic social, political, and economic effects. This short article provides a synthesis of the development of the marijuana, coca-cocaine, and poppy-opium-heroin illegal industries. It studies the development of the drug cartels and marketing networks and the
In 2008, Austria's economy grew by 1.8 percent in real terms. The year started out with a solid growth rate but ended with the country in recession. Economic stagnation in the third quarter was followed by a decline over the previous quarter of the seasonally and working day-adjusted GDP. Flagging international demand impacted on export-oriented manufacturing which recorded a perceptible
The recent economiccrisis in Greece resulted in a serious wintertime air pollution episode in Thessaloniki. This air quality deterioration was mostly due to the increased price of fuel oil, conventionally used as a source of energy for domestic heating, which encouraged the residents to burn the less expensive wood/biomass during the cold season. A wintertime sampling campaign for fine particles (PM2.5) was conducted in Thessaloniki during the winters of 2012 and 2013 in an effort to quantify the extent to which the ambient air was impacted by the increased wood smoke emissions. The results indicated a 30% increase in the PM2.5 mass concentration as well as a 2-5-fold increase in the concentration of wood smoke tracers, including potassium, levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan. The concentrations of fuel oil tracers (e.g., Ni and V), on the other hand, declined by 20-30% during 2013 compared with 2012. Moreover, a distinct diurnal variation was observed for wood smoke tracers, with significantly higher concentrations in the evening period compared with the morning. Correlation analysis indicated a strong association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and the concentrations of levoglucosan, galactosan, and potassium, underscoring the potential impact of wood smoke on PM-induced toxicity during the winter months in Thessaloniki. PMID:24187932
Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Samara, Constantini; Voutsa, Dimitra; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Karagkiozidou, Olga; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos
Significant limitations have emerged in America's science training pipeline, including inaccessibility, inflexibility, financial limitations, and lack of diversity. We present three effective programs that collectively address these challenges. The programs are grounded in rigorous science and integrate through diverse disciplines across undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students, and resonate with the broader community. We discuss these models in the context of current economic constraints on higher education and the urgent need for our institutions to recruit and retain diverse student populations and sustain the successful American record in scientific education and innovation.
Hue, Gillian; Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Lynn, David G.
The way a person will develop over the lifespan is largely determined by the first few years of life. A substantial share of the inequalities in health and socioeconomic status observed in adult life originate during childhood (and even while in utero). In this paper, we first review the literature on the impact of childhood conditions throughout the life cycle. We next discuss some of the social and biological mechanisms behind the transmission of the effects of poverty during the prenatal period, childhood, and adulthood. We then analyze several international experiences aimed at reducing intergenerational transmission of poverty. The article ends with some critical thoughts and policy recommendations to avoid the possible long-term effects of the current crisis on the health and socioeconomic status of the "children of the crisis" in Spain. PMID:24864002
This article reviews trends in lifestyle factors and identifies priorities in the fields of prevention and health promotion in the current economic recession. Several information sources were used, including a survey of 30 public health and primary care experts. Between 2006 and 2012, no significant changes in lifestyle factors were detected except for a decrease in habitual alcohol drinking. There was a slight decrease in the use of illegal drugs and a significant increase in the use of psychoactive drugs. Most experts believe that decision-making about new mass screening programs and changes in vaccination schedules needs to be improved by including opportunity cost analysis and increasing the transparency and independence of the professionals involved. Preventive health services are contributing to medicalization, but experts' opinions are divided on the need for some preventive activities. Priorities in preventive services are mental health and HIV infection in vulnerable populations. Most experts trust in the potential of health promotion to mitigate the health effects of the economiccrisis. Priority groups are children, unemployed people and other vulnerable groups. Priority interventions are community health activities (working in partnership with local governments and other sectors), advocacy, and mental health promotion. Effective tools for health promotion that are currently underused are legislation and mass media. There is a need to clarify the role of the healthcare sector in intersectorial activities, as well as to acknowledge that social determinants of health depend on other sectors. Experts also warn of the consequences of austerity and of policies that negatively impact on living conditions. PMID:24656990
Present investment equations for private business investment (equipment and structures) in France and Germany are presented. The comparative analysis of properties of estimates and the relative importance of explanatory variables are emphasized. The results are presented of a comparative exercise in cliometrics: selective public policy measures actually taken in France and Germany during the period 1973 to 1978 and analyzed with respect to their efficiency as stabilization policy devices. The comparative study is executed within the framework of two comparable quarterly econometric models for the two countries, METRIC for France and SYSIFO for Germany. The basic theoretical framework for business investment in both models is briefly summarized. Empirical results are presented within the respective partial models, namely, the comparative analysis of economic factors explaining the behavior of business investment over the sample period. The comparative results of policy scenarios are presented to evaluate the role of active economic policy in determining the performance of private investment in France and Germany between 1973 and 1978. (MCW)
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the combined effects of a severe economic decline since 1989 and a tightening of the US embargo in 1992 on health and health care in Cuba. METHODS: Data from surveillance systems for nutrition, reportable diseases, and hospital diagnoses were reviewed. These sources were supplemented with utilization data from the national health system and interviews with health leaders. RESULTS: Changes in Cuba include declining nutritional levels, rising rates of infectious diseases and violent death, and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. But despite these threats, mortality levels for children and women remain low. Instead, much of the health impact of the economic decline of Cuba has fallen on adult men and the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: To be consistent with international humanitarian law, embargoes must not impede access to essential humanitarian goods. Yet this embargo has raised the cost of medical supplies and food Rationing, universal access to primary health services, a highly educated population, and preferential access to scarce goods for women and children help protect most Cubans from what otherwise might have been a health disaster.
This article has four sections. First, the author presents a theoretical discussion of the different explanations regarding the explosion of education after World War II. She explains how the actor-network theory--a theory of knowledge and of agency--enables people to understand the formation of the education-economic growth black box. The…
This article examines the determinants of Japanese immigrant economic achievement in the continental United States before World War II. Japanese immigrants to the United States were a select group in terms of their occupational background and education relative to the Japanese population as a whole because of the restrictions imposed on Japanese immigration by both the Japanese and U.S. governments.
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the potential of new institutional economics (NIE) in third world development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews various theories under NIE from both conceptual and empirical perspectives. It then reviews the various definitions of institutions and show that institutions are essential to overcome problems of information and
No two ways about it: the soccer World Cup competition in June 2006 in Germany was a great experience, not only for the soccer fans, and it still resonates far and wide. The various commentaries have all concluded that the economic effects were positive. Emphasis has often been placed on increased turnover in the retail trade, overnight accommodation, receipts from
World Trade Organization – one of the most important international economical organizations, based on the principles of the General Agreement for Tariffs and Trade (GATT) – represents the international institutional frame of the multilateral trade system fulfilled when finishing the Uruguay Round in 1994 whose basic objective was to determine the progressive disappearance, by concessions, by means of the negotiation
A system of orbiting, large-area, low mass density reflector satellites which provide nearly continuous solar energy to a world-distributed set of conversion sites is examined under the criteria for any potential new energy system: technical feasibility, significant and renewable energy impact, economic feasibility and social/political acceptability. Although many technical issues need further study, reasonable advances in space technology appear sufficient to implement the system. The enhanced insolation is shown to greatly improve the economic competitiveness of solar-electric generation to circa 1995 fossil/nuclear alternatives. The system is shown to have the potential for supplying a significant fraction of future domestic and world energy needs. Finally, the environmental and social issues, including a means for financing such a large shift to a world solar energy dependence, is addressed.
Billman, Kenneth W.; Gilbreath, William P.; Bowen, Stuart W.
A phenomenological investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of the 2008-09 global economic recession on the health of unemployed blue-collar autoworkers in the Canadian province of Ontario between September and November 2009. A total of 22 men and 12 women took part. Participants completed a quantitative demographic and financial questionnaire. The qualitative aspect of the study consisted of a phenomenological component comprising semi-structured focus group sessions lasting 2 to 2.5 hours. The number of years employed ranged from 2 to 31.7 with a mean of 15 +/- 8. Participants reported high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; increased physical pain and discomfort; changes in weight and sexual function; and financial hardships, including inability to purchase prescribed medications. The authors conclude that unemployment associated with the global recession has negative health effects on autoworkers in Ontario. PMID:24236372
Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…
The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of worldcrisis, specially in the…
What began as a bursting of the U.S. housing market bubble and a rise in foreclosures has ballooned into a global financial and economiccrisis. The world now appears to have entered a global recession that is causing widespread business contraction, incr...
Child health has been a serious problem in Indonesia for several decades. The prolonged Indonesian economiccrisis in 1997 had a tremendous impact on poor children who suffered due to malnutrition. In 1998, the Indonesian government launched a broad social safety net program to protect the poor from becoming poorer. In the health sector this took the form of Jaring Pengaman Sosial Bidang Kesehatan (JPS-BK) or the Social Safety Net in Health Sector program. Adopting the model of health services utilization of Andersen and Newman, I examine the extent to which JPS-BK contributed to better health services for poor children in four provinces, by using a simplified version of Andersen and Newman's model of health services utilization which emphasizes the importance of contextual determinants. Variables used in the study included child outpatient visits, health card possession, household income, and poverty status. Using data sets from the JPS-BK longitudinal study, I compared utilization of health services between baseline data collection at Rounds One and Three, which was taken a year afterward. In addition, I used the Village Potentials data set from the Indonesian Bureau of Statistics and employed factor analysis to raise one variable representing the village/neighborhood developmental level. Basic statistics were used to examine possible changes between study rounds and logistic regression was used to examine the effect of health card possession on child health services utilization. Two significant improvements occurred during the first year of the program: (i) more sick children visited outpatient facilities and (ii) more children lived in households possessing health cards. The JPS-BK increased the "potential access" that was demonstrated by the significant increase in health card possession regardless of the visit, and "realized access" that was demonstrated by the significant increase in child outpatient visits regardless of health card possession. Further research needs to be undertaken to explore the dynamics of outpatient visits and the actual use of health cards. PMID:16965846
Over the past several years, China has enjoyed one of the worlds fastest growing economies and has been a major contributor to worldeconomic growth. However, the current global financial crisis threatens to slow Chinas economy. Although its exposure to t...
We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages.
Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Directorate for Education surveyed the impact of the economic recession on education for the first time in June 2009. Responses were received from seventeen OECD member countries, the Flemish Community of Belgian and two Canadian provinces. The results of the survey reflect the…
At the close of World War II, the future of economic development was the subject of wide-ranging debates. Historical experience has since shown that these forecasts were uniformly too pessimistic. Expectations for the American economy focused on the likelihood of secular stagnation, which continued to be debated throughout the post-war period. Concerns raised during the late 1960s and early 1970s
Abstract: The impact ,of the ,sporting industry on economic ,decision ,making ,has ,increased dramatically,since the global media,explosion in,the 1980s. Tourism and advertising revenues generated,by mega-events,such as World Cups or Olympic Games,have,become,a major boost to the economies of hosting nations. In addition,globalisation has placed great emphasis on the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), especially to developing countries. This paper ,seeks
Introduction. The economiccrisis has negative effects on the population’s physical and mental health. Our objective has been to study the association between socioeconomic status and number of people demanding mental health services. Methods. We performed a correlation analysis of administrative morbidity data (incidence and prevalence) of mental illness (obtained from the Asturias Cumulative Psychiatric Case Register) and three economic indicators (unemployment, consumer price index and gross domestic product). Results. The increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a clear decrease in both new and prevalent mental health demand. CPI has a minor weak positive correlation with the administrative incidence of some mental disorders (Neurotic disorders, Schizophrenia and addictions). GDP does not show a significant correlation with the administrative incidence and it is strongly associated with an increased administrative prevalence that is more intense in the case of alcoholism, neurotic disorders, mental retardation and Z codes (ICD-10). Conclusion. The variation of the socioeconomic indicated observed in the economiccrisis period in Asturias was not associated with increased care demand for any mental disorders. There is a negative correlation of unemployment rate with care demand. PMID:24844810
Iglesias, Celso García; Sáiz, Pilar Martinez; García-Portilla, M Paz González; Bousoño, Manuel García; Jiménez, Luis Treviño; Sánchez, Fernando Lasheras; Bobes, Julio
This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economiccrisis (2008-2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002-2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period. PMID:24895677
Lara-Santillán, Pedro M; Mendoza-Villena, Montserrat; Fernández-Jiménez, L Alfredo; Mañana-Canteli, Mario
This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economiccrisis (2008–2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period.
Lara-Santillan, Pedro M.; Mendoza-Villena, Montserrat; Fernandez-Jimenez, L. Alfredo; Manana-Canteli, Mario
This paper addresses several key issues regarding the recent Great Crisis 2007- 2009. The main ones are: was the financial crisis predictable by standard economic models? If not, are these models lacking of forecasting capabilities, or it is not a task of economic models to predict external events such as a systemic financial crisis? On another note, were economists aware
This article examines education accountability as a mechanism of coercive neoliberal urban governance in the USA. Drawing on Gramscian theory of the "integral state" as the dialectical synthesis of coercion, consent, and resistance, the author argues that as the crisis gives the state less room to win consent, it intensifies coercion as…
The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…
In cosmology we are facing the dark energy crisis: How can we survive huge vacuum energy, meanwhile living with tiny dark energy? For the solution to this crisis, we raise several clues and hints, in particular, supersymmetry and the double hierarchy, Mp-MSM-MDE (Planck-Standard Model-dark energy scales). These two clues naturally lead to a solution with a supersymmetry-breaking brane-world. The train of thought from the clues to the solution is elucidated.
Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students understand the marketplace; manage resources; apply…
Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).
The paper provides an ex post analysis of the financial burden and economic benefits of the World Cup (WC) in Germany 2006. Based on the usual cost-benefit measures, the experience of WC 2006 appears to be in line with existing empirical research on large sporting events and sports stadiums, which have rarely identified significant net economic benefits. The lessons from
The major economic and political theories about arms transfers are extracted from the literature. These theories are then tested to see how accurate they are in explaining arms transfers. The method used for this testing is to create analytic measures for each theory and then to compare actual data on arms transfers with the assumptions and predictions of each theory. Results of this study indicate that none of the economic or political theories on American arms transfers provide a sufficient explanation for the developments in arms transfers since World War II. To explain arms transfers in the face of the failure of commonly accepted theories, an alternative view is suggested. This alternative theory argues that arms transfers must be viewed in the light of a broad understanding of the evolution of American foreign policy and political ideology since World War II. In support of this theory the history of the arms trade and the relationship between the arms trade and American foreign policy are examined.
The literature review first reveals a wide range of views regarding what is meant by technology, what approaches lead to technological development, and what accounts for the technological lag of the LTCs. Differences also emerge regarding proper technologies and the proper techno-economic roles of countries. This study represents an attempt to identify the conditions that give rise to technology underdevelopment and to examine the implication of such technological underdevelopment to social and economic prospects in a representative corner of the underdeveloped world, the East African region. The research is guided by the question, What are the major causes of technology underdevelopment in the East African Countries. State more specifically, the question becomes, What relationships exist between (1) a society's structure of economic production and its technological development. and (2) the patterns and compositions of international trade, on the one hand, and technology (under)development, on the other. The research utilizes as its analytical points of departure the theories of Comparative Advantage, Factor Endowments, and the political economy theory of Dependency, with the aim of both surfacing the underlying assumptions and critically analyzing the models that have shaped the current state of the LTCs' technologies.
Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.
In this article the author attempts to synthesize the search for relative effects of contextual variables with the expanding physiological\\/physical investigation of decision making. One component of man's physical environment?daily air temperature?is examined in order to test the applicability of results from social?psychological experimentation to decision making in international relations. By scrutinizing the pre?World War I situation the author finds
This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economiccrisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality. PMID:24612790
Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio
Myasthenic crisis is a complication of myasthenia gravis characterized by worsening of muscle weakness, resulting in respiratory failure that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation. Advances in critical care have improved the mortality rate associated with myasthenic crisis. This article reviews the epidemiology of myasthenic crisis and discusses patient evaluation. Therapeutic options including mechanical ventilation and pharmacological and surgical treatments are also discussed.
Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research.
The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.
For one-third of the world's people, the energy crisis means the daily scramble to find the wood they need to cook. The accelerating destruction of forests throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America and the utilization of manure as a firewood substitute may produce the most profound ecological crisis of this century. (BT)
Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…
The South African plastics pipe industry assists with economic and social development through the supply of pipe systems for potable water and the provision of sanitation. At the same time, the worlds, and indeed South Africa's energy crisis, has brought into focus the increasing need for energy and material efficient pipeline materials. The pipe industry faces a number of important
Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in ‘peace time.’ In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was ‘war time,’ although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result
Background The aim of the present study is to examine the clinical indices related to cardiovascular risk management of Greek patients with type 2 diabetes, before and after the major economiccrisis that emerged in the country. Methods In this retrospective database study, the medical records of patients with type 2 diabetes treated at three diabetes outpatient centers of the national health system during 2006 and 2012 were examined. Only patients with at least six months of follow-up prior to the recorded examination were included. The prescription cost was calculated in Euros per patient-year (€PY). Results A total of 1953 medical records (938 from 2006 and 1015 from 2012) were included. There were no significant differences in adjusted HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and HDL-C, while significant reductions were observed in LDL-C and triglycerides. In 2012, a higher proportion of patients were prescribed glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications. Almost 4 out of 10 patients were prescribed the new incretin-based medications, while the use of older drugs, except for metformin, decreased. A significant increase in the adjusted glucose-lowering prescription cost (612.4 [586.5-638.2] €PY vs 390.7 [363.5-418.0]; p?0.001) and total prescription cost (1306.7 [1264.6-1348.7] €PY vs 1122.3[1078.1-1166.5]; p?0.001) was observed. The cost of antihypertensive prescriptions declined, while no difference was observed for lipid-lowering and antiplatelet agents. Conclusions During the economiccrisis, the cardiovascular risk indices of Greek patients with type 2 diabetes being followed in public outpatient diabetes clinics did not deteriorate and in the case of lipid profile improved. However, the total prescription cost increased, mainly due to the higher cost of glucose-lowering prescriptions.
This dissertation analyzes the external behavior of non-oil-exporting LDCs in response to the OPEC strike of 1973. By addressing the oil crisis not only as an economiccrisis but also as a catalyst in the Third World's quest for alternative North-South and South-South economic relations, this study presents a framework of analysis which helps place into perspective the wide range of reactions of the South in post-oil crisis years. In this study the set of external-behavior patterns most commonly observed among Third World countries is first conceptualized and then made the subject of empirical studies that identify the causal elements behind each pattern of behavior. For each pattern observed, an explanatory multiple regression model is specified and estimated using aggregate data from international organizations, and events data and content analysis data compiled by the author from numerous sources for a sample of forty non-oil-exporting LDCs. The results of the analysis demonstrate the importance of political variables in determining the Third World's foreign economic behavior. The successful specification of the models also suggests that the Third World's call for a New International Economic Order following the oil crisis was based on solid political-economic calculations of Third World interests and needs.
This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economiccrisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…
Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.
Susann Rohwedder of the RAND Corporation recently asked an important question: "How are U.S. households coping in these difficult times?" The results of her investigations were published in the Fall of 2009 as part of the RAND Labor and Population group's Occasional Paper series. Her work was based on two Internet surveys conducted by the RAND Corporation in late 2008 and in early 2009 which sought to probe the extent to which U.S. households have been affected by the crisis and patterns of giving and receiving financial help during this period. The findings included the observation that many more households are giving financial help than receiving it and that help most frequently flows from parents to children. All in all, the paper will be most useful for policy scholars and others working in related fields.
Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…
Sub-Saharan Africa has been strongly affected by the global recession, despite initial optimism that the global financial system would have few spillover effects on the continent. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimated in 2009 that average econom...
The biological and physical environment of the planet is changing at an unprecedented rate as a result of human activity, and these changes may have an enormous impact on human health. One of the goals of human development is to protect health in the face of rapid environmental change, but we often fail to do this. The aim in this paper is to distinguish between socioeconomic aspects of development that are likely to be protective and those that are likely to increase vulnerability (the capacity for loss resulting from environmental change). Examples include climate change in the Pacific. We conclude that protecting human health in a changing world requires us to take steps to minimize harmful change wherever possible, and at the same time to be prepared for surprises. The goals of mitigation (reducing or preventing change) and adaptation (response to change) are not mutually exclusive. In fact, steps to make populations more resilient in the face of change are often similar to those that are needed to lighten the load on the environment. We need social policies that convert economic growth into human development. Wider application of sustainable development concepts is part of the solution. In particular, there is a need to promote health as an essential asset of poor and vulnerable populations. It is their key to productivity and to surviving shocks; it is also the key to achieving broader development goals such as universal education. For these reasons it is in the interests of all sectors--economic, social and environmental--to play their particular roles in protecting and improving health.
Woodward, A.; Hales, S.; Litidamu, N.; Phillips, D.; Martin, J.
This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…
Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison
Knowledge transfer from the developing to the developed world is described in the domain of economics and governance for sustainable development. Three system areas are explored: the structure of commons governance institutions, the process of community-based participatory action research, and the role of microfinance and microenterprise for the development, adoption, and diffusion of sustainable technologies. Case studies from both the developed and developing world demonstrate the effectiveness of social networks and community cooperative strategies in a wide range of sectors. Developing world experiences are shown to be particularly rich in the application of local knowledge and social capital toward sustainable development. PMID:17547158
Ramaswami, Anu; Zimmerman, Julie B; Mihelcic, James R
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss implications of the global crisis for economic and financial research and policy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews many recent studies on the crisis and offers the author's views on some of the most important lessons to be drawn from the crisis Findings – The review counters views that the crisis
Growth of the private sector and privatization of state companies around the world have led to the emergence of various stock markets, some of which are depicted by insider trading. Law literature uses the arguments of unfairness, breach of fiduciary rights and damage to others to define and rule against insider trading. Economic literature can be used to interpret insider
This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…
Education has been recognized as the cornerstone of economic and social development. Now it is even more important as technological change and new methods of production transform the world economy. Development will depend more and more on knowledge-intensive industries, agriculture, and services. The continuing economiccrisis, however, is…
Research indicates that for many multinational companies, the global skills shortage has made it difficult to attract competent workers to some international locations. In developing economies, business leaders often cite poor business acumen and little real-world experience as serious shortcomings in the domestic pool of applicants. In addition…
This paper presents an illustrative analysis of the crisis from a macroeconomic perspective, by focusing on the various economic adjustments both in the real and monetary sectors. It argues that the complex nature of the political and economic reform process has resulted in sub - optimal growth rates. The paper discusses, first, the evolution of the crisis. Then it provides
This study aims to evaluate the potential impacts of the 2008\\/09 global economiccrisis on child poverty in Cameroon. It also explores the potential effects that policy responses to such a crisis could have on children. In order to do this, the study uses a macro-micro methodology. A dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used to simulate various scenarios
Christian Arnault Emini; Paul Ningaye; Sami Bibi; John Cockburn; Ismaël Fofana; Luca Tiberti
This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about natural resources as economic assets contributing to national economic productivity. The term "natural resource accounting" or "green accounting" is introduced for valuing natural resources as capital in economic systems. The lesson is divided into five parts and…
We are in the midst of convergence between high definition television and game consoles and between handheld game machines and mobile phones. This market shift creates both big losers and big winners. IBM occupies the most favorable position with chip designs for all three next-generation consoles. But all the contenders find themselves facing an uncertain future. The players in this
This paper addresses several key issues regarding the recent Great Crisis 2007-2009. The;main ones are: was the financial crisis predictable by standard economic models? If not, are these models lacking of forecasting capabilities, or it is not a task of economic models to predict external events such as a systemic financial crisis? On another note, were economists aware that the
In this short paper I want to discuss how some of Karl Polanyi's key ideas can help shed light on the processes of development and crisis in the world today. I will first take up the role of economic liberalisation and the state. Then I want to discu ss Polanyi's identification of the \\
Health policy has reacted to the financial crisis by overemphasising measures targeted at reducing unit costs, increasing barriers to access (waiting lists) or closing premises. It is too soon for scientific assessment of the impact of this reshaping of supply on equity, quality and safety, and on individual and population health. Nevertheless, the emergency measures taken to achieve fiscal stabilization have shifted the focus to resolving budget problems at the expenses of sounder and deeper initiatives aimed at deciding what must be funded and how. This article advocates a policy based on selective funding of services and benefits on the basis of their value. Other countries' experiences can serve as a useful guide, including robust methods to identify technologies (or their uses) of questionable value, prioritization criteria, and careful consideration of limitations associated with the elimination of a certain benefit, especially if it affects the founding values of the system. The necessary tools are available to the Spanish health system: the regulatory framework and technical bodies able to identify lower value care, support for decision-making, and timely evaluation of such decisions. Despite the numerous hurdles, maintaining the status quo is too expensive a choice, given the opportunity costs of effectiveness and safety losses, measured in terms of equity and the economic efficiency of the Spanish health system, which may ultimately translate into worsening of the population's health status. PMID:24666570
Serious climate change mitigation aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will require a radical shift to a decarbonized energy supply. The electric power sector will be a primary target for deep reductions in CO2 emissions because electric power plants are among the largest and most manageable point sources of emissions. With respect to new capacity, wind power is currently one of the most inexpensive ways to produce electricity without CO2 emissions and it may have a significant role to play in a carbon constrained world. Yet most research in the wind industry remains focused on near term issues, while energy system models that focus on century-long time horizons undervalue wind by imposing exogenous limits on growth. This thesis fills a critical gap in the literature by taking a closer look at the cost and environmental impacts of large-scale wind. Estimates of the average cost of wind generation---now roughly 4¢/kWh---do not address the cons arising from the spatial distribution and intermittency of wind. This thesis develops a theoretical framework for assessing the intermittency cost of wind. In addition, an economic characterization of a wind system is provided in which long-distance electricity transmission, storage, and gas turbines are used to supplement variable wind power output to meet a time-varying load. With somewhat optimistic assumptions about the cost of wind turbines, the use of wind to serve 50% of demand adds ˜1--2¢/kWh to the cost of electricity, a cost comparable to that of other large-scale low carbon technologies. This thesis also explores the environmental impacts posed by large-scale wind. Though avian mortality and noise caused controversy in the early years of wind development, improved technology and exhaustive siting assessments have minimized their impact. The aesthetic valuation of wind farms can be improved significantly with better design, siting, construction, and maintenance procedures, but opposition may increase as wind is developed on a large scale. Finally, this thesis summarizes collaborative work utilizing general circulation models to determine whether wind turbines have an impact of climate. The results suggest that the climatic impact is non-negligible at continental scales, but further research is warranted.
The shortage of energy, especially fossil energy including coal, oil and gas, always is a world focus issue in which the worldeconomic growth is influenced and limited strongly in developed countries and developing countries. The scarcity of freshwater and especially potable water is jeopardizing many regions of the world. Seawater desalination is a kind of technology gaining freshwater from
In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…
Emphasizing that the environmental crisis is global in scope, manifest in almost every region, culture, and political and economic system, this book examines the environmental problems confronted by countries throughout the world (e.g., desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, weather modification, energy and resource shortages, and air and water pollution). It also traces the relationships between these problems and such diverse factors as economic constraints, nationalism, cultural values, international relations, and access to new technology. The authors of the 17 individual papers grapple with the practical and philosophical dilemmas attendant upon environmental degradation and preservation. They then discuss the specific concerns of Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa and address the roles of such processes as agricultural development, population growth and migration, and the international export of environmental degradation. 620 references, 20 figures.
Indicates that women experiencing a midlife crisis pass through five recognizable stages: (1) feeling trapped, (2) the first change, (3) multiple changes, (4) rational planning, and (5) implementing the plan. (NKA)
This paper discusses the neoclassical and the Marxist traditions in economics and the current treatment of capitalist development in history textbooks. Beginning with an overview of the classical economists, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, the two traditions in economics are then discussed in terms of: (1) scope and focus of…
larly in the Work Package 4. This KPI, developed at SSSA, measures the most important effects in the EU\\/Rest of the World Steel Trade due to the implementation of a new technology: a quantitative approach has been used in order to evaluate the EU raw material dependence from the rest of the world and an approach both qualitative and quantitative
Between the end of World War II and 1980, the economies of many Latin American countries grew substantially. This growth came to an abrupt halt in the early 1980's. The primary reasons were a sharp decline in world oil and other export commodity prices, h...
Presents the working paper from an International Labour Office (ILO) symposium on international development and the role of workers' education. Covers the state of the world, poverty, worker education, labor unions, program planning, and the role of the ILO. (JOW)
This paper presents some results using the sport-economic simulation model SPORT. This model is based on a sport-specific input-output table for the year 1993, which has been integrated into the German INFORGE model. The performance of this model founded on the INFORUM philosophy. The results illustrate the importance of modelling sport-economic activities in deep detail, especially the integration of the
Background and Aims The botanic gardens of the world are now unmatched ex situ collections of plant biodiversity. They mirror two biogeographical patterns (positive diversity–area and diversity–age relationships) but differ from nature with a positive latitudinal gradient in their richness. Whether these relationships can be explained by socio-economic factors is unknown. Methods Species and taxa richness of a comprehensive sample of botanic gardens were analysed as a function of key ecological and socio-economic factors using (a) multivariate models controlling for spatial autocorrelation and (b) structural equation modelling. Key Results The number of plant species in botanic gardens increases with town human population size and country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person. The country flora richness is not related to the species richness of botanic gardens. Botanic gardens in more populous towns tend to have a larger area and can thus host richer living collections. Botanic gardens in richer countries have more species, and this explains the positive latitudinal gradient in botanic gardens' species richness. Conclusions Socio-economic factors contribute to shaping patterns in the species richness of the living collections of the world's botanic gardens.
Golding, Janice; Gusewell, Sabine; Kreft, Holger; Kuzevanov, Victor Y.; Lehvavirta, Susanna; Parmentier, Ingrid; Pautasso, Marco
This article uses examples from the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the hurricane disasters of Katrina and Rita to illustrate the impact of crisis in the lives of children and adolescents. The author reviews children's responses to loss and crisis. Therapeutic approaches that facilitate integration of crisis and loss are provided, including illustrations of self-care, comfort strategies, and developmental, traditional, and nontraditional methods. PMID:16700019
Economics was in deep crisis well before the world economy buckled in 2008. Students had been turned off in droves by its relentless formalism; economists of renown were lambasting its irrelevance; and the informed public grew increasingly indifferent to the profession's intellectual output. And yet, a delicious paradox hovers over formalist economics: The greater its theoretical failure the stronger its
The capital regulation of financial institutions, the role of ratings and the tension field between regulation and economic realityOver the past decade, the economic environment has been characterised by high-profile business scandals and failures, in which different company stakeholders were involved. In July 2007, the world entered the most profound and disruptive crisis since 1929. Initially originating in the US,
Global marine fisheries are underperforming economically because of overfishing, pollution and habitat degradation. Added to these threats is the looming challenge of climate change. Observations, experiments and simulation models show that climate change would result in changes in primary productivity, shifts in distribution and changes in the potential yield of exploited marine species, resulting in impacts on the economics of fisheries worldwide. Despite the gaps in understanding climate change effects on fisheries, there is sufficient scientific information that highlights the need to implement climate change mitigation and adaptation policies to minimize impacts on fisheries.
Sumaila, U. Rashid; Cheung, William W. L.; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Pauly, Daniel; Herrick, Samuel
This book provides an integration of the studies and discussions of the seminar that OAPEC cosponsored at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1977-78. The authors offer a multidisciplinary perspective of the economic, legal, social, political, and technological issues inherent in this complex and controversial subject.
Whereas traditional explanations of differences in long-run paths of development across the Americas generally point to the significance of differences in national heritage or religion, we highlight the relevance of stark contrasts in the degree of inequality in wealth, human capital, and political power in accounting for how fundamental economic institutions evolved over time. We argue, moreover, that the roots
What does it mean to act as a Christian in the economic sphere in any given society? Can this action be blocked, or made difficult to conceive, by cultural presuppositions present in that society? In responding to this question, the dissertation contributes to scholarly discussion of what constitutes the common good, and what obligations Christians, especially Catholic Christians, have for
The ways in which world market instabilities affect indebted developing countries and explanations of their differential policy responses are the central issues addressed in this paper. The development of Brazil and Mexico is examined as examples of middle-income developing nations whose economies have assumed dependent development. Dependent…
An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These...
Purpose – Poverty is indeed a terrible monster confronting humanity today. It is alarming and, indeed, not without despair to note that 22,000 children under five die every day as a result of poverty. Thus, in a calendar year, more than eight million children do not progress past the age of five years. One of the world's worst atrocities, which
Since the first edition of The World Trading System was published in 1989, the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations has been completed, and most governments have ratified and are in the process of implementing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In the Uruguay Round, more than 120 nations negotiated for over eight years, to produce a document of
Throughout their history, human societies have been faced with many issues. In this study, the focus will be upon the issue of hunger in less developed countries that has presently reached a critical stage that threatens human existence. Church and world leaders have all voiced concern over this issue but to date no generally effective policies have been developed that
The hospitality and tourism industry is like no other economic sector when it comes to being challenged by crisis events. Crises pose a serious threat to companies’ reputations and physical and financial health. This study explores meeting planners’ perceptions of the need for crisis planning. The data were collected from meeting planners utilizing a web survey. The results reveal little
Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…
Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.
Purpose – The 2008-2009 global crisis was not only a financial calamity, but also a major ethical disaster. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the dharmic transgressions that took place in connection with the crisis using the philosophy of Bhagavan Sri Sathya Sai Baba, a world spiritual leader and teacher. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper initially gives a brief
Summarizes the expansion of education in the West Germany up to 1980. Examines the progress of the 1980s in view of unemployment and growing difficulties on entering a profession. Among the findings are a decline in enrollment of 20-24 year olds and a growth in opportunities for the children of immigrants. (Author/GEA)
This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy. PMID:10537568
We discuss the relevance of long memory for the investigation of long-term economic growth and then briefly review the state-of-the-art of statistical estimators of long memory on small samples and their application to economic datasets. We discuss theoretical mechanisms for long memory such as cross-sectional heterogeneity. We argue that this endogeneity should be explained endogenously and not simply assumed. Evolutionary models of growth appear to offer one natural explanation of such heterogeneity. Using the Maddison (1995)  data on 16 countries starting in 1870, supplemented by more recent data down to the year 2001, we then apply different estimators to test the hypothesis of long memory on individual country GDP and GDP per capita. These estimators are Beran's FGN nonparametric test based on an approximate Whittle ML estimator, Robinson's semiparametric log periodogram regressor, Sowell's parametric ML ARFIMA estimator and the ML FAR estimator. The results are mixed and somewhat ambiguous between methods. Moving from the nonparametric to the parametric methods (i.e., controlling for short memory) we find less evidence of long memory. We find that Robinson's semiparametric method also suffers from severe sensitivity to the cutoff parameters. We compare our results with those of Michelacci and Zaffaroni  and criticize their methodology. We conclude that the lack until now of a single test that deals successfully with all known problems (small sample bias, short memory contamination, specification error, parameter sensitivity) precludes the formulation of a definitive statement about long memory in economic growth.
Developed as a means of fostering concern for world issues within an Eltham College (Australia) Year 12 home economics course, "Human Development and Society," this teaching unit has five broad topics: (1) the social significance of food; (2) Australian food patterns; (3) the world food problem; (4) detailed study of nutrients; and (5) human…
This week's In the News examines mounting concern for economic well-being around the world. The ten resources discussed provide background information on the global economy, current international market news, and developments in US, IMF, and World Bank reform efforts. In order to curb economic crises in Asia, Russia, and Latin America (reviewed in the September 24, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics), President Clinton called for international economic reform at the International Monetary Fund annual meeting, Tuesday, October 6, 1998. According to Clinton, "the global economy simply cannot live with the kinds of vast and systemic disruptions that have occurred in the past year." Disputes among IMF and World Bank officials, however, threaten to undermine relief efforts for struggling economies. Without the monetary support of these and other global lenders, many market watchers expect investor panic to grow world-wide.
Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)
The international business cycle is very important for Latin America’s economic performance as the recent global crisis vividly illustrated. This paper investigates how changes in trade linkages between China, Latin America, and the rest of the world have altered the transmission mechanism of international business cycles to Latin America. Evidence based on a Global Vector Autoregressive (GVAR) model for 5
Natural resources are distributed very unevenly among the countries of the world, and there is often little relationship between the location of strategic resources and population densities or between resources and developmental aspirations and current levels of living and consumption patterns. Consequently, substantial quantities of most natural resources or their immediate products move in international trade. There is a renewed and growing concern over the terms on which these natural resources and resource commodities are traded for other goods, such as manufactures, capital goods and equipment, technical skills and services, etc. Although the problems of resources and development have become increasingly interrelated and global in scope, most past studies have confined their analyses to particular aspects of these issues. This seminar attempted to treat these problems within a comprehensive, multidisciplinary framework. Part I, Natural Resources, Chaps. 1-7, focuses on the physical and economic dimensions of natural resources. Part II, Economic Development, Chaps. 8-10, is devoted to aspects of history, theory, and current performance of economic development in relation to natural resource issues and policies. Part III, International Cooperation, Chaps. 11-13, considers relations among nation-states and the ways in which these relations or modifications in them may either intensify conflict or provide for greater international cooperation. Part IV, Analytical and Policy Redirections, Chaps. 14-15, examines mathematical modeling of socioeconomic-resource systems and views resource and development policies in a pragmatic sense.
Because of their automotive lifestyles, Americans account for the greatest portion of fossil fuel consumption in the world. The desirable leisure lifestyle traits of the past should be incorporated into contemporary American culture. Americans need to wean themselves away from the automobile if the energy crisis is to be solved. (JN)
The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.
Brazilians are well-known to be a major global trader of agricultural commodities. Brazil is the world's #1 producer of coffee, of ethanol, of sugar, and of orange juice. Brazil is the world's #2 producer of soybeans. In contrast to the much-discussed and justifiably praised agricultural reforms since 1980 in China (Oi, 1999), which owes to Chinese economiccrisis (Shirk, 1993),
Mental and behavioral disorders are common, affecting more than 25% of all people at some time during their lives. Mental disorders and their burden on society have increased dramatically. This scenario can be an opportunity for psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses. Some literature shows gratifying experiences of care delivered by P/MH nurses, but that can also be a threat if, in a world with an economic dominance such as ours, we are not able to clarify our identity and effectiveness. One implication of this is that we need to identify the contribution of nursing to patient outcomes through nurses' independent, dependent, and interdependent roles. The authors stressed the importance of improving our accountability and fighting against invisibility to policy makers to prioritize the nurse-client relationship and identify our effectiveness. Based on some literature, the authors argue that clinical nurse specialists are in a better position than nurse practitioners to produce nursing-sensitive outcomes. PMID:21978801
Santos, José Carlos; Amaral, António Fernando Salgueiro
This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes.
Lim, Karen H. C.; Riddell, Lynn J.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.
This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…
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Purpose – Crisis management has gained importance in the policy agendas of many countries around the world due to the increases in the number of natural disasters and terrorist attacks. Thus, this paper has two purposes. The first is to illustrate how the Turkish Government's Disaster and Crisis Management System has been developed. The second purpose is to make a
The current study departs from existing analyses by examining change in crude birthrates in a large sample of societies spanning all levels of development and by considering the effects of changes in independent variables on unit changes in fertility rates. It tests for the effects of levels and changes in female labor force representation and for effects of levels and changes in variables derived from classic demographic transition theory -- energy consumption per capita and child mortality. Additionally, it considers the possibility that these variables have differing impacts in least-developed (periphery) and developing (semiperiphery) nations than they had in already developed (core) nations. Data on dependent and independent variables were obtained from tables compiled by the World Bank (1980). In the 1st stage of the analysis, associations between coterminous trends in the dependent and independent variables were examined. To measure trends in fertility between 1960-77 the 1960 crude birthrates were sXrtracted from 1977 crude birthrates. Also obtained from the World Tables were child mortality rates (ages 1-4), female labor force representation (females per 100 persons in the labor force), and energy consumption per capita for both 1960 and 1977. Energy consumption per capita was chosen as the indicator of general development. Both 1960 values and changes between 1960 and 1977 were used as independent variables in the analysis. The blocks derived by Snyder and Kick (1979) were used to assign nations to either the core, semiperiphery, or periphery of the world system. It was possible to classify 93 of the original 100 cases, meaning only 7 cases were excluded in the analyses of subgroups. In the 2nd stage of the analysis, associations between fertility change and lagged changes in its proposed determinants were examined. Analysis of coterminous trends allowed for determining if overall trends in the dependent and independent variables were associated. All 3 theories underlying the hypotheses on causes of fertility change -- demographic transition theory, Caldwell's (1978) revision of the latter as it would be reflected in the economic status of women, and world system theory -- received some support, but it is argued that the evidence from the indirect test of Caldwell's theory of fertility decline was mixed, second, that a number of the results converged in their support for demographic transition theory, and third, that the overall pattern of findings failed to correspond well with expectations based on world system's theory. PMID:12340268
An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.
The Asian financial crisis broke out in Thailand in July 1997, and rapidly spread throughout the neighboring countries. An important question then arises? Is it possible to predict next financial crisis? If yes, then what are the predictors? The answer lies in combined usage of economic theory and econometric methods. By using the economic theory, one can locate possible potential
The Asian financial crisis broke out in Thailand in July 1997, and rapidly spread throughout the neighboring countries. An important question then arises? Is it possible to predict next financial crisis? If yes, then what are the predictors? The answer lies in combined usage of economic theory and econometric methods. By using the economic theory, one can locate possible potential
Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)
The global financial and economiccrisis affects all three of the essential national interests of the United States: national security, economic well being, and value projection. Only occasionally does an event of this magnitude occur that generates such ...
The interplay between environment and economics is regarded as a prerequisite for sustainable development in modern societies, either in the developed or the developing world. Based on the experiences of the ill-conceived development patterns of the past, which exhausted natural resources and resulted in societal crisis and loss of prosperity, and the urgent needs for the immediate protection of the
Universities around the world have been affected by the recent global economiccrisis. Many are challenged by reduced resources, yet they also face greater demands to help spur recovery in their respective countries. This paper explores how colleges and universities in the United States were affected by, and subsequently responded to, several 20th…
This article reviews field research on the violent response on the part of animals to conditions of crowding. Monkey species in zoos have consistently been noted to be more quarrelsome and violent than their counterparts in the wild. Up to a certain critical population density various animal species form cooperative social units; however, a surplus population upsets this balance. In addition, under conditions of intense crowding, mammal's care and protection of the young is transformed into indifference, neglect, competition, domination, and ultimately murder. The reversal of social behavior under crowded conditions can be understood as a means of response to a population crisis, in which population is in danger of outrunning resources. In the absence of confinement, tensions among monkeys lead to war between bands. A community weakened by crowding also is more likely to succumb to certain stress diseases and to have less resilience against parasites. Under various special conditions, tolerance may evolve to permit temporary compression without violence; on the other hand, when a violent response is suppressed, the response tends to be explosive when it does occur. If population reduction is delayed too long, the result may be violence, famine, and permanent damage to the environment from overgrazing. In human society there has generally been a lag in the full development of the violent response to crowding. Given the power of modern military technology, it is imperative that human populations avert a population crisis response by substituting voluntary fertility control for involuntary mortality control. PMID:12340737
This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…
Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).
This study explores coping, a core construct in the cognitive appraisal theory of crisis communication, from the public's perspective. The study proposed and tested the hierarchical framework of publics’ crisis coping that examined the relationship among four types of publics’ crisis coping strategies (i.e., relational thinking, emotional venting, instrumental support, and action). For this purpose, a survey was conducted among
This essay examines the consequences of major social, demographic and economic trends in the United States since World War\\u000a II. These include rising women’s employment, the ‘Baby Boom’, the outlines of the so-called ‘new’ immigration, the increasing\\u000a racial and ethnic diversity deriving from that immigration, the economic contexts in which recent US immigration has occurred,\\u000a and recent technologically-induced features of
Although the Shah of Iran should be admired for his efforts to use education to deal with formidable social challenges, his goal of producing a modern state in a single generation was unrealistic. Entrenched traditional values and unpredicted economic changes such as the need in 1977 to slow down Iran's rate of growth in the face of runaway…
...trade to our Nation's continued economic recovery and growth. Our Nation...emerging from an unprecedented economiccrisis. Millions of Americans have lost...to spur job creation and restore economic security. Producing and...
This report of the Seventh Special Session at the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) presents an account of the Forum on WorldEconomic Order. Its purpose is to gain public awareness of the issues debated. The core of this report is the unique exchange of over 50 opinions which provide a compendium of ideas and judgments in the…
Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children's physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693
The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economiccrisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economiccrisis. PMID:23541059
Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin
Considered as an element of business discourse, the competence-based education emerges associated with processes of productive restructuring influencing the economy since 1970. These processes arise as a consequence of the crisis of the accumulation model based on mass production and consumption following the principles of taylorism and fordism. In the last decades, the State has been unable to solve the periodic crisis that afflicts late capitalism. Because of this, the State moves away from its economic mission, promotes marketing mechanisms and, in the meantime, it tries to manage the motivational crisis of the population. This challenge forces the State to take interest in the vital world of individuals trying to solve the legitimacy crisis through educational reforms that affect the world of work. The relationship between the vertiginous changes of working world and a new educational formation is explicit. This educational formation must consider (at the same time) the management capacity, learning capacity, teamwork capacity and self-training. Based on this situation, there is a direct relationship between technologic advances, the structural crisis of capitalism and work organization. Besides, the "qualification" term is replaced with "competency-based education". PMID:23258750
Discusses crisis-management planning for college and university campuses that can contribute to effective and rapid response and wise decision making during not only natural disasters, but also those that are manmade. Crisis-management tips are highlighted. (GR)
Most take canoeing, leadership, first aid, CPR and other courses to help cope when something happens, but there is more to dealing with crisis than learning proper procedures and techniques. Three areas of concern interlock to form the Crisis Management Triangle: knowledge and skill, preventive awareness, and crisis management planning. (ERB)
This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…
Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel
Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…
Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had
Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had
The mortgage meltdown that began in 2007 quickly transformed into a credit crisis and then into a broader economiccrisis. The dramatic rise in home prices over the previous decade was unprece- dented in American history, as during the century prior to 1998 house prices had merely kept pace with inflation (Shiller, 2006). Yet the expectations of home owners and
The author investigates international migratory movements in Europe between the two world wars, with a focus on the impact of economic and social changes brought about by World War I. "The economiccrisis brought out new behavioral patterns. Although the number of foreign migrant workers was decreasing, there appeared xenophobic attitudes....The terrible events that led to the War questioned and upset the efforts towards stabilization made by most foreigners. They were soon considered as would-be enemies....[The] hard times further reinforced the precarious situation of foreigners living in border areas." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348353
Sport tourism has received growing attention as a source of generating significant revenue and contributing major economic benefits to host cities, regions, and countries. However, current methods for assessing economic impact have had variable success in estimating tourist numbers and expenditure directly attributable to a sport tourism mega event. This paper reports on the assessment of one such event, the
International economic law (IEL) is influenced by diverse theoretical approaches. This article emphasizes that international economic activity is a social phenomenon and international trade should also be conceived as a specific type of social interaction. The scarcity of sociological analysis in contemporary IEL literature does not diminish the influence of social factors that are active in the under-explored layer of
This week's In the News returns to Kosovo, where humanitarian workers and government officials warn that the refugee crisis is rapidly spinning out of control. What appears to be an organized and systematic expulsion of the ethnic Albanian population from Kosovo has created the worst humanitarian disaster in Europe since World War II. According to UN refugee officials, over 220,000 persons have fled or been expelled from Kosovo over the last ten days, to Albania, Macedonia, or Montenegro. With entry into Macedonia ground to an almost complete halt, Albania swollen with over 120,000 refugees, and thousands still behind them, the Kosovo-Macedonia border in particular has become a humanitarian nightmare; little food, shelter, or sanitation is available for people who have been forced from their homes with almost nothing. The sites listed provide information about this refugee crisis.
Examined relationship between farm economiccrisis and farmer suicide rates using data from 15 states from 1980 to 1985. Found suicide rates for farmers were greater than truck drivers but no different from forestry workers. (Author/ABL)
Forgiving some of the indebtedness of developing countries may stimulate mutually beneficial trade among all nations. Many developing countries have reduced imports to cope with repayment difficulties, a policy which reduced per capita income and often li...
This book presents a crisis management model that effectively bridges the areas of substance abuse and crisis intervention. A crisis alternatives model which can be incorporated into drug counseling programs is discussed, along with a four-step crisis intervention plan for use by crisis workers that includes: (1) establishing rapport; (2)…
Human enteroviruses comprised by more than 100 serotypes, they spread everywhere and can cause wide spectrum of diseases as well as significant social and economic loss. Influenza-like illness and mild forms of enterovirus infection (herpangina, exanthema) are widespread and causes of significant number of visits in clinics. Economic cost of mild form of enterovirus infection is not high although great number of cases (10 - 15 mln cases yearly in USA) determines its important economic significance. Single cases and outbreaks of enterovirus aseptic meningitis occur less frequently but lead to significant economic burden due to hospitalization costs. Enteroviruses are also cause up to 30% of sepsis-like disease in newborns and play important role in infant morbidity and mortality. Potential of enteroviruses as a source of new diseases in humans has a special significance for practical healthcare. In XX century enteroviruses became a cause of pandemics of paralytic poliomyelitis, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and foot-and-mouth-like disease, which caused vast social and economic loss, and emergence of new forms of enterovirus infection is quite possible in XXI century. PMID:21061587
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the\\u000a renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management\\u000a of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it\\u000a is associated with signs
In this 9-week unit, students compare and contrast goods and services and discuss economic activities that occur in cities, sorting them into the production of goods or the provision of a service. Students examine how people use money to purchase goods and services. Wants are defined in terms of trade-offs or choices that must be made. Job…
T~he traditional theory of international economics explaining trade by comparative advantage and differences in endowment in the Heckscher-Ohlin approach experienced a major innovation in the seventies when imperfect competition was explicitly introduced into the models of international specialization. Imperfect competition is due to two factors: economies of scale in production and product variety in the preference function of consumers implying
The effects of Football World Cups in Germany 2006 and France 1998 on overnight stays at hotels, national income from tourism, and retail sales are analyzed. For France, no effects could be isolated. For Germany, 700,000 additional overnight stays and US$900 million in net national tourism income could be identified. Novelty effects of the stadiums, image effects for the host
This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.
Economiccrisis - is an intensively mediated concept during the past years- it issues with the situation when the business medium confronts with the perspective of a fundamental change, usually sudden and unexpected, that threatens to significantly disturb the present socio-economic perceptions and the daily practice. The emergent markets are the most vulnerable in crisis, they still adapt the easiest
Valentin HAPENCIUC; Pavel STANCIU; Iulian CONDRATOV; Puiu NISTOREANU
The decade of the 1980s was catastrophic for the countries of Latin America because of profound transformations in the world economy, which started in the 1970s, the wilting of the state development programs that were imposed after World War II, and the collapse of socialism with the incipient transition to market economies. The crisis started because of the erosion of the worldeconomic system as constituted under the Bretton Woods agreement; the drastic drop in the economic growth of market economies; the increased costs of living and the deterioration of the environment; the decrease in industrial capacity; and the emergence of transnationalization of production. In Latin America, the economic models that had been in place without solving underdevelopment became even more obsolete (import substitution, internal trade, and the role of the state). The crisis of socialism and the rapprochement of eastern European countries to western Europe also affected Latin America (e.g., Germany cancelled 30 mine exploration projects in Bolivia due to investments in East Germany). The structural readjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank resulted in currency devaluations, redistribution of government funds, elimination of various subsidies, reduction of public debt and social expenditures, reduction of public employment, and payment of external debt. The result was more inflation (in Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Argentina, inflation rates were 683.7%, 157.1%, 100.1%, and 326.2%, respectively, between 1980 and 1986), unemployment, and poverty in the lost decade of the 1980s. After 1982, state expenditures on roads, education, hospitals, and nutrition declined by 40% in Mexico. Even though most countries returned to democracy in the region, this was at the cost of the increased role of the military and the transnationals. The grand parties collapsed and in Venezuela, Mexico, and Colombia authoritarian tendencies survived into the 1970s degrading democracy. The states' socioeconomic regulatory role has to be redefined. PMID:12292700
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children. PMID:21773822
Canada weathered the global economiccrisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…
The human consequences of the recent global financial crisis for the developing world are presumed to be severe, but few studies have quantified them. This letter estimates the human cost of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis in one critical dimension-infant mortality-for countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis pools birth-level data, as reported in female adult retrospective birth histories from all Demographic and Health Surveys collected in sub-Saharan Africa. This results in a data set of 639,000 births to 264,000 women in 30 countries. We use regression models with flexible controls for temporal trends to assess an infant's likelihood of death as a function of fluctuations in national income. We then calculate the expected number of excess deaths by combining these estimates with growth shortfalls as a result of the crisis. The results suggest 28,000-50,000 excess infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the crisis-affected year of 2009. Notably, most of these additional deaths were concentrated among girls. Policies that protect the income of poor households and that maintain critical health services during times of economic contraction may reduce the expected increase in mortality. Interventions targeted at female infants and young girls can be particularly beneficial. PMID:22544811
The pharmaceutical industry, which depends on petrochemicals and their derivatives, is feeling the impact of the energy crisis. Petroleum and petrochemicals are used as raw materials for drugs, as fuels in the manufacturing process, and are essential in the manufacture of safety prescription containers. Hospitals can offset some of the shortages as prices rise by streamlining their inventory procedures to
Purpose: Higher education (HE) marketing the world over is in a state of crisis that manifests itself on three fronts. First, there continues to be sizeable resistance towards the marketing idea in the academy of many universities across the world. Second, HE itself has failed to identify its core business without which the sector can not have a…
Millions of people around the world are currently living under the threat of developing serious health problems owing to ingestion of dangerous concentrations of arsenic through their drinking water. In many places, treatment of arsenic-contaminated water is an urgent necessity owing to a lack of safe alternative sources. Sustainable production of arsenic-safe water from an arsenic-contaminated raw water source is currently a challenge. Despite the successful development in the laboratory of technologies for arsenic remediation, few have been successful in the field. A sustainable arsenic-remediation technology should be robust, composed of local resources, and user-friendly as well as must attach special consideration to the social, economic, cultural, traditional, and environmental aspects of the target community. One such technology is in operation on the Indian subcontinent. Wide-scale replication of this technology with adequate improvisation can solve the arsenic crisis prevalent in the developing world. PMID:22541048
Sarkar, Sudipta; Greenleaf, John E; Gupta, Anirban; Uy, Davin; Sengupta, Arup K
Romanian agricultural management is the most centralized in Eastern Europe. Production expanded favorably during the seventies, although rising costs and disappointing returns on investment held back net output. Some movement toward introducing market for...
In the late summer of 2008, after the 2007-2008 fiscal year's books had closed, the nation's wealthiest universities were confronted with an unfamiliar sight: single-digit endowment returns. Not since 2003 had Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Princeton University (Princeton, New Jersey), or Stanford University (Stanford, California)…
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2011, a time when the global economy was struggling to recover from the financial crisis and slow economic growth. The OECD is an intergovernmental economic or...
Greece's economiccrisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. PMID:24560058
Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
Everything is changing in our daily life. The ancient Chinese philosopher, Sun Tzu, said "The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him". In the challenging environment of today, nursing administrators should prepare themselves by developing a range of skills to face the changing world. This article introduces Chinese and Western leadership theories and suggests eight key characteristics of successful leaders in health care. Equipped with these characteristics, nursing leaders should be able to collaborate with other professionals in their organization to manage any crisis. Success in crisis management also enhances an organization's general potential to succeed in this competitive world. PMID:16475066
With the progress of science and technology and the development of the economic globalization, social is in an open system environment, in which government's image and executive force will be affected by internal and external factors and so on, so the crisis of public relations possible happens at any time, and the information communication of public crisis is an important
As states prepared for their 2009 legislative ses- sions, policymakers faced a series of grave, multi- faceted economic crises not experienced in many decades. The crux of the nation's economic woes may be traced to a crisis in the housing sector, which in turn, has metastasized to create a crisis in economic output with the vastly diminished production in the
The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th) century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created. PMID:23967146
Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile
The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event’s retrieval began in the late 19th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the “Peoples-of-the-Sea” at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.
Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joel; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile
Chip-based electronics in 2010 consumed about 10% of the world's total electric power of ˜2 TW. We have seen throughout the book that all segments, processing, memory and communication, are expected to increase their performance or bandwidth by three orders of magnitude in the decade until 2020. If this progress would be realized, the world semiconductor revenue could grow by 50-100%, and the ICT industry by 43-66% in this decade (Fig. 6.1). Progress sustained at these levels certainly depends on investments and qualified manpower, but energy has become another roadblock almost overnight. In this chapter, we touch upon the life-cycle energy of chips by assessing the energy of Si wafer manufacturing, needed to bring the chips to life, and the power efficiencies in their respective operations. An outstanding segment of power-hungry chip operations is that of operating data centers, often called server farms. Their total operating power was ˜36 GW in 2010, and we look at their evolution under the prospect of a 1,000× growth in performance by 2020. One feasible scenario is that we succeed in improving the power efficiency of Processing 1,000×, Memory 1,000×, Communication 100×, within a decade. In this case, the total required power for the world's data centers would still increase 4× to 144 GW by 2020, equivalent to 40% of the total electrical power available in all of Europe. The power prospects for mobile/wireless as well as long-line cable/radio/satellite are equally serious. Any progression by less than the factors listed above will lead to economic growth smaller than the projections given above. This demands clearly that sustainable nanoelectronics must be minimum-energy (femtojoule) electronics.
The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow. PMID:15559581
In this paper a different type of crisis in random map is studied. The trigger of this crisis is the tunnel effect induced by a backward tangent bifurcation, while the previously reported crises are all caused by the collision of the chaotic attractor with an unstable orbit. In studying the intermittency behaviors induced by the crisis, two different characteristic times
A crisis can place an organization and its stakeholders at risk for significant losses. Crisis management has emerged as a means to reduce those losses. Crisis response strategies, what the organization says and does after a crisis, are critical resources in crisis management. It is not surprising that crisis response has emerged as a vibrant research area. The focus of
Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in 'peace time.' In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was 'war time,' although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result of that lost conflict by the Soviet side due to its inability to match the West in defense outlays and to provide for the needs of the civilian sector. Health conditions began to deteriorate in the late sixties, and were exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Empire in late 1991. These were reflected in increasing mortality and morbidity, decreasing natality, a deteriorating health service, and an environment ruined by the heedless drive toward industrialization and militarization. This resulted in a 'systemic' breakdown of the Soviet system, not only its health care structure. The situation of the former Soviet Union is that of a country that has suffered a humiliating national defeat with all the consequences of a 'post-war' situation, including inflation, anomie and social polarization. The health crisis is likely to get worse, and will not be resolved until a viable political, economic and social order is established. Today's deteriorating health and demographic situation will create 'echo' problems in the decade to come. PMID:8607037
This study probes the 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo, detailing its history, the motivations that caused it and its ripple effect on world politics and the international economic order. The authors examine the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe during the 1956 Suez Canal crisis, the growing momentum of Arab oil leverage beginning with the First Arab Petroleum Congress in 1959, the decline of the oil companies' domination of the petroleum industry, and the Arab political environment between the 1967 Arab defeat and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. The book concludes with a discussion of the lessons to be learned from the recent embargoes.
This artful Tigers in Crisis website was produced by long-time journalist and conservationist Craig Kasnoff to educate people about tigers and the global factors threatening their survival as a species. The site provides information about the tiger crisis, their status in the wild, solutions, and more. Site visitors can also learn about three endangered tiger subspecies -- Bengal, Siberian, and Sumatran -- through information, photos, and videos. Additionally, this site provides visitors access to free endangered tiger photos and images for educational, non-profit, and personal use.
In this study, the authors examined quarterlife crisis, defined in the popular press as an identity crisis that leaves recent college graduates depressed, anxious, and full of doubt. To determine if a unique crisis exists, 4 groups of young adults (recent high school [n = 23] and college [n = 117] graduates in the workforce, present undergraduate [n = 75],
This paper examines how organizations integrate the Internet into crisis communication. The findings of a 7-year longitudinal study provide a taxonomy explaining how mediated communication creates new possibilities for crisis response. We translate the study findings into suggestions for how public relations managers can integrate new communication media into their mix of communication tactics in crisis and risk management.
The current financial crisis causes many disputes on whether and how to develop China's financial derivative market. Financial derivatives are only links in the complex chain of transmission. They should not assume main responsibilities although some researchers described the financial crisis as “derivatives flooding”. By comparative analysis on development stages, market-driven mechanism, product range and market scale and economic base
The 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and its aftermath have brought to light a number of crucial economic lessons. This curriculum unit focuses on some of the purported causes of the crisis, the workings of the International Monetary Fund, and the general nature of economies affected by financial turmoil. Lesson 1, "A Story of Boom and Bust in Asia,…
The financial crisis triggered a global economic recession, many business failures, a greater number of enterprises, or get laid off. E-commerce companies can reduce costs, improve efficiency and expand business opportunities, become a new path of development. China can also be used to develop e-commerce to reduce the financial crisis has a negative impact on efforts to resolve a number
Licun Wang; Lijun Song; Xianming Zhang; Zou Changping
This report describes and analyzes, on the basis of open Soviet source materials, Soviet civil defense concepts, plans, organization, priorities, training programs, and capabilities pertaining to crisis relocation of residents of high-risk urban areas and workers of significant economic installations. Soviet sources indicate not only that crisis relocation continues to be an important element of the Soviet civil defense program,
In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, an analogy is drawn between the dire predictions once made about the energy crisis and those now being made about a budget crisis. Concerns about the deficit have centered on inflation, interest rates, and growth of the economy.…
After the devastating experience of the Asian financial crisis more than ten years ago, East Asia launched regional economic cooperation efforts. East Asia's mixed response to the global financial crisis a decade later, however, reveals how certain impetuses that gave rise to unified efforts to regional institution building in East Asia at the time of the AFC derived, fundamentally, from
A housing and municipal construction bubble popped and generated a lending crisis in which interbank lending rates became impossibly high. The banking crisis, which spread across Europe and the United States, eventually impacted other industries, leading to a stock market crash and an economic contraction lasting several years. This was not in…
This exploratory study aims to examine the use of text messaging as a communication method within crisis negotiations and draws upon the knowledge and experiences of trained crisis negotiators from around the world. A questionnaire (N = 207) and follow-up telephone interviews (N = 16) were utilized to ascertain if text messages are currently utilized in this environment; level of
The paper first investigates the causes of the recent financial and liquidity crisis in the US and all over the world as a preliminary phase of the imminent recession. It then questions Paulson-Bernanke’s plan as a solution to the crisis and ponders over the differences between EU plan and the American one. Finally, it provides an overview of some apparent
Human impacts on the natural environment have reached such proportions that in addition to an extinction crisis, we now also face a broader biome crisis. Here we identify the world's terrestrial biomes and, at a finer spatial scale, ecoregions in which biodiversity and ecological function are at greatest risk because of extensive habitat conversion and limited habitat protection. Habitat conversion
Jonathan M. Hoekstra; Timothy M. Boucher; Taylor H. Ricketts; Carter Roberts
The global financial crisis was both precipitated by and had major effects on the performance of housing markets around the world. Australia was one of the few Western countries where the housing market was barely affected. There was a slight hiccup and then borrowing, construction and house price inflation continued on its pre-crisis course. For a country that on the
The World Bank has recently added full-text journal articles to its Website. The World Bank Research Observer is geared towards non-specialist readers who have an interested in bank research. It includes articles on such matters as development economics, new World Bank research, and development policy. The World Bank Economic Review is a professional journal, published three times a year, that focuses on "World Bank-sponsored research that emphasizes empirical applications." Journals are searchable by article and by issue, as well as by author and keyword.
Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.
Without doubt, the midlife crisis is the most popular concept describing middle adulthood. Facing the limitation of the time until death, men in particular are believed to pause from actively pursuing their goals and review their achievements, take stock of what they have and have not yet accomplished, at times taking drastic measures to fulfill their dreams. This paper critically
As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…
Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…
Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…
This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…
Communicating effectively is seldom easy; it requires planning, effort, understanding, and follow-through. Communicating effectively in the tense atmosphere which often surrounds a crisis requires redoubled effort, greater understanding, and increased attention to proper planning. The presentations in this booklet deal with the needs of the media…
To handle unforeseen crises, Albuquerque Public Schools established a critical-incident response team with a simple, understandable chain of command. The group aims to ensure maximum safety and people' well-being, develop a districtwide crisis-response-management plan, coordinate necessary training, and collaborate with community agencies…
Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…
The volume includes many of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) most important documents on the Cuban missile crisis. It contains the 'honeymoon cables' that Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) John A. McCone sent to Headquarters from France a mo...
One of the eventual consequences of the global debt crisis was a wave of market-oriented economic reforms. This paper discusses the state of our knowledge on the political economy of this process. Why were inefficient, and often unsustainable policies maintained for so long? Why are so many governments reforming now, after decades of adherence to policies of an opposite kind?
The world of antisnake venom production is currently a gloomy place to visit. It is described as being in crisis, characterized by shortages, producers leaving the market, high prices, and unsustainability. It has been reduced to a pauper-like status, doomed to relying on charitable handouts for resolution. The worrying aspect of this is that little work has been done to establish the true economics and return on antisnake venom if provided by private companies. Fortunately, it is amenable to economic analysis, and in this manner, a rational approach to further development and distribution can be obtained. This article proposes a model antisnake venom (ASV) production unit and shows the likely economics and return based on the production of various volumes of ASV. It estimates the costs for the key components of the unit, which are production equipment and staffing. A profit and loss account and balance sheet are constructed for the unit, and the effects of ASV volume and neutralizing titres are demonstrated. It is our contention that ASV production can be sustained at affordable prices in the developing world. We recommend that any solution to the ASV shortage must take into account the most cost efficient method(s) of production. PMID:19594208
Recent enrollment declines in economics have sparked greater awareness of how economics courses are taught. Educational research suggests that employing a variety of teaching styles that actively engage students in the learning process is likely to increase educational effectiveness in the classroom. However, the majority of introductory economics courses are taught in a \\
As of 30 June 2006, more than 3.5 million Colombians are internally displaced persons (IDPs), the second largest IDP population in the world after that of Sudan. While most IDP studies treat the plight of internally displaced women (IDW) as an isolated phenomenon, this paper demonstrates that their situation reflects Colombia's chronic cultural, political and socio-economiccrisis. This paper uses a sexual and reproductive rights framework to establish a connection between IDW and Colombia's culture of violence, discrimination and inequality. The effects of this culture of violence, discrimination and inequality are highlighted during a discussion of the rights to health, reproduction, privacy, physical integrity, education, and freedom from violence and sexual exploitation. This paper argues that a holistic understanding of Colombia's humanitarian emergency is essential to improving the lives of IDPs. It ends with some concrete, short-term recommendations to meet some of the needs of IDPs and other vulnerable populations. PMID:18217922
Universities have always been important to national economies, but since the financial crisis of 2007-08 they have become key economic actors. Because they supply highly skilled labour and undertake basic research that enable nations to engage in global competition, they are capable of boosting production and innovation. This article explores the…
Turkey has suffered from different economic crises since 1990. However, the February 2001 crisis has been unprecedented in intensity and repercussions. Although many factors, both internal and external, may have contributed to their occurrences, the former owing to their inducing corruption and waste in the economy, seem to have fomented them more than the latter. Although Turkey has been getting
During a time of crisis, it is instructive to examine the national press of Japan and Korea, two economic allies that view each other with suspicion. The Japanese press is relatively free and liberal-oriented on the domestic scene but is closely aligned with big business and government with regard to international concerns. The South Korean…
This paper assesses the sources of potential instability of China's political economy by expositing the limits of the post-Mao regime of capital accumulation in historical and comparative perspectives. It argues that the new spatial and socio-political orders under this regime, while propelling China's economic miracle, also contribute to the internalization of the global overaccumulation crisis, which has been haunting the
The energy crisis is a topic with which teachers can incorporate economic, social, and political concepts into the social studies curriculum. Describes energy education materials prepared by the National Science Teachers Association which emphasize background information for teachers, knowledge and skill development for students, and use of local…
Over the past few years, America has seen quite a few companies go through great economic turmoil, intense product recalls (Toyota), and several other downfalls affecting different types of businesses everywhere. Companies and organizations have problems every day that do not ever seem to alter business. When a crisis occurs that can threaten the life of a company, the need
The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and
Antonio Giulio de Belvis; Maria Lucia Specchia; Luca Valerio; Giovanni Fattore; Walter Ricciardi
Examines cognitive strategies used in marital treatment. Describes major targets of cognitive marital assessment and treatment. Focuses on use of strategies with rural clients experiencing economic and psychological stress due to farm crisis. Describes selected techniques of behavioral marital therapy used as adjunct to cognitive marital therapy.…
Not only food safety is a direct bearing on people's physical health and safety, but also it severely affects the stability of the economic and social development. At present Chinese food market faces the grime situation with continuous food safety incidents. Therefore, it is the problem urgently to be solved for the government to deal with public food safety crisis.
This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economiccrisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…
Bolivia?s New Economic Policy, launched in August 1985 with the promulgation of Supreme Decree 21060, has guided economic policy in the country to date. The economy was successfully stabilized and important reforms introduced. Despite this, Bolivia today faces a severe recessionary and structural crisis which threatens its very democracy. In terms of economic and social development, this model has failed.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2011, a time when the global economy was struggling to recover from the financial crisis and slow economic growth. The OECD is an intergovernmental economi...
Prominent crisis communication researchers have suggested that practitioners should work with the media as partners when managing a crisis (Ulmer, Sellnow, & Seeger, 2007). This study provides an example of a crisis case in which the media was embraced as a partner in the crisis response. Specifically, the partnership established with the media as part of the crisis response following
The midlife crisis occurs in virtually all males, including members of the animal kingdom. A good example is the caterpillar.\\u000a He will spend a large part of his life on a predictable career path, engaging in traditional caterpillar activities such as\\u000a crawling around and munching on leaves of expensive ornamental shrubbery, and then one day, out of the blue, he’ll
Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United States, currently World Water Monitoring Day is
The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.
This study extends the analysis of the economic benefits of naval crisis response enabled by forward presence undertaken by the Naval Postgraduate School for the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR97). That study developed an operational methodology for ...
The current economiccrisis illustrates a critical need for new and fundamental understanding of the structure and dynamics of economic networks. Economic systems are increasingly built on interdependencies, implemented through trans-national credit and investment networks, trade relations, or supply chains that have proven difficult to predict and control. We need, therefore, an approach that stresses the systemic complexity of economic networks and that can be used to revise and extend established paradigms in economic theory. This will facilitate the design of policies that reduce conflicts between individual interests and global efficiency, as well as reduce the risk of global failure by making economic networks more robust. PMID:19628858
Schweitzer, Frank; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Sornette, Didier; Vega-Redondo, Fernando; Vespignani, Alessandro; White, Douglas R
...3) are experiencing severe economic hardship as a direct result of...and who are experiencing severe economic hardship as a direct result of...maintain their F-1 status. The crisis in Syria and economic sanctions imposed by the...
The sheer enormity of last year's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon gave new meaning to the term "crisis management." Suddenly, companies near Ground Zero, as well as those more than a thousand miles away, needed a plan. Because the disasters disrupted established channels not only between businesses and customers but between businesses and employees, internal crisis-communications strategies that could be quickly implemented became a key responsibility of top management. Without these strategies, employees' trauma and confusion might have immobilized their firms and set their customers adrift. In this article, executives from a range of industries talk about how their companies, including Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, American Airlines, Verizon, the New York Times, Dell, and Starbucks, went about restoring operations and morale. From his interviews with these individuals, author and management professor Paul Argenti was able to distill a number of lessons, each of which, he says, may "serve as guideposts for any company facing a crisis that undermines its employees' composure, confidence, or concentration." His advice to senior executives includes: Maintain high levels of visibility, so that employees are certain of top management's command of the situation and concern; establish contingency communication channels and work sites; strive to keep employees focused on the business itself, because a sense of usefulness enhances morale and good morale enhances usefulness; and ensure that employees have absorbed the firm's values, which will guide them as they cope with the unpredictable. The most forward-thinking leaders realize that managing a crisis-communications program requires the same dedication and resources they give to other dimensions of their business. More important, they realize that their employees always come first. PMID:12510542
The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment. The specific objectives within the assessment pr...
Dissent during periods of crisis can be a difficult subject to discuss, even among reasonable people, and this thoughtful digital exhibit from the University of California at Irvine illuminates this subject quite nicely. The items in the exhibit are from their Department of Special Collections and Archives, and the focus of this particular collection is to examine "issues of war, peace, dissent and dialogue during critical periods in the 20th century." There are six sections of the exhibit which include "Protest during the Vietnam War", "The Internment of Japanese Americans during WWII", and "McCarthyism during the Cold War". Visitors can click on each of these sections to view digitized images of ephemera (such as artworks, pamphlets, and posters) that are representative of these times of dissent and debate. Visitors should not miss the "Conscientious Objectors in World War II" area, as it contains images from a pacifist handbook published in 1939 and items published by groups like the Quakers and the Mennonites.
This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…
Argues that newly developed theory in crisis public relations suggests a shift is necessary in the way practitioners view crises. Notes that the new paradigm defines excellent crisis public relations very differently from the literature of the past 20 years. (RS)
Using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of correlations matrices of some of the main financial market indices in the world, we show that high volatility of markets is directly linked with strong correlations between them. This means that markets tend to behave as one during great crashes. In order to do so, we investigate financial market crises that occurred in the years 1987 (Black Monday), 1998 (Russian crisis), 2001 (Burst of the dot-com bubble and September 11), and 2008 (Subprime Mortgage Crisis), which mark some of the largest downturns of financial markets in the last three decades.
This paper examines urban China's socio-political control crisis under the impact of economic reforms as an epitome of a more general social crisis. The traditional urban institutional form of socio-political control in the People's Republic of China (PRC), the work unit form of control, is a variant of age-old forms. The latter's reproduction in variant form in the former was premised upon the fact that the PRC's industrialization was carried out by a peasant-based party creating a new working class of rural migrants engaged in non-market production and exchange. The persistence of non-market economic relations ensured this form of control's continued reproduction. Post-1978 market-oriented reforms have undermined this form. As the emergence of new forms has been slow, a socio-political control crisis has arisen, at a time when millions of urban employees are being thrown out of work. In dealing with the crisis, the official trade union, an organic constituent institution of the work unit form of control, plays a prominent part, in being given the tasks of sustaining this decaying form, and preventing and defusing potential social explosion. Yet, the very economic reform programme that has undermined the work unit form of control, is also gravely weakening the union. PMID:11853060
The 2000s represent a period of unprecedented political and economic turmoil in Zimbabwe's history. This article constitutes an attempt to unpack one aspect of this crisis period: roadside currency trade. Beyond its political dimensions, the Zimbabwe crisis has been accompanied by a highly informal regime of accumulation. While there is a way in which this informality conflates with contemporary analyses
Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…
Purpose – Proposes exploring the opportunities for reciprocal learning between the fields of crisis management and services marketing, and stimulating research on crises experienced by service organisations through the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Initially, an overview and summary are given of a crisis management approach by organisations, in order to demonstrate the contrast between the research perspectives
Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)
This manual is designed for training paraprofessional workers who answer rape-crisis telephone lines. Communication skills, the process of crisis resolution, and the specific body of knowledge relevant to rape victims are uniquely integrated in the training program. The training manual is meant to serve as a guideline for group leaders and as a…
This book consists of papers presented and discussions held at two Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation conferences on education and the urban crisis in Britain. Fundamental changes taking place in British cities are examined and are compared to urban problems in the United States. It is stated that the "urban crisis" is simply another way of referring…
The so-called "dismal science" is dismal no longer as the result of this engaging and thoughtful exploration of the world of economics. Created by the Educational Film Center and offered as one of the Annenberg Learner resources, this primer on micro- and macroeconomics includes 28 30-minute programs. These materials were released in 2012, and they cover topics such as Supply and Demand, Economic Efficiency, and Profits and Interest. Educators will be glad to learn that the complete program website includes discussion questions, worksheets, and additional activities for the classroom. The series is quite up to date, and it even includes a discussion of the 2008 banking crisis and technology's broad influence on the economy.
The relentless increase in healthcare costs and the global economiccrisis require us to rethink the way research is done. The heterogeneity of patients is a major challenge in designing and coordinating high-quality studies about sepsis. Studies on new treatments and devices, such as polymyxin B hemoperfusion, must be optimized not only for potential benefits for a specific population (i.e. efficacy), but also for their eventual implementation in real-world situations (i.e. effectiveness) and for economic costs (i.e. efficiency). In this regard, theragnosis and newer statistical tools could help us obtain useful information from real-life observational data. In this review, we discuss the basic components required for sustainable research in polymyxin B hemoperfusion. PMID:24457491
This annual publication from the World Bank predicts growth patterns in developing countries. It reports that "recovery from the financial crisis is 'fragile and uneven,' with some regions recovering much faster than others." According to this year's report, growth in Asia will be strong through 2000, as the countries slowly pull themselves out of recession. The average per capita income of Third World countries outside of Asia, however, will decline. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release, summary, and the forward by Joseph Stiglitz are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main site also provides a slide show of the main points and issues of the report, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.
Exxon's current World Energy Outlook prepared over a period of six months ending in October 1979, projects demand and supply of energy to the year 2000. It includes a worldeconomic outlook as well as supply and demand projections for oil and other energy...
That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.
Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses
Purpose: The collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market parallels several earlier failures within the financial services sector, begging the question why the lessons of past failures were not learned. Throughout history from the tulip bulb crisis of the 1600s to the most recent economiccrisis, decision-makers keep making the same mistakes. This…
Stephens, Alan A.; Atwater, J. Brian; Kannan, Vijay R.
Everything undergoes structural shifts from day to day. Any kind of change can become not only a distinguishing feature, but also a source of crisis. The only way to respond to this is to maintain crisis awareness, since crises can develop faster than we imagine. Sound preparation for any manager should therefore involve planning to deal with a crisis that might arise at any time. A crisis could be a turning point for a positive form of change; this will depend on maturity of attitude and sound familiarity with the four stages of crisis management. In each stage, we should consider whether urgent and rapid action might truly create a positive opportunity, or actually make the situation worse. This article discusses the cost of errors in crisis management and the benefits of prompt, positive action in relation to the different examples established by four well-known cases. It is hoped that these will benefit nursing managers by improving crisis management skills in clinical practice. PMID:16475070
Hotlines, or telephone crisis-lines, begun in the 1960s and currently numbering in the hundreds provide assistance to callers in crisis, frequently around the clock. Crisis-line communication can be seen as a form of mediated therapeutic communication premised on the existence of a crisis and the medium of the telephone which shapes the…
Stromboli, one of the very few tourist volcanic islands in the world in permanent state of activity, has been the site of two important volcanic crises coupled with slope failure episodes in 2002-2003 and 2007. Due to the lucky circumstance that both crises have occurred in winter, the actual consequences on people were moderate. Nevertheless, the first crisis caused a few injuries, threatened the local population and caused relevant economic losses. The emotional impact on public opinion of the 30th December 2002 tsunami acted, in particular, as a trigger for civil protection initiatives aimed at structurally improving the standard volcano safety and preparedness measures to effectively deal with future crises. The main initiatives carried out during the 2003 crisis consisted in the setting up of: 1) new geophysical and geochemical volcano surveillance networks and 2) a local, permanent scientific/civil protection structure (COA, Centro Operativo Avanzato), where signals from volcano monitoring are visualized in real time and eventually used by the personnel of the Department of Civil Protection (DPC) for immediate activation of response procedures. This was followed by the setting up, in 2005, at the (DPC) in Rome, of a centre named "Centro Funzionale Centrale Rischio Vulcanico" (CFCRV), where the most relevant monitoring signals of Italian active volcanoes are visualized in real time and where activities of simple elaboration, for hazard assessment purpose are daily carried out and data sharing within the scientific community is coordinated by civil protection personnel with training in volcanic problems. The response effectiveness of the new system was tested on February-March 2007 when a new volcanic crisis occurred. An internal DPC "state of attention" was declared by the CF 15 days before the eruption onset when seismic and deformation parameters showed an abrupt increase up to values much higher than background. On February 27th the sudden onset of explosive activity outside the main craters and the occurrence of a small landslide down slope of the active craters were detected in real time on the screens of the CFCRV and by monitoring centres of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and University of Florence (UNIFI). This enabled the DPC to immediately activate emergency crisis procedures and start a coordinated management of the crisis between civil protection personnel in Rome and COA. As accelerating slope movements were detected by ground deformation monitoring of UNIFI, a tsunami warning was launched shortly afterward. Warnings were also declared on 8th March and 15th March when slope movements resumed and a large explosion at the central craters occurred, respectively. From the end of February to May 2007 a scientific committee named "Scientific Synthesis Group" (SSG), appointed by the DPC, made daily evaluations of impending hazards in cooperation with CFCRV. During the crisis the DPC coordinated information activities with the media and island residents. The successful managing of the crisis consisted in minimizing risk for people and meanwhile facilitating normal activities and regular access to island.
Bertolaso, G.; De Bernardinis, B.; Bosi, V.; Cardaci, C.; Ciolli, S.; Colozza, R.; Cristiani, C.; Mangione, D.; Ricciardi, A.; Rosi, M.; Scalzo, A.; Soddu, P.
A crisis exists in medical education. Changes in methodology have diverted attention from synthesis to mass accumulation of factual data. The response to this crisis has been largely focused on a shell game involving new pathways and curriculum changes without addressing the critical issue of what constitutes education. The ultimate problem in medical education is a crisis of leadership. Until education is given a priority status and the obligations to teach on the part of medical educators and to learn on the part of students are translated into a creative policy by those who can lead, the wheels of learning will continue to spin without significant progress.
An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)
The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...
Tourism is vulnerable to externalities such as natural disasters and man-made crises. The current global economic slowdown has adversely affected global tourism. While headline figures show that international tourism is suffering as a consequence of this economiccrisis, domestic tourism is larger in many countries and impacts through this market could be larger than through international tourism. A common viewpoint
This article studies the incidence of China's current economic situation with the balance of international payment in the context of US financial crisis. After having analyzed several connected relational method, it is more precise to apply grey relational theory in view of the small sample for smallest error. Hence, we use grey theory for selection of representative economic indicator and
China is a great power of forest product producing, processing, consumption and the import and export country in the world. The total volume of the import and export of forest product ranks second in the world, which is next to the United States. The main target market of China's forest product focuses on the harder hit area of financial crisis
Mobile crisis management teams provide crisis prevention and intervention services in community settings. The Appalachian Community Services crisis management program shows how such teams can be used to effectively serve rural communities. PMID:22779153
This report describes the development and structure of CACI's crisis management executive aid developed for the Cybernetics Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; presents the structure of the executive aid and reviews the cha...
L. Hazlewood R. Mahoney F. Abolfathi J. Fain J. Hayes
The agro-food domain in Europe is characterized by the appearance of recurrent unwanted surprises. These events, although\\u000a causing obvious physical consequences, in essence depart from the expectations of the society. We argue that this unstable\\u000a situation is best understood as an identity crisis of agriculture rather than as a contingent crisis of a specific economic\\u000a sector. Thus the present agro-food
The authors argue that the creation of a popular new industry of passenger space travel could be economically and socially very beneficial in creating new employment in aerospace and related fields in order to supply these services. In doing so, the application of nearly a half-century of technological development that has yet to be used commercially could create many new
The report, the twenty-fifth in the series issued by the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, is intended to serve as a convenient reference on military expenditures, arms transfers, armed forces, and related economic data for 172 countries over the 1985-1995 decade. It provides comprehensive, up-to-date, and accurate data, accompanied by pertinent analyses and highlights.
Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This…
We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration.
National tracking of drug shortages began in 2001. However, a significant increase in the number of shortages began in late 2009, with numbers reaching what many have termed crisis level. The typical drug in short supply is a generic product administered by injection. Common classes of drugs affected by shortages include anesthesia medications, antibiotics, pain medications, nutrition and electrolyte products, and chemotherapy agents. The economic and clinical effects of drug shortages are significant. The financial effect of drug shortages is estimated to be hundreds of millions of dollars annually for health systems across the United States. Clinically, patients have been harmed by the lack of drugs or inferior alternatives, resulting in more than 15 documented deaths. Drug shortages occur for a variety of reasons. Generic injectable drugs are particularly susceptible to drug shortages because there are few manufacturers of these products and all manufacturers are running at full capacity. In addition, some manufacturers have had production problems, resulting in poor quality product. Although many suppliers are working to upgrade facilities and add additional manufacturing lines, these activities take time. A number of stakeholder organizations have been involved in meetings to further determine the causes and effects of drug shortages. A new law was enacted in July 2012 that granted the Food and Drug Administration additional tools to address the drug shortage crisis. The future of drug shortages is unknown, but there are hopeful indications that quality improvements and additional capacity may decrease the number of drug shortages in the years to come. PMID:24582195
According to the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, the burden of non-communicable diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung diseases, and diabetes) in the Arab world has increased, with variations between countries of different income levels. Behavioural risk factors, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity are prevalent, and obesity in adults and children has reached an alarming level. Despite epidemiological evidence, the policy response to non-communicable diseases has been weak. So far, Arab governments have not placed a sufficiently high priority on addressing the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases, with variations in policies between countries and overall weak implementation. Cost-effective and evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions have already been identified. The implementation of these interventions, beginning with immediate action on salt reduction and stricter implementation of tobacco control measures, will address the rise in major risk factors. Implementation of an effective response to the non-communicable-disease crisis will need political commitment, multisectoral action, strengthened health systems, and continuous monitoring and assessment of progress. Arab governments should be held accountable for their UN commitments to address the crisis. Engagement in the global monitoring framework for non-communicable diseases should promote accountability for effective action. The human and economic burden leaves no room for inaction. PMID:24452044
The authors argue that the creation of a popular new industry of passenger space travel could be economically and socially very beneficial in creating new employment in aerospace and related fields in order to supply these services. In doing so, the application of nearly a half-century of technological development that has yet to be used commercially could create many new aerospace engineering business opportunities. In addition, by growing to large scale, space tourism has unique potential to reduce the cost of space travel sharply, thereby making many other activities in space feasible and profitable. The paper discusses the scope for new employment, stimulating economic growth, reducing environmental damage, sustaining education particularly in the sciences, stimulating cultural growth, and preserving peace by eliminating any need for "resource wars".
In this paper, the Hirschmanian exit--voice approach is applied to the development of industrial districts. The analysis of the post-World War II evolution of the Prato district helps to make explicit how the industrial district competitive advantage can be reproduced over time during periods of regular development. In addition, the exit--voice polarity helps in understanding also the specific difficulties that
Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is characterized by malignant hypertension and oligo-anuric acute renal failure. It occurs in 5% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), particularly in patients with diffuse disease during the first years. SRC is more common in patients receiving corticosteroids, the risk increasing with increasing dose. The disease is sometimes triggered by use of nephrotoxic drugs and/or intravascular volume depletion. Left ventricular insufficiency and hypertensive encephalopathy are typical clinical features. Thrombotic microangiopathy is detected in 43% of cases, and anti-RNA-polymerase III antibodies are present in one-third of patients. Renal biopsy is not necessary if SRC presents classical features. However, biopsy may help to define the prognosis and guide treatment in atypical forms. The prognosis of SRC has greatly improved with the introduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. However, the 5-year survival for SSc patients with full SRC remains low (65%). The treatment of SRC relies on aggressive blood pressure control with an ACE inhibitor, combined with other antihypertensive drugs if needed. Dialysis is frequently indicated but can be stopped in about half of patients, mainly those with good blood pressure control. Patients who need dialysis for more than 2 years qualify for renal transplantation. PMID:24833760
The view is presented that the economic and social system of the whole ; world will be changed due to the sudden termination of cheap and abundant oil and ; natural gas. The impact of a sharp rise in the price of energy on the whole ; relative price structure of different commodities has not been researched, but is ;
As the world entered and suffered through the recent Great Recession, certainly the worst economic slowdown in a generation, people naturally asked: what went wrong? Although many answers have been suggested, one thing many observers point to is the decisive role played by unmitigated greed. Greed by the managers of financial institutions led to easy loans with little to no
This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.
The model presented is one theoretical approach within a broader research program that could verify the nonlinear conjectures made, such that to quantify and predict potential discontinuous behaviour. In this case, the crisis behaviour associated with financial funds reallocation among various credit instruments, described as memes with the sense of Dawkins, is shown to be of discontinuous nature stemming from a logistic penetration in the behaviour niche. Actually the logistic penetration is typical in creating cyclic behaviour of economic structures as shown by Marchetti and others from IIASA. A Fokker-Planck equation description results in a stationary solution having a bifurcation like solution with evolution trajectories on a `cusp' type catastrophe that may describe discontinuous decision behaviour.
The Economics 364: Survey of International Economics web site was developed by Blake LeBaron, Professor of Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The class aims to explain finance and macroeconomic policies in the world economy and trade patterns among countries. Topics covered include the foreign exchange market, balance of payments accounting, arbitrage in the foreign exchange market, monetary policy, trade models and trade policies. At the site users can find lecture notes, assignments and past exams.
This interactive video series reviews global warming by recognizing the problem, addressing the sources and impacts, and weighing the options. It is a six-chapter series. Experts from different countries weigh in and answer some critical questions, including what countries have resources and the perspectives necessary to reach a consensus on handling the next steps and the economic costs involved.
Moran, Michael; Storm, Brian; Mediastorm, Council O.
Discussed is the idea that the use of fossil fuels could render Earth uninhabitable long before supplies of them are exhausted. Possible solutions to this problem are described and include a revolution in technology, worldwide economic strategies, and a change in the way people think. (KR)
There is a prevalent public outcry against the putative decline in the quality of world, and especially American, linguistic expression. This paper examines the accuracy of this claim, and weighs the significant supporting and opposing evidence, which includes informed opinion, expert witness, and results of standardized reading and writing…
We have extended our studies of optimal strategies for nuclear exchanges to include the question of stability under crisis. Using a transparent, but effective algorithm we discuss ways in which a superpower exchange can be examined as strategic force postures change on the two sides. Results can be applied to determine how variations in force structures benefit or harm both sides, and this in turn allows a comparison of the degree of crisis stability descriptive of a given base scenario and variations to it. The simplicity of the model obviates the need for extensive computational support, allowing most researchers to make quantitative studies of stability. Application of this way of thinking to scenarios similar to that existing in the present US-USSR confrontation leads to a rather intuitive result: strategic strike forces which are vulnerable to prevenient (preemptive) attack by the opponent do not enhance crisis stability. What is rather less intuitive is the observation that crisis stability does not necessarily degrade when force deployments made by one side benefit that side at the expense of the opponent. This is particularly relevant in the case of improvements made by the weaker side. The examples used underline the difference between crisis stability and the commonly accepted meaning of deterrence. Most would agree that even though deterrence exists, a desirable degree of stability does not.
The Project on Developing Country Debt undertaken by the National Bureau of Economic Research in the past two years seeks to provide a detailed analysis of the ongoing developing country debt crisis. The focus is on the middle-income developing countries,...
The global food crisis led to upward trends in food prices across the world. The millions of impoverished people living in developing countries including Ghana were the worst affected by the phenomenal increases in world food prices. This paper examines the implications of the global food crisis on the trends of food prices in the Upper East Region of Ghana.
Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic settingCourses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication
Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.
Media attention has been focused on the leadership of the World Health Organisation, rather than on the real factors that limit WHO's effectiveness. These factors relate to the organisation's structure and also to its current priorities, methods, and management. This article examines the objectives and strategy of WHO in view of financial constraints and donor countries' demands; WHO's stated goal of integrated primary health care; staff morale; and the growing dislocation between the regions and headquarters. Images p1426-a p1427-a
The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.
Discusses an overall educational program to train both specialists and the public in food science. Presents food statistics, and discusses the importance of food engineering and applied microbiology courses. (MLH)
Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.
"Deep Crisis," a new documentary from PBS's Scientific American Frontiers set to air January 28, 2003, explores the "past, present and uncertain future of the ocean's long-distance travelers - salmon and tuna." This companion Web site includes two lesson plans designed for grades 5-8 (see Teaching Guide), as well as a quiz based on program content. Homing Salmon focuses on the odor cues that researchers believe help salmon find their home streams for spawning. Salmon Counting introduces students to population sampling techniques. Both lesson plans include printable versions and answers to activity questions. Deep Crisis may be viewed online with RealPlayer or Windows Media.
The tourism industry is prone to crisis and disaster which must be planned for and managed. The paper analyses the early reactions of Singapore Airlines to the crisis caused by the first fatal crash in the history of the main company within the context of crisis management theory. The accident is explained and company responses are reviewed, with emphasis on
The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economiccrisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water resources, including surface and ground waters, for the territory and the population; precipitation; indicators of anthropogenic impact, such as population, water withdrawals, sewage waters, irrevocable consumption of water, data on flow regulation by reservoirs; the state of natural waters was estimated by comparison of the average long-term values of water resources with characteristics of anthropogenic impact, and economic efficiency of water use - by water and gross domestic product comparison. The objective of this paper was to give a general idea of the position of Russia in the world water management in the period of time. Further work on this subject is aimed at clarifying the indicators of water resources, human impact on them and the effectiveness of their use. Particular attention will be paid to the assessment of the impact of economic activity in the catchment on rivers and reservoirs. Such kind of assessment is necessary for achieving sustainable water supply in the near and distant future, raising living standards and preserving the environment. References: Koronkevich N.I., Zaytseva I.S., 2003. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Resources of Russia and Neighboring Countries at the end of XXth Century. Moscow, Nauka. Bibikova T., 2011 Comparative Analysis of Anthropogenic Impact on Water Resources in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the Post-Soviet Period. Water Res. Vol. 38 No. 5, 549-556.
India's economic policies have undergone major reforms since the early 1990s. Before that, government regulation and control of economic activity was pervasive, and the trade sector did very poorly. One consequence was that imports were highly restricted and their scarcity was itself a major constraint on growth. After the crisis of the early1990s, trade policy was substantially liberalized. In this
This book of charts documents the current situation of children in the less developed regions of the world. Data on population distribution by age and sex, urban growth, social and economic conditions, life expectancy, mortality, health and disease, nutrition, medical care, education, youth participation in the labor force of selected countries…
In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health. PMID:22504946
Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…
Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)
Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)
The author provides an overview of several articles on the impact of the energy crisis which examine key ideas, emerging theories, findings, and methodologies that are guiding current social research. The articles deal with energy policy and how energy conservation fits into national policy, the social psychological context for energy conservation research on behavior and attitudes, and how to facilitate
Summary An association between hyperparathyroidism and acute pancreatitis has long been postulated and necrotising pancreatitis in\\u000a the presence of parathyroid crisis has been almost invariably fatal in the past. We report a second survivor with these diseases\\u000a and discuss the management of hypercalcaemia and the role of emergency parathyroidectomy.
M. K. O’Malley; S. Murphy; L. McMullen; H. F. Given
This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Savage, J.M. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)
This paper draws several important lessons from the Tequila Crisis of 1994 and 1995. The overriding lesson is that the dynamics of financial crises in emerging market countries differ from those in industrialized countries because institutional features of their debt markets differ. Several policy lessons for emerging market countries also emerge from the analysis: (1) pegged exchange-rate regimes are extremely
Suggests guidelines for college administrators who deal with the media. Discusses social responsibility theory and presents suggestions for student affairs personnel in planning for crisis communication. Stresses the need for accurate, honest information which doesn't compromise the institution legally. (JAC)
This paper was designed not as a research product but as a speech to comparative education colleagues. It argues that there is a crisis of educational quality in many parts of the world, and that there is a parallel crisis in the quality of educational research and statistics. Compared to other major public responsibilities in health, agriculture, population and family planning, educational statistics are poor and often getting worse. Our international and national statistical institutions are impoverished, and we as a profession have been part of the problem. We have been so busy arguing over differing research paradigms that we have not paid sufficient attention to our common professional responsibilities and common professional goals. The paper suggests that we, as professionals interested in comparative education issues, begin to act together more on these common and important issues.
The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economiccrisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.
Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food. PMID:19965349
This week's In the News discusses the escalating violence in Kosovo and the world's reactions. The ten resources discussed offer commentary, analysis, and news from a variety of political and cultural viewpoints. Despite recent US-led efforts to convince Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic to pursue a political solution in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo, the situation there seems more volatile than ever. A recent large-scale offensive against the ethnic Albanian separatist Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) has forced thousands from their homes and brought universal condemnation on Serbia. In defiance of world opinion and the threat of international intervention Milosevic has begun a renewed campaign to wipe out the separatist movement. Numerous villages have been shelled and razed, mostly in the border region with Albania, in an attempt to deny the KLA supplies and reinforcements. This policy has not only solidified support for the KLA within Kosovo, but also threatens to bring in Albania and Macedonia, creating another Balkan war. NATO and Yugoslavia's European neighbors have demanded an end to the offensive and renewed sanctions against Serbia, but opinion is still divided over the possibility of military action. Unlike Bosnia, Kosovo is not recognized as an independent political entity. Some nations, particularly Russia, are extremely wary of setting a precedent of intervention in an "internal" situation. Others, notably Britain, have argued that the experience of Bosnia highlights both the high cost of delay and the efficacy of a strong show of force. A recent NATO air exercise in Albania and Macedonia is a first step towards such a show of force, but clearly a small one. The next few weeks will be critical not only for the citizens of Kosovo, but also for the evolution of NATO from a self-defense organization into a protector of democracy and peace in Europe.
Six essays examine how the US, Western Europe, and Japan have handled their common energy problems and to what extent their traditional cooperation has been enhanced or diminished by the OPEC actions. They explore the interdependencies of the developed countries, along with the strains that the energy crisis has placed on the search for common solutions. An introduction by Alexander Haig is followed by essays titled: The Permanent Crisis: Change in the World Oil System; The American Response: On-the-Job Training; Western Europe: A Fragmented Response to a Fragmenting Order; The West in Concert: A Very Complex Score; Politics of Dependence: Western Europe and the Arab-Israeli Conflict; Oil on Troubled Waters: The Industrial World and the OPEC; Oil and Money: A Note on the Western Financial Community; and Getting Out of the Crisis: excerpt of interviews. 2 tables. (DCK)
Access and visualize world population data using the user friendly MyWorld GIS software. Data includes total population, population density, projected population, male and female population, and age specific population, etc.
This starting point example compiled by R.M. MacKay. utilizes the MyWorld (more info) Geographic Information System (GIS) software created at Norhtwestern University.
In the context of financial crisis, to strengthen the capacity of independent innovation of small- and medium-sized enterprises, is an important channel of getting rid of economic dilemma and reviving fast economic development. To improve the capacity of independent innovation of small- and medium-sized enterprises, it is imperative to solve three problems as inadequate motivation, poor environment & unhealthy system
Discusses conditions in the Third World which prevent the development of a harmonious world society. The effects of nationalism, nuclear proliferation, racism, political and economic inequities, and social and religious conservatism on the growth of a global outlook are considered. (AM)
The digital representation of disaster situations into maps, mainly based on remotely sensed observations, is becoming a widely used instrument for emergency management. Thousands of maps are being produced all over the world and big attention is paid by international institutions, such as the World Bank, the United Nations and the European Commission to these tools. The quality of crisis
Conceived by the University of Ghent, Belgium, the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics Website is a broad-based collection of resources pertaining to economic and legal issues throughout the world. Showcasing a comprehensive index of searchable bibliographic resources, this site also includes abstracts of recent law and economics reviews. The hefty Law and Economics Web Resources section features working papers, bibliographies, and mailing lists. In addition, the site links to law and economics academic programs, associations, and an array of relevant Websites.
The recent financial crisis revealed that in a world of large asymmetries of information, of complex financial innovations\\u000a and incomplete regulatory frameworks “self regulation” obviously does not work. But we have also seen that the governmental\\u000a stabilisation policies have not worked well either. This paper argues that there have been, at least, two main contributors\\u000a to the recent financial crisis.
CRISIS is a computer tool for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), whose development started in the late 1980's at the Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mexico. It started circulating outside the Mexican borders at the beginning of the 1990's, when it was first distributed as part of SEISAN tools. Throughout the years, CRISIS has been used for seismic hazard studies in several countries in Latin America (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina and Chile), and in many other countries of the World. CRISIS has always circulated free of charge for non-commercial applications. It is worth noting that CRISIS has been mainly written by people that are, at the same time, PSHA practitioners. Therefore, the development loop has been relatively short, and most of the modifications and improvements have been made to satisfy the needs of the developers themselves. CRISIS has evolved from a rather simple FORTRAN code to a relatively complex program with a friendly graphical interface, able to handle a variety of modeling possibilities for source geometries, seismicity descriptions and ground motion prediction models (GMPM). We will describe some of the improvements made for the newest version of the code: CRISIS 2012.These improvements, some of which were made in the frame of the Italian research project INGV-DPC S2 (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/), funded by the Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC; National Civil Protection Department), include: A wider variety of source geometries A wider variety of seismicity models, including the ability to handle non-Poissonian occurrence models and Poissonian smoothed-seismicity descriptions. Enhanced capabilities for using different kinds of GMPM: attenuation tables, built-in models and generalized attenuation models. In the case of built-in models, there is, by default, a set ready to use in CRISIS, but additional custom GMPMs may be freely developed and integrated without having to recompile the core code. Therefore, the users can build new external classes implementing custom GMPM modules by adhering to the programming-interface specification, which is delivered as part of the executable program. On the other hand, generalized attenuation models are non-parametric probabilistic descriptions of the ground motions produced by individual earthquakes with known magnitude and location. In the context of CRISIS, a generalized attenuation model is a collection of probabilistic footprints, one for each of the events considered in the analysis. Each footprint gives the geographical distribution of the intensities produced by this event. CRISIS permits now the inclusion of local site effects in hazard computations. Site effects are given to CRISIS in terms of amplification factors that depend on site location, period, and ground-motion level (in order to account for soil non-linearity). Enhanced capabilities to make logic-tree computations and to produce seismic disaggregation charts. A new presentation layer, developed for accessing the same functionalities of the desktop version via web (CRISISWeb). Examples will be presented and the program will be made available to all interested persons.
Ordaz, M.; Martinelli, F.; Meletti, C.; D'Amico, V.
The worldwide economic decline in 2008 hit many states hard, and had an especially strong impact on California and its public education system. The purpose of this report is to develop and present baseline information regarding K-12 public education in California prior to this fiscal crisis. This report presents alternative ways of comparing the…