These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Neoliberalism and the World Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper criticizes neo-liberal ideology as responsible for the recent crisis faced by the world economy. The author analyzes possibilities of forecasting the crisis and shows that modern economic views and values are inadequate for overcoming the crisis and preventing such problems in the future. An alternative system of economic values is proposed which could ensure sustainable economic development.

G. Kolodko

2010-01-01

2

DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS AND THE WORLD BANK'S IDENTITY CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author, the Brazilian Finance Minister in the late 1980s, uses his insights and experience to examine critically the identity crisis of the World Bank. Trapped by the neo-liberal turn in the 1980s, and unable to return to the Keynesian lending principles of earlier decades, the Bank is claimed to be facing an unsettled future in terms

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

3

Economic Crisis in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

4

Economic Crisis in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa is facing deep economic crisis. A situation has reached where there is total stagnation with zero per cent growth rate and no hope of recovery. Hunger is hovering over vast areas of Africa threatening the lives of 150 million people and every day people are dying of starvation. It is said, that nature and international economic relations are

Vijay Gupta

1985-01-01

5

The World Trade Organization's legitimacy crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the successful launch of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations at Doha, the World Trade Organization faces a legitimacy crisis. Protests continue to rock major international economic meetings, and the WTO s role in globalization is being questioned by many observers. This paper examines the contours of this crisis and explores the possibility that the WTO s indirect

DANIEL C. ESTY

2002-01-01

6

The economic and monetary union countries vs. the global crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial and economic crisis revealed institutional weaknesses and structural problems of particular Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) countries. The crisis and slowdown that followed had an impact on their relative competitiveness. Financial and economic turbulences of recent years shed new light on the scale and scope of interdependences in the world economy. They uncovered economic and institutional flaws

Tadeusz Kowalski

2012-01-01

7

Crisis Aftermath: Economic policy changes  

E-print Network

of the economic policy within the European Union and its Member States. Monetary Policy The 2008 global economicCrisis Aftermath: Economic policy changes in the EU and its Member States 8th-9th March, 2012 Court of Auditors, Luxembourg Massimo Rostagno Director, European Central Bank, Directorate Monetary

8

Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

Richardson, Dominic

2010-01-01

9

Russia's Economic Space in the Context of Global Financial and Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes in Russia's economic space are caused mainly by processes in the global economy. The world crisis has changed the Russian spatial mode of development since financial resources were dramatically reduced. Trends of spatial development during the period of economic growth and at the initial stage of crisis are considered.

L. Vardomsky

2009-01-01

10

Surviving the Cycle of Economic Crisis  

E-print Network

During this time of economic crisis, agricultural producers must make sure they are managing strategically, maintaining adequate working capital, managing customer credit, satisfying customer demand, and operating efficiently...

Park, John; Davis, Roy B.

2009-03-26

11

World Economic Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Economic Forum is a nonprofit organization dedicated to "economic growth and social progress." The forum is located in Geneva, Switzerland, and its members include those in business, politics, and the academic world. The World Economic Forum Website contains a variety of information about the Forum as well as information about global economics. Latest news is highlighted, with reports from several recent economic summits including photographs and Webcasts. A menu at the top left corner of the site directs users to the rest of the site, including resources about regional networks, reports and publications, and centers and projects.

12

World Economic Outlook: 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently published by the International Monetary Fund, the World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a semi-annual examination of recent world economic developments and future prospects. Responding to recent financial turbulence around the world, the report highlights monetary policy issues in Asia as well as development strategies in emerging market countries and Russia. A 28-page statistical appendix is also included with financial growth indicators by region.

1998-01-01

13

Crisis of a crowded world.  

PubMed

The debate ranges on about whether population growth is good or bad or neutral. Population experts have a new focus on the environment, education, and women's health, while giving continued attention to population control. Solutions are not apparent from Marxist or capitalist perspectives. The question is not free market and limits, but what lifestyles will be adopted by the mass population in developing countries. The Malthusian dilemma of balancing population and resources will remain. The problems of world population growth, natural resource conservation, and economic development are of such a magnitude that it will take international cooperation to provide solutions. The Cairo UN International Conference on Population and Development will begin to lay the foundation for a workable consensus. If 119 million people from Bangladesh or the 1.2 billion Chinese adopt Western life styles, there will be a devastating impact on environmental quality, not only from the numbers, but from the outdated and inefficient technologies. For example, in Mexico, cars do not have catalytic converters, which lack contributes to sever air pollution problems. In the United States, population growth is the 3rd fastest after Canada and Australia, and each American consumes vast amounts of natural resources. Environmental conservation might be better served if American population growth were curbed. It is the style of life and the level of life that is important, rather than sheer numbers. Population has grown from 1.7 billion in the world in 1900 to 5.7 billion at present. Population will double again by 2050. The increase in numbers is accompanied by longer life expectancy, even with AIDS and the diseases. Africa has some of the fastest growing populations, and there is considerable poverty, disease, and lack of social services. There is ample evidence of environmental destruction and industrial pollution. PMID:12318863

Chen, V

1994-08-01

14

Common crisis North-South: cooperation for world recovery  

SciTech Connect

Expanding upon an earlier report of the Brandt Commission that spelled out the extent of the mutual interests between north and south and appealed for a program to avert disaster for the poorest countries, a longer-term reorganization of the global economic system, and a summit meeting of world leaders, the 1983 revision addresses how to deal with the common crisis. The book describes the different elements of crisis in trade, energy, and food, and concentrates on the overriding problem of how to compensate for the decline in liquidity, how to reverse the decline in trade, and how to revive the world economy. 42 references, 21 figures, 1 table.

Not Available

1983-01-01

15

Crisis Paper Number 38. World Food Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is thirty-eighth in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multinational view by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers of several countries. The issue presented here is the problem of world food shortages, which is briefly introduced in relation to the attemps at the Rome Conference to…

Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

16

Introduction: the crisis of economies and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article introduces to the current issue of the journal by critically reviewing the articles published therein in light of both recent literature and current economic developments. The main topics dealt with concern the role of mainstream economics and ideology in creating the cultural and economic environment that lead to the crisis in the first place and that hinders now

Carlo DIppoliti

2011-01-01

17

The 2008 World Food Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of food is rarely the reason people go hungry1. Even now, there is enough food in the world, with a bumper harvest this year, but more people cannot afford to buy the food they need. Even before the recent food price spikes, an estimated billion people were suffering from chronic hunger, while another two billion were experiencing malnutrition, bringing

Jomo Kwame Sundaram

18

Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.  

PubMed

To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored. PMID:23252313

Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

2012-07-01

19

The Components and Complexity of the Global Economic Crisis of 2006-2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short paper, it is mainly argued that the current global economic crisis (2006-2011) consists not only of the US financial crisis of 2006-2007 which has been globalized since fall 2008. The world economy has also been hit by the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis, rising energy prices, two successive food crises, increases in poverty and hunger, and severe ecological

Aykut Kibritçio?lu

2011-01-01

20

Economic crisis and accounting evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study changes in financial reporting around economic crises from a historical perspective through the lens of punctuated equilibrium evolution. Historical evidence and contemporary economic analyses indicate that corporate financial reporting plays a minor role in precipitating economic crises but might amplify them. Economic crises likely play a role similar to major shocks in biological environments by selecting accounting practices,

Gregory Waymire; Sudipta Basu

2011-01-01

21

The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

2013-01-01

22

Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

Posner, Richard A.

2009-01-01

23

European Economic Crisis: Ireland in Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current economic crisis has hit all European countries hard, but some are much more severely affected others. The problems manifest in European peripheral countries, especially Ireland, Spain, and Greece, have roots in domestic policy mistakes. However, the European context of these policy profiles also needs to be taken into account. The creation of the Euro initially yielded large credibility

Niamh Hardiman; Sebastian Dellepiane

2010-01-01

24

Globalisation, Inequality and the Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the effects of inequality on the globalisation process. It is argued that the recent financial and economic crisis is a manifestation of a tendency of the aggregate demand to fall relatively to aggregate supply, generated by an asymmetric income distribution, which in turn both increases, and is reinforced by, the mobility of goods, capital and labour, in

Nuno Martins

2011-01-01

25

Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.  

PubMed

The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

2012-03-01

26

Crisis Informatics: Studying Crisis in a Networked World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious crises and disasters have micro and macro social arrangements that differ from routine situations, as the field of disaster studies has described over its 100-year history. With increasingly pervasive information and communications technology (ICT) and a changing political arena where terrorism is perceived as a major threat, the attention to crisis is high. Some of these new features of

Leysia Palen; Sarah Vieweg; Jeannette Sutton; Sophia B. Liu; Amanda Hughes

2007-01-01

27

World Hunger Crisis Kit. Hope for the Hungry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…

Woito, Robert, Ed.

28

Understanding World Economic History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

Whaples, Robert

2013-01-01

29

World Economics Association Conferences, 2013  

E-print Network

' forms of behaviour in order to induce a sustainable macroeconomic development. Keywords Liberalisation into sustainable productive investment plans, the speculative investments gained ground on development objectivesWorld Economics Association Conferences, 2013 Neoliberalism in Turkey: A Balance Sheet of Three

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

World History. Focus on Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

31

Political and Economic Crisis in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).

Osmond, Andrew.

1998-01-01

32

The Economic Crisis and its Humanitarian Impact on Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The economic crisis that continues to affect countries across the world has taken a hard toll on humanitarian organizations in Europe. In October 2009, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released this 20-page report on just that subject. The report looks at 52 countries across the region (including several in Central Asia), and it is primarily focused on presenting findings from long-form interviews, rather than large statistical data sets. The report has some troubling findings, including the observation that "there seems to be an increasing trend of insecurity, leading to increases in mental health problems, alcohol and substance abuse, social isolation and generalized stress." Visitors will appreciate the fact that the report draws on a number of case studies and the first-hand observations of social service providers and administrators.

33

Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an economic

Hartley, David

2010-01-01

34

Crisis as opportunity: international health work during the economic depression.  

PubMed

The economic depression of the 1930s represented the most important economic and social crisis of its time. Surprisingly, its effect on health did not show in available morbidity and mortality rates. In 1932, the League of Nations Health Organisation embarked on a six-point program addressing statistical methods of measuring the effect and its influence on mental health and nutrition and establishing ways to safeguard public health through more efficient health systems. Some of these studies resulted in considerations of general relevance beyond crisis management. Unexpectedly, the crisis offered an opportunity to reconsider key concepts of individual and public health. PMID:19230333

Borowy, Iris

2008-01-01

35

World Health Organization: Health Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Health Organization (WHO) has created this site to provide the general public with high-quality information about their various research initiatives and reports related to the field of health economics. Given the nature of the WHO's mission, the work focuses on key challenges facing global health financing, with particular attention paid to healthcare systems in the developing world. The materials here include a nice fact sheet that provides a global overview of current spending on health care, along with links to related sites that deal with health financing policy and national healthcare systems. In the "Related Links" area, visitors can browse on over to a specialized site dedicated to the health economics of the European Union.

36

The World Food Crisis: Causes and Implications for Ontario Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upheaval in the global food market involving the dramatic increases in crop prices and riots prompted by unaffordable food to many of the world’ s poorest has placed agriculture back in the public eye. Questions are being raised surrounding what has happened, why, and what can be done. This report has provided an overview of the food crisis and

Alfons Weersink; Getu Hailu; Glenn Fox; Karl D. Meilke; Mike von Massow

2008-01-01

37

Reconstructing Economics in Light of the 2007-? Financial Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lessons learned from the recent financial crisis should significantly reshape the economics profession's thinking, including, importantly, what we teach our students. Five such lessons are that we live in a monetary economy and therefore aggregate demand and policies that affect aggregate demand are determinants of real economic outcomes; that…

Friedman, Benjamin M.

2010-01-01

38

Italy and the Euro in the Global Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Italian policymakers argue about the best way to respond to the global economic crisis, the importance of the euro to Italian economic stability seems to have dropped out of the debate. This is a problem for three reasons: it dulls the memory of Italian efforts to get into the single currency in the mid-to-late 1990s; it allows critics of

Erik Jones

2009-01-01

39

The economics of the oil crisis  

SciTech Connect

The author, a former financial analyst with the treasury department of Iran, provides an analysis of the origin of the oil crisis of 1973 and reviews various alternate theories put forward to explain it. Seeing the origin of the crisis in terms of competition rather than monopoly, Bina demonstrates that with the internationalization of capital in the oil industry, a new regulating value emerged from the cost of production of relatively unproductive and declining fields in the US, and that the growing gap between this and the individual values produced in other oil regions, such as the Middle East, set the stage for the restructuring of the entire industry - leading to an unprecedented price increase. Thus, the establishment of a new, higher level of value, oil rent, market and 'posted' prices was the outcome of objective developments rather than the result of arbitrary decisions on the part of cartels like OPEC.

Bina, C.

1985-01-01

40

Responding to the global economic crisis: inclusive social work practice.  

PubMed

The present global economic crisis raises new concerns for social workers. One of its most visible results is the further socioeconomic decline and marginalization of excluded populations. This article suggests that the current circumstances require a much more engaged, egalitarian, and reflexive practice-a practice, based on social rights, that matches the magnitude of the crisis and its negative impact on traditional social work constituencies. Consequently, the article suggests the concept of inclusive social work practice (ISWP), a conceptual framework whose main principles respond to four processes of social exclusion closely related to the present global crisis: extreme social isolation, growing dependency, multiple deprivation, and internalized oppression. The author describes the impact of the global crisis on patterns of social exclusion and presents the methodological foundations of the ISWP framework. PMID:24450021

Strier, Ron

2013-10-01

41

Economics of export taxation in a context of food crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to assess the rationales for the use of export taxes, in particular in the context of a food crisis. First, we summarize the effects of export taxes using both partial and general equilibrium theoretical models. When large countries have an objective of constant food domestic prices, in the event of an increase in world agricultural prices the

Antoine Bouet; David Laborde Debucquet

2010-01-01

42

University Presidential Rhetoric and the 2008-2009 Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of Association of American Universities university presidents' public communications in response to the 2008-2009 economic crisis. The authors present findings from a thematic analysis of 111 letters. The authors highlighted 22 themes and present them within three major categories: factors external to the university;…

Vitullo, Elizabeth; Johnson, Jason

2010-01-01

43

The European Context of Ireland’s Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current economic crisis has hit all European countries hard, but some are more severely affected than others. The problems manifest in European peripheral countries that are also members of the Eurozone, that is, Ireland, Spain, and Greece, have roots in domestic policy mistakes. However, the European context of these policy profiles also needs to be taken into account. The

SEBASTIAN DELLEPIANE AVELLANEDA; NIAMH HARDIMAN

2010-01-01

44

[Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].  

PubMed

Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested. PMID:23258747

Tomasina, Fernando

2012-06-01

45

Poverty crisis in the Third World: the contradictions of World Bank policy.  

PubMed

Politicians, the mainstream media, and orthodox social science have all been telling us of a final victory of capitalism over socialism, suggesting that capitalism is the only viable option for solving the world's problems. Yet, the global capitalist system is itself entering the third decade of a profound structural crisis, the costs of which have been borne largely by the exploited and oppressed peoples of the underdeveloped periphery. While the World Bank's latest World Development Report recognizes the current poverty crisis in the third world, its "two-part strategy" for alleviating poverty is based on an inadequate analysis of how peripheral capitalist development marginalizes the basic needs of the third world poor. Hence, the World Bank's assertion that free-market policies are consistent with effective antipoverty programs does not confront the class structures and global capitalist interests bound up with the reproduction of mass poverty in the third world. The World Bank's subordination of the basic needs of the poor to free-market adjustments and reforms in fact suggests that the real purpose of its "two-part strategy" is to ensure continued extraction of surplus from third world countries by maintaining the basic structure of imperialist underdevelopment. PMID:1917207

Burkett, P

1991-01-01

46

Economic crisis helps to "demarginalize" women.  

PubMed

This article discusses processes that demarginalize women in developing countries. The case study pertained to women in the Santa coffee growing area of North West Province, Cameroon. Coffee is the main source of income for families. Women obtain land for growing subsistence crops with the permission of their husbands and with pleading. The sharp fall in coffee prices left families in economic difficulties. It forced families to reduce coffee production or abandon coffee production entirely. Women found an alternative in growing vegetables for retail sale. The women formed associations that provided instruction on how to farm, sell produce, and obtain credit. Men observed the increase in income from the women's sale of produce. Women included the men in discussions about their progress and difficulties. Men were thus encouraged to sell their land to women. Women gained power by becoming the sole source of family income. The women's groups helped women improve land use and the use of income. This experience proved that crises can have positive outcomes. Men's power was based on economic control over resources rather than culture or machismo. Women's cooperation with men in nation building resulted in economic independence. Marginalization of women was based on money. Women proved that participation, rather than power, was the appropriate means to social change and more equitable relations. The obstacles to women's power included cultural expectations about their roles and choices, sex discrimination, and lack of access to leadership networks. PMID:12293703

Forje, C L

1998-05-01

47

Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis  

PubMed Central

Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

2011-01-01

48

About How Did the First Ever Big Economic Crisis Look Like  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obsession about the current economic crisis is pretty understandable. But being obsessed about the current moment, in the economic crisis matter, might become a scientific mistake. As for instance, the real results of the current period will be available in just a couple of years. Moreover, we used to believe up to recently that the previous big crisis of

Liviu C. ANDREI

2010-01-01

49

Cold hearths and barren slopes: The woodfuel crisis in the Third World  

SciTech Connect

With depleting forests and rapidly shrinking supplies of firewood and charcoal, a vast section of the Third World population, still dependent primarily and often solely on such woodfuels for its domestic energy, is facing a crisis. Drawing upon evidence from across Asia, Africa and parts of Latin America, Dr. Bina Agarwal analyses the scale of this other energy crisis, its complex causes, its consequences, and the solutions being offered for its alleviation. Most attempts by governments and international agencies to promote afforestation and improved woodburning stoves as solutions, are found to have had little success. In particular, they seldom reach and benefit the rural poor who are the principal sufferers. Why have these efforts failed. The socio-economic inequalities and poverty that characterize most Third World societies, impinge both on the causes of the crisis and on the effectiveness of schemes to alleviate it. Class and gender biases usually underlie such schemes, which are also typified by a tip-down method of planning and implementation.

Agarwal, B.

1986-01-01

50

Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

Tao, Yong

2010-09-01

51

World economics for mankind's frontier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, No. 5, March 2006, at ISSN0094-5765 there appears the article entitled “Will space actually be the Final Frontier of humankind?” written by Giancarlo Genta, and Michael Rycroft. This Acta Astronautica article requires amplification on the economic side. The writer of this article was personally present at the Apollo 11th launchings for the first landing on

Edward R. Finch Jr.

2007-01-01

52

Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

1974-01-01

53

Stock markets and criticality in the current economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the current economic crisis has led the market to exhibit a non-critical behavior. We do so by analyzing the quantitative parameters of time series from the main assets of the Brazilian Stock Market BOVESPA. By monitoring global persistence we show a deviation of power law behavior during the crisis in a strong analogy with spin systems (from where this concept was originally conceived). Such behavior is corroborated by an emergent heavy tail of absolute return distribution and also by the magnitude autocorrelation exponent. Comparisons with universal exponents obtained in the international stock markets are also performed. This suggests how a thorough analysis of suitable exponents can bring a possible way of forecasting market crises characterized by non-criticality.

da Silva, Roberto; Zembrzuski, Marcelo; Correa, Fabio C.; Lamb, Luis C.

2010-12-01

54

Electric power, economic growth in third world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand for electricity remains a prerequisite for economic growth, says Mohan Munasinghe of the World Bank in Washington. This truism presents decision makers in the Third World with a major dilemma: if they spend their scarce resources on capital-intensive electric power projects, they won't have anything left to solve the problems of acute poverty and malnutrition, but if they

Munasinghe

2009-01-01

55

Economic and Trade Strategies in World Fisheries  

E-print Network

Economic and Trade Strategies in World Fisheries Robert A. Siegel and Richard S. Johnston, Editors and Atmospheric Ad ministration, and the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade. The aim of this session was to provide an overview of several inter national trade issues that affect the development

56

[Trends in environmental risks in the context of the economic crisis. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

This article aims to analyze the impact of the economic and financial crisis on environmental determinants of health. The World Health Organization estimates that between 13% and 27% of the disease burden in countries could be prevented by improving the environment. These effects are larger in vulnerable populations, especially among the poorest. In the last decade, outdoor air pollution (the most significant environmental health risk in most European countries) has declined, mostly due to the European policy of reducing emissions and to the decrease in activity following the economic crisis. During the last few years, this improvement in air quality has occurred simultaneously with a reduction in investment in environmental protection and could therefore be offset in the medium-term. The economic crisis has not reduced the trend for higher temperatures in Spain and Europe because climate change is a global phenomenon that is not directly related to local emissions. To reduce the risk of an increase in the health impact of environmental factors, certain key aspects should be considered, such as the need to maintain or develop adequate monitoring and control systems and the opportunity to implement policies that help improve the quality of the environment and reduce the vulnerability of different population groups in a cross-disciplinary framework of transparency and citizen participation. PMID:24863994

Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Querol, Xavier; Esplugues, Ana

2014-06-01

57

Ukrainean crisis: History, demography, economics, science, personal impressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Economic and Demographic situation in Ukraine has been given. Some historical-scientific aspects of the actual crisis has been revealed. Between them: The soveitization of the Science, when scientists of Ukrainean origin work outside its borders, while the most influent and proliferous scientists inside the Country are of Russian origin. The percentage of astronomers of Russian origin is as great as ~40% while the percentage of the Russian population in Ukraine is about 20%. Another problem consist in low knowledge of the Ukrainean language by scientists working inside the Country.

Gaina, Alex

58

ANALYSIS OF THE TAXATION SYSTEM IN ROMANIA IN THE ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we try to realize a study on the interdependencies and correlation between the fiscal policy and financial and economic crisis in Romania. First, we analyze the taxation system in Romania before and after the start of economic crisis to establish the correlation between the level of taxation and the economic growth rate. The sense of correlation is

2010-01-01

59

"Grim and Getting Grimmer." World Employment Report 1998-99: Global Financial Crisis to Hike World Unemployment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Employment Report indicates that the number of unemployed and underemployed workers around the world has never been higher and will grow as a result of the financial crisis in Asia and other parts of the world. Worker training provides an effective means to resolve this problem. (Author/JOW)

World of Work, 1998

1998-01-01

60

Economic crisis and smoking behaviour: prospective cohort study in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland and smoking behaviour at the national and individual levels. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study based on a mail survey (Health and Wellbeing in Iceland) assessed in 2007 and 2009. Setting National mail survey. Participants Representative cohort (n=3755) of Icelandic adults. Main outcome measure Smoking status. Results A significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking was observed from 2007 (pre-economic collapse) to 2009 (postcollapse) in both males (17.4–14.8%; p 0.01) and females (20.0–17.5%; p 0.01) in the cohort (n=3755). At the individual level of analysis, male former smokers experiencing a reduction in income during the same period were less likely to relapse (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.85). Female smokers were less likely to quit over time compared to males (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93). Among male former smokers who experienced an increase in income between 2007 and 2009, we observed an elevated risk of smoking relapse (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.15 to 14.00). Conclusions The national prevalence of smoking in Iceland declined following the 2008 economic crisis. This could be due to the procyclical relationship between macro-economic conditions and smoking behaviour (ie, hard times lead to less smoking because of lower affordability), or it may simply reflect a continuation of trends already in place prior to the crisis. In individual-level analysis, we find that former smokers who experienced a decline in income were less likely to relapse; and conversely, an increase in income raises the risk. However, caution is warranted since these findings are based on small numbers. PMID:23048059

McClure, Christopher Bruce; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Hauksdottir, Arna; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-01-01

61

The Global Financial Crisis, LDC Exports and Welfare: Analysis with a World Trade Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in international trade flows and world prices are major channels through which the global financial crisis will hit developing countries. The recession in the ‘global North’ triggered by the financial crisis and the resulting slowdown of growth in China and other major emerging economies will generate declines in demand for exports from developing countries, along with a reversal of

Dirk Willenbockel; Sherman Robinson

2009-01-01

62

Crisis Speeches Delivered during World War II: A Historical and Rhetorical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhetorical analyses of speeches made by United States presidents and world leaders abound, particularly studies about addresses to nations in times of crisis. These are important because what presidents say amidst uncertainty and chaos defines their leadership in the eyes of the public. But with new forms of crisis rhetoric, our understanding of…

Ramos, Tomas E.

2010-01-01

63

Asian economic crisis and the long-term global food situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

After two decades of rapid economic growth, several East and Southeast Asian economies entered a period of serious economic and financial crisis in 1997. This paper explores the impacts of this crisis on global food supply, demand, and trade and food prices under alternative scenarios to 2020 using IFPRI's IMPACT global food model. The role of Asia as a major

Mark W. Rosegrant; Claudia Ringler

2000-01-01

64

South Africa, Economic Potential for World Partnership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

South Africa stands alone, isolated from the world community because of her internal apartheid policies. The basic questions of when and how the Western Bloc will again recognize South Africa as a political ally seems to depend upon economics and the stra...

C. W. Taylor

1972-01-01

65

Student Aid and Access in the Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most economists expect the current economic downturn to be one of the most severe since World War II. In fact, there is a very real danger that the changing circumstances of students, families, state and federal governments, and educational institutions could interact to significantly diminish educational opportunity in the United States. The most…

Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael

2009-01-01

66

Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

2013-01-01

67

AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR TURKEY: THE FORECASTING OF ECONOMIC CRISIS BY USING THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic crisis is typically a rare kind of an event but it impedes monetary stability, fiscal stability, financial stability, price stability, and sustainable economic development when it appears. Economic crises have huge adverse effects on economic and social system. This study uses an artificial neural network learning paradigm to predict economic crisis events for early warning aims. This paradigm

Fuat Sekmen; Murat Kurkcu

2014-01-01

68

Simulating the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis and Policy Responses on Children in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is experiencing the impact of the global crisis and the uncertain economic outlook. Indeed, as Ghana’s economy is among the most open in Africa, it is expected that the country has been and will continue to be severely affected by the crisis, although strong export prices of its main exports (gold and cocoa)

John Cockburn; Luca Tiberti; Ismaël Fofana; Theodore Antwi-Asare; Edgar A. Cooke; Daniel K. Twerefou

2010-01-01

69

The Asian Crisis: An Economic Analysis of the Causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevailing views suggest that short-term, unhedged foreign borrowing and crony capitalism, in combination with a weak financial system and lack of transparency may lie at the heart of the Asian financial crisis of 1997. Although the crisis first began in Thailand, it quickly spread to the rest of the region. While it is important to know the causes of the

Saleheen Khan; Faridul Islam; Syed Ahmed

2005-01-01

70

Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

2009-01-01

71

Understanding the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Child and Maternal Health among the Poor: Opportunities for South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic crisis hit many countries in 2007 and the effects are still being felt, especially in poorer developing nations. Much of the debate surrounding the economic crisis and its impacts has focused on the financial and economic aspects—import\\/export impacts, economic growth losses, labor force cutbacks, and fiscal imbalances. The social impact, especially on poor and vulnerable groups, has received

Azra Abdul Cader; Lakwimashi Perera

2011-01-01

72

Public procurement of health technologies in Greece in an era of economic crisis.  

PubMed

Public procurement is generally an important sector of the economy and, in most countries, is controlled by the introduction of regulatory and policy mechanisms. In the Greek healthcare sector, recent legislation redefined centralized procurement through the reestablishment of a state Health Procurement Committee (EPY), with an aim to formulate a plan to reduce procurement costs of medical devices and pharmaceuticals, improve payment time, make uniform medical requests, transfer redundant materials from one hospital to another and improve management of expired products. The efforts described in this paper began in early 2010, under the co-ordination of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and with the collaboration of senior staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Commission (EC) and the European Central Bank (ECB). The procurement practices and policies set forth by EPY and the first measurable outcomes, in terms of cost savings, resulting from these policies are presented. The importance of these measures is discussed in light of the worst economic crisis faced by Greece since the restoration of democracy in 1974, as a result of both the world financial crisis and uncontrolled government spending. PMID:22502936

Kastanioti, Catherine; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Stasinopoulos, Dionysis; Kapetaneas, Nikolaos; Polyzos, Nikolaos

2013-01-01

73

The Effect of an Economic Crisis on Educational Outcomes: An Economic Framework and Review of the Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first provides an economic framework for understanding how an economic crisis affects children's educational outcomes; this framework shows that there are both negative (harmful) effects and positive (beneficial) effects on educational outcomes. A review of the empirical evidence suggests that the negative effects are typically…

Shafiq, M. Najeeb

2010-01-01

74

Indonesian heath care and the economic crisis: is managed care the needed reform?  

PubMed

The ramifications of the current economic crisis are being felt throughout Asia, but problems are particularly acute in Indonesia; in the midst of high inflation and unemployment the government is considering expanding managed care reform. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the recent economic crisis on the health sector in Indonesia, and analyze the potential for implementing effective reform following the managed care model. The health sector is discussed, highlighting pre-existing problems in the health care supply environment. The determinants of the economic crisis are summarized, and the broad impacts of the crisis to date on the health sector are assessed. Next the prospects for success of current managed-care reform proposals are examined in some detail: viability of expanded managed care reform measures are assessed in light of the continuing crisis and its likely impacts on the consumers and suppliers of health care. Analysis of the potential impact of the continuing crisis focuses on key participants in health care reform: households, the government, and private health care providers. In conclusion the potential viability of managed care appears poor, given the current economic, political, and institutional conditions and likely future impacts, and suggest some alternative reform measures. PMID:10351668

Hotchkiss, D R; Jacobalis, S

1999-03-01

75

"Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…

Schmalzbauer, Leah

2011-01-01

76

Prevailing During the Periods of Economical Crisis and Recession through Business Model Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a consensus among economists on the measures to be taken in economical means during an economic recession and crisis. In this context, these measures include establishing and managing capital structure in a way to cover costs of long term losses and expensive loan payments, avoiding borrowing to finance the losses, being cautious on the use of long-term bank

Ahmet Ucaktürk; Mustafa Bekmezci; Tülay Ucaktürk

2011-01-01

77

The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

Rajan, Raghuram

2010-01-01

78

The global economic crisis, poverty and education: a perspective from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India – a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research suggests that the

Geetha B. Nambissan

2010-01-01

79

The Global Economic Crisis, Poverty and Education: A Perspective from India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…

Nambissan, Geetha B.

2010-01-01

80

World Refugee Crisis: Winning the Game. Facts for Action #6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Definitions, statistics, and problems of world refugees are presented in this document for high school global education classes. Although various agencies have determined different definitions of the term, the authors consider as refugees all those forced to flee their native land in order to survive. For most refugees the attraction of a higher…

Oxfam America, Boston, MA.

81

World Population: The Present and Future Crisis. Headline Series 251.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet focuses on demographic change during the 1980s and 1990s, with special emphasis on the social and political pressures of accelerated demographic growth. It is intended for use in classrooms, community discussion groups, and seminars. Two world population trends are designated as most likely to dominate the demographic picture in the…

Piotrow, Phyllis T.

82

Economic Crisis and Changes in Mortality Due to Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Antananarivo, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar was severely affected by the economic crisis that hit sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s. The crisis, exacerbated\\u000a by a high degree of political instability, led to food shortages in the mid-1980s. The impact on mortality is not well known,\\u000a owing to a lack of statistics for the whole island. Systematic analysis of the registers of the Municipal Hygiene Office

Dominique Waltisperger

83

Feeling the Crunch: Education Policy and Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global capitalist crisis is impacting dramatically across nation states and their economies. Although a complete collapse of the system appears to have been avoided by decisions to take co-ordinated interventionist action to shore up short term demand, governments have generally rejected the more radical actions required to address the…

Stevenson, Howard

2009-01-01

84

Systems Thinking in the Management of Korean Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the unanticipated financial crisis of Korea in 1997, lots of debates have been held on why and how it came upon. Most of debates including hearings of National Assembly focused their attention on why policy makers could not forecast and avoid the financial cirsis. No one, if any, asks whether or not there were systems thinking in the mind

Dong-Hwan Kim; Naeri Daeduck-Myun

85

Fractured elites : the politics of economic crisis in Mexico  

E-print Network

Economic crises are such powerful socioeconomic disasters that, not surprisingly, they are usually explained by powerful socioeconomic pressures, such as global financial speculation, structural economic failure, or populist ...

Schlefer, Jonathan King

2003-01-01

86

Economics for a Creative World1 ROGER KOPPL  

E-print Network

Economics for a Creative World1 ROGER KOPPL Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University Economics, 2015, to appear. #12;#12;Abstract Drawing on current biology, we argue that the phase space of economic evolution is not stable. Thus, there are no entailing laws of economic dynamics. In this sense

Longo, Giuseppe

87

After Neoliberalism? Brazil, India, and China in the Global Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of debates about ‘post-neoliberalism’, we examine the implications of the global economic crisis for three important semi-peripheral states: Brazil, India, and China. Deploying a framework which combines neo-Gramscian theory, radical economic geography, and materialist state theory, we find that all their political-economic models have undergone processes of substantial neoliberalisation, albeit to varying degrees and partly giving way

Stefan Schmalz; Matthias Ebenau

2012-01-01

88

European economies in crisis: A multifractal analysis of disruptive economic events and the effects of financial assistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the complexity of rare economic events in troubled European economies. The economic crisis initiated at the end of 2009, forced a number of European economies to request financial assistance from world organizations. By employing the stock market index as a leading indicator of the economic activity, we test whether the financial assistance programs altered the statistical properties of the index. The effects of major financial program agreements on the economies can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the agreement. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties for all periods under investigation. In two of the three investigated economies, financial assistance along with governments’ initiatives appear to have altered the statistical properties of the stock market indexes increasing the width of the multifractal spectra and thus the complexity of the market.

Siokis, Fotios M.

2014-02-01

89

[The economic-financial crisis and health in Spain. Evidence and viewpoints. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The objectives of the SESPAS 2014 Report are as follows: a) to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on health and health-related behaviors, on health inequalities, and on the determinants of health in Spain; b) to describe the changes in the Spanish health system following measures to address the crisis and assess its potential impact on health; c) to review the evidence on the health impact of economic crises in other countries, as well as policy responses; and d) to suggest policy interventions alternative to those carried out to date with a population health perspective and scientific evidence in order to help mitigate the impact of the economic downturn on health and health inequalities. The report is organized in five sections: 1) the economic, financial and health crisis: causes, consequences, and contexts; 2) the impact on structural determinants of health and health inequalities; 3) the impact on health and health-related behaviors, and indicators for monitoring; 4) the impact on health systems; and 5) the impact on specific populations: children, seniors, and immigrants. There is some evidence on the relationship between the crisis and the health of the Spanish population, health inequalities, some changes in lifestyle, and variations in access to health services. The crisis has impacted many structural determinants of health, particularly among the most vulnerable population groups. Generally, policy responses on how to manage the crisis have not taken the evidence into account. The crisis may contribute to making public policy vulnerable to corporate action, thus jeopardizing the implementation of healthy policies. PMID:24863987

Cortès-Franch, Imma; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz

2014-06-01

90

Economic analysis of world energy problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental economic principles are applied to energy-policy issues and specific energy-policy decisions. A general theoretical method for economic analysis is formulated that avoids overly restricted or limited data and stresses policy questions that are likely to be of continuing interest. The book features an analysis of the various energy industries as economic entities, including the use of capital investment for

1981-01-01

91

[Sexual and reproductive health and the economic crisis in Spain. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economic crisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economic crisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economic crisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. PMID:24864000

Larrañaga, Isabel; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia

2014-06-01

92

Local Employment Policies in the Context of the Economic Crisis - Influences of the European Community Structural Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several European states, including Romania, the European integration process has overlapped with the effects of the economic and financial crisis. The consequences of such a situation are apparently contradictory. On one hand, the crisis lowers the European integration process in view of achieving the performance imposed by the Single Market, the economic and administrative convergence etc. On the other

Ani Matei; Lucica Matei

2010-01-01

93

Local employment policies in the context of the economic crisis:Influences of the European Community structural instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several European states, including Romania, the European integration process has overlapped with the effects of the economic and financial crisis. The consequences of such a situation are apparently contradictory. On one hand, the crisis lowers the European integration process in view of achieving the performance imposed by the Single Market, the economic and administrative convergence etc. On the other

Lucica Matei; Ani Matei

2010-01-01

94

[Impact of the economic crisis on the right to a healthy diet. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The present article analyzes the impact of the economic crisis on food consumption in Spain, the most affected social profiles, and the consequences of changing patterns of food consumption on health. This article is based on official reports and previous empirical studies. The crisis has affected diet and food consumption. Families are attempting to spend less money on food. Food insecurity is rising and the most affected groups are those spending a higher proportion of their income on food. Cuts in food spending run parallel with unhealthy eating habits that encourage obesity. Consequently, the crisis contributes to undermining the right to a healthy diet, recognized by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the United Nations. PMID:24863995

Antentas, Josep Maria; Vivas, Esther

2014-06-01

95

Understanding the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Child and Maternal Health among the Poor : Opportunities for South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic crisis hit many countries in 2007 and the effects are still being felt, especially in poorer developing nations. Much of the debate surrounding the economic crisis and its impacts has focused on the financial and economic aspects—import\\/export impacts, economic growth losses, labor force cutbacks, and fiscal imbalances. The social impact, especially on poor and vulnerable groups, has received

Azra Abdul Cader; Lakwimashi Perera

2011-01-01

96

Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis  

PubMed Central

The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in times of economic downturn. It indicates that good mental health cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. The determinants of mental health often lie outside of the remits of the health system, and all sectors of society have to be involved in the promotion of mental health. Accessible and responsive primary care services support people at risk and can prevent mental health consequences. Any austerity measures imposed on mental health services need to be geared to support the modernization of mental health care provision. Social welfare supports and active labour market programmes aiming at helping people retain or re-gain jobs can counteract the mental health effects of the economic crisis. Family support programmes can also make a difference. Alcohol pricing and restrictions of alcohol availability reduce alcohol harms and save lives. Support to tackle unmanageable debt will also help to reduce the mental health impact of the crisis. While the current economic crisis may have a major impact on mental health and increase mortality due to suicides and alcohol-related disorders, it is also a window of opportunity to reform mental health care and promote a mentally healthy lifestyle. PMID:23024664

WAHLBECK, KRISTIAN; MCDAID, DAVID

2012-01-01

97

Dynamics of CSFs for business innovation: Normal vs. Crisis economic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research reviews the literature on business innovation, identifies CSFs for business innovation, empirically tests the validity of CSFs as well as examines the impact of CSFs on the success of business innovation, and investigates whether CSFs for business innovation are identical or different in normal and crisis economic conditions. Thorough extensive literature review, eleven CSFs were identified: motivation and

Tae Kyung Sung

2011-01-01

98

Implications of Economic and Financial Crisis for Agricultural Sector of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the global economic downturn has resulted in large-scale job losses and mass unemployment in many export-oriented sectors, the situation in food and agricultural sector has remained stable with little job losses. However, since agricultural sector in India has somewhat different entity, the impact of global crisis in this sector is seen to have percolated in varied forms. During the

Shah Deepak

2012-01-01

99

As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

Field, Kelly

2008-01-01

100

Research on Development Model and Countermeasure of Bamboo Industry in China on International Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global economy is facing economic crisis at present. And all the industries are face to serious problem relative to their fates. In addition, the bamboo industry in China is not relating to ecological environment construction for low utilization rate of raw materials, high energy consumption and low products extra value. therefore, the development model and countermeasure is urgent to

Peng Wan-xi; Zhang Xu; Zhang Zhong-feng; Wu Yi-qiang; Deng He-ping; Qi Hong-chen

2009-01-01

101

The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women,

T. Ninuk S. Hartini; R. Siwi Padmawati; Lars Lindholm; Achmad Surjono; Anna Winkvist

2005-01-01

102

The impact of the global economic crisis on working capital of real sector in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of this study is to reveal the impact of the recent global economic crisis, triggered in 2007 and unveiled in 2008, on the working capital of real sector in Turkey. Since it is obvious that ratios would help in such an analysis, we have analyzed the current assets and liabilities related ratios, based on financial statements of Turkish real

Iffet Gorkey Kesimli; Suleyman Gokhan Gunay

2011-01-01

103

The Economics of the World Trading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

World trade is governed by the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO sets rules of conduct for the international trade of goods and services and for intellectual property rights, provides a forum for multinational negotiations to resolve trade problems, and has a formal mechanism for dispute

Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

2002-01-01

104

Economic Crisis and Inequality of Educational Opportunity in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the industrialized world shows that the influence of family background on educational attainment has remained stable or declined over time. In contrast, very little is known about the developing world. Using high-quality data sets and a standard protocol, this article offers a comparative analysis of trends in educational…

Torche, Florencia

2010-01-01

105

On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out to be quite correct.

Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

2012-05-01

106

Economic analysis of world energy problems  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental economic principles are applied to energy-policy issues and specific energy-policy decisions. A general theoretical method for economic analysis is formulated that avoids overly restricted or limited data and stresses policy questions that are likely to be of continuing interest. The book features an analysis of the various energy industries as economic entities, including the use of capital investment for exploration and fuel extraction; a consideration of the industries that supply energy as well as those that supply the machinery and equipment that consume energy; a consideration of the countries that supply energy (especially OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) and the countries that consume it; and discussions of spatial economics and exhaustion not available elsewhere; and delineation of the impact of transportation costs on the delivered price of energy. Other subjects include supply regulation, oil and gas price controls, taxation and land law, conservation, and environmental legislation. 376 references, 25 figures, 16 tables.

Gordon, R.L.

1981-01-01

107

World Economic Situation and Prospects for 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (ESA), this new report offers a review of the worldwide economic situation in 1998 and a forecast for 1999. Offered in .pdf format, the report contains a global overview and six chapters analyzing Developed Economies, Economies in Transition, Developing Economies, International Trade, Financial Markets, and Official Development Finance and Debt. Eleven statistical tables are also provided.

1999-01-01

108

World Economic Outlook and International Capital Markets Interim Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A critical update to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook (described in the October 9, 1998 Scout Report), the World Economic Outlook (WEO) and International Capital Markets (ICM) Interim Assessment examines recent international financial developments and provides revised economic forecasts for emerging and mature economies. The report includes a chapter on "systemic issues" and the "policy requirements" needed to curtail further market turbulence, but ends on a positive note with a modest dip in 1999 projected growth for the world economy from 1998 estimates at 2.2 percent.

Fund., International M.

1998-01-01

109

What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world

Smith, Karen R.

2011-01-01

110

Economics of hypertension control. World Hypertension League.  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the key aspects of the problem of estimating the economic burden of hypertension and hypertension-related disease, the use of economic models, and the opportunities for containing the costs. More information is needed on the population-attributable risk of hypertension in various countries, which is indispensable to estimate the part of hypertension in the burden of stroke and heart disease. The population and high-risk approaches to hypertension control also have economic consequences, which may vary in different societies and must be assessed to ensure proper allocation of resources. Cost-containment can be achieved by more selective diagnostic investigations and by opting for cheaper drugs, though the choice of treatment is difficult owing to uncertainties in the quality-of-life estimates. PMID:7554012

1995-01-01

111

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

E-print Network

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

Marx, Benjamin

112

The Global Economic Crisis. Challenges for SMEs in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economy of the European Union (EU) has left behind the downturn and is gradually recovering. In 2010, both the EU and the Eurozone posted economic growth, mostly because Germany did better than expected. All considered, the German economy is growing at a faster pace than in the last two decades. Recession, however, has persisted in states like Greece, Romania

Roxana Gabriela HODOROGEL

2011-01-01

113

What Caused Asia's Economic and Currency Crisis and Its Global Contagion?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nouriel Roubini, Associate Professor of Economics and International Business, Stern School of Business, New York University, has put together an impressive collection of articles relating to the Asian economic and currency crisis. The articles include news reports, International Monetary Fund (IMF) reports, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) working papers and also research articles by Professor Roubini himself. The site is divided into several sections including basic readings, global effects, country analyses, the role of the IMF, systemic risk and short-term capital flows, case studies of exchange rate collapse, and the debate over flexible and fixed exchange rates.

Roubini, Nouriel.

1998-01-01

114

Nutritional Status During an Economic Crisis: Evidence from Russia &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1996 and 1998, Russia experienced a spectacular decline in economic activity which was followed by a dramatic rebound between 1998 and 2000. We use panel data to examine the impact of variation in household resources on six dimensions of nutritional status, distinguishing longer-run from short-term fluctuations in resources. Nutritional status is very resilient to short-term variation in household resources.

Steven Stillman; Duncan Thomas

2008-01-01

115

Economic Crisis and Women’s Employment in Urban Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, women have lagged behind men in terms of entering the labour\\u000aforce, and in many countries, their earnings lag behind male earnings.\\u000aHowever, in recent years, many developed and developing economies have\\u000aexperienced transformations in their labour market structures due to trends\\u000asuch as globalisation and economic restructuring.\\u000aIndeed, the labour market in Kenya has undergone several changes since

W. R. Wamuthenya

2010-01-01

116

Economic Freedom and Beauty Pageant Success in the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauty pageants are ubiquitous around the world, and their importance in many cultures is indisputable. This paper empirically examines those factors that contribute to beauty pageant success in a cross-national setting. Our analysis pays particular attention to the role of market liberalism, i.e., economic freedom, in the process. The results indicate that nations with higher economic freedom scores are underrepresented

Robert Lawson; Justin Ross

2010-01-01

117

Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic

Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

2003-01-01

118

Effective Global Economic Governance by the World Trade Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Trade Organization ('WTO') is the principal international institution for the management and regulation of the process of economic globalization. Its effectiveness in fulfilling this important task, however, leaves much to be desired. On 4 and 5 February 2005, the Faculty of Law of Maastricht University organized an international research conference entitled 'In Search of Effective Global Economic Governance:

Peter Van den Bossche

2005-01-01

119

Impact of the Economic Crisis on Higher Education in East Asia: Country Experiences. Policy Forum on Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 8 papers presented at the January 2001 United Nations Policy Forum. The first paper provides an overview of major changes in the higher education sector in the selected countries consequent upon the economic crisis in the region. The subsequent papers analyze the crisis and its impact on higher education in individual…

Varghese, N. V., Ed.

120

Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000-50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children's health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lucas, Patricia J; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

2014-06-01

121

Energy use in the developing world: A crisis of rising expectations  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing a serious short-run energy supply problem. The Persian Gulf crisis has not caused this problem, but it does serve to underline its seriousness. The expectation is that in the longer term the energy situation will ease because of new technical developments, which will assist in the transformation out of the current fuels cycle to a radically new one. The short-run problem is particularly difficult because the societies most affected are those that can least afford to be without the energy essential for their climb out of mass poverty. There appears to be a potentially severe shortage of liquid fuels that will become progressively worse over the next 20 years. The rich countries will be able to command their share with ease. It is the Third World countries that will suffer the most.

Rogers, P. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-04-01

122

The Asian Economic Crisis: Policy Choices, Social Consequences and the Philippine Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new Asian Update from the Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) features three articles on the Asian economic crisis written by authorities on economic and business development in Asia. As with the other Asian Updates, this latest offering provides valuable and insightful background and analysis on events in Asia for a wide audience, including scholars, students, policy makers, the media, and businesses. In addition to the articles, users will find a bibliography and contact information for a list of specialists in the field.

Ching, Frank.; Lim, Linda.; Villegas, Bernardo M.

1999-01-01

123

The global financial crisis and its implications on the convergence of Romania with the economic and monetary union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international financial crisis has affected the new member States of the European Union as well, for which the convergence criteria represent the economic test of evaluation of a degree of economic preparation, in order to participate in the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union. This paper analyses the main evolutions recorded by Romania under the conditions of

Veronel AVRAM; Marioara AVRAM

2010-01-01

124

Was the economic crisis of 2008 good for Icelanders? Impact on health behaviors.  

PubMed

This study uses the 2008 economic crisis in Iceland to identify the effects of a macroeconomic downturn on a range of health behaviors. We use longitudinal survey data that include pre- and post-reports from the same individuals on a range of health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors. We find that the crisis led to large and significant reductions in health-compromising behaviors (such as smoking, drinking alcohol or soft drinks, and eating sweets) and certain health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruits and vegetables), but to increases in other health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fish oil and recommended sleep). The magnitudes of effects for smoking are somewhat larger than what has been found in past research in other contexts, while those for alcohol, fruits, and vegetables are in line with estimates from other studies. Changes in work hours, real income, financial assets, mortgage debt, and mental health, together, explain the effects of the crisis on some behaviors (such as consumption of sweets and fast food), while the effects of the crisis on most other behaviors appear to have operated largely through price increases. PMID:23659821

Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Ólafsdóttir, Þórhildur; Reichman, Nancy E

2014-03-01

125

Economic crisis detected from space: Air quality observations over Athens/Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using both satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns and a number of economic metrics, we investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. The multiannual analysis shows that NO2 columns over Athens have been significantly reduced in the range 30-40%. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, and SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that the economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants in large parts of Greece.

Vrekoussis, M.; Richter, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Lelieveld, J.; Barrie, L.; Zerefos, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.

2013-01-01

126

Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: regional analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify which aspects of socioeconomic change were associated with the steep decline in life expectancy in Russia between 1990 and 1994. Design: Regression analysis of regional data, with percentage fall in male life expectancy as dependent variable and a range of socioeconomic measures reflecting transition, change in income, inequity, and social cohesion as independent variables. Determination of contribution of deaths from major causes and in each age group to changes in both male and female life expectancy at birth in regions with the smallest and largest declines. Setting: Regions (oblasts) of European Russia (excluding Siberia and those in the Caucasus affected by the Chechen war). Subjects: The population of European Russia. Results: The fall in life expectancy at birth varied widely between regions, with declines for men and women highly correlated. The regions with the largest falls were predominantly urban, with high rates of labour turnover, large increases in recorded crime, and a higher average but unequal distribution of household income. For both men and women increasing rates of death between the ages of 30 and 60 years accounted for most of the fall in life expectancy, with the greatest contributions being from conditions directly or indirectly associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The decline in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s cannot be attributed simply to impoverishment. Instead, the impact of social and economic transition, exacerbated by a lack of social cohesion, seems to have played a major part. The evidence that alcohol is an important proximate cause of premature death in Russia is strengthened. Key messages The fall in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s has not affected all parts of the country equally The greatest falls have been in some of the wealthiest regions, suggesting that impoverishment is not a sufficient explanation Much of the deterioration can be explained by labour force turnover, crime rates (which can be considered a proxy measure of social cohesion), and income inequality Alcohol is a major factor in many of the additional deaths Understanding changes in mortality in central and eastern Europe during the transition (from a communist to a capitalist system) may shed light on determinants of health in the West PMID:9685275

Walberg, Peder; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Chenet, Laurent; Leon, David A

1998-01-01

127

Financial Bubbles, Real Estate Bubbles, Derivative Bubbles, and the Financial and Economic Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and bolster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economic crisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement have led to an illusion of a "perpetual money machine" allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the "good times" but that huge liabilities were. The most "interesting" present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.

Sornette, Didier; Woodard, Ryan

128

[The economic crisis and health in Spain and Europe: is mortality increasing?].  

PubMed

In recent publications it has been suggested that the health of the European population is deteriorating as a consequence of the economic crisis. Such deterioration would be manifested by an increase in mortality, particularly in those countries applying austerity measures. It has also been suggested that as a consequence of these policies, suicides have skyrocketed and the situation could become a public health catastrophe of the kind that occurred in the 1990s in the countries formerly part of the USSR. These affirmations have no basis in the existing data. Statistics indicate that in European countries in general and especially in those most affected by the crisis, general mortality has decreased and the health of the population has improved in 2007-2010. Paradoxically, the crisis has had a beneficial effect on health in these countries. Such findings are in substantial agreement with previous studies that have shown throughout various periods within market economies that recessions are favorable to health while periods of economic expansion are harmful. PMID:24823606

Tapia Granados, José A

2014-04-01

129

Gender differences in entrepreneurship : Equality, diversity and inclusion in times of global crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In 2008, the world had undergone a global economic crisis. Since women always face greater difficulties in obtaining capital than men, the economic crisis had a greater effect on them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of the global crisis for women's entrepreneurship, from the perspective of equality, diversity and inclusion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The

Ayala Malach Pines; Miri Lerner; Dafna Schwartz

2010-01-01

130

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 1998/99: Beyond Financial Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On December 2 the World Bank released a new 200 page annual report on the global economy which contained thinly veiled criticism of the International Monetary Fund and US Treasury's handling of the Asian financial crisis. The crucial mistake, the report maintains, was their decision to push Asian nations into easing their interest rates, which set off the almost-worldwide recession. While it warns that a substantial danger remains that the world could fall into recession in 1999, the report predicts that the economies of most of the distressed nations will improve into 2000. In addition to an analysis of the short- and long-term prospects of the developing world, the report offers policy suggestions for preventing or managing future crises. At the site, the users will find the full text of the report, a summary, the foreword, press releases in multiple languages, and a PowerPoint slide show.

Dasgupta, Dipak.

1998-01-01

131

Transitional paradigms to a new world economic order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the meaning of the term new world order (NWO) and defines its economic dimensions. Identifies three common principles of any workable NWO: material, social and spiritual dimensions. Links these dimensions in an analytical framework. Reviews the literature on the theories and concepts which further our understanding and identification of societal ideals. Describes ways to integrate the social and spiritual

Peter Calkins; Marc Vézina

1996-01-01

132

The World Social Forum and the Lessons for Economic Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the development of the World Social Forum (WSF) using theoretical arguments that have emerged from the new economic geog- raphy. In particular, it draws on the critique of economistic accounts of globaliza- tion by Richa Nagar, Victoria Lawson, Linda McDowell, and Susan Hanson to evaluate how far the WSF serves to move beyond institutional, spatial, and personal

Matthew Sparke; Elizabeth Brown; Dominic Corva; Heather Day; Caroline Faria; Tony Sparks; Kirsten Varg

2009-01-01

133

Economical crisis detected from space: Trends in air quality of Athens in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from three satellite spectrometers (SCIAMACHY, GOME2 and OMI) have been analyzed together with a number of economic metrics to investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. Athens is a heavily polluted city due to the extensive number of registered vehicles, the presence of industrial regions close to the city, the complex topography of the area favouring pollutant accumulation, the intense photochemical processes favoured by high temperature and insolation and the reception of transboundary pollution. The multiannual analysis shows a significant 30-40% reduction of primary gaseous pollutants in the form of NO2 tropospheric columnar densities observed over Athens, during the economic recession period, indicating large reductions in pollutant emissions. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3±0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2±0.1ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3±0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants not only in Athens but also in large parts of Greece.

Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Zerefos, Christos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Lelieveld, Jos; Barrie, Leonard; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

2013-04-01

134

When the collective acts on its components: economic crisis autocatalytic percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-based models have improved the standards for empirical support and validation criteria in social, biological, cognitive and human sciences. Yet, the inclusion, in these models, of vertical interactions between various aggregation levels remains a challenge. We study analytically, numerically and by simulation the generic consequences of interactions between the collective and its individual components: the appearance of an autocatalytic loop between the dynamics of the collective and its components; the system, which is dominated by a limited number of factors amplified by this collective<-->individuals autocatalytic loop; the microscopic features, which are not involved in the autocatalytic loop and are irrelevant at the systemic level; and how the above clarify the interplay between macroscopic predictable features and the ones dependent on random unpredictable individual events. Using the social and market percolation framework, we study the dramatic effects of the collective<-->individuals autocatalytic loop on economic crisis propagation: the percolation transition becomes discontinuous; there are a few relevant regions and regimes corresponding to a quite diverse range of response policy options; there are stability ranges where appropriate policies can help to avoid macroscopic crisis percolation; and beyond those regions the systemic crisis might become unstoppable.

Cantono, S.; Solomon, S.

2010-07-01

135

Oil, the Suez canal, and sterling reserves: economic factors determining British decisionmaking during the 1967 Arab–Israeli crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the importance of economic factors for the development of British Middle Eastern policy during the 1967 Arab-Israeli crisis, based on newly declassified government documents. Policy shifted from threatening unilateral action against Nasser to multilateralism and neutraliry shortly before the June war. Economic considerations will be put in the context of anti-interventionist voices in the cabinet, in the

Gernot Klantschnig

2003-01-01

136

Providing Crisis Counseling to New Yorkers after the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of two crisis intervention techniques used by a marriage and family counselor who served as a crisis counselor in New York City after the September 11th terrorist attack. The intervention techniques described are Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and one-on-one crisis counseling. An overview of both techniques…

Jordan, Karin

2002-01-01

137

[Transnationalization, the development crisis and the end of the Third World].  

PubMed

This work argues that transnational corporations, by their internal dynamics, disturb the pace of development in Third World countries. There is little consensus on what should constitute a national economy, despite the fact that the idea of economic nationalism has a long history. The concept that a geographic area should show a minimal degree of economic vitality as a condition for emergence into a nation state is largely foreign to political scientists and politicians. Similarly, economists do not base their analyses on nations. The developed western countries between about 1950-80 to some extent became models of national economies. Their economic complexity, strong interdependence between economic sectors, and developed industrial infrastructures were seen as the necessary complements of national sovereignty. But the most important factor in economic growth and development, capital, by its very nature is not tied to any country. The dynamics of capital of transnational firms, and more generally the movement of modern economy and society, tend to destroy the sense of economic nationality. The deterritorialization of the economy is not limited to growth of transnational firms. Such arrangements as joint ventures, licensing contracts, and agreements to share production blur the lines between nation states. Deterritorialization affects culture and power relations as well as economics. The Third World as a conceptual entity is destined to come to an end not only because of the transnationalization of productive processes and financial circuits but because of internal cleavages. The factors originally believed to be common to Third World countries have not proven to be as enduring as once thought. The ideology of a unified Third World has crumbled in the face of internal conflicts, the powerlessness of the Organization of African Unity, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, and other forces. The great division between countries is not fundamentally into 3 but into 2: the developed and the underdeveloped. The impact of multinationals on development in the Third World is likely to include both increasing homogenization due to the weakening of state borders and increasing differentiation, which is the traditional consequence of capital accumulation. The growth in importance of services and the development of the informal sector are 2 exceptions that may avoid the impact of transnational firms. PMID:12315734

Latouche, S

1988-01-01

138

Exploring Latina\\/Latino Migrants' Adaptation to the Economic Crisis in the US Heartland: A Capability Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs the capability approach to explore how Latina\\/Latino migrants in Central Illinois—an area of the Midwest (or Heartland) that lies outside the traditional metropolitan destinations—were coping with the local effects of the global economic crisis of the late 2000s. The crisis affected the capabilities of Latina\\/Latino migrants to pursue work that provided sufficient income to meet their families'

Paola León-Ross; Gale Summerfield; Mary Arends-Kuenning

2012-01-01

139

A "More General Crisis": Hannah Arendt, World-Alienation, and the Challenges of Teaching for the World as It Is  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This article is part of a special issue on the 50th anniversary of the publication of Hannah Arendt's essay, "The Crisis in Education" and her book The Human Condition. Despite the proliferation of books and articles on Arendt's work since the mid-90s, "The Crisis in Education" does not figure all that much in writing on…

Levinson, Natasha

2010-01-01

140

Economic crisis, restrictive policies, and the population's health and health care: the Greek case.  

PubMed

The global economic crisis has affected the Greek economy with unprecedented severity, making Greece an important test of the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and a population's well-being. Suicide and homicide mortality rates among men increased by 22.7% and 27.6%, respectively, between 2007 and 2009, and mental disorders, substance abuse, and infectious disease morbidity showed deteriorating trends during 2010 and 2011. Utilization of public inpatient and primary care services rose by 6.2% and 21.9%, respectively, between 2010 and 2011, while the Ministry of Health's total expenditures fell by 23.7% between 2009 and 2011. In a time of economic turmoil, rising health care needs and increasing demand for public services collide with austerity and privatization policies, exposing Greece's population health to further risks. PMID:23597358

Kondilis, Elias; Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Gavana, Magda; Ierodiakonou, Ioanna; Waitzkin, Howard; Benos, Alexis

2013-06-01

141

Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.  

PubMed

The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

2011-01-01

142

Euro Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued the current eurozone crisis is neither new nor surprising. Fiscal discipline in the eurozone was weak from its creation in 1999, but ongoing economic prosperity limited the damage. Economic recession deepened the impact of crisis on public finance and pushed some eurozone countries to the edge of bankruptcy. Options available now are costly and painful: foreign bailouts,

Miroslav Prokopijevi?

2010-01-01

143

World economic integration and the revolution in information technology  

SciTech Connect

Growth in world commerce has entailed an evolutionary change in the composition of economic flows, leading to increased economic interaction. One can distinguish five lawyers of integration: natural resources, manufactured goods, direct investment, portfolio investment, information services and telecommunications. Government policy has responded along two dimensions: subject matter regulation and expanded geographic scope of policy. For the first half of the 20th century, the dominant policy theme was protection. Beginning in the 1960s, a new theme emerged, especially in Fast Asia, that could be termed managed export-oriented growth. More recently, a new theme of total elimination of barriers and the widest possible scope for competitive forces among designated partner nations is taking integration a step further. Information services and telecommunications permeate and facilitate all layers of world commerce but give promise of revolutionizing world commerce. Advances in productivity powered by information technology, will send shock waves through labor forces all over the world and stimulate new government policy responses. Labor content in a large array of fields will be reduced, skill requirements will be selectively reduced, but new industries and new jobs will be created. Downward pressure on wages in the lower quartile of jobs resulting from {open_quotes}dumbing flown{close_quotes} will be accompanied by increased competition among well paid professionals from counterparts in India, China, and elsewhere. The challenge for policy makers to respond in ways that capitalize on opportunities for growth rather than seek to protect what ultimately be unprotectable will be enormous. 3 refs.

Hufbauer, G.

1996-12-31

144

The World - Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know  

PubMed Central

The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print “fiat” (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything without the responsibility to work or pay for these entitlements, has touched many countries and people with a few exceptions. This problem is the result of a worldwide breakdown of ethics and morality in society and a desire of the few for centralized control and power over the people. No country has instituted a solution to these problems that results in reducing expenditures or the growing debts. As many have stated in this paper, this policy cannot be sustained. The result of this scenario will be a worldwide economic crisis. Fundamental to this impending economic crisis is the failure of centrally controlled economies and socialistic programs. Those selected groups, who benefit from having control, are the politicians, bankers, some selected industry leaders, and socialist planners, who will stop at nothing to maintain power and control over the people. Liberty of the people is in jeopardy worldwide. Read the evidence presented and decide if this summary is correct. The troubling question is, “What will happen if the world economy collapses?” Will this crisis be a time for the few to take more control of the people through fear, crisis decisions, misinformation, prevention of the public from protecting themselves with guns, and pervasive spying technology on each citizen or will more democratic governments arise from the failure of centralized control, the welfare state, and the loss of liberty? Such crises have been repeated throughout 4000 years of recorded history. What happened in those past times? Read the quotations of Vladimir Lenin, developer of Marxism–Leninism, the foundation of Communism and judge what you have read from his statements. An alternative to this dismal scenario is little discussed also in the Press. Why not? In the past 150 years, the alternative has happened with a rapid growth in democracy, communications technology, and life expectancy from advances in science and medicine. To unleash this huge human potential, at this time, will require individual freedom to create and innovate with the oppor

Ausman, James I.

2013-01-01

145

The World - Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know.  

PubMed

The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print "fiat" (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything without the responsibility to work or pay for these entitlements, has touched many countries and people with a few exceptions. This problem is the result of a worldwide breakdown of ethics and morality in society and a desire of the few for centralized control and power over the people. No country has instituted a solution to these problems that results in reducing expenditures or the growing debts. As many have stated in this paper, this policy cannot be sustained. The result of this scenario will be a worldwide economic crisis. Fundamental to this impending economic crisis is the failure of centrally controlled economies and socialistic programs. Those selected groups, who benefit from having control, are the politicians, bankers, some selected industry leaders, and socialist planners, who will stop at nothing to maintain power and control over the people. Liberty of the people is in jeopardy worldwide. Read the evidence presented and decide if this summary is correct. The troubling question is, "What will happen if the world economy collapses?" Will this crisis be a time for the few to take more control of the people through fear, crisis decisions, misinformation, prevention of the public from protecting themselves with guns, and pervasive spying technology on each citizen or will more democratic governments arise from the failure of centralized control, the welfare state, and the loss of liberty? Such crises have been repeated throughout 4000 years of recorded history. What happened in those past times? Read the quotations of Vladimir Lenin, developer of Marxism-Leninism, the foundation of Communism and judge what you have read from his statements. An alternative to this dismal scenario is little discussed also in the Press. Why not? In the past 150 years, the alternative has happened with a rapid growth in democracy, communications technology, and life expectancy from advances in science and medicine. To unleash this huge human potential, at this time, will require individual freedom to create and innovate with the opportunity for risk

Ausman, James I

2013-01-01

146

World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

2014-07-01

147

Governance without government or: The Euro Crisis and what went wrong with European Economic Governance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Recession after 2008 did not turn out to be as deep and severe as the Great Depression of the 1930s. According to the European Commission, this positive result is due to the fact that economic policy-makers around the world learnt their lessons from the Great Depression in stabilizing their financial systems and, moreover, that particularly the European Union

Arne Heise

2012-01-01

148

Medical supplies shortages and burnout among greek health care workers during economic crisis: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2014-01-01

149

Medical Supplies Shortages and Burnout among Greek Health Care Workers during Economic Crisis: a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2014-01-01

150

"A Watchman on the Walls of World Freedom": The International Crisis Speaking of John F. Kennedy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of presidential crisis rhetoric appears to be the unification of the people of the United States in support of presidential policy. John F. Kennedy's crisis speaking corresponded both to his conceptions of presidential leadership and to those of the people. If the President of the United States is seen as the personification of…

Kahl, Mary L.

151

A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case  

PubMed Central

Background The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. Methods The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. Results In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. Conclusions The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess precisely. It would be useful to test out the framework against other country experiences and refine the measures and indicators. Further research on both the comparative resilience of different health systems and building resilience in preparation for crises is encouraged. PMID:24171814

2013-01-01

152

Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.  

PubMed

In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment. PMID:19200631

Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

2009-04-01

153

Climate Change, Economic crisis and their implications for a Gendered Livestock Water Productivity, reflections from Ethiopia and Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change and the global economic crisis are negatively impacting on the resilience of agriculture and rural development in countries such as Ethiopia and Zimbabwe. Livestock Water Productivity (LWP) is becoming a major area of research which aims at increasing agricultural productivity through the use of less water for both livestock and crops as an adaptation and mitigation strategy to

Everisto Mapedza; Tilahun Amede; Kim Geheb; Don Peden; Katrien Deschemaker; Eline Boelee; Sewmehon Demissie; Esther van Hoeve; Barbara van Koppen

2009-01-01

154

Sudanese migration to the new world: socio-economic characteristics.  

PubMed

"Sudanese migration is one of the most recent waves from the developing world to the U.S. and Canada.... This article...focuses on the period since the advent of the current Islamic military government of Lieutenant General Umar al Bashir in1989, the Gulf War of 1991 and the renewal of the civil war in the Sudan. The article demonstrates that an earlier, small, temporary migration from the Sudan to the New World, based principally (but not exclusively) on seeking higher education, has been replaced by a larger migration stemming from political unrest, economic stringency and a perceived lack of choice in migration. The article also provides basic descriptive data on this phenomenon." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293040

Abusharaf, R M

1997-01-01

155

Changes in Occupational Safety and Health Indices After the Korean Economic Crisis: Analysis of a National Sample, 1991-2007  

PubMed Central

We examined how the deregulation of South Korea's labor laws during the country's 1997 to 1998 economic crisis affected occupational safety and health. Although the economic index improved after the reforms, the total injury rate declined slowly and the incidence of occupational disease increased. The withdrawal of support for occupational safety and health is likely to have a sustained effect on public health. PMID:20339078

Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young; Park, Jae-Beom; Park, Shin-Goo

2010-01-01

156

The global economic crisis, its gender and ethnic implications, and policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial crisis that began in 2008 has resulted in the widespread destruction of jobs and livelihoods. Among the factors that precipitated the crisis, growing inequality both within and between countries contributed to low levels of aggregate demand and the reliance of low-income households on unsustainable borrowing to maintain living standards. The crisis provides the opportunity to rethink macroeconomic

Stephanie Seguino

2010-01-01

157

Dynamical analogy between economical crisis and earthquake dynamics within the nonextensive statistical mechanics framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of study of complex systems considers that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may be used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Several authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and the dynamics of economic (financial) systems can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. We apply concepts of the nonextensive statistical physics, on time-series data of observable manifestations of the underlying complex processes ending up with these different extreme events, in order to support the suggestion that a dynamical analogy exists between a financial crisis (in the form of share or index price collapse) and a single earthquake. We also investigate the existence of such an analogy by means of scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes). We show that the populations of: (i) fracto-electromagnetic events rooted in the activation of a single fault, emerging prior to a significant earthquake, (ii) the trade volume events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, and (iii) the price fluctuation (considered as the difference of maximum minus minimum price within a day) events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, follow both the traditional Gutenberg-Richter law as well as a nonextensive model for earthquake dynamics, with similar parameter values. The obtained results imply the existence of a dynamic analogy between earthquakes and economic crises, which moreover follow the dynamics of seizures, magnetic storms and solar flares.

Potirakis, Stelios M.; Zitis, Pavlos I.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

2013-07-01

158

Engineering water for the world: Texas A&M University tackles a water crisis  

E-print Network

are made from 50 percent clay and 50 percent sawdust and contain colloidal silver, which renders bacteria and microbes inert. It turns out something as simple as ceramic pots are one answer to the global potable water crisis. ?Three hundred children... are made from 50 percent clay and 50 percent sawdust and contain colloidal silver, which renders bacteria and microbes inert. It turns out something as simple as ceramic pots are one answer to the global potable water crisis. ?Three hundred children...

Churchill, Caitlin

2009-01-01

159

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.

Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

2009-04-01

160

Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.  

PubMed

This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates. PMID:22066128

Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

2011-01-01

161

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

1993-01-01

162

The world economic system and international migration in less developed countries: an ecological approach.  

PubMed

"This paper analysed net migration within the context of [the] world economic system and urban ecological framework using the structural equation model." The author "employs linear structural equation modelling to examine determinants of international migration, using data from the World Bank World Tables, World Development Reports and the World Bank." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12346351

Amankwaa, A A

1995-01-01

163

Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative ‘Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

2013-10-01

164

A New Era of World Hunger?- The Global Food Crisis Analyzed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an account of the main streams discussed in an international conference, held in New York in April 2008, organized by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and Global Policy Forum, which considered the right to food and the role of the United Nations in responding to the global food crisis. The paper argues for effective short-term aid and long-term

James A. Paul; Katarina Wahlberg

2008-01-01

165

Contextualising land grabbing: contemporary land deals, the global subsistence crisis and the world food system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analytically contextualises the spate of contemporary land deals popularly known as ‘land grabbing’ by locating such deals within the processes that simultaneously underpin the capitalist restructuring of global agriculture and deepen the global subsistence crisis. The article situates contemporary land deals within the context of recent rises in food prices, offers a precise definition of land grabbing and

A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi

2012-01-01

166

Children's and Adolescents' Views of the Work World in Times of Economic Uncertainty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines views of the work world held by children and adolescents who have experienced two types of economic conditions: (1) direct exposure to an unemployed father and (2) indirect exposure to negative economic conditions of the community. Results indicate communitywide economic conditions influence young people's views of the work world more…

Pautler, Katherine J.; Lewko, John H.

1987-01-01

167

Employment loss during economic crisis and suicidal thoughts in Belgium: a survey in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background The economic crisis of 2009 led to a wave of corporate reorganisations and bankruptcies, with many dismissals of employees. GPs were confronted with subsequent health consequences. Aim To assess the possible relationship between losing one’s job and having suicidal thoughts. Design and setting A survey of patients aged 18–49 years recruited from GP practices in Belgium in Deurne (Flemish region) and La Louvière (Walloon region) from September to December 2010. Method Anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Results Of all eligible patients (n = 1818), 831 were offered the questionnaire and 377 completed it (45.4%). More than one in five had been confronted with employment loss in the past year (the responder or someone close losing their job). Almost one in ten had lost their job themselves in the past year. More than one in four had experienced suicidal thoughts and 11.7% had seriously considered ending their life in the past year. In the logistic regression analysis, the following characteristics showed a statistically significant relationship with having suicidal thoughts: being single (odds ratio [OR] = 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7 to 13.8), not having satisfying social contacts (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6 to 16.2), having depressive complaints (OR = 18.4, 95% CI = 5.8 to 58.4), and having lost one’s employment in the past year (OR = 8.8, 95% CI = 2.0 to 39.3). Conclusion This study points to a statistically significant relationship between losing one’s employment in the past year and having suicidal thoughts. It emphasises the important role of the GP in the continuous and reinforced assessment of suicidal risk in times of recession. PMID:24152484

Vanderoost, Filip; van der Wielen, Susan; van Nunen, Karolien; Van Hal, Guido

2013-01-01

168

Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module IV, Entrepreneurship and the World of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students understand the marketplace; manage resources; apply…

Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

169

Macromanagement and Business Environment: Analysis of the 1991 Indian Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the importance that macroeconomic management, policies and stability have on promoting the business environment of a country. For this purpose, the analysis of the 1991 Balance of Payments (BoP) crisis in India has been done to show how poor macroeconomic management of the Indian economy during the 1980s precipitated the BoP crisis in 1991 and

Ravi Saraogi

2006-01-01

170

Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain).  

PubMed

Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. PMID:21376438

Arruti, A; Fernández-Olmo, I; Irabien, A

2011-05-01

171

World-System Mobility and Economic Growth, 1980-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World-system scholars have traditionally emphasized the stability of the core/periphery hierarchy. However, prior network studies employing both categorical and continuous measures of world-system position reveal substantial mobility across time, whereby a number of developing states have become more integrated in the world economy over the past…

Clark, Rob

2010-01-01

172

THE FILTHY TRUTH: CHINA'S GROWING ECOLOGICAL CRISIS AND THE DANGER THAT IT POSES FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is today experiencing a period of intense economic growth the like of which the world has never seen. Since 1980 the Chinese economy has surged, growing an average rate of 10 percent a year and some coastal areas have grown at nearly 20 percent a year. During that period China's GDP in real terms has increased nearly nine times

DANIEL A. MÉTRAUX

173

Nutrition and the World Food Crisis--A Seventh Grade Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot program designed by Drexel University and the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia orientates junior high school students to the intricate problems of world nutrition education. Audiovisual presentations, role playing, and group debate are among the teaching methods employed. (LH)

Ford, Rose

174

TheStar.com -Ideas -World looks to science to solve food crisis http://www.thestar.com/printArticle/454746 1 of 5 10/19/08 4:45 PM  

E-print Network

in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa to develop genetically modified drought-tolerant corn, usingTheStar.com - Ideas - World looks to science to solve food crisis http world food crisis," former UN secretary general Koffi Annan called for a Green Revolution for Africa

Raizada, Manish N.

175

A World Bazaar: Learning about Community, Geography, and Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how teachers, students, and other community members collaborated in the planning and preparation of World Bazaar, a project aimed to immerse elementary students into modern and ancient cultures through reading, writing, researching, using maps, and seeing videos. On the day of the World Bazaar, the courtyard…

Guerrero, Karen

2007-01-01

176

Reputation as Reservoir: Buffering Against Loss in Times of Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The premise of this study is that a good reputa- tion serves as an intangible asset which can help protect the organization in times of corporate crisis — in public-relations terms, the ‘reservoir of goodwill’ presumption. Using data from the stock market crashes in 1987 and 1989, this study examined whether companies with better reputations, as measured by Fortune’s

Gary H. Jones; Beth H. Jones; Philip Little

2000-01-01

177

Buying for Armageddon: Factors influencing post-World War II weapons purchases since the Cuban Missile Crisis  

SciTech Connect

The central problem of this study is the role that the economy and economic interests play in decisions about US weapons-systems acquisition. Despite a voluminous literature discussing the formation of military policy, journalistic accounts of business influence on military policy dominate the literature. A notable exception to this pattern is Griffin, Devine, and Wallace's use of time-series data on military expenditures to assess Baran and Sweezy's thesis that military expenditures are necessary to the good health of the monopoly sector of the US economy. Using similar techniques and an expanded data set, the effect of business political action and major economic forces on the quantity and types of weapons purchased since the Cuban Missile Crisis are investigated. Findings indicate that defense contractor rates of profit have a positive relationship to procurement expenditures of most types. This is opposite of the effect posited by most of the literature. Elite political mobilization, measured by the activity of the Committee on the Present Danger, a group at the core of the New Right Social Movement, has a positive effect on expenditures.

Boies, J.L.

1991-01-01

178

The world water crisis: ramifications of politics trumping basic responsibilities of the international community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international community has limited support for Third World countries that apply politically unacceptable measures to their water crises. For political reasons, the community also selectively dismisses international instruments governing military actions, the United Nations Charter and the International Law on Water, worsening the crises. The Middle East conflict offers testimony where instruments have been continuously violated, allowing expropriation of

Harald D. Frederiksen

2003-01-01

179

Soil Erosion: Quiet Crisis in the World Economy. Worldwatch Paper 60.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although soil erosion is a natural process, it has increased to the point where it far exceeds the natural formation of new soil. However, with only occasional exceptions, national agricultural and population policies have failed to take soil depletion into account. Projections of world food production always incorporate estimates of future…

Brown, Lester R.; Wolf, Edward C.

180

A world in crisis and transition: the millennial and the modern in Britain, 1914–1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between modernism and the First World War is, by this time, a standard topic in the historiography of the conflict. Discussion on this topic often centres on the nature and strength of this connection with debate rising as to whether the war, as Vincent Sherry states, ‘locates the moment in which the new sensibility of English – and

Eric M. Reisenauer

2011-01-01

181

Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment estimates. While petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the U.S. may run into import deficits particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from Canada. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as Stanford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and others have also used the estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates, converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. A transition to increased use of natural gas is expected, but gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame. A coal bridge-to-the-future model as well a realistic view of non-renewable resources in the future will be discussed. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in the petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resource yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU, including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences, have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits are also underway. Digital products from the World Energy Project may be downloaded at (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/energy/WorldEnergy/WEnergy.html).

Ahlbrandt, T. S.

2002-05-01

182

Mexico's de la Madrid: crisis president  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico's new president faces an economic crisis of high inflation, corruption, and overextended borrowing to finance an ambitious development program based on anticipated oil revenues. The decline of world oil prices in 1981 and the depressed prices of other export commodities led to extensive borrowing from foreign banks, which saw Mexico's oil riches as a good risk. Despite its overpopulation

Goodsell

2009-01-01

183

The Social Dynamics of Economic Activity in a Virtual World  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines social structures underlying eco- nomic activity in Second Life (SL), a massively multi- player virtual world that allows users to create and trade virtual objects and commodities. We find that users con- duct many of their transactions both within their social networks and within groups. Using frequency of chat as a proxy of tie strength, we observe

Eytan Bakshy; Matthew P. Simmons; David Huffaker; Chun-Yuen Cheng; Lada A. Adamic

2010-01-01

184

Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

Akubue, Anthony I.

2001-01-01

185

14.11 Special Topics in Economics: The Challenge of World Poverty, Fall 2006  

E-print Network

This is a course for those who are interested in the challenge posed by massive and persistent world poverty, have had some economics, and believe that economists might have something useful to say about this question. The ...

Banerjee, Abhijit

186

Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

2011-12-01

187

1 When the Third World Fell Behind 1.1 The World Economic Order in 1960  

E-print Network

the west European leaders--a economic group often augmented by the United States--and the poor periphery. Trade, specialization in commodities, and poverty were closely correlated. Thus today's wide economic Fund bailouts, before the health and education delivery systems of the United Nations, before activist

188

The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

2012-01-01

189

The World Trade Organization: Equity Values in a Global Economic Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Still in its youth, the World Trade Organization is struggling to deal with the rapid changes of the global community while remaining true to its key equity values. Its focus on economic integration for the world has created its share of critics and supporters, placing more pressure on the organization to complete its goals. This work examines how the organization's

Allison Hughes

2007-01-01

190

8/13/12 Futurity.org What the world can learn from China's water crisis 1/5www.futurity.org/earth-environment/what-the-world-can-learn-from-china's-water-crisis/  

E-print Network

learn from China's water crisis Two-thirds of China's cities have water shortages, more than 40 percent Yang outline China's water crisis and recent leapfrog investment in water conservancy, and suggest's cities have water shortages, more than 40 percent of its rivers are severely polluted, 80 percent of its

191

Meeting the needs of the new millennium: passenger space travel and world economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without doubt, humans’ most urgent need at the start of the new millennium is the continuation of economic growth, which is the only means by which the great majority of the world population can lift themselves out of the poverty in which they live. A sine qua non for continuing economic growth is for the rich countries to continue to

Patrick Collins

2002-01-01

192

Teaching Economics and the Globalization Debate on the World Wide Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes an annotated bibliography of Web sites to help educators teach about economics issues and about globalization issues. Offers Web sites such as The National Council for Economic Education, Junior Achievement, United for a Fair Economy, and The World Bank. (CMK)

Risinger, Frederick

2001-01-01

193

World of Work--Economic Education Project, 1974-1976. Final Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation of a federally funded economics curriculum project reviews acquisition of learning outcomes, success of content and teaching methods, perception of curriculum change, and facilitation of decision making. Over 10,000 elementary and secondary school students in Illinois were exposed to economics through the specially developed World

Senn, Peter R.

194

Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993-2010) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea. PMID:23171369

2012-01-01

195

Serious crisis in the practice of international health by the World Health Organization: the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.  

PubMed

The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is the latest effort by the World Health Organization to improve health and narrow health inequalities through action on social determinants. The CSDH does not note that much work has already been done in this direction, does not make a sufficient attempt to analyze why earlier efforts failed to yield the desired results, and does not seem to have devised approaches to ensure that it will be more successful this time. The CSDH intends to complement the work of the earlier WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which has not had the desired impact, and it is unclear how the CSDH can complement work that suffers from such serious infirmities. Inadequacies of both commissions reflect a crisis in the practice of international health at the WHO, stemming from a combination of unsatisfactory administrative practices and lack of technical competence to provide insights into the problems afflicting the most needy countries. Often the WHO has ended up distorting the rudimentary health systems of the poor countries, by pressuring them into accepting health policies, plans, and programs that lack sound scientific bases. The WHO no longer seems to take into account historical and political factors when it sets out to improve the health situation in low-income countries--which is supposed to be the focus of the CSDH. An alternative approach is suggested. PMID:17175839

Banerji, Debabar

2006-01-01

196

3 -Responding to economic cRisis 18 -Hot tRuck days 26 -RemembeRing ned HaRkness ReseaRch that has Legs  

E-print Network

, this staple food feeds billions. But as the global population soars and the environment changes, rice3 - Responding to economic cRisis 18 - Hot tRuck days 26 - RemembeRing ned HaRkness Resea novel solutions for coping with looming food shortages. McCouch, in turn, praises her own institution

Keinan, Alon

197

The lawless presidency: Economic crisis and democratic accountability in Mexico, 1970–94  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexican government has adopted policies of market?oriented reform since 1982 which have for the most part been praised by professional economists. Mexico even joined the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1994. However the performance of the economy has been disappointing. Yet a failure to achieve any real per capita economic growth over an extended period is

George Philip

1998-01-01

198

More than One Bag for the World Fishery Crisis and Keys for Co-management Successes in Selected Artisanal Latin American Shellfisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global concerns about the depletion of marine stocks have been widely documented in industrial fisheries. However, small-scale\\u000a artisanal fisheries constitute a second component for the world fishery crisis, normally ignored or erroneously lumped into\\u000a the industrial component. In this paper we first present a brief comparison between industrial and artisanal fisheries, highlighting\\u000a the differences between them and the differential feasibility

Omar Defeo; Juan Carlos Castilla

2005-01-01

199

ECONLinks: A Source of Economic Information on the World Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scott Simkins, Assistant Professor at the Department of Economics at North Carolina A & T State University, created this metasite to provide easy access to basic economic and financial information for students. Links to US government publications, economic statistics, and financial market information, among others, are clearly organized and annotated. A "Student Resources" list provides links to economic textbooks (full text), while a "Current News" directory of Internet news sources encourages students to stay abreast of the latest world developments. Educators may also find a "Teacher Resources" list of discussion group and course material links useful.

Simkins, Scott.

1998-01-01

200

[Shifting of emphasis in the world health sector strategy; from political concerns to economic ones].  

PubMed

Primary Health Care, proclaimed by WHO in 1978, is a health strategy that aims to achieve the ultimate objective "Health For All", with underlying political concerns for ideals such as social justice, equity and human rights. Meanwhile, "globalization", urged by the U.S.A., other developed countries and multinational corporations, has since promoted liberalization of trade, capital and finance, which has in the past few decades been sweeping all over the world. With this "new economic liberalism", values that put much emphasis on economic efficiency are now at the forefront. The World Bank, which supports the tendency along with the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, has become an influential actor in helping developing countries to prosper economically. The World Bank, whose basic idea is that investment in health is basic for economic growth, has in the 1990s also exerted considerable influence on the international health sector with its overwhelming provision of financial assistance. Instead of political concerns like equity and human rights, 'economic concerns' such as fairer budget allocation, cost-effectiveness, cost reduction and efficiency have now become main points for discussion in the international health field. This shift in emphasis poses fundamental questions for the core goal of the World Health Organization; "Health For All". PMID:14699857

Yuasa, Motoyuki; Tateno, Seiki; Wakai, Susumu

2003-11-01

201

The environmental chemistry track for Youth Slam 2009 is focused on the World Water Crisis. Did you know that over one billion people currently lack access to clean drinking  

E-print Network

The environmental chemistry track for Youth Slam 2009 is focused on the World Water Crisis. Did you a lasting, sustainable solution. In the environmental chemistry track, we will focus on several goals

202

Impact of the economic crisis on children's health in Catalonia: a before-after approach  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyse changes in the family living conditions of children in Catalonia between 2006 and the 2010–2012 period, and to study associations between these changes and health outcomes. Design A before–after analysis of two cross-sectional surveys. Setting Population younger than 15?years of age from Catalonia, Spain. Participants Representative samples of children in the 2006 Catalan Health Survey (ESCA), baseline, before the crisis; n=2200) and the first four waves of ESCA 2010–2012 (after start of the crisis, n=1967). Main outcome measures Overweight/obesity, health behaviour, mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were used to analyse the influence of changes in family conditions on outcome measures, including interaction terms to describe the potential influence of the study period on the results. Results The percentage of unemployed families rose from 9.1% (2006) to 20.6% (2010–2012), with inequalities by level of education. Overweight/obesity increased from 18.4% (95% CI 16.5% to 20.4%) to 26.9% (24.6% to 29.2%) in 2010–2012, and inequalities related to maternal education and employment status persisted. Eating habits have improved in 2010–2012 in disadvantaged families (ie, junk food consumption improved in families with a maternal primary education level; beta (B)=2.85; 0.83 to 4.88, for the survey interaction by primary education level). An improvement in HRQOL was found in the second survey (B=6.07; 4.15 to 7.99), although children whose mothers had a primary education showed poorer HRQOL scores in this survey than in 2006 (B=?4.14; ?7.17 to ?1.12). Conclusions Although some health-related behaviour improved during the study period, childhood obesity increased and inequalities in HRQOL appeared. Policy measures that fight against these inequalities should be urgently implemented to avoid their negative impact on the health of future generations of Catalans. PMID:23975103

Rajmil, Luis; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Fernandez de Sanmamed, Maria-Jose; Mompart-Penina, Anna

2013-01-01

203

Food for the World's Hungry. Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 511.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the food crisis is concisely presented in this brief brochure. It is one of a series to educate the American public on vital economic and social problems. The background of the world food shortage and its causal factors are discussed. Suggestions for overcoming the crisis, such as political changes, land reform, public services,…

Stewart, Maxwell S.

204

No Time for Timidity: A "Buffett" Approach to Weathering the Economic Crisis and Coming out Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The counterintuitive approach of the world's greatest value investor, Warren Buffett, may be the best hope for colleges and universities during this recession. Buffett's time-tested philosophy of seeking value and investing for the long term remains a sound approach, even if his short-term returns have declined along with those of the rest of the…

Hesel, Richard A.; Strauss, David W.; Edwards, Benjamin G.

2009-01-01

205

The Influence of the Global Economic Crisis on Regional Differences in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of regional differences, cohesion policy and ways of financing a rapid-pace economic development are an ever-present issue for Romania. Seven of the eight regions Romania is divided into can be found in the 15 least developed regions within the European Union. However, the regions are not as similar to each another as one may think at first, differences

Dana Mihaela Murgescu

2010-01-01

206

Analyzing the Main Changes in New Consumer Buying Behavior during Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative social effects caused by consumerism and especially hiperconsumerism leaded, in the recent years, to the emergence and rapid growth of economic importance of new types of consumer - the new consumer - whose attitudes, aspirations and purchasing patterns are different from those existing in the past. The paper outlines at first, a portrait of the new consumer, highlighting

Lelia Voinea; Alina Filip

2011-01-01

207

The Quiet Crisis: The Impact of the Economic Downturn on the Nonprofit Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was written to shine a spotlight on the under-reported plight of America's nonprofit organizations and to make recommendations for how the nation can respond. In the wake of the economic downturn, hospitals, nursing homes, nursery schools, senior centers, soup kitchens, and other nonprofit organizations have been hit by a triple…

Bridgeland, John M.; McNaught, Mary; Reed, Bruce; Dunkelman, Marc

2009-01-01

208

Urban agriculture in Kampala: Indigenous adaptive response to the economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural production within African cities has become an increasingly important practice as urban households have adapted to the economic hardships of the past decade. In Kampala, as in many East African cities, important constraints limit urban agriculture—institutional obstacles that block access to underutilized urban land, as well as both municipal bylaws that suppress urban agriculture, and urban officials’ views of

Daniel G. Maxwell; Samuel Zziwa

1993-01-01

209

World Population Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapid population growth, rising competition for resources, and increasing environmental deterioration are intertwined factors in the human predicament that feed political tensions and conflicts of the late twentieth century. Outlines dimensions of this predicament (including data on population, growth, military spending, quality of life, and…

Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H.

1986-01-01

210

On the political economy of world government: a short discussion of the role of the World Economic Forum and the World Social Forum and indicating the possibility of a World Parliament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational agents would opt for world government, properly defined. Without world government, dealings between sovereign states are not only affected by the military and economic power of those states and by the international bodies that they agree upon to wield and control their power, like the United Nations (UN), Worldbank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF), but also by the

Thomas Colignatus

2005-01-01

211

International Home Economics, Conference on World-Wide Development of Home Economics in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report was comprised of 22 papers presented by US and foreign home economists at a conference held in July 1965 at Iowa State University. The meeting was planned to serve the interests of those who train foreign students in US universities and those who plan to work in home economics programs abroad. The international aspects and priorities of…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

212

The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Education Services in Economies of the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global economic crisis has created new challenges for education systems all over the world. The Former Soviet Union countries were confronted with an urgent issue, not necessarily specifically related to the crisis: to formulate and introduce new educational curricula, standards, and delivery models in order to adjust to the challenges imposed by the transition to the post-industrial stage of

Irina Sinitsina

2012-01-01

213

Illegal Drugs in Colombia: From Illegal Economic Boom to Social Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past thirty years, the illegal drug industry has marked Colombia's development. In no other country has the illegal drug industry had such dramatic social, political, and economic effects. This short article provides a synthesis of the development of the marijuana, coca-cocaine, and poppy-opium-heroin illegal industries. It studies the development of the drug cartels and marketing networks and the

Francisco E. Thoumi

2002-01-01

214

An economic analysis of the post World War II decline in the Japanese crime rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of World War II there has been a dramatic decrease in reported Japanese crime. Adult arrest rates have fallen steadily since the early 1950s and juvenile arrest rates have fallen since the early 1960s. An economic analysis of crime predicts that crime rates depend upon returns to crime relative to returns in legal pursuits and the certainty

David Merriman

1991-01-01

215

Growth without pain: the world can achieve sustained economic growth by reducing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case is presented for eliminating America's wasteful methods of manufacturing, distributing, and consuming goods as a prerequisite for continuing world economic growth. While waste is difficult to define, there is a growing awareness that it is costly and that some external discipline is required to effect a change in lifestyles. A cost\\/benefit analysis of waste management would indicate the

van Dam

1978-01-01

216

Short Presentation of the World Trade Organization and of its Role in International Economical Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

World Trade Organization – one of the most important international economical organizations, based on the principles of the General Agreement for Tariffs and Trade (GATT) – represents the international institutional frame of the multilateral trade system fulfilled when finishing the Uruguay Round in 1994 whose basic objective was to determine the progressive disappearance, by concessions, by means of the negotiation

2010-01-01

217

Tariff rate quotas and the economic impact of agricultural trade liberalization in the world trade organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their implementation at the Uruguay Round, tariff rate quotas (TRQs) have become a widely used instrument of trade policy in agricultural trade. With almost 1,300 TRQs scheduled at the World Trade Organization, this paper will examine their economic effects more closely. First, the theoretical background of TRQs is examined. Then, a short overview of the Uruguay Round and their

Roland Herrmann; Marc Kramb; Christina Mönnich

2001-01-01

218

Why Global Health Matters The world is economically, politically, culturally, and  

E-print Network

Why Global Health Matters The world is economically, politically, culturally, and technologically, language, and measurement tools used in global health � ethics and global health � the global cultural and approaches must also take a global approach, and individuals with these perspectives will be in high demand

Saldin, Dilano

219

International Organizations, the "Education-Economic Growth" Black Box, and the Development of World Education Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has four sections. First, the author presents a theoretical discussion of the different explanations regarding the explosion of education after World War II. She explains how the actor-network theory--a theory of knowledge and of agency--enables people to understand the formation of the education-economic growth black box. The…

Resnik, Julia

2006-01-01

220

THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION AND THE CHANGE IN THE MACROECONOMIC PARADIGM  

Microsoft Academic Search

All countries have felt the impact of the recession, the phase characteristic of negative effects such as slower economic growths (stagnation), high inflation rates and high unemployment rates. The economic crisis that has befallen even the most developed economies of the world is often compared to the crisis that happened in the 1930s, along with the attempts to pin down

DRAGAN MIHAJLOVIC; SUZANA ZIVKOVIC

2011-01-01

221

The American Science Pipeline: Sustaining Innovation in a Time of Economic Crisis  

PubMed Central

Significant limitations have emerged in America's science training pipeline, including inaccessibility, inflexibility, financial limitations, and lack of diversity. We present three effective programs that collectively address these challenges. The programs are grounded in rigorous science and integrate through diverse disciplines across undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students, and resonate with the broader community. We discuss these models in the context of current economic constraints on higher education and the urgent need for our institutions to recruit and retain diverse student populations and sustain the successful American record in scientific education and innovation. PMID:21123689

Hue, Gillian; Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Lynn, David G.

2010-01-01

222

[Economic crisis, poverty and childhood. What are the expected short- and long-term effects for the "children of the crisis"? SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The way a person will develop over the lifespan is largely determined by the first few years of life. A substantial share of the inequalities in health and socioeconomic status observed in adult life originate during childhood (and even while in utero). In this paper, we first review the literature on the impact of childhood conditions throughout the life cycle. We next discuss some of the social and biological mechanisms behind the transmission of the effects of poverty during the prenatal period, childhood, and adulthood. We then analyze several international experiences aimed at reducing intergenerational transmission of poverty. The article ends with some critical thoughts and policy recommendations to avoid the possible long-term effects of the current crisis on the health and socioeconomic status of the "children of the crisis" in Spain. PMID:24864002

Flores, Manuel; García-Gómez, Pilar; Zunzunegui, María-Victoria

2014-06-01

223

[Health promotion and prevention in the economic crisis: the role of the health sector. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

This article reviews trends in lifestyle factors and identifies priorities in the fields of prevention and health promotion in the current economic recession. Several information sources were used, including a survey of 30 public health and primary care experts. Between 2006 and 2012, no significant changes in lifestyle factors were detected except for a decrease in habitual alcohol drinking. There was a slight decrease in the use of illegal drugs and a significant increase in the use of psychoactive drugs. Most experts believe that decision-making about new mass screening programs and changes in vaccination schedules needs to be improved by including opportunity cost analysis and increasing the transparency and independence of the professionals involved. Preventive health services are contributing to medicalization, but experts' opinions are divided on the need for some preventive activities. Priorities in preventive services are mental health and HIV infection in vulnerable populations. Most experts trust in the potential of health promotion to mitigate the health effects of the economic crisis. Priority groups are children, unemployed people and other vulnerable groups. Priority interventions are community health activities (working in partnership with local governments and other sectors), advocacy, and mental health promotion. Effective tools for health promotion that are currently underused are legislation and mass media. There is a need to clarify the role of the healthcare sector in intersectorial activities, as well as to acknowledge that social determinants of health depend on other sectors. Experts also warn of the consequences of austerity and of policies that negatively impact on living conditions. PMID:24656990

Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Villegas-Portero, Román; Gosalbes Soler, Victoria; Martínez-Pecino, Flora

2014-06-01

224

How the poor in a developing country view business' contribution to quality-of-life 5 years after a national economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes and tests a three-step model of business' contribution to quality of life 5years after a devastating national economic crisis in a developing country. The model incorporates both a beneficent dimension of the marketplace (represented by consumer attitude toward marketing — CATM) and a non-maleficent dimension (represented by consumer trust for market-related institutions — CTMRI). This study compares

Mark Peterson; Ahmet Ekici; David M. Hunt

2010-01-01

225

Impact of the global economic crisis on the health of unemployed autoworkers.  

PubMed

A phenomenological investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of the 2008-09 global economic recession on the health of unemployed blue-collar autoworkers in the Canadian province of Ontario between September and November 2009. A total of 22 men and 12 women took part. Participants completed a quantitative demographic and financial questionnaire. The qualitative aspect of the study consisted of a phenomenological component comprising semi-structured focus group sessions lasting 2 to 2.5 hours. The number of years employed ranged from 2 to 31.7 with a mean of 15 +/- 8. Participants reported high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; increased physical pain and discomfort; changes in weight and sexual function; and financial hardships, including inability to purchase prescribed medications. The authors conclude that unemployment associated with the global recession has negative health effects on autoworkers in Ontario. PMID:24236372

Bartfay, Wally Joseph; Bartfay, Emma; Wu, Terry

2013-09-01

226

The end of the era of generosity? Global health amid economic crisis.  

PubMed

In the past decade donor commitments to health have increased by 200 percent. Correspondingly, there has been a swell of new players in the global health landscape. The unprecedented, global response to a single disease, HIV/AIDS, has been responsible for a substantial portion of this boon. Numerous health success have followed this windfall of funding and attention, yet the food, fuel, and economic crises of 2008 have shown the vulnerabilities of health and development initiatives focused on short term wins and reliant on a constant flow of foreign funding. For too long, the international community has responded to global health and development challenges with emergency solutions that often reflect the donor's priorities, values, and political leanings, rather than funding durable health systems that can withstand crises. Progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals has stalled in many countries. Disease specific initiatives have weakened health systems and limited efforts to improve maternal and child health. As we enter this era of scarce resources, there is a need to return to the foundations of the Alma Ata Declaration signed thirty years ago with the goal of providing universal access to primary healthcare. The global health community must now objectively evaluate how we can most effectively respond to the crises of 2008 and take advantage of this moment of extraordinary attention for global health and translate it into long term, sustainable health improvements for all. PMID:19134211

Schneider, Kammerle; Garrett, Laurie

2009-01-01

227

Jrme Blanc / LEFI / Universit de Lyon * XVth World Economic History Congress, Utrecht University, Netherlands, August 3-7,  

E-print Network

Jérôme Blanc / LEFI / Université de Lyon * XVth World Economic History Congress, Utrecht University: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK APPLIED TO THE EARLY MODERN FRANCE Abstract As other European countries of that time Author manuscript, published in "XVth World Economic History Congress, Utrecht : Netherlands (2009)" #12

Boyer, Edmond

228

Steel crisis and steel policy — A comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent steel conflict between the USA and Europe has once again dramatically highlighted the close links between political\\u000a and economic strategies in this field. The world-wide steel crisis has provoked permanent state intervention in the steel\\u000a industry. The forms taken by this intervention are examined and compared here for four Western European countries: the Federal\\u000a Republic of Germany, France,

J. Esser; W. Fach; G. Gierszewski; W. Väth

1982-01-01

229

Economic & Reliable The Easy Introduction to the World of pH  

E-print Network

FiveEasyTM Economic & Reliable The Easy Introduction to the World of pH FiveEasyTM Bench Instruments FiveEasy Plus FiveEasy pH mV / ORP Conductivity TDS Salinity #12;FiveEasyPlusTM /FiveEasyTM Water No matter whether it's a lake or a sewage plant ­ compliance to cer- tain pH and conductivity values

Woodall, Jerry M.

230

The changing nature of the U.S. economic influence in the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the U.S.-led global recession revealed a change in the nature of the U.S. economic influence over the world, evidenced by the unusual delay between the U.S. downturn and its full manifestation in other economies. To validate our argument we conduct a real-time analysis of the evolution of the U.S. business cycles’ influence over other countries’ business cycles

Adriana Z. Fernández; Alex Nikolsko-Rzhevskyy

2010-01-01

231

Introduction to the New World Education Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dropout has attracted a lot of attention in countries sometimes referred to as the new world nations: the United States, Canada and Australia. Headlines such as ‘high school dropout crisis continues in US’, ‘high school\\u000a dropout crisis threatens US economic growth’, ‘battle to boost Year 12 completion rates’ (Australia), ‘high-school dropouts\\u000a – a black mark on Canada’s secondary school system’

Stephen Lamb

232

Black carbon aerosols over an urban area in south-eastern Spain: Changes detected after the 2008 economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) concentrations performed at Granada, an urban location in southeast Spain, using a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer from December 2005 to November 2008, are analysed and discussed here. The daily mean BC concentrations showed considerable day-to-day variations and were found to vary from low values of 0.5 ?g m -3 to high values of 8.6 ?g m -3, with overall mean and standard deviation of 3.0 ± 1.5 ?g m -3. The annual mean BC concentrations were similar during 2006 and 2007 (3.2 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 and 3.1 ± 1.6 ?g m -3, respectively), but decreased by about 16-18% to 2.6 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 in 2008. This reduction is not only observed in the mean value, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. A Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level confirms that the BC concentration difference between 2006 and 2007 is statistically no significant while the BC concentration in 2008 tends to be less than that in 2006-2007. Analysis of meteorological conditions suggested that although the day-to-day variations in BC concentrations were driven mostly by meteorology, the reduction in the use of fossil fuels due to economic slowdown contributed significantly to the observed decrease in BC concentrations in 2008. Under conditions dominated by local source emissions, the effect of the economic crisis on BC concentration was more pronounced. For the three analysed years, BC concentrations obtained during winter were higher than those measured during summer, probably due to increased emissions from domestic heating and less intense vertical mixing in winter season, which lead to the confinement of the BC particles near the surface. The monthly mean BC concentrations were lower in 2008 than in 2006-2007 for almost every month of the year. In all years BC concentrations exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, with two maxima and two minima within a day. There were no differences among the daily patterns for 2006, 2007 and 2008 except for a general reduction in BC concentrations on 2008, especially during morning and evening traffic hours. For every day of the week, BC concentrations were lower on 2008 than in 2006 and 2007 and this reduction was more pronounced on working days, when BC concentrations were high.

Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Foyo, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

2011-11-01

233

Mastering the crisis? Sustaining governance in the Argentine Complementary Currency Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Redes de Trueque (RT) thrived during the economic crisis of 2001 - 2002 in Argentina and still stand out as the largest Complementary Currency System in the world. These are local exchange networks in which members create and abide by their own institutions, including their own non-state currency. They adopt a large scale during times of severe economic distress,

Georgina M. Gomez

234

The UN in crisis?  

PubMed

The United Nations (UN), the principal role of which is dealing with crises, has been in almost perpetual crisis since its foundation. The situation has become worse in the 1990s, a time when the need for an effective UN has been greater than ever, to cope with issues such as climate-change, pollution and the consequences of globalization. The current crisis has various aspects. Politically there have been widely publicized failures in peacekeeping, largely due to the Security Council being a body of compromise, while successes in peacekeeping have been largely ignored. In the economic and social field, influence has passed to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Development aid has plummeted, despite its key role in peace and security, and so an integrated approach to development and security is urgently needed. The UN has been constantly under-funded, with the failure of the United States (US) to pay its dues a key factor. Reform of the UN is vital, but the vested interests of member states make root-and-branch reform virtually impossible. Public pressure for reform can come from non-governmental organizations, perhaps coordinated through the Internet. PMID:11339341

Anstee, M J

2001-01-01

235

Changes in Access to Health Services of the Immigrant and Native-Born Population in Spain in the Context of Economic Crisis  

PubMed Central

Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012). Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1) to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2) to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3) to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012. PMID:25272078

Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Sanz-Barbero, Belen; Malmusi, Davide; Ronda, Elena; Ballesta, Monica; Vazquez, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

236

Global Crop Yield Reductions due to Surface Ozone Exposure: 1. Year 2000 Crop Production Losses, Economic Damage, and Implications for World Hunger  

E-print Network

, Economic Damage, and Implications for World Hunger Shiri Avnery a , Denise L. Mauzerall b,* , Junfeng Liu c Exposure: 1. Year 2000 Crop Production Losses, Economic Damage, and Implications for World Hunger Abstract

Mauzerall, Denise

237

Explaining the Economic Crisis: Can Political Scientists Contribute Anything that Journalists and Pundits Don't Know Already (and Can the Crisis Help Us Understand Political Science Theories)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In capitalist systems, markets and private property provide the building blocks of economic activity. A major task for policymakers is to contain moral hazard by regulating markets in such a way as to prevent 'prodigals and projectors' (Adam Smith) from running the system into the ground through over speculation. In this task, governments of all advanced capitalist democracies have failed

Patrick Bernhagen

2010-01-01

238

Biofuel: An alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is

Keshav Bhattarai; Wayne M. Stalick; Scott Mckay; Gija Geme; Nimisha Bhattarai

2011-01-01

239

The Study of Geography in an Interdependent World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of restructuring the discipline of geography and enhancing its role in the precollege curriculum as part of a global approach to education is emphasized in this paper. International education is seen as an essential part of high school and college education in an increasingly interdependent world. The oil crisis, the world economic

Saueressig-Schreuder, Yda

240

World Cup 2010: South African Economic Perspectives and Perspectives Policy Challenges Informed by the Experience of Germany 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides a first ex post analysis of the financial burden and economic benefits of the World Cup in Germany 2006. On the usual cost-benefit measures, the experience of WC 2006 appears to be in line with existing empirical work on large sporting events and sport stadia which rarely identify significant net economic benefits. The paper also argues that

Stan du Plessis; Wolfgang Maennig

2007-01-01

241

Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

2012-01-01

242

Buying for Armageddon: Factors influencing post-World War II weapons purchases since the Cuban Missile Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central problem of this study is the role that the economy and economic interests play in decisions about US weapons-systems acquisition. Despite a voluminous literature discussing the formation of military policy, journalistic accounts of business influence on military policy dominate the literature. A notable exception to this pattern is Griffin, Devine, and Wallace's use of time-series data on military

Boies

1991-01-01

243

Low Income Russian Families Adopt Effective Behavioral Strategies to Maintain Dietary Stability in Times of Economic Crisis1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also

Anna R. Dore; Linda S. Adair; Barry M. Popkin

244

A vulnerable population in a time of crisis: Drug users and the attacks on the World Trade Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present preliminary findings from a qualitative study focused on the impact of the World Trade Center\\u000a attacks on New York City residents who are current or former users of heroin, crack, and other forms of cocaine. In it, we\\u000a present data describing their responses to and feelings about the attacks, changes in drug use after the

Linda Weiss; Antonella Fabri; Kate McCoy; Phillip Coffin; Julie Netherland; Ruth Finkelstein

2002-01-01

245

Coasts in Crisis  

SciTech Connect

Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

Hinrichsen, D.

1996-11-01

246

Reimbursement and economic factors influencing dialysis modality choice around the world.  

PubMed

The worldwide incidence of kidney failure is on the rise and treatment is costly; thus, the global burden of illness is growing. Kidney failure patients require either a kidney transplant or dialysis to maintain life. This review focuses on the economics of dialysis. Alternative dialysis modalities are haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Important economic factors influencing dialysis modality selection include financing, reimbursement and resource availability. In general, where there is little or no facility or physician reimbursement or payment for PD, the share of PD is very low. Regarding resource availability, when centre HD capacity is high, there is an incentive to use that capacity rather than place patients on home dialysis. In certain countries, there is interest in revising the reimbursement structure to favour home-based therapies, including PD and home HD. Modality selection is influenced by employment status, with an association between being employed and PD as the modality choice. Cost drivers differ for PD and HD. PD is driven mainly by variable costs such as solutions and tubing, while HD is driven mainly by fixed costs of facility space and staff. Many cost comparisons of dialysis modalities have been conducted. A key factor to consider in reviewing cost comparisons is the perspective of the analysis because different costs are relevant for different perspectives. In developed countries, HD is generally more expensive than PD to the payer. Additional research is needed in the developing world before conclusive statements may be made regarding the relative costs of HD and PD. PMID:18234844

Just, Paul M; de Charro, Frank Th; Tschosik, Elizabeth A; Noe, Les L; Bhattacharyya, Samir K; Riella, Miguel C

2008-07-01

247

[The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality. PMID:24612790

Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

2014-06-01

248

Crisis events in tourism: subjects of crisis in tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial and economic downturn that affected tourism from 2007 through to 2010 and beyond has cast substantial attention on the role that crisis events play in tourism. These concerns have only been exacerbated by natural disasters, such as the 2010 Icelandic volcanic plume, pandemics, and the potential of future global change. The potential effects of crisis events on

C. Michael Hall

2010-01-01

249

Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics  

PubMed Central

Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research. PMID:25045411

Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

2013-01-01

250

Russia's Demographic "Crisis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.

1996-01-01

251

School Buildings in Today's Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

Blyth, Alastair

2009-01-01

252

"At Any Given Time, There Is a Crisis Somewhere": Characteristics of Young People Under the Conditions of the Economic Slump  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows the importance of methodological issues in the study of young Russians during the current economic slump. A critical analysis of the indicators of the social and economic situation of young people in Russia shows the need to include the concept of lifestyle and its influence of the choices made by young people and their parents.

Luk'ianova, E. L.; Sabirova, G. A.

2013-01-01

253

Crisis Mapping in Action: How Open Source Software and Global Volunteer Networks Are Changing the World, One Map at a Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to share the stories behind some extraordinary maps—live crisis maps. The paper begins by investigating what types of live communication technologies existed prior to social media technologies. The development of live crisis maps is then discussed, beginning with the Ushahidi project, which utilized live collaborative mapping during post-election violence in Kenya in 2008. Via

Patrick Meier

2012-01-01

254

Helping Each Other in Times of Need: Financial Help as a Means of Coping with the Economic Crisis [pdf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Susann Rohwedder of the RAND Corporation recently asked an important question: "How are U.S. households coping in these difficult times?" The results of her investigations were published in the Fall of 2009 as part of the RAND Labor and Population group's Occasional Paper series. Her work was based on two Internet surveys conducted by the RAND Corporation in late 2008 and in early 2009 which sought to probe the extent to which U.S. households have been affected by the crisis and patterns of giving and receiving financial help during this period. The findings included the observation that many more households are giving financial help than receiving it and that help most frequently flows from parents to children. All in all, the paper will be most useful for policy scholars and others working in related fields.

Rohwedder, Susann

2009-01-01

255

COMPUTER INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS A CATALYST FOR FRAUD, EXPLOITATION AND ECONOMIC UPHEAVAL IN WORLD FINANCIAL MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial crisis of 2008 has its roots in banks and brokers making risky mortgage loans used to support risky mortgage collateralized securities. Computer Information Systems were an unintended catalyst, nexus and an enabler of the misdeeds and poor decisions made by financial managers at many levels. A study conducted in the northeast United States shows that managers include greed,

Susan Behling; Robert Behling

256

Protecting human health in a changing world: the role of social and economic development.  

PubMed Central

The biological and physical environment of the planet is changing at an unprecedented rate as a result of human activity, and these changes may have an enormous impact on human health. One of the goals of human development is to protect health in the face of rapid environmental change, but we often fail to do this. The aim in this paper is to distinguish between socioeconomic aspects of development that are likely to be protective and those that are likely to increase vulnerability (the capacity for loss resulting from environmental change). Examples include climate change in the Pacific. We conclude that protecting human health in a changing world requires us to take steps to minimize harmful change wherever possible, and at the same time to be prepared for surprises. The goals of mitigation (reducing or preventing change) and adaptation (response to change) are not mutually exclusive. In fact, steps to make populations more resilient in the face of change are often similar to those that are needed to lighten the load on the environment. We need social policies that convert economic growth into human development. Wider application of sustainable development concepts is part of the solution. In particular, there is a need to promote health as an essential asset of poor and vulnerable populations. It is their key to productivity and to surviving shocks; it is also the key to achieving broader development goals such as universal education. For these reasons it is in the interests of all sectors--economic, social and environmental--to play their particular roles in protecting and improving health. PMID:11019463

Woodward, A.; Hales, S.; Litidamu, N.; Phillips, D.; Martin, J.

2000-01-01

257

Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

2012-01-01

258

Spearheading human and economic development in the Arab world through evidence-based and world-class healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the profile of health and disease and current status of healthcare in the UAE, in particular Emirate of Abu Dhabi, distilling implications for sustainable economic growth and population well being. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of available secondary sources including epidemiological and healthcare data and burden of disease (BoD) literature. Findings

Brett Bowman; Richard Matzopoulos; Leonard Lerer

2008-01-01

259

Plus ca change …the world bank global education policy and the post-washington consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last two decades the World Bank (WB) has increased its economic and ideological influence in setting the educational policy agenda of the so-called less developed countries (LDC). The economic crisis of two poor regions of the world in the 1980s (Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America), the reduction of bilateral forms of educational aid, and the economic and political

Xavier Bonal

2002-01-01

260

Neoliberalism and the World Bank: Economic Discourse and the (Re)Production of Gendered Identity(ies)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…

Griffin, Penny

2007-01-01

261

Building Regional Economic Growth and Innovation Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…

Rafn, H. Jeffrey

2012-01-01

262

Russia and the Western World: economic relations before World War I and their restoration and development in the 1920s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the origins and consequences of one very peculiar episode in Belgian and Russian economic history: the short-lived (1895-1900) prevalence of Belgian investment in Russian industry over French, German, UK and US capital. While Eichengreen, Williamson, O'Rourke, Taylor, e.a. worked on the different aspects of pre-war globalisation, this research focused on the Great Powers. Much less attention has

Wim Peeters; Sociaal-Economische Raad Vlaanderen

2002-01-01

263

Trust in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass media in modern sports can be considered from a number of viewpoints. Sports press and sports events often represent the last thread linking countries, societies and political systems. Thus a sociologically oriented study of the mass media in sports must begin with the communication crisis present today throughout the world. Accurate information is necessary. The work of sportswriters

Krešimir Petrovic; Milan Žvan

1986-01-01

264

Crisis Management Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

2010-01-01

265

The management and design of economic development projects: A case study of World Bank electricity projects in Egypt  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with the efficiency of World Bank projects in Egypt. The study seeks improvements in the methods of evaluating public sector projects in Egypt. To approaches are employed: (1) project identification to optimally allocate Egypt's and World Bank's resources; (2) project appraisal to assess the economic viability and efficiency of investments. The electricity sector is compared with the agriculture sector as a means of employing project identification for priority ordering of investment for development in Egypt. The key criteria for evaluation are the impacts of developments of each sector upon Egypt's national objectives and needs. These include employment opportunities, growth, alleviation of poverty, cross comparison of per capita consumption in each sector, economic rate of return, national security, balance of payments and foreign debt. The allocation of scarce investments would have been more efficient in agriculture than in electricity in meeting Egypt's national objectives and needs. World Bank lending programs in Egypt reveal a priority ordering of electricity over agriculture and rural development. World Bank development projects in Egypt have not been optimally identified, and its programs have not followed an efficient allocation of World Bank's and Egypt's resources. The key parameters in evaluating economic viability and efficiency of development projects are: (1) the discount rate (the opportunity cost of public funds); (2) the exchange rate; and (3) the cost of major inputs, as approximated by shadow prices of labor, water, electricity, and transportation for development projects. Alternative approaches to estimating the opportunity cost of public funds are made. The parameters in evaluating the efficiency of projects have not been accurately estimated in the appraisal stage of the World Bank projects in Egypt, resulting in false or misleading information concerning the economic viability and efficiency of the projects.

El Sabaa, S.M.

1992-01-01

266

Internationalising Work-Integrated Learning: Creating Global Citizens to Meet the Economic Crisis and the Skills Shortage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that for many multinational companies, the global skills shortage has made it difficult to attract competent workers to some international locations. In developing economies, business leaders often cite poor business acumen and little real-world experience as serious shortcomings in the domestic pool of applicants. In addition…

Gamble, Natalie; Patrick, Carol-joy; Peach, Deborah

2010-01-01

267

Crisis during recovery: lessons from 1904 Baltimore fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A recovery crisis is an occasion when there is a subsequent calamity after a major crisis such as the recovery crisis following the 9\\/11 World Trade Center tragedy or the recovery crisis following the devastation in New Orleans caused by Hurricane Katrina. Consequently, this paper seeks to focus on what can be done to prevent or limit the

Peter B. Petersen

2010-01-01

268

Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a…

Rosset, Peter

2009-01-01

269

Seizing the Moment: A Blueprint for Reform of World Cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the current match-fixing crisis in world cricket has its origin in the economic structure of the game. Cricketers' pay is demonstrably low relative to sports of comparable significance and this is a consequence of the organisation of the game with its emphasis on international representative cricket. We propose and outline details of an international club championship with

Ian Preston

270

Pheochromocytoma crisis  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Adrenergic crisis induced by a pheochromocytoma leads to life-threatening catecholamine-induced hemodynamic disturbances. Successful treatment of a pheochromocytoma crisis demands prompt diagnosis, vigorous pharmacological therapy and emergent tumor removal, if the patient continues to deteriorate

Tschuor, Christoph; Sadri, Helen; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

2014-01-01

271

Crisis management in the Baltic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic and financial recession started in 2008 brought serious difficulties for every European country, although not to the same extent. The previous situation of countries plays a major role in the course of the crisis and crisis management. The three Baltic countries showed a relatively prominent economic growth after their accession to the European Union in 2004. Their performance

Júlia Mez?; Ágnes Bagi

2012-01-01

272

Implications for air quality and the impact of financial and economic crisis in South Spain: Geochemical evolution of atmospheric aerosol in the ceramic region of Bailén  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temporal series study of atmospheric aerosol was performed over the last ten years (2003-2012) in an urban background monitoring station with ceramic industrial influence, in Bailén, SE Spain. Temporal trends of major and minor chemical components of PM10 for a long term data series were investigated, showing that PM10 concentrations have been steadily decreasing over almost a decade, with a statistical significance. Measurements indicate a reduction of elements and components related to the industrial activity of brick-ceramic production (V, Cd, Rb, La, Cr, Ni, As, Pb and SO42-). Conversely, Cu levels define an increasing trend from the beginning of the study period but with the highest step trend since 2011-2012, coinciding with the beginning of the financial and economic crisis in 2008. A similar time evolution pattern of Cu and OC, EC, and K levels may be a tracer of domestic local combustion source, and a new biomass burning source has been identified. Chemical composition of olive tree logs suggest as the combustion of wood with high concentration of Cu can imply an increase of Cu concentration in the atmospheric particles compared with other sources such as traffic.

Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; de la Rosa, J. D.

2014-12-01

273

Fossil fuel based CO2 emissions, economic growth, and world crude oil price nexus in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the prime objective of learning from the fossil fuel based CO2 emissions-economic growth-world crude price nexus of a leading economy, the underpinning nature of the relationship among them is investigated for the United States (US). Autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration provides empirical evidence for the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship with 1% growth in GDP

Rajaratnam Shanthini

2007-01-01

274

How to ensure nutrition security in the global economic crisis to protect and enhance development of young children and our common future.  

PubMed

The global economic crisis, commodity price hikes, and climate change have worsened the position of the poorest and most vulnerable people. These crises are compromising the diet and health of up to 80% of the population in most developing countries and threaten the development of almost an entire generation of children ( approximately 250 million), because the period from conception until 24 mo of age irreversibly shapes people's health and intellectual ability. High food prices reduce diversity and nutritional quality of the diet and for many also reduce food quantity. Poor households are hit hardest, because they already spend 50-80% of expenditures on food, little on medicines, education, transport, or cooking fuel, and cannot afford to pay more. Reduced public spending, declining incomes, increased food and fuel prices, and reduced remittance thus impede and reverse progress made toward Millenium Development Goals 1, 4, and 5. Investments in nutrition are among the most cost-effective development interventions because of very high benefit:cost ratios, for individuals and for sustainable growth of countries, because they protect health, prevent disability, boost economic productivity, and save lives. To bridge the gap between nutrient requirements, particularly for groups with high needs, and the realistic dietary intake under the prevailing circumstances, the use of complementary food supplements to increase a meal's nutrient content is recommended. This can be in the form of, e.g., micronutrient powder or low-dose lipid-based nutrient supplements, which can be provided for free, in return for vouchers, at subsidized, or at commercial prices. PMID:19939998

de Pee, Saskia; Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Webb, Patrick; Godfrey, Steve; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Alderman, Harold; Semba, Richard D; Piwoz, Ellen; Bloem, Martin W

2010-01-01

275

The World of Forking Paths: Latin America and the Caribbean Facing Global Economic Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the divergent paths that the world economy may take and their potential effects on Latin America and the Caribbean. Scenarios are constructed employing a modeling exercise that captures the trade, financial and other linkages between the region and the rest of the world. While vulnerabilities remain and external shocks have been and remain critical, the region enjoys

Andrew Powell

2012-01-01

276

The World of Forking Paths: Latin America and the Caribbean Facing Global Economic Risks (Executive Summary)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the divergent paths that the world economy may take and their potential effects on Latin America and the Caribbean. Scenarios are constructed employing a modeling exercise that captures the trade, financial and other linkages between the region and the rest of the world. While vulnerabilities remain and external shocks have been and remain critical, the region enjoys

Andrew Powell

2012-01-01

277

Review of Studies of the Economic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorists Attacks on the World Trade Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A General Accounting Office (GAO) publication, this 40-page document identifies and assesses the studies of ten key reports from nine different organizations regarding the economic impact of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center buildings in New York City (NYC). The organizations included in this review are the NYC Office of the Comptroller, NY Governor and State Division of the Budget, NYC Partnership and Chamber of Commerce, Fiscal Policy Institute, NY State Senate Finance Committee, Milken Institute, NY State Assembly Ways and Means Committee, NYC Independent Budget Office, and the Federal Reserve Bank of NY. This document objectively explores the studies and estimations of each organization's report, and determines if they meet standard economic criteria for analyzing economic impacts. Overall, the review finds that the study by the NYC Partnership provided "the most comprehensive estimates."

2002-01-01

278

Climate change impacts on the biophysics and economics of world fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global marine fisheries are underperforming economically because of overfishing, pollution and habitat degradation. Added to these threats is the looming challenge of climate change. Observations, experiments and simulation models show that climate change would result in changes in primary productivity, shifts in distribution and changes in the potential yield of exploited marine species, resulting in impacts on the economics of

William W. L. Cheung; Vicky W. Y. Lam; Daniel Pauly; Samuel Herrick; U. Rashid Sumaila

2011-01-01

279

Economic and Monetary Union Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial crisis has exposed serious flaws in the economic governance of the Eurozone. The crisis has accelerated pre-existing divergence in the performance of member states in terms of economic growth, unemployment and inflation. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) governance structures have proved ineffective in averting a sovereign debt crisis and in facilitating its management. European Union (EU) decision

Irene Kyriakopoulos

2011-01-01

280

Economic Development and Social Security in Mexico, 1945-1985A Time-Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debate persists about the relationship between economic development and the development of the welfare state in Third World countries. The expansion of social security in Mexico in the context of debt crisis presents a historical puzzle that challenges many theoretical expectations. In light of this puzzle, this study re-evaluates and compares the determinants of economic develop ment and social security

Ana-Maria Wahl

1994-01-01

281

Technology Use in Campus Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…

Mastrodicasa, Jeanna

2008-01-01

282

The economic impact of global climate and tropospheric oxone on world agricultural production  

E-print Network

The objective of my thesis is to analyze the economic impact on agriculture production from changes in climate and tropospheric ozone, and related policy interventions. The analysis makes use of the Emissions Prediction ...

Wang, Xiaodu

2005-01-01

283

THE ISSUES OF EMPLOYMENT AND IMPORTANCE OF THE EFFECTIVE USE OF THE MANPOWER IN AZERBAIJAN IN CONDITIONS OF THE WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current of social-economic reforms in Azerbaijan Republic after the disintegration of the USSR are analyzed in the article. There are given characteristics of the organized economic reforms and the model of economic development of the country. There are also shown the macroeconomic and social-economic indicators of the country, and the indicators of social expenditure of the state budget are

Shafa Aliyev

284

The evaluation of research papers in the XXI century. The Open Peer Discussion system of the World Economics Association.  

PubMed

The paper starts with a brief discussion of the traditional peer review (TPR) system of research evaluation, its role, and the criticisms levelled at it. An analysis of specific problems in economics leads to a full discussion of the Open Peer Review (OPR) system developed by the World Economics Association (WEA) and the principles behind it. The system is open in the following two respects: (a) disclosure of names of authors and reviewers; and (b) inclusivity of potential reviewers in terms of paradigmatic approaches, country, and community. The paper then discusses the applicability of the same system to other disciplines. In doing so, it stressed the aims of various evaluation systems and the possible pitfalls of rating systems. It also speculates on the future of journal publication. PMID:22891057

Ietto-Gillies, Grazia

2012-01-01

285

Proceedings of the Conference on Emerging Economic Issues in a Globalizing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing Þanlýurfa are not unique, they are the same challenges found in rural areas all around the world. Agriculture is still the most important sector in Þanlýurfa, but it is generating fewer and fewer jobs. New approaches used in regional development shift from a focus on individual sectors (such as agriculture policy) to one based on a comprehensive

Meneviþ Uzbay Pirili; R. Funda Barbaros

286

The World Trading System, 2nd Edition: Law and Policy of International Economic Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first edition of The World Trading System was published in 1989, the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations has been completed, and most governments have ratified and are in the process of implementing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In the Uruguay Round, more than 120 nations negotiated for over eight years, to produce a document of

John H. Jackson

287

Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes. Policy Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research reported in this paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects for which the project appraisal documents are judged "good" have a higher probability of leading to successful outcomes than projects for which the appraisals are judged "poor." The research draws on project document evaluations carried out in 1993 and 1998.…

Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

288

Poverty as a transient reality in a globalised world: an economic choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Poverty is indeed a terrible monster confronting humanity today. It is alarming and, indeed, not without despair to note that 22,000 children under five die every day as a result of poverty. Thus, in a calendar year, more than eight million children do not progress past the age of five years. One of the world's worst atrocities, which

A. D. Slabbert; W. I. Ukpere

2011-01-01

289

Communities Around the World. Our Community: Economic Aspects. Teacher's Resource Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching strategies for the study of the economic aspects of the student's own community are emphasized in this resource unit developed from materials produced by the Project Social Studies Curriculum Center. This unit should make progress toward teaching children the following: 1) concepts: consumer, producer, capital goods, durable goods,…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

290

Factor Endowments, Inequality, and Paths of Development Among New World Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas traditional explanations of differences in long-run paths of development across the Americas generally point to the significance of differences in national heritage or religion, we highlight the relevance of stark contrasts in the degree of inequality in wealth, human capital, and political power in accounting for how fundamental economic institutions evolved over time. We argue, moreover, that the roots

Stanley L. Engerman; Kenneth Lee Sokoloff

2002-01-01

291

Towards an ecological theory of unequal exchange: articulating world system theory and ecological economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is on how an ecological perspective might provide us with an analytically more precise way of defining `unequal exchange.' It is only by looking at the ecological conditions of human economies that we can adequately conceptualize the mechanisms which generate inequalities in distribution. Considerations of market power aside, neoclassical economic ideology has dispelled all possible

Alf Hornborg

1998-01-01

292

Current Sovereign Debt Crisis in Eurozone Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sovereign debt crisis that deepened within the last three years in particular Eurozone countries makes up one of the major components of the current global economic crisis (2006-2011) which were briefly described in Kibritçio?lu (2011). In this follow-up study, the historical and political origins of the debt crisis in EU countries, such as Ireland, Greece and Portugal, are analyzed

Aykut Kibritçio?lu

2011-01-01

293

Gramsci, the First World War, and the Problem of Politics vs Religion vs Economics in War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines Gramsci’s writings about the First World War, primarily his immediate reflections in 1914–1918, but also relevant prison notes (1926–1937). The most striking feature of his attitude during the war years is ‘Germanophilia’, a label I adapt from Croce, whose writings on the Great War also exhibited this attitude. A key common motivation was that political conflicts should

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

2005-01-01

294

Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

2013-01-01

295

Aftershocks from the Global Food Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the global economic crisis began to unfold in full force in 2009, high food and fuel prices received much less attention. Nevertheless, an analysis of international and national data suggests that a food crisis persists in many countries a full two years since food price shocks began to unfold in early 2008. This spells more difficult days ahead for

Ronald Mendoza; Megan Torres

2010-01-01

296

Eurozone Crisis: Debts, Institutions and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurozone crisis is much more than a sovereign debt crisis. It calls into question the whole architecture of economic policy, from monetary policy to macroeconomic surveillance and sanctions. Beyond the short-run urgencies, EU members need to come out with a clear view of what kind of coordination device they want to invent. There are several routes forward, but failing

Agnes Benassy-Quere; Laurence Boone

2010-01-01

297

World economic outlook: a survey by the staff of the International Monetary Fund. [Monograph  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the analysis of economic developments, policies, and prospects first presented in the May 1980 Outlook. the estimates and projections for various groups of industrial and developing countries are built up on a country-by-country basis, drawing on the International Monetary Fund's statistical resources and consultations. The global perspective now covers the People's Republic of China, nonmember European countries, and the Soviet Union. The report begins with a general survey, followed by chapters on industrial countries, oil-exporting developing countries, and non-oil developing countries. Key policy issues are identified as stagflation in industrial countries and global adjustment and financing. 14 figures, 50 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

298

Crisis Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year, most school districts spend anywhere from one to thirteen dollars per student repairing damage caused by vandals. Yerba Buena High School, in San Jose, California, spends less than one thousand dollars per year total, and attributes this success to a project called "Crisis Counseling". (RW)

Neill, Shirley Boes

1977-01-01

299

Crisis Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car accident. The…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2011-01-01

300

Crisis behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug

Grinspoon

1984-01-01

301

Rape Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Work Department at B'nai Zion Medical Center in Haifa, Israel worked with health care professionals within the hospital and in community organizations to establish a rape crisis center in the emergency room. The department developed procedures, guidelines, and protocols for the center; developed and conducted training seminars for hospital and community organization staff; and created a plan for

Noemi Edlis

1993-01-01

302

Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.  

PubMed

The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). PMID:11479358

Wagstaff, A

2001-08-01

303

Global Financial Crisis?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines mounting concern for economic well-being around the world. The ten resources discussed provide background information on the global economy, current international market news, and developments in US, IMF, and World Bank reform efforts. In order to curb economic crises in Asia, Russia, and Latin America (reviewed in the September 24, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics), President Clinton called for international economic reform at the International Monetary Fund annual meeting, Tuesday, October 6, 1998. According to Clinton, "the global economy simply cannot live with the kinds of vast and systemic disruptions that have occurred in the past year." Disputes among IMF and World Bank officials, however, threaten to undermine relief efforts for struggling economies. Without the monetary support of these and other global lenders, many market watchers expect investor panic to grow world-wide.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

304

Governing during an Institutional Crisis: 10 Fundamental Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's world, managing a campus crisis poses special challenges for an institution's governing board, which may operate some distance removed from the immediate events giving rise to the crisis. In its most challenging form, a campus crisis--a shooting, a natural disaster, a fraternity hazing death, the arrest of a prominent campus…

White, Lawrence

2012-01-01

305

Islamic Resurgence and Social Violence During the Indonesian Financial Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether social violence rises or falls with religious intensity is a subject of much debate. This paper exploits dierences in religious intensity across Indonesia before and during the Indonesian …nancial crisis and relative price shocks induced by the crisis to identify the eect of economic distress on the relationship between religious intensity and social violence. Religious intensity before the crisis

Daniel L. Chen

306

Crisis and Recovery 1997-99 East Asia Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides an overview of salient features of the Asian currency crisis and its resolution; seeks to explain the different phases of the crisis in terms of the underlying economic mechanism and operation of exogenous factors; and draws some preventive as also prescriptive policy conclusions. The Asian crisis, it appears, was characterised by a single cycle in the real

MIHIR RAKSHIT

2000-01-01

307

Inefficiencies in water project design and operation in the third world: An economic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water projects in less developed countries (LDCs) frequently are poorly operated and maintained. As a result, project benefits and development impacts fall short of plans. The problems begin in the project identification, design, and construction stages: donor and host country biases lead to inappropriate projects, unsustainable technologies, and shoddy construction. Later operation and maintenance are then difficult or impossible. Causal factors include donor desire to build monuments and sell technology, provision of excessive capital to favored sectors or institutions, and an unwillingness to require a reasonable quid pro quo from the host country. Host country factors include excessive administrative centralization, lack of rewards for good operation and maintenance, and widespread corruption in forms that seriously distort allocative efficiency. Until individual actors on both sides can be motivated to pursue the long-run good of the LDC, Third World water projects will continue to have low or negative net payoffs.

Howe, Charles W.; Dixon, John A.

1993-07-01

308

China’s Emergence in the World Economy and Business Cycles in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international business cycle is very important for Latin America’s economic performance as the recent global crisis vividly illustrated. This paper investigates how changes in trade linkages between China, Latin America, and the rest of the world have altered the transmission mechanism of international business cycles to Latin America. Evidence based on a Global Vector Autoregressive (GVAR) model for 5

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi; Hashem Pesaran; Alessandro Rebucci; TengTeng Xu

2012-01-01

309

World Input-Output Network  

E-print Network

Economic systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) tables at the global level. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we study the network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. We are able to quantify not only some global network properties such as assortativity, clustering coefficient, and degree and strength distributions, but also its subgraph structure and dynamics by using community detection techniques. Over time, we detect a marked increase in cross-country connectivity of the production system, only temporarily interrupted by the 2008-2009 crisis. Moreover...

Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

2014-01-01

310

Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review  

PubMed Central

This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes. PMID:23945676

Lim, Karen H. C.; Riddell, Lynn J.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.

2013-01-01

311

Economic growth and obesity: an interesting relationship with world-wide implications.  

PubMed

The prosperity of a country, commonly measured in terms of its annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has different relationships with population levels of body weight and happiness, as well as environmental impacts such as carbon emissions. The aim of this study was to examine these relationships and to try to find a level of GDP, which provides for sustainable economic activity, optimal happiness and healthy levels of mean body mass index (BMI). Spline regression analyses were conducted using national indices from 175 countries: GDP, adult BMI, mean happiness scores, and carbon footprint per capita for the year 2007. Results showed that GDP was positively related to BMI and happiness up to ?$US3000 and ?$5000 per capita respectively, with no significant relationships beyond these levels. GDP was also positively related to CO(2) emissions with a recognised sustainable carbon footprint of less than 5 tonnes per capita occurring at a GDP of <$US15,000. These findings show that a GDP between $US5 and $15,000 is associated with greater population happiness and environmental stability. A mean BMI of 21-23 kg/m(2), which minimises the prevalence of underweight and overweight in the population then helps to define an ideal position in relation to growth, which few countries appear to have obtained. Within a group of wealthy countries (GDP>$US30,000), those with lower income inequalities and more regulated (less liberal) market systems had lower mean BMIs. PMID:22305524

Egger, Garry; Swinburn, Boyd; Islam, F M Amirul

2012-03-01

312

Effectiveness of psychiatric mental health nurses: can we save the core of the profession in an economically constrained world?  

PubMed

Mental and behavioral disorders are common, affecting more than 25% of all people at some time during their lives. Mental disorders and their burden on society have increased dramatically. This scenario can be an opportunity for psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses. Some literature shows gratifying experiences of care delivered by P/MH nurses, but that can also be a threat if, in a world with an economic dominance such as ours, we are not able to clarify our identity and effectiveness. One implication of this is that we need to identify the contribution of nursing to patient outcomes through nurses' independent, dependent, and interdependent roles. The authors stressed the importance of improving our accountability and fighting against invisibility to policy makers to prioritize the nurse-client relationship and identify our effectiveness. Based on some literature, the authors argue that clinical nurse specialists are in a better position than nurse practitioners to produce nursing-sensitive outcomes. PMID:21978801

Santos, José Carlos; Amaral, António Fernando Salgueiro

2011-10-01

313

Stock network stability in times of crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite many efforts crises on financial markets are in large part still scientific black-boxes. In this paper, we use a winner-take-all approach to construct a longitudinal network of S&P 500 companies and their correlations between 2000 and 2012. A comparison to complex ecosystems is drawn, especially whether the May-Wigner theorem can describe real-world economic phenomena. The results confirm the utility of the May-Wigner theorem as a stability indicator for the US stock market, since its development matches with the two major crises of this period, the dot-com bubble and, particularly, the financial crisis. In those times of financial turmoil, the stock network changes its composition, but unlike ecological systems it tightens and the disassortative structure of prosperous markets transforms into a more centralized topology.

Heiberger, Raphael H.

2014-01-01

314

Energy Crisis: The Leisurely Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their automotive lifestyles, Americans account for the greatest portion of fossil fuel consumption in the world. The desirable leisure lifestyle traits of the past should be incorporated into contemporary American culture. Americans need to wean themselves away from the automobile if the energy crisis is to be solved. (JN)

Mobily, Ken

1980-01-01

315

Crisis behavior  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

Grinspoon, L.

1984-04-01

316

The global economic long-term potential of modern biomass in a climate-constrained world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-stabilization scenarios consistent with the 2 °C target project large-scale deployment of purpose-grown lignocellulosic biomass. In case a GHG price regime integrates emissions from energy conversion and from land-use/land-use change, the strong demand for bioenergy and the pricing of terrestrial emissions are likely to coincide. We explore the global potential of purpose-grown lignocellulosic biomass and ask the question how the supply prices of biomass depend on prices for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land-use sector. Using the spatially explicit global land-use optimization model MAgPIE, we construct bioenergy supply curves for ten world regions and a global aggregate in two scenarios, with and without a GHG tax. We find that the implementation of GHG taxes is crucial for the slope of the supply function and the GHG emissions from the land-use sector. Global supply prices start at 5 GJ-1 and increase almost linearly, doubling at 150 EJ (in 2055 and 2095). The GHG tax increases bioenergy prices by 5 GJ-1 in 2055 and by 10 GJ-1 in 2095, since it effectively stops deforestation and thus excludes large amounts of high-productivity land. Prices additionally increase due to costs for N2O emissions from fertilizer use. The GHG tax decreases global land-use change emissions by one-third. However, the carbon emissions due to bioenergy production increase by more than 50% from conversion of land that is not under emission control. Average yields required to produce 240 EJ in 2095 are roughly 600 GJ ha-1 yr-1 with and without tax.

Klein, David; Humpenöder, Florian; Bauer, Nico; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Bonsch, Markus; Lotze-Campen, Hermann

2014-07-01

317

Structural explanations of fertility change: the demographic transition, the economic status of women, and the world system.  

PubMed

The current study departs from existing analyses by examining change in crude birthrates in a large sample of societies spanning all levels of development and by considering the effects of changes in independent variables on unit changes in fertility rates. It tests for the effects of levels and changes in female labor force representation and for effects of levels and changes in variables derived from classic demographic transition theory -- energy consumption per capita and child mortality. Additionally, it considers the possibility that these variables have differing impacts in least-developed (periphery) and developing (semiperiphery) nations than they had in already developed (core) nations. Data on dependent and independent variables were obtained from tables compiled by the World Bank (1980). In the 1st stage of the analysis, associations between coterminous trends in the dependent and independent variables were examined. To measure trends in fertility between 1960-77 the 1960 crude birthrates were sXrtracted from 1977 crude birthrates. Also obtained from the World Tables were child mortality rates (ages 1-4), female labor force representation (females per 100 persons in the labor force), and energy consumption per capita for both 1960 and 1977. Energy consumption per capita was chosen as the indicator of general development. Both 1960 values and changes between 1960 and 1977 were used as independent variables in the analysis. The blocks derived by Snyder and Kick (1979) were used to assign nations to either the core, semiperiphery, or periphery of the world system. It was possible to classify 93 of the original 100 cases, meaning only 7 cases were excluded in the analyses of subgroups. In the 2nd stage of the analysis, associations between fertility change and lagged changes in its proposed determinants were examined. Analysis of coterminous trends allowed for determining if overall trends in the dependent and independent variables were associated. All 3 theories underlying the hypotheses on causes of fertility change -- demographic transition theory, Caldwell's (1978) revision of the latter as it would be reflected in the economic status of women, and world system theory -- received some support, but it is argued that the evidence from the indirect test of Caldwell's theory of fertility decline was mixed, second, that a number of the results converged in their support for demographic transition theory, and third, that the overall pattern of findings failed to correspond well with expectations based on world system's theory. PMID:12340268

Nolan, P D; White, R B

1984-01-01

318

Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

2002-01-01

319

Crisis in the church, church in crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

iting from the anthropological perspective, hilip Jenkins cogently argues that to take the proper measure of the sexual scandals that have been rocking the American Catholic Church we should place them in global context. American Catholics, he reminds us constitute a mere sixth of the world's Catholic population, which is ever more likely to live in the non-Western, less economically

Elizabeth Fox-Genovese

2003-01-01

320

The Quality of Education and Economic Development. A World Bank Symposium. Papers prepared for the Conference of the World Bank Research Committee (Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, May 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research findings on the economic implications of investments in the quality of education are examined in this report. "The Quality of Education and Economic Growth: A Review of Literature" (Lewis C. Solmon) reviews evidence on ways to develop educational policy that would stimulate economic growth in developing countries. "School Quality…

Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; White, Daphne Siev, Ed.

321

The Crisis of Capitalism and the Marketisation of Health Care: the Implications for Public Health Professionals  

PubMed Central

The current economic crisis in Europe has challenged the basis of the economic model that currently prevails in much of the industrialised world. It has revealed a system that is managed not for the benefit of the people but rather for the corporations and the small elite who lead them, and which is clearly unsustainable in its present form. Yet, there is a hidden consequence of this system: an unfolding crisis in health care, driven by the greed of corporations whose profit-seeking model is also failing. Proponents of commodifying healthcare simultaneously argue that the cost of providing care for ageing populations is unaffordable while working to create demand for their health care products among those who are essentially healthy. Will healthcare be the next profit-fuelled investor bubble? In this paper, we call on health professionals to heed the warnings from the economic crisis and, rather than stand by while a crisis unfolds, act now to redirect increasingly market-oriented health systems to serve the common good. PMID:25170470

McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

2012-01-01

322

Crisis -- A Leadership Opportunity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For years crisis management has been synonymous with reactive leadership. This stems from a belief that crisis is both unpredictable and unexpected; but this is simply not true. Crisis develops as an organization's values, beliefs, culture, or behavior be...

I. J. Cooper, J. P. Powell, M. Klingele, M. G. Robbins, V. Braden

2005-01-01

323

The Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

324

[The effects of economic crises on health care].  

PubMed

In September 2008, financial turmoil on Wall Street led to severe losses in that country's financial derivatives market and plunged the United States into the most severe financial crisis in over a decade. The backlash of this "financial tsunami" has affected countries around the world. The world economy, facing the most critical financial crisis since the 1930s, must deal with recession, severe unemployment and general fears of worse to come, which have, in turn, spawned a range of physical, psychological and spiritual problems. In this article we study the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare from several angles, including: decreasing incomes causing changing attitudes toward seeking healthcare; decreasing numbers of people covered by medical insurance; increasing impact on the job market of untreated illnesses; changing national healthcare policies in response to economic pressures; increasing physical, psychological and social problems resulting from economic problems; and the need for the nursing profession to respond to these and other rapid changes in the healthcare landscape. Nursing staff are sometimes unaware of social problems outside their profession. This article may, therefore, provide a general reference to medical and nursing staff on the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare. PMID:20661861

Chang, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Chiu-Ling; Yang, Yu-O

2010-08-01

325

Title of Lesson Plan: The Origins of European Economic Cooperation and Integration Grades: 9-12  

E-print Network

of the current articles on the Eurozone crisis and discuss whether or not economic cooperation and integration is still worth it. Some of the more useful sites are: Crisis in the Eurozone (http://www.cfr.org/thinktank/iigg/crisis-review/an-overview-of-the- euro-crisis.html) Eurozone Crisis (http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/business/euro-crisis

Scharer, John E.

326

The Social Functions of Iranian Education: An Historical Survey Related to the Current Political Crisis. 1979 World Education Monograph Series, Number Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Shah of Iran should be admired for his efforts to use education to deal with formidable social challenges, his goal of producing a modern state in a single generation was unrealistic. Entrenched traditional values and unpredicted economic changes such as the need in 1977 to slow down Iran's rate of growth in the face of runaway…

Woolman, David C.

327

The Impact of Economic Crises on American Universities: Lessons from the Past  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities around the world have been affected by the recent global economic crisis. Many are challenged by reduced resources, yet they also face greater demands to help spur recovery in their respective countries. This paper explores how colleges and universities in the United States were affected by, and subsequently responded to, several 20th…

El-Khawas, Elaine

2011-01-01

328

Overpopulation crisis.  

PubMed

This article reviews field research on the violent response on the part of animals to conditions of crowding. Monkey species in zoos have consistently been noted to be more quarrelsome and violent than their counterparts in the wild. Up to a certain critical population density various animal species form cooperative social units; however, a surplus population upsets this balance. In addition, under conditions of intense crowding, mammal's care and protection of the young is transformed into indifference, neglect, competition, domination, and ultimately murder. The reversal of social behavior under crowded conditions can be understood as a means of response to a population crisis, in which population is in danger of outrunning resources. In the absence of confinement, tensions among monkeys lead to war between bands. A community weakened by crowding also is more likely to succumb to certain stress diseases and to have less resilience against parasites. Under various special conditions, tolerance may evolve to permit temporary compression without violence; on the other hand, when a violent response is suppressed, the response tends to be explosive when it does occur. If population reduction is delayed too long, the result may be violence, famine, and permanent damage to the environment from overgrazing. In human society there has generally been a lag in the full development of the violent response to crowding. Given the power of modern military technology, it is imperative that human populations avert a population crisis response by substituting voluntary fertility control for involuntary mortality control. PMID:12340737

Russell, C; Russell Wms

1984-01-01

329

Toward a New Model of Fertility: The Effects of the World Economic System and the Status of Women on Fertility Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relationship exists between high birth rates and the lowered status of women in developing nations, resulting from their country's economic development. Research was based on data from various sources on 34 developed nations and 92 developing nations throughout the world. Variables included income inequality, foreign trade structure and…

Ward, Kathryn B.

330

Globalizing Christian Education in Economic Development: Problems and Prospects in Designing and Delivering a Christian US Graduate Program for the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic development program at Eastern University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA) was created in 1984 as one of the world's first Christian MBA programs designed to train entrepreneurs for service to distressed communities in developing nations and American cities. In 2002, the University developed a distance version of its campus program blending limited residencies with on-line education offered in partnership with

M. Thomas Ridington; Stan L. LeQuire

331

Drought affects virtually all regions of the world and results in significant economic, social, and environmental impacts. The Federal Emergency Management Agency estimates  

E-print Network

Drought affects virtually all regions of the world and results in significant economic, social, and environmental impacts. The Federal Emergency Management Agency estimates annual drought-related losses in the U) and farmers to be more proactive in managing drought risk. TT hrough the NSF's Digital Government Pro- gram

Goddard, Steve

332

Macroeconomics after the Crisis: Time to Deal with the Pretense-of-Knowledge Syndrome  

E-print Network

The recent financial crisis has damaged the reputation of macroeconomics, largely for its inability to predict the impending financial and economic crisis. To be honest, this inability to predict does not concern me much. ...

Caballero, Ricardo J.

2010-01-01

333

The Identity Crisis of Educational Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational planning is presently confronted by an identity crisis. As long as it was believed that educational expansion was a principal ingredient for securing economic growth, democratic political processes, and greater equality of economics and social participation, the tenets and practice of educational planning were rarely questioned.…

Levin, Henry M.

334

Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis  

PubMed Central

Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children’s physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

335

Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.  

PubMed

The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. PMID:23541059

Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

2013-04-13

336

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2011-01-01

337

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2012-01-01

338

[Competency-based training and work world: from grading to employability].  

PubMed

Considered as an element of business discourse, the competence-based education emerges associated with processes of productive restructuring influencing the economy since 1970. These processes arise as a consequence of the crisis of the accumulation model based on mass production and consumption following the principles of taylorism and fordism. In the last decades, the State has been unable to solve the periodic crisis that afflicts late capitalism. Because of this, the State moves away from its economic mission, promotes marketing mechanisms and, in the meantime, it tries to manage the motivational crisis of the population. This challenge forces the State to take interest in the vital world of individuals trying to solve the legitimacy crisis through educational reforms that affect the world of work. The relationship between the vertiginous changes of working world and a new educational formation is explicit. This educational formation must consider (at the same time) the management capacity, learning capacity, teamwork capacity and self-training. Based on this situation, there is a direct relationship between technologic advances, the structural crisis of capitalism and work organization. Besides, the "qualification" term is replaced with "competency-based education". PMID:23258750

Estrada, John H M

2012-06-01

339

[30 years' development of economic theories in confrontation with facts].  

PubMed

In 1969, R. Frish and J. Tinbergen received the first Nobel Price in Economics. 200 years after Quesnay's "economic tables", economics were at last considered as a science. During the last thirty years, economics haven't lost their scientific reputation, but, confronted with different situations in the world and in France, economics have been unable to bring appropriate solutions to every problem. Nowadays, economics are quite far from the promises born after the Second World War: indeed, until the 1974 world crisis, Keynes' theory (from a macro-economic point of view) and Walras' formalisation of the markets (from a micro-economic point of view) were sufficient to give satisfying representations of any economic reality and mechanism. Nevertheless, these theories were unable to deal with both growing unemployment and raising inflation in the late 70's and early 80's. Today, economics present a wide variety of efficient analysis of society. Game theory, behaviour theory or econometrics are new means used to found new kinds of reality representation. Therefore, if economics can no longer be considered as an exact science, it remains nevertheless scientific. PMID:7736311

Levy, F

1994-01-01

340

Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis.  

PubMed

The UN High-Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in September, 2011, is an unprecedented opportunity to create a sustained global movement against premature death and preventable morbidity and disability from NCDs, mainly heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease. The increasing global crisis in NCDs is a barrier to development goals including poverty reduction, health equity, economic stability, and human security. The Lancet NCD Action Group and the NCD Alliance propose five overarching priority actions for the response to the crisis--leadership, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, and monitoring and accountability--and the delivery of five priority interventions--tobacco control, salt reduction, improved diets and physical activity, reduction in hazardous alcohol intake, and essential drugs and technologies. The priority interventions were chosen for their health effects, cost-effectiveness, low costs of implementation, and political and financial feasibility. The most urgent and immediate priority is tobacco control. We propose as a goal for 2040, a world essentially free from tobacco where less than 5% of people use tobacco. Implementation of the priority interventions, at an estimated global commitment of about US$9 billion per year, will bring enormous benefits to social and economic development and to the health sector. If widely adopted, these interventions will achieve the global goal of reducing NCD death rates by 2% per year, averting tens of millions of premature deaths in this decade. PMID:21474174

Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Horton, Richard; Adams, Cary; Alleyne, George; Asaria, Perviz; Baugh, Vanessa; Bekedam, Henk; Billo, Nils; Casswell, Sally; Cecchini, Michele; Colagiuri, Ruth; Colagiuri, Stephen; Collins, Tea; Ebrahim, Shah; Engelgau, Michael; Galea, Gauden; Gaziano, Thomas; Geneau, Robert; Haines, Andy; Hospedales, James; Jha, Prabhat; Keeling, Ann; Leeder, Stephen; Lincoln, Paul; McKee, Martin; Mackay, Judith; Magnusson, Roger; Moodie, Rob; Mwatsama, Modi; Nishtar, Sania; Norrving, Bo; Patterson, David; Piot, Peter; Ralston, Johanna; Rani, Manju; Reddy, K Srinath; Sassi, Franco; Sheron, Nick; Stuckler, David; Suh, Il; Torode, Julie; Varghese, Cherian; Watt, Judith

2011-04-23

341

Species-richness patterns of the living collections of the world's botanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics?  

E-print Network

of socio-economics? Janice Golding1, Sabine Gu¨sewell2, Holger Kreft3, Victor Y. Kuzevanov4, Susanna Lehva Garden of Irkutsk State University, PO Box 48, Irkutsk, 664039, Russia, 5 Botanic Garden, Finnish Museum be explained by socio-economic factors is unknown. Methods Species and taxa richness of a comprehensive sample

Kreft, Holger

342

Irans Water Crisis; Inducers, Challenges and Counter-Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar to many countries in the world experiencing extreme water shortages, the Islamic Republic of Iran is also in the midst of a serious water crisis. The looming crisis is being blamed on a number of factors including population growth and uneven distribution, natural phenomena such as droughts and changing climate patterns, and the mismanagement of existing water resources. The

Kaveh Madani Larijani

2005-01-01

343

Squeezed from All Sides: The CSU Crisis and California's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California long enjoyed rapid growth, abundant jobs, and expanding college opportunity--key elements of the California dream. Now the state is struggling to recover from its worst economic crisis in generations, a demographic slowdown, a devastating collapse of the wealth of the state' families from the housing crisis, and severe cutbacks in…

Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2011

2011-01-01

344

PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRY AND THE CRISIS OF CUBAN PUBLIC LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a historical perspective, the crisis of Cuban public life is rooted in Cuba's colonial experience. It was then that the seed of an incompatible relation- ship between Cuba's economic and political institu- tions was planted. The genesis of this crisis is the na- ture of the social stratification created by Spanish colonialism. It engendered a form of social stratifica-

Roberto J. Vichot

345

THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS SITUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crisis situations are inherent in the activity of any modern organization,regardless its type – public, military or private – and they affect the efficiency of human resource or even organization’s excellence. For nearly two years, the organizational environment has been marked by the effects of the latest economical and financial crisis, which amplified the organizational tensions, highlighting, in the absence

Iulian Mitu?

2011-01-01

346

Crisis of the euro zone and prospects of the euro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes problems of the eurozone, which are aggravated by the crisis. It proposes architectural transformations\\u000a of the European monetary system targeted at combating the crisis and promoting economic growth and employment in today’s structurally\\u000a inhomogeneous Europe.

J. Sapir

2011-01-01

347

Regional effects of the crisis in German engine building industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008\\/2009, the recent economic crisis affected German engine building industries. The incoming orders dropped dramatically. As some regions especially in western and southern Germany are strongly dependent on such industries, the companies as well as the regions, where the companies are located, were endangered. Yet, some companies could implement strategies to overcome the crisis. Such companies were especially such

Martina Fuchs; Hanno Kempermann

2011-01-01

348

European Debt Crisis: How a Public Debt Restructuring Can Solve a Private Debt Issue  

E-print Network

Abstract: The political and economic crisis in Europe is often viewed as an indirect consequence of the global financial and economic breakdowns caused by the US "subprime" crisis. European governments policies are far from achieving an appropriate economic solution for the Eurozone. Moreover, it suggests

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

The Management of the Costs of Crisis Management Eurozone, EU 2020 and the Future of European Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the European Union (EU) was not the main source of the global financial and economic crisis, as one of the leading economic players, it was fundamentally affected by the immediate and longer-term consequences of the crisis. Similarly, it is expected that it would play an important role in how to get out of the crisis (not yet clear, whether

András Inotai

2011-01-01

350

Materials production economics : an examination of the variables and relationships that drive materials production and recycling in the world economy  

E-print Network

Introduction: New materials are being developing each year that could revolutionize the world. However, while development of novel materials in the lab brings us one step closer to next latest-and-greatest innovation, the ...

King, Yao-Chung

2006-01-01

351

Refugee Crisis in the Balkans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News returns to Kosovo, where humanitarian workers and government officials warn that the refugee crisis is rapidly spinning out of control. What appears to be an organized and systematic expulsion of the ethnic Albanian population from Kosovo has created the worst humanitarian disaster in Europe since World War II. According to UN refugee officials, over 220,000 persons have fled or been expelled from Kosovo over the last ten days, to Albania, Macedonia, or Montenegro. With entry into Macedonia ground to an almost complete halt, Albania swollen with over 120,000 refugees, and thousands still behind them, the Kosovo-Macedonia border in particular has become a humanitarian nightmare; little food, shelter, or sanitation is available for people who have been forced from their homes with almost nothing. The sites listed provide information about this refugee crisis.

De Nie, Michael W.

1999-01-01

352

Urbanisation, poverty and employment: the large metropolis in the third world.  

PubMed

"The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overall review of the chief analytical as well as economic policy issues in relation to Third World cities in the light of the available theoretical and empirical studies on urbanisation, poverty and employment in the developing countries.... Part I...provides basic information on urbanisation in the Third World...[and] outlines the nature and extent of urban poverty in these large cities and considers the impact of the world economic crisis on the urban poor. Part II of the paper discusses the most important structural features of urbanisation in relation to economic development....Finally, Part III briefly examines policy issues in relation to urbanisation and poverty in the Third World's large cities." PMID:12344664

Singh, A

1992-01-01

353

The Popeye principle: selling child health in the first nutrition crisis.  

PubMed

The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor was capable of superhuman feats of strength after eating a can of spinach. Popeye ate spinach because the association of spinach with strength was a product of the first national nutrition crisis in the United States: the 1920s fight against child malnutrition. Spanning the first three decades of the twentieth century, the malnutrition crisis arose from the confluence of many different events including the invention of nutrition science and new standards for height and weight; international food crises created by world war; the rise of consumerism, advertising, and new forms of mass media; and Progressive reformers' conviction that education was a key component of any solution. The history of the malnutrition crisis presented in this essay synthesizes disparate histories concerning advertising, public health, education, consumerism, philanthropy, and Progressive Era reform with original analysis of a major nutrition education program sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund in the 1920s. Because the character of Popeye came to embody one of the nutritional norms advocated in the 1920s, I refer to the influence of culturally constructed social norms on children's beliefs about health and nutrition as the Popeye Principle. The history of the malnutrition crisis demonstrates the importance of understanding the cultural and economic conditions surrounding childhood nutrition, the use and influence of numerical norms, and the mutually reinforcing influences on children's nutritional norms from their parents, peers, teachers, and culture. PMID:16477789

Lovett, Laura

2005-10-01

354

Crisis Planning: Survey Results from Hurricane Katrina and Implications for Performance Improvement Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern organizations constantly face unparalleled changes and uncertainty in the competitive world, thus requiring strategic planning to mitigate crisis conditions. Underscoring crisis plans are performance interventions that prepare employees, technological systems, and the organizational culture to effectively respond to a crisis event. However,…

Hutchins, Holly M.; Annulis, Heather; Gaudet, Cyndi

2008-01-01

355

Analysis of Chinese Enterprise Financial Crisis Prewarning Based on BP Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the economic development of the emerging market countries, bankruptcy and financial crisis occur more and more frequently in business, credit and savings institutions, and thus the demand for enterprise financial crisis prewarning is rapidly growing. The main purpose of this paper to build a business financial crisis prewarning model based on BP neural network to conduct empirical analysis of

Shen Xiangguang; Song Xiaozhong

2010-01-01

356

Japan' s Role in Responding to the Crisis in Southeast Asia and the East Asian Regionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the economic crisis erupted in Southeast Asia, there has been a tendency towards the revival of East Asian regionalism. Existing regional cooperation, the IMF and other international institutions were not effective in dealing with the crisis. The US also did not pay much attention. Thus crisis-hit countries sought helps from major powers in the region. On the other hand,

Sigit WITJAKSONO

357

Castel Gandolfo workshop: an introduction to the impact of climate change, the economic crisis, and the increase in the food prices on malnutrition.  

PubMed

The global food supply system is facing serious new challenges from economic and related crises and climate change, which directly affect the nutritional well-being of the poor by reducing their access to nutritious food. To cope, vulnerable populations prioritize consumption of calorie-rich but nutrient-poor food. Consequently, dietary quality and eventually quantity decline, increasing micronutrient malnutrition (or hidden hunger) and exacerbating preexisting vulnerabilities that lead to poorer health, lower incomes, and reduced physical and intellectual capabilities. This article introduces the series of papers in this supplement, which explore the relationships between crises and their cumulative impacts among vulnerable populations, particularly through hidden hunger. PMID:19923395

Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D; Kraemer, Klaus

2010-01-01

358

Defense Identity Crisis: It's a Hybrid World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The defense enterprise is abuzz with lively debates on 'hybrid threats' and 'hybrid war.' Yet, newly emergent defense trends do not automatically merit exquisite definitions, new doctrine, or new operating concepts. As Frank Hoffman implies, such a caveat...

N. Freier

2009-01-01

359

[Social and economic significance of enterovirus infection and its role in etiologic structure of infectious diseases in the world].  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses comprised by more than 100 serotypes, they spread everywhere and can cause wide spectrum of diseases as well as significant social and economic loss. Influenza-like illness and mild forms of enterovirus infection (herpangina, exanthema) are widespread and causes of significant number of visits in clinics. Economic cost of mild form of enterovirus infection is not high although great number of cases (10 - 15 mln cases yearly in USA) determines its important economic significance. Single cases and outbreaks of enterovirus aseptic meningitis occur less frequently but lead to significant economic burden due to hospitalization costs. Enteroviruses are also cause up to 30% of sepsis-like disease in newborns and play important role in infant morbidity and mortality. Potential of enteroviruses as a source of new diseases in humans has a special significance for practical healthcare. In XX century enteroviruses became a cause of pandemics of paralytic poliomyelitis, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and foot-and-mouth-like disease, which caused vast social and economic loss, and emergence of new forms of enterovirus infection is quite possible in XXI century. PMID:21061587

Lukashev, A N; Ivanova, O E; Khudiakova, L V

2010-01-01

360

Open Defecation and the Human Waste Crisis in India  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes the human waste crisis in India. The lack of sanitation facilities as well as open defecation seriously impacts India's ability to achieve its sanitation goals by 2015. More importantly, if the World Health Organization...

Mozaffar, Parveen

2014-05-31

361

Global action. The world's forests.  

PubMed

This article reviews the major international efforts developed over the decade to save the world's forests. As a result of the growing fears about the world's forests, powerful nongovernmental movements interested in safeguarding natural and old growth forests around the world were created. Some of the major initiatives addressing the global forest crisis include 1) the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit); 2) the Commission on Sustainable Development; 3) the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests; 4) the UN Food and Agricultural Organization's Tropical Forestry Action Plan; and 5) the International Tropical Timber Organization. These different initiatives tackled diverse problems of the environment and development; however, they have all failed to either achieve their own aims or create sustainable results. In contrast to these initiatives, the Forest Stewardship Council is a wholly independent, non profit-making, nongovernmental, membership organization. It seeks to promote good forest management worldwide, based on a set of principles and criteria designed to ensure that forests of all kinds are managed in ways that are environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable. Moreover, it enjoys the support of the World Wildlife Fund, Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, and a wide range of other nongovernmental organizations. PMID:12322448

Jeanrenaud, J P

1996-01-01

362

Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis

Eramo, Eric M.

2009-01-01

363

Anatomy of the Global Food Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic food price increases affected much of the developing world in 2008. Even as food prices have begun to relax in 2009, this trend is highly uneven across countries, and in many countries local food prices remain high relative to past levels. Furthermore, the challenge of addressing the root causes of the global food crisis remains. This paper contributes to

Pedro Conceição; Ronald U Mendoza

2009-01-01

364

La politica industriale e la crisi finanziaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that with the present world financial crisis national governments, particularly in eurozone countries, are left with little more than industrial policy as a tool to steer the economy. Present day industrial policy will of course be very different from the \\

Deaglio Mario

2008-01-01

365

The impact of new borders on trade: World War I and the economic disintegration of Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of changes in national border demarcation on economic integration. It treats the national breakups in Central Europe due to WWI as a natural experiment, which allows for evaluating the particular effect of new national borders. A gravity model of trade is used to analyze goods-specific trade among Central European regions. The main results are, first,

Hans Christian Heinemeyer

2006-01-01

366

The Economics of Vocational Training: Past Evidence and Future Considerations. World Bank Staff Working Papers Number 713.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A partial survey of the literature on the economics of vocational training reveals three important lessons on how evaluations may be undertaken using data on pay, inputs, and outputs. The first lesson is that social, corporate, and private returns to vocational training in developing countries appear to be high enough to justify expanding training…

Metcalf, David H.

367

The production and distribution of food is one of the most important economic activities in the world. The  

E-print Network

produced and to respond to issues such as irradiation of foods, genetically modified foods, food in cell physiology and biochemistry, genetics and organic chemistry. A Principles of Nutrition (FOOD 2001The production and distribution of food is one of the most important economic activities

Carleton University

368

Expanding Children's Economic World. Grade 1 Model Lesson for Standard 6. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this 9-week unit, students compare and contrast goods and services and discuss economic activities that occur in cities, sorting them into the production of goods or the provision of a service. Students examine how people use money to purchase goods and services. Wants are defined in terms of trade-offs or choices that must be made. Job…

Hamilton, Mary; Wood, Suzanne; Field, Elisa; Porter, Priscilla

369

Roscher and the theory of crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streissler considers Roscher?s theory of crisis to be highly original and important. Schumpeter, on the other hand, considers it only a rehash of the ideas of others. Examines this contradiction, beginning with a reflection on the essential elements of the debates on Keynes, Say?s law and classical economics. Continues by analysing the statements of German economists before Roscher on the

Harald Hagemann

1995-01-01

370

Introduzione: la crisi economica e della scienza economica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article introduces to the current issue of the journal by critically reviewing the articles published therein in light of both recent literature and current economic developments. The main topics dealt with concern the role of mainstream economics and ideology in creating the cultural and economic environment that lead to the crisis in the first place and that hinders now

Carlo DIppoliti

2011-01-01

371

The Book of Chemical Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a crisis management model that effectively bridges the areas of substance abuse and crisis intervention. A crisis alternatives model which can be incorporated into drug counseling programs is discussed, along with a four-step crisis intervention plan for use by crisis workers that includes: (1) establishing rapport; (2)…

Sours, Floyd P.

372

The Greek Financial Crisis: An Overview of the Crisis in Entirety and Proposed Measures: Recommended Solutions and REsults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the Greek financial crisis from 2009 in entirety and analyzes the best option for economic growth from this point forth. The history and culture of Greece is discussed, along with a background of the economy and several economic policies that led to the increased debt levels and the poor economic health of the country. The Gross Domestic

Androniki Podaras

2012-01-01

373

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agriculture and Home Economics on the World Wide Web at www.cahe.nmsu.edu  

E-print Network

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agriculture and Home Economics on the World Wide Web at www.cahe.nmsu.edu Agricultural Experiment Station · College's economic decisions related to grazing, stocking rates, and livestock weight gain; ultimately, it underpins

Johnson, Eric E.

374

Crisis in Iraq  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The topic of this week's in the news is the renewed Iraqi crisis. The eleven resources discussed offer information, analysis, and commentary from a variety of political and cultural viewpoints. Despite a noted lack of enthusiasm from neighboring Middle East nations and in the UN, the US and Britain appeared ready to take military action against Iraq to punish Saddam Hussein for once again interfering with the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) inspections. While both governments received strong support from their legislatures, opinion within the US and UK, and certainly within the wider world community, appears to be much more divided on the necessity or effectiveness of air strikes in forcing Iraq to comply to the UN mandate. An agreement reached between Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Saddam Hussein on February 22 appears to be defusing the situation by restoring, free and unfettered inspections by the UN Special Commission, known by its acronym, Unscom. While the US government is clearly relieved by a diplomatic solution, it seems just as clearly prepared to take military action should Iraq fail to honor the agreement.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

375

Meeting the challenges of the African health crisis in the decade of the nineties.  

PubMed

Africa is suffering from a health crisis brought about by the economic disarray of many African economies which occurred in the wake of the world economic recession of the 1980s and by the phenomenon of AIDS. After the period of colonization was over, many African nations made great strides during the 1960s and 1970s in extending health services to rural areas and in expanding the training of medical personnel. Health development came to a halt in the 1980s, and basic survival is now an issue in a situation where the misery of recurring epidemics has been compounded by drought and famine. Economic set-backs created a crisis in health services manifested by such problems as a reduction in services and an inability to maintain facilities. This is the setting which gave birth to the AIDS epidemic. In order to foster health development, local activities in well defined districts need to be well managed and supervised in order to result in health improvements. Such a health development framework (as adopted by the Ministries of Health of the African region of the World Health Organization in 1985) would require operational, technical, and strategic support. National health institutions organized according to this framework would provide medical care in hospitals, would promote public health in health centers, and would promote health related activities in communities. Universities can help in this effort by providing student and staff consultants to work in a partnership arrangement with community members on multi-sectoral, multidisciplinary health and development committees at the local, intermediate, and central levels. The contribution of universities to the crucial efforts to resolve the African health crisis will be most important. PMID:7839933

Monekosso, G L

1993-12-01

376

Crisis Management Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2009-01-01

377

[Latin America and the crisis (points for the balance of a decade)].  

PubMed

The decade of the 1980s was catastrophic for the countries of Latin America because of profound transformations in the world economy, which started in the 1970s, the wilting of the state development programs that were imposed after World War II, and the collapse of socialism with the incipient transition to market economies. The crisis started because of the erosion of the world economic system as constituted under the Bretton Woods agreement; the drastic drop in the economic growth of market economies; the increased costs of living and the deterioration of the environment; the decrease in industrial capacity; and the emergence of transnationalization of production. In Latin America, the economic models that had been in place without solving underdevelopment became even more obsolete (import substitution, internal trade, and the role of the state). The crisis of socialism and the rapprochement of eastern European countries to western Europe also affected Latin America (e.g., Germany cancelled 30 mine exploration projects in Bolivia due to investments in East Germany). The structural readjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank resulted in currency devaluations, redistribution of government funds, elimination of various subsidies, reduction of public debt and social expenditures, reduction of public employment, and payment of external debt. The result was more inflation (in Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Argentina, inflation rates were 683.7%, 157.1%, 100.1%, and 326.2%, respectively, between 1980 and 1986), unemployment, and poverty in the lost decade of the 1980s. After 1982, state expenditures on roads, education, hospitals, and nutrition declined by 40% in Mexico. Even though most countries returned to democracy in the region, this was at the cost of the increased role of the military and the transnationals. The grand parties collapsed and in Venezuela, Mexico, and Colombia authoritarian tendencies survived into the 1970s degrading democracy. The states' socioeconomic regulatory role has to be redefined. PMID:12292700

Lopez Maya, M

1990-01-01

378

From Food Crisis to Food Sovereignty The Challenge of Social Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current global food crisis—decades in the making—is a crushing indictment against capitalist agriculture and the corporate monopolies that dominate the world's food systems. The role of the industrial agri- food complex in creating the crisis (through the monopolization of input industries, industrial farming, processing, and retailing) and the self- serving neoliberal solutions proposed by the world's multilateral insti- tutions

Eric Hol

379

Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis  

E-print Network

Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis The World Trade session 2: The Crisis: A Catalyst for More Coherent Trade Policies and Inclusive Growth? Author: Patrick A or carrying the endorsement of the United Nations. #12;1 Policy Brief October 26, 2009 The World Trade Regime

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

The Beauty of State Construction: Juan Valdez, Miss Colombia and Crisis Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian state was in acute crisis in the 1990s. Widely considered a failed state, Colombia suffered from uncontrollable violence and an acute economic crisis that left over half of the population impoverished. Yet shortly after the turn of the century, it was being touted as one of the great successes in crime reduction, economic growth, and democratic stability. In

Stacey Hunt

381

OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

2012-01-01

382

The Influence of Major Life Events on Economic Attitudes in a World of Gene-Environment Interplay  

PubMed Central

The role of “genes” on political attitudes has gained attention across disciplines. However, person-specific experiences have yet to be incorporated into models that consider genetic influences. Relying on a gene-environment interplay approach, this study explicates how life-events, such as losing one’s job or suffering a financial loss, influence economic policy attitudes. The results indicate genetic and environmental variance on support for unions, immigration, capitalism, socialism and property tax is moderated by financial risks. Changes in the magnitude of genetic influences, however, are temporary. After two years, the phenotypic effects of the life events remain on most attitudes, but changes in the sources of individual differences do not. Univariate twin models that estimate the independent contributions of genes and environment on the variation of attitudes appear to provide robust baseline indicators of sources of individual differences. These estimates, however, are not event or day specific. In this way, genetic influences add stability, while environment cues change, and this process is continually updated. PMID:24860199

Hatemi, Peter K.

2014-01-01

383

2nd world water forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is facing a water crisis. About one billion people lack access to safe water and three billion to appropriate sanitation. There will probably be two billion extra people on the planet by 2025; so while today's shortages are for fresh water and sanitation, tomorrow's are predicted to be for growing crops. Already, 10% of world food production is

Wendy Barnaby

2000-01-01

384

World Youth Day '93.  

PubMed

Segments of Pope John Paul II's speeches in Colorado for World Youth Day are presented. Predicting deep suffering, misfortune, and ruinous trouble for youth who do not evangelize, the highest representative of the Catholic Church reaffirmed oft stated views against birth control, abortion, euthanasia, sex outside of marriage, and drug and alcohol abuse. He further expressed his belief that a strong moral crisis in developing countries is bringing significant woe to youth and called for adherence to family values and unity within the Church. The serious moral crisis affecting society may, however, be overcome by embracing the "high moral vision" offered by Jesus Christ and the Catholic Church. PMID:12318434

Likoudis, P

1993-01-01

385

Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

Vermont Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

386

Crisis response to schools.  

PubMed

While community based crisis response teams offer needed resources to schools impacted by crisis, they are often not asked to help. Reports from crisis team leaders at the school shooting incidents at James W. Parker Middle School, Edinboro, Pennsylvania and Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado are contrasted regarding utilization of community resources. Factors limiting the usefulness of community based teams include unfamiliarity with school organization, culture, and procedures. Key differences in school vs. community team precepts, decision-making, and strategic paradigms render team coordination difficult. Successful cross training presents opportunities for school-community partnership and utilization of community teams for school duty. PMID:11232098

Johnson, K

2000-01-01

387

Science for Humanity: Giving Generously to Our World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardly a week goes by without some reminder that we live in an age of anxiety and a world in environmental crisis. As I write this message, unusual stratospheric wind patterns in the Northern Hemisphere seem to be implicated in tragic floods in Pakistan, landslides in China, and wildfires near Moscow. The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico reminds us of our dependence on oil, the increasing scarcity of natural resources, and the adverse environmental impact of our appetite for these resources. The Haiti earthquake earlier this year demonstrates the vulnerability of human society to the natural world. So does the small volcanic eruption in Iceland that disrupted the travel plans of millions of people and cost the aviation industry billions of dollars. Our vulnerability seems to be increasing as the world's population continues to grow, as globalization and interdependencies advance at a giddy pace, and as human societies strive for economic growth.

Sparks, R. Stephen J.

2010-09-01

388

Japan's Financial Crisis and Economic Stagnation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the macroeconomic stagnation and financial problems in Japan. The financial sector assessment includes separate analyses of the commercial banks, the life insurance companies and the government's fiscal investment and loan program (FILP). We estimate that the Japanese taxpayer will have to pay at least another 100 trillion yen (20% of GDP) to cover financial system losses. We explain

Takeo Hoshi; Anil K. Kashyap

2004-01-01

389

Economic Crisis and Educational Migration from Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses trends in educational migration from Georgia. It attempts to describe patterns in the migrants' attitudes, career goals, motivations and actual careers (abroad or at home upon return). Some statistical data is included on long and short-term academic training abroad conducted by Western organizations. There is also special focus on the difficulties experienced by graduates while adjusting to

Tamar Mikadze; R. F. Wagner

390

Interrogating the crisis in higher education marketing: the CORD model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Higher education (HE) marketing the world over is in a state of crisis that manifests itself on three fronts. First, there continues to be sizeable resistance towards the marketing idea in the academy of many universities across the world. Second, HE itself has failed to identify its core business without which the sector can not have a firm

Felix Maringe

2005-01-01

391

Regional and Global Responses to the Asian Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how economic policy-making changed as a result of the Asian crisis of 1997–1998, in the countries affected, in the region, and at the global level. It is perhaps surprising how little change has occurred in the broad approach to economic policy, but there is a much greater awareness of the vulnerabilities posed by large international capital flows.

Stephen GRENVILLE

2007-01-01

392

Call 6 Overcoming the Crisis: New Ideas, Strategies and Governance  

E-print Network

and sustainable economic and monetary union in Europe · La sfida: la crisi finanziaria dimostra che l Sacconi Università di Trento ed EconomEtica centro interuniversitario presso Università Milano: ­ Problema della sostenibilità fiscale nella EU; ­ modello fiscale per l'unione e meccanismi di

Schettini, Raimondo

393

Systemic risk and causality dynamics of the world international shipping market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various studies have reported that many economic systems have been exhibiting an increase in the correlation between different market sectors, a factor that exacerbates the level of systemic risk. We measure this systemic risk of three major world shipping markets, (i) the new ship market, (ii) the second-hand ship market, and (iii) the freight market, as well as the shipping stock market. Based on correlation networks during three time periods, that prior to the financial crisis, during the crisis, and after the crisis, minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and hierarchical trees (HTs) both exhibit complex dynamics, i.e., different market sectors tend to be more closely linked during financial crisis. Brownian distance correlation and Granger causality test both can be used to explore the directional interconnectedness of market sectors, while Brownian distance correlation captures more dependent relationships, which are not observed in the Granger causality test. These two measures can also identify and quantify market regression periods, implying that they contain predictive power for the current crisis.

Zhang, Xin; Podobnik, Boris; Kenett, Dror Y.; Eugene Stanley, H.

2014-12-01

394

[Eight characteristics of leaders in crisis management].  

PubMed

Everything is changing in our daily life. The ancient Chinese philosopher, Sun Tzu, said "The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him". In the challenging environment of today, nursing administrators should prepare themselves by developing a range of skills to face the changing world. This article introduces Chinese and Western leadership theories and suggests eight key characteristics of successful leaders in health care. Equipped with these characteristics, nursing leaders should be able to collaborate with other professionals in their organization to manage any crisis. Success in crisis management also enhances an organization's general potential to succeed in this competitive world. PMID:16475066

Yen, Miaofen; Fang, Szu-Ting

2006-02-01

395

Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.  

PubMed

Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. PMID:24560058

Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

2014-02-22

396

Mexico's año horrible: global crisis stings economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial optimism has been replaced by increasingly dire predictions for Mexico's near-term economic outlook in response to the global economic slump. World trade flows have dried up, which is particularly damaging for nations like Mexico whose economic activity depends critically on exports. At the same time, international financial uncertainty led investors to withdraw capital from emerging markets. Mexico was also

Edward C. Skelton; Erwan Quintin

2009-01-01

397

Environmental Roots of the Late Bronze Age Crisis  

PubMed Central

The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event’s retrieval began in the late 19th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the “Peoples-of-the-Sea” at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created. PMID:23967146

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joel; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile

2013-01-01

398

1 UW Crisis Communications Plan Crisis Communications Plan  

E-print Network

become aware of a potential crisis or emergency must contact the Office of Media Relations1 UW Crisis Communications Plan Crisis Communications Plan University of Washington Office of Media Communications Plan · Media Relations and Communications · University Police · UW Technology · Human Resources

Kaminsky, Werner

399

Tunnel crisis and the crisis-induced intermittency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a different type of crisis in random map is studied. The trigger of this crisis is the tunnel effect induced by a backward tangent bifurcation, while the previously reported crises are all caused by the collision of the chaotic attractor with an unstable orbit. In studying the intermittency behaviors induced by the crisis, two different characteristic times

H. L. Yang; Z. Q. Huang; E. J. Ding

1997-01-01

400

Ranking the Economic Importance of Countries and Industries  

E-print Network

In the current era of worldwide stock market interdependencies, the global financial village has become increasingly vulnerable to systemic collapse. The recent global financial crisis has highlighted the necessity of understanding and quantifying interdependencies among the world's economies, developing new effective approaches to risk evaluation, and providing mitigating solutions. We present a methodological framework for quantifying interdependencies in the global market and for evaluating risk levels in the world-wide financial network. The resulting information will enable policy and decision makers to better measure, understand, and maintain financial stability. We use the methodology to rank the economic importance of each industry and country according to the global damage that would result from their failure. Our quantitative results shed new light on China's increasing economic dominance over other economies, including that of the USA, to the global economy.

Li, Wei; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

2014-01-01

401

Economic diplomacy. The political dynamics of oil leverage  

SciTech Connect

This study probes the 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo, detailing its history, the motivations that caused it and its ripple effect on world politics and the international economic order. The authors examine the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe during the 1956 Suez Canal crisis, the growing momentum of Arab oil leverage beginning with the First Arab Petroleum Congress in 1959, the decline of the oil companies' domination of the petroleum industry, and the Arab political environment between the 1967 Arab defeat and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. The book concludes with a discussion of the lessons to be learned from the recent embargoes.

Daoudi, M.S.; Dajani, M.S.

1985-01-01

402

West Pharmaceutical's explosion: structuring crisis discourse knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crisis can place an organization and its stakeholders at risk for significant losses. Crisis management has emerged as a means to reduce those losses. Crisis response strategies, what the organization says and does after a crisis, are critical resources in crisis management. It is not surprising that crisis response has emerged as a vibrant research area. The focus of

W. Timothy Coombs

2004-01-01

403

Control fraud, gambling for resurrection, and moral hazard: Accounting for white-collar crime in the savings and loan crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the relevant literature regarding the role of control fraud, or major frauds committed by controlling organizational insiders, in the savings and loan crisis. Using both economics and criminological concepts, it contrasts the claims made by “fraud minimalists” with those who saw fraud playing a significant role in the crisis. The paper concludes that the economics-based official history

Henry N. Pontell

2005-01-01

404

Taxonomy of mediated crisis responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how organizations integrate the Internet into crisis communication. The findings of a 7-year longitudinal study provide a taxonomy explaining how mediated communication creates new possibilities for crisis response. We translate the study findings into suggestions for how public relations managers can integrate new communication media into their mix of communication tactics in crisis and risk management.

Maureen Taylor; Michael L. Kent

2007-01-01

405

When Crisis Strikes on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

406

Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection  

E-print Network

LETTER Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection Jonathan M Ã?biome crisisÃ?. Here we identify the world's terrestrial biomes and, at a finer spatial scale, ecoregions grasslands and Mediterranean biomes, and 10 : 1 in more than 140 ecoregions. These regions include some

Vermont, University of

407

Remuneration system reform of China's state-owned enterprises after the financial crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fourth quarter of 2008, US subprime crisis swept through all over the world, whipping up an international financial storm. China was also involved in this around of crisis, with weak and fatigue market performance, lead to the depression of the macro-economy and the operation difficulties of domestic enterprises. It became a challenge facing the management layer to adjust

Qinghua Huang

2011-01-01

408

The Budget Deficit--The "Crisis" of the 80's. Series on Public Issues No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, an analogy is drawn between the dire predictions once made about the energy crisis and those now being made about a budget crisis. Concerns about the deficit have centered on inflation, interest rates, and growth of the economy.…

Greenhut, Melvin L.; Smithson, Charles W.

409

Contagion in the East: A Look at the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and its aftermath have brought to light a number of crucial economic lessons. This curriculum unit focuses on some of the purported causes of the crisis, the workings of the International Monetary Fund, and the general nature of economies affected by financial turmoil. Lesson 1, "A Story of Boom and Bust in Asia,…

Lee, Isadora; Lai, Selena; Francis, Gregory; Brunette, Rachel

410

Seeking a place for East Asian regionalism: challenges and opportunities under the global financial crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the devastating experience of the Asian financial crisis more than ten years ago, East Asia launched regional economic cooperation efforts. East Asia's mixed response to the global financial crisis a decade later, however, reveals how certain impetuses that gave rise to unified efforts to regional institution building in East Asia at the time of the AFC derived, fundamentally, from

Saori N. Katada

2011-01-01

411

Coping with Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

2002-01-01

412

Ghosts of Crisis Past.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

1990-01-01

413

The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

2009-01-01

414

The Cuban Missile Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Description: My film is about the Cuban Missle Crisis of 1962. Luckily, President Kennedy's plan to block soviet ships entering Cuba worked and no warheads were ever fired. My film explores the question of what if?\\u000aCredits: All music downloaded off iCompositions is not copyrighted.\\u000aRunning Time: 4:57

Brian Grant

2005-01-01

415

Crisis Counseling: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

2009-01-01

416

Negotiation Crisis Resolution  

E-print Network

Violence and Crime ADMJ 1304 Juvenile Justice System ADMJ 1310 Drugs, Crime, and Social Policy ADMJ 1340 for Juvenile & Criminal Justice www.cjcj.org National Criminal Justice Association www.ncja.org National Crime Negotiation Crisis Resolution Criminal Law Evidence Processing Critical Thinking Crime

Jiang, Huiqiang

417

Crisis in the Cafeteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…

White, Patrick

1998-01-01

418

Nursing in Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…

Fulcher, Roxanne

2007-01-01

419

The Phony Funding Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

2010-01-01

420

Reefs in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", walks students through the risks humans pose to the survival of coral reefs and conservation efforts. It discusses the forces behind damage to the reefs and recent protection efforts, including the creation of sanctuaries, good land management, and public awareness campaigns.

421

Cuban Missile Crisis Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These documents chronicle the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 15, 1962, the Soviet Union was discovered attempting to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. These missiles would have been capable of quickly reaching the United States. President Kennedy responded with a naval blockade. After several days of increasing tensions, the Soviet Union finally agreed to remove the missiles.

Griffith, Christopher

422

Economics of Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics of Monetary Union enables students to gain a firm understanding of the theories and policies relating to monetary unions. The author analyses the costs and benefits associated with having one currency, as well as the practical workings and current issues involved with the Euro. Recent global events are addressed in this new edition and coverage of the credit crisis

423

Was the global food crisis really a crisis?: Simulations versus self-reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the World Bank concerning the welfare impact of the 2007\\/08 global food crisis conclude that between 75 million and 160 million people were thrown into hunger or poverty. However, these simulation-based approaches suffer from inherent deficiencies as well as insufficient coverage of the largest

Derek Headey

2011-01-01

424

Economics and Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic matters are often entangled with interventions. Aid agencies need to understand where they can have the highest leverage, and where aid may cause harmful economic distortions. Humanitarian interventions in crises will be more effective if the economic and social root causes of the crisis are addressed as well. The root causes of insurgencies often include economic issues, particularly economic discrimination. Planners for military operations in a country need to know the economic side effects of military activities, including the effects of withdrawal. Government agencies trying to bring developed-nation investors into a developing country must understand, along with the potential investors, what the economic prospects of the economy are, and how safe an investment is (or is not). Economic modeling and analysis can assist in each of these cases.

Graham, Alan K.

425

ESEA Reauthorization: The Importance of a World-Class K-12 Education for Our Economic Success. Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session on Examining Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Reauthorization, Focusing on K-12 Education for Economic Success (March 9, 2010). Senate Hearing 111-885  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing of the Committee of Health, Education, Labor and Pensions focused on the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. This hearing on the economic importance of having a world-class K-12 education system should remind everyone of the critical importance of this reauthorization. Well-educated Americans are the single…

US Senate, 2011

2011-01-01

426

The financial crisis and the haphazard pursuit of financial crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The financial crisis has been something of a turning point in the regulatory response to financial crime around the world. The failure of light-handed regulation and risk assessment by both industry and regulators made the operation of financial regulatory agencies almost untenable, often leading to calls for their replacement by more effective agencies. The purpose of this paper

Roman Tomasic

2011-01-01

427

Using Emotional Intelligence in Training Crisis Managers: The Pandora Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multi-agency crisis management represents one of the most complex of real-world situations, requiring rapid negotiation and decision-making under extreme pressure. However, the training offered to strategic planners, called Gold Commanders, does not place them under any such pressure. It takes the form of paper-based, table-top exercises, or…

Mackinnon, Lachian; Bacon, Liz; Cortellessa, Gabriella; Cesta, Amedeo

2013-01-01

428

Close to the brink? Britain and the Cuban missile crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1962 the world went to the brink of nuclear war when the American government discovered Soviet missiles in Cuba. A year earlier the United States and the Soviet Union had already stood ‘eyeball to eyeball’ over Berlin. Europe had long been the frontline of the East?West confrontation. But what was Britain's role during the Cuban missile crisis? Only

Len Scott

1991-01-01

429

The global food crisis: an Australian dairy industry perspective.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to shed further light on the factors contributing to the emerging global food crisis by examining the reasons for an unusual downturn in dairy food production in Australia, from where 11% of the world trade in dairy foods originates. PMID:19965362

Walsh, Greg

2009-01-01

430

Rethinking the global food crisis: The role of trade shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fundamental factors were clearly responsible for shifting the world to a higher food price equilibrium in the years leading up the 2008 food crisis, there is little doubt that when food prices peaked in June of 2008, they soared well above the new equilibrium price. Numerous arguments have been proposed to explain overshooting, including financial speculation, depreciation of the

Derek Headey

2011-01-01

431

Biofuel, Economics, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biofuels may be an important economic contributor in the coming decades. Proper biofuel management can provide economical, more environmentally friendly fuel worldwide; decrease world poverty; decrease food insecurity; and increase the environmental performance of the agricultural sector.

Daniel De La Torre Ugarte (Department of Agricultural Economics of the University of Tennessee;)

2010-03-11

432

The Automobile Industry in and Beyond the Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the role of the automobile industry in the current cycle. It shows that the industry is economically important and its cycle is intertwined with business cycles. After casting some light on the sources of the collapse in car sales at the start of the crisis, the policy measures, in particular car scrapping programmes, put in place to

David Haugh; Annabelle Mourougane; Olivier Chatal

2010-01-01

433

Rise of China and the global overaccumulation crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the sources of potential instability of China's political economy by expositing the limits of the post-Mao regime of capital accumulation in historical and comparative perspectives. It argues that the new spatial and socio-political orders under this regime, while propelling China's economic miracle, also contribute to the internalization of the global overaccumulation crisis, which has been haunting the

Ho-fung Hung

2008-01-01

434

‘Restoring Order’? Operation Murambatsvina and the Urban Crisis in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zimbabwe is experiencing a profound economic crisis, which has devastated the livelihoods of most of its urban population and created conditions of extreme poverty in its towns. Since independence, the state has generally adhered to housing policies that have made it both difficult and expensive for low-income urban residents to comply with legal housing requirements. However, in comparison to most

Deborah Potts

2006-01-01

435

A model of coopetitive game and the Greek crisis  

E-print Network

In the present work we propose an original analytical model of coopetitive game. We try to apply this analytical model of coopetition - based on game theory and conceived at a macro level - to the Greek crisis, suggesting feasible solutions in a cooperative perspective for the divergent interests which drive the economic policies in the euro area.

Carfí, David

2011-01-01

436

CONFIDENCE CRISIS AND EXITING NAIVE REALISM THROUGH INTEGRATIVE THINKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confidence crisis invites increasing emphasis on social responsibility as a corporate marketing strategy, adopted by management which cannot choose ethical indifference. We need better rules and people, the virtue that follows science heading us down the right path towards overcoming the paralyzing insecurity of economic blood flow and shaping the complexity of current affairs drastically but correctly, in order

Theodor Valentin Purcarea

2009-01-01

437

Short Selling Regulation after the Financial Crisis – First Principles Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the recent regulatory developments with regard to short selling. We begin with a comprehensive compilation of emergency restrictions on short selling adopted in the current crisis. Because of the tendency of some regulators to retain certain restrictions permanently, it is important to understand the fundamental legal and economic arguments regarding short selling. These arguments have at their

Seraina GRUENEWALD; Alexander F. WAGNER; Rolf H. WEBER

2010-01-01

438

The Profession's Response to a Crisis-Based Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion includes: (1) indications of social crisis--rapid change and altered basic assumptions; (2) current social changes--limited economic growth, post-industrialization, communications and adult learning revolutions; and (3) implications for information science--a broader based library education to ready professionals for increased contact…

Galvin, Thomas J.

1978-01-01

439

Danish Universities in the Financial Crisis: Change and Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities have always been important to national economies, but since the financial crisis of 2007-08 they have become key economic actors. Because they supply highly skilled labour and undertake basic research that enable nations to engage in global competition, they are capable of boosting production and innovation. This article explores the…

Milthers, Pernille Meyn

2011-01-01

440

Flaky Fringe? Southern Europe Facing the Financial Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction to this special issue notes how the financial crisis has revived long-held concerns about the potential impact of Southern Europe on the economic cohesion of the European Union and the eurozone. The article outlines the brief of the special issue (geographical scope, time period covered) and suggests that expectations of a South European eurozone withdrawal are unrealistic.

Susannah Verney

2009-01-01

441

EU Institutional Framework and Euro zone Crisis Catherine SIFAKIS KAPETANAKIS  

E-print Network

1 EU Institutional Framework and Euro zone Crisis Catherine SIFAKIS ­ KAPETANAKIS (Catherine of macroeconomic disparity in the Eurozone. It draws on analysis of the costs of this framework as well as of the benefits of European economic and monetary unification. It also highlights how these costs and benefits

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Destination Europe Social, Economic, and Political Impact of European  

E-print Network

to the recent Eurozone crisis. Although employment opportunities are unevenly distributed across Europe, labor and economic tensions, especially with respect to the jobs crisis throughout much of Europe, however, haveDestination Europe Social, Economic, and Political Impact of European Migration #12; 1

443

LIQUIDITY RISK MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to measure the liquidity risk we have developed an analysis model, based on stress-testing scenarios, that shows the ability of the bank to face different types of liquidity crisis. The scenarios were designed for each balance sheet position for assets and liabilities: Ordinary Course of Business, Name Crisis (Mild Name Crisis and Severe Name Crisis), Market Crisis (Mild

Mutu Simona; Matis Eugenia

2010-01-01

444

[Particulars of crisis intervention in seropositive persons or the existential crisis of HIV].  

PubMed

This article presents a vision of crisis intervention for seropositive persons following an approach inspired by existential psychology. Persons who intervene must view crisis intervention for HIV-positive persons as an exploration of the close relation that exists between life and death. They must investigate the interrelations with the dimensions who intervene must view crisis intervention for HIV-positive persons as an exploration of the close relation that exists between life and death. They must investigate the interrelations with the dimensions of time, space, world and body. They must also examine the characteristics of the seropositive experience that are specific to the different infected clienteles. The welcoming process, the urgency of the situation and the therapeutic complementarity must be considered as the main guidelines for this type of crisis intervention which, in addition, must take into account the various life experiences that are particular to each of the HIV-positive persons. This approach requires that the person who intervenes and plays a supporting role must put into question their own attitudes toward the phenomenon at hand. Finally, life with the infection can also bring certain intervenors and clients to discover and profit from a number of unsuspected benefits. PMID:1515519

Ritchot, P; Sauriol, P

1992-01-01

445

Nuclear Fusion: A Solution to the GlobalNuclear Fusion: A Solution to the Global Energy CrisisEnergy Crisis  

E-print Network

Nuclear Fusion: A Solution to the GlobalNuclear Fusion: A Solution to the Global Energy Crisis.maclellan@strath.ac.uk Introduction and Motivation What is Nuclear Fusion? Laser Plasma Interactions The world, and particularly is harnessing the power of nuclear fusion. It is however, extremely difficult to sustain a fusion reaction

Strathclyde, University of

446

The World Food Programme By Kristen Lunde  

E-print Network

their lives after being stricken by a food crisis. As the world's largest humanitarian agency fightingThe World Food Programme By Kristen Lunde The United Nations and Millennium Development Goals Study, funds, and programs to learn more about their impact on global health. Bettina Leuscher, North American

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

447

Economics (College of Arts and Sciences) The economics major focuses on economics as a social science.  

E-print Network

Economics (College of Arts and Sciences) The economics major focuses on economics as a social in the world? What types of political regimes best promote economic development? Are resource-rich developing countries cursed? Are drug cartels economically sound? Can humans work towards a better economic basis

Miles, Will

448

Looking for the Causes and Consequences of the Global Financial and Banking Crisis: NeoLiberalism in the Dock  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The current financial and banking crisis must not be mistaken for evidence of the impracticality of market economics, nor\\u000a should the crisis be attributed to any lack of economic regulation. The message of the political centre-right to European\\u000a voters must rather be the following: Decentralisation of political and economic power still helps society to cope with current\\u000a and emergent problems

Risto Harisalo

449

[Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].  

PubMed

Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in countries with analogous economic crises, such as the Former Eastern Bloc countries, Asian countries and the USA. Future studies, at a more late stage of the economic crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health. PMID:21888184

Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

2011-01-01

450

Dissent During Crisis in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dissent during periods of crisis can be a difficult subject to discuss, even among reasonable people, and this thoughtful digital exhibit from the University of California at Irvine illuminates this subject quite nicely. The items in the exhibit are from their Department of Special Collections and Archives, and the focus of this particular collection is to examine "issues of war, peace, dissent and dialogue during critical periods in the 20th century." There are six sections of the exhibit which include "Protest during the Vietnam War", "The Internment of Japanese Americans during WWII", and "McCarthyism during the Cold War". Visitors can click on each of these sections to view digitized images of ephemera (such as artworks, pamphlets, and posters) that are representative of these times of dissent and debate. Visitors should not miss the "Conscientious Objectors in World War II" area, as it contains images from a pacifist handbook published in 1939 and items published by groups like the Quakers and the Mennonites.

Macleod, Stephen

2008-01-01

451

World Development Sources (WDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Development Sources is the "digital repository" of World Bank documents. It houses a searchable database of development-related reports produced since 1988 by the World Bank. These include Staff Appraisal Reports (SARs), World Bank President's Reports and Memoranda, Economic and Sector Work, Evaluation Reports and Studies, and Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Montreal Protocol Project documents. It also contains working papers and publications produced by the World Bank since 1993. All of these papers can be viewed online using the TMS Sequoia plug-in (available at the site for Windows and Macintosh).

1997-01-01

452

Organizational Learning and Crisis Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

Wang, Jia

2007-01-01

453

Urban transport crisis in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian cities face a transport crisis characterized by levels of congestion, noise, pollution, traffic fatalities and injuries, and inequity far exceeding those in most European and North American cities. India's transport crisis has been exacerbated by the extremely rapid growth of India's largest cities in a context of low incomes, limited and outdated transport infrastructure, rampant suburban sprawl, sharply rising

John Pucher; Nisha Korattyswaropam; Neha Mittal; Neenu Ittyerah

2005-01-01

454

Crisis theory: Critique and reformulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building a “crisis theory” by using pure homeostatic notions or psychoanalytic constructs is criticized. A review of crisis observations and their implications indicates that a cognitive perspective can serve as a theoretical framework: such a perspective is sketched with representative references. It is argued that several worthwhile possibilities follow from the use of a cognitive perspective: generation of systematic knowledge

Julian R. Taplin

1971-01-01

455

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual publication from the World Bank predicts growth patterns in developing countries. It reports that "recovery from the financial crisis is 'fragile and uneven,' with some regions recovering much faster than others." According to this year's report, growth in Asia will be strong through 2000, as the countries slowly pull themselves out of recession. The average per capita income of Third World countries outside of Asia, however, will decline. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release, summary, and the forward by Joseph Stiglitz are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main site also provides a slide show of the main points and issues of the report, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

456

Economics U$A: 21st Century Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The so-called "dismal science" is dismal no longer as the result of this engaging and thoughtful exploration of the world of economics. Created by the Educational Film Center and offered as one of the Annenberg Learner resources, this primer on micro- and macroeconomics includes 28 30-minute programs. These materials were released in 2012, and they cover topics such as Supply and Demand, Economic Efficiency, and Profits and Interest. Educators will be glad to learn that the complete program website includes discussion questions, worksheets, and additional activities for the classroom. The series is quite up to date, and it even includes a discussion of the 2008 banking crisis and technology's broad influence on the economy.

2012-02-17

457

California's electricity crisis  

E-print Network

The collapse of California's electricity restructuring and competition program has attracted attention around the world. Prices in California's competitive wholesale electricity market increased by 500% between the second ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2001-01-01

458

CrisisGroup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Crisis Group (ICG) is a private, multinational organization "committed to strengthening the capacity of the international community to anticipate, understand and act to prevent and contain conflict." The ICG, which is chaired by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, is headquartered in Brussels and has advocacy offices in Washington DC, New York, and Paris. The organization currently operates field projects in nineteen crisis-affected countries and four continents: Algeria, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Zimbabwe in Africa; Myanmar, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Asia; Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia in Europe; and Colombia in Latin America. Teams of political analysts gather information from a wide range of sources, assess local conditions, and produce regular analytical reports, containing "practical recommendations targeted at key international decision-takers." For those users interested in exploring publications on issues related to conflict prevention and management, this is definitely a place to start. The heading "Browse by publication type," located on the main website, will allow users to browse a variety of resoures such as reports, briefings, speeches, podcasts and other multimedia and the latest news releases.

2002-01-01

459

An Assessment of the Effects of the 2002 Food Crisis on Children's Health in Malawi-super- †  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food crisis encountered in 2002 in Malawi was arguably one of the worst in the recent history of the country. The World Food Programme estimated that between 2.1 and 3.2 million people were threatened by starvation. Despite this assumed severity, not much research on the actual consequences of the crisis has been carried out so far. In order to

Renate Hartwig; Michael Grimm

2012-01-01

460

Spatial and Financial Fixes and the Global Financial Crisis: Does Labour Have the Knowledge and Power to Meet the Challenge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years after the global financial crisis, and trillions of dollars in stimulus spending later, the crisis not only remains unresolved, but risks entering a new deeper phase in southern Europe. The global turbulence, although experienced with differing degrees of intensity and dislocation around the world, manifests as high unemployment,…

Brown, Tony

2013-01-01

461

World's forests  

SciTech Connect

An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

1982-10-01

462

The Impact of Global Economic Crises on the Poor: Comparing the 1980s and 2000s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contrasts the impact of the financial crisis of 2008 on poor countries and poor people with the debt crisis of the 1980s. The financial crisis of the 2000S affected more regions of the world but its effects on particular countries were more heterogeneous, varying according to countries' dependence on different sources of foreign exchange. The worst affected regions

Frances Stewart

2012-01-01

463

What economics courses are there? Economics and International Development  

E-print Network

(PPE) (p103) BSc Economics Economics and Management Studies Finance and Business (p46) Mathematics and economic problems. · We have strong links to the major national and international economic institutions research project supervised by a faculty member. Why economics? Addressing many of the world's problems

Sussex, University of

464

A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

2012-01-01

465

From Tulip Bulbs to Sub-Prime Mortgages Examining the Sub-Prime Crisis: The Case for a Systemic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market parallels several earlier failures within the financial services sector, begging the question why the lessons of past failures were not learned. Throughout history from the tulip bulb crisis of the 1600s to the most recent economic crisis, decision-makers keep making the same mistakes. This…

Stephens, Alan A.; Atwater, J. Brian; Kannan, Vijay R.

2013-01-01

466

Seeing and Hearing: Examining Production Workers' Literacy and Numeracy Practices in a Context of Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A policy consensus has emerged in Australia that there is a workforce literacy and numeracy crisis, similar to many other Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. The study informing this paper examined this framing of crisis by interviewing and observing production workers in three manufacturing companies. Each company was…

Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko; Black, Stephen

2014-01-01

467

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

468

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...

Mrs.owen

2006-10-10

469

Intraoperative molar pregnancy crisis.  

PubMed

Molar pregnancy is a gestation in which the ovum is transformed into a fleshy tumor mass or mole. Of all gynecologic tumors, it is one of the most feared. It is characterized by first trimester bleeding, hyperemesis, and toxemia and can be diagnosed using pelvic ultrasound. Suction currettage is the treatment of choice for molar pregnancy when a patient desires to have more children; however, hysterectomy may be necessary. Abdominal hysterectomy reduces the risk of malignant sequelae. Complications associated with molar pregnancy usually are a result of suction curettage and include pulmonary insufficiency syndrome, choriocarcinoma, hyperthyroidism, theca lutein cysts, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The perioperative nurse can be instrumental in assessing, planning, organizing, and directing intervention for potential complications associated with the management of a molar pregnancy crisis. The perioperative nurse is encouraged to review all aspects of molar pregnancy to understand the ramifications of the surgical procedures. PMID:7944318

Robinson, B J

1994-08-01

470

The Mission of the University in Economic Development and Environmental Preservation: Management of Local and Regional Resources in an Interdependent World System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation reviews the key dimensions of the environment problem and estimates the probable costs of arresting future environmental damage by expenditures to be undertaken in support of sustainable development during the decade of the 90s. It deals with the problem of pursuing a minimum "socially necessary" growth rate in the world economy…

Jayawardena, Lal

471

Origin and Causes of the Housing Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The housing crisis is a debt-deflation Minsky's type crisis. The new economy bubble was replaced by the housing bubble. However, it is a deflationary crisis with specificities. It seems to point to the limits of a securities-backed financial regime, which forces a review of the regulation of financial markets and a return to more conservative credit practices. That crisis is

Arturo Guillen R

2008-01-01

472

Food crisis, global economic instability, and political unrest Soaring food prices were a major trigger of the riots that destabilized North Africa and the Middle East, and have since  

E-print Network

trigger of the riots that destabilized North Africa and the Middle East, and have since spread to many other African countries. The UN Food Price Index hit its all-time high in February 2011, and the June in the major food producing countries where half of the world population live. There is widespread soil erosion

Saunders, Peter

473

Turkish University Students' Perceptions of the World Wide Web as a Learning Tool: An Investigation Based on Gender, Socio-Economic Background, and Web Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the study is to investigate Turkish undergraduate students' perceptions of the Web as a learning tool and to analyze whether their perceptions differ significantly based on gender, socio-economic background, and Web experience. Data obtained from 722 undergraduate students (331 males and 391 females) were used in the analyses.…

Tekinarslan, Erkan

2009-01-01

474

The Impending Crisis  

PubMed Central

When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ? 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

475

Civil protection preparedness and response to the 2007 eruptive crisis of Stromboli volcano, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromboli, one of the very few tourist volcanic islands in the world in permanent state of activity, has been the site of two important volcanic crises coupled with slope failure episodes in 2002-2003 and 2007. Due to the lucky circumstance that both crises have occurred in winter, the actual consequences on people were moderate. Nevertheless, the first crisis caused a few injuries, threatened the local population and caused relevant economic losses. The emotional impact on public opinion of the 30th December 2002 tsunami acted, in particular, as a trigger for civil protection initiatives aimed at structurally improving the standard volcano safety and preparedness measures to effectively deal with future crises. The main initiatives carried out during the 2003 crisis consisted in the setting up of: 1) new geophysical and geochemical volcano surveillance networks and 2) a local, permanent scientific/civil protection structure (COA, Centro Operativo Avanzato), where signals from volcano monitoring are visualized in real time and eventually used by the personnel of the Department of Civil Protection (DPC) for immediate activation of response procedures. This was followed by the setting up, in 2005, at the (DPC) in Rome, of a centre named "Centro Funzionale Centrale Rischio Vulcanico" (CFCRV), where the most relevant monitoring signals of Italian active volcanoes are visualized in real time and where activities of simple elaboration, for hazard assessment purpose are daily carried out and data sharing within the scientific community is coordinated by civil protection personnel with training in volcanic problems. The response effectiveness of the new system was tested on February-March 2007 when a new volcanic crisis occurred. An internal DPC "state of attention" was declared by the CF 15 days before the eruption onset when seismic and deformation parameters showed an abrupt increase up to values much higher than background. On February 27th the sudden onset of explosive activity outside the main craters and the occurrence of a small landslide down slope of the active craters were detected in real time on the screens of the CFCRV and by monitoring centres of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and University of Florence (UNIFI). This enabled the DPC to immediately activate emergency crisis procedures and start a coordinated management of the crisis between civil protection personnel in Rome and COA. As accelerating slope movements were detected by ground deformation monitoring of UNIFI, a tsunami warning was launched shortly afterward. Warnings were also declared on 8th March and 15th March when slope movements resumed and a large explosion at the central craters occurred, respectively. From the end of February to May 2007 a scientific committee named "Scientific Synthesis Group" (SSG), appointed by the DPC, made daily evaluations of impending hazards in cooperation with CFCRV. During the crisis the DPC coordinated information activities with the media and island residents. The successful managing of the crisis consisted in minimizing risk for people and meanwhile facilitating normal activities and regular access to island.

Bertolaso, G.; De Bernardinis, B.; Bosi, V.; Cardaci, C.; Ciolli, S.; Colozza, R.; Cristiani, C.; Mangione, D.; Ricciardi, A.; Rosi, M.; Scalzo, A.; Soddu, P.

2009-05-01

476

[Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].  

PubMed

Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women) and 95 in 2011, during the financial crisis (mean age 41.0 years, women 65%). There is an increase of suicide attempts by 35.71%. There were no statistically significant differences between the two periods regarding the gender and age of attempters. There was a statistically significant increase of unemployed (p=0.004), as well as of married/widowed/divorced (p=0.02) suicide attempters during the crisis. There was not statistically significant difference in the severity of suicide attempts before and during the economic crisis or the severity of psychopathology of the attempters. The financial crisis is probably associated with upward trend in attempted suicide of the Athens population. Most affected are those who are unemployed, married, widowed, divorced. Suicide prevention programs are essential for the accurate and timely identification and the immediate and effective management of this special high risk group of attempters during the financial crisis. PMID:25035179

Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

2014-01-01

477

Reach Higher, America: Overcoming Crisis in the U.S. Workforce. Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's workforce is facing an education and skills crisis. Among the 30 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the United States is the only one in which younger adults are less educated than the previous generation. "Unless we invest now to educate and train our workforce, America risks its economic

National Commission on Adult Literacy (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

478

Application of grey incidence analysis to China's balance of payments impact in financial crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the incidence of China's current economic situation with the balance of international payment in the context of US financial crisis. After having analyzed several connected relational method, it is more precise to apply grey relational theory in view of the small sample for smallest error. Hence, we use grey theory for selection of representative economic indicator and

Xu Huang-hua

2009-01-01

479

China's tourism in a global financial crisis: a computable general equilibrium approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism is vulnerable to externalities such as natural disasters and man-made crises. The current global economic slowdown has adversely affected global tourism. While headline figures show that international tourism is suffering as a consequence of this economic crisis, domestic tourism is larger in many countries and impacts through this market could be larger than through international tourism. A common viewpoint

ShiNa Li; Adam Blake; Chris Cooper

2010-01-01

480

Emergence and Development of the Government Debt Crisis in the European Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons, development and the effects of the crisis on the government debts in the European Monetary Union are analyzed in this article. The conclusion is justified, that a single currency for diverse economies does not result in economic convergence, but on the contrary – economic divergence. The macroeconomic criteria for a nominal convergence, that must be met by each

Yordanka Stateva

2011-01-01

481

Social Policy After the East Asian Financial Crisis: Forging a Normative Basis for Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their impressive economic development achievements, East Asian governments have not formulated coherent social policies or created comprehensive social welfare programs. Instead, they have relied on rapid economic growth, high employment, occupational provisions, familial obligations, and limited public social services to meet social needs. The weaknesses of this approach became apparent after the 1997 East Asian financial crisis when unemployment,

Kwong-leung Tang; James Midgley

2002-01-01

482

Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

Cutshall, Sandy

2002-01-01

483

Financial crisis : through various perspectives  

E-print Network

The 2007 financial crisis can be viewed from various perspectives. First, it can be explained in a wider macroeconomic context, for example by looking at the housing bubble. Monetary policy can be explained according to ...

Kim, Joon Hee

2010-01-01

484

Participation in crisis decision making  

E-print Network

ember 1973) Dale Joseph Marsico, B. A. , Slippery dock State College Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Warren A. Dixon The primary purpose of this research is to develop a set. of empirical propositions on the narure of participat. ion in foreign... the Communist powers other than the Soviet Union. The second dimension concerned the kinds of policy outputs that occurred. A crisis could under this criteria be either a military or a non- military event. Pvtting together these two criteria, a crisis...

Marsico, Dale Joseph

2012-06-07

485

The crisis and fiscal policies in the peripheral countries of the Eurozone.  

PubMed

This article explains the political causes of the current financial crisis of the eurozone peripheral countries (Spain, Greece, Portugal, and Ireland) and how the crisis affects their welfare states. It examines how their profoundly conservative governments (dictatorships in Spain, Portugal, and Greece and authoritarian regime in Ireland) during the post-World War II period and the dominance of their states by right-wing forces have made these countries very vulnerable to the speculations of the financial markets. PMID:22403904

Navarro, Vicente

2012-01-01

486

MACROECONOMIC REFORMS AND INDIA'S EXPOSURE TO THE 1997-1998 EAST ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Despite, or perhaps because of, the volume of evidence on the issue, contemporary policymakers,and economists are sometimes,divided as to the causes of India’s 1991 balance of payments crisis, and the role the resulting reforms may have played in India’s economic performance,during the East Asian Financial Crisis. The focus of the paper is first to determine the sequence of events

BALAJI LAKSHMI NARAIN

2007-01-01

487

The Work of 9\\/11Myth, History and the Contradictions of the Post-fiscal Crisis Consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

9\\/11 has been used in New York City politics to both explain the current fiscal crisis and justify certain economic development policies. Such use of 9\\/11 obscures the long-term historical roots of the current fiscal crisis, which in fact lie in the contradictions of the set of economic development policies implemented in the years since the city’s last major fiscal

Julian Brash

2004-01-01

488

Global food crisis and prospects for animal production in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers certain tendencies and features in the development of world and national food markets during the global\\u000a crisis of recent years. It shows the role and place of Russia in these processes. Using the case study of animal production,\\u000a in particular, of beef, a number of key factors are examined that should enhance the competitiveness in Russian agrarian

V. V. Rau

2009-01-01

489

Climate Change, the Global Food Crisis and Food Sovereignty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies to prevent catastrophic climate change appear to conflict with solutions to the global food crisis. In the wake of financial turmoil, commodity speculation, the agro-fuel boom, and related food-price spikes in 2007-08, more than a billion people now face chronic hunger (FAO). Meanwhile, programs sponsored or proposed by the World Bank and international agencies would pay governments, landowners and

Kathy McAfee

490

Drug shortages: a complex health care crisis.  

PubMed

National tracking of drug shortages began in 2001. However, a significant increase in the number of shortages began in late 2009, with numbers reaching what many have termed crisis level. The typical drug in short supply is a generic product administered by injection. Common classes of drugs affected by shortages include anesthesia medications, antibiotics, pain medications, nutrition and electrolyte products, and chemotherapy agents. The economic and clinical effects of drug shortages are significant. The financial effect of drug shortages is estimated to be hundreds of millions of dollars annually for health systems across the United States. Clinically, patients have been harmed by the lack of drugs or inferior alternatives, resulting in more than 15 documented deaths. Drug shortages occur for a variety of reasons. Generic injectable drugs are particularly susceptible to drug shortages because there are few manufacturers of these products and all manufacturers are running at full capacity. In addition, some manufacturers have had production problems, resulting in poor quality product. Although many suppliers are working to upgrade facilities and add additional manufacturing lines, these activities take time. A number of stakeholder organizations have been involved in meetings to further determine the causes and effects of drug shortages. A new law was enacted in July 2012 that granted the Food and Drug Administration additional tools to address the drug shortage crisis. The future of drug shortages is unknown, but there are hopeful indications that quality improvements and additional capacity may decrease the number of drug shortages in the years to come. PMID:24582195

Fox, Erin R; Sweet, Burgunda V; Jensen, Valerie

2014-03-01

491

Indonesian Crisis Deepens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On June 1, 2001, Indonesia's President Wahid announced that he dismissed four members of his Cabinet and the police chief, depicting the move as a peace overture to his main political rival, vice-president Megawati Sukarnoputri. Sukarnoputri's party, the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), is at the forefront of the effort to impeach President Wahid and remove him office. The PDIP won by far the largest number of votes in the last election two years ago, but Ms. Sukarnoputri was unable to broker any deals to secure an outright majority in the parliament and win the presidency for herself. Instead, the job went to Abdurrahman Wahid, a compromise candidate. Wahid's nineteen months in power have seen a number of crises and political spats, culminating in the vote by parliament on Wednesday to hold an impeachment hearing against the president over claims of corruption and incompetence on August 1. Most analysts agree that there is a firm majority in the body in favor of unseating Wahid. In addition to the cabinet reshuffle, Wahid has on several occasions raised the possibility of martial law. Neither move, it seems, is likely to satisfy parliament or Sukarnoputri's supporters. The final outcome of the current crisis is still an open question. If Sukarnoputri does take office and steps into the shoes of her illustrious father Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, she will find that the question at the heart of the present struggle -- the balance of power between the parliament and the president -- remains.

De Nie, Michael W.

2001-01-01

492

Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

Welker, Jean Edward

1995-01-01

493

Amos World Testing System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AmosWorld Testing System is developed by Orley M. Amos, Jr., Professor of Economics at Oklahoma State University. The testing system allows users to retrieve up to ten multiple choice questions on various economics topics. Among the topics covered are scarcity, business cycles, GDP, money and unemployment. After the users have answered the multiple choice questions, the testing system will notify the users which of the questions were answered correctly. The site does not provide the correct answer for incorrect choices, however.

Amos, Orley M., 1954-.

1997-01-01

494

RISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN  

E-print Network

RISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN Tatjana Meschede Martha Cronin Laura Sullivan RESEARCH AND POLICY BRIEF OCTOBER 2011 FIGURE 1. ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SINGLE SENIORS WOMEN 2004-2008 0 Thomas Shapiro A lmost half of single women over the age of 65 face the real crisis of outliving

Snider, Barry B.

495

An American Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, America faces a shifting and demanding economic and workforce environment. Americans know that the workplace is changing but not where it's heading. Each demonstration of the latest breakthrough technology can have enormous impact on the society, opening up entire new industries and markets and instantly limiting the viability of others. Of…

Padron, Eduardo J.

2009-01-01

496

Mexico: the coming crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straining under a massive foreign debt that now equals 60% of gross national product, mired in governmental and party corruption, hostage to political pressures from an increasingly powerful and institutionalized left, Mexico is confronting what may prove to be the most difficult decade in her history since the Revolution. The underlying problem is economic and the deteriorating image of the

McColm

2009-01-01

497

Energy Crisis Perils Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the idea that the use of fossil fuels could render Earth uninhabitable long before supplies of them are exhausted. Possible solutions to this problem are described and include a revolution in technology, worldwide economic strategies, and a change in the way people think. (KR)

Clearing, 1990

1990-01-01

498

Crisis Guide: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive video series reviews global warming by recognizing the problem, addressing the sources and impacts, and weighing the options. It is a six-chapter series. Experts from different countries weigh in and answer some critical questions, including what countries have resources and the perspectives necessary to reach a consensus on handling the next steps and the economic costs involved.

Moran, Michael; Storm, Brian; Mediastorm, Council O.