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1

The world economic crisis. Part 1: Repercussions on health.  

PubMed

The widespread economic crisis has resulted in a fall in living standards in the western hemisphere of over 9% (1981-83) and in Sub-Saharan Africa they have fallen to the level of 1970. Food production in the African countries most seriously affected by drought dropped by 15% between 1981 and 1983. Living standards also fell in some countries in Europe and in some of the poorest countries of Asia. The high cost of fuel, the heavy burden of interest payments and unfavourable terms of trade in Africa and Latin America led to serious unemployment, devaluation of national currencies and formidable austerity policies. While some countries have succeeded in protecting their health services from cuts in public expenditure, in many others cuts in health budgets have been substantial. The effects of the crisis in some countries have amounted to the virtual disintegration of rural health services. There are limited data available to show what has been happening to levels of expenditure on health, but those presented here demonstrate that levels of health expenditure per head have fallen in many countries. The cumulative effects on health of increased poverty, unemployment, underemployment and famine, and the reduced capacity of health services to respond to health problems can be documented with facts for a number of countries in Latin America and Africa. Malnutrition has increased and improvements in infant mortality have been checked or reversed. The economic crisis has placed at risk the health of the most vulnerable. PMID:10312064

Abel-Smith, B

1986-09-01

2

World Economic Outlook Interim Assessment: Crisis in Asia: Regional and Global Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Monetary Fund has made available the December 1997 issue of the World Economic Outlook. This report contains the interim assessment by the IMF staff on the financial turmoil in Asia and its implications on global and regional economies. The report discusses the events leading up to the Asian financial crisis and how the crisis evolved; it also assesses the spillover effects from the Asian crisis to the developed economies. Revised estimates for global growth rates in light of the Asian crisis are provided.

3

The Impact and Countermeasure Study of the World Economic Crisis on Chinese Family Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 2007, subprime mortgage crisis broke out in America, and then it gradually evolved into global economic crisis and spread to other countries. The international financial situation has been deteriorating sharply and has rapidly evolved into the most serious international economic crisis since the \\

Jiang Jun; Hu Shaolong

2010-01-01

4

Influenza H1N1 and the world wide economic crisis--a model of coherence?  

PubMed

A recent published model described the phenomenon of a global panic reaction (GPR) on the stock markets based on two remarkable stock market crashes in the months of January and March [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U, Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses; 2008]. This model was completed by a therapeutic approach following typical elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [Sperling W, Biermann T, Maler JM, Global panic reaction - a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis. Med Hypotheses; 2009]. The phenomenon of a global panic reaction due to economic crises seems to have even larger implications on human health as well. It is well known that acute and chronic distress is competent to suppress the immune system by various mechanisms that are discussed in detail. This global panic reaction - that has also been observed in former times - might therefore be responsible for the new variation of recent influenza pandemic coming from Mexico. PMID:19515500

Sperling, W; Biermann, T

2009-11-01

5

Economic Crisis in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.

Waters, Megan.

6

Economic Crisis in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa is facing deep economic crisis. A situation has reached where there is total stagnation with zero per cent growth rate and no hope of recovery. Hunger is hovering over vast areas of Africa threatening the lives of 150 million people and every day people are dying of starvation. It is said, that nature and international economic relations are

Vijay Gupta

1985-01-01

7

Global panic reaction--a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis.  

PubMed

Drastic losses on the stock markets within short periods have been the subject of numerous investigations in view of the fact that they are often irrational. In a recently published model we reported about the world-wide phenomenon of Global panic reaction (GPR) [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U. Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses 2008;71(6):972-4], which illustrate typical psychiatric symptoms of panic disorder. We now complete this model by a therapeutic approach for the patient. Therefore the identification of a therapeutic regime "step by step" was necessary. PMID:19359102

Sperling, W; Biermann, T; Maler, J M

2009-08-01

8

Addressing the world water crisis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

9

Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

Richardson, Dominic

2010-01-01

10

Economic crisis, downsizing and “layoff survivor's syndrome”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with layoff survivor's syndrome following the 1997 economic crisis in South Korea. South Korea has been credited with quickly recovering from its economic crisis by implementing policies aimed at economic restructuring. However, researchers have discovered that, in addition to those directly affected by a lay-off, layoff survivors as well suffer from impacts on their mental health —

Wang-Bae Kim

2003-01-01

11

World Economic Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Economic Forum is a nonprofit organization dedicated to "economic growth and social progress." The forum is located in Geneva, Switzerland, and its members include those in business, politics, and the academic world. The World Economic Forum Website contains a variety of information about the Forum as well as information about global economics. Latest news is highlighted, with reports from several recent economic summits including photographs and Webcasts. A menu at the top left corner of the site directs users to the rest of the site, including resources about regional networks, reports and publications, and centers and projects.

12

NZER WORKING PAPER SERIES BOLIVIA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS  

E-print Network

the dislocations of war or revolution. One major theme of our work is that the recent economic crisis in Bolivia in the country. The Revolution of 1952 was led by of the National Revolutionary Movement, the MNR, which governed

13

World Economic Outlook: 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently published by the International Monetary Fund, the World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a semi-annual examination of recent world economic developments and future prospects. Responding to recent financial turbulence around the world, the report highlights monetary policy issues in Asia as well as development strategies in emerging market countries and Russia. A 28-page statistical appendix is also included with financial growth indicators by region.

14

Leaders Urge Colleges to Think Globally Despite Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global economic crisis has accelerated the fear that the United States' international power is fading. It has also made clear the need for American higher education to engage more deeply with the rest of the world, not run from it. That was the consensus among a group of presidents and provosts who met in New York this month as part of "Higher…

McMurtrie, Beth; Wheeler, David

2008-01-01

15

Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.  

PubMed

To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored. PMID:23252313

Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

2012-07-01

16

World Economic Outlook: 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication has recently been made available by the International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook is a semi-annual report that provides "IMF staff economists' analyses of global economic developments during the near and medium term." It also surveys the creation of the European Monetary Union (EMU), exchange rate arrangements and economic performance in developing countries, and monetary policies in the transition economies. WEO contains a statistical appendix on various global macroeconomic variables.

1997-01-01

17

Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

2012-01-01

18

Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

Posner, Richard A.

2009-01-01

19

The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

2013-01-01

20

Education and Economic Crisis in Poland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Polish economic crisis is distorting conventional relationships between education and the socioeconomic structure. Case study data and the literature revealed that devaluation of jobs requiring higher education has led to (1) the feminization of education, (2) a decline in educational aspirations, and (3) deleterious implications for teachers'…

Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham

1989-01-01

21

Understanding North Korea's Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the current economic situation in North Korea and suggests some possible strategies for recovery, including ways of mobilizing financing and implementing essential market reforms. Throughout the 1990s, North Korea suffered a severe economic downturn after the abrupt collapse of the cooperative network of socialist countries. Because the needs of the military had been given

Deok Ryong Yoon; Bradley O. Babson

2002-01-01

22

Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.  

PubMed

The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

2012-03-01

23

Abstract Bioenergy is a critical part of renewable energy solution to today's energy crisis that threatens world economic growth. Corn ethanol has been growing rapidly  

E-print Network

that threatens world economic growth. Corn ethanol has been growing rapidly in the past few years. Policy-makers and researchers alike are becoming aware that corn ethanol has some serious drawbacks. It adversely impacts food of lignocellulosic biomass including corn stover, switchgrass, rice straw, and various hard and softwoods

Gu, Tingyue

24

How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

Shiller, Robert J.

2010-01-01

25

Contribution to a Holistic Response to the International Financial and Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The response to the ongoing international crisis is a holistic response due to the multiple effects impacting on the various segments of societies around the world. Since 1945, the world has to perform again, a new leap in terms of development process based on the pressing need for socio-economic reconstruction. The level of globalisation and…

Camara, Boubacar

2009-01-01

26

An economic analysis of the welfare crisis in Texas  

E-print Network

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE CRISIS IN TEXAS A Thesis by Harry Laughlin Ledbetter Submitted. to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972... Major Subject: Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE CRISIS IN TEXAS A Thesis by Harry Laughlin Ledbetter Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Head of Department) (Member) August 1972 A B S T R A C...

Ledbetter, Harry Laughlin

1972-01-01

27

Political and Economic Crisis in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).

Osmond, Andrew.

1998-01-01

28

World History. Focus on Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

29

Understanding World Economic History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

Whaples, Robert

2013-01-01

30

Thai clinical laboratory responsible to economic crisis.  

PubMed

Nowadays, Thailand encounters a serious economic crisis. A clear consensus has been made that a cost-saving system must be the important tool. Both private and government organizations are engaged in this situation. We studied the cost-saving in the clinical laboratory. A questionnaire was distributed to 45 hospital laboratories located in Bangkok. Results showed that efforts to control the cost are the essential policy. There was a variety of factors contributing to the cost-saving process. The usage of public utility, non-recycle material and unnecessary utility were reconsidered. Besides, capital cost (wages and salary) personnel incentive are assessed. Forty three of the 45 respondents had attempted to reduce the cost via curtailing the unnecessary electricity. Eliminating the needless usage of telephone-call. water and unnecessary material was also an effective strategy. A reduction of 86.9%, 80 % and 80.0% of the mentioned factors respectively, was reported. An inventory system of the reagent, chemical and supplies was focused. Most of the laboratories have a policy on cost-saving by decreased the storage. Twenty eight of the 45 laboratories considered to purchase the cheaper with similar quality reagents instead. And some one would purchase a bulky pack when it is the best bargain. A specific system "contact reagent with a free rent instrument" has been used widely (33.3%). Finally, a new personnel management system has been chosen. Workload has rearranged and unnecessary extra-hour work was abandoned. PMID:10926260

Sirisali, K; Vattanaviboon, P; Manochiopinij, S; Ananskulwat, W

1999-01-01

31

Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an economic

Hartley, David

2010-01-01

32

Crisis as opportunity: international health work during the economic depression.  

PubMed

The economic depression of the 1930s represented the most important economic and social crisis of its time. Surprisingly, its effect on health did not show in available morbidity and mortality rates. In 1932, the League of Nations Health Organisation embarked on a six-point program addressing statistical methods of measuring the effect and its influence on mental health and nutrition and establishing ways to safeguard public health through more efficient health systems. Some of these studies resulted in considerations of general relevance beyond crisis management. Unexpectedly, the crisis offered an opportunity to reconsider key concepts of individual and public health. PMID:19230333

Borowy, Iris

2008-01-01

33

World Economic Outlook (WEO): 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) released the May 1999 issue of the World Economic Outlook, a biannual assessment of the world economic situation. Overall, the IMF predicts a few years of slow growth, but no dramatic global recession. The full text of the 255-page report is available in .pdf format in six parts at the IMF site. Users can also access the WEO Database, which contains data in nine categories in comma delimited, .csv text file format. Explanatory notes on each data set and tips on viewing and saving data tables are provided.

34

Reconstructing Economics in Light of the 2007-? Financial Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lessons learned from the recent financial crisis should significantly reshape the economics profession's thinking, including, importantly, what we teach our students. Five such lessons are that we live in a monetary economy and therefore aggregate demand and policies that affect aggregate demand are determinants of real economic outcomes; that…

Friedman, Benjamin M.

2010-01-01

35

World Health Organization: Health Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Health Organization (WHO) has created this site to provide the general public with high-quality information about their various research initiatives and reports related to the field of health economics. Given the nature of the WHO's mission, the work focuses on key challenges facing global health financing, with particular attention paid to healthcare systems in the developing world. The materials here include a nice fact sheet that provides a global overview of current spending on health care, along with links to related sites that deal with health financing policy and national healthcare systems. In the "Related Links" area, visitors can browse on over to a specialized site dedicated to the health economics of the European Union.

36

Competition in the economic crisis: Analysis of procurement auctions  

PubMed Central

We study the effects of the recent economic crisis on firms? bidding behavior and markups in sealed bid auctions. Using data from Austrian construction procurements, we estimate bidders? construction costs within a private value auction model. We find that markups of all bids submitted decrease by 1.5 percentage points in the recent economic crisis, markups of winning bids decrease by 3.3 percentage points. We also find that without the government stimulus package this decrease would have been larger. These two pieces of evidence point to pro-cyclical markups. PMID:25673884

Gugler, Klaus; Weichselbaumer, Michael; Zulehner, Christine

2015-01-01

37

Responding to the global economic crisis: inclusive social work practice.  

PubMed

The present global economic crisis raises new concerns for social workers. One of its most visible results is the further socioeconomic decline and marginalization of excluded populations. This article suggests that the current circumstances require a much more engaged, egalitarian, and reflexive practice-a practice, based on social rights, that matches the magnitude of the crisis and its negative impact on traditional social work constituencies. Consequently, the article suggests the concept of inclusive social work practice (ISWP), a conceptual framework whose main principles respond to four processes of social exclusion closely related to the present global crisis: extreme social isolation, growing dependency, multiple deprivation, and internalized oppression. The author describes the impact of the global crisis on patterns of social exclusion and presents the methodological foundations of the ISWP framework. PMID:24450021

Strier, Ron

2013-10-01

38

How did strategic planning help during the economic crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the extent to which organizations were prepared for the economic crisis, the nature of responses, and factors that might explain preparedness and modes of response. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The survey conducted in July 2009 and sponsored by the Association for Strategic Planning, sampled 190 US managers involved in strategic planning within

James W. Wilson; Soren Eilertsen

2010-01-01

39

University Presidential Rhetoric and the 2008-2009 Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of Association of American Universities university presidents' public communications in response to the 2008-2009 economic crisis. The authors present findings from a thematic analysis of 111 letters. The authors highlighted 22 themes and present them within three major categories: factors external to the university;…

Vitullo, Elizabeth; Johnson, Jason

2010-01-01

40

[Economic crisis and mental health. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people. PMID:24661346

Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel

2014-06-01

41

[Economic crisis and communicable diseases. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

Past economic crises have increased the impact of communicable diseases especially on groups particularly vulnerable to the social and health consequences of the recession. However, it has been shown that the impact of these crises largely depends on the response of governments and the inhabitants of affected countries. We describe the consequences of the current crisis in the causal chain of infectious disease, including the response of the health system, and explore whether there is evidence of its impact in Spain. It is assumed that the possible effect of the crisis on living and working conditions is due to individual and social debt coupled with high unemployment as defining features of the crisis. We highlight the potential negative consequences of healthcare cuts on vulnerable populations, which have been partly excluded with the recent reform of health coverage. We compare mortality and morbidity data between two periods: before and after 2008, integrating, where possible, observed trends and institutional reports. Overall, no effect on infectious disease has been detected so far, although some signs of worsening, which could be compatible with the effects of the crisis, have been observed and need to be monitored and confirmed. We review the limitations of data sources that may not be sufficiently sensitive or up-to-date to detect changes that may require a latency period to become manifest. Instead of cutting resources, surveillance of these diseases should be improved, and an equitable social health response, which targets the population most affected by the crisis, should be guaranteed. PMID:24863999

Llácer, Alicia; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Martínez-Navarro, Ferrán

2014-06-01

42

Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.  

PubMed

The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The Minister of Health continued in 1982 to champion self-sufficiency despite a changed economic climate, but by early 1984 Costa Rica had to abandon its plan to wean the health sector from outside aid. In 1982 the health sector became the center of a nationwide debate. Representatives of the large agricultural export sector, who usually support free-market solutions to economic problems, lobbied for "reprivatization" of medical care. Those committed to expansion of the welfare state argued from the other extreme. The government offered concessions to both groups. The debate did end in 1986, most likely because of the overall easing of the economic crisis. The government needs to maintain state control over the health system while not exceeding its austerity budget and not reducing health services. PMID:3108317

Morgan, L M

1987-01-01

43

[Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].  

PubMed

Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested. PMID:23258747

Tomasina, Fernando

2012-06-01

44

Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis  

PubMed Central

Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

2011-01-01

45

Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

Tao, Yong

2010-09-01

46

Stock markets and criticality in the current economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the current economic crisis has led the market to exhibit a non-critical behavior. We do so by analyzing the quantitative parameters of time series from the main assets of the Brazilian Stock Market BOVESPA. By monitoring global persistence we show a deviation of power law behavior during the crisis in a strong analogy with spin systems (from where this concept was originally conceived). Such behavior is corroborated by an emergent heavy tail of absolute return distribution and also by the magnitude autocorrelation exponent. Comparisons with universal exponents obtained in the international stock markets are also performed. This suggests how a thorough analysis of suitable exponents can bring a possible way of forecasting market crises characterized by non-criticality.

da Silva, Roberto; Zembrzuski, Marcelo; Correa, Fabio C.; Lamb, Luis C.

2010-12-01

47

Cold hearths and barren slopes: The woodfuel crisis in the Third World  

SciTech Connect

With depleting forests and rapidly shrinking supplies of firewood and charcoal, a vast section of the Third World population, still dependent primarily and often solely on such woodfuels for its domestic energy, is facing a crisis. Drawing upon evidence from across Asia, Africa and parts of Latin America, Dr. Bina Agarwal analyses the scale of this other energy crisis, its complex causes, its consequences, and the solutions being offered for its alleviation. Most attempts by governments and international agencies to promote afforestation and improved woodburning stoves as solutions, are found to have had little success. In particular, they seldom reach and benefit the rural poor who are the principal sufferers. Why have these efforts failed. The socio-economic inequalities and poverty that characterize most Third World societies, impinge both on the causes of the crisis and on the effectiveness of schemes to alleviate it. Class and gender biases usually underlie such schemes, which are also typified by a tip-down method of planning and implementation.

Agarwal, B.

1986-01-01

48

[Trends in environmental risks in the context of the economic crisis. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

This article aims to analyze the impact of the economic and financial crisis on environmental determinants of health. The World Health Organization estimates that between 13% and 27% of the disease burden in countries could be prevented by improving the environment. These effects are larger in vulnerable populations, especially among the poorest. In the last decade, outdoor air pollution (the most significant environmental health risk in most European countries) has declined, mostly due to the European policy of reducing emissions and to the decrease in activity following the economic crisis. During the last few years, this improvement in air quality has occurred simultaneously with a reduction in investment in environmental protection and could therefore be offset in the medium-term. The economic crisis has not reduced the trend for higher temperatures in Spain and Europe because climate change is a global phenomenon that is not directly related to local emissions. To reduce the risk of an increase in the health impact of environmental factors, certain key aspects should be considered, such as the need to maintain or develop adequate monitoring and control systems and the opportunity to implement policies that help improve the quality of the environment and reduce the vulnerability of different population groups in a cross-disciplinary framework of transparency and citizen participation. PMID:24863994

Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Querol, Xavier; Esplugues, Ana

2014-06-01

49

Economic and Trade Strategies in World Fisheries  

E-print Network

.S. balance of trade, current negotiations on fisheries trade and tariffs, and U.S. and foreign economic tradeEconomic and Trade Strategies in World Fisheries Robert A. Siegel and Richard S. Johnston, Editors and Atmospheric Ad ministration, and the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade. The aim

50

Economic crisis and smoking behaviour: prospective cohort study in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland and smoking behaviour at the national and individual levels. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study based on a mail survey (Health and Wellbeing in Iceland) assessed in 2007 and 2009. Setting National mail survey. Participants Representative cohort (n=3755) of Icelandic adults. Main outcome measure Smoking status. Results A significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking was observed from 2007 (pre-economic collapse) to 2009 (postcollapse) in both males (17.4–14.8%; p 0.01) and females (20.0–17.5%; p 0.01) in the cohort (n=3755). At the individual level of analysis, male former smokers experiencing a reduction in income during the same period were less likely to relapse (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.85). Female smokers were less likely to quit over time compared to males (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93). Among male former smokers who experienced an increase in income between 2007 and 2009, we observed an elevated risk of smoking relapse (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.15 to 14.00). Conclusions The national prevalence of smoking in Iceland declined following the 2008 economic crisis. This could be due to the procyclical relationship between macro-economic conditions and smoking behaviour (ie, hard times lead to less smoking because of lower affordability), or it may simply reflect a continuation of trends already in place prior to the crisis. In individual-level analysis, we find that former smokers who experienced a decline in income were less likely to relapse; and conversely, an increase in income raises the risk. However, caution is warranted since these findings are based on small numbers. PMID:23048059

McClure, Christopher Bruce; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-01-01

51

Proactive Communication in a Crisis-Driven World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators can prepare for crisis situations by conducting safety assessments at all schools and district facilities, involving community resources, updating district and school discipline and crisis-communication plans, establishing a crisis-intervention team, providing staff training, establishing "suspicious behavior" reporting procedures,…

Kleinz, Karen H.

1999-01-01

52

Does the Financial Crisis Affect How Economic Theory Should Be Taught?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.

Kafka, Alexander C., Comp.

2008-01-01

53

The Economic Crisis and Other Challenges in Accessing Science and Technological Information in Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses access to scientific and technical information in Asia. The first section considers the economic crisis, including the growth in information service as a major indicator of the success or failure of the economies of developing countries. Libraries' response to the economic crisis is addressed in the second section, including…

Stueart, Robert D.

54

Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

2013-01-01

55

Student Aid and Access in the Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most economists expect the current economic downturn to be one of the most severe since World War II. In fact, there is a very real danger that the changing circumstances of students, families, state and federal governments, and educational institutions could interact to significantly diminish educational opportunity in the United States. The most…

Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael

2009-01-01

56

"Grim and Getting Grimmer." World Employment Report 1998-99: Global Financial Crisis to Hike World Unemployment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Employment Report indicates that the number of unemployed and underemployed workers around the world has never been higher and will grow as a result of the financial crisis in Asia and other parts of the world. Worker training provides an effective means to resolve this problem. (Author/JOW)

World of Work, 1998

1998-01-01

57

World economics for mankind's frontier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, No. 5, March 2006, at ISSN0094-5765 there appears the article entitled “Will space actually be the Final Frontier of humankind?” written by Giancarlo Genta, and Michael Rycroft. This Acta Astronautica article requires amplification on the economic side. The writer of this article was personally present at the Apollo 11th launchings for the first landing on the Moon, by Buzz Aldrin and others. The Apollo 11 take off to the Moon, from Cape Carnival, did not leave the situation “so humankind seems forever to be bound to its own planet!” There was nothing pessimistic about the launch of Apollo 11. It is written that there was a lack of vision at that time, which is also not correct. The ‘Final Frontier’ myth was never mentioned on that occasion. At Apollo 11 we did take planet earth's “first faltering step for mankind” on the path towards a space faring civilization, exactly as these two authors later correctly mention. Now with the US Presidential initiatives “Moon, Mars and Beyond,” the authors suggested that it “will depend on social, political and economic issues rather than technological and scientific ones.” This Academy Note respectfully submits that all of these factors social, political and economic issues, plus psychological and scientific ones, instead of, “rather than technical and scientific ones” are going to be the determining factors of the speed of progress of the exploration of the entire universe, and particularly the sun in our Milky Way Galaxy. Russia and Ukraine are now on same, deep-space policy directions. The attention of the readers of this Academy Note is called to the current “Cosmic Collision” excellent presentation at the Hayden Planetarium, located at the Museum of National History in the City of New York. It shows the past, the present and the future of international humankind in exploring space and the creation of the universe, with particular reference to the protons of our sun, for our Milky Way Galaxy.

Finch, Edward R.

2007-04-01

58

Entropy analysis in foreign exchange markets and economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relative market efficiency in 11 foreign exchange markets by using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity algorithm and several entropy values such as the Shannon entropy, the approximate entropy, and the sample entropy. With daily data in 11 foreign exchange markets from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2011, we observe that mature markets have higher LZ complexities and entropy values than emerging markets. Furthermore, with sliding time windows, we also investigate the temporal evolutions of those entropies from Jan. 1994 to Sep. 2011, and we find that, after an economic crisis, the approximate entropy and the sample entropy of mature markets such as Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom suddenly become lower.

Ha, Jin-Gi; Yim, Kyubin; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Woo-Sung

2012-08-01

59

Crisis Speeches Delivered during World War II: A Historical and Rhetorical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhetorical analyses of speeches made by United States presidents and world leaders abound, particularly studies about addresses to nations in times of crisis. These are important because what presidents say amidst uncertainty and chaos defines their leadership in the eyes of the public. But with new forms of crisis rhetoric, our understanding of…

Ramos, Tomas E.

2010-01-01

60

The other crisis: the economics and financing of maternal, newborn and child health in Asia.  

PubMed

The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008/2009 was the largest economic slowdown since the Great Depression. It undermined the growth and development prospects of developing countries. Several recent studies estimate the impact of economic shocks on the poor and vulnerable, especially women and children. Infant and child mortality rates are still likely to continue to decline, but at lower rates than would have been the case in the absence of the GFC. Asia faces special challenges. Despite having been the fastest growing region in the world for decades, and even before the current crisis, this region accounted for nearly 34% of global deaths of children under 5, more than 40% of maternal deaths and 60% of newborn deaths. Global development goals cannot be achieved without much faster and deeper progress in Asia. Current health financing systems in much of Asia are not well placed to respond to the needs of women and their children, or the recent global financial and economic slowdown. Public expenditure is often already too low, and high levels of out-of-pocket health expenditure are an independent cause of inequity and impoverishment for women and their children. The GFC highlights the need for reforms that will improve health outcomes for the poor, protect the vulnerable from financial distress, improve public expenditure patterns and resource allocation decisions, and so strengthen health systems. This paper aims to highlight the most recent assessments of how economic shocks, including the GFC, affect the poor in developing countries, especially vulnerable women and children in Asia. It concludes that conditional cash transfers, increasing taxation on tobacco and increasing the level, and quality, of public expenditure through well-designed investment programmes are particularly relevant in the context of an economic shock. That is because these initiatives simultaneously improve health outcomes for the poor and vulnerable, protect them from further financial distress, improve public financing and/or provide a much-needed counter-cyclical stimulus at times of economic slowdown. PMID:20961944

Anderson, Ian; Axelson, Henrik; Tan, B-K

2011-07-01

61

State government finances: World War II to the current crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will explore the extent, causes, and proposed solutions of the current fiscal crisis from a historical perspective of state finance. Although the current fiscal crisis is severe, it becomes more difficult to assess unless one has a more complete understanding of the historical changes that have occurred in state revenue streams. This article will address the role of

Thomas A. Garrett; Gary A. Wagner

2003-01-01

62

Coral reefs in crisis The alarming rate of deterioration of the world's  

E-print Network

Coral reefs in crisis The alarming rate of deterioration of the world's coral reefs was brought% of the world's coral reefs have already been destroyed, and nearly 50% more are close to collapse. The meeting the greatest diversity of species of coral and reef fishes in the world. Let EAFA entertain you page 2 New

Feigon, Brooke

63

Rethinking the Public and the Private in Confucian Way during the Era of Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

My paper examines the difference between the liberal and Confucian perception of the public and private sphere and the ways that these two societies cope with political fear or economic crisis. During the Asian financial crisis of 1997, the ?gold collection? drive launched by Koreans drew international attention as an exemplary case of effective social bonds that the Western culture

Jinmin Lee

64

Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

2009-01-01

65

The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the economic downturn has appropriately become the top priority of policy makers, one element of the crisis has gone largely unnoticed: its impact on children and youth. Largely due to the economic and housing crises, many school districts across the country report increases in the number of homeless students in the classroom. "The Economic

Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip

2008-01-01

66

Risk and return in the post-crisis world.  

PubMed

In the wake of the global financial crisis, the actions of leading central banks appear to have modified some of the long-established relationships between risk and return. But those principles may reassert themselves in the coming years as the financial environment returns to longstanding earlier patterns. PMID:24851463

Jarvis, William F

2014-05-01

67

Mineral resources, economic growth, and world populatic.  

PubMed

World population and world income can grow at any likely rate for the next 50 to 75 years, probably for longer, and mineral supplies will continue to keep pace with demand. Not, however, without environmental costs, without affecting Third World development, and, perhaps most important, without ignoring critical questions of power. In what might be termed the revisionist form of the limits to growth thesis, Aurelio Peccei and Alexander King, cofounders of the Club of Rome, seem to be saying that the forecasts of doom themselves are unimportant but they symbolize critical problems of the nature and uses of power in the modern world (30): . . . the Club of Rome is questioning the quality of growth and its distribution around the world. . . . We know that the present structure of the world is obsolete. . . . Both private and state capitalism are stale . . . we have to develop something else. Surely, continually increasing rates of mineral production are symptoms of this obsolete power structure, a result of the fact that, ultimately, population growth and monetary income growth lead to demands for natural resources that necessitate their being found and produced regardless of the implications. Since such higher rates of production are geologically and economically sustainable, we should choose among alternative paths of growth, and hence among alternative rates of mineral resource development, according to what we like or dislike about these implications. The key information will not be found in tables comparing reserves and consumption but in preferences and ethics. PMID:17779276

Brooks, D B; Andrews, P W

1974-07-01

68

Public procurement of health technologies in Greece in an era of economic crisis.  

PubMed

Public procurement is generally an important sector of the economy and, in most countries, is controlled by the introduction of regulatory and policy mechanisms. In the Greek healthcare sector, recent legislation redefined centralized procurement through the reestablishment of a state Health Procurement Committee (EPY), with an aim to formulate a plan to reduce procurement costs of medical devices and pharmaceuticals, improve payment time, make uniform medical requests, transfer redundant materials from one hospital to another and improve management of expired products. The efforts described in this paper began in early 2010, under the co-ordination of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and with the collaboration of senior staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Commission (EC) and the European Central Bank (ECB). The procurement practices and policies set forth by EPY and the first measurable outcomes, in terms of cost savings, resulting from these policies are presented. The importance of these measures is discussed in light of the worst economic crisis faced by Greece since the restoration of democracy in 1974, as a result of both the world financial crisis and uncontrolled government spending. PMID:22502936

Kastanioti, Catherine; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Stasinopoulos, Dionysis; Kapetaneas, Nikolaos; Polyzos, Nikolaos

2013-01-01

69

The influence of the sun, moon, climate and economic conditions on crisis incidence.  

PubMed

Investigated the relationship between 2,344 cases of crisis incidence over a 1-year period (1976) and geophysical, climatic and seasonal conditions. Results revealed an intricate interactive effect between the variables of sex, nature of crisis, period of analysis, and environmental conditions. Males crisis became more likely, with downward economic trends or decreased solar activity. In contrast to female incidence of crisis, which peaked in spring, that of males peaked in autumn. Increased solar activity was related strongly to the incidence of crisis experienced by people who were retarded, abused drugs and were guilty of assault and/or rape. The waxing of the moon was related closely to cases of assault and/or rape, while retardates were influenced further by the moisture content in the air. Temporal considerations revealed a positive relationship between full moon and crisis incidence on alternate months only. Generally, the increased cloud cover, rainfall and temperature in summer, gave rise to more crisis consultations. Finally, geophysical, climatic and economic conditions also were seen to act in conjunction with each other to influence crisis incidence. PMID:7440740

Snoyman, P; Holdstock, T L

1980-10-01

70

Economics for a Creative World1 ROGER KOPPL  

E-print Network

represent economic dynamics as the unfolding of a process fully described, up to a stochastic error term limits to prediction in economics. We argue, howeEconomics for a Creative World1 ROGER KOPPL Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University

Longo, Giuseppe

71

The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

Rajan, Raghuram

2010-01-01

72

"Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…

Schmalzbauer, Leah

2011-01-01

73

Managing More than the Money: Superintendents' Perceptions of Their Leadership during Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the process and effects of school budget development by superintendents during the current economic crisis is limited. This study sought to determine the job satisfaction, efficacy, and longevity of school superintendents during economic crises. Using data from an original survey instrument TRIPLEM (Managing More than the Money…

Taibi-Lewis, Constance

2011-01-01

74

THE EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS AND POLITICAL CHANGE ON INDONESIA'S FOREST SECTOR, 1997-99  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic crisis and political changes that have occurred in Indonesia since 1997 have presented grave dangers but also important opportunities for the country. On the one hand, the depreciation of the rupiah against the dollar is part of a drastic economic downturn, but on the other hand, it represents an opportunity for increased competitiveness of Indonesian exports and for

William D. Sunderlin

75

The Global Economic Crisis, Poverty and Education: A Perspective from India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…

Nambissan, Geetha B.

2010-01-01

76

The possibilities of dealing with the impact of the economic crisis in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible ways of dealing with the impact of the current economic crisis in Russia are considered and it is emphasized\\u000a that to date there has been no strategy for addressing the internal causes of the crisis (no structural policy or modernization\\u000a of production, orientation on single-product exports). Furthermore, a set of measures within the anticrisis program is proposed,\\u000a preventing

N. Ya. Petrakov

2010-01-01

77

Fractured elites : the politics of economic crisis in Mexico  

E-print Network

Economic crises are such powerful socioeconomic disasters that, not surprisingly, they are usually explained by powerful socioeconomic pressures, such as global financial speculation, structural economic failure, or populist ...

Schlefer, Jonathan King

2003-01-01

78

The Impact of Current Economic Crisis on Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the study was to examine the impact of the recession on (1) community college funding, (2) community college student support services, and (3) on student enrollment. This study relied on data from document analysis and interview of community college personnel and students. The current crisis has resulted in a steep budget reduction to…

Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda; Okpala, Amon O.

2011-01-01

79

European economies in crisis: A multifractal analysis of disruptive economic events and the effects of financial assistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the complexity of rare economic events in troubled European economies. The economic crisis initiated at the end of 2009, forced a number of European economies to request financial assistance from world organizations. By employing the stock market index as a leading indicator of the economic activity, we test whether the financial assistance programs altered the statistical properties of the index. The effects of major financial program agreements on the economies can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the agreement. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties for all periods under investigation. In two of the three investigated economies, financial assistance along with governments’ initiatives appear to have altered the statistical properties of the stock market indexes increasing the width of the multifractal spectra and thus the complexity of the market.

Siokis, Fotios M.

2014-02-01

80

The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review.  

PubMed

The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. PMID:25657601

Van Hal, Guido

2015-01-01

81

The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review  

PubMed Central

The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. PMID:25657601

Van Hal, Guido

2015-01-01

82

[The economic-financial crisis and health in Spain. Evidence and viewpoints. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The objectives of the SESPAS 2014 Report are as follows: a) to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on health and health-related behaviors, on health inequalities, and on the determinants of health in Spain; b) to describe the changes in the Spanish health system following measures to address the crisis and assess its potential impact on health; c) to review the evidence on the health impact of economic crises in other countries, as well as policy responses; and d) to suggest policy interventions alternative to those carried out to date with a population health perspective and scientific evidence in order to help mitigate the impact of the economic downturn on health and health inequalities. The report is organized in five sections: 1) the economic, financial and health crisis: causes, consequences, and contexts; 2) the impact on structural determinants of health and health inequalities; 3) the impact on health and health-related behaviors, and indicators for monitoring; 4) the impact on health systems; and 5) the impact on specific populations: children, seniors, and immigrants. There is some evidence on the relationship between the crisis and the health of the Spanish population, health inequalities, some changes in lifestyle, and variations in access to health services. The crisis has impacted many structural determinants of health, particularly among the most vulnerable population groups. Generally, policy responses on how to manage the crisis have not taken the evidence into account. The crisis may contribute to making public policy vulnerable to corporate action, thus jeopardizing the implementation of healthy policies. PMID:24863987

Cortès-Franch, Imma; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz

2014-06-01

83

Local employment policies in the context of the economic crisis:Influences of the European Community structural instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several European states, including Romania, the European integration process has overlapped with the effects of the economic and financial crisis. The consequences of such a situation are apparently contradictory. On one hand, the crisis lowers the European integration process in view of achieving the performance imposed by the Single Market, the economic and administrative convergence etc. On the other

Lucica Matei; Ani Matei

2010-01-01

84

Local Employment Policies in the Context of the Economic Crisis - Influences of the European Community Structural Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several European states, including Romania, the European integration process has overlapped with the effects of the economic and financial crisis. The consequences of such a situation are apparently contradictory. On one hand, the crisis lowers the European integration process in view of achieving the performance imposed by the Single Market, the economic and administrative convergence etc. On the other

Ani Matei; Lucica Matei

2010-01-01

85

[Sexual and reproductive health and the economic crisis in Spain. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economic crisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economic crisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economic crisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. PMID:24864000

Larrañaga, Isabel; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia

2014-06-01

86

World Refugee Crisis: Winning the Game. Facts for Action #6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Definitions, statistics, and problems of world refugees are presented in this document for high school global education classes. Although various agencies have determined different definitions of the term, the authors consider as refugees all those forced to flee their native land in order to survive. For most refugees the attraction of a higher…

Oxfam America, Boston, MA.

87

[Impact of the economic crisis on the right to a healthy diet. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The present article analyzes the impact of the economic crisis on food consumption in Spain, the most affected social profiles, and the consequences of changing patterns of food consumption on health. This article is based on official reports and previous empirical studies. The crisis has affected diet and food consumption. Families are attempting to spend less money on food. Food insecurity is rising and the most affected groups are those spending a higher proportion of their income on food. Cuts in food spending run parallel with unhealthy eating habits that encourage obesity. Consequently, the crisis contributes to undermining the right to a healthy diet, recognized by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the United Nations. PMID:24863995

Antentas, Josep Maria; Vivas, Esther

2014-06-01

88

Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis.  

PubMed

The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in times of economic downturn. It indicates that good mental health cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. The determinants of mental health often lie outside of the remits of the health system, and all sectors of society have to be involved in the promotion of mental health. Accessible and responsive primary care services support people at risk and can prevent mental health consequences. Any austerity measures imposed on mental health services need to be geared to support the modernization of mental health care provision. Social welfare supports and active labour market programmes aiming at helping people retain or re-gain jobs can counteract the mental health effects of the economic crisis. Family support programmes can also make a difference. Alcohol pricing and restrictions of alcohol availability reduce alcohol harms and save lives. Support to tackle unmanageable debt will also help to reduce the mental health impact of the crisis. While the current economic crisis may have a major impact on mental health and increase mortality due to suicides and alcohol-related disorders, it is also a window of opportunity to reform mental health care and promote a mentally healthy lifestyle. PMID:23024664

Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David

2012-10-01

89

The Global Economic Crisis and Educational Development: Responses and Coping Strategies in Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economic crisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in…

Mok, Ka Ho

2010-01-01

90

Economic crisis and public attitudes toward science: A study of regional differences in Spain.  

PubMed

Although there is little theory about the effects of economic conditions on public support for science and technology (S&T), some evidence suggests that an economic crisis could produce a decline in support for S&T because of more pressing priorities, such as jobs and social services. But the public may also view S&T as a strategic pathway out of an economic slump. We test these competing hypotheses employing two national surveys from Spain, implemented before (2006) and after (2010) the onset of a severe economic crisis. We find that, in regions hit hardest by the crisis (compared to less-affected regions), trust in the benefits of S&T increased substantially, as did general public interest in S&T. Similarly, residents of the hardest-hit regions were more likely after the crisis to choose S&T (out of a list of policy areas) as a priority for government, and somewhat more likely to express support for increases in government S&T spending. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23825295

Sanz-Menéndez, Luis; Van Ryzin, Gregg G

2015-02-01

91

Accelerating and Braking in Times of Economic Crisis: Organisational Learning in a Top Management Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of an industrial company's top management team (TMT) that fought to survive an economic crisis. Specifically, the article seeks to focus on describing the TMT's composition, group processes, and work during a period of high external pressure; analysing the TMT's work in…

Wallo, Andreas; Kock, Henrik; Nilsson, Peter

2012-01-01

92

Foreign Economic Ties of Russia: Ways of Emerging from the Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our national economyâindividual enterprises, branches, and practically all spheres of activityâis in the grip of a deep crisis. Nor did foreign economic relations escape it. Russia had a grave legacy from the USSR in this area: a burdensome foreign debt and thoroughly undermined positions in foreign markets. The situation in the transition period is aggravated by the lack of an

Viktor Spandarian

1994-01-01

93

As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

Field, Kelly

2008-01-01

94

Journal of Development Economics 29 (1988) 271-306. North-Holland THE DEBT CRISIS*  

E-print Network

Journal of Development Economics 29 (1988) 271-306. North-Holland THE DEBT CRISIS* Structural is a significant predictor of a higher probability of debt rescheduling in a cross-section of middle with extreme inequality. We also find that outward-orientation of the trade regime is a significant predictor

95

The Impact of the Economic Crisis on Elementary and Secondary Education Funding: Ontario  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Fall 2008, the Ontario government's ability to maintain and enhance a school system was tested as the economy suffered one of its most extreme downturns. This paper discusses the action adopted by the government. The unique measures undertaken by the government to lessen the impact of the economic crisis on students' learning is highlighted.

Jefferson, Anne L.

2010-01-01

96

Complex economic dynamics: Chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex economic dynamics is studied by a forced oscillator model of business cycles. The technique of numerical modeling is applied to characterize the fundamental properties of complex economic systems which exhibit multiscale and multistability behaviors, as well as coexistence of order and chaos. In particular, we focus on the dynamics and structure of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles within

Abraham C.-L. Chian; Erico L. Rempel; Colin Rogers

2006-01-01

97

Economic Crisis and Inequality of Educational Opportunity in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the industrialized world shows that the influence of family background on educational attainment has remained stable or declined over time. In contrast, very little is known about the developing world. Using high-quality data sets and a standard protocol, this article offers a comparative analysis of trends in educational…

Torche, Florencia

2010-01-01

98

What Caused Asia's Economic and Currency Crisis and Its Global Contagion?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nouriel Roubini, Associate Professor of Economics and International Business, Stern School of Business, New York University, has put together an impressive collection of articles relating to the Asian economic and currency crisis. The articles include news reports, International Monetary Fund (IMF) reports, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) working papers and also research articles by Professor Roubini himself. The site is divided into several sections including basic readings, global effects, country analyses, the role of the IMF, systemic risk and short-term capital flows, case studies of exchange rate collapse, and the debate over flexible and fixed exchange rates.

Roubini, Nouriel.

1998-01-01

99

On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out to be quite correct.

Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

2012-05-01

100

Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the association of unemployment with growing suicidal behaviour in men. Research on the suicide effects of the economic crisis may need to take into account earlier stages of the suicidal process, and that this effect may differ by age and sex. PMID:25062772

2014-01-01

101

The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1992 to 1994 life expectancy for Russian males dropped from 62.0 to 57.6 years. Female life expectancy dropped from 73.8 years to 71.2 years. This drop in life expect- ancy coincided in time with the introduction of painful economic reforms in Russia, leading to a rapid decrease in real wages and pensions, nearly complete loss of personal savings, and

NATALIA S. GAVRILOVA; VICTORIA G. SEMYONOVA; GALINA N. EVDOKUSHKINA; LEONID A. GAVRILOV

2000-01-01

102

The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1992 to 1994 life expectancy for Russian males dropped from 62.0 to 57.6 years. Female life expectancy dropped from 73.8 years to 71.2 years. This drop in life expectancy coincided in time with the introduction of painful economic reforms in Russia, leading to a rapid decrease in real wages and pensions, nearly complete loss of personal savings, and a

Natalia S. Gavrilova; Victoria G. Semyonova; Galina N. Evdokushkina; Leonid A. Gavrilov

2000-01-01

103

World Economic Outlook and International Capital Markets Interim Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A critical update to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook (described in the October 9, 1998 Scout Report), the World Economic Outlook (WEO) and International Capital Markets (ICM) Interim Assessment examines recent international financial developments and provides revised economic forecasts for emerging and mature economies. The report includes a chapter on "systemic issues" and the "policy requirements" needed to curtail further market turbulence, but ends on a positive note with a modest dip in 1999 projected growth for the world economy from 1998 estimates at 2.2 percent.

International Monetary Fund.

1998-01-01

104

Greek economic crisis and health care reforms: correcting the wrong prescription.  

PubMed

In an era of economic crisis in Greece and with many uninsured citizens, the Troika (lenders of Greece) suggests reforms and promotes the internal market, resulting in a public-private system becoming more privatized. This article contradicts these proposals and attempts to suggest the necessary reforms to achieve equity of access for all and to promote efficiency, taking into account the existing needs of the population and the recession of the Greek economy. PMID:24397229

Niakas, Dimitris

2013-01-01

105

[The impact of the economic crisis on health systems of OECD countries].  

PubMed

This paper describes measures adopted by OECD countries in the health sector in response to the economic crisis which began in 2008: increase and diversification of revenues collected for health, increases in user charges, reductions in staff, salaries and prices of health goods and services; and policies aiming to increase health systems efficiency. It then reviews the impact of these policies on health spending trends. PMID:25311027

Paris, Valérie

2014-10-01

106

Beyond town and gown: university economic engagement and the legacy of the urban crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

University-driven land development and research into the amelioration of social problems are examples of the wider dimensions\\u000a of economic engagement by large American research universities in metropolitan settings since 1949, and both dimensions are\\u000a strongly conditioned by the experiences of universities and surrounding neighborhoods during the “urban crisis” of the 1960s.\\u000a The rise of the modern American research university between

Margaret P. O’Mara

2012-01-01

107

Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000-50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children's health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lucas, Patricia J; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

2014-06-01

108

Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Lucas, Patricia J.; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

2014-01-01

109

Potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on human-mediated dispersal of marine non-indigenous species.  

PubMed

The global economy is currently experiencing one of its biggest contractions on record. A sharp decline in global imports and exports since 2008 has affected global merchant vessel traffic, the principal mode of bulk commodity transport around the world. During the first quarter of 2009, 10% and 25% of global container and refrigerated vessels, respectively, were reported to be unemployed. A large proportion of these vessels are lying idle at anchor in the coastal waters of South East Asia, sometimes for periods of greater than 3 months. Whilst at anchor, the hulls of such vessels will develop diverse and extensive assemblages of marine biofouling species. Once back in service, these vessels are at risk of transporting higher-than-normal quantities of marine organisms between their respective global trading ports. We discuss the potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on the spread of marine non-indigenous species via global commercial shipping. PMID:19706355

Floerl, Oliver; Coutts, Ashley

2009-11-01

110

The Asian Economic Crisis: Policy Choices, Social Consequences and the Philippine Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new Asian Update from the Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) features three articles on the Asian economic crisis written by authorities on economic and business development in Asia. As with the other Asian Updates, this latest offering provides valuable and insightful background and analysis on events in Asia for a wide audience, including scholars, students, policy makers, the media, and businesses. In addition to the articles, users will find a bibliography and contact information for a list of specialists in the field.

Ching, Frank.

111

Probability Theory Compatible with the New Conception of Modern Thermodynamics. Economics and Crisis of Debts  

E-print Network

We show that G\\"odel's negative results concerning arithmetic, which date back to the 1930s, and the ancient "sand pile" paradox (known also as "sorites paradox") pose the questions of the use of fuzzy sets and of the effect of a measuring device on the experiment. The consideration of these facts led, in thermodynamics, to a new one-parameter family of ideal gases. In turn, this leads to a new approach to probability theory (including the new notion of independent events). As applied to economics, this gives the correction, based on Friedman's rule, to Irving Fisher's "Main Law of Economics" and enables us to consider the theory of debt crisis.

V. P. Maslov

2012-02-27

112

World Economic Situation and Prospects for 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (ESA), this new report offers a review of the worldwide economic situation in 1998 and a forecast for 1999. Offered in .pdf format, the report contains a global overview and six chapters analyzing Developed Economies, Economies in Transition, Developing Economies, International Trade, Financial Markets, and Official Development Finance and Debt. Eleven statistical tables are also provided.

113

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

E-print Network

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

Marx, Benjamin

114

Economic crisis detected from space: Air quality observations over Athens/Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using both satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns and a number of economic metrics, we investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. The multiannual analysis shows that NO2 columns over Athens have been significantly reduced in the range 30-40%. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, and SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that the economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants in large parts of Greece.

Vrekoussis, M.; Richter, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Lelieveld, J.; Barrie, L.; Zerefos, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.

2013-01-01

115

Was the economic crisis of 2008 good for Icelanders? Impact on health behaviors.  

PubMed

This study uses the 2008 economic crisis in Iceland to identify the effects of a macroeconomic downturn on a range of health behaviors. We use longitudinal survey data that include pre- and post-reports from the same individuals on a range of health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors. We find that the crisis led to large and significant reductions in health-compromising behaviors (such as smoking, drinking alcohol or soft drinks, and eating sweets) and certain health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruits and vegetables), but to increases in other health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fish oil and recommended sleep). The magnitudes of effects for smoking are somewhat larger than what has been found in past research in other contexts, while those for alcohol, fruits, and vegetables are in line with estimates from other studies. Changes in work hours, real income, financial assets, mortgage debt, and mental health, together, explain the effects of the crisis on some behaviors (such as consumption of sweets and fast food), while the effects of the crisis on most other behaviors appear to have operated largely through price increases. PMID:23659821

Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Ólafsdóttir, Þórhildur; Reichman, Nancy E

2014-03-01

116

What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world

Smith, Karen R.

2011-01-01

117

Responding to the economic crisis: a primer for public health professionals.  

PubMed

Does the current economic crisis require the deep cuts in public spending announced in the June 2010 emergency budget, with potential implications for public health? The arguments for and against such cuts in response to economic recession are complex, but if public health professionals are to engage in debates about future public spending, they should be informed by relevant evidence. In this perspective, we note that opinions among politicians and economists about how to respond to economic downturns are divided, while other EU countries, many with greater levels of debt than the UK, are protecting public expenditure unless required to do so by the International Monetary Fund. Current UK debt may in fact be viewed as sustainable given current information about interest rates, inflation and economic growth. Before accepting large cuts in public spending, it is important to contrast the lack of evidence for such short-term fixes with potentially dire repercussions for population health and welfare. PMID:20729376

Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Suhrcke, Marc

2010-09-01

118

Economic Freedom and Beauty Pageant Success in the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauty pageants are ubiquitous around the world, and their importance in many cultures is indisputable. This paper empirically examines those factors that contribute to beauty pageant success in a cross-national setting. Our analysis pays particular attention to the role of market liberalism, i.e., economic freedom, in the process. The results indicate that nations with higher economic freedom scores are underrepresented

Robert Lawson; Justin Ross

2010-01-01

119

Financial Bubbles, Real Estate Bubbles, Derivative Bubbles, and the Financial and Economic Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and bolster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economic crisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement have led to an illusion of a "perpetual money machine" allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the "good times" but that huge liabilities were. The most "interesting" present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.

Sornette, Didier; Woodard, Ryan

120

[The economic crisis and health in Spain and Europe: is mortality increasing?].  

PubMed

In recent publications it has been suggested that the health of the European population is deteriorating as a consequence of the economic crisis. Such deterioration would be manifested by an increase in mortality, particularly in those countries applying austerity measures. It has also been suggested that as a consequence of these policies, suicides have skyrocketed and the situation could become a public health catastrophe of the kind that occurred in the 1990s in the countries formerly part of the USSR. These affirmations have no basis in the existing data. Statistics indicate that in European countries in general and especially in those most affected by the crisis, general mortality has decreased and the health of the population has improved in 2007-2010. Paradoxically, the crisis has had a beneficial effect on health in these countries. Such findings are in substantial agreement with previous studies that have shown throughout various periods within market economies that recessions are favorable to health while periods of economic expansion are harmful. PMID:24823606

Tapia Granados, José A

2014-04-01

121

Troubled world economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic policy makers are reminded that, while time and natural forces will relieve some of the problems caused by the world petroleum situation, innovative approaches are needed to achieve economic growth with social justice. The economic slowdown since the oil crisis of 1973 is now compounded by strains on the world financial structure's ability to finance balance-of-payments deficits. While imports

Veit

1977-01-01

122

The superpowers in crisis  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how the domestic political, economic, and socio-cultural problems afflicting the US and the USSR may threaten the security of each country and jeopardize world peace. Contents (partial): The Soviet Union in Crisis: An economy in crisis; A minority in their ''own country;'' Eastern Europe: An asset or liability; What is to be done.; The American Predicament: American liberalism; Ronald Reagan and the conservative counter-reformation; Taking stock; International Implications; Domestic strife; implications for the superpower rivalry; Global economic disorder and the American predicament; Conclusions.

Krickus, R.J.

1987-01-01

123

World economic growth pushing LNG use  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves.

Brown, R.L. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States); Clary, R. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-06-02

124

Economical crisis detected from space: Trends in air quality of Athens in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from three satellite spectrometers (SCIAMACHY, GOME2 and OMI) have been analyzed together with a number of economic metrics to investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. Athens is a heavily polluted city due to the extensive number of registered vehicles, the presence of industrial regions close to the city, the complex topography of the area favouring pollutant accumulation, the intense photochemical processes favoured by high temperature and insolation and the reception of transboundary pollution. The multiannual analysis shows a significant 30-40% reduction of primary gaseous pollutants in the form of NO2 tropospheric columnar densities observed over Athens, during the economic recession period, indicating large reductions in pollutant emissions. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3±0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2±0.1ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3±0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants not only in Athens but also in large parts of Greece.

Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Zerefos, Christos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Lelieveld, Jos; Barrie, Leonard; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

2013-04-01

125

The Economic Crisis, Capitalism and Islam: The Making of a New Economic Order?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Islamic economics is compatible with modern capitalism, in its support of free markets, economic globalisation and profit, it has clear fundamental rules on the ethics and morality of economic transactions—it denies interest or riba, the principle of ‘making money from money’ and forbids the transference of risk from the financier to entrepreneur. There must be shared appreciation over real

Wazir Jahan Karim

2010-01-01

126

Oil, the Suez canal, and sterling reserves: economic factors determining British decisionmaking during the 1967 Arab–Israeli crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the importance of economic factors for the development of British Middle Eastern policy during the 1967 Arab-Israeli crisis, based on newly declassified government documents. Policy shifted from threatening unilateral action against Nasser to multilateralism and neutraliry shortly before the June war. Economic considerations will be put in the context of anti-interventionist voices in the cabinet, in the

Gernot Klantschnig

2003-01-01

127

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 1998/99: Beyond Financial Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On December 2 the World Bank released a new 200 page annual report on the global economy which contained thinly veiled criticism of the International Monetary Fund and US Treasury's handling of the Asian financial crisis. The crucial mistake, the report maintains, was their decision to push Asian nations into easing their interest rates, which set off the almost-worldwide recession. While it warns that a substantial danger remains that the world could fall into recession in 1999, the report predicts that the economies of most of the distressed nations will improve into 2000. In addition to an analysis of the short- and long-term prospects of the developing world, the report offers policy suggestions for preventing or managing future crises. At the site, the users will find the full text of the report, a summary, the foreword, press releases in multiple languages, and a PowerPoint slide show.

Dasgupta, Dipak.

1998-01-01

128

Economic crisis, restrictive policies, and the population's health and health care: the Greek case.  

PubMed

The global economic crisis has affected the Greek economy with unprecedented severity, making Greece an important test of the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and a population's well-being. Suicide and homicide mortality rates among men increased by 22.7% and 27.6%, respectively, between 2007 and 2009, and mental disorders, substance abuse, and infectious disease morbidity showed deteriorating trends during 2010 and 2011. Utilization of public inpatient and primary care services rose by 6.2% and 21.9%, respectively, between 2010 and 2011, while the Ministry of Health's total expenditures fell by 23.7% between 2009 and 2011. In a time of economic turmoil, rising health care needs and increasing demand for public services collide with austerity and privatization policies, exposing Greece's population health to further risks. PMID:23597358

Kondilis, Elias; Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Gavana, Magda; Ierodiakonou, Ioanna; Waitzkin, Howard; Benos, Alexis

2013-06-01

129

Hardship and Hope: Stories of the economic crisis on Tobacco Road  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2009, a group of talented photojournalism students from North Carolina fanned out across the landscape "to document the human face of the economic crisis in North Carolina's Triangle region." It's a fascinating project, and given the power of images, it's an excellent way to examine the circumstances of the region. Visitors can click through the photographic essays via the "Featured" section. Each of these profiles looks at a different aspect of the economic struggles faced by area residents, and there are a few extra features, including poems, essays, and interviews. First-time visitors to the site might want to look at "Adopting a Neighborhood" and "My Homeless Children" as they start their journey. Overall, this is a thoughtful project and one that might inspire others to take a closer look at their own communities.

130

[The Spanish economic crisis and its consequences on social spending. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

This article offers a brief summary of the factors that the author believes should be considered when analyzing the multiple interrelations between the economic crisis and its effects on public finances, social spending, and the health and welfare of Spaniards. For the sake of brevity, a linear argument is followed, with the basic contents of the message, leaving some of the more controversial issues whose interpretation may be heavily influenced by ideology to the discussion. The core of the argument is that, despite the double dip of the Spanish recession, healthcare has survived the consequences of the crisis fairly well. This is particularly the case when the situation is analyzed in terms of the share of public expenditure to GDP and in per capita terms, given the evolution of these ratios, although the final effect is unknown in terms of the actual and potential beneficiaries. This relatively low incidence so far on the health of Spaniards is basically due to family networks, pooling their incomes, and to the acceptance by Spanish health professionals of budget cuts, which have allowed services and their apparent quality to be maintained, contrasting with private employment and public finances. Obviously, this is not a guarantee of sustainability unless economic growth recovers. Even if the Spanish economy and public finances improve, the composition of health care delivery needs to be reevaluated to achieve a new allocation between public and private responsibilities for healthcare in accordance with the social development of the 21st century. PMID:24863990

López-Casasnovas, Guillem

2014-06-01

131

The World Social Forum and the Lessons for Economic Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the development of the World Social Forum (WSF) using theoretical arguments that have emerged from the new economic geog- raphy. In particular, it draws on the critique of economistic accounts of globaliza- tion by Richa Nagar, Victoria Lawson, Linda McDowell, and Susan Hanson to evaluate how far the WSF serves to move beyond institutional, spatial, and personal

Matthew Sparke; Elizabeth Brown; Dominic Corva; Heather Day; Caroline Faria; Tony Sparks; Kirsten Varg

2009-01-01

132

World-Size Global Markets Lead to Economic Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic and cultural globalization is one of the most important processes humankind has been undergoing lately. This process is assumed to be leading the world into a wealthy society with a better life. However, the current trend of globalization is not unprecedented in human history, and has had some severe consequences in the past. By applying a quantitative analysis through

Yoram Louzoun; Sorin Solomon; Jacob Goldenberg; David Mazursky

2003-01-01

133

[Transnationalization, the development crisis and the end of the Third World].  

PubMed

This work argues that transnational corporations, by their internal dynamics, disturb the pace of development in Third World countries. There is little consensus on what should constitute a national economy, despite the fact that the idea of economic nationalism has a long history. The concept that a geographic area should show a minimal degree of economic vitality as a condition for emergence into a nation state is largely foreign to political scientists and politicians. Similarly, economists do not base their analyses on nations. The developed western countries between about 1950-80 to some extent became models of national economies. Their economic complexity, strong interdependence between economic sectors, and developed industrial infrastructures were seen as the necessary complements of national sovereignty. But the most important factor in economic growth and development, capital, by its very nature is not tied to any country. The dynamics of capital of transnational firms, and more generally the movement of modern economy and society, tend to destroy the sense of economic nationality. The deterritorialization of the economy is not limited to growth of transnational firms. Such arrangements as joint ventures, licensing contracts, and agreements to share production blur the lines between nation states. Deterritorialization affects culture and power relations as well as economics. The Third World as a conceptual entity is destined to come to an end not only because of the transnationalization of productive processes and financial circuits but because of internal cleavages. The factors originally believed to be common to Third World countries have not proven to be as enduring as once thought. The ideology of a unified Third World has crumbled in the face of internal conflicts, the powerlessness of the Organization of African Unity, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, and other forces. The great division between countries is not fundamentally into 3 but into 2: the developed and the underdeveloped. The impact of multinationals on development in the Third World is likely to include both increasing homogenization due to the weakening of state borders and increasing differentiation, which is the traditional consequence of capital accumulation. The growth in importance of services and the development of the informal sector are 2 exceptions that may avoid the impact of transnational firms. PMID:12315734

Latouche, S

1988-01-01

134

The Growing Global Threat of Cyber-crime given the Current Economic Crisis: A Study regarding Internet Malicious Activities in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer crime, also referred as cyber-crime, is considered today one of the main leading problems in the ongoing global economic crisis and an impediment in the development of many countries. Objectives of this work are: to determine the evolution of cyber-crime during the current economic crisis, to emphasize the severity of this problem and the urgent need to limit its

Ana Maria Tuluc

2011-01-01

135

[Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001

Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

2014-06-01

136

A "More General Crisis": Hannah Arendt, World-Alienation, and the Challenges of Teaching for the World as It Is  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This article is part of a special issue on the 50th anniversary of the publication of Hannah Arendt's essay, "The Crisis in Education" and her book The Human Condition. Despite the proliferation of books and articles on Arendt's work since the mid-90s, "The Crisis in Education" does not figure all that much in writing on…

Levinson, Natasha

2010-01-01

137

Medical Supplies Shortages and Burnout among Greek Health Care Workers during Economic Crisis: a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2014-01-01

138

Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida and St. Johns County  

E-print Network

Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida and St. Johns County Economics Department #12;i Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida....................................................................................................................ii Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida.................1 Introduction

Florida, University of

139

A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case  

PubMed Central

Background The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. Methods The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. Results In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. Conclusions The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess precisely. It would be useful to test out the framework against other country experiences and refine the measures and indicators. Further research on both the comparative resilience of different health systems and building resilience in preparation for crises is encouraged. PMID:24171814

2013-01-01

140

Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

2013-01-01

141

Analysis of World Economic Variables Using Multidimensional Scaling  

PubMed Central

Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177

Machado, J.A. Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

2015-01-01

142

Changes in occupational safety and health indices after the Korean economic crisis: analysis of a national sample, 1991-2007.  

PubMed

We examined how the deregulation of South Korea's labor laws during the country's 1997 to 1998 economic crisis affected occupational safety and health. Although the economic index improved after the reforms, the total injury rate declined slowly and the incidence of occupational disease increased. The withdrawal of support for occupational safety and health is likely to have a sustained effect on public health. PMID:20339078

Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young; Park, Jae-Beom; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Kyung-Jong

2010-11-01

143

Specialty choice in times of economic crisis: a cross-sectional survey of Spanish medical students  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the determinants of specialty choice among graduating medical students in Spain, a country that entered into a severe, ongoing economic crisis in 2008. Setting Since 2008, the percentage of Spanish medical school graduates electing Family and Community Medicine (FCM) has experienced a reversal after more than a decade of decline. Design A nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted online in April 2011. Participants We invited all students in their final year before graduation from each of Spain's 27 public and private medical schools to participate. Main outcome measures Respondents’ preferred specialty in relation to their perceptions of: (1) the probability of obtaining employment; (2) lifestyle and work hours; (3) recognition by patients; (4) prestige among colleagues; (5) opportunity for professional development; (6) annual remuneration and (7) the proportion of the physician's compensation from private practice. Results 978 medical students (25% of the nationwide population of students in their final year) participated. Perceived job availability had the largest impact on specialty preference. Each 10% increment in the probability of obtaining employment increased the odds of preferring a specialty by 33.7% (95% CI 27.2% to 40.5%). Job availability was four times as important as compensation from private practice in determining specialty choice (95% CI 1.7 to 6.8). We observed considerable heterogeneity in the influence of lifestyle and work hours, with students who preferred such specialties as Cardiovascular Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynaecology valuing longer rather than shorter workdays. Conclusions In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, job availability has assumed critical importance as a determinant of specialty preference among Spanish medical students. In view of the shortage of practitioners of FCM, public policies that take advantage of the enhanced perceived job availability of FCM may help steer medical school graduates into this specialty. PMID:23408072

Harris, Jeffrey E; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz; Ortún, Vicente; Barber, Patricia

2013-01-01

144

The World - Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know.  

PubMed

The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print "fiat" (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything without the responsibility to work or pay for these entitlements, has touched many countries and people with a few exceptions. This problem is the result of a worldwide breakdown of ethics and morality in society and a desire of the few for centralized control and power over the people. No country has instituted a solution to these problems that results in reducing expenditures or the growing debts. As many have stated in this paper, this policy cannot be sustained. The result of this scenario will be a worldwide economic crisis. Fundamental to this impending economic crisis is the failure of centrally controlled economies and socialistic programs. Those selected groups, who benefit from having control, are the politicians, bankers, some selected industry leaders, and socialist planners, who will stop at nothing to maintain power and control over the people. Liberty of the people is in jeopardy worldwide. Read the evidence presented and decide if this summary is correct. The troubling question is, "What will happen if the world economy collapses?" Will this crisis be a time for the few to take more control of the people through fear, crisis decisions, misinformation, prevention of the public from protecting themselves with guns, and pervasive spying technology on each citizen or will more democratic governments arise from the failure of centralized control, the welfare state, and the loss of liberty? Such crises have been repeated throughout 4000 years of recorded history. What happened in those past times? Read the quotations of Vladimir Lenin, developer of Marxism-Leninism, the foundation of Communism and judge what you have read from his statements. An alternative to this dismal scenario is little discussed also in the Press. Why not? In the past 150 years, the alternative has happened with a rapid growth in democracy, communications technology, and life expectancy from advances in science and medicine. To unleash this huge human potential, at this time, will require individual freedom to create and innovate with the opportunity for risk

Ausman, James I

2013-01-01

145

The World – Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know  

PubMed Central

The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print “fiat” (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything without the responsibility to work or pay for these entitlements, has touched many countries and people with a few exceptions. This problem is the result of a worldwide breakdown of ethics and morality in society and a desire of the few for centralized control and power over the people. No country has instituted a solution to these problems that results in reducing expenditures or the growing debts. As many have stated in this paper, this policy cannot be sustained. The result of this scenario will be a worldwide economic crisis. Fundamental to this impending economic crisis is the failure of centrally controlled economies and socialistic programs. Those selected groups, who benefit from having control, are the politicians, bankers, some selected industry leaders, and socialist planners, who will stop at nothing to maintain power and control over the people. Liberty of the people is in jeopardy worldwide. Read the evidence presented and decide if this summary is correct. The troubling question is, “What will happen if the world economy collapses?” Will this crisis be a time for the few to take more control of the people through fear, crisis decisions, misinformation, prevention of the public from protecting themselves with guns, and pervasive spying technology on each citizen or will more democratic governments arise from the failure of centralized control, the welfare state, and the loss of liberty? Such crises have been repeated throughout 4000 years of recorded history. What happened in those past times? Read the quotations of Vladimir Lenin, developer of Marxism–Leninism, the foundation of Communism and judge what you have read from his statements. An alternative to this dismal scenario is little discussed also in the Press. Why not? In the past 150 years, the alternative has happened with a rapid growth in democracy, communications technology, and life expectancy from advances in science and medicine. To unleash this huge human potential, at this time, will require individual freedom to create and innovate with the oppor

Ausman, James I.

2013-01-01

146

A Short Economic History of the Post Second World War World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by John Birchall, a senior Economics and Business examiner and author, (as well as the author of Biz/ed's "In the Know" column), this is intended to be a first-person view of economic history in the time period directly after World War II. The history is divided into an introduction and four sections. The author explains that, as an economics teacher, he found the most difficult aspect of his job was the fact that his students lacked a general awareness of economic history, and with this document, he has attempted to show the ways in which this period of economic history affected his life. Birchall's casual writing style makes this article a fascinating and engaging read.

Birchall, John.

147

Tracking Major Economic Indicators on the World Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tracking Major Economic Indicators on the World Wide Web is a business research guide from the Reeves School of Business at Methodist College in Fayetteville, NC. Twelve topical pages point users to Websites where they can find balance of trade, capacity utilization, foreign exchange rates, and gross domestic product, among other figures. Note: selected for-fee services such as the Wall Street Journal Interactive are included in many resource lists.

148

World economic integration and the revolution in information technology  

SciTech Connect

Growth in world commerce has entailed an evolutionary change in the composition of economic flows, leading to increased economic interaction. One can distinguish five lawyers of integration: natural resources, manufactured goods, direct investment, portfolio investment, information services and telecommunications. Government policy has responded along two dimensions: subject matter regulation and expanded geographic scope of policy. For the first half of the 20th century, the dominant policy theme was protection. Beginning in the 1960s, a new theme emerged, especially in Fast Asia, that could be termed managed export-oriented growth. More recently, a new theme of total elimination of barriers and the widest possible scope for competitive forces among designated partner nations is taking integration a step further. Information services and telecommunications permeate and facilitate all layers of world commerce but give promise of revolutionizing world commerce. Advances in productivity powered by information technology, will send shock waves through labor forces all over the world and stimulate new government policy responses. Labor content in a large array of fields will be reduced, skill requirements will be selectively reduced, but new industries and new jobs will be created. Downward pressure on wages in the lower quartile of jobs resulting from {open_quotes}dumbing flown{close_quotes} will be accompanied by increased competition among well paid professionals from counterparts in India, China, and elsewhere. The challenge for policy makers to respond in ways that capitalize on opportunities for growth rather than seek to protect what ultimately be unprotectable will be enormous. 3 refs.

Hufbauer, G.

1996-12-31

149

[The impact of the economic crisis on the health and healthcare of the immigrant population. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

Despite the economic crisis, the immigrant population of Spain continues to be high, with 5.7 million persons (11.4%). This population, whose health needs are similar to those of the general population, is more vulnerable due to their exposure to worse social determinants (living and working conditions together with a higher risk of exclusion from social services). In this article, we analyze how the economic crisis affects or can affect the health of the immigrant population in Spain by examining distinct population-specific or institutional factors that influence the effects of the crisis and the available data. The available evidence is limited, but several effects can be identified: firstly, some social determinants, such as higher unemployment rates and worse working conditions, have deteriorated, which can be expected to lead to a worsening of health status. These consequences have already been described for mental health or have been estimated for infectious diseases. Secondly, political decisions have had a direct impact, excluding-with some exceptions-undocumented immigrants from the right to health care. Finally, the lower priority given to adapting health services to the specific characteristics of the immigrant population (most of whom are documented) together with the introduction of new barriers, has hampered or will hamper access to health care. As a result, the economic crisis can be expected to have a greater impact on the immigrant population. PMID:24704282

Vázquez, María Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Aller, Marta-Beatriz

2014-06-01

150

Dynamical analogy between economical crisis and earthquake dynamics within the nonextensive statistical mechanics framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of study of complex systems considers that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may be used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Several authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and the dynamics of economic (financial) systems can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. We apply concepts of the nonextensive statistical physics, on time-series data of observable manifestations of the underlying complex processes ending up with these different extreme events, in order to support the suggestion that a dynamical analogy exists between a financial crisis (in the form of share or index price collapse) and a single earthquake. We also investigate the existence of such an analogy by means of scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes). We show that the populations of: (i) fracto-electromagnetic events rooted in the activation of a single fault, emerging prior to a significant earthquake, (ii) the trade volume events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, and (iii) the price fluctuation (considered as the difference of maximum minus minimum price within a day) events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, follow both the traditional Gutenberg-Richter law as well as a nonextensive model for earthquake dynamics, with similar parameter values. The obtained results imply the existence of a dynamic analogy between earthquakes and economic crises, which moreover follow the dynamics of seizures, magnetic storms and solar flares.

Potirakis, Stelios M.; Zitis, Pavlos I.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

2013-07-01

151

Modeling of Economy Considering Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss main modeling's problems of economy dynamic processes and the reason forecast's absence of economic crisis. We present a structure of complexity level of system and models and discuss expected results concerning crisis phenomena. We formulate the basic perspective directions of the mathematical modeling of economy, including possibility of the analysis of the pre crisis, crisis and post crisis phenomena in economic systems.

Petrov, Lev F.

2009-09-01

152

"A Watchman on the Walls of World Freedom": The International Crisis Speaking of John F. Kennedy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of presidential crisis rhetoric appears to be the unification of the people of the United States in support of presidential policy. John F. Kennedy's crisis speaking corresponded both to his conceptions of presidential leadership and to those of the people. If the President of the United States is seen as the personification of…

Kahl, Mary L.

153

World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

2014-07-01

154

Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.  

PubMed

The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health. PMID:15896870

Hopkins, Sandra

2006-02-01

155

Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

2013-10-01

156

The health migration crisis: the role of four Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries.  

PubMed

The crisis of human resources for health that is affecting low-income countries and especially sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed, at least in part, to increasing rates of migration of qualified health staff to high-income countries. We describe the conditions in four Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) health labour markets that have led to increasing rates of immigration. Popular explanations of these trends include ageing populations, growing incomes, and feminisation of the health workforce. Although these explanations form part of the larger picture, analysis of the forces operating in the four countries suggests that specific policy measures largely unrelated to these factors have driven growing demand for health staff. On this basis we argue that specific policy measures are equally capable of reversing these trends and avoiding the exploitation of low-income countries' scarce resources. These policies should seek to ensure local stability in health labour markets so that shortages of staff are not solved via the international brain drain. PMID:16650654

Pond, Bob; McPake, Barbara

2006-04-29

157

Unemployment in Scandinavia during an economic crisis: Cross-national differences in health selection.  

PubMed

Are people with ill health more prone to unemployment during the ongoing economic crisis? Is this health selection more visible among people with low education, women, or the young? The current paper investigates these questions in the Scandinavian context using the longitudinal part of the EU-SILC data material. Generalized least squares analysis indicates that people with ill health are laid off to a higher degree than their healthy counterparts in Denmark, but not in Norway and Sweden. Additionally, young individuals (<30 years) with ill health have a higher probability of unemployment in both Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Neither women with ill health, nor individuals with low educational qualifications and ill health, are more likely to lose their jobs in Scandinavia. Individual level (and calendar year) fixed effects analysis confirms the existence of health selection out of employment in Denmark, whereas there is no suggestion of health selection in Sweden and Norway, except among young individuals. This finding could be related to the differing labor market demand the three Scandinavian countries have experienced during and preceding the study period (2007-2010). Another possible explanation for the cross-national differences is connected to the Danish "flexicurity" model, where the employment protection is rather weak. People with ill health, and hence more unstable labor market attachment, could be more vulnerable in such an arrangement. PMID:25689668

Heggebø, Kristian

2015-04-01

158

Impact of the economic crisis on the health of older persons in Spain: research clues based on an analysis of mortality. SESPAS report 2014.  

PubMed

Older adults are seldom considered in studies on the health impact of economic recessions or crises. However, they constitute a population group that is highly vulnerable to decreases in investment in health and social services and social security. Our aim is to examine the relationship between the economic crisis starting in 2008 and the health status of older adults in Spain. More specifically, we analyze changes in trends of mortality in relation to the crisis, the specific impact of winter on mortality and gender differences in the crisis' impact on mortality. Using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Spain on people over 60 years of age, the number of monthly deaths by age and sex from January 2005 to December 2012 was analyzed. Interrupted time series analyses and the "difference in differences" method were used. During the crisis, for adults 60 years and older: 1) the observed mortality seems to be decreasing at a slower rate than what would have been expected in the absence of the crisis; 2) there has been an increase in winter mortality; 3) the impact of the crisis has been greater for female than for male mortality. These results suggest sizable effects of the economic crisis on the mortality of older adults and argue for research done using more detailed analyses integrating economic indicators. PMID:24864003

Benmarhnia, Tarik; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Llácer, Alicia; Béland, Francois

2014-06-01

159

[Crisis and future of humanity].  

PubMed

We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities. PMID:23066563

Bellver Capella, Vicente

2012-09-01

160

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

1993-01-01

161

Enduring an Economic Crisis: The Effect of Macroeconomic Shocks on Intragenerational Mobility in Japan.  

PubMed

After the burst of its "bubble" economy in 1989, Japan experienced an astonishingly long economic recession whose gravity surpassed any seen in the industrialized world since the 1930s. While this recession is likely to have important consequences on the well-known workplace arrangements and career mobility patterns in that country, systematic analyses of such consequences are nearly absent. This study examines changes in the rates and directions of job mobility in Japan using work history data collected in 2005 from a nationally representative sample of men and women. I find evidence that Japanese firms have largely retained the core elements of the permanent employment system. The norm that stresses men's loyalty to their employers, however, appears to have weakened, resulting in higher voluntary job turnover among male workers. In addition, the gender gap in lifetime mobility processes has narrowed, but not because Japanese women have gained opportunities in the workplace. Rather, economic stagnation has led to greater fluctuations in employment and wages over men's life course, thereby closing the gender gap. Beyond illustrating the changing stratification process in Japan, the findings have general implications for understanding how economic crises impact employment relations, institutional transformations, and social change in advanced industrialized countries. PMID:21278839

Yu, Wei-Hsin

2010-11-01

162

Enduring an Economic Crisis: The Effect of Macroeconomic Shocks on Intragenerational Mobility in Japan  

PubMed Central

After the burst of its “bubble” economy in 1989, Japan experienced an astonishingly long economic recession whose gravity surpassed any seen in the industrialized world since the 1930s. While this recession is likely to have important consequences on the well-known workplace arrangements and career mobility patterns in that country, systematic analyses of such consequences are nearly absent. This study examines changes in the rates and directions of job mobility in Japan using work history data collected in 2005 from a nationally representative sample of men and women. I find evidence that Japanese firms have largely retained the core elements of the permanent employment system. The norm that stresses men’s loyalty to their employers, however, appears to have weakened, resulting in higher voluntary job turnover among male workers. In addition, the gender gap in lifetime mobility processes has narrowed, but not because Japanese women have gained opportunities in the workplace. Rather, economic stagnation has led to greater fluctuations in employment and wages over men’s life course, thereby closing the gender gap. Beyond illustrating the changing stratification process in Japan, the findings have general implications for understanding how economic crises impact employment relations, institutional transformations, and social change in advanced industrialized countries. PMID:21278839

Yu, Wei-hsin

2010-01-01

163

GeoCollaborative crisis management: designing technologies to meet real-world needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and human-induced disasters all require access to geo- graphically referenced information and tools for making available information relevant to the tasks at hand. Goals of the research summarized here are to advance our scientific understanding of how groups (or groups of groups) work with geospatial informa- tion and technologies in crisis

Alan M. Maceachren; Guoray Cai; Michael D. Mcneese; Rajeev Sharma; Sven Fuhrmann

2006-01-01

164

GeoCollaborative Crisis Management: Designing Technologies to Meet Real-World Needs  

E-print Network

Park, PA 16802 4 Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, Penn State University, University Park, PA with geospatial informa- tion and technologies in crisis management and to use that under- standing to guide, extension of natural, multimodal interface methods to mobile devices, development of a collaborative map

Klippel, Alexander

165

Research in the Real World: Studying Chicago Police Department's Crisis Intervention Team Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Police agencies across the country are struggling to respond to significant number of persons with serious mental illness, who are landing on their doorsteps with sometimes tragic consequences. Arguably, the most widely adopted approach, the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model, is a specialized police-based program designed to improve officers'…

Watson, Amy C.

2010-01-01

166

WORLD ROBOTICS 2010 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of  

E-print Network

WORLD ROBOTICS 2010 VII EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of 1. World Robotics 2010 Industrial Robots 2. World Robotics 2010 Service Robots 1. World Robotics 2010 Industrial Robots Sales slump in 2009 In 2009, the worldwide economic and financial crisis caused a significant slump in the sales of industrial robots

De Luca, Alessandro

167

Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida and St. Johns County  

E-print Network

i Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida and St. Johns County The World Golf Village is a 6,300 acre mixed-use development located in St. Johns County in northeast Augustine. It features the World Golf Hall of Fame, the Renaissance Resort at World Golf Village

Florida, University of

168

Democratization and Economic Liberalization in the Postcommunist World  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does economic liberalization affect political regime? Economic liberalization is widely regarded as inimical to democratization. The “Washington Consensus,” which generally endorses “shock therapy” and envisions a basic compatibility between economic liberalization and democratization, is widely disdained in social science. Many scholars hold that neoliberal economics depresses popular living standards and exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, thereby compromising democratization. Focusing on the

M. Steven Fish; Omar Choudhry

2007-01-01

169

THE FILTHY TRUTH: CHINA'S GROWING ECOLOGICAL CRISIS AND THE DANGER THAT IT POSES FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is today experiencing a period of intense economic growth the like of which the world has never seen. Since 1980 the Chinese economy has surged, growing an average rate of 10 percent a year and some coastal areas have grown at nearly 20 percent a year. During that period China's GDP in real terms has increased nearly nine times

DANIEL A. MÉTRAUX

170

Economic development and social welfare in the third world: The end of romance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since World War 2, economic and social development strategies - including the social service approach to development - have largely failed in the third world. Hundreds of millions of people remain very poor; their number may even be increasing. Perhaps billions of people live under predatory political regimes. The small economic advances carry large prices: population increase and growing inequality.

William M. Epstein

1994-01-01

171

Corporate governance and firm profitability: evidence from Korea before the economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how ownership structure and conflicts of interest among shareholders under a poor corporate governance system affected firm performance before the crisis. Using 5,829 Korean firms subject to outside auditing during 1993–1997, the paper finds that firms with low ownership concentration show low firm profitability, controlling for firm and industry characteristics. Controlling shareholders expropriated firm resources even when

Sung Wook Joh

2003-01-01

172

Historically Black Colleges and Universities in a Time of Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have suffered disproportionately in the current financial crisis. The difficult situations at these institutions have many causes, but they stem in large part from the commitment of HBCUs to serving disadvantaged students and from the history of underfunding and discrimination that disadvantages…

Gasman, Marybeth

2009-01-01

173

Changes in morbidity and medical care utilization after the recent economic crisis in the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine and quantify the impact of the recent economic crisis on morbidity and medical care utilization in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: 22 675 people from 6791 households and 43 682 people from 12 283 households were questioned for two nationwide surveys that took place in 1995 and 1998, respectively. A separate sample pretest-posttest design was used and we conducted c2 test and logistic regression analysis after controlling for the maturation effect of the morbidity and medical care utilization. FINDINGS: The morbidity rates of chronic disease and acute disease increased significantly by 27.1% and 9.5%, respectively, whereas the utilization rates of outpatient and inpatient services decreased by 15.1% and 5.2%, respectively. In particular, the pace of decline in the utilization rate of outpatient services varied depending on the type of disease: morbidity rates for mental and behavioural disorders were 13.7%; for cardiovascular disease, 7.1%; and for injury, 31.6%. CONCLUSION: After the Republic of Korean economic crisis, the morbidity and medical care utilization rates changed significantly but the degree of change depended on the type of disease or service. The time-dependent relationship between the national economy and the morbidity and medical care utilization rates needs to be further investigated. PMID:14576888

Kim, Hanjoong; Chung, Woo Jin; Song, Young Jong; Kang, Dae Ryong; Yi, Jee Jeon; Nam, Chung Mo

2003-01-01

174

Comparison of the financial performance of Islamic and conventional bank in Malaysia during and after economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a continuation of our former work. In this paper, we compare the financial performance of the two banking systems that exist in Malaysia over two periods of time, during economic crisis (1997-1999) and after economic crisis (2001-2003). In order to see the conventional as well as Islamic bank's performance over these two periods of time, the study uses 10 financial ratios which are broadly categorized into 4 groups: (a) profitability ratios; (b) liquidity ratios; (c) risk and solvency ratios; and (d) efficiency ratios. Next, the study used T-test in determining the significance of the differential performance of the two banks over two periods of time. By using inter-bank comparison, the study found that, conventional bank has better performance, efficient, more profitable and has greater risk as compared to Islamic bank. However, in terms of utilizing asset, Islamic bank is better than conventional bank. As an overall, conventional bank is better in much aspect due to the longer history and experience in the industry than Islamic bank that start their operation in 1983.

Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Jaffar, Aidatullaini; Abdullah, Nur Lina; Harun, Nurzalina

2013-09-01

175

Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module II, Your Economic Decisions and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

176

The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

2012-01-01

177

Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.  

PubMed

The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions. PMID:19630256

Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

2009-01-01

178

Communities Around the World. Their Economic Systems. Teacher's Guide to Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This general guide to a grade 4 social studies course outlines goals, content, and teaching methods on the theme Communities Around the World, with an economic emphasis. Different communities are used as vehicles to teach about contrasting economic systems and the relationship between the economic system and the rest of culture. Four major units…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

179

Dreams of economic transformation and the reality of economic crisis in Japan: Keidanren in the era of the ‘bubble’ and the onset of the ‘lost decade,’ from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the dynamics of the development of Japan's notorious ‘lost decade’ from 1990–2003. This economic downturn marked the end of four decades of strong economic growth and is still affecting the Japanese economy today. While previous studies have focused on government policies to explain the nation's slow response to this crisis, the attitudes of the Japanese business community

W. Miles Fletcher III

2012-01-01

180

The State of Fair Value Accounting, Global Financial Crisis and Implications to Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Introduction Accounting is not the mere mirror of direct cause of the world economic crisis, but it is important for the participants of market to well understand what accounting information presented in the financial statement. In this paper, particularly, fair value accounting (FVA) in itself and the importance concepts around recent financial crisis will be discussed. The concept of

Taka Fujioka; Seitaro Seko; Pongsak Hoontrakul

181

Lay perception Crisis 1 Running head: Lay perception Financial Crisis  

E-print Network

Lay perception Crisis 1 Running head: Lay perception Financial Crisis Human Foibles or Systemic Failure -- Lay Perceptions of the 2008-09 Financial Crisis David Leiser Ben-Gurion University Sacha-39" #12;Lay perception Crisis 2 Abstract We examined lay perceptions of the recent financial and economic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

2011-12-01

183

[Prevention in times of economic crisis and spending review. The Lazio Region as a study case].  

PubMed

With cutbacks being implemented across a wide range of social and government programs throughout Europe and the rest of the world, preventive services have become more vulnerable. In this context, it is essential to properly focus the debate on public healthcare expenditure, stressing that financing preventive services is not merely a cost, but an investment in citizen well-being as well as economic stability and development. In Italy indeed all seem to agree on three priorities: i) strengthening prevention activities; ii) reorganization of hospital care; and iii) reinforcement of primary care. A plenty of data are available in Italy from some recently published authoritative reports. Given that health policies should be driven by a solid evidence base, it is important to look at the available data to understand if these priorities are justified. The Lazio Region, which is particularly under pressure since it is one of the regions with a formal regional recovery plan (Piano di Rientro), was chosen as a case-study. In the Lazio Region public health care expenditure is particularly high, but the health care expenditure for prevention activities is among the lowest of the Italian Regions. Major weakness points documented by the essential levels of care indicators included recommended vaccinations coverage, oncological screening programs, residential beds for the elderly and persons with disability and hospital care efficiency. Avoidable mortality is higher in the Lazio than in the rest of the country, as well as the prevalence of some major behavioral risk factors. Even if all data available support the choice to consider prevention activities as a priority, it is essential to increasing the value of prevention, investing money in preventive interventions of proven effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and promoting synergies with institutions outside the health care sector, implementing in a more efficient way the principle of Health in All Policies. PMID:24548905

Di Marco, Marco; Marzuillo, Carolina; De Vito, Corrado; Matarazzo, Azzurra; Massimi, Azzurra; Villari, Paolo

2013-01-01

184

A World Bazaar: Learning about Community, Geography, and Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how teachers, students, and other community members collaborated in the planning and preparation of World Bazaar, a project aimed to immerse elementary students into modern and ancient cultures through reading, writing, researching, using maps, and seeing videos. On the day of the World Bazaar, the courtyard…

Guerrero, Karen

2007-01-01

185

Barriers and Incentives to Orphan Care in a Time of AIDS and Economic Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Caregivers in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment,…

Howard, Brian H.; Phillips, Carl V.; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J.; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A.

2007-01-01

186

[Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992

Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime

2014-06-01

187

Soil Erosion: Quiet Crisis in the World Economy. Worldwatch Paper 60.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although soil erosion is a natural process, it has increased to the point where it far exceeds the natural formation of new soil. However, with only occasional exceptions, national agricultural and population policies have failed to take soil depletion into account. Projections of world food production always incorporate estimates of future…

Brown, Lester R.; Wolf, Edward C.

188

14.11 Special Topics in Economics: The Challenge of World Poverty, Fall 2006  

E-print Network

This is a course for those who are interested in the challenge posed by massive and persistent world poverty, have had some economics, and believe that economists might have something useful to say about this question. The ...

Banerjee, Abhijit

189

Women and the environment: A reader - crisis and development in the Third World  

SciTech Connect

Sontheimer's collection of essays explores the complex interrelationships between Third World women and their ecological base of survival. Designed to bring together a broad selection of information from available literature, this volume provides an overview of current situations. Divided into four sections - women's use and management of land, forests, and water; and women's initiatives to repair environmental damage - the book may help erase misconceptions and show the important role of women in international environmental matters.

Sontheimer, S. (ed.)

1992-01-01

190

WebEc: World Wide Web Resources in Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WebEc is "...an effort to categorize free information in economics on the WWW." Bill Goffe, author of Resources for Economists on the Internet (discussed in the May 31, 1996 Scout Report) notes WebEc is "...a particularly good place to look for a broader array of business and economic resources." In addition to every known facet of economics, other supporting sections are also listed. Produced as a joint and volunteer effort, the intended audience is academic economists. WebEc is a part of NetEc, which also provides information on printed working papers (BibEc), on electronic working papers (WoPEc) and code for econometrics (CodEc).

191

Meeting the needs of the new millennium: passenger space travel and world economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without doubt, humans’ most urgent need at the start of the new millennium is the continuation of economic growth, which is the only means by which the great majority of the world population can lift themselves out of the poverty in which they live. A sine qua non for continuing economic growth is for the rich countries to continue to

Patrick Collins

2002-01-01

192

Teaching Economics and the Globalization Debate on the World Wide Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes an annotated bibliography of Web sites to help educators teach about economics issues and about globalization issues. Offers Web sites such as The National Council for Economic Education, Junior Achievement, United for a Fair Economy, and The World Bank. (CMK)

Risinger, Frederick

2001-01-01

193

The Economic Impact of Global Climate and Tropospheric Ozone on World Agricultural Production  

E-print Network

and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy and crop yield results from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), a biogeochemical model of terrestrial vegetation. IThe Economic Impact of Global Climate and Tropospheric Ozone on World Agricultural Production

194

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of

D. W. Pearce; J. J. Warford

1993-01-01

195

Stalinist Labour Coercion during World War II: An Economic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a study of Soviet legal practices, the article examines the enforcement of coercive laws and their limitations in the Soviet command economy. New archival documentation shows the scale and scope of Stalin's coercive machinery. Firstly, we show why labour legislation assumed its specific form, based on an economic analysis of the command economy. Secondly, we identify four specific limits

Martin Kragh

2011-01-01

196

Nanotechnology and Innovation, Recent status and the strategic implication for the formation of high tech clusters in Greece, in between a global economic crisis  

E-print Network

Nanotechnology is the first major worldwide research initiative of the 21st century and probably is the solution vector in the economic environment. Also, innovation is widely recognized as a key factor in the economic development of nations, and is essential for the competitiveness of the industrial firms as well. Policy and management of innovation are necessary in order to develop innovation and it involves processes. It is essential to develop new methods for nanotechnology development for better understanding of nanotechnology based innovation. Nanotechnologies reveal commercialization processes, from start ups to large firms in collaboration with public sector research. In the current paper, a study in the present status of innovation in nanotechnology and the affection of global economic crisis in this section is made and also the potential of increase the innovation via the presence of clusters in a small country like Greece which is in the eye of tornado from the global crisis is studied.

Gkanas, Evangelos I; Makridis, Sofoklis S; Stubos, Athanasios K; Bakouros, Ioannis

2013-01-01

197

Mitigating arsenic crisis in the developing world: role of robust, reusable and selective hybrid anion exchanger (HAIX).  

PubMed

In trying to address the public health crisis from the lack of potable water, millions of tube wells have been installed across the world. From these tube wells, natural groundwater contamination from arsenic regularly puts at risk the health of over 100 million people in South and Southeast Asia. Although there have been many research projects, awards and publications, appropriate treatment technology has not been matched to ground level realities and water solutions have not scaled to reach millions of people. For thousands of people from Nepal to India to Cambodia, hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) resins have provided arsenic-safe water for up to nine years. Synthesis of HAIX resins has been commercialized and they are now available globally. Robust, reusable and arsenic-selective, HAIX has been in operation in rural communities over numerous cycles of exhaustion-regeneration. All necessary testing and system maintenance is organized by community-level water staff. Removed arsenic is safely stored in a scientifically and environmentally appropriate manner to prevent future hazards to animals or people. Recent installations have shown the profitability of HAIX-based arsenic treatment, with capital payback periods of only two years in ideal locations. With an appropriate implementation model, HAIX-based treatment can rapidly scale and provide arsenic-safe water to at-risk populations. PMID:24321388

German, Michael; Seingheng, Hul; SenGupta, Arup K

2014-08-01

198

The world economic crisis. Part 2. Health manpower out of balance.  

PubMed

As outlined in the first part of this article in the last issue of the journal, many countries are facing severe constraints on health expenditure at the same time as they are trying to work towards Health for All by the Year 2000. Health manpower needs to be planned to secure maximum benefits from the limited resources available. Many medical schools train more doctors than are needed because quotas on medical places are either non-existent or set too high. Medical training may be oriented to high-technology, curative care and produce doctors ill equipped to fulfil the role demanded of them in the primary health care approach. Educational courses for paramedics and nurses are often insufficient and inappropriate. Countries which have previously lost trained doctors to attractive posts abroad now face the prospect of a flood of doctors looking for work in their home countries, now that opportunities for work abroad are being reduced. Such countries will find it difficult to reverse the bias in policy towards medical professionals, despite the waste caused by unemployment and inappropriate training among doctors. With limited budgets, there is a need for countries to plan ahead. To do this they must find ways of estimating future effective demand. The future balance of staff can then be planned on the basis of resources available and the relative costs of deploying various categories of health staff. PMID:10282124

Abel-Smith, B

1986-12-01

199

Income-related inequalities in the prevalence of depression and suicidal behaviour: a 10-year trend following economic crisis  

PubMed Central

The issue of health inequalities has steadily gained attention in South Korea, as income inequality widened and social polarization increased following the country’s economic crisis in the late 1990s. While official figures indicate a general trend of worsening mental health, with rapidly rising rates of suicide and depression in particular, the extent of socio-economic inequality with respect to mental health problems has not been well elucidated. This study aimed to measure income-related inequalities in depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korea and to trace their changes over a 10-year period (1998-2007). The concentration index approach was employed to quantify the degree of income-related inequalities, using four waves of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The study found persistent pro-rich inequality in depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts over the past decade (i.e., individuals with higher incomes were less likely to have these conditions). The inequalities actually doubled over this period. These findings imply a need for expanded social protection policies for the less privileged in the population. PMID:21379355

HONG, JIHYUNG; KNAPP, MARTIN; McGUIRE, ALISTAIR

2011-01-01

200

Food for the World's Hungry. Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 511.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the food crisis is concisely presented in this brief brochure. It is one of a series to educate the American public on vital economic and social problems. The background of the world food shortage and its causal factors are discussed. Suggestions for overcoming the crisis, such as political changes, land reform, public services,…

Stewart, Maxwell S.

201

Relevance of the economic crisis in chemical PM10 changes in a semi-arid industrial environment.  

PubMed

This paper shows the changes in PM(10) levels and chemical composition in a region in southeast Spain between two periods: September 2005-August 2006 and June 2008-May 2009. PM(10) levels in this arid region, with a great number of cement, ceramic and related industries, have decreased in the second period in concordance with the reduction of industrial production due to the economic crisis and the closure of a cement plant. Annual average levels of PM(10) decreased from 41 ?g m(-3) in 2005 to 30 ?g m(-3) in 2008 (27%) and to 23 ?g m(-3) in 2009 (23%). The relative contribution of the different sources has not changed in the area in the latter period and the elements with mineral origin are the main components of the PM(10) composition. There is a reduction in the concentration of the components that have soil-related industries and crustal material resuspension as their main sources, mainly in the case of CO(3) (2-), Ca, Sr, Tl and Pb, but the seasonal patterns were the same in both periods. As a particular case, there is an uncoupling between the seasonal evolution of SO(2) and sulphates in the two study periods, which remarks the existence of a sulphate regional background that does not depend on SO(2) local emissions. The decrease of V, Ni and Tl levels reflects the reduction of the industrial activity during the crisis period, affecting mainly the ceramic sector characterised by a great decrease of Tl levels. PMID:22146821

Santacatalina, Milagros; Yubero, Eduardo; Mantilla, Enrique; Carratalá, Adoración

2012-11-01

202

The Quiet Crisis: The Impact of the Economic Downturn on the Nonprofit Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was written to shine a spotlight on the under-reported plight of America's nonprofit organizations and to make recommendations for how the nation can respond. In the wake of the economic downturn, hospitals, nursing homes, nursery schools, senior centers, soup kitchens, and other nonprofit organizations have been hit by a triple…

Bridgeland, John M.; McNaught, Mary; Reed, Bruce; Dunkelman, Marc

2009-01-01

203

The Economic Crisis and the Scientific, Technical and Cultural Information Services in Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the effects of economic factors on information services in Mexico. Topics discussed include librarians' salaries; inadequate library budgets; acquisitions in academic libraries; the development of public libraries; library networks; national databases; microcomputers and library automation; library research; effects of devaluation; and…

Fernandez de Zamora, Rosa Maria

1990-01-01

204

No Time for Timidity: A "Buffett" Approach to Weathering the Economic Crisis and Coming out Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The counterintuitive approach of the world's greatest value investor, Warren Buffett, may be the best hope for colleges and universities during this recession. Buffett's time-tested philosophy of seeking value and investing for the long term remains a sound approach, even if his short-term returns have declined along with those of the rest of the…

Hesel, Richard A.; Strauss, David W.; Edwards, Benjamin G.

2009-01-01

205

[Shifting of emphasis in the world health sector strategy; from political concerns to economic ones].  

PubMed

Primary Health Care, proclaimed by WHO in 1978, is a health strategy that aims to achieve the ultimate objective "Health For All", with underlying political concerns for ideals such as social justice, equity and human rights. Meanwhile, "globalization", urged by the U.S.A., other developed countries and multinational corporations, has since promoted liberalization of trade, capital and finance, which has in the past few decades been sweeping all over the world. With this "new economic liberalism", values that put much emphasis on economic efficiency are now at the forefront. The World Bank, which supports the tendency along with the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, has become an influential actor in helping developing countries to prosper economically. The World Bank, whose basic idea is that investment in health is basic for economic growth, has in the 1990s also exerted considerable influence on the international health sector with its overwhelming provision of financial assistance. Instead of political concerns like equity and human rights, 'economic concerns' such as fairer budget allocation, cost-effectiveness, cost reduction and efficiency have now become main points for discussion in the international health field. This shift in emphasis poses fundamental questions for the core goal of the World Health Organization; "Health For All". PMID:14699857

Yuasa, Motoyuki; Tateno, Seiki; Wakai, Susumu

2003-11-01

206

Increased biomass burning due to the economic crisis in Greece and its adverse impact on wintertime air quality in Thessaloniki.  

PubMed

The recent economic crisis in Greece resulted in a serious wintertime air pollution episode in Thessaloniki. This air quality deterioration was mostly due to the increased price of fuel oil, conventionally used as a source of energy for domestic heating, which encouraged the residents to burn the less expensive wood/biomass during the cold season. A wintertime sampling campaign for fine particles (PM2.5) was conducted in Thessaloniki during the winters of 2012 and 2013 in an effort to quantify the extent to which the ambient air was impacted by the increased wood smoke emissions. The results indicated a 30% increase in the PM2.5 mass concentration as well as a 2-5-fold increase in the concentration of wood smoke tracers, including potassium, levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan. The concentrations of fuel oil tracers (e.g., Ni and V), on the other hand, declined by 20-30% during 2013 compared with 2012. Moreover, a distinct diurnal variation was observed for wood smoke tracers, with significantly higher concentrations in the evening period compared with the morning. Correlation analysis indicated a strong association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and the concentrations of levoglucosan, galactosan, and potassium, underscoring the potential impact of wood smoke on PM-induced toxicity during the winter months in Thessaloniki. PMID:24187932

Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Samara, Constantini; Voutsa, Dimitra; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Karagkiozidou, Olga; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

2013-12-01

207

The American Science Pipeline: Sustaining Innovation in a Time of Economic Crisis  

PubMed Central

Significant limitations have emerged in America's science training pipeline, including inaccessibility, inflexibility, financial limitations, and lack of diversity. We present three effective programs that collectively address these challenges. The programs are grounded in rigorous science and integrate through diverse disciplines across undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students, and resonate with the broader community. We discuss these models in the context of current economic constraints on higher education and the urgent need for our institutions to recruit and retain diverse student populations and sustain the successful American record in scientific education and innovation. PMID:21123689

Hue, Gillian; Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Lynn, David G.

2010-01-01

208

World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

209

The influence of the environmental management system on the environmental impact of seaport companies during an economic crisis: Lithuanian case study.  

PubMed

Freight handling in EU ports fell by more than 12 % during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009 after almost a decade of continuous growth. The decrease of freight handling in the Klaipeda seaport, the only port in Lithuania, was 6.7 % and happened due to the dominant outward movement of goods (mainly oil products). The Klaipeda seaport, due to its peculiarity, is the only ice-free port in the northern part of Baltic Sea. The present study explores the environmental impact of Klaipeda seaport activities from 2001 to 2011. Moreover, it compares the environmental effectiveness of environmental protection strategies used in the four biggest companies that, in fact, cover about 88 % of total activities (except general cargo) of the seaport. The first group of targeted companies used an environmental protection strategy to implement an ISO 14001-based environmental management system, and the second group selected to follow environmental management practices without certification. The paper analyses the development of the companies' activities in regard to the change of environmental effectiveness. The paper evaluates the pressure of the economic crisis on the companies' activities and its influence on environmental decisions, with particular interest in the ability of different environmental protection systems to resist and handle the expected performance. The study identified a significant decrease in companies' activities during the crisis period. However, the economic activities and environmental effectiveness demonstrated similar short-term tendencies in regard to the environmental strategy selection but differed in long-term perspective. PMID:25109472

Anne, Olga; Burskyte, Vilma; Stasiskiene, Zaneta; Balciunas, Arunas

2015-01-01

210

[Economic crisis, poverty and childhood. What are the expected short- and long-term effects for the "children of the crisis"? SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

The way a person will develop over the lifespan is largely determined by the first few years of life. A substantial share of the inequalities in health and socioeconomic status observed in adult life originate during childhood (and even while in utero). In this paper, we first review the literature on the impact of childhood conditions throughout the life cycle. We next discuss some of the social and biological mechanisms behind the transmission of the effects of poverty during the prenatal period, childhood, and adulthood. We then analyze several international experiences aimed at reducing intergenerational transmission of poverty. The article ends with some critical thoughts and policy recommendations to avoid the possible long-term effects of the current crisis on the health and socioeconomic status of the "children of the crisis" in Spain. PMID:24864002

Flores, Manuel; García-Gómez, Pilar; Zunzunegui, María-Victoria

2014-06-01

211

Impact of the global economic crisis on the health of unemployed autoworkers.  

PubMed

A phenomenological investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of the 2008-09 global economic recession on the health of unemployed blue-collar autoworkers in the Canadian province of Ontario between September and November 2009. A total of 22 men and 12 women took part. Participants completed a quantitative demographic and financial questionnaire. The qualitative aspect of the study consisted of a phenomenological component comprising semi-structured focus group sessions lasting 2 to 2.5 hours. The number of years employed ranged from 2 to 31.7 with a mean of 15 +/- 8. Participants reported high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; increased physical pain and discomfort; changes in weight and sexual function; and financial hardships, including inability to purchase prescribed medications. The authors conclude that unemployment associated with the global recession has negative health effects on autoworkers in Ontario. PMID:24236372

Bartfay, Wally Joseph; Bartfay, Emma; Wu, Terry

2013-09-01

212

STRATEGIC VECTORS OF FOOD PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT IN SERBIA IN TERMS OF THE GLOBAL CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world economic crisis was a major factor that caused industrial production and trade over the globe decrease. It closed millions of working places and effected fear of political instability to spread even over the states that have been considered as stable. Economies all over the world face with wide range recessions, that will lead to the 3% to 7%

RUZICA MILOVANOVIC

2010-01-01

213

The end of the era of generosity? Global health amid economic crisis  

PubMed Central

In the past decade donor commitments to health have increased by 200 percent. Correspondingly, there has been a swell of new players in the global health landscape. The unprecedented, global response to a single disease, HIV/AIDS, has been responsible for a substantial portion of this boon. Numerous health success have followed this windfall of funding and attention, yet the food, fuel, and economic crises of 2008 have shown the vulnerabilities of health and development initiatives focused on short term wins and reliant on a constant flow of foreign funding. For too long, the international community has responded to global health and development challenges with emergency solutions that often reflect the donor's priorities, values, and political leanings, rather than funding durable health systems that can withstand crises. Progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals has stalled in many countries. Disease specific initiatives have weakened health systems and limited efforts to improve maternal and child health. As we enter this era of scarce resources, there is a need to return to the foundations of the Alma Ata Declaration signed thirty years ago with the goal of providing universal access to primary healthcare. The global health community must now objectively evaluate how we can most effectively respond to the crises of 2008 and take advantage of this moment of extraordinary attention for global health and translate it into long term, sustainable health improvements for all. PMID:19134211

Schneider, Kammerle; Garrett, Laurie

2009-01-01

214

Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD: Essays in MacroEconomic History  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book seeks to identify the forces which explain how and why some parts of the world have grown rich and others have lagged behind. Encompassing 2000 years of history, part 1 begins with the Roman Empire and explores the key factors that have influenced economic development in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Part 2 covers the development of

Angus Maddison

215

Why Global Health Matters The world is economically, politically, culturally, and  

E-print Network

Why Global Health Matters The world is economically, politically, culturally, and technologically. Certificate Overview An undergraduate certificate in Global Health provides students with knowledge of, language, and measurement tools used in global health · ethics and global health · the global cultural

Saldin, Dilano

216

Solar Energy Economics Revisited: The Promise and Challenge of Orbiting Reflectors for World Energy Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of orbiting, large-area, low mass density reflector satellites which provide nearly continuous solar energy to a world-distributed set of conversion sites is examined under the criteria for any potential new energy system: technical feasibility, significant and renewable energy impact, economic feasibility and social/political acceptability. Although many technical issues need further study, reasonable advances in space technology appear sufficient to implement the system. The enhanced insolation is shown to greatly improve the economic competitiveness of solar-electric generation to circa 1995 fossil/nuclear alternatives. The system is shown to have the potential for supplying a significant fraction of future domestic and world energy needs. Finally, the environmental and social issues, including a means for financing such a large shift to a world solar energy dependence, is addressed.

Billman, Kenneth W.; Gilbreath, William P.; Bowen, Stuart W.

1978-01-01

217

Crisis, What Crisis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to the recent work of Andrew Gamble, the article discusses the extent to which the British situation can be described in terms of crisis. It suggests that an essential element of crisis is that of political and social contestation, and explores the terms on which contestation is taking shape in and around British education.

Jones, Ken

2010-01-01

218

Economic Feasibility of a New Method to Estimate Mortality in Crisis-Affected and Resource-Poor Settings  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mortality data provide essential evidence on the health status of populations in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings and to guide and assess relief operations. Retrospective surveys are commonly used to collect mortality data in such populations, but require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative method for rapidly quantifying mortality (the informant method). The study objective was to assess the economic feasibility of the informant method. Methods The informant method captures deaths through an exhaustive search for all deaths occurring in a population over a defined and recent recall period, using key community informants and next-of-kin of decedents. Between July and October 2008, we implemented and evaluated the informant method in: Kabul, Afghanistan; Mae La camp for Karen refugees, Thai-Burma border; Chiradzulu District, Malawi; and Lugufu and Mtabila refugee camps, Tanzania. We documented the time and cost inputs for the informant method in each site, and compared these with projections for hypothetical retrospective mortality surveys implemented in the same site with a 6 month recall period and with a 30 day recall period. Findings The informant method was estimated to require an average of 29% less time inputs and 33% less monetary inputs across all four study sites when compared with retrospective surveys with a 6 month recall period, and 88% less time inputs and 86% less monetary inputs when compared with retrospective surveys with a 1 month recall period. Verbal autopsy questionnaires were feasible and efficient, constituting only 4% of total person-time for the informant method's implementation in Chiradzulu District. Conclusions The informant method requires fewer resources and incurs less respondent burden. The method's generally impressive feasibility and the near real-time mortality data it provides warrant further work to develop the method given the importance of mortality measurement in such settings. PMID:21949879

Roberts, Bayard; Morgan, Oliver W.; Sultani, Mohammed Ghaus; Nyasulu, Peter; Rwebangila, Sunday; Sondorp, Egbert; Chandramohan, Daniel; Checchi, Francesco

2011-01-01

219

Black carbon aerosols over an urban area in south-eastern Spain: Changes detected after the 2008 economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) concentrations performed at Granada, an urban location in southeast Spain, using a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer from December 2005 to November 2008, are analysed and discussed here. The daily mean BC concentrations showed considerable day-to-day variations and were found to vary from low values of 0.5 ?g m -3 to high values of 8.6 ?g m -3, with overall mean and standard deviation of 3.0 ± 1.5 ?g m -3. The annual mean BC concentrations were similar during 2006 and 2007 (3.2 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 and 3.1 ± 1.6 ?g m -3, respectively), but decreased by about 16-18% to 2.6 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 in 2008. This reduction is not only observed in the mean value, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. A Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level confirms that the BC concentration difference between 2006 and 2007 is statistically no significant while the BC concentration in 2008 tends to be less than that in 2006-2007. Analysis of meteorological conditions suggested that although the day-to-day variations in BC concentrations were driven mostly by meteorology, the reduction in the use of fossil fuels due to economic slowdown contributed significantly to the observed decrease in BC concentrations in 2008. Under conditions dominated by local source emissions, the effect of the economic crisis on BC concentration was more pronounced. For the three analysed years, BC concentrations obtained during winter were higher than those measured during summer, probably due to increased emissions from domestic heating and less intense vertical mixing in winter season, which lead to the confinement of the BC particles near the surface. The monthly mean BC concentrations were lower in 2008 than in 2006-2007 for almost every month of the year. In all years BC concentrations exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, with two maxima and two minima within a day. There were no differences among the daily patterns for 2006, 2007 and 2008 except for a general reduction in BC concentrations on 2008, especially during morning and evening traffic hours. For every day of the week, BC concentrations were lower on 2008 than in 2006 and 2007 and this reduction was more pronounced on working days, when BC concentrations were high.

Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Foyo, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

2011-11-01

220

OECD Educationtoday Crisis Survey 2010: The Impact of the Economic Recession and Fiscal Crisis on Education in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 56  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Directorate for Education surveyed the impact of the economic recession on education for the first time in June 2009. Responses were received from seventeen OECD member countries, the Flemish Community of Belgian and two Canadian provinces. The results of the survey reflect the…

Damme, Dirk V.; Karkkainen, Kiira

2011-01-01

221

The contributions made by multinational enterprises to the economic development and political stabilization of less developed countries seen in its dependence on the world economic order.  

PubMed

For their own advantage, developing countries should attempt to extend and not to limit liberalication directed at improving competition. Particularly, developing countries should argue that the private export of capital, which is combined with the transfer of growth-promoting technology, should be increased rather than restricted and the security of private ownership should also be increased. A scheme insuring property rights should be established, whereby the amounts contributed would be fixed according to the political stability of the country concerned. Some thoughts are presented on the basic principles of the world economy and on the way in which the world economic order should be shaped. On the basis of this plan, the world economy is understood as a system of varying developed regions. Attention is focused on the basic principle of the world economic order, suggestions for a new world economic order, the concept of a functional world economic order, starting points and goals of an economic policy orientated towards development, instruments of a national structural policy orientated by the world economy -- cooperative association and/or multinational firms, and demands made upon single economic orders and upon the system of their cooperation. PMID:12261344

Biermann, H

1977-12-01

222

A Comparative Study of Electric Load Curve Changes in an Urban Low-Voltage Substation in Spain during the Economic Crisis (2008–2013)  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008–2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period. PMID:24895677

Lara-Santillán, Pedro M.; Mendoza-Villena, Montserrat; Fernández-Jiménez, L. Alfredo; Mañana-Canteli, Mario

2014-01-01

223

A comparative study of electric load curve changes in an urban low-voltage substation in Spain during the economic crisis (2008-2013).  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008-2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002-2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period. PMID:24895677

Lara-Santillán, Pedro M; Mendoza-Villena, Montserrat; Fernández-Jiménez, L Alfredo; Mañana-Canteli, Mario

2014-01-01

224

Changes in Access to Health Services of the Immigrant and Native-Born Population in Spain in the Context of Economic Crisis  

PubMed Central

Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012). Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1) to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2) to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3) to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012. PMID:25272078

Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Malmusi, Davide; Ronda, Elena; Ballesta, Mónica; Vázquez, María Luisa

2014-01-01

225

Predicting the economic impact of the 2010 FIFA World Cup on South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The impact ,of the ,sporting industry on economic ,decision ,making ,has ,increased dramatically,since the global media,explosion in,the 1980s. Tourism and advertising revenues generated,by mega-events,such as World Cups or Olympic Games,have,become,a major boost to the economies of hosting nations. In addition,globalisation has placed great emphasis on the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), especially to developing countries. This paper ,seeks

Heinrich R. Bohlmann; Jan H. Van Heerden

2008-01-01

226

Economic & Reliable The Easy Introduction to the World of pH  

E-print Network

FiveEasyTM Economic & Reliable The Easy Introduction to the World of pH FiveEasyTM Bench Instruments FiveEasy Plus FiveEasy pH mV / ORP Conductivity TDS Salinity #12;FiveEasyPlusTM /FiveEasyTM Water No matter whether it's a lake or a sewage plant ­ compliance to cer- tain pH and conductivity values

Woodall, Jerry M.

227

Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth in a Two Country World  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the dynamics of nonrenewable resource abundance on economic growth and welfare in a two-country world. One country is endowed with a nonrenewable-resource, otherwise, countries are identical, except possibly for their initial endowments of capital. Unlike previous studies analyzing small open economies, we show that once interactions between resource-rich and resource-less economies are considered the effect of the nonrenewable

Beatriz Gaitan

2005-01-01

228

The Crisis: Basic Mechanisms and Appropriate Policies  

E-print Network

The purpose of this lecture is to look beyond the complex events that characterize the global financial and economic crisis, identify the basic mechanisms, and infer the policies needed to resolve the current crisis, as ...

Blanchard, Olivier Jean

229

Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

2012-01-01

230

The Study of Geography in an Interdependent World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of restructuring the discipline of geography and enhancing its role in the precollege curriculum as part of a global approach to education is emphasized in this paper. International education is seen as an essential part of high school and college education in an increasingly interdependent world. The oil crisis, the world economic

Saueressig-Schreuder, Yda

231

YOUTH EMPLOYMENT ON THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper intends to analyze the main labour market characteristics and factors for Romanian youth in the current market position. The analysis and forecast of the educational process and of graduates’ employment according to their differing educational levels on the Romanian labour market is realised based on Markovian techniques. By making use of the developed scenarios, the crisis effects can

Mariana B?LAN

2011-01-01

232

Economic Crisis, Accountability, and the State's Coercive Assault on Public Education in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines education accountability as a mechanism of coercive neoliberal urban governance in the USA. Drawing on Gramscian theory of the "integral state" as the dialectical synthesis of coercion, consent, and resistance, the author argues that as the crisis gives the state less room to win consent, it intensifies coercion as…

Lipman, Pauline

2013-01-01

233

Use of psychotropic drugs in Lombardy in time of economic crisis (2007-2011): a population-based study of adult employees.  

PubMed

Over years, there has been an increase in the prescription of psychotropic drugs (PDs), particularly antidepressants (ADs). The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption of PDs in adult employees in a productive area of Italy and the possible changes induced by the "economic crisis". The study is a retrospective survey in all adult employees in Lombardy, Northern Italy, aged >18 years in the period 2007-2011, classified by gender, age class, nationality, education and province. During the 5-year period, there were 3,554,860 employed adults in Lombardy, of whom 277,865 (7.8%) used PDs. The use of PDs (particularly ADs) was associated with being an Italian woman aged >55 years with a basic education, a blue collar job, and an unstable working position. In 39% of cases, the use of PDs was limited to one trimester. The increase in the number of prescriptions of PDs after the economic crisis was the same as before it. The increase in PD use can be attributed more to ADs and anti-epileptic drugs with anxiolytic properties. Although continuously increasing, the use of AD fluctuated and was greater during the fall and winter. The increase involved all the provinces in Lombardy in a similar manner. PMID:25070175

Vittadini, Giorgio; Beghi, Massimiliano; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ronzoni, Gloria; Cornaggia, Cesare Maria

2014-12-15

234

Coasts in Crisis  

SciTech Connect

Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

Hinrichsen, D.

1996-11-01

235

Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a combined SSA, wherein climate change-induced productivity shocks are permitted to interact with the uncertain economic parameters. This permits us to examine potential interactions between the two sources of uncertainty.

Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

2010-12-01

236

Biofuel: An alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is

Keshav Bhattarai; Wayne M. Stalick; Scott Mckay; Gija Geme; Nimisha Bhattarai

2011-01-01

237

Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module I, The Canadian Marketplace and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

238

The long-run impact of energy prices on world agricultural markets: The role of macro-economic linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world prices of some food and energy products have followed similar large swings in recent years. We investigate the long-run relationship between these prices using a world Computable General Equilibrium model with detailed representations of food and energy markets. Particular attention is paid to specifying macro-economic linkages which have often been overlooked in recent analysis and debate. We find

A. Gohin; F. Chantret

2010-01-01

239

Crisis events in tourism: subjects of crisis in tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial and economic downturn that affected tourism from 2007 through to 2010 and beyond has cast substantial attention on the role that crisis events play in tourism. These concerns have only been exacerbated by natural disasters, such as the 2010 Icelandic volcanic plume, pandemics, and the potential of future global change. The potential effects of crisis events on

C. Michael Hall

2010-01-01

240

Universities and Colleges as Economic Drivers: Measuring Higher Education's Role in Economic Development. Critical Issues in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…

Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

2012-01-01

241

Globalisation, Crisis and the Political Economy of the International Monetary (Dis)Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the origins of the financial crisis of 2008 reside in the conditions of economic globalisation in the context of an imperfect world monetary order. It first describes the emergence of globalisation, after the demise of the Bretton Woods Monetary System, as a ‘historical structure’ in which financialisation has become the dominant mode of capital accumulation. It

Ankie Hoogvelt

2010-01-01

242

THE ENERGY CRISIS - DESIGNING WITH PVC AND HDPE PIPES: ENERGY SAVINGS AND CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South African plastics pipe industry assists with economic and social development through the supply of pipe systems for potable water and the provision of sanitation. At the same time, the worlds, and indeed South Africa's energy crisis, has brought into focus the increasing need for energy and material efficient pipeline materials. The pipe industry faces a number of important

M. A. Osry

243

[The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality. PMID:24612790

Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

2014-06-01

244

School Buildings in Today's Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

Blyth, Alastair

2009-01-01

245

How to measure the economic impacts of mega-events ? the example of the World Economic Forum in Davos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number, diversity and popularity of events has increased in the recent years. The question of the concrete economic effects for the location and the surrounding region becomes therefore more and more important. Because every economic activity whether a public intervention or an economic action causes changes in the consumer demand. To measure the economic effects of events you can

Roland Scherer; Simone Strauf

2003-01-01

246

Russia's Demographic "Crisis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.

1996-01-01

247

Food crisis, global economic instability, and political unrest Soaring food prices were a major trigger of the riots that destabilized North Africa and the Middle East, and have since  

E-print Network

There is an emerging scientific consensus that a shift to small scale sustainable agriculture and localized food#12;Food crisis, global economic instability, and political unrest Soaring food prices were a major trigger of the riots that destabilized North Africa and the Middle East, and have since spread to many

Saunders, Peter

248

Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics.  

PubMed

Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research. PMID:25045411

Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

2013-12-01

249

Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics  

PubMed Central

Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research. PMID:25045411

Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

2013-01-01

250

Economic Sanctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.

251

Management of type 2 diabetes and its prescription drug cost before and during the economic crisis in Greece: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study is to examine the clinical indices related to cardiovascular risk management of Greek patients with type 2 diabetes, before and after the major economic crisis that emerged in the country. Methods In this retrospective database study, the medical records of patients with type 2 diabetes treated at three diabetes outpatient centers of the national health system during 2006 and 2012 were examined. Only patients with at least six months of follow-up prior to the recorded examination were included. The prescription cost was calculated in Euros per patient-year (€PY). Results A total of 1953 medical records (938 from 2006 and 1015 from 2012) were included. There were no significant differences in adjusted HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and HDL-C, while significant reductions were observed in LDL-C and triglycerides. In 2012, a higher proportion of patients were prescribed glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications. Almost 4 out of 10 patients were prescribed the new incretin-based medications, while the use of older drugs, except for metformin, decreased. A significant increase in the adjusted glucose-lowering prescription cost (612.4 [586.5-638.2] €PY vs 390.7 [363.5-418.0]; p?economic crisis, the cardiovascular risk indices of Greek patients with type 2 diabetes being followed in public outpatient diabetes clinics did not deteriorate and in the case of lipid profile improved. However, the total prescription cost increased, mainly due to the higher cost of glucose-lowering prescriptions. PMID:24593679

2014-01-01

252

Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategy: a cross-sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern china during the economic crisis  

PubMed Central

Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers. PMID:22856556

2012-01-01

253

Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

2012-01-01

254

Building Regional Economic Growth and Innovation Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…

Rafn, H. Jeffrey

2012-01-01

255

"At Any Given Time, There Is a Crisis Somewhere": Characteristics of Young People Under the Conditions of the Economic Slump  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows the importance of methodological issues in the study of young Russians during the current economic slump. A critical analysis of the indicators of the social and economic situation of young people in Russia shows the need to include the concept of lifestyle and its influence of the choices made by young people and their parents.

Luk'ianova, E. L.; Sabirova, G. A.

2013-01-01

256

Mandela calls for greater commitment and leadership in fighting AIDS. The World Economic Forum -- Policy and business in a world of HIV / AIDS.  

PubMed

The 27th annual meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on February 3, 1997, was attended by 2000 political and financial leaders of countries and businesses around the world. The forum is the world's largest annual gathering of economic and political dignitaries. In his address to the forum, Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa, called for a global effort against AIDS and a strengthening of the world's political and business leaders' commitment against HIV/AIDS. The disease is creating global economic problems by affecting people in their prime productive and reproductive years. Mandela criticized political leaders for their limited actions in addressing the AIDS pandemic and called upon the world's business community to support government AIDS programs and help people affected by AIDS. All sectors and all spheres of society must be involved as equal partners in the war against HIV/AIDS, for neither the health sector nor government can meet the challenge on its own. If current HIV/AIDS trends continue in South Africa, AIDS will cost the country 1% of its domestic gross product by the year 2005, and up to 75% of the country's budget will be consumed by direct health costs related to HIV/AIDS. At a panel discussion preceding President Mandela's address, Dr. Peter Piot, executive director of UNAIDS, argued that the AIDS pandemic could have a devastating effect upon the global economy and urged business leaders to take strong action against the disease. PMID:12321752

Macinnis R

1997-01-01

257

Helping Each Other in Times of Need: Financial Help as a Means of Coping with the Economic Crisis [pdf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Susann Rohwedder of the RAND Corporation recently asked an important question: "How are U.S. households coping in these difficult times?" The results of her investigations were published in the Fall of 2009 as part of the RAND Labor and Population group's Occasional Paper series. Her work was based on two Internet surveys conducted by the RAND Corporation in late 2008 and in early 2009 which sought to probe the extent to which U.S. households have been affected by the crisis and patterns of giving and receiving financial help during this period. The findings included the observation that many more households are giving financial help than receiving it and that help most frequently flows from parents to children. All in all, the paper will be most useful for policy scholars and others working in related fields.

Rohwedder, Susann

2009-01-01

258

Improving Indonesia's Cities: A Case Study of Economic Development, Including a Teaching Guide and An Economic Summary of Indonesia. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is designed to teach secondary school social studies students the impact of rapid urbanization on Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "An Economic Summary of Indonesia" provides students with the structure, recent…

Baldwin, Harriet, Ed.; Rosen, Carol, Ed.

259

The 2015 Debt Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the London G20 Summit, participants reaffirmed their commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to increasing official development assistance (ODA). This aid will be important in helping the poorest countries meet the MDGs that were agreed before the crisis, but it will probably be insufficient to tackle the additional problems caused by the current economic downturn. (...)

Paul Ladd

2009-01-01

260

Reimbursement and economic factors influencing dialysis modality choice around the world  

PubMed Central

The worldwide incidence of kidney failure is on the rise and treatment is costly; thus, the global burden of illness is growing. Kidney failure patients require either a kidney transplant or dialysis to maintain life. This review focuses on the economics of dialysis. Alternative dialysis modalities are haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Important economic factors influencing dialysis modality selection include financing, reimbursement and resource availability. In general, where there is little or no facility or physician reimbursement or payment for PD, the share of PD is very low. Regarding resource availability, when centre HD capacity is high, there is an incentive to use that capacity rather than place patients on home dialysis. In certain countries, there is interest in revising the reimbursement structure to favour home-based therapies, including PD and home HD. Modality selection is influenced by employment status, with an association between being employed and PD as the modality choice. Cost drivers differ for PD and HD. PD is driven mainly by variable costs such as solutions and tubing, while HD is driven mainly by fixed costs of facility space and staff. Many cost comparisons of dialysis modalities have been conducted. A key factor to consider in reviewing cost comparisons is the perspective of the analysis because different costs are relevant for different perspectives. In developed countries, HD is generally more expensive than PD to the payer. Additional research is needed in the developing world before conclusive statements may be made regarding the relative costs of HD and PD. PMID:18234844

Just, Paul M.; de Charro, Frank Th.; Tschosik, Elizabeth A.; Noe, Les L.; Bhattacharyya, Samir K.; Riella, Miguel C.

2008-01-01

261

Crisis Management Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

2010-01-01

262

[Depression telephone helpline: help seeking during the financial crisis].  

PubMed

Mental health telephone help-lines usually play a significant role in mental health services system. Their importance is substantiated during periods of financial crisis, where the mental health of the population is gravely inflicted. Media reports have documented a large increase in calls made to mental health telephone help-lines around the world as a corollary to the global economic crisis; however, a systematic investigation of this observation is still lacking. In this context, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the literature, while it adds strength to the handful of studies which have empirically supported the impact of the financial crisis on mental health in Greece. Data were extracted from information gleaned during the calls made to the Depression Telephone Helpline of the Greek University Mental Health Research Institute. The information entailed the reason for calling, the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the person with mental health problems, his/her previous and current contacts with mental health professionals and the treatment he/she might be receiving. The results showed a steep increase in calls with direct or indirect reference to the economic crisis during the first half of 2010 and onwards. The callers who referred to the economic crisis manifested depressive symptomatology of clinical significance to a greater degree than callers who made no such reference. The latter exhibited increased levels of distress and agitation as well as drug/alcohol misuse. Concomitantly, a higher frequency of depressive symptomatology was discerned among the unemployed, whereas employed people were found to experience anxiety symptoms to a higher degree. The impact of the financial crisis on the mental health of the Greek population has been considerable, underscoring in this way the importance of mental health help-lines as emotional buffers and as guides for timely and appropriate service use in response to the emerging mental health problems. PMID:22549037

Economou, M; Peppou, L E; Louki, E; Komporozos, A; Mellou, A; Stefanis, C

2012-01-01

263

Vocational Training, Economic Crisis, and Educational Changes in Spain (State of and Prospects for Vocational Education, 1979).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retraces steps taken to establish a vocational course of study in Spanish secondary schools as mandated in the General Law on Education of 1970 and explains how socioeconomic conditions have changed since that time. Suggests that economic forecasting should be considered when setting vocational and technical education policy. (DB)

Cuerpo, Marcelino Garcia

1980-01-01

264

Protecting human health in a changing world: the role of social and economic development.  

PubMed Central

The biological and physical environment of the planet is changing at an unprecedented rate as a result of human activity, and these changes may have an enormous impact on human health. One of the goals of human development is to protect health in the face of rapid environmental change, but we often fail to do this. The aim in this paper is to distinguish between socioeconomic aspects of development that are likely to be protective and those that are likely to increase vulnerability (the capacity for loss resulting from environmental change). Examples include climate change in the Pacific. We conclude that protecting human health in a changing world requires us to take steps to minimize harmful change wherever possible, and at the same time to be prepared for surprises. The goals of mitigation (reducing or preventing change) and adaptation (response to change) are not mutually exclusive. In fact, steps to make populations more resilient in the face of change are often similar to those that are needed to lighten the load on the environment. We need social policies that convert economic growth into human development. Wider application of sustainable development concepts is part of the solution. In particular, there is a need to promote health as an essential asset of poor and vulnerable populations. It is their key to productivity and to surviving shocks; it is also the key to achieving broader development goals such as universal education. For these reasons it is in the interests of all sectors--economic, social and environmental--to play their particular roles in protecting and improving health. PMID:11019463

Woodward, A.; Hales, S.; Litidamu, N.; Phillips, D.; Martin, J.

2000-01-01

265

Abstract--Low levels of education remain a barrier to economic empowerment in the developing world. In our work on  

E-print Network

Abstract--Low levels of education remain a barrier to economic empowerment in the developing world observed differences between school communities in terms of their access to educational opportunities Terms--Developing Countries, Educational Technology, User-Centered Design I. INTRODUCTION ow levels

Canny, John

266

Negative Effect of the British Poor Vocational Education on Its Economic Development after the Second World War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

England is the oldest nation of industry revolution and the earliest industrialized country in the world. With the colonization system breakdown and economic giants, the United States, Germany, Japan, etc. rising, today England has already lost former days of elegant appearance. The disadvantageous vocational education is one of essential factor…

Li, Yong

2007-01-01

267

The Rajasthan Canal Project: A Case Study of Economic Development. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is designed to teach secondary school social studies students about the Rajasthan (India) Canal Project and the impact it has had on the state of Rajasthan and its population. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "Economic Summary: India," places the…

Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.

268

Neoliberalism and the World Bank: Economic Discourse and the (Re)Production of Gendered Identity(ies)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…

Griffin, Penny

2007-01-01

269

The management and design of economic development projects: A case study of World Bank electricity projects in Egypt  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with the efficiency of World Bank projects in Egypt. The study seeks improvements in the methods of evaluating public sector projects in Egypt. To approaches are employed: (1) project identification to optimally allocate Egypt's and World Bank's resources; (2) project appraisal to assess the economic viability and efficiency of investments. The electricity sector is compared with the agriculture sector as a means of employing project identification for priority ordering of investment for development in Egypt. The key criteria for evaluation are the impacts of developments of each sector upon Egypt's national objectives and needs. These include employment opportunities, growth, alleviation of poverty, cross comparison of per capita consumption in each sector, economic rate of return, national security, balance of payments and foreign debt. The allocation of scarce investments would have been more efficient in agriculture than in electricity in meeting Egypt's national objectives and needs. World Bank lending programs in Egypt reveal a priority ordering of electricity over agriculture and rural development. World Bank development projects in Egypt have not been optimally identified, and its programs have not followed an efficient allocation of World Bank's and Egypt's resources. The key parameters in evaluating economic viability and efficiency of development projects are: (1) the discount rate (the opportunity cost of public funds); (2) the exchange rate; and (3) the cost of major inputs, as approximated by shadow prices of labor, water, electricity, and transportation for development projects. Alternative approaches to estimating the opportunity cost of public funds are made. The parameters in evaluating the efficiency of projects have not been accurately estimated in the appraisal stage of the World Bank projects in Egypt, resulting in false or misleading information concerning the economic viability and efficiency of the projects.

El Sabaa, S.M.

1992-01-01

270

Barriers and incentives to orphan care in a time of AIDS and economic crisis: a cross-sectional survey of caregivers in rural Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment, emotional underdevelopment, illiteracy, poverty, sexual exploitation, and HIV infection, endangering the future health of the society they are expected to sustain. Methods To explore barriers and possible incentives to orphan care, a quantitative cross-sectional survey in rural eastern Zimbabwe asked 371 adults caring for children, including 212 caring for double orphans, about their well-being, needs, resources, and perceptions and experiences of orphan care. Results Survey responses indicate that: 1) foster caregivers are disproportionately female, older, poor, and without a spouse; 2) 98% of non-foster caregivers are willing to foster orphans, many from outside their kinship network; 3) poverty is the primary barrier to fostering; 4) financial, physical, and emotional stress levels are high among current and potential fosterers; 5) financial need may be greatest in single-orphan AIDS-impoverished households; and 6) struggling families lack external support. Conclusion Incentives for sustainable orphan care should focus on financial assistance, starting with free schooling, and development of community mechanisms to identify and support children in need, to evaluate and strengthen families' capacity to provide orphan care, and to initiate and support placement outside the family when necessary. PMID:16469104

Howard, Brian H; Phillips, Carl V; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A

2006-01-01

271

Implications for air quality and the impact of financial and economic crisis in South Spain: Geochemical evolution of atmospheric aerosol in the ceramic region of Bailén  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temporal series study of atmospheric aerosol was performed over the last ten years (2003-2012) in an urban background monitoring station with ceramic industrial influence, in Bailén, SE Spain. Temporal trends of major and minor chemical components of PM10 for a long term data series were investigated, showing that PM10 concentrations have been steadily decreasing over almost a decade, with a statistical significance. Measurements indicate a reduction of elements and components related to the industrial activity of brick-ceramic production (V, Cd, Rb, La, Cr, Ni, As, Pb and SO42-). Conversely, Cu levels define an increasing trend from the beginning of the study period but with the highest step trend since 2011-2012, coinciding with the beginning of the financial and economic crisis in 2008. A similar time evolution pattern of Cu and OC, EC, and K levels may be a tracer of domestic local combustion source, and a new biomass burning source has been identified. Chemical composition of olive tree logs suggest as the combustion of wood with high concentration of Cu can imply an increase of Cu concentration in the atmospheric particles compared with other sources such as traffic.

Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; de la Rosa, J. D.

2014-12-01

272

Indicators of health system coverage and activity in Ireland during the economic crisis 2008-2014 - from 'more with less' to 'less with less'.  

PubMed

A new Irish government came to power in March 2011 with the most radical proposals for health system reform in the history of the state, including improving access to healthcare, free GP care for all by 2015 and the introduction of Universal Health Insurance after 2016. All this was to be achieved amidst the most severe economic crisis experienced by Ireland since the 1930s. The authors assess how well the system coped with a downsizing of resources by an analysis of coverage and health system activity indicators. These show a health system that managed 'to do more with less' from 2008 to 2012. They also demonstrate a system that was 'doing more with less' by transferring the cost of care onto people and by significant resource cuts. From 2013, the indicators show a system that has no choice but 'to do less with less' with diminishing returns from crude cuts. This is evident in declining numbers with free care, of hospital cases and home care hours, alongside increased wait-times and expensive agency staffing. The results suggest a limited window of benefit from austerity beyond which cuts and rationing prevail which is costly, in both human and financial terms. PMID:25082466

Burke, Sara; Thomas, Steve; Barry, Sarah; Keegan, Conor

2014-09-01

273

[Health services supply and the economic crisis: either we fund goods and services according to their value or we become bankrupt. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

Health policy has reacted to the financial crisis by overemphasising measures targeted at reducing unit costs, increasing barriers to access (waiting lists) or closing premises. It is too soon for scientific assessment of the impact of this reshaping of supply on equity, quality and safety, and on individual and population health. Nevertheless, the emergency measures taken to achieve fiscal stabilization have shifted the focus to resolving budget problems at the expenses of sounder and deeper initiatives aimed at deciding what must be funded and how. This article advocates a policy based on selective funding of services and benefits on the basis of their value. Other countries' experiences can serve as a useful guide, including robust methods to identify technologies (or their uses) of questionable value, prioritization criteria, and careful consideration of limitations associated with the elimination of a certain benefit, especially if it affects the founding values of the system. The necessary tools are available to the Spanish health system: the regulatory framework and technical bodies able to identify lower value care, support for decision-making, and timely evaluation of such decisions. Despite the numerous hurdles, maintaining the status quo is too expensive a choice, given the opportunity costs of effectiveness and safety losses, measured in terms of equity and the economic efficiency of the Spanish health system, which may ultimately translate into worsening of the population's health status. PMID:24666570

Bernal-Delgado, Enrique; Campillo-Artero, Carlos; García-Armesto, Sandra

2014-06-01

274

What has happened to suicides during the Greek economic crisis? Findings from an ecological study of suicides and their determinants (2003–2012)  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is a controversy about the impact of economic crisis on suicide rates in Greece. We analysed recent suicide data to identify who has been most affected and the relationships to economic and labour market indicators. Setting Greece. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-specific and sex-specific suicide rates in Greece for the period 2003–2012 were calculated using data provided by the Hellenic Statistical Authority. We performed a join-point analysis to identify discontinuities in suicide trends between 2003 and 2010, prior to austerity, and in 2011–2012, during the period of austerity. Regression models were used to assess relationships between unemployment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and suicide rates for the entire period by age and sex. Results The mean suicide rate overall rose by 35% between 2010 and 2012, from 3.37 to 4.56/100?000 population. The suicide mortality rate for men increased from 5.75 (2003–2010) to 7.43/100?000 (2011–2012; p<0.01). Among women, the suicide rate also rose, albeit less markedly, from 1.17 to 1.55 (p=0.03). When differentiated by age group, suicide mortality increased among both sexes in the age groups 20–59 and >60?years. We found that each additional percentage point of unemployment was associated with a 0.19/100?000 population rise in suicides (95% CI 0.11 to 0.26) among working age men. Conclusions We found a clear increase in suicides among persons of working age, coinciding with austerity measures. These findings corroborate concerns that increased suicide risk in Greece is a health hazard associated with austerity measures. PMID:25807950

Rachiotis, George; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2015-01-01

275

Technology Use in Campus Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…

Mastrodicasa, Jeanna

2008-01-01

276

Natural Resource Economics. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about natural resources as economic assets contributing to national economic productivity. The term "natural resource accounting" or "green accounting" is introduced for valuing natural resources as capital in economic systems. The lesson is divided into five parts and…

Snyder, Sarah A.

277

Global Water Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As mentioned in this Web site -- a free Web Focus from the journal Nature -- over one billion people in the world already lack access to clean water, a crisis that will only intensify as the global population swells and freshwater resource continue to dwindle. Nature offers an analysis of the situation with news stories, features and editorials, interactive graphics, and an archived article from the journal.

2003-01-01

278

Capital regulation of financial institutions, the role of ratings and the tension field between regulation and economic reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capital regulation of financial institutions, the role of ratings and the tension field between regulation and economic realityOver the past decade, the economic environment has been characterised by high-profile business scandals and failures, in which different company stakeholders were involved. In July 2007, the world entered the most profound and disruptive crisis since 1929. Initially originating in the US,

Elisabeth Van Laere

2011-01-01

279

Review of Studies of the Economic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorists Attacks on the World Trade Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A General Accounting Office (GAO) publication, this 40-page document identifies and assesses the studies of ten key reports from nine different organizations regarding the economic impact of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center buildings in New York City (NYC). The organizations included in this review are the NYC Office of the Comptroller, NY Governor and State Division of the Budget, NYC Partnership and Chamber of Commerce, Fiscal Policy Institute, NY State Senate Finance Committee, Milken Institute, NY State Assembly Ways and Means Committee, NYC Independent Budget Office, and the Federal Reserve Bank of NY. This document objectively explores the studies and estimations of each organization's report, and determines if they meet standard economic criteria for analyzing economic impacts. Overall, the review finds that the study by the NYC Partnership provided "the most comprehensive estimates."

2002-01-01

280

Engaging with Economic Geography in the "Real" World: A Central Role for Field Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates concerning how to engage students with economic geography have ignored the important role of field teaching. This paper argues that fieldwork must remain a key component of economic geographical teaching and that it offers a variety of advantages to overcoming student disinterest in the sub-discipline. It goes on to argue that field…

Jones, Andrew

2006-01-01

281

Mongolia: Financing Education during Economic Transition. World Bank Discussion Papers 226. East Asia & Pacific Region Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the changing compositions of public expenditures on education in Mongolia during recent economic transitions. It also assesses the impact of economic transition in Mongolia. The study recommends three complementary strategies to provide a more stable resource base to finance education: (1) rationalize public expenditures on…

Wu, Kin Bing

282

Two Traditions in Economics: Implications for Teaching U.S. and World History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the neoclassical and the Marxist traditions in economics and the current treatment of capitalist development in history textbooks. Beginning with an overview of the classical economists, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, the two traditions in economics are then discussed in terms of: (1) scope and focus of…

Helburn, Suzanne

283

The Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Crisis is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and it was founded by W.E.B. Du Bois in 1910. The title of the magazine is taken from a poem by James Russell Lowell titled "The Present Crisis". In his first editorial written for the magazine, Du Bois remarked that "its editorial page will stand for the rights of men, irrespective of color or race, for the highest ideals of American democracy, and for reasonable but earnest and persistent attempts to gain these rights and realize these ideals." Today, The Crisis continues as a current-affairs journal, and a recent digitization project sponsored by Google has made the complete run of the publication available here. As with many other digitized books and magazines on Google Books, visitors can browse through each issue or perform a more detailed keyword search across the entire collection.

284

Role-Playing a Public Relations Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crisis management affects all institutions. Organizations now operate in a media-saturated world where individuals can disseminate information instantaneously across the globe via the internet. As a result, ensuring future business leaders have an understanding of how crises develop and what alternatives exist is a valuable educational outcome. Through a role-playing exercise, students undertake crisis management for a fictitious organization. The

Stephen L. Baglione

2006-01-01

285

Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

2013-01-01

286

The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.  

PubMed

This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy. PMID:10537568

Barraclough, S

1998-01-01

287

The economic impact of global climate and tropospheric oxone on world agricultural production  

E-print Network

The objective of my thesis is to analyze the economic impact on agriculture production from changes in climate and tropospheric ozone, and related policy interventions. The analysis makes use of the Emissions Prediction ...

Wang, Xiaodu

2005-01-01

288

Global Financial Crisis?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines mounting concern for economic well-being around the world. The ten resources discussed provide background information on the global economy, current international market news, and developments in US, IMF, and World Bank reform efforts. In order to curb economic crises in Asia, Russia, and Latin America (reviewed in the September 24, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics), President Clinton called for international economic reform at the International Monetary Fund annual meeting, Tuesday, October 6, 1998. According to Clinton, "the global economy simply cannot live with the kinds of vast and systemic disruptions that have occurred in the past year." Disputes among IMF and World Bank officials, however, threaten to undermine relief efforts for struggling economies. Without the monetary support of these and other global lenders, many market watchers expect investor panic to grow world-wide.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

289

The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

Bockris, J. O'M.

1974-01-01

290

The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race  

E-print Network

The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit Thomas J. Sugrue Winner, and economic inequality that plagued Detroit were preva- lent in other urban centers as well. The book served

Landweber, Laura

291

Crisis Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car accident. The…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2011-01-01

292

Crisis Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year, most school districts spend anywhere from one to thirteen dollars per student repairing damage caused by vandals. Yerba Buena High School, in San Jose, California, spends less than one thousand dollars per year total, and attributes this success to a project called "Crisis Counseling". (RW)

Neill, Shirley Boes

1977-01-01

293

Ebola crisis.  

PubMed

The Ebola outbreak in 2014 marked the first time that an epidemic of the viral haemorrhagic fever had occurred in West Africa. From its origin in Guinea, the outbreak spread rapidly to become a humanitarian crisis affecting all aspects of life in the three countries worst affected: Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. PMID:25746883

2015-03-01

294

The evaluation of research papers in the XXI century. The Open Peer Discussion system of the World Economics Association  

PubMed Central

The paper starts with a brief discussion of the traditional peer review (TPR) system of research evaluation, its role, and the criticisms levelled at it. An analysis of specific problems in economics leads to a full discussion of the Open Peer Review (OPR) system developed by the World Economics Association (WEA) and the principles behind it. The system is open in the following two respects: (a) disclosure of names of authors and reviewers; and (b) inclusivity of potential reviewers in terms of paradigmatic approaches, country, and community. The paper then discusses the applicability of the same system to other disciplines. In doing so, it stressed the aims of various evaluation systems and the possible pitfalls of rating systems. It also speculates on the future of journal publication. PMID:22891057

Ietto-Gillies, Grazia

2012-01-01

295

Stock network stability in times of crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite many efforts crises on financial markets are in large part still scientific black-boxes. In this paper, we use a winner-take-all approach to construct a longitudinal network of S&P 500 companies and their correlations between 2000 and 2012. A comparison to complex ecosystems is drawn, especially whether the May-Wigner theorem can describe real-world economic phenomena. The results confirm the utility of the May-Wigner theorem as a stability indicator for the US stock market, since its development matches with the two major crises of this period, the dot-com bubble and, particularly, the financial crisis. In those times of financial turmoil, the stock network changes its composition, but unlike ecological systems it tightens and the disassortative structure of prosperous markets transforms into a more centralized topology.

Heiberger, Raphael H.

2014-01-01

296

Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module III, Resource Management Skills--What Money Can't Buy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

297

The economics of abundance: coal and cotton in Lancashire and the world.  

PubMed

As a subterranean, highly elastic energy source, coal played a vital role in the cotton industry revolution. Coal was also vital to Lancashire's primacy in this revolution, because it was necessary both to the original accumulation of agglomeration economies before the steam age and to their reinforcement during the steam age. In no other part of the world was the cotton industry situated on a coalfield, and the response of other parts of the world cotton industry to Lancashire's agglomeration advantages was dispersal in search of cheap water and/or labour power. Lancashire coal helped to shape the global pattern of cotton production. PMID:20617581

Balderston, Theo

2010-01-01

298

Resources and development: Natural resource policies and economic development in an interdependent world  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an integration of the studies and discussions of the seminar that OAPEC cosponsored at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1977-78. The authors offer a multidisciplinary perspective of the economic, legal, social, political, and technological issues inherent in this complex and controversial subject.

Dorner, P.; El-Shafie, M.A.

1984-01-01

299

Free Trade Reimagined: The World Division of Labor and the Method of Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free Trade Reimagined begins with a sustained criticism of the heart of the emerging world economy, the theory and practice of free trade. Roberto Mangabeira Unger does not, however, defend protectionism against free trade. Instead, he attacks and revises the terms on which the traditional debate between free traders and protectionists has been joined. Unger's intervention in this major contemporary

Roberto Mangabeira Unger

300

Assessing the Impacts of Intergovernmental Economic Organizations: The Case of the World Bank and Nonformal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary investigation into the World Bank's support of non-formal education in less-developed countries discusses the role of education in the development process, the Bank's concern with education, and its funding of non-formal education projects. The Bank's involvement in education projects is described, from support for upper division…

Schechter, Michael G.

301

Romania’s economic contribution to making a Long World War II shorter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Romania’s participation in World War II was brought about by political reasons and strategic needs that resulted from the international political situation at the middle of the twentieth century. One can hardly say that Romania did not do its best to avoid becoming involved in the war. From September 1939 to June 1941, the foreign policy laid focus on non-belligerency

Stefan Gheorghe

2006-01-01

302

Energy Crisis: The Leisurely Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their automotive lifestyles, Americans account for the greatest portion of fossil fuel consumption in the world. The desirable leisure lifestyle traits of the past should be incorporated into contemporary American culture. Americans need to wean themselves away from the automobile if the energy crisis is to be solved. (JN)

Mobily, Ken

1980-01-01

303

The crisis of capitalism and the marketisation of health care: the implications for public health professionals.  

PubMed

The current economic crisis in Europe has challenged the basis of the economic model that currently prevails in much of the industrialised world. It has revealed a system that is managed not for the benefit of the people but rather for the corporations and the small elite who lead them, and which is clearly unsustainable in its present form. Yet, there is a hidden consequence of this system: an unfolding crisis in health care, driven by the greed of corporations whose profit-seeking model is also failing. Proponents of commodifying healthcare simultaneously argue that the cost of providing care for ageing populations is unaffordable while working to create demand for their health care products among those who are essentially healthy. Will healthcare be the next profit-fuelled investor bubble? In this paper, we call on health professionals to heed the warnings from the economic crisis and, rather than stand by while a crisis unfolds, act now to redirect increasingly market-oriented health systems to serve the common good. PMID:25170470

McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

2012-12-28

304

An Analysis of the Role of Social Safety Net Scholarships in Reducing School Drop-Out during the Indonesian Economic Crisis. Innocenti Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses regression and matching techniques to evaluate Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Programme. The scholarships program was developed to try to prevent large numbers of children from dropping out of school as a result of the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their…

Cameron, Lisa A.

305

Crisis behavior  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

Grinspoon, L.

1984-04-01

306

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

307

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

308

[The effects of economic crises on health care].  

PubMed

In September 2008, financial turmoil on Wall Street led to severe losses in that country's financial derivatives market and plunged the United States into the most severe financial crisis in over a decade. The backlash of this "financial tsunami" has affected countries around the world. The world economy, facing the most critical financial crisis since the 1930s, must deal with recession, severe unemployment and general fears of worse to come, which have, in turn, spawned a range of physical, psychological and spiritual problems. In this article we study the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare from several angles, including: decreasing incomes causing changing attitudes toward seeking healthcare; decreasing numbers of people covered by medical insurance; increasing impact on the job market of untreated illnesses; changing national healthcare policies in response to economic pressures; increasing physical, psychological and social problems resulting from economic problems; and the need for the nursing profession to respond to these and other rapid changes in the healthcare landscape. Nursing staff are sometimes unaware of social problems outside their profession. This article may, therefore, provide a general reference to medical and nursing staff on the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare. PMID:20661861

Chang, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Chiu-Ling; Yang, Yu-O

2010-08-01

309

The Impact of Economic Crises on American Universities: Lessons from the Past  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities around the world have been affected by the recent global economic crisis. Many are challenged by reduced resources, yet they also face greater demands to help spur recovery in their respective countries. This paper explores how colleges and universities in the United States were affected by, and subsequently responded to, several 20th…

El-Khawas, Elaine

2011-01-01

310

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

311

Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.  

PubMed

The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). PMID:11479358

Wagstaff, A

2001-08-01

312

Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

2002-01-01

313

Macroeconomics after the Crisis: Time to Deal with the Pretense-of-Knowledge Syndrome  

E-print Network

The recent financial crisis has damaged the reputation of macroeconomics, largely for its inability to predict the impending financial and economic crisis. To be honest, this inability to predict does not concern me much. ...

Caballero, Ricardo J.

2010-01-01

314

Economic growth and obesity: an interesting relationship with world-wide implications.  

PubMed

The prosperity of a country, commonly measured in terms of its annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has different relationships with population levels of body weight and happiness, as well as environmental impacts such as carbon emissions. The aim of this study was to examine these relationships and to try to find a level of GDP, which provides for sustainable economic activity, optimal happiness and healthy levels of mean body mass index (BMI). Spline regression analyses were conducted using national indices from 175 countries: GDP, adult BMI, mean happiness scores, and carbon footprint per capita for the year 2007. Results showed that GDP was positively related to BMI and happiness up to ?$US3000 and ?$5000 per capita respectively, with no significant relationships beyond these levels. GDP was also positively related to CO(2) emissions with a recognised sustainable carbon footprint of less than 5 tonnes per capita occurring at a GDP of <$US15,000. These findings show that a GDP between $US5 and $15,000 is associated with greater population happiness and environmental stability. A mean BMI of 21-23 kg/m(2), which minimises the prevalence of underweight and overweight in the population then helps to define an ideal position in relation to growth, which few countries appear to have obtained. Within a group of wealthy countries (GDP>$US30,000), those with lower income inequalities and more regulated (less liberal) market systems had lower mean BMIs. PMID:22305524

Egger, Garry; Swinburn, Boyd; Islam, F M Amirul

2012-03-01

315

Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review  

PubMed Central

This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes. PMID:23945676

Lim, Karen H. C.; Riddell, Lynn J.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.

2013-01-01

316

The global economic long-term potential of modern biomass in a climate-constrained world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-stabilization scenarios consistent with the 2 °C target project large-scale deployment of purpose-grown lignocellulosic biomass. In case a GHG price regime integrates emissions from energy conversion and from land-use/land-use change, the strong demand for bioenergy and the pricing of terrestrial emissions are likely to coincide. We explore the global potential of purpose-grown lignocellulosic biomass and ask the question how the supply prices of biomass depend on prices for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land-use sector. Using the spatially explicit global land-use optimization model MAgPIE, we construct bioenergy supply curves for ten world regions and a global aggregate in two scenarios, with and without a GHG tax. We find that the implementation of GHG taxes is crucial for the slope of the supply function and the GHG emissions from the land-use sector. Global supply prices start at 5 GJ-1 and increase almost linearly, doubling at 150 EJ (in 2055 and 2095). The GHG tax increases bioenergy prices by 5 GJ-1 in 2055 and by 10 GJ-1 in 2095, since it effectively stops deforestation and thus excludes large amounts of high-productivity land. Prices additionally increase due to costs for N2O emissions from fertilizer use. The GHG tax decreases global land-use change emissions by one-third. However, the carbon emissions due to bioenergy production increase by more than 50% from conversion of land that is not under emission control. Average yields required to produce 240 EJ in 2095 are roughly 600 GJ ha-1 yr-1 with and without tax.

Klein, David; Humpenöder, Florian; Bauer, Nico; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Bonsch, Markus; Lotze-Campen, Hermann

2014-07-01

317

Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis  

PubMed Central

Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children’s physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

318

The Social Functions of Iranian Education: An Historical Survey Related to the Current Political Crisis. 1979 World Education Monograph Series, Number Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Shah of Iran should be admired for his efforts to use education to deal with formidable social challenges, his goal of producing a modern state in a single generation was unrealistic. Entrenched traditional values and unpredicted economic changes such as the need in 1977 to slow down Iran's rate of growth in the face of runaway…

Woolman, David C.

319

Officers in Crisis: New York City Police Officers Who Assisted the Families of Victims of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following September 11, 2001, considerable research focused on the well-being of disaster and recovery workers at the World Trade Center in New York. Yet police officers who assisted the families of victims have been neglected. These officers worked long shifts escorting families to the site of the attack, reviewing lists of the deceased, distributing death certificates and memorial urns, and

Chaya S. Piotrkowski; Grace A. Telesco

2011-01-01

320

Drought affects virtually all regions of the world and results in significant economic, social, and environmental impacts. The Federal Emergency Management Agency estimates  

E-print Network

Drought affects virtually all regions of the world and results in significant economic, social, and environmental impacts. The Federal Emergency Management Agency estimates annual drought-related losses in the U) and farmers to be more proactive in managing drought risk. TT hrough the NSF's Digital Government Pro- gram

Goddard, Steve

321

Squeezed from All Sides: The CSU Crisis and California's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California long enjoyed rapid growth, abundant jobs, and expanding college opportunity--key elements of the California dream. Now the state is struggling to recover from its worst economic crisis in generations, a demographic slowdown, a devastating collapse of the wealth of the state' families from the housing crisis, and severe cutbacks in…

Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2011

2011-01-01

322

THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS SITUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crisis situations are inherent in the activity of any modern organization,regardless its type – public, military or private – and they affect the efficiency of human resource or even organization’s excellence. For nearly two years, the organizational environment has been marked by the effects of the latest economical and financial crisis, which amplified the organizational tensions, highlighting, in the absence

Iulian Mitu?

2011-01-01

323

Northwest of Suez: The 1956 Crisis and the IMF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egypt's nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956 and the failed attempt by France, Israel, and the United Kingdom to retake it by force constituted a serious political crisis with significant economic consequences. For the United Kingdom, it engendered a financial crisis as well. That all four of the combatants sought and obtained IMF financial assistance was highly unusual for

James Boughton

2001-01-01

324

CSEM WP 110R Lessons from the California Electricity Crisis  

E-print Network

CSEM WP 110R Lessons from the California Electricity Crisis Frank A. Wolak Revised May 2003.ucei.org #12;Lessons from the California Electricity Crisis by Frank A. Wolak Department of Economics Stanford be learned about electricity market design and regulating energy markets from the California

California at Berkeley. University of

325

[Competency-based training and work world: from grading to employability].  

PubMed

Considered as an element of business discourse, the competence-based education emerges associated with processes of productive restructuring influencing the economy since 1970. These processes arise as a consequence of the crisis of the accumulation model based on mass production and consumption following the principles of taylorism and fordism. In the last decades, the State has been unable to solve the periodic crisis that afflicts late capitalism. Because of this, the State moves away from its economic mission, promotes marketing mechanisms and, in the meantime, it tries to manage the motivational crisis of the population. This challenge forces the State to take interest in the vital world of individuals trying to solve the legitimacy crisis through educational reforms that affect the world of work. The relationship between the vertiginous changes of working world and a new educational formation is explicit. This educational formation must consider (at the same time) the management capacity, learning capacity, teamwork capacity and self-training. Based on this situation, there is a direct relationship between technologic advances, the structural crisis of capitalism and work organization. Besides, the "qualification" term is replaced with "competency-based education". PMID:23258750

Estrada, John H M

2012-06-01

326

Inertia or Change? Crisis-induced Challenges for Political Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short and long-term aftermath of 'crisis' is not only substantially understudied, but presents political leaders with some of their most daunting challenges. This paper provides a framework to help understand the challenges for political leaders as they negotiate their way though the complex world of post-crisis politics. First, it outlines the broad challenges faced by political leaders in the

Allan McConnell

327

Crisis Management: Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

2013-01-01

328

Images for Crisis Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most take canoeing, leadership, first aid, CPR and other courses to help cope when something happens, but there is more to dealing with crisis than learning proper procedures and techniques. Three areas of concern interlock to form the Crisis Management Triangle: knowledge and skill, preventive awareness, and crisis management planning. (ERB)

Raffan, James

1984-01-01

329

Korea: The misunderstood crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article argues, against the conventional wisdom, that the current Korean crisis is a crisis from underregulation, rather than from overregulation. It argues that ill-managed financial liberalization, abandonment of investment coordination, and poor exchange rate management were the underlying causes of the crisis. It then argues that, while certain structural changes made such policy shifts somewhat inevitable, there were also

Ha-Joon Chang

1998-01-01

330

When a Crisis Strikes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis

Keebler, Barbara A.

1989-01-01

331

Analysis of Chinese Enterprise Financial Crisis Prewarning Based on BP Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the economic development of the emerging market countries, bankruptcy and financial crisis occur more and more frequently in business, credit and savings institutions, and thus the demand for enterprise financial crisis prewarning is rapidly growing. The main purpose of this paper to build a business financial crisis prewarning model based on BP neural network to conduct empirical analysis of

Shen Xiangguang; Song Xiaozhong

2010-01-01

332

Giovani imprese ad alta tecnologia di fronte alla crisi. quali strategie di reazione?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the reaction of new technology-based firms (NTBF) in Italy to the recent economic crisis. Using data from the RITA database on the Italian NTBF population founded since 1984, we document the consequences of the crisis in terms of: i) exit rates; ii) the growth rates of sales and employees in the firms that had survived the crisis

Massimo G. Colombo; Anita Quas

2010-01-01

333

The Popeye principle: selling child health in the first nutrition crisis.  

PubMed

The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor was capable of superhuman feats of strength after eating a can of spinach. Popeye ate spinach because the association of spinach with strength was a product of the first national nutrition crisis in the United States: the 1920s fight against child malnutrition. Spanning the first three decades of the twentieth century, the malnutrition crisis arose from the confluence of many different events including the invention of nutrition science and new standards for height and weight; international food crises created by world war; the rise of consumerism, advertising, and new forms of mass media; and Progressive reformers' conviction that education was a key component of any solution. The history of the malnutrition crisis presented in this essay synthesizes disparate histories concerning advertising, public health, education, consumerism, philanthropy, and Progressive Era reform with original analysis of a major nutrition education program sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund in the 1920s. Because the character of Popeye came to embody one of the nutritional norms advocated in the 1920s, I refer to the influence of culturally constructed social norms on children's beliefs about health and nutrition as the Popeye Principle. The history of the malnutrition crisis demonstrates the importance of understanding the cultural and economic conditions surrounding childhood nutrition, the use and influence of numerical norms, and the mutually reinforcing influences on children's nutritional norms from their parents, peers, teachers, and culture. PMID:16477789

Lovett, Laura

2005-10-01

334

Economics and Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Economic matters are often entangled with interventions. Aid agencies need to understand where they can have the highest leverage,\\u000a and where aid may cause harmful economic distortions. Humanitarian interventions in crises will be more effective if the economic\\u000a and social root causes of the crisis are addressed as well. The root causes of insurgencies often include economic issues,\\u000a particularly economic

Alan K. Graham

335

Crisis Planning: Survey Results from Hurricane Katrina and Implications for Performance Improvement Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern organizations constantly face unparalleled changes and uncertainty in the competitive world, thus requiring strategic planning to mitigate crisis conditions. Underscoring crisis plans are performance interventions that prepare employees, technological systems, and the organizational culture to effectively respond to a crisis event. However,…

Hutchins, Holly M.; Annulis, Heather; Gaudet, Cyndi

2008-01-01

336

Farm Crisis and Suicide: Dying on the Vine?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between farm economic crisis and farmer suicide rates using data from 15 states from 1980 to 1985. Found suicide rates for farmers were greater than truck drivers but no different from forestry workers. (Author/ABL)

Ragland, John D.; Berman, Alan L.

1991-01-01

337

Rubber smallholders' flexibility No windfall, no crisis  

E-print Network

"). With regard to rubber, there is clearly a dualism of seedlings and clonal material. This dualism is more the other dramatic changes faced by Indonesian rubber smallholders? In addition to the economic crisis but not least, oil palm development looms in traditional rubber regions. Might it hamper the development

Boyer, Edmond

338

Exploring the "Boy Crisis" in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of the "boy gap" or "boy crisis" in education has been the subject of increasing attention across a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Given the importance of this issue and the need to better understand the situation in boys' education, this report draws on material and data from a review…

Cappon, Paul

2011-01-01

339

Corporate governance in the Asian financial crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Asian Crisis” of 1997–98 affected all the “emerging markets” open to capital flows. Measures of corporate governance, particularly the effectiveness of protection for minority shareholders, explain the extent of exchange rate depreciation and stock market decline better than do standard macroeconomic measures. A possible explanation is that in countries with weak corporate governance, worse economic prospects result in more

Simon Johnson; Peter Boone; Alasdair Breach; Eric Friedman

2000-01-01

340

Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis

Eramo, Eric M.

2009-01-01

341

Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring in Davos, Switzerland, Before, During and After the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions require validation. Atmospheric measurements capture all emissions, and provide a unique and powerful means of continuous validation and feedback. To demonstrate the utility of real time greenhouse gas measurements, in-situ GHG mixing ratio instruments were deployed in Davos, Switzerland to measure emissions from the city before, during and after the World Economic Forum (WEF). Three Instruments were deployed at two separate locations over 3 months (late December 2011 to February 2012). One site was located in the middle of the Davos urban area and a second site was located out of the valley in the surrounding mountains. Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) were measured continuously by Picarro G2401 instruments at both sites. Additionally, a Picarro flux analyzer was deployed in the city to evaluate the inverse fluxes. The mesoscale atmospheric model, WRF nudged to meteorological observations (WRF-FDDA), was used to simulate the transport of GHG over the valley of Davos at 1.3km resolution. A Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) from Sigma Space was deployed to evaluate the simulated planetary boundary layer depth from the WRF-FDDA model. The initial flux estimates for CO2 were constructed based on inventories reported for 2005. CO2 mixing ratio measurements prior to WEF suggest the difference between modeled (real-time) and inventory (annual) emissions to be on the order of +40%. The enhancement is likely due to the increased use of heating fuel in the winter. We present here the temporal variability in the inverse fluxes, which are correlated with a cold wave severely affecting Western Europe during the past winter, as well as changes in anthropogenic activities during the week of the WEF meeting. Also presented are new analyses of composite diurnal cycles of hourly CO/CO2 ratios, which provide additional information on the contributions of traffic relative to heating fuel. The absence of traffic peaks during the WEF meeting, indicate a change in road emissions potentially responsible for the observed decrease in the city emissions during the meeting. Acknowledgments: Calibration tanks were provided by C. Sweeney, NOAA ESRL.

Jacobson, Gloria; Davis, Ken; Richardson, Scott; Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Deng, Aijun; Calonder, Gian-Paul; Ruesch, Marc; Lehning, Michael; Bals, Andre; DeCola, Phil; Rella, Chris

2013-04-01

342

Water shortages: the next energy crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortages in the late 1980s could rival the energy crisis of the 70s because of world demand for irrigation to feed a growing population. The environmental and energy costs of new systems for water transfer and irrigation will be enormous for each of the major food-producing countries. Competition between urban and agricultural water users and preservationists will be intense.

Stokes

1983-01-01

343

Species-richness patterns of the living collections of the world's botanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics?  

E-print Network

of socio-economics? Janice Golding1, Sabine Gu¨sewell2, Holger Kreft3, Victor Y. Kuzevanov4, Susanna Lehva Garden of Irkutsk State University, PO Box 48, Irkutsk, 664039, Russia, 5 Botanic Garden, Finnish Museum be explained by socio-economic factors is unknown. Methods Species and taxa richness of a comprehensive sample

Kreft, Holger

344

The Book of Chemical Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a crisis management model that effectively bridges the areas of substance abuse and crisis intervention. A crisis alternatives model which can be incorporated into drug counseling programs is discussed, along with a four-step crisis intervention plan for use by crisis workers that includes: (1) establishing rapport; (2)…

Sours, Floyd P.

345

Can a bank crisis break your heart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To assess whether a banking system crisis increases short-term population cardiovascular mortality rates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  International, longitudinal multivariate regression analysis of cardiovascular disease mortality data from 1960 to 2002\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A system-wide banking crisis increases population heart disease mortality rates by 6.4% (95% CI: 2.5% to 10.2%, p < 0.01)\\u000a in high income countries, after controlling for economic change, macroeconomic instability, and population

David Stuckler; Christopher M Meissner; Lawrence P King

2008-01-01

346

The Beauty of State Construction: Juan Valdez, Miss Colombia and Crisis Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian state was in acute crisis in the 1990s. Widely considered a failed state, Colombia suffered from uncontrollable violence and an acute economic crisis that left over half of the population impoverished. Yet shortly after the turn of the century, it was being touted as one of the great successes in crime reduction, economic growth, and democratic stability. In

Stacey Hunt

347

[Latin America and the crisis (points for the balance of a decade)].  

PubMed

The decade of the 1980s was catastrophic for the countries of Latin America because of profound transformations in the world economy, which started in the 1970s, the wilting of the state development programs that were imposed after World War II, and the collapse of socialism with the incipient transition to market economies. The crisis started because of the erosion of the world economic system as constituted under the Bretton Woods agreement; the drastic drop in the economic growth of market economies; the increased costs of living and the deterioration of the environment; the decrease in industrial capacity; and the emergence of transnationalization of production. In Latin America, the economic models that had been in place without solving underdevelopment became even more obsolete (import substitution, internal trade, and the role of the state). The crisis of socialism and the rapprochement of eastern European countries to western Europe also affected Latin America (e.g., Germany cancelled 30 mine exploration projects in Bolivia due to investments in East Germany). The structural readjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank resulted in currency devaluations, redistribution of government funds, elimination of various subsidies, reduction of public debt and social expenditures, reduction of public employment, and payment of external debt. The result was more inflation (in Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Argentina, inflation rates were 683.7%, 157.1%, 100.1%, and 326.2%, respectively, between 1980 and 1986), unemployment, and poverty in the lost decade of the 1980s. After 1982, state expenditures on roads, education, hospitals, and nutrition declined by 40% in Mexico. Even though most countries returned to democracy in the region, this was at the cost of the increased role of the military and the transnationals. The grand parties collapsed and in Venezuela, Mexico, and Colombia authoritarian tendencies survived into the 1970s degrading democracy. The states' socioeconomic regulatory role has to be redefined. PMID:12292700

Lopez Maya, M

1990-01-01

348

Materials production economics : an examination of the variables and relationships that drive materials production and recycling in the world economy  

E-print Network

Introduction: New materials are being developing each year that could revolutionize the world. However, while development of novel materials in the lab brings us one step closer to next latest-and-greatest innovation, the ...

King, Yao-Chung

2006-01-01

349

JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

350

Crisis in Iraq  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The topic of this week's in the news is the renewed Iraqi crisis. The eleven resources discussed offer information, analysis, and commentary from a variety of political and cultural viewpoints. Despite a noted lack of enthusiasm from neighboring Middle East nations and in the UN, the US and Britain appeared ready to take military action against Iraq to punish Saddam Hussein for once again interfering with the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) inspections. While both governments received strong support from their legislatures, opinion within the US and UK, and certainly within the wider world community, appears to be much more divided on the necessity or effectiveness of air strikes in forcing Iraq to comply to the UN mandate. An agreement reached between Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Saddam Hussein on February 22 appears to be defusing the situation by restoring, free and unfettered inspections by the UN Special Commission, known by its acronym, Unscom. While the US government is clearly relieved by a diplomatic solution, it seems just as clearly prepared to take military action should Iraq fail to honor the agreement.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1998-01-01

351

[Crisis and demographic transition in Africa].  

PubMed

The main task of CEPED, the French Center on Population and Development, is to deal with the relations between population and development. The center in this paper questions the nature of the demographic consequences of adjustment policy and reforms in developing countries. There is no doubt that such policies had important social consequences. The dearth of available statistical data, however, makes it difficult and even pointless to try and dissociate the effects of adjustment policies from the economic crises which put them in place. CEPED asked a group of experts to offer their views on to what extent the global economic crisis and the structural adjustment policies effected during the early 1980s affected demographic trends over the long term in sub-Saharan Africa. Whatever effects the economic crisis and the structural adjustment policies had upon the continent will remain to be felt for years to come. Further research is therefore warranted. PMID:12178211

Coussy, J; Vallin, J

1996-01-01

352

Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis  

SciTech Connect

This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

1980-01-01

353

OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

2012-01-01

354

Creativity in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

Roff, Glenn

355

Crisis Management Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2009-01-01

356

The "Crisis" of Public Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.18.07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is public tertiary education really in a crisis, and, if so, what is the crisis about? This paper analyses international aggregated data and examines to what extent there has been a crisis of public tertiary education in OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries in the past decade. It first focuses on relative…

Vincent-Lancrin, Stephan

2007-01-01

357

How many infants likely died in Africa as a result of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis?  

PubMed

The human consequences of the recent global financial crisis for the developing world are presumed to be severe, but few studies have quantified them. This letter estimates the human cost of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis in one critical dimension-infant mortality-for countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis pools birth-level data, as reported in female adult retrospective birth histories from all Demographic and Health Surveys collected in sub-Saharan Africa. This results in a data set of 639,000 births to 264,000 women in 30 countries. We use regression models with flexible controls for temporal trends to assess an infant's likelihood of death as a function of fluctuations in national income. We then calculate the expected number of excess deaths by combining these estimates with growth shortfalls as a result of the crisis. The results suggest 28,000-50,000 excess infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the crisis-affected year of 2009. Notably, most of these additional deaths were concentrated among girls. Policies that protect the income of poor households and that maintain critical health services during times of economic contraction may reduce the expected increase in mortality. Interventions targeted at female infants and young girls can be particularly beneficial. PMID:22544811

Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert

2013-05-01

358

The production and distribution of food is one of the most important economic activities in the world. The  

E-print Network

, food poisoning); and the sensory properties of food (taste, appearance, smell, texture). In CanadaThe production and distribution of food is one of the most important economic activities, and handling of food. The field of food science integrates and applies knowledge from the disciplines

Carleton University

359

World Politics and Economic Hardship: Forecasts and Lessons from the Depression A Proposal Submitted to the US Institute of Peace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Depression of the 1930s ignited domestic political conflicts on a global scale. Mes- sianic leaders and authoritarian dictators of the Left and Right came to power in many coun- tries. New mass communications technologies contributed to mass political movements and the rise of individuals who were skilled in their use. New enemies were imagined to blame for economic hardship

Lloyd S. Etheredge

360

Distributing resources for economic growth. [Not limited by physical shortages but world political systems inability to allocate resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth in the past century was characterized by rising costs of labor relative to resources and energy. The next century will see a long-term shift from high costs of labor to high costs of resources. Energy has been substituted for labor where possible. It took about 3.5 less manhours and a great amount of energy to produce a ton

Brooks

1976-01-01

361

Crisis communication: Perspectives of stakeholders in the housing crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The housing crisis is one of the most significant social problems the United States has faced since the recession of the early 1990s, and indeed has been called the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. American homeowners faced this cataclysmic crisis which changed the landscape of homeownership in the United States. The 2006-current housing crisis forced many homeowners to

Angelica G Ruvarac

2010-01-01

362

Neoliberal Economic Reforms and Workers of the Third World at the End of the Second Millennium of the Christian Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper places the current conditions of workers of the Third World in the context of the processes of social reproduction of labour under capitalism. It critiques the idea that the history of capitalism has been a uniformly liberatory experience and takes the view that many changes in the workers' situation under capitalism can be regarded as transformations in bondage.

Amiya Kumar Bagchi

2000-01-01

363

Impetus for Economic Growth and Development. The Federal Republic of Germany Promoting Trade and Industry in the Third World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural development, the strengthening of market-oriented approaches to the economy, and the promotion of private industry in the countries of the Third World are among the stated priorities of West German development policy. A market-oriented approach to the economy contributes to a rise in the standard of living in the developing countries. In…

Schroder, Karsten

1989-01-01

364

december 1, 2012 vol xlviI nos 47 & 48 EPW Economic & Political Weekly22 World Bank's Urban Water  

E-print Network

presents a few "business plans" for the organisation of urban water supply and sanitation (WSS) systemsI nos 47 & 48 23 of WSS functions from urban local bod- ies (ULBs), efficiency, operations's Urban Water Report on India Thinking Backwards Milind Sohoni The latest World Bank report on reform

Sohoni, Milind

365

Migration, Crisis, and the Global Labour Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neoliberal ideology of economic efficiency and shared prosperity masks the exploitation of labour on a global scale. The international mobilization of workers and their differentiation on criteria of gender, race, ethnicity, origins, and legal status are a crucial part of the global economic order. The neoliberal dream is dualistic: a cosmopolitan, mobile world for elites; a world of barriers,

Stephen Castles

2011-01-01

366

Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.  

PubMed

This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time. PMID:22520198

Feest, Uljana

2012-06-01

367

Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

Vermont Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

368

Vitamin A intake and status in populations facing economic stress.  

PubMed

Dietary quality and diversity reflect adequacy of vitamin A. Both can deteriorate in response to economic crises. Although the nutritional consequences of the 2008 world food price crisis remain unclear, past studies of diet, status, and socioeconomic standing under usual (deprived) and unusually disruptive times suggest dietary quality and vitamin A status decline in mothers and young children. This is presumably the result of shifting diets to include less preformed vitamin A-rich animal source foods and, to a lesser extent, vegetables and fruits. Cross-sectional assessments of diet, deficiency, and socioeconomic status in a number of countries and surveillance data collected during the Indonesian economic crisis of 1997-8 indicate that the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, night blindness, and other related disorders (e.g., anemia) may have increased during the 2008 crisis, and that it might not have necessarily recovered once food prices waned later in 2008. Lost employment may be a factor in slow nutritional recovery, despite some easing of food prices. Vitamin A deficiency should still be preventable amid economic instabilities through breast feeding promotion, vitamin A supplementation, fortification of foods targeted to the poor, and homestead food production that can bolster income and diversify the diet. PMID:19939993

West, Keith P; Mehra, Sucheta

2010-01-01

369

Is there a species spectrum within the world-wide leaf economics spectrum? Major variations in leaf functional traits in the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex.  

PubMed

The leaf economics spectrum is a general concept describing coordinated variation in foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits across resource gradients. Yet, within this concept,the role of within-species variation, including ecotypic and plastic variation components, has been largely neglected. This study hypothesized that there is a within-species economics spectrum within the general spectrum in the evergreen sclerophyll Quercus ilex which dominates low resource ecosystems over an exceptionally wide range. An extensive database of foliage traits covering the full species range was constructed, and improved filtering algorithms were developed. Standardized data filtering was deemed absolutely essential as additional variation sources can result in trait variation of 10–300%,blurring the broad relationships. Strong trait variation, c. two-fold for most traits to up to almost an order of magnitude, was uncovered.Although the Q. ilex spectrum is part of the general spectrum, within-species trait and climatic relationships in this species partly differed from the overall spectrum. Contrary to world-wide trends, Q. ilex does not necessarily have a low nitrogen content per mass and can increase photosynthetic capacity with increasing foliage robustness. This study argues that the within-species economics spectrum needs to be considered in regional- to biome-level analyses. PMID:25580487

Niinemets, Ulo

2015-01-01

370

Our Thirsty World: Contextualized Responses to the World Water Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wars fought over oil have characterized the latter half of the past century, the repercussions of which have been felt in every corner of the globe. Although war remains a constant, attention is transitioning away from oil to another natural resource. As we move through the 21st century, water wars are now at the forefront of global conflicts. Fighting over

Eliana Rieders

2012-01-01

371

Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.  

PubMed

Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. PMID:24560058

Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

2014-02-22

372

Evaluation and promotion strategy research on information communication ability of public crisis under the background of public relations in the crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the progress of science and technology and the development of the economic globalization, social is in an open system environment, in which government's image and executive force will be affected by internal and external factors and so on, so the crisis of public relations possible happens at any time, and the information communication of public crisis is an important

Xi-bo Sun; Qi Wang

2011-01-01

373

Veterans Crisis Line  

MedlinePLUS

... access/activate the submenu links. Enter your search text Button to start search site map [a-z] ... online at www.VeteransCrisisLine.net , or send a text message to 838255 to receive free, confidential support ...

374

Surviving the Cycle of Economic Crisis  

E-print Network

at this time. Customers are looking for bargains, which puts even greater pressure on the profit margins of wholesalers and retailers. For coop- eratives and other agribusinesses, failure may seem imminent and growth impossible. *Roy B. Davis Professor...

Park, John; Davis, Roy B.

2009-03-26

375

Conveying the Meaning of the Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late summer of 2008, after the 2007-2008 fiscal year's books had closed, the nation's wealthiest universities were confronted with an unfamiliar sight: single-digit endowment returns. Not since 2003 had Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Princeton University (Princeton, New Jersey), or Stanford University (Stanford, California)…

Anderson, Luke A.

2010-01-01

376

Bushmeat Crisis Task Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the homepage of the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force (BCTF), a nonprofit organization that works toward "identifying and implementing effective and appropriate solutions to the commercial exploitation of endangered and threatened species." In addition to providing information on BCTF projects and upcoming events, the Web site offers a comprehensive collection of articles meant to raise awareness of the bushmeat crisis, as well as a number of fact sheets, each covering a specific aspect of the bushmeat trade.

377

Science for Humanity: Giving Generously to Our World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardly a week goes by without some reminder that we live in an age of anxiety and a world in environmental crisis. As I write this message, unusual stratospheric wind patterns in the Northern Hemisphere seem to be implicated in tragic floods in Pakistan, landslides in China, and wildfires near Moscow. The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico reminds us of our dependence on oil, the increasing scarcity of natural resources, and the adverse environmental impact of our appetite for these resources. The Haiti earthquake earlier this year demonstrates the vulnerability of human society to the natural world. So does the small volcanic eruption in Iceland that disrupted the travel plans of millions of people and cost the aviation industry billions of dollars. Our vulnerability seems to be increasing as the world's population continues to grow, as globalization and interdependencies advance at a giddy pace, and as human societies strive for economic growth.

Sparks, R. Stephen J.

2010-09-01

378

Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.  

PubMed

The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th) century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created. PMID:23967146

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile

2013-01-01

379

Environmental Roots of the Late Bronze Age Crisis  

PubMed Central

The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event’s retrieval began in the late 19th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the “Peoples-of-the-Sea” at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created. PMID:23967146

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile

2013-01-01

380

Goodbye Washington consensus? Hello Washington confusion? A reviewof the World Bank's economic growth in the 1990s: Learning from adecade of reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents and critics alike agree that the policies spawned by the\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Washington Consensus have not produced the desired results. The debate\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009now is not over whether the Washington Consensus is dead or alive,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009but over what will replace it. An important marker in this intellectual\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009terrain is the World Bank's Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009from a Decade of

Dani Rodrik

2006-01-01

381

Economic diplomacy. The political dynamics of oil leverage  

SciTech Connect

This study probes the 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo, detailing its history, the motivations that caused it and its ripple effect on world politics and the international economic order. The authors examine the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe during the 1956 Suez Canal crisis, the growing momentum of Arab oil leverage beginning with the First Arab Petroleum Congress in 1959, the decline of the oil companies' domination of the petroleum industry, and the Arab political environment between the 1967 Arab defeat and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. The book concludes with a discussion of the lessons to be learned from the recent embargoes.

Daoudi, M.S.; Dajani, M.S.

1985-01-01

382

The Energy Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chip-based electronics in 2010 consumed about 10% of the world's total electric power of ˜2 TW. We have seen throughout the book that all segments, processing, memory and communication, are expected to increase their performance or bandwidth by three orders of magnitude in the decade until 2020. If this progress would be realized, the world semiconductor revenue could grow by 50-100%, and the ICT industry by 43-66% in this decade (Fig. 6.1). Progress sustained at these levels certainly depends on investments and qualified manpower, but energy has become another roadblock almost overnight. In this chapter, we touch upon the life-cycle energy of chips by assessing the energy of Si wafer manufacturing, needed to bring the chips to life, and the power efficiencies in their respective operations. An outstanding segment of power-hungry chip operations is that of operating data centers, often called server farms. Their total operating power was ˜36 GW in 2010, and we look at their evolution under the prospect of a 1,000× growth in performance by 2020. One feasible scenario is that we succeed in improving the power efficiency of Processing 1,000×, Memory 1,000×, Communication 100×, within a decade. In this case, the total required power for the world's data centers would still increase 4× to 144 GW by 2020, equivalent to 40% of the total electrical power available in all of Europe. The power prospects for mobile/wireless as well as long-line cable/radio/satellite are equally serious. Any progression by less than the factors listed above will lead to economic growth smaller than the projections given above. This demands clearly that sustainable nanoelectronics must be minimum-energy (femtojoule) electronics.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

383

The Influence of Major Life Events on Economic Attitudes in a World of Gene-Environment Interplay  

PubMed Central

The role of “genes” on political attitudes has gained attention across disciplines. However, person-specific experiences have yet to be incorporated into models that consider genetic influences. Relying on a gene-environment interplay approach, this study explicates how life-events, such as losing one’s job or suffering a financial loss, influence economic policy attitudes. The results indicate genetic and environmental variance on support for unions, immigration, capitalism, socialism and property tax is moderated by financial risks. Changes in the magnitude of genetic influences, however, are temporary. After two years, the phenotypic effects of the life events remain on most attitudes, but changes in the sources of individual differences do not. Univariate twin models that estimate the independent contributions of genes and environment on the variation of attitudes appear to provide robust baseline indicators of sources of individual differences. These estimates, however, are not event or day specific. In this way, genetic influences add stability, while environment cues change, and this process is continually updated. PMID:24860199

Hatemi, Peter K.

2014-01-01

384

75 FR 28183 - World Trade Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Our Nation is still emerging from an unprecedented economic crisis. Millions of Americans...fair access to global markets, we are enforcing...are also opening new markets and encouraging development...other nations and markets grow, our...

2010-05-20

385

West Pharmaceutical's explosion: structuring crisis discourse knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crisis can place an organization and its stakeholders at risk for significant losses. Crisis management has emerged as a means to reduce those losses. Crisis response strategies, what the organization says and does after a crisis, are critical resources in crisis management. It is not surprising that crisis response has emerged as a vibrant research area. The focus of

W. Timothy Coombs

2004-01-01

386

Contagion in the East: A Look at the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and its aftermath have brought to light a number of crucial economic lessons. This curriculum unit focuses on some of the purported causes of the crisis, the workings of the International Monetary Fund, and the general nature of economies affected by financial turmoil. Lesson 1, "A Story of Boom and Bust in Asia,…

Lee, Isadora; Lai, Selena; Francis, Gregory; Brunette, Rachel

387

Critical Ideas in Times of Crisis: Reconsidering Smith, Marx, Keynes, and Hayek  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate causes of the current economic crisis have been attributed to a variety of private sector actors ranging from banks to hedge funds. Policy makers and elected officials have also been criticized for fostering a lax regulatory environment. However, the ideas that were the foundation of the policies that led to the crisis have received much less attention. This

M. Scott Solomon

2010-01-01

388

As Euro Crisis Heightens, Germans Resist Tapping Foreign Students for Revenue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Europe has lurched from one economic crisis to another in recent months, one thing has become clear: Any long-term solution will depend on the willingness of Germany, Europe's largest economy, to shoulder much of the financial burden the debt crisis has created. German taxpayers, known for their thrift, have balked at underwriting what many see…

Labi, Aisha

2012-01-01

389

The Budget Deficit--The "Crisis" of the 80's. Series on Public Issues No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, an analogy is drawn between the dire predictions once made about the energy crisis and those now being made about a budget crisis. Concerns about the deficit have centered on inflation, interest rates, and growth of the economy.…

Greenhut, Melvin L.; Smithson, Charles W.

390

Analyzing the financial crisis using the entropy density function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk that is created by nonlinear interactions among subjects in economic systems is assumed to increase during an abnormal state of a financial market. Nevertheless, investigating the systemic risk in financial markets following the global financial crisis is not sufficient. In this paper, we analyze the entropy density function in the return time series for several financial markets, such as the S&P500, KOSPI, and DAX indices, from October 2002 to December 2011 and analyze the variability in the entropy value over time. We find that the entropy density function of the S&P500 index during the subprime crisis exhibits a significant decrease compared to that in other periods, whereas the other markets, such as those in Germany and Korea, exhibit no significant decrease during the market crisis. These findings demonstrate that the S&P500 index generated a regular pattern in the return time series during the financial crisis.

Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Ho-yong; Ahn, Seok-Won; Kwak, Wooseop

2015-02-01

391

Tigers in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This artful Tigers in Crisis website was produced by long-time journalist and conservationist Craig Kasnoff to educate people about tigers and the global factors threatening their survival as a species. The site provides information about the tiger crisis, their status in the wild, solutions, and more. Site visitors can also learn about three endangered tiger subspecies -- Bengal, Siberian, and Sumatran -- through information, photos, and videos. Additionally, this site provides visitors access to free endangered tiger photos and images for educational, non-profit, and personal use.

Kasnoff, Craig

392

Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human impacts on the natural environment have reached such proportions that in addition to an extinction crisis, we now also face a broader biome crisis. Here we identify the world's terrestrial biomes and, at a finer spatial scale, ecoregions in which biodiversity and ecological function are at greatest risk because of extensive habitat conversion and limited habitat protection. Habitat conversion

Jonathan M. Hoekstra; Timothy M. Boucher; Taylor H. Ricketts; Carter Roberts

2005-01-01

393

Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection  

E-print Network

LETTER Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection Jonathan M Ôbiome crisisÕ. Here we identify the world's terrestrial biomes and, at a finer spatial scale, ecoregions grasslands and Mediterranean biomes, and 10 : 1 in more than 140 ecoregions. These regions include some

Vermont, University of

394

Modelling and forecasting the global financial crisis: Initial findings using heterosckedastic log-periodic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial crisis of 2007-2009 has begun in July 2007 when a loss of confidence by investors in the value of securitized mortgages in the United States resulted in a liquidity crisis. World stock markets peaked in October 2007 and then entered a period of high volatility which culminated with the market crashes in September and October 2008. Since March

Dean Fantazzini

2010-01-01

395

Crisis Management: How well is your school prepared for the unexpected?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's world, no organisation, including your school, is immune from crisis. We must be prepared. Crisis management has become an important aspect of school management. This edition of Board Shorts contains a wealth of practical advice - a leadership framework if you will - to inform your school's policy and practice - the 'how and what to do'. Anticipating

Happy Christmas

2008-01-01

396

Social Impact of Coffee Crisis on the Pasemah coffee farmers in South Sumatera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, the world price of coffee has fallen significantly. The crisis has suffered millions of small coffee farmers in developing countries. However, in contrast to Latin America and Africa, studies on the impact of recent coffee crisis on the farmers tend to neglect Indonesia, one of the important coffee producing countries in Asia. The purpose of

Brata Aloysius Gunadi

2007-01-01

397

School Crisis Preparedness and Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dealing with the impact of crisis on school children and staff is not the primary mission of schools. Therefore, many schools remain unprepared to respond to a crisis affecting students and staff. Too often they respond to each successive crisis in a reflexive manner with little preplanned coordination or structure. This workshop provides an…

Schonfeld, David J.; Newgass, Scott

398

When Crisis Strikes on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

399

Keeping Cool in a Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.

Padgett, Raven

2006-01-01

400

Public health crisis preparedness and response in Korea.  

PubMed

Since the 2006 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan according to the World Health Organization's recommendation, the Republic of Korea has prepared and periodically evaluated the plan to respond to various public health crises including pandemic influenza. Korea has stockpiled 13,000,000 doses of antiviral drugs covering 26% of the Korean population and runs 519 isolated beds in 16 medical institutions. The division of public health crisis response in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are in charge of responding to public health crises caused by emerging infectious diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza human infection, and pandemic influenza. Its job description includes preparing for emerging infectious diseases, securing medical resources during a crisis, activating the emergency response during the crisis, and fortification of capabilities of public health personnel. It could evolve into a comprehensive national agency to deal with public health crisis based on the experience of previous national emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24298444

Lee, Hye-Young; Oh, Mi-Na; Park, Yong-Shik; Chu, Chaeshin; Son, Tae-Jong

2013-10-01

401

Public Health Crisis Preparedness and Response in Korea  

PubMed Central

Since the 2006 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan according to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, the Republic of Korea has prepared and periodically evaluated the plan to respond to various public health crises including pandemic influenza. Korea has stockpiled 13,000,000 doses of antiviral drugs covering 26% of the Korean population and runs 519 isolated beds in 16 medical institutions. The division of public health crisis response in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are in charge of responding to public health crises caused by emerging infectious diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza human infection, and pandemic influenza. Its job description includes preparing for emerging infectious diseases, securing medical resources during a crisis, activating the emergency response during the crisis, and fortification of capabilities of public health personnel. It could evolve into a comprehensive national agency to deal with public health crisis based on the experience of previous national emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24298444

Lee, Hye-Young; Oh, Mi-Na; Park, Yong-Shik; Chu, Chaeshin; Son, Tae-Jong

2013-01-01

402

Ronald Reagan's economic jeremiad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ronald Reagan's address to the nation on February 5, 1981, concerning the state of the economy is a contemporary secular version of the jeremiad, a rhetorical form that has persisted in America since colonial times. Reagan skillfully utilizes the elements of the jeremiad genre to motivate citizen and congressional response to what he views as an economic crisis. He is

Richard L. Johannesen

1986-01-01

403

Ronald Reagan's Economic Jeremiad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers President Reagan's address to the nation on February 5, 1981, concerning the state of the economy, as a contemporary secular version of the jeremiad, a rhetorical form that has persisted in America since colonial times. Describes Reagan's skillful use of the genre to motivate public response to what he viewed as an economic crisis. (NKA)

Johannesen, Richard L.

1986-01-01

404

Russia after the Global Financial Crisis  

E-print Network

Abstract: Two prominent American specialists on the Russian economy present a fundamental analysis of basic economic factors explaining how the global financial crisis has played out in Russia and its implications for the country’s future. More specifically, the authors examine the consequences of Russia’s dependence on and addiction to resource (oil and gas) rents and of the management system put in place under Vladimir Putin to maintain, secure, and distribute these rents. They then investigate how each of these factors has emerged from the crisis and how it might evolve in the years ahead. Focusing on the distinction between rent dependence and addiction, the authors question the conventional wisdom that diversification of Russia’s economy (away from oil and gas) is a desirable objective that will render it less

Clifford G. Gaddy; Barry W. Ickes

405

The regulatory crisis: does it exist and can it be solved? Some comparative remarks on the situation of social regulation in the USA and in the European Economic Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'regulatory crisis' has become a common paradigm on both sides of the Atlantic. It seems to be corroborated by economists pointing to inefficiencies of regulation. Political scientists have discovered implementation lags, and legal scholars complain about an overburdening of the legal system.

By reviewing some witnesses of the US discussion and by comparing this discussion with trends in Europe

N Reich

1984-01-01

406

Crisis in the Cafeteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…

White, Patrick

1998-01-01

407

Reefs in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", walks students through the risks humans pose to the survival of coral reefs and conservation efforts. It discusses the forces behind damage to the reefs and recent protection efforts, including the creation of sanctuaries, good land management, and public awareness campaigns.

408

Crisis Counseling: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

2009-01-01

409

Cuban Missile Crisis Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These documents chronicle the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 15, 1962, the Soviet Union was discovered attempting to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. These missiles would have been capable of quickly reaching the United States. President Kennedy responded with a naval blockade. After several days of increasing tensions, the Soviet Union finally agreed to remove the missiles.

Christopher Griffith

410

Family in Crisis  

MedlinePLUS

... to communicate that we feel safe through our body language and tone may be more important than our exact words. In the face of a crisis, gather the family in the part of your ... stress that our bodies communicate, watch whether we follow routines, and see ...

411

The Phony Funding Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

2010-01-01

412

Coping with Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

2002-01-01

413

Preparing for a Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To handle unforeseen crises, Albuquerque Public Schools established a critical-incident response team with a simple, understandable chain of command. The group aims to ensure maximum safety and people' well-being, develop a districtwide crisis-response-management plan, coordinate necessary training, and collaborate with community agencies…

Perea, Rosalie D.; Morrison, Shirley

1997-01-01

414

ECONOMICS OF NUCLEAR SHIPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great success of the U. S. submarine Nautilus and the Suez crisis, ; which showed what advantages might arise from large atom-powered tankers, are two ; events which have spurred the nations of the world to investigate the feasibility ; of nuclear power for propulsion at sea. The techniques feasibility of nuclear-; powered sea vessels has been clearly established

T. J. Connolly; J. Jr. Wilhelmsen

1958-01-01

415

Was the global food crisis really a crisis?: Simulations versus self-reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the World Bank concerning the welfare impact of the 2007\\/08 global food crisis conclude that between 75 million and 160 million people were thrown into hunger or poverty. However, these simulation-based approaches suffer from inherent deficiencies as well as insufficient coverage of the largest

Derek Headey

2011-01-01

416

Effects of Biofuel Policies on World Food Insecurity -- A CGE Analysis  

E-print Network

and feed production, triggering a food crisis globally and leading to increases in the world food insecure population. Few studies have quantified the effects of biofuel policies on world food prices and world food insecurity. This study added the Brazil...

Lu, Jiamin

2012-02-14

417

Monitoring the Effects of the Global Crisis on Education Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economic crisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…

Chang, Gwang-Chol

2010-01-01

418

Danish Universities in the Financial Crisis: Change and Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities have always been important to national economies, but since the financial crisis of 2007-08 they have become key economic actors. Because they supply highly skilled labour and undertake basic research that enable nations to engage in global competition, they are capable of boosting production and innovation. This article explores the…

Milthers, Pernille Meyn

2011-01-01

419

New England fighting energy crisis to attract new industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception that New England suffers more than other regions from the energy crisis has hampered industrial recruiters. A review of the current energy situation by source indicates that coal will have the most-positive immediate effect on economic development. Utility conversion to coal will slow the rise in power rates and encourage industry to remain, but it will not attract

Eklund

1982-01-01

420

Stable Development of Austrian Economy Despite Persistent Debt Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall, the latest data on the state of the global economy suggest that the upswing will continue; they are somewhat mixed, however. Growth remains robust in the USA, Latin America and South East Asia. Developments in the euro area, by contrast, continue to be characterised by the debt crisis. Irrespective thereof, the outlook for economic activity in Austria remains stable.

Christian Glocker

2012-01-01

421

Biofuel, Economics, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biofuels may be an important economic contributor in the coming decades. Proper biofuel management can provide economical, more environmentally friendly fuel worldwide; decrease world poverty; decrease food insecurity; and increase the environmental performance of the agricultural sector.

Daniel De La Torre Ugarte (Department of Agricultural Economics of the University of Tennessee; )

2010-03-11

422

World Bank Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has recently added full-text journal articles to its Website. The World Bank Research Observer is geared towards non-specialist readers who have an interested in bank research. It includes articles on such matters as development economics, new World Bank research, and development policy. The World Bank Economic Review is a professional journal, published three times a year, that focuses on "World Bank-sponsored research that emphasizes empirical applications." Journals are searchable by article and by issue, as well as by author and keyword.

423

A New Approach to Deal with the Global Food Crisis A New Approach to Deal with the Global Food Crisis A New Approach to Deal with the Global Food Crisis A New Approach to Deal with the Global Food Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract The global food crisis in 2008 made the World once again aware that investment in agriculture matters. In view of the long period of food surpluses and de- pressed food prices, many policy decision makers con- cluded that hunger is just a distribution problem. As a consequence, public funding for further crop improve- ments was cut back

Philipp Aerni

424

Instructions for use Energy Crisis as Global Problem  

E-print Network

. Here we find the energy crisis. The metaphor of "blood flow" in the human body is often used of social life like the flow of blood, and for that reason people seldom have the perception that we consume amounts. World oil consumption in 2007 was 85,220,000 bpd ( this includes ethanol and biodiesel

Tachizawa, Kazuya

425

Seventh enemy: the human factor in the global crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the next twenty-five years, Higgins says we and our children will face a world of mounting confusion and horror, including hardship, disorder, war, and the starvation of millions. Daring to see mankind's rapidly converging crisis for what it is, he starkly forecasts the course it is likely to take. He shows that there are six immense impersonal threats to

Higgins

1978-01-01

426

Using Emotional Intelligence in Training Crisis Managers: The Pandora Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multi-agency crisis management represents one of the most complex of real-world situations, requiring rapid negotiation and decision-making under extreme pressure. However, the training offered to strategic planners, called Gold Commanders, does not place them under any such pressure. It takes the form of paper-based, table-top exercises, or…

Mackinnon, Lachian; Bacon, Liz; Cortellessa, Gabriella; Cesta, Amedeo

2013-01-01

427

The financial crisis and the haphazard pursuit of financial crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The financial crisis has been something of a turning point in the regulatory response to financial crime around the world. The failure of light-handed regulation and risk assessment by both industry and regulators made the operation of financial regulatory agencies almost untenable, often leading to calls for their replacement by more effective agencies. The purpose of this paper

Roman Tomasic

2011-01-01

428

Adlai Stevenson and the Suez Crisis of 1956.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines Adlai Stevenson's response to the Suez crisis, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the struggle between the nationalism emerging in Third World countries and the imperialism fading in Europe. It also looks at Stevenson's stance toward Israel and his relations with American Zionists during the 1956 presidential campaign. (AM)

Graff, Leo W., Jr.

1982-01-01

429

Landmines: The Hidden Crisis. For Grades 9-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to make the issue of landmines pertinent and accessible to classroom teachers, this curriculum unit helps high school students learn how to undertake an analysis of the anti-personnel landmine crisis in some of the world's most severely affected countries and consider potential programs for landmine removal, recovery, and reconstruction.…

Hurt, J. P. Antony

430

Establishing Media Partnerships in Crisis Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prominent crisis communication researchers have suggested that practitioners should work with the media as partners when managing a crisis (Ulmer, Sellnow, & Seeger, 2007). This study provides an example of a crisis case in which the media was embraced as a partner in the crisis response. Specifically, the partnership established with the media as part of the crisis response following

Shari R. Veil; Francisco Ojeda

2010-01-01

431

Nuclear Fusion: A Solution to the GlobalNuclear Fusion: A Solution to the Global Energy CrisisEnergy Crisis  

E-print Network

Nuclear Fusion: A Solution to the GlobalNuclear Fusion: A Solution to the Global Energy Crisis.maclellan@strath.ac.uk Introduction and Motivation What is Nuclear Fusion? Laser Plasma Interactions The world, and particularly is harnessing the power of nuclear fusion. It is however, extremely difficult to sustain a fusion reaction

Strathclyde, University of

432

World Foods. Can the World Feed Us?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains resources to facilitate the study of the world food situation in home economics classes. It provides terms, historical elements of famine, and the effects of hunger and dietary deficiency on humans. Brief overviews of the basic factors influencing the world food situation and some of the proposed measures to solve the…

Hindman, Wanda; And Others

433

[Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].  

PubMed

Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in countries with analogous economic crises, such as the Former Eastern Bloc countries, Asian countries and the USA. Future studies, at a more late stage of the economic crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health. PMID:21888184

Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

2011-01-01

434

Basketball Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit offers five economics lessons related to basketball. Lessons include: (1) "Money, Money, Money in the Basketball Player's World"; (2) "Take Me to the Basketball Game Lesson"; (3) "What Does It Take?"; (4) "Productivity of a Basketball Player"; and (5) "Congratulations! You Just Won the NBA Championships." Most of the lessons…

Scheinman, Daniel; Scheinman, Ted

435

ESEA Reauthorization: The Importance of a World-Class K-12 Education for Our Economic Success. Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session on Examining Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Reauthorization, Focusing on K-12 Education for Economic Success (March 9, 2010). Senate Hearing 111-885  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing of the Committee of Health, Education, Labor and Pensions focused on the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. This hearing on the economic importance of having a world-class K-12 education system should remind everyone of the critical importance of this reauthorization. Well-educated Americans are the single…

US Senate, 2011

2011-01-01

436

The global financial crisis has led to a slowdown in growth of funding to improve health in many developing countries.  

PubMed

How has funding to developing countries for health improvement changed in the wake of the global financial crisis? The question is vital for policy making, planning, and advocacy purposes in donor and recipient countries alike. We measured the total amount of financial and in-kind assistance that flowed from both public and private channels to improve health in developing countries during the period 1990-2011. The data for the years 1990-2009 reflect disbursements, while the numbers for 2010 and 2011 are preliminary estimates. Development assistance for health continued to grow in 2011, but the rate of growth was low. We estimate that assistance for health grew by 4 percent each year from 2009 to 2011, reaching a total of $27.73 billion. This growth was largely driven by the World Bank's International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and appeared to be a deliberate strategy in response to the global economic crisis. Assistance for health from bilateral agencies grew by only 4 percent, or $444.08 million, largely because the United States slowed its development assistance for health. Health funding through UN agencies stagnated, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria announced that it would make no new grants for the next two years because of declines in funding. Given the international community's focus on meeting the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 and persistent economic hardship in donor countries, continued measurement of development assistance for health is essential for policy making. PMID:22174301

Leach-Kemon, Katherine; Chou, David P; Schneider, Matthew T; Tardif, Annette; Dieleman, Joseph L; Brooks, Benjamin P C; Hanlon, Michael; Murray, Christopher J L

2012-01-01

437

Crisis communication. Lessons from 9/11.  

PubMed

The sheer enormity of last year's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon gave new meaning to the term "crisis management." Suddenly, companies near Ground Zero, as well as those more than a thousand miles away, needed a plan. Because the disasters disrupted established channels not only between businesses and customers but between businesses and employees, internal crisis-communications strategies that could be quickly implemented became a key responsibility of top management. Without these strategies, employees' trauma and confusion might have immobilized their firms and set their customers adrift. In this article, executives from a range of industries talk about how their companies, including Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, American Airlines, Verizon, the New York Times, Dell, and Starbucks, went about restoring operations and morale. From his interviews with these individuals, author and management professor Paul Argenti was able to distill a number of lessons, each of which, he says, may "serve as guideposts for any company facing a crisis that undermines its employees' composure, confidence, or concentration." His advice to senior executives includes: Maintain high levels of visibility, so that employees are certain of top management's command of the situation and concern; establish contingency communication channels and work sites; strive to keep employees focused on the business itself, because a sense of usefulness enhances morale and good morale enhances usefulness; and ensure that employees have absorbed the firm's values, which will guide them as they cope with the unpredictable. The most forward-thinking leaders realize that managing a crisis-communications program requires the same dedication and resources they give to other dimensions of their business. More important, they realize that their employees always come first. PMID:12510542

Argenti, Paul

2002-12-01

438

Correlation of financial markets in times of crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of correlations matrices of some of the main financial market indices in the world, we show that high volatility of markets is directly linked with strong correlations between them. This means that markets tend to behave as one during great crashes. In order to do so, we investigate financial market crises that occurred in the years 1987 (Black Monday), 1998 (Russian crisis), 2001 (Burst of the dot-com bubble and September 11), and 2008 (Subprime Mortgage Crisis), which mark some of the largest downturns of financial markets in the last three decades.

Sandoval, Leonidas; Franca, Italo De Paula

2012-01-01

439

Future options for (economically) sustainable research in sepsis.  

PubMed

The relentless increase in healthcare costs and the global economic crisis require us to rethink the way research is done. The heterogeneity of patients is a major challenge in designing and coordinating high-quality studies about sepsis. Studies on new treatments and devices, such as polymyxin B hemoperfusion, must be optimized not only for potential benefits for a specific population (i.e. efficacy), but also for their eventual implementation in real-world situations (i.e. effectiveness) and for economic costs (i.e. efficiency). In this regard, theragnosis and newer statistical tools could help us obtain useful information from real-life observational data. In this review, we discuss the basic components required for sustainable research in polymyxin B hemoperfusion. PMID:24457491

Romay, Eduardo; Ferrer, Ricard

2014-01-01

440

Economics U$A: 21st Century Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The so-called "dismal science" is dismal no longer as the result of this engaging and thoughtful exploration of the world of economics. Created by the Educational Film Center and offered as one of the Annenberg Learner resources, this primer on micro- and macroeconomics includes 28 30-minute programs. These materials were released in 2012, and they cover topics such as Supply and Demand, Economic Efficiency, and Profits and Interest. Educators will be glad to learn that the complete program website includes discussion questions, worksheets, and additional activities for the classroom. The series is quite up to date, and it even includes a discussion of the 2008 banking crisis and technology's broad influence on the economy.

2012-02-17

441

Dissent During Crisis in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dissent during periods of crisis can be a difficult subject to discuss, even among reasonable people, and this thoughtful digital exhibit from the University of California at Irvine illuminates this subject quite nicely. The items in the exhibit are from their Department of Special Collections and Archives, and the focus of this particular collection is to examine "issues of war, peace, dissent and dialogue during critical periods in the 20th century." There are six sections of the exhibit which include "Protest during the Vietnam War", "The Internment of Japanese Americans during WWII", and "McCarthyism during the Cold War". Visitors can click on each of these sections to view digitized images of ephemera (such as artworks, pamphlets, and posters) that are representative of these times of dissent and debate. Visitors should not miss the "Conscientious Objectors in World War II" area, as it contains images from a pacifist handbook published in 1939 and items published by groups like the Quakers and the Mennonites.

MacLeod, Stephen

2008-01-01

442

Crisis Communication Plans: Poor Predictors of Excellent Crisis Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that newly developed theory in crisis public relations suggests a shift is necessary in the way practitioners view crises. Notes that the new paradigm defines excellent crisis public relations very differently from the literature of the past 20 years. (RS)

Marra, Francis J.

1998-01-01

443

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual publication from the World Bank predicts growth patterns in developing countries. It reports that "recovery from the financial crisis is 'fragile and uneven,' with some regions recovering much faster than others." According to this year's report, growth in Asia will be strong through 2000, as the countries slowly pull themselves out of recession. The average per capita income of Third World countries outside of Asia, however, will decline. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release, summary, and the forward by Joseph Stiglitz are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main site also provides a slide show of the main points and issues of the report, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

444

"To Be...or Not To Be": The U.S. Response to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Eleventh Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the post-World War II era, the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union became strained. Both countries feared that one would target the other with atomic warheads placed on missiles. Fear of a nuclear holocaust occupied the thinking of many people as they went about their daily activities. As a member of the Executive…

Krup, Carol

445

As one commentator has observed, "[O]ne ironic and tragic aspect of this environmen-tal crisis of greenhouse emissions is the fact that those parts of the world least respon-  

E-print Network

). Pacific Island Developing Countries (PIDCs) are responsible for only 0.03 percent of the world's carbon of PIDCs. PIDCs and Freshwater Resources There are nearly 30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean, 1,000 of which are populated (UNEP 1998) (see Figure 5.1). Polynesian peoples populated Tonga, the Cook Islands

446

A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

2012-01-01

447

From Tulip Bulbs to Sub-Prime Mortgages Examining the Sub-Prime Crisis: The Case for a Systemic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market parallels several earlier failures within the financial services sector, begging the question why the lessons of past failures were not learned. Throughout history from the tulip bulb crisis of the 1600s to the most recent economic crisis, decision-makers keep making the same mistakes. This…

Stephens, Alan A.; Atwater, J. Brian; Kannan, Vijay R.

2013-01-01

448

Organizational Learning and Crisis Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

Wang, Jia

2007-01-01

449

PC 515 Pastoral Crisis Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Required Course Texts: James, R. & Gilliland, B. (2001). Crisis Intervention Strategies (4th Ed.). New York: Brooks\\/Cole. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered Assumptions: Towards a New Psychology of Trauma. New York: The Free Press. Switzer, D. (1986). The Minister as Crisis Counselor. Nashville, Tn.: Abingdon Press. Required Course Readings: Dunn, R. (1993). Why Bad Things Happen to Good Christians. Christian Counseling

Stuart L. Palmer

2004-01-01

450

A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

Simpson, Christopher

2001-01-01

451

Spatial and Financial Fixes and the Global Financial Crisis: Does Labour Have the Knowledge and Power to Meet the Challenge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years after the global financial crisis, and trillions of dollars in stimulus spending later, the crisis not only remains unresolved, but risks entering a new deeper phase in southern Europe. The global turbulence, although experienced with differing degrees of intensity and dislocation around the world, manifests as high unemployment,…

Brown, Tony

2013-01-01

452

The World Food Programme By Kristen Lunde  

E-print Network

, funds, and programs to learn more about their impact on global health. Bettina Leuscher, North American the world by providing food aid to populations that are struggling with hunger in light of crises. They also their lives after being stricken by a food crisis. As the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

453

WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment. The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

454

CrisisGroup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Crisis Group (ICG) is a private, multinational organization "committed to strengthening the capacity of the international community to anticipate, understand and act to prevent and contain conflict." The ICG, which is chaired by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, is headquartered in Brussels and has advocacy offices in Washington DC, New York, and Paris. The organization currently operates field projects in nineteen crisis-affected countries and four continents: Algeria, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Zimbabwe in Africa; Myanmar, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Asia; Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia in Europe; and Colombia in Latin America. Teams of political analysts gather information from a wide range of sources, assess local conditions, and produce regular analytical reports, containing "practical recommendations targeted at key international decision-takers." For those users interested in exploring publications on issues related to conflict prevention and management, this is definitely a place to start. The heading "Browse by publication type," located on the main website, will allow users to browse a variety of resoures such as reports, briefings, speeches, podcasts and other multimedia and the latest news releases.

455

The Mediterranean salinity crisis  

SciTech Connect

That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

Hsue, K.J.

1988-08-01

456

California's electricity crisis  

E-print Network

The collapse of California's electricity restructuring and competition program has attracted attention around the world. Prices in California's competitive wholesale electricity market increased by 500% between the second ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2001-01-01

457

Civil protection preparedness and response to the 2007 eruptive crisis of Stromboli volcano, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromboli, one of the very few tourist volcanic islands in the world in permanent state of activity, has been the site of two important volcanic crises coupled with slope failure episodes in 2002-2003 and 2007. Due to the lucky circumstance that both crises have occurred in winter, the actual consequences on people were moderate. Nevertheless, the first crisis caused a few injuries, threatened the local population and caused relevant economic losses. The emotional impact on public opinion of the 30th December 2002 tsunami acted, in particular, as a trigger for civil protection initiatives aimed at structurally improving the standard volcano safety and preparedness measures to effectively deal with future crises. The main initiatives carried out during the 2003 crisis consisted in the setting up of: 1) new geophysical and geochemical volcano surveillance networks and 2) a local, permanent scientific/civil protection structure (COA, Centro Operativo Avanzato), where signals from volcano monitoring are visualized in real time and eventually used by the personnel of the Department of Civil Protection (DPC) for immediate activation of response procedures. This was followed by the setting up, in 2005, at the (DPC) in Rome, of a centre named "Centro Funzionale Centrale Rischio Vulcanico" (CFCRV), where the most relevant monitoring signals of Italian active volcanoes are visualized in real time and where activities of simple elaboration, for hazard assessment purpose are daily carried out and data sharing within the scientific community is coordinated by civil protection personnel with training in volcanic problems. The response effectiveness of the new system was tested on February-March 2007 when a new volcanic crisis occurred. An internal DPC "state of attention" was declared by the CF 15 days before the eruption onset when seismic and deformation parameters showed an abrupt increase up to values much higher than background. On February 27th the sudden onset of explosive activity outside the main craters and the occurrence of a small landslide down slope of the active craters were detected in real time on the screens of the CFCRV and by monitoring centres of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and University of Florence (UNIFI). This enabled the DPC to immediately activate emergency crisis procedures and start a coordinated management of the crisis between civil protection personnel in Rome and COA. As accelerating slope movements were detected by ground deformation monitoring of UNIFI, a tsunami warning was launched shortly afterward. Warnings were also declared on 8th March and 15th March when slope movements resumed and a large explosion at the central craters occurred, respectively. From the end of February to May 2007 a scientific committee named "Scientific Synthesis Group" (SSG), appointed by the DPC, made daily evaluations of impending hazards in cooperation with CFCRV. During the crisis the DPC coordinated information activities with the media and island residents. The successful managing of the crisis consisted in minimizing risk for people and meanwhile facilitating normal activities and regular access to island.

Bertolaso, G.; De Bernardinis, B.; Bosi, V.; Cardaci, C.; Ciolli, S.; Colozza, R.; Cristiani, C.; Mangione, D.; Ricciardi, A.; Rosi, M.; Scalzo, A.; Soddu, P.

2009-05-01

458

After the Crisis: Capital and Regime Resilience in the ASEAN Three  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade after the Asian financial and economic crisis, assessments can be made about the varying capacities of different political regimes to withstand economic shocks. This paper shows that Malaysia's hybrid approach to authoritarianism has been most resilient, Indonesia's harder authoritarian rule was most brittle, and Thailand's democratic politics displayed an intermediate level of sturdiness, hence delaying – but not preventing – their breakdown.

William Case

2009-01-01

459

[Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].  

PubMed

Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women) and 95 in 2011, during the financial crisis (mean age 41.0 years, women 65%). There is an increase of suicide attempts by 35.71%. There were no statistically significant differences between the two periods regarding the gender and age of attempters. There was a statistically significant increase of unemployed (p=0.004), as well as of married/widowed/divorced (p=0.02) suicide attempters during the crisis. There was not statistically significant difference in the severity of suicide attempts before and during the economic crisis or the severity of psychopathology of the attempters. The financial crisis is probably associated with upward trend in attempted suicide of the Athens population. Most affected are those who are unemployed, married, widowed, divorced. Suicide prevention programs are essential for the accurate and timely identification and the immediate and effective management of this special high risk group of attempters during the financial crisis. PMID:25035179

Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

2014-01-01

460

The Crisis "Hotline" as Mediated Therapeutic Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hotlines, or telephone crisis-lines, begun in the 1960s and currently numbering in the hundreds provide assistance to callers in crisis, frequently around the clock. Crisis-line communication can be seen as a form of mediated therapeutic communication premised on the existence of a crisis and the medium of the telephone which shapes the…

Fish, Sandra L.

461

An ephemeral vision: George Bush's attempt to articulate a new world order  

E-print Network

crisis. In 1990, Saddam Hussein had seized Kuwait and gained control of nearly sixty percent of the world's oil supply. Dow (1989) argues that rhetoric in response to crisis situations is characterized by strategies that "function to al! ow... is the journal model for this thesis. crisis in the Persian Gulf' offered a "rare opportunity to move toward a historic period of cooperation, " and that out of the "troubled times" a "new world order" could emerge (p. 1359). ' Bush continued to rely...

Stevens, Sunnye Renee

1993-01-01

462

Unrelieved pain: A crisis  

PubMed Central

Despite many recent advances in the past 40 years in the understanding of pain mechanisms, and in pain diagnosis and management, considerable gaps in knowledge remain, with chronic pain present in epidemic proportions in most countries. It is often unrelieved and is associated with significant socioeconomic burdens. Several opportunities and approaches to address this crisis are identified in the present article. Most crucial is the need to increase pain awareness, enhance pain education, improve access to pain care and increase pain research resources. Given the variability among countries in health care policies and programs, resources and educational programs, many of the approaches and strategies outlined will need to be tailored to each country’s socioeconomic and educational situation. PMID:22184550

Sessle, Barry J

2011-01-01

463

World Development Sources (WDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Development Sources is the "digital repository" of World Bank documents. It houses a searchable database of development-related reports produced since 1988 by the World Bank. These include Staff Appraisal Reports (SARs), World Bank President's Reports and Memoranda, Economic and Sector Work, Evaluation Reports and Studies, and Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Montreal Protocol Project documents. It also contains working papers and publications produced by the World Bank since 1993. All of these papers can be viewed online using the TMS Sequoia plug-in (available at the site for Windows and Macintosh).

1997-01-01

464

The Impending Crisis  

PubMed Central

When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ? 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

465

Lundberg et. al) Communication Problems in Crisis Response Communication Problems in Crisis Response  

E-print Network

Lundberg et. al) Communication Problems in Crisis Response Communication Problems in Crisis Universitet mikael.asplund@liu.se ABSTRACT This paper describes five problem areas of communication that occur during crisis response. These areas are communication infrastructure, situation awareness, individual

466

Does a quarterlife crisis exist?  

PubMed

In this study, the authors examined quarterlife crisis, defined in the popular press as an identity crisis that leaves recent college graduates depressed, anxious, and full of doubt. To determine if a unique crisis exists, 4 groups of young adults (recent high school [n = 23] and college [n = 117] graduates in the workforce, present undergraduate [n = 75], and graduate [n = 57] students) completed self-report measures assessing identity development, future time perspective, social support, coping, depression, anxiety, and job and life satisfaction. No support was found for a quarterlife crisis among these 4 groups. Working high school graduates displayed the highest anxiety, followed by present undergraduates. Depression was predicted by family support and identity commitment. Job satisfaction was associated with income and support from friends. Life satisfaction was associated with income, social support from friends and family, and identity commitment. PMID:21675544

Rossi, Nicole E; Mebert, Carolyn J

2011-01-01

467

Financial crisis : through various perspectives  

E-print Network

The 2007 financial crisis can be viewed from various perspectives. First, it can be explained in a wider macroeconomic context, for example by looking at the housing bubble. Monetary policy can be explained according to ...

Kim, Joon Hee

2010-01-01

468

Intelligence, Anglo?American relations and the Suez Crisis, 1956  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daniel F. Calhoun, Hungary and Suez, 1956: An Exploration of Who Makes History (Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1991). Pp.590. $46.50.Peter L. Hahn, The United States, Great Britain and Egypt, 1945–1956 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1991). Pp.359. £25.00.Diane B. Kunz, The Economic Diplomacy of the Suez Crisis (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press,

Richard J. Aldrich

1994-01-01

469

Pulmonary Edema in Myasthenic Crisis  

PubMed Central

We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration. PMID:24829832

Anand, Uttara Swati; Arulneyam, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

470

Participation in crisis decision making  

E-print Network

the Communist powers other than the Soviet Union. The second dimension concerned the kinds of policy outputs that occurred. A crisis could under this criteria be either a military or a non- military event. Pvtting together these two criteria, a crisis... the United States comes into some confrontation with anyone of the nations adhering to the "Communist block" other than the Soviet Union. Combining the output and conditional criteria there are four classes of crises investigated in this research...

Marsico, Dale Joseph

1973-01-01

471

RISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN  

E-print Network

prospects of seniors over the past 40 years. However, the economic status of senior single women has neverRISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN Tatjana Meschede Martha Cronin Laura Sullivan Thomas Shapiro A lmost half of single women over the age of 65 face the real crisis of outliving

Snider, Barry B.

472

Assessment of the world food situation-present and future.  

PubMed

The widespread bad harvests of 1972 in various regions of the world, the consequent reduction in grain reserves, the rapid rise in food prices almost everywhere and its impact on inflation, all have served to draw renewed attention to the problem of hunger which affects millions of human beings in the world today. During the 1974 United Nations World Food Conference many important matters relating to this problem were debated: the creation of international grain reserves; problems concerning world trade of foodstuffs; the current difficulties with certain key agricultural production factors, such as fertilizers; the necessity for organizing a worldwide information system on the situation; and prospects of various harvests and threats of famine in underdeveloped countries. It is often the case that discussion of the hunger problem does not correspond to the gravity of the crisis; true causes of the present situation are not examined, and measures are not adopted that will once and for all--for the first time--abolish hunger. In view of the prospect that the real issues are often ignored, the Transnational Institute provides this analysis in an attempt to clarify what must be done to abolish hunger in the belief that this is within the reach of humanity when and if we are determined to end the irrationalities of the present economic system and the relations of domination which some individuals and countries seek to continue. PMID:1158536

Almeida, S; Baytelman, D; Chonchol, J; Collins, J; George, S; Vieira, L A; Marc von der Weid, J

1975-01-01

473

Economics 364: Survey of International Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economics 364: Survey of International Economics web site was developed by Blake LeBaron, Professor of Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The class aims to explain finance and macroeconomic policies in the world economy and trade patterns among countries. Topics covered include the foreign exchange market, balance of payments accounting, arbitrage in the foreign exchange market, monetary policy, trade models and trade policies. At the site users can find lecture notes, assignments and past exams.

LeBaron, Blake Dean, 1961-.

1998-01-01

474

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE WORLD FOOD SITUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although world food and agricultural production, based on current trends, will be sufficient to meet demand in the decades ahead, the world still faces a serious food crisis, at least as perilous and life-threatening for millions of poor people as those of the past. To this end, the main objective of this paper is to illuminate the world food situation

Tesfa G. Gebremedhin

2000-01-01

475

Benedictine Monk speaks on Making the Most of Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

“A society of stress and anxiety, dragging a ball and chain around through the day” was how Benedictine monk Father Laurence Freeman OSB described some people’s experience of today’s world in his lecture to over 200 people gathered at The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Fremantle Campus on Tuesday 16 February.\\u000aEntitled: Making the Most of Crisis: How a Contemplative

Michelle Ebbs

2010-01-01

476

Our World Their World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

Brisco, Nicole

2011-01-01

477

Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

Welker, Jean Edward

1995-01-01

478

The financial crisis, health and health inequities in Europe: the need for regulations, redistribution and social protection  

PubMed Central

In 2009, Europe was hit by one of the worst debt crises in history. Although the Eurozone crisis is often depicted as an effect of government mismanagement and corruption, it was a consequence of the 2008 U.S. banking crisis which was caused by more than three decades of neoliberal policies, financial deregulation and widening economic inequities. Evidence indicates that the Eurozone crisis disproportionately affected vulnerable populations in society and caused sharp increases of suicides and deaths due to mental and behavioral disorders especially among those who lost their jobs, houses and economic activities because of the crisis. Although little research has, so far, studied the effects of the crisis on health inequities, evidence showed that the 2009 economic downturn increased the number of people living in poverty and widened income inequality especially in European countries severely hit by the debt crisis. Data, however, also suggest favorable health trends and a reduction of traffic deaths fatalities in the general population during the economic recession. Moreover, egalitarian policies protecting the most disadvantaged populations with strong social protections proved to be effective in decoupling the link between job losses and suicides. Unfortunately, policy responses after the crisis in most European countries have mainly consisted in bank bailouts and austerity programs. These reforms have not only exacerbated the debt crisis and widened inequities in wealth but also failed to address the root causes of the crisis. In order to prevent a future financial downturn and promote a more equitable and sustainable society, European governments and international institutions need to adopt new regulations of banking and finance as well as policies of economic redistribution and investment in social protection. These policy changes, however, require the abandonment of the neoliberal ideology to craft a new global political economy where markets and gross domestic product (GDP) are no longer the main national policy goals, but just means to human and health improvements. PMID:25059702

2014-01-01

479

The financial crisis, health and health inequities in Europe: the need for regulations, redistribution and social protection.  

PubMed

In 2009, Europe was hit by one of the worst debt crises in history. Although the Eurozone crisis is often depicted as an effect of government mismanagement and corruption, it was a consequence of the 2008 U.S. banking crisis which was caused by more than three decades of neoliberal policies, financial deregulation and widening economic inequities.Evidence indicates that the Eurozone crisis disproportionately affected vulnerable populations in society and caused sharp increases of suicides and deaths due to mental and behavioral disorders especially among those who lost their jobs, houses and economic activities because of the crisis. Although little research has, so far, studied the effects of the crisis on health inequities, evidence showed that the 2009 economic downturn increased the number of people living in poverty and widened income inequality especially in European countries severely hit by the debt crisis. Data, however, also suggest favorable health trends and a reduction of traffic deaths fatalities in the general population during the economic recession. Moreover, egalitarian policies protecting the most disadvantaged populations with strong social protections proved to be effective in decoupling the link between job losses and suicides.Unfortunately, policy responses after the crisis in most European countries have mainly consisted in bank bailouts and austerity programs. These reforms have not only exacerbated the debt crisis and widened inequities in wealth but also failed to address the root causes of the crisis. In order to prevent a future financial downturn and promote a more equitable and sustainable society, European governments and international institutions need to adopt new regulations of banking and finance as well as policies of economic redistribution and investment in social protection. These policy changes, however, require the abandonment of the neoliberal ideology to craft a new global political economy where markets and gross domestic product (GDP) are no longer the main national policy goals, but just means to human and health improvements. PMID:25059702

De Vogli, Roberto

2014-01-01

480

Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

2009-12-01

481

Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.  

PubMed

Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

2014-11-01

482

Rate shock crisis faces completed nukes  

SciTech Connect

Political reluctance on the part of regulators to grant utilities a full rate base for large generating plants is a new crisis facing utilities with newly completed nuclear plants. Zero- or partial-rate treatment for large new plants will increase the financial strains of electric companies if they cannot recover their investment. Such rate decisions will affect the commitment to uncompleted and planned nuclear plants as the economic advantage is removed. Economists warn that consumer resistance to large rate increases to cover construction periods could lead to an overhaul of regulatory practices. Alternatives to sudden rate shocks could be moderated with phased-in increases or rate trending. Analysts disagree on whether consumer opposition is the beginning of a national movement or a regional response, but if other states follow Alabama's example of turning rate decisions over to the courts, it may confirm their assessment that the trending approach is unworkable. (DCK)

Utroska, D.

1982-05-01

483

Indonesian Crisis Deepens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On June 1, 2001, Indonesia's President Wahid announced that he dismissed four members of his Cabinet and the police chief, depicting the move as a peace overture to his main political rival, vice-president Megawati Sukarnoputri. Sukarnoputri's party, the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), is at the forefront of the effort to impeach President Wahid and remove him office. The PDIP won by far the largest number of votes in the last election two years ago, but Ms. Sukarnoputri was unable to broker any deals to secure an outright majority in the parliament and win the presidency for herself. Instead, the job went to Abdurrahman Wahid, a compromise candidate. Wahid's nineteen months in power have seen a number of crises and political spats, culminating in the vote by parliament on Wednesday to hold an impeachment hearing against the president over claims of corruption and incompetence on August 1. Most analysts agree that there is a firm majority in the body in favor of unseating Wahid. In addition to the cabinet reshuffle, Wahid has on several occasions raised the possibility of martial law. Neither move, it seems, is likely to satisfy parliament or Sukarnoputri's supporters. The final outcome of the current crisis is still an open question. If Sukarnoputri does take office and steps into the shoes of her illustrious father Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, she will find that the question at the heart of the present struggle -- the balance of power between the parliament and the president -- remains.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

2001-01-01

484

World military expenditures and arms transfers 1996. Foreward, highlights, charts, statistical notes, country rankings by variable, tables of military and economic variables for 172 countries, 1985-1995  

SciTech Connect

The report, the twenty-fifth in the series issued by the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, is intended to serve as a convenient reference on military expenditures, arms transfers, armed forces, and related economic data for 172 countries over the 1985-1995 decade. It provides comprehensive, up-to-date, and accurate data, accompanied by pertinent analyses and highlights.

NONE

1997-07-01

485

Education for Economic Growth or Human Development? the Capabilities Approach and the World Bank's Basic Education Project in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This…

McClure, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

486

Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

Cain, Mead

487

A Virtual Field Trip to the Real World of Cap and Trade: Environmental Economics and the EPA SO[subscript 2] Allowance Auction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2001, Bates College Environmental Economics classes bought their first sulfur dioxide emissions allowance at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual auction, then conducted by the Chicago Board of Trade. In the spring of 2010, they bought their 22nd through 34th allowances. This article describes a three-part method for…

Lewis, Lynne Y.

2011-01-01

488

14.731 Economic History, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

A survey of world economic history, designed to introduce economics graduate students to the subject matter and methodology of economic history. Topics chosen to show a wide variety of historical experience and illuminate ...

Temin, Peter

489

The Mission of the University in Economic Development and Environmental Preservation: Management of Local and Regional Resources in an Interdependent World System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation reviews the key dimensions of the environment problem and estimates the probable costs of arresting future environmental damage by expenditures to be undertaken in support of sustainable development during the decade of the 90s. It deals with the problem of pursuing a minimum "socially necessary" growth rate in the world economy…

Jayawardena, Lal

490

The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.  

PubMed

The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis. PMID:22551787

de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

2012-06-01

491

World's forests  

SciTech Connect

An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

1982-10-01

492

Hypercalcemic crisis: a clinical review.  

PubMed

Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic perturbation. However, hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency, with little clinical scientific data to support therapeutic strategy. We review the relevant scientific English literature on the topic and review current management strategies after conducting a PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search for articles published between 1930 and June 2014 using specific keywords: "hypercalcemic crisis," "hyperparathyroid crisis," "parathyroid storm," "severe primary hyperparathyroidism," "acute hyperparathyroidism," and "severe hypercalcemia" for articles pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies. Despite extensive clinical experience, large and well-designed clinical studies to direct appropriate clinical care are lacking. Nonetheless, morbidity and mortality rates have substantially decreased since early series reported almost universal fatality. Improved outcomes can be attributed to modern diagnostic capabilities, leading to earlier diagnosis, along with the recognition that primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common etiology for hypercalcemic crisis. Hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency that portends excellent outcomes if rapid diagnosis, medical treatment, and definitive surgical treatment are expedited. PMID:25447624

Ahmad, Shazia; Kuraganti, Gayatri; Steenkamp, Devin

2015-03-01

493

Crisis at the summit.  

PubMed

An unrecognized affliction is striking certain gifted performers at the top of their game. Its cause, paradoxically, is success itself. These stars, who thrive on conquering new challenges, can lose their bearings and question their purpose once a job has been mastered. A vague dissatisfaction gives way to confusion and then to inner turmoil. Left unattended, this summit syndrome can derail promising careers. The syndrome has three phases. In the approach phase, when most of the challenges of a current job have been met, sufferers tend to push harder in a vain attempt to recapture the adrenaline rush of the climb. Then, in the plateauing phase, when virtually all the challenges have been conquered, these individuals, who are incapable of coasting, bear down to try to produce ever more stellar results, but to less effect and greater dissatisfaction. This leads to the terminal descending phase, when performance slips noticeably. As their superstar status fades, they jump ship, accept demotions, or take lateral transfers. It's a terrible waste, for if the syndrome is recognized, steps can be taken before performance slips to dispel the confusion and set the stage for productive growth to the next assignment. There are four parts to this process: First, understand your "winning formula"--the characteristic way you approach a situation--and the vital part it plays in feeling stale or losing your edge. Second, reconnect with your core purpose in life. Third, recast your current, or future, job to better align your inner aspirations with the external requirements of your work. And fourth, create a developmental path by honing a handful of core leadership competencies. None of this is easy, but for talented individuals--and the organizations that rely on them--the vaccine of preventive awareness is far better than gambling on an after-the-fact cure once the crisis is full-blown. PMID:17348172

Parsons, George D; Pascale, Richard T

2007-03-01

494

European Economic Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

Huston, James A.

1971-01-01

495

Different Needs, Different Solutions to the Financial Crisis Financial fears not seen since the savings & loan crisis in the late 1980s, maybe since the Great  

E-print Network

the savings & loan crisis in the late 1980s, maybe since the Great Depression, swept the economic landscape, Chairman Bernanke, and leaders of the Congress. The leaders heard that the financial system stood that sparked the late night meeting with Congressional leaders. The Federal Reserve System introduced a series

Ahmad, Sajjad

496

Predicting economic market crises using measures of collective panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting panic is of critical importance in many areas of human and animal\\u000abehavior, notably in the context of economics. The recent financial crisis is a\\u000acase in point. Panic may be due to a specific external threat, or\\u000aself-generated nervousness. Here we show that the recent economic crisis and\\u000aearlier large single-day panics were preceded by extended periods of

Dion Harmon; Marcus A. M. de Aguiar; David D. Chinellato; Dan Braha; Irving R. Epstein; Yaneer Bar-Yam

2011-01-01

497

The Antimicrobial Resistance Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Management  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any