This paper describes a prospective study of all surgical wounds of patients at the Foothills Hospital (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) during a period of 10 years to determine the rate of infection of surgical wounds and to assess the factors that influenced this rate. My colleagues and I found that the overall infection rate was 4.7% but that the rate of infection of clean wounds was 1.5%; this latter rate proved to be far more useful than the former as an indicator of control of infections of surgical wounds. Endogenous contamination at the time of operation is more important as a cause of infection than is exogenous contamination. Having the patient shower with an antiseptic agent before the operation and not shaving the operative site reduced the clean wound infection rate. Use of adhesive plastic drapes did not reduce the infection rate. Glove punctures did not prove hazardous. Advanced age of the patient, prolonged preoperative hospitalization, and long operations were associated with an increase in the rate of infection of surgical wounds. PMID:7339786
Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices.
Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert
Measuring the frequency of a defined outcome flaw for a series of patients undergoing operative procedures generates information for performance evaluation. Such data influence decisions to improve care if used responsibly. Wound infection (WI), bacterial invasion of the incision, is the most common infectious complication of surgical care and WI prevention has value because the complication affects economic, patient satisfaction, and patient functional status outcomes. WI frequency, one kind of surgical outcome flaw rate, is traditionally used to judge one aspect of surgical care quality. At the author's institution, global WI surveillance was conducted without interruption for 20 years. Results for 85,260 consecutive inpatient operations performed during the period showed that secular changes in infection rates occurred but were not necessarily caused by surgical care quality decrements. PMID:14750065
Lee, J T
Introduction: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the General Surgery Department in Khartoum Teaching Hospital– Sudan. All Adult patients (age ?18 years) admitted during March 1st to 31st October 2010 were recruited. Multivariable logistic analysis was done to identify wound infection risk factors. Prescriptions were audited against predetermined criteria. Results: A total of 540 patients were recruited; (females73.7% of total ). The performed surgical procedures were 547. The rate of wound infection was 10.9%. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that; ASA score ? 3; (p= <0.001), wound class (p= 0.001), and laparoscopic surgical technique; (p= 0.002) were significantly associated with prevalence of wound infection. Surgical prophylaxis was unnecessarily given to 311 (97.5%) of 319 patients for whom it was not recommended. Prophylaxis was recommended for 221 patients; of them 218 (98.6 %) were given preoperative dose in the operating rooms. Evaluation of prescriptions for those patients showed that; spectrum of antibiotic was adequate for 160 (73.4%) patients, 143 (65.6%) were given accurate doses, only 4 (1.8%) had the first preoperative dose/s in proper time window, and for 186 (85.3%) of them prophylaxis was extended post-operatively. Only 36 (6.7%) prescriptions were found to be complying with the stated criteria. Conclusion: The rate of wound infection was high and prophylactic antibiotics were irrationally used. Multiple interventions are needed to correct the situation.
Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; M.A., Yousif; El-Sayed, Ahmed S.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E.
Ninety-four patients undergoing vasectomy as day cases were studied prospectively. An overall infection rate of 32.9% was recorded and, apart from haematoma formation and the nasal carriage of organisms, no factors were found that increased the risk of infection. A preoperative hibiscrub shower did not affect the infection rate, even though it was responsible for a significant reduction in skin flora. This raises the possibility of infection following vasectomy being secondary, not occurring at the time of surgery. PMID:6626903
Randall, P E; Ganguli, L; Marcuson, R W
Background: Despite advances in traumatic wound care and management, infections remain a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and economic disruption in millions of wound patients around the world. Animal models have become standard tools for studying a wide array of external traumatic wound infections and testing new antimicrobial strategies. Results: Animal models of external traumatic wound infections reported by different investigators vary in animal species used, microorganism strains, the number of microorganisms applied, the size of the wounds and for burn infections, the length of time the heated object or liquid is in contact with the skin. Methods: This review covers experimental infections in animal models of surgical wounds, skin abrasions, burns, lacerations, excisional wounds and open fractures. Conclusions: As antibiotic resistance continues to increase, more new antimicrobial approaches are urgently needed. These should be tested using standard protocols for infections in external traumatic wounds in animal models.
Dai, Tianhong; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Bil de Arce, Vida J
A prospective controlled trial was carried out to assess the effect of using a wound isolator on reducing postoperative infection. A total of 291 patients undergoing hip pinning for fractures of the neck of femur entered the trial and were allocated at random to have their wound contained in a wound isolator (study group) or dressed with a standard gamma-irradiated
J M Scott; James McLauchlan; H G Smylie
A new combined photoultrasonic (CPUS) technology for the treatment of infected wounds is suggested. The CPUS principal operation is based on the topical application of a photosensitizer followed by light irradiation in combination with low frequency ultrasonic (US) treatment of wounds. In CPUS, two methods - photodynamic (PDT) and ultrasonic therapies supplement each other beneficially and in conjunction provide a significant effect of deep suppurative inflammatory wounds treatment. The main advantages of the new technology are the combined application of an antibiotic solution and photodynamic therapy to destroy antibiotic- resistant microorganisms, an effective mixing of a photosensitizer in the wound, the US enhancement of photosensitizer impregnation into the membranes of bacteria, the US clearing of wound surface from necrotic products, an increased effective light dose exposure in the whole volume of the deep wound when the light does not penetrate totally inside the wound, an additional bactericidal effect under the US impact, and the combined effect of CPUS activation of the immune system.
Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Kalinin, Konstantin L.; Zmievskoy, Gregory N.; Velsher, Leonid Z.; Podkolzin, Alexander A.; Stakhanov, Mikhail L.; Gorchak, Yury Y.; Sarantsev, V. P.
Branhamella catarrhalis was isolated from sputum, tracheal secretions, and a nonhealing and infected thoracic surgical wound in a 59-year-old woman who had a history of a chronic, interstitial fibrosis and who had undergone an open lung biopsy procedure. The patient's upper respiratory tract was the likely source of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a wound infection caused by B. catarrhalis.
Gray, L D; Van Scoy, R E; Anhalt, J P; Yu, P K
Skin infections are common and may be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Breaks in the skin integrity, particularly those that inoculate pathogens into the dermis, frequently cause or exacerbate skin infections. Bacterial skin infections caused by corynebacteria include erythrasma, trichomycosis axillaris and pitted keratolysis. Staphylococci may cause impetigo, ecthyma and folliculitis. Streptococcal skin infections include impetigo and erysipelas. Human papillomavirus skin infections present as several different types of warts, depending on the surface infected and its relative moisture, and the patterns of pressure. The many dermatomycoses (skin infections caused by fungi or yeasts) include tinea capitis, tinea barbae, tinea cruris, tinea manus, tinea pedis and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). Candidal infections occur in moist areas, such as the vulva, mouth, penis, skinfolds and diaper area. Wounds caused by wood splinters or thorns may result in sporotrichosis. Animal bites may result in complex, serious infections, requiring tetanus and, possibly, rabies prophylaxis in addition to appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:9614412
O'Dell, M L
Surgical Wound Infection; Infection; Cesarean Section; Cesarean Section; Dehiscence; Complications; Cesarean Section; Complications; Cesarean Section, Wound, Dehiscence; Wound; Rupture, Surgery, Cesarean Section
Shewanella wound infections after snake bites are rare. We report the case of a Shewanella algae wound infection associated with a cobra bite in a 27-year-old woman. The isolate was confirmed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene. This case expands the reported spectrum of infection caused by S. algae and raises the possibility that S. algae could be a causative pathogen in wound infections resulting from snake bites. PMID:24602312
Liu, Po-Yu; Shi, Zhi-Yuan; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Wu, Zong-Yen; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Chang, Chih-Yen; Chen, Ying-Ju; Huang, Jin-An; Mao, Yan-Chiao; Tung, Kwong-Chung
A review of 19 consecutive patients treated for deep wound infections after spinal surgery was performed. Patients were analyzed for preoperative risk factors, original diagnosis requiring surgery, onset of infection, presentation, treatment, and outcome. These patients (10 men, nine women), with a mean age of 44 years (range 18-74) were treated for 13 deep and six subcutaneous infections: 16 spine infections and nine graft site infections (six with both). All 19 presented with draining wounds on an average of 17 days after surgery (range 4-86). Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 14. Patients were treated with i.v. antibiotics for an average of 3 weeks (range 0-14) followed by oral antibiotics for an average of 6 weeks (range 2-12). Surgical treatment included an average of 1.8 debridements (range 0-5), primary closure in two, delayed primary closure in seven, and healing by secondary intent in 10. All but three patients were noted to be malnourished at the onset of their infection, with a total lymphocyte count of less than 2,000. Three patients required removal of their hardware. Eighteen of 19 healed or their infections were stabilized, 17 of 18 arthrodeses fused, and no patient had neurological deterioration secondary to the infection. The treatment outlined produced satisfactory results in all but one patient. We conclude that postoperative spine infections are frequently associated with poor nutrition. Although definitive diagnosis is determined by the culture, clinical exam is helpful in establishing a presumptive diagnosis and, thus, earlier institution of surgical and antibiotic treatment. PMID:1520986
Stambough, J L; Beringer, D
The incidence of post caesarean wound infection and independent risk factors associated with wound infection were retrospectively studied at a tertiary care hospital. A retrospective case controlled study of 107 patients with wound infection after lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) was undertaken between January 1998 and December 2007. The control group comprised of 340 patients selected randomly from among those who had LSCS during the study period with no wound infection. Chart reviews of patients with wound infection were identified using the definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Systems. Comparisons for categorical variables were performed using the X 2 or Fisher exact test. Continuous variables were compared using the 2-tailed Student t test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Logistic regression determined the independent risk factors. The overall wound infection rate in the study was 4.2% among 2 541 lower transverse CS. The independent risk factors identified for wound infection were, obesity, duration of labor >12 hours, and no antenatal care. Patients' age and parity, diabetes mellitus, premature rupture of membranes (PROM) >8 hours and elective vs. emergency surgery was not found to be significantly associated with wound infection. Conclusion: The independent risk factors could be incorporated into the policies for surveillance and prevention of wound infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be utilized in high risk patients such as PROM, obese patients and prolonged labor.
Al Jama, Fathia E.
Shewanella putrefaciens has a wide geographical distribution, including all forms of sea water, fresh water, fish and soil. In humans, it is an unusual pathogen of wound infections. In this report, a wound infection was presented in a previously healthy man. PMID:15370659
Bulut, Cemal; Ertem, Gunay Tuncer; Gökcek, Cevdet; Tulek, Necla; Bayar, M Akif; Karakoc, Esra
Although many workers have used photodynamic therapy to kill bacteria in vitro, the use of this approach has seldom been reported in vivo in animal models of infection. We report on the use of a targeted polycationic photosensitizer conjugate between poly-L-lysine and chlorin(e6) that can penetrate the Gram (-) outer membrane together with red laser light to kill Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting excisional wounds in mice. We used genetically engineered luminescent bacteria that allowed the infection to be imaged in mouse wounds using a sensitive CCD camera. Wounds were infected with 5x106 bacteria, followed by application of the conjugate in solution and illumination. There was a light-dose dependent loss of luminescence as measured by image analysis in the wound treated with conjugate and light, not seen in control wounds. This strain of E coli is non-invasive and the infection in untreated wounds spontaneously resolved in a few days and all wounds healed equally well showing the photodynamic treatment did not damage the host tissue. P aeruginosa is highly invasive and mice with untreated or control wounds all died while 90% of PDT treated mice survived. PDT may have a role to play in the rapid treatment of infected wounds in view of the worldwide rise in antibiotic resistance.
Hamblin, Michael R.; O'Donnell, David A.; Zahra, Touqir; Contag, Christopher H.; McManus, Albert T.; Hasan, Tayyaba
A prospective study of postoperative wounds was carried out in West Dorset to determine the incidence of infection, describe the time distribution of presentation before and after discharge from hospital and identify possible contributory factors. There were 702 consecutive patients admitted to the study (600 in-patients and 102 day cases). Fifty one became infected (47 in-patients and 4 day cases), corresponding to an overall infection rate of 7.3%. Over 50% of infections presented during the first week after operation, and almost 90% were diagnosed within 2 weeks of surgery Twenty-eight (55%) wounds that became infected presented after hospital discharge. Of 23 specific aetiological variables studied, four (age, preoperative stay, shaving and the surgeon) were shown to have a statistically significant association with the development of wound infection. A strong association between the individual surgeon and the development of a wound infection was demonstrated and this supports the need for routine surgical audit. PMID:1979572
Mishriki, S F; Law, D J; Jeffery, P J
All open wounds are primarily contaminated and subsequently colonized by microorganisms, predominantly bacteria. Only about 30% of chronic wounds are also infected. Factors which favor the development of infection are the following: large quantity of bacteria, presence of virulence factors, their quantity and number, predominantly the synergy of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and formation of biofilm. Common agents of infection of acute and chronic wounds are Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., and Candida albicans. Difference between acute and chronic wound is in the predominance of individual agents, with an observation that Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in both cases. Atypical agents of chronic wound infection are rare, unusual, not found in the area in which we live, not proven by standard microbiological methods, but molecular methods are needed instead. They are predominantly opportunists, varying in the expression of virulence factors, or they have changed their phenotype characteristics and are not the agents of primary wound infections. They are the agents of secondary infections. Atypical agents of the chronic wound infection are diverse, from the anaerobe group, Peptoniphilus spp., Anaerococcus spp., Bacteroides ureolyticus, Finegoldia magma, the group of gram positive rods of the Corynebacterium genus, the group of bacteria from aquatic environment Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, and Vibrio alginolyticus. The targeted samples are biopsy sample as the "gold standard" and/or aspirate, when a significant quantity of exudate is present. Targeted samples are obligatory when there is a progression and decomposition of the base of the wound, increase in the size or depth of the wound, isolation of multiresistant microbes, or absence of clinical response to empirical antimicrobial therapy. In the diagnosis of opportunistic pathogens or atypical agents of chronic wound infection, it is necessary to be thorough, meticulous, and conduct revision of the patient, diagnosis, treatment and samples. Crucial for the detection of the agents atypical wound infection is discussion and agreement with clinical microbiologist. Essential for the quality diagnosis is decontamination of the wound before taking targeted samples. The targeted sample is biopsy specimen as the "gold standard", less frequently aspirate, depending on the quantity and content of the wound. Swab as a sample is not recommended. If there is no other choice, only exceptionally surface swabs may be taken, but only under the following conditions: decontamination of the wound with the application of Levine's or Z-technique of taking of swabs. PMID:23193825
Background Bacterial infections of wounds impair healing and worsen scarring. We hypothesized that transcriptome analysis of wounds infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) would indicate host-responses associated with the worse healing of P.a.- than K.p.-infected wounds. Methods Wounds created on post-operative day (POD) 0 were infected during the inflammatory phase of healing on POD3 and were harvested on POD4 for microarray and transcriptome analysis. Other wounds received topical antibiotic after infection for 24 hours to promote biofilm development, and were harvested on POD6 or POD12. Results Wounds infected for 24 hours, relative to uninfected wounds, elevated transcripts of immune-response functions characteristic of infiltrating leukocytes. But P.a.-infected wounds elevated many more transcripts and to higher levels than K.p.-infected wounds. Coincidently, suppressed transcripts of both wounds enriched into stress-response pathways, including EIF2 signaling; however, this was more extensive for P.a.-infected wounds, including many-fold more transcripts enriching in the ‘cell death’ annotation, suggesting resident cutaneous cell toxicity in response to a more damaging P.a. inflammatory milieu. The POD6 wounds were colonized with biofilm but expressed magnitudes fewer immune-response transcripts with no stress-response enrichments. However, elevated transcripts of P.a.-infected wounds were inferred to be regulated by type I interferons, similar to a network unique to P.a.-infected wounds on POD4. On POD12, transcripts that were more elevated in K.p.-infected wounds suggested healing, while transcripts more elevated in P.a.-infected wounds indicated inflammation. Conclusions An extensive inflammatory response of wounds was evident from upregulated transcripts 24 hours after infection with either bacterium, but the response was more intense for P.a.- than K.p.-infected wounds. Coincidently, more extensive down-regulated transcripts of P.a.-infected wounds indicated a stronger “integrated stress response” to the inflammatory milieu that tipped more toward cutaneous cell death. Unique to P.a.-infected wounds on POD4 and POD6 were networks inferred to be regulated by interferons, which may result from intracellular replication of P.a. These data point to specific downregulated transcripts of cells resident to the wound as well as upregulated transcripts characteristic of infiltrating leukocytes that could be useful markers of poorly healing wounds and indicators of wound-specific treatments for improving outcomes.
Mycobacterium fortuitum in a rapidly growing atypical mycobacteia, sometimes associated with nosocomial infections in human. These infections are often difficult to identify; and treat even after indentification. We report here a case of chronic post operative wound infection due to M. fortuitum. PMID:18697600
Verghese, Susan; Madhusudhan, B; Senthil, M S; Thabitha, C; Leelavathy, S; Padmaja, P; Madhusudhan, K
Innate defense regulators (IDRs) are synthetic immunomodulatory versions of natural host defense peptides (HDP). IDRs mediate protection against bacterial challenge in the absence of direct antimicrobial activity, representing a novel approach to anti-infective and anti-inflammatory therapy. Previously, we reported that IDR-1018 selectively induced chemokine responses and suppressed pro-inflammatory responses. As there has been an increasing appreciation for the ability of HDPs to modulate complex immune processes, including wound healing, we characterized the wound healing activities of IDR-1018 in vitro. Further, we investigated the efficacy of IDR-1018 in diabetic and non-diabetic wound healing models. In all experiments, IDR-1018 was compared to the human HDP LL-37 and HDP-derived wound healing peptide HB-107. IDR-1018 was significantly less cytotoxic in vitro as compared to either LL-37 or HB-107. Furthermore, administration of IDR-1018 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in fibroblast cellular respiration. In vivo, IDR-1018 demonstrated significantly accelerated wound healing in S. aureus infected porcine and non-diabetic but not in diabetic murine wounds. However, no significant differences in bacterial colonization were observed. Our investigation demonstrates that in addition to previously reported immunomodulatory activities IDR-1018 promotes wound healing independent of direct antibacterial activity. Interestingly, these effects were not observed in diabetic wounds. It is anticipated that the wound healing activities of IDR-1018 can be attributed to modulation of host immune pathways that are suppressed in diabetic wounds and provide further evidence of the multiple immunomodulatory activities of IDR-1018.
Schulte, Matthias; Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Jacobsen, Frank; Mersch, Evgenija A.; Stricker, Ingo; Afacan, Nicole; Jenssen, Havard; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Kindrachuk, Jason
Innate defense regulators (IDRs) are synthetic immunomodulatory versions of natural host defense peptides (HDP). IDRs mediate protection against bacterial challenge in the absence of direct antimicrobial activity, representing a novel approach to anti-infective and anti-inflammatory therapy. Previously, we reported that IDR-1018 selectively induced chemokine responses and suppressed pro-inflammatory responses. As there has been an increasing appreciation for the ability of HDPs to modulate complex immune processes, including wound healing, we characterized the wound healing activities of IDR-1018 in vitro. Further, we investigated the efficacy of IDR-1018 in diabetic and non-diabetic wound healing models. In all experiments, IDR-1018 was compared to the human HDP LL-37 and HDP-derived wound healing peptide HB-107. IDR-1018 was significantly less cytotoxic in vitro as compared to either LL-37 or HB-107. Furthermore, administration of IDR-1018 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in fibroblast cellular respiration. In vivo, IDR-1018 demonstrated significantly accelerated wound healing in S. aureus infected porcine and non-diabetic but not in diabetic murine wounds. However, no significant differences in bacterial colonization were observed. Our investigation demonstrates that in addition to previously reported immunomodulatory activities IDR-1018 promotes wound healing independent of direct antibacterial activity. Interestingly, these effects were not observed in diabetic wounds. It is anticipated that the wound healing activities of IDR-1018 can be attributed to modulation of host immune pathways that are suppressed in diabetic wounds and provide further evidence of the multiple immunomodulatory activities of IDR-1018. PMID:22879874
Steinstraesser, Lars; Hirsch, Tobias; Schulte, Matthias; Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Jacobsen, Frank; Mersch, Evgenija A; Stricker, Ingo; Afacan, Nicole; Jenssen, Havard; Hancock, Robert E W; Kindrachuk, Jason
Wound swabs from surgical patients were studied from 1989 to 1991 to review the pattern of nosocomial infection in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 4.9%. The ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive organisms in wound infection was 3:1 with klebsiella species and Pseudomonas species emerging as the most important gram-negative organisms. Staphylococcus aureus was the single most prevalent organisms in surgical would infections. Recommendations on control measures are given. PMID:10456156
Oni, A A; Bakare, R A; Okesola, A O; Ogunlowo, H A; Ewete, A F
We retrospectively collected and analysed data from patients with sternal wound infections between 1995 and 2001, which were treated with different wound management strategies, and compared them with our patients from 2002 to 2011, who were treated with the sternal negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). From 1995 to 2001, a total of 198 patients (group A) with a mean age of 65 ± 10 years developed sternal wound infection (67% deep) after cardiac surgery. Wound management consisted of surgical debridement and immediate sternal closure or open packing. From 2002 to 2011, a total of 326 patients (group B) (71% deep) were managed with NPWT at the time of surgical debridement. Total mortality was 10% in group A and 3·6% in group B. Recurrence rates were 34 and 8·5%, respectively, for the groups A and B. The meantime of NPWT was 11 days. In group B patients, 75% proceeded to sternal closure. With the introduction of NPWT, the treatment of sternal wound infections could be substantially improved. Particularly, the high recurrence rates could be minimised; furthermore, the goal to salvage the sternal bone is facilitated. PMID:22943741
Fleck, Tatjana; Fleck, Michael
Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, Neisseria canis, Staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxidizer-1, and eugonic oxidizer-2 in dog, Flavobacterium group in pig, and Actinobacillus spp in horse and sheep bites. Vibrio spp, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas spp can cause infections in bites associated with marine settings. In addition to local wound infection, complications include lymphangitis, local abscess, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and osteomyelitis. Uncommon complications include endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, and sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation especially in immunocompromised individuals. Wound management includes administering local care and using proper antimicrobial therapy when needed. PMID:19698283
BACKGROUND: Wound infection is a common complication in diabetic patients. The progressive spread of infections and development of drug-resistant strains underline the need for further insights into bacterial behavior in the host in order to develop new therapeutic strategies. The aim of our study was to develop a large animal model suitable for monitoring the development and effect of bacterial
Tobias Hirsch; Malte Spielmann; Baraa Zuhaili; Till Koehler; Magdalena Fossum; Hans-Ulrich Steinau; Feng Yao; Lars Steinstraesser; Andrew B Onderdonk; Elof Eriksson
Work done during the first year of the award resulted in the identification and characterization of a set of 29 A. baumannii strains isolated from wounded military personnel with regard to their capacity to grow under iron-limiting conditions, produce iro...
L. A. Actis
Infection of wounds during hospitalisation often induces morbidity and sometimes mortality. The delay in patient recovery and subsequent increased length of hospital stay also has economic consequences. Standard techniques for microbiological detection are surface swabbing and wound biopsy culture. Surface swabbing is the most commonly used technique mainly because is quite inexpensive and is not invasive but can give only a representation of surface infection and analysis is also time consuming. Infected wounds are often characterised by an offensive odour that can be used as a diagnostic parameter. We report the results obtained by examining swabs and dressings taken from patients using a gas sensor array instrument developed as part of an EU funded project WOUNDMONITOR.
Pisanelli, A. M.; Persaud, K. C.; Bailey, A.; Stuczen, M.; Duncan, R.; Dunn, K.
Auto-, iso-, or xenografts of skin and synthetics placed on surface wounds freshly contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa stabilizes the wound bacterial population in rats over a 24-h period. When these wounds contained a bacterial contamination established for 24 h prior to grafting, only skin and the synthetic polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate were effective in lowering the initial bacterial concentration. Polyurethane foam and nylon velour were not effective in the established infection model. Skin placed on a contaminated wound for 2 h or longer appeared to equilibrate with the underlying muscle so that the bacterial count per milligram of skin was similar to that of the muscle. It was suggested that this preparation would be useful to obtain an estimate of surface contamination without biopsy of the infected muscle. Skin grafts in place for 2 h significantly lowered the bacterial count in a wound with an established infection. A second decrease occurred between 4 and 24 h after grafting. Histological studies of contaminated and exposed panniculus muscle showed that leukocytes tend to migrate from the muscle surface to its base. Skin grafts and polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate appear to reverse the white cell migration so that the cells move toward the surface of the muscle with preservation of normal staining characteristics in the muscle. It is suggested that this alteration in cell movement after graft application might modify the white cell function and result in a greater bactericidal activity. Apparently, grafts lower bacterial levels in an established infection by modifying the host response to the surface contamination. Images
Saymen, Dennis G.; Nathan, Paul; Holder, Ian Alan; Hill, Edward O.; Macmillan, Bruce G.
Background Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a serious postoperative complication of cardiac surgery. In this study we investigated the incidence of DSWI and effect of re-exploration for bleeding on DSWI mortality. Methods We reviewed 73,700 cases registered in the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JACVSD) during the period from 2004 to 2009 and divided them into five groups: 26,597 of isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) cases, 23,136 valvular surgery cases, 17,441 thoracic aortic surgery cases, 4,726 valvular surgery plus CABG cases, and 1,800 thoracic aortic surgery plus CABG cases. We calculated the overall incidence of postoperative DSWI, incidence of postoperative DSWI according to operative procedure, 30-day mortality and operative mortality of postoperative DSWI cases according to operative procedure, 30-day mortality and operative mortality of postoperative DSWI according to whether re-exploration for bleeding, and the intervals between the operation and deaths according to whether re-exploration for bleeding were investigated. Operative mortality is defined as in-hospital or 30-day mortality. Risk factors for DSWI were also examined. Results The overall incidence of postoperative DSWI was 1.8%. The incidence of postoperative DSWI was 1.8% after isolated CABG, 1.3% after valve surgery, 2.8% after valve surgery plus CABG, 1.9% after thoracic aortic surgery, and 3.4% after thoracic aortic surgery plus CABG. The 30-day and operative mortality in patients with DSWI was higher after more complicated operative procedures. The incidence of re-exploration for bleeding in DSWI cases was 11.1%. The overall 30-day/operative mortality after DSWI with re-exploration for bleeding was 23.0%/48.0%, and it was significantly higher than in the absence of re-exploration for bleeding (8.1%/22.0%). The difference between the intervals between the operation and death according to whether re-exploration for bleeding had been performed was not significant. Age and cardiogenic shock were significant risk factors related to re-exploration for bleeding, and diabetes control was a significant risk factor related to DSWI for all surgical groups. Previous CABG was a significant risk factor related to both re-exploration for bleeding and DSWI for all surgical groups. Conclusions The incidence of DSWI after cardiac surgery according to the data entered in the JACVSD registry during the period from 2004 to 2009 was 1.8%, and more complicated procedures were followed by higher incidence and mortality. When re-exploration for bleeding was performed, mortality was significantly higher than when it was not performed. Prevention of DSWI and establishment of an effective appropriate treatment for DSWI may improve the outcome of cardiac surgery.
Patients who undergo a surgical operation are at high risk of having 1 or more nosocomial infections. These infections develop in more surgical patients (8%) than in any other patient group, and about 70% of all nosocomial infections throughout the hospit...
B. P. Simmons
Persistent infection of severe wounds, and burns in particular, represents a significant cause of deployment-related morbidity and mortality. Inability to successfully treat wound and burn infections relates to the capacity of the bacteria to form a biofi...
A 60-year-old male with lumbosacral multiple myeloma received 5100 cGy of external-beam radiation, thalidomide, and Decadron. He subsequently underwent excision of the epidural tumor, decompressive L4, L5, and S1 laminectomies, and bilateral L4-5 and L5-S1 medial facetectomies. The patient developed osteoradionecrosis, cerebrospinal fluid leak, wound infection, and sepsis. Debridement and bilateral V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement flaps failed. Pedicled omental transposition flap through a Petit triangle tunnel was successfully performed. Omental transposition provides a safe option for salvage treatment of irradiated, infected lumbosacral wounds. The plastic and trophic qualities of the omentum make it an excellent choice to fill poorly vascularized wounds. In addition to its immunologic and neoangiogenic properties, the omentum has a dense lymphatic network with tremendous absorptive potential. Its biologic advantages must be weighed against the need for celiotomy and available local options according to circumstances. PMID:16258309
Schmidek, Alexandra K; Warren, Stephen M; Tantillo, Michael B; Morris, Donald J
Background Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of mortality, despite medical advances it continues to be a major problem. Objectives The main goal of this study was healing initial of appendectomy infection wounds with aggressive washing method. Patients and Methods This study is a semiexperimental investigation which was performed on 300 patients with perforated appendicitis and infected ulcers who were selected randomly during 2001-2005. Patients were investigated with aggressive washing and primary repair, and necessary data was collected and analyzed. Results From all patients, 284 were improved, and 16 cases were complicated, from them 10 patients in the first week, 4 patients in the second week, and 2 patients in the third week had ulcer infection. Conclusions The results showed that aggressive washing method is an effective technique in patients with perforated appendicitis and wound infection.
Feizi, Iraj; Poorfarzan, Iraj; Shahbazzadegan, Bita; Amani, Firouz
The rate of deep wound infections in spinal lumbar fusions is around 0.7% to 11.6%, being one of the causes of morbidity in acute phase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of spinal infection after internal lumbar fusions. Two hundred and sixty patients, who underwent to spinal surgery with lumbar fusion and iliac bone grafting, were analized, from January 1997 to January 2005. Wound infection was observed in eight (3%) cases. The average of age was 56 years, with a higher prevalence in males (5 patients). Most prevalent was Staphylococcus aureus in 6 patients. The treatment was done by intravenous antibiotic therapy folowed by oral therapy and local irrigation. The average time of hospitalization was 35.8 days. It was possible to erradicate infection without removal of instrumentation in all patients. PMID:17221012
Falavigna, Asdrubal; Righesso Neto, Orlando; Fonseca, Gabriela Poglia; Nervo, Monique
The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidents of pseudomonas aeruginosa in post-operative wound infection and its sensitivity pattern to commonly used antibiotics. During a period of six months between February to December, 2005, 115 specimens were collected from King Abdullah University Hospital, Princess Basma Hospital, Princess Badea and Princess Rahma Hospitals. Samples were obtained from the
Hani A. Masaadeh; Adnan S. Jaran
Deep sternal wound infection remains one of the most serious complications in patients who undergo median sternotomy for coronary artery bypass surgery. We describe our experience in treating 6 consecutive patients with our treatment protocol that combines aggressive débridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics, negative-pressure wound therapy, omentoplasty with laparoscopically harvested omentum, and the use of bilateral pectoral muscle advancement flaps. The number of débridements needed in order to attain clinically clean wounds and negative cultures varied between 1 and 10, with a median of 5. The length of stay after omentoplasty and bilateral pectoral muscle advancement flap placement varied between 11 and 22 days. One of the 6 patients developed a small wound dehiscence that was treated conservatively. No bleeding related to vacuum-assisted closure therapy was identified. Three patients had pneumonia. Two of the 3 patients had an episode of acute renal failure. The 30-day mortality rate was zero, although 1 patient died in the hospital 43 days after the reconstructive surgery, of multiple-organ failure due to pneumonia that was induced by end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. No patient died between hospital discharge and the most recent follow-up date (4–12 mo). Late local follow-up results, both functional and aesthetic, were good. We conclude that negative-pressure wound therapy—in combination with omentoplasty using laparoscopically harvested omentum and with the use of bilateral pectoral advancement flaps—is a valuable technique in the treatment of deep sternal wound infection because it produces good functional and aesthetic results.
De Brabandere, Kristof; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Czapla, Jens; La Meir, Mark; Delvaux, Georges; Wellens, Francis
Typically, burn wound infections are classified by the organisms present in the wound within the first several days following injury or later, by routine surveillance cultures. With universal acceptance of early excision and grafting, classification of burn wound colonization in unexcised burn wounds is less relevant shifting clinical significance to open burn-related surgical wound infections (SWI). To better characterize SWIs and their clinical relevance, we identified the pathogens responsible for SWIs, their impact on rates of regrafting, and the relationship between SWI and nosocomial infection (NI) pathogens. Epidemiologic and clinical data for 71 adult patients with ?20% TBSA burn were collected. Following excision and grafting, if a grafted site had clinical characteristics of infection, a wound culture swab was obtained and organism identified. Surveillance cultures were not obtained. SWI pathogen, anatomic location, post-burn day of occurrence and need for regrafting were compiled. A positive culture obtained from an isolated anatomic location at any time point after excision and grafting of that location was considered a distinct infection. Pathogens responsible for NIs (urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream and catheter-related bloodstream infections, pseudomembranous colitis and donor site infections) and their post-burn day were identified. The profiles of SWI pathogens and NI pathogens were then compared. Of the 71 patients included, 2 withdrew, 6 had no excision or grafting performed and 1 had incomplete data. Of the 62 remaining, 24 (39%) developed a SWI. In these 24 patients, 70 distinct infections were identified of which 46% required regrafting. Candida species (24%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), Serratia marcescens (11%) and Staphylococcus aureus (11%) comprised the majority of pathogens. The development of a SWI with the need for regrafting increased overall length of stay, area of autograft, number of operative events and was closely associated with the number of NIs. The % TBSA burn and depth of the burn were the main risk factors for SWI with need for regrafting. The SWI pathogen was identified as a NI pathogen 56% of the time with no temporal correlation between shared SWI and NI pathogens. SWIs are commonly found in severely burned patients and are associated with regrafting. As a result, patients with SWIs are subjected to increased operative events, autograft placement, and increased length of hospitalization. Additionally, the presence of a SWI may be a risk factor for development of NIs.
Posluszny, Joseph A.; Conrad, Peggie; Halerz, Marcia; Shankar, Ravi; Gamelli, Richard L.
Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance.
Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.
Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multidrug resistance. PMID:20429870
Dai, T; Huang, Y Y; Sharma, S K; Hashmi, J T; Kurup, D B; Hamblin, M R
This study tested the hypothesis that heightened bacterial colonization and delayed wound closure in aged mice could be attenuated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment. Previously, we reported that aged mice had elevated bacterial levels, protracted wound closure, and reduced wound neutrophil accumulation after Staphylococcus aureus wound infection relative to young mice. In aseptic wound models, G-CSF treatment improved wound closure in aged mice to rates observed in young mice. Given these data, our objective was to determine if G-CSF could restore age-associated differences in wound bacterial burden and closure by increasing wound neutrophil recruitment. Young (3- to 4-month) and aged (18- to 20-month) BALB/c mice received three dorsal subcutaneous injections of G-CSF (250 ng/50 ?L per injection) or saline control (50 ?L per injection) 30 min after wound infection. Mice were killed at days 3 and 7 after wound infection, and bacterial colonization, wound size, wound leukocyte accumulation, and peripheral blood were evaluated. At days 3 and 7 after wound infection, bacterial colonization was significantly reduced in G-CSF-treated aged mice to levels observed in saline-treated young animals. Wound size was reduced in G-CSF-treated aged animals, with no effect on wound size in G-CSF-treated young mice. Local G-CSF treatment significantly enhanced neutrophil wound accumulation in aged mice, whereas there was no G-CSF-induced change in young mice. These data demonstrate that G-CSF enhances bacterial clearance and wound closure in an age-dependent manner. Moreover, G-CSF may be of therapeutic potential in the setting of postoperative wound infection or chronic nonhealing wounds in elderly patients. PMID:23856924
Brubaker, Aleah L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J
Otolaryngologists commonly evaluate patients with findings suspicious for deep space soft tissue infections of the neck. In this case, a woman with a history of injection drug use (IDU) presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and neck pain. Multiple neck abscesses, too small to drain, were seen on imaging. Despite broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, she unexpectedly and rapidly developed respiratory failure requiring intubation. Further work-up diagnosed wound botulism (WB). To our knowledge, this is the first report of WB presenting as a deep neck space infection, and illustrates the importance of considering this deadly diagnosis in patients with IDU history and bulbar symptoms. PMID:22645053
Gouveia, Christopher; Mookherjee, Somnath; Russell, Matthew S
Wound perfusion and oxygenation are important determinants of the development of postoperative wound infections. Supplemental fluid administration significantly increases tissue oxygenation in surrogate wounds in the subcutaneous tissue of the upper arm in perioperative surgical patients. We tested the hypothesis that supplemental fluid administration during and after elective colon resections decreases the incidence of postoperative wound infections. Patients undergoing open colon resection were randomly assigned to small (n=124, 8 mL·kg-1·h-1) or large volume (n=129, 16-18 mL·kg-1·h-1) fluid management. Our major outcomes were two distinct criteria for diagnosis of surgical wound infections: 1) purulent exudate combined with a culture positive for pathogenic bacteria and 2) Center for Disease Control criteria for diagnosis of surgical wound infections. All wound infections diagnosed using either criterion by a blinded observer in the 15 days following surgery were considered in the analysis. Wound healing was evaluated with the ASEPSIS scoring system. Of the patients given small fluid administration, 14 had surgical wound infections; 11 given large fluid therapy had infections, P=0.46. ASEPSIS wound healing scores were similar in both groups: 7±16 (small volume) vs. 8±14 (large volume), P=0.70. Our results suggest that supplemental hydration in the range tested does not impact wound infection rate.
Kabon, Barbara; Akca, Ozan; Taguchi, Akiko; Nagele, Angelika; Jebadurai, Ratnaraj; Arkilic, Cem F.; Sharma, Neeru; Ahluwalia, Arundhathi; Galandiuk, Susan; Fleshman, James; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kurz, Andrea
The objectives of this study were to determine the speed of irrigation and the infection rate of two new irrigation devices. In the clinical portion of this two-part study, 208 patients with traumatic wounds were randomized to one of two new irrigation device groups, the cap\\/bottle or the port\\/bag, to determine irrigation times and infection\\/complication rates. Wounds were irrigated in
Jeffrey W Morse; Thomas Babson; Chris Camasso; Anneke C Bush; Philip A Blythe
Enterococci, a complex group of facultative pathogens have become increasingly isolated in various hospital settings. They are considerable frequently cultured from traumatic and surgical wounds. We investigated 57 strains of the species E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. casseliflavus isolated from infected wounds. Their ability to produce virulence factors and their sensitivity to antibiotics were evaluated using phenotypic and genotyping methods. In the phenotype studies, significant portion of the isolates produced biofilm (66.7%) and gelatinase (36.8%). Nearly 30% of the strains expressed hemolytic properties. Only a few produced DNAse (15.8%) and lipase (7.0%). The genes esp, gelE, cylA, cylB, cylM and agg were detected in most of the isolates (38.6-87.7%). All the isolated enterococci were susceptible to vancomycin and were characterized by their low resistance to antibiotics, except aminoglycosides (HLR). PMID:22750786
Dworniczek, Ewa; Piwowarczyk, Justyna; Bania, Jacek; Kowalska-Krochmal, Beata; Wa?ecka, Ewa; Seniuk, Alicja; Dolna, Izabela; Go?ciniak, Gra?yna
To determine the microbiology of wound infection following caesarean section and to evaluate the use of Gram stain for the predicton of subsequent microbiological culture results, 1319 surgical wounds were followed up. We did Gram stains and cultures on exudates from open wounds and on aspirates if the wounds had demonstrable fluid collection. Incidence of post-caesarean wound infection was 8.1%. Ninety-three (86.9%) of 107 infected wounds were culture positive, with Staphylococcus aureus the most frequently found organism (42%). Organisms seen by Gram stain yielded a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 88.9%, positive predictive value of 97.7% and negative predictive value of 84.2% when used to predict positive culture results for bacterial wound infection. PMID:16450539
Kaplan, N M; Smadi, A A; Al-Taani, M I; El-Qudah, M A
Photobacterium damsela (P damsela) is a common marine bacterium. Rare reports of P damsela causing septicemia and wound infection have been described in children. We report a case of Photobacterium damsela isolated from a wound culture taken from a 14-year-old male injured after a minor trauma while surfing. We alert physicians to this infection and the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy for wound infection following seawater injury. PMID:19279534
Aigbivbalu, Lem; Maraqa, Nizar
The design of materials for cutaneous wound dressings has advanced from passive wound covers to bioactive materials that promote skin regeneration and prevent infection. Crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogels have been investigated for a number of biomedical applications. While these materials can be used for drug delivery, limited cell interactions restrict their biological activity. In this article, acryoyl-lysine (A-Lys) was incorporated into poly(ethylene glycol) crosslinked PNIPAAm to enhance biological activity. A-Lys could be incorporated into the hydrogels to improve cellular interaction in vitro, while maintaining swelling properties and thermoresponsive behavior. Polyhexamethylene biguanide, an antimicrobial agent, could be encapsulated and released from the hydrogels and resulted in decreased bacteria counts within 2 hours. Two in vivo animal wound models were used to evaluate the hydrogel wound dressing. First, application of the hydrogels to a rodent cutaneous wound healing model resulted in significant increase in healing rate when compared with controls. Moreover, the hydrogels were also able to decrease bacteria levels in an infected wound model. These results suggest that PNIPAAm hydrogels containing A-Lys are promising wound dressings due to their ability to promote healing and deliver active antimicrobial drugs to inhibit infection. PMID:22121043
Jiang, Bin; Larson, Jeffery C; Drapala, Pawel W; Pérez-Luna, Víctor H; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J; Brey, Eric M
OBJECTIVES Leg wound infection is a common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Suture contamination has been suggested as a mechanism of surgical site infections. Vicryl Plus® is a polyglacitin suture coated with the antiseptic chemical substance Triclosan, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. The first aim of the present study was to compare Vicryl Plus with conventional Vicryl® sutures with regard to leg wound infections following CABG. The second aim was to examine patient- and operative characteristics, which are assumed to predict leg wound infections. METHODS After statistical calculations a priori, 328 CABG patients were prospectively randomized to leg wound closure with Vicryl Plus (164 patients) or conventional Vicryl sutures (164 patients). Incidences of leg wound infection and predictors of infection related to patient- and operative characteristics were examined. RESULTS The incidence of leg wound infections was 10.4% (17/163) in the Vicryl group, and 10.0% (16/160) in the Vicryl Plus group (P = 1.00). Patients with leg wound infections had increased body mass index and prolonged extracorporeal circulation and aortic clamping time compared with patients without infections. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, we report for the first time that Vicryl Plus did not reduce the incidence of leg wound infections in patients undergoing CABG. Obesity and prolonged time of extracorporeal circulation were both associated with the increased risk of infections. Currently, the clinical role and indication for the use of Vicryl Plus have yet to be defined.
Seim, Bj?rn Edvard; T?nnessen, Theis; Woldbaek, Per Reidar
In a study of 188 cases of wound infection seen in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between December 1994 and April 1995, 78 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were methicilin resistant (MRSA). The disc sensitivity pattern of the MRSA was determined using the method of Kirby et al., and the MICs of common antibacterial agents to the MRSA were determined by agar dilution method. Vancomycin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin offered the best effective treatment for MRSA wound infections, and are recommended as reserved drugs while gentamicin and cotrimoxazole are first line drugs. PMID:12953988
Okesola, A O; Oni, A A; Bakare, R A
Wound infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria increase morbidity and mortality and have considerable socioeconomic impact.\\u000a They can lead to impaired wound healing, resulting in rising treatment costs. The aim of this study was to investigate an\\u000a ex vivo human wound infection model. Human full-thickness skin from the operating room (OR) was placed into the Bo-Drum® and cultivated for 7 days in
Lars Steinstraesser; M. Sorkin; A. D. Niederbichler; M. Becerikli; J. Stupka; A. Daigeler; M. R. Kesting; I. Stricker; F. Jacobsen; M. Schulte
BACKGROUND: Post caesarean wound infection is not only a leading cause of prolonged hospital stay but a major cause of the widespread aversion to caesarean delivery in developing countries. In order to control and prevent post caesarean wound infection in our environment there is the need to access the relative contribution of each aetiologic factor. Though some studies in our
Oliver C Ezechi; Asuquo Edet; Hakim Akinlade; Chidinma V Gab-Okafor; Ebiere Herbertson
Background: Despite antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment, the incidence of wound infections in orthopedic surgery is significant. Postoperative wound infection is a multifactorial process, which can be modified by several bacterial factors. Cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria is a very important physicochemical feature, which has a great influence on the ability of bacteria to adhere to the surface of host cells
Tamás Kustos; Ildikó Kustos; Ferenc Kilár; Gábor Rappai; Béla Kocsis
Wound complications associated with long incisions used to harvest the greater saphenous vein are common and well documented. We compared leg wound infection rates, wound healing disturbances (WHDs), length of vein harvested, vein harvest time, and total surgical time between minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting (MIVH) and conventional vein harvesting (CVH) techniques. This meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in wound infections in favor of the MIVH group (odds ratio = 0.19; 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.25) and a significant reduction in WHDs in favor of the MIVH group (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.20-0.34). The MIVH and CVH techniques are equivalent with respect to saphenous vein harvest time, saphenous vein harvest length, and total surgical time. A visual inspection of "funnel" plots suggests a mild to moderate publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that leg wound infections and wound healing disturbances are reduced using MIVH techniques. PMID:18815201
Reed, James F
The wound infection is one of the frequent complications in patients undergoing surgical operations. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of surgical wounds. Artemisia absinthium has been shown to bear strong antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram-positive pathogens. This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of A. absinthium against surgical wounds infected by S. aureus in a rat model. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two equal groups of treated and control rats. A circular incision was created on the dorsal inter-scapular region of each rat. After skin wounding, rats were inoculated locally with 1 × 10(4) CFU of S. aureus at sites of skin wounds. The extract was applied topically twice a day throughout the experiment. Animals of the control group were left untreated. Results have revealed that topical application of A. absinthium extract on the infected wound sites produced significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus. PMID:24293717
Moslemi, Hamid Reza; Hoseinzadeh, Hesamoddin; Badouei, Mahdi Askari; Kafshdouzan, Khatereh; Fard, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad
Negative-pressure wound therapy, commercially known as vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.®) therapy, has become one of the most popular (and efficacious) interim (prior to flap reconstruction) or definite methods of managing deep sternal wound infection. Complications such as profuse bleeding, which may occur during negative-pressure therapy but not necessarily due to it, are often attributed to a single factor and reported as such. However, despite the wealth of clinical experience internationally available, information regarding certain simple considerations is still lacking. Garnering information on all the factors that could possibly influence the outcome has become more difficult due to a (fortunate) decrease in the incidence of deep sternal wound infection. If more insight is to be gained from fewer clinical cases, then various potentially confounding factors should be fully disclosed before complications can be attributed to the technique itself or improvements to negative-pressure wound therapy for deep sternal wound infection can be accepted as evidence-based and the guidelines for its use adapted. The authors propose the adoption of a simple checklist in such cases.
Advanced age is associated with alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to an increased risk of infection in elderly patients. Coupled with this immune dysfunction, elderly patients demonstrate impaired wound healing with elevated rates of wound dehiscence and chronic wounds. To evaluate how advanced age alters the host immune response to cutaneous wound infection, we developed a murine model of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus wound infection in young (3-4 mo) and aged (18-20 mo) BALB/c mice. Aged mice exhibit increased bacterial colonization and delayed wound closure over time compared with young mice. These differences were not attributed to alterations in wound neutrophil or macrophage TLR2 or Fc?RIII expression, or age-related changes in phagocytic potential and bactericidal activity. To evaluate the role of chemotaxis in our model, we first examined in vivo chemotaxis in the absence of wound injury to KC, a neutrophil chemokine. In response to a s.c. injection of KC, aged mice recruited fewer neutrophils at increasing doses of KC compared with young mice. This paralleled our model of wound infection, where diminished neutrophil and macrophage recruitment was observed in aged mice relative to young mice despite equivalent levels of KC, MIP-2, and MCP-1 chemokine levels at the wound site. This reduced leukocyte accumulation was also associated with lower levels of ICAM-1 in wounds from aged mice at early time points. These age-mediated defects in early neutrophil recruitment may alter the dynamics of the inflammatory phase of wound healing, impacting macrophage recruitment, bacterial clearance, and wound closure. PMID:23319733
Brubaker, Aleah L; Rendon, Juan L; Ramirez, Luis; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J
Background Gram negative infection is a major determinant of morbidity and survival. Traditional teaching suggests that burn wound infections in different centres are caused by differing sets of causative organisms. This study established whether Gram-negative burn wound isolates associated to clinical wound infection differ between burn centres. Methods Studies investigating adult hospitalised patients (2000–2010) were critically appraised and qualified to a levels of evidence hierarchy. The contribution of bacterial pathogen type, and burn centre to the variance in standardised incidence of Gram-negative burn wound infection was analysed using two-way analysis of variance. Primary Findings Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Escherichia coli emerged as the commonest Gram-negative burn wound pathogens. Individual pathogens’ incidence did not differ significantly between burn centres (F (4, 20)?=?1.1, p?=?0.3797; r2?=?9.84). Interpretation Gram-negative infections predominate in burn surgery. This study is the first to establish that burn wound infections do not differ significantly between burn centres. It is the first study to report the pathogens responsible for the majority of Gram-negative infections in these patients. Whilst burn wound infection is not exclusive to these bacteria, it is hoped that reporting the presence of this group of common Gram-negative “target organisms” facilitate clinical practice and target research towards a defined clinical demand.
Azzopardi, Ernest A.; Azzopardi, Elayne; Camilleri, Liberato; Villapalos, Jorge; Boyce, Dean E.; Dziewulski, Peter; Dickson, William A.; Whitaker, Iain S.
The saphenous vein remains the most commonly used conduit in coronary artery bypass surgery. Vein harvest is a critical component with significant morbidity associated with leg wounds from open technique. Occurring complications are hematoma, postoperative pain, skin changes, neuropathy, and septic or nonseptic wound complications. Within the context of a recent case, we present our approach to postsaphenectomy wound management.
Schroeter, Thomas; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Borger, Michael A.; Mohr, Friedrich W.
ISSUE: A devastating complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is post-operative surgical site wound infections. In 2001, Baptist Medical Center (BMC) experienced a post-operative CABG surgical wound infection rate that was above the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NISS) rate.PROJECT: A multidisciplinary performance improvement team, consisting of the chiefs of Cardiovascular
J. Kilts; K. S. Meyer; R. J. Still; K. Walsh
Studies of wound healing, regeneration and wound infection aimed at improving care of severly injured soldiers are underway in the following areas: (1). Adverse effects of severe injury on wound healing; attempts to improve healing in the severely injured...
S. M. Levenson
Bacterial biofilms, a critical chronic wound mediator, remain difficult to treat. Energy-based devices may potentially improve healing, but with no evidence of efficacy against biofilms. This study evaluates noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound (NLFU) in the treatment of biofilm-infected wounds. Six-millimeter dermal punch wounds in rabbit ears were inoculated with 10(7) colony-forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or left as sterile controls. A biofilm was established in vivo using our published model. NLFU treatment was carried out every other day or every day, with contralateral ear wounds acting as internal, untreated controls. Wounds were harvested for several quantitative endpoints and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the biofilm structure. The P.?aeruginosa biofilm consistently impaired wound epithelialization and granulation. NLFU, both every other day and every day, improved healing and reduced bacterial counts relative to untreated controls (p?0.05). Scanning electron microscopy confirmed a qualitative decrease in bacteria after both treatments. NLFU also reduced inflammatory cytokine expression (p?0.05). Our study suggests that NLFU is an effective therapy against P.?aeruginosa wound biofilm. This represents the first in vivo evidence of energy-based modalities' impact on wound biofilm, setting the foundation for future mechanistic studies. Continued wound care technology research is essential to improving our understanding, and treatment, of biofilm-infected chronic wounds. PMID:23421692
Seth, Akhil K; Nguyen, Khang T; Geringer, Matthew R; Hong, Seok J; Leung, Kai P; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D
Despite significant advances in intraoperative antimicrobial procedures, deep wound infection remains the most serious complication associated with primary, cemented total joint arthroplasty. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate studies of antibiotic bone cement prophylaxis for reducing the risk of deep wound infection. The literature included 22 articles providing estimates of the prophylactic effectiveness of antibiotic cement. In reducing deep wound infection, antibiotic cement was consistently superior to plain cement, similar to systematic antiobiotics, and independent and additive in effect when combined with other prophylactic measures. Randomized controlled trials in particular had important methodological limitations. However, the collective results nearly unanimously favored prophylactic use of antibiotic cement in primary arthoplasty procedures. PMID:16295192
Block, Jon E; Stubbs, Harrison A
After reviewing the literature about the microbial spectrum, the risk factors of post-operative infections, and the results of surgical interventions, the following recommendation can be made for the management of bite wounds: fresh, open wounds: surgical debridement, if appropriate, then an antiseptic lavage with a fluid consisting of povidone iodine and ethanol (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics, primary wound closure nearly closed fresh wounds (e.g., cat bites): surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics older wounds after ~4 hours: surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress or bandage for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), at the same time intravenous or dose-adapted oral antibiotics (Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid) older wounds after ~24 hours: surgical debridement, then antiseptic lavage (Betaseptic®), in case of clinically apparent infection or inflammation surgical revision with opening of wound and treatment with antibiotics according to resistogram (empirical start with Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid). For each kind of bite wound, the patient’s tetanus immunization status as well as the risk of exposure to rabies have to be assessed. Similarly, the possibility of other infections, such as lues (Syphilis), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HBC), hepatitis D (HDV) and HIV, in the rare case of a human bite wound, has to be taken into account.
Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Frank, Matthias; Bender, Claudia; Hinz, Peter
Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic multisystemic chronic disease that frequently is complicated by complex wound infections. Innovative topical antimicrobial therapy agents are potentially useful for multimodal treatment of these infections. However, an appropriately standardized in vivo model is currently not available to facilitate the screening of these emerging products and their effect on wound healing. To develop such a model, we analyzed, tested, and modified published models of wound healing. We optimized various aspects of the model, including animal species, diabetes induction method, hair removal technique, splint and dressing methods, the control of unintentional bacterial infection, sampling methods for the evaluation of bacterial burden, and aspects of the microscopic and macroscopic assessment of wound healing, all while taking into consideration animal welfare and the '3Rs' principle. We thus developed a new wound infection model in rats that is optimized for testing topical antimicrobial therapy agents. This model accurately reproduces the pathophysiology of infected diabetic wound healing and includes the current standard treatment (that is, debridement). The numerous benefits of this model include the ready availability of necessary materials, simple techniques, high reproducibility, and practicality for experiments with large sample sizes. Furthermore, given its similarities to infected-wound healing and treatment in humans, our new model can serve as a valid alternative for applied research. PMID:22330650
Mendes, João J; Leandro, Clara I; Bonaparte, Dolores P; Pinto, Andreia L
Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic multisystemic chronic disease that frequently is complicated by complex wound infections. Innovative topical antimicrobial therapy agents are potentially useful for multimodal treatment of these infections. However, an appropriately standardized in vivo model is currently not available to facilitate the screening of these emerging products and their effect on wound healing. To develop such a model, we analyzed, tested, and modified published models of wound healing. We optimized various aspects of the model, including animal species, diabetes induction method, hair removal technique, splint and dressing methods, the control of unintentional bacterial infection, sampling methods for the evaluation of bacterial burden, and aspects of the microscopic and macroscopic assessment of wound healing, all while taking into consideration animal welfare and the ‘3Rs’ principle. We thus developed a new wound infection model in rats that is optimized for testing topical antimicrobial therapy agents. This model accurately reproduces the pathophysiology of infected diabetic wound healing and includes the current standard treatment (that is, debridement). The numerous benefits of this model include the ready availability of necessary materials, simple techniques, high reproducibility, and practicality for experiments with large sample sizes. Furthermore, given its similarities to infected-wound healing and treatment in humans, our new model can serve as a valid alternative for applied research.
Mendes, Joao J; Leandro, Clara I; Bonaparte, Dolores P; Pinto, Andreia L
Introduction: Battlefield wounds are frequently contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms present on uniforms and skin. Although the development of serious infections can often be prevented by antibiotics, the rise in worldwide incidence of multiply antibiotic-resistant bacteria necessitates the discovery of alternative methods. In addition, traumatic wounds and burns may contain non-perfused tissue where antibiotics cannot penetrate efficiently. The possibility also exists
Michael R Hamblin; Faten Gad; R Rox Anderson; Tayyaba Hasan
Infections within diabetic foot ulcers are often hard to detect and extremely difficult to treat. The normal signs and symptoms of infection including purulence, erythema, pain, tenderness, warmth and induration are frequently absent in such wounds necessitating exploration of other ways of rapidly and accurately detecting infection. This study considers diabetic wound fluid pH as a possible alternative means of monitoring infection status. CINAHL, Ovid SP and MEDLINE were searched for papers in English published between January 2004 to May 2014. Key search terms included wound fluid, exudate, wound, ulcer, diabetes, pH, healing, infection, bacteria. This paper considers the potential benefits of augmenting and supporting current clinical practice in the early determination of wound healing trajectory and infection status, by monitoring wound fluid pH. The evidence collected highlights the need for further research and suggests the potential of wound fluid analysis as a possible surrogate marker for detecting infection in diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:24912533
McArdle, Carla; Lagan, Katie M; McDowell, David A
Wound infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria increase morbidity and mortality and have considerable socioeconomic impact. They can lead to impaired wound healing, resulting in rising treatment costs. The aim of this study was to investigate an ex vivo human wound infection model. Human full-thickness skin from the operating room (OR) was placed into the Bo-Drum® and cultivated for 7 days in an air–liquid interphase. On day 8, the skin was inoculated with either (1) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (2) Staphylococcus aureus (105 CFU, n = 3) or (3) carrier control. 1, 3 and 7 days after inoculation colony forming units in the tissue/media were determined and cytokine expression was quantified. A reliable and reproducible wound infection could be established for 7 days. At this timepoint, 1.8 × 108 CFU/g tissue of P. aeruginosa and 2 × 107 CFU/g tissue of S. aureus were detected. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated bacterial infection and epidermolysis in infected skin. RT-PCR analysis exhibited a significant induction of proinflammatory cytokines after infection. The BO-drum® is a robust, easy-to-use, sterilizable and reusable ex vivo full-skin culture system. For investigation of wound infection, treatment and healing, the BO-drum® presents a convenient model and may help to standardize wound research.
Sorkin, M.; Niederbichler, A. D.; Becerikli, M.; Stupka, J.; Daigeler, A.; Kesting, M. R.; Stricker, I.; Jacobsen, F.; Schulte, M.
Postoperative infection is one of the most prevalent and challenging complications faced by orthopaedic surgeons and patients in both the military and civilian populations. The wounds are contaminated or colonized at the time of injury, during the course ...
Battlefield wounds are frequently contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms present on uniforms and skin. Although the development of serious infections can often be prevented by antibiotics, the rise in worldwide incidence of multiply antibiotic-resist...
M. R. Hamblin F. Gad R. R. Anderson T. Hasan
Findings to date support the hypothesis that a dual therapeutic approach of targeted anti-inflammation and a biofilm specific antibiotic will significantly limit severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection associated with serious burns and wounds. A 12-mer N2...
J. A. Nick
Background Post caesarean wound infection is not only a leading cause of prolonged hospital stay but a major cause of the widespread aversion to caesarean delivery in developing countries. In order to control and prevent post caesarean wound infection in our environment there is the need to access the relative contribution of each aetiologic factor. Though some studies in our environment have identified factors associated with post caesarean wound infection, none was specifically designed to address these issues prospectively or assess the relative contribution of each of the risk factors. Findings Prospective multicentre study over a period of 56 months in Lagos Nigeria. All consecutive and consenting women scheduled for caesarean section and meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Cases were all subjects with post caesarean wound infection. Those without wound infection served as controls. Data entry and analysis were performed using EPI-Info programme version 6 and SPSS for windows version 10.0. Eight hundred and seventeen women were enrolled into the study. Seventy six (9.3%) of these cases were complicated with wound infection. The proportion of subjects with body mass index greater than 25 was significantly higher among the subjects with wound infection (51.3%) than in the subjects without wound infection (33.9%) p = 0.011. There were also significantly higher proportions of subjects with prolonged rupture of membrane (p = 0.02), prolonged operation time (p = 0.001), anaemia (p = 0.031) and multiple vaginal examinations during labour (0.021) among the women that had wound infection compared to the women that did not have wound infection. After adjustment for confounders only prolonged rupture of membrane (OR = 4.45), prolonged operation time (OR = 2.87) and body max index > 25 (2.34) retained their association with post caesarean wound infection. Conclusion Effort should be geared towards the prevention of prolonged rupture of fetal membrane and the reduction of prolonged operation time by the use of potent antibiotics, early intervention and use of good surgical technique. In obese women improved surgical technique and use of non absorbable sutures may suffice.
Ezechi, Oliver C; Edet, Asuquo; Akinlade, Hakim; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma V; Herbertson, Ebiere
Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has recently been adopted as an acceptable modality for management of sternotomy wound infections. Although generally efficacious, the use of negative pressure devices has been associated with complications such as bleeding, retention of sponge, and empyema. We report the first case of greater omental hernia as a rare complication of vacuum-assisted closure of sternal wound infection following coronary artery bypass grafting.
Gukop, Philemon; Kuppuswamy, Madhan Kumar; Kourliouros, Antonios; Chandrasekaran, Venkatachalam
This proposal focuses on the use of multimodal imaging and spectroscopy of post-traumatic soft tissue and bone to assess wound healing. Combining infrared (IR) imaging, near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging, and visible reflectance spectroscopic (VRS...
E. Elster N. Crane
This proposal focuses on the use of multimodal imaging and spectroscopy of post-traumatic soft tissue and bone to assess wound healing. Combining infrared (IR) imaging, near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging, and visible reflectance spectroscopic (VRS...
E. Elster N. Crane
Diabetic patients often have ulcers on their lower-limbs that are infected by multiple biofilm-forming genera of bacteria, and the elimination of the biofilm has proven highly successful in resolving such wounds in patients. To that end, antimicrobial peptides have shown potential as a new anti-biofilm approach. The single human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has been shown to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity against multiple Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens, and have wound-healing effects on the host. The combination of the anti-biofilm effect and wound-healing properties of LL-37 may make it highly effective in resolving polymicrobially infected wounds when topically applied. Such a peptide or its derivatives could be a platform from which to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat biofilm-mediated infections of wounds. This review summarizes known mechanisms that regulate the endogenous levels of LL-37 and discusses the anti-biofilm, antibacterial, and immunological effects of deficient vs. excessive concentrations of LL-37 within the wound environment. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the therapeutic potential of this peptide and other clinically advanced peptides as a potential topical treatment for polymicrobial infected wounds.
Duplantier, Allen J.; van Hoek, Monique L.
Skin breakdown and infiltration of skin flora are key causative elements in poststernotomy wound infections. We hypothesised that surgical incision management (SIM) using negative pressure wound therapy over closed surgical incisions for 6-7?days would reduce wound infections in a comprehensive poststernotomy patient population. 'All comers' undergoing median sternotomy at our institution were analysed prospectively from 1 September to 15 October 2013 (study group, n?=?237) and retrospectively from January 2008 to December 2009 (historical control group, n?=?3508). The study group had SIM (Prevena™ Therapy) placed immediately after skin suturing and applied at -125 mmHg for 6-7?days, whereas control group received conventional sterile wound tape dressings. Primary endpoint was wound infection within 30 days. Study group had a significantly lower infection rate than control group: 1·3% (3 patients) versus 3·4% (119 patients), respectively (P?0·05; odds ratio 2·74). In the study group, when the foam dressing was removed after 6-7?days, the incision was primarily closed in 234 of 237 patients (98·7%). SIM over clean, closed incisions for the first 6-7 postoperative days significantly reduced the incidence of wound infection after median sternotomy. Based on these data SIM may be cost-effective in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:24851729
Grauhan, Onnen; Navasardyan, Artashes; Tutkun, Baris; Hennig, Felix; Müller, Peter; Hummel, Manfred; Hetzer, Roland
Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied Pseudomonas syringae strains causing brown spot on bean and blossom blight on pear. These strains exist as epiphytes that can cause disease upon wounding caused by hail, sand storms and frost. We demonstrate that these strains overcome spatial restriction at wound sites by producing syringolin A (SylA), a small molecule proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, SylA-producing strains are able to escape from primary infection sites and colonize adjacent tissues along the vasculature. We found that SylA diffuses from the primary infection site and suppresses acquired resistance in adjacent tissues by blocking signaling by the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA). Thus, SylA diffusion creates a zone of SA-insensitive tissue that is prepared for subsequent colonization. In addition, SylA promotes bacterial motility and suppresses immune responses at the primary infection site. These local immune responses do not affect bacterial growth and were weak compared to effector-triggered immunity. Thus, SylA facilitates colonization from wounding sites by increasing bacterial motility and suppressing SA signaling in adjacent tissues. PMID:23555272
Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Kolodziejek, Izabella; Crabill, Emerson; Kaschani, Farnusch; Niessen, Sherry; Shindo, Takayuki; Kaiser, Markus; Alfano, James R; van der Hoorn, Renier A L
Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied Pseudomonas syringae strains causing brown spot on bean and blossom blight on pear. These strains exist as epiphytes that can cause disease upon wounding caused by hail, sand storms and frost. We demonstrate that these strains overcome spatial restriction at wound sites by producing syringolin A (SylA), a small molecule proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, SylA-producing strains are able to escape from primary infection sites and colonize adjacent tissues along the vasculature. We found that SylA diffuses from the primary infection site and suppresses acquired resistance in adjacent tissues by blocking signaling by the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA). Thus, SylA diffusion creates a zone of SA-insensitive tissue that is prepared for subsequent colonization. In addition, SylA promotes bacterial motility and suppresses immune responses at the primary infection site. These local immune responses do not affect bacterial growth and were weak compared to effector-triggered immunity. Thus, SylA facilitates colonization from wounding sites by increasing bacterial motility and suppressing SA signaling in adjacent tissues.
Misas-Villamil, Johana C.; Kolodziejek, Izabella; Crabill, Emerson; Kaschani, Farnusch; Niessen, Sherry; Shindo, Takayuki; Kaiser, Markus; Alfano, James R.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.
Patients recovering from traumatic injuries or surgery often require weeks to months of hospitalization, increasing the risk for wound and surgical site infections caused by ESKAPE pathogens, which include A. baumannii (the ESKAPE pathogens are Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species). As new therapies are being developed to counter A. baumannii infections, animal models are also needed to evaluate potential treatments. Here, we present an excisional, murine wound model in which a diminutive inoculum of a clinically relevant, multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate can proliferate, form biofilms, and be effectively treated with antibiotics. The model requires a temporary, cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia to establish an infection that can persist. A 6-mm-diameter, full-thickness wound was created in the skin overlying the thoracic spine, and after the wound bed was inoculated, it was covered with a dressing for 7 days. Uninoculated control wounds healed within 13 days, whereas infected, placebo-treated wounds remained unclosed beyond 21 days. Treated and untreated wounds were assessed with multiple quantitative and qualitative techniques that included gross pathology, weight loss and recovery, wound closure, bacterial burden, 16S rRNA community profiling, histopathology, peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization, and scanning electron microscopy assessment of biofilms. The range of differences that we are able to identify with these measures in antibiotic- versus placebo-treated animals provides a clear window within which novel antimicrobial therapies can be assessed. The model can be used to evaluate antimicrobials for their ability to reduce specific pathogen loads in wounded tissues and clear biofilms. Ultimately, the mouse model approach allows for highly powered studies and serves as an initial multifaceted in vivo assessment prior to testing in larger animals.
Thompson, Mitchell G.; Black, Chad C.; Pavlicek, Rebecca L.; Honnold, Cary L.; Wise, Matthew C.; Alamneh, Yonas A.; Moon, Jay K.; Kessler, Jennifer L.; Si, Yuanzheng; Williams, Robert; Yildirim, Suleyman; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Green, Romanza K.; Hall, Eric R.; Palys, Thomas J.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether electrolyzed ox- idized water (EOW) functions as a bacte- ricide in burn injury with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rat burn-wound model. Methods: Anesthetized Sprague- Dawley rats (n 5 31) were subjected to third-degree burns to 30% of total body surface area. Two days after injury, all rats were infected
Hajime Nakae; Hideo Inaba
Background Complex skin defects resulting from acute skin trauma and chronic, nonhealing wounds are life-threatening injuries. Infection is one of the most common obstacles to the healing of these types of wounds. Host defense peptides (HDPs) possessing a broad spectrum of activity against microorganisms and serving as innate immune modulators have emerged as potential treatment strategies for infected wounds. The Problem The increase in multidrug-resistant clinical bacterial isolates highlights the need for new and innovative anti-infective therapies for the treatment of both acute and chronic skin wounds. Basic/Clinical Science To address the critical need for new therapeutic options to reduce infection and improve wound healing, a bioengineered skin substitute (BSS) tissue has been created to act as an anti-infective living human skin tissue that provides enhanced expression of the endogenous HDP, cathelicidin. To generate a BSS exhibiting these antimicrobial properties, the clinically tested NIKS progenitor cells were employed to provide a source of genetically uniform, nontumorigenic, pathogen-free human keratinocytes that are amenable to genetic engineering using nonviral means. Clinical Care Relevance Pathogenic bacterial strains are increasingly developing antibiotic resistance, thereby forcing the clinician to use potent antibiotics with deleterious effects on keratinocyte viability and migration. Therefore, an urgent need exists for new wound therapies that can circumvent many of the problems associated with current antibiotic treatments. Conclusion Enhanced expression of cathelicidin in a genetically engineered human BSS has been shown to inhibit the bacterial growth of a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of Acinetobacter baumannii in vivo, creating a new and innovative therapeutic option for combating these debilitating wound infections while also promoting healing.
Thomas-Virnig, Christina L.; Allen-Hoffmann, B. Lynn
Lyophilised wafers have been shown to have potential as a modern dressing for mucosal wound healing. The wafer absorbs wound exudates and transforms into a gel, thus providing a moist environment which is essential for wound healing. The objective of this study was to develop a carboxymethyl cellulose wafer containing antimicrobials to promote wound healing and treat wound infection. The pre-formulation studies began with four polymers, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), methylcellulose (MC), sodium alginate and xanthan gum, but only NaCMC and MC were chosen for further investigation. The wafers were characterised by physical assessments, solvent loss, microscopic examination, swelling and hydration properties, drug content uniformity, drug release and efficacy of antimicrobials. Three of the antimicrobials, neomycin trisulphate salt hydrate, sulphacetamide sodium and silver nitrate, were selected as model drugs. Among the formulations, NaCMC wafer containing neomycin trisulphate exhibited the most desirable wound dressing characteristics (i.e., flexibility, sponginess, uniform wafer texture, high content drug uniformity) with the highest in vitro drug release and the greatest inhibition against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In conclusion, we successfully developed a NaCMC lyophilised wafer containing antimicrobials, and this formulation has potential for use in mucosal wounds infected with bacteria. PMID:24076463
Ng, Shiow-Fern; Jumaat, Nafisah
We report a case of an 80-year old male patient who sustained a major rupture of the right ventricle after surgical revision of an infected sternotomy wound following coronary artery bypass surgery. The rupture of the right ventricle occurred despite an early wound debridement and the use of negative pressure wound therapy on the sternum that did not provide sufficient stability to the sternum after the sternal wires were removed. The rupture resulted in a major bleeding but by establishing emergent cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient was saved.
Thorsteinsson, David T.; Valsson, Felix; Geirsson, Arnar; Gudbjartsson, Tomas
Infections represent a significant source of site morbidity following tissue trauma. Scarring and tissue adhesion remain the challenging issues yet to be solved. Prolonged inflammation and morphology of the re-epithelisated layer are important considerations. We hypothesized that the solution lies not only in the biochemistry of biomaterial but also the micro-architecture of the scaffold used as the matrix for wound healing. Targeted delivery of antibiotics may provide an efficacious means of infection control through adequate release. Here, we study the use of 3-dimensional polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) mesh for the delivery of gentamicin sulphate (GS) fabricated using a solvent-free method. PCL-TCP meshes incorporated with varying loads of GS were evaluated in vitro for elution profile, antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity. Results showed that PCL-TCP meshes incorporated with 15 wt% GS (PT15) efficiently eliminate bacteria within 2 h and demonstrate low cytotoxicity. Subsequently, PT15 meshes were evaluated using an infected full thickness wound mice model, and observed to eliminate bacteria in the wounds effectively. Additionally, mice from the PT15 treatment group (TG) showed no observable signs of overall infection through neutrophil count by day 7 and displayed efficient wound healing (94.2% wound area reduction) by day 14. Histology also showed significantly faster healing in TG through neo-collagen deposition and wound re-epithelisation. The meshes from TG were also observed to be expelled from wounds while gauze fibers from CG were integrated into wounds during healing. PMID:20870283
Teo, Erin Yiling; Ong, Shin-Yeu; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir; Ho, Bow; Teoh, Swee-Hin
Neutrophil influx is an early inflammatory response that is essential for the clearance of bacteria and cellular debris during cutaneous wounding. A non-invasive real-time fluorescence imaging technique was developed to examine the kinetics of enhanced green fluorescence protein-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (EGFP-PMN) influx within a wound. We hypothesized that infection or systemic availability would directly regulate the dynamics of EGFP-PMN recruitment and
Min-Ho Kim; Wei Liu; Dori L. Borjesson; Fitz-Roy E. Curry; Lloyd S. Miller; Ambrose L. Cheung; Fu-Tong Liu; R Rivkah Isseroff; Scott I. Simon
Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in most P. aeruginosa strains. To investigate the genetic requirements for acute and chronic pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa infections, we combined high-throughput sequencing-mediated transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) and genome-wide insertion mutant fitness profiling (Tn-seq) to characterize gene expression and fitness determinants in murine models of burn and non-diabetic chronic wound infection. Generally we discovered that expression of a gene in vivo is not correlated with its importance for fitness, with the exception of metabolic genes. By combining metabolic models generated from in vivo gene expression data with mutant fitness profiles, we determined the nutritional requirements for colonization and persistence in these infections. Specifically, we found that long-chain fatty acids represent a major carbon source in both chronic and acute wounds, and P. aeruginosa must biosynthesize purines, several amino acids, and most cofactors during infection. In addition, we determined that P. aeruginosa requires chemotactic flagellar motility for fitness and virulence in acute burn wound infections, but not in non-diabetic chronic wound infections. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic requirements for acute and chronic P. aeruginosa wound infections and demonstrate the power of using both gene expression and fitness profiling for probing bacterial virulence.
Turner, Keith H.; Everett, Jake; Trivedi, Urvish; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Whiteley, Marvin
We aimed assess the effects of different energy densities of the association of red/IR laser light on the healing of cutaneous wounds infected Staphylococcus aureus. Background: Wound infection is the most common complication on healing wounds and cause both vascular and cellular responses on the tissue. Several therapeutics is used for improving wound healing including the use of different light sources, such as the Laser. Some energy densities present positive photobiological effects on the healing process. Material and Methods: 24 young adult male Wistar rats, under general anesthesia, had their dorsum shaven, cleaned and a 1 x 1cm cutaneous wound created with a scalpel and left without no suturing or dressings. The wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and were randomly divided in 8 subgroups of 3 animals in each: Control, Group 10J/cm2, Group 20J/cm2, and Group 30J/cm2, 7 and 14 days each group. Laser phototherapy was carried out with a diode (?680nm/790nm, P= 30mW/40mW, CW, Laser, Ø = 3mm, PD=424mW/cm2 and 566mW/cm2, t=11.8/ 8.8 sec, E=0.35J) and started immediately after surgery and repeated at every other day during 7 days. Laser light was applied on 4 points around wounded area. The animals were killed at either 8th or 15th day after contamination. Specimens were taken, routinely cut and processed to wax, stained and underwent histological analysis. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: Both 20 and 30J/cm2 caused intense collagen deposition at the end of the experimental time. But, when 20 J/cm2 was used the fibers were also well organized. Conclusion: Our results indicate that irradiated subjects showed improved wound healing being the 20 J/cm2 the energy the caused better histological response.
Santos, Nicole R. S.; Cangussú, Maria C. T.; N. Dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.
Background Nanoemulsions are broadly antimicrobial oil-in-water emulsions containing nanometer-sized droplets stabilized with surfactants. We hypothesize that topical application of a nanoemulsion compound (NB-201) can attenuate burn wound infection. In addition to reducing infection, nanoemulsion therapy may modulate dermal inflammatory signaling and thereby lessen inflammation following thermal injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 20% total body surface area (TBSA) scald burn to create a partial thickness burn injury. Animals were resuscitated with Ringer’s lactate and the wound covered with an occlusive dressing. Eight hours after injury, the burn wound was inoculated with 1×106 CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NB-201, NB-201 placebo, 5% mafenide acetate solution or 0.9% saline (control) was applied onto the wound at 16 and 24 hrs following burn injury. Skin was harvested 32 hrs post-burn for quantitative wound culture and determination of inflammatory mediators in tissue homogenates. Results NB-201 reduced mean bacterial growth in the burn wound by a thousand fold, with only 11% animals having P. aeruginosa counts greater than 105 CFU/g tissue versus 91% in the control group (p<0.0001). Treatment with NB-201 attenuated neutrophil sequestration in the treatment group as measured by myeloperoxidase assay and by histology. It also, significantly reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and IL-6) and the degree of hair follicle cell apoptosis in skin when compared to saline-treated controls. Conclusions Topical NB-201 substantially reduced bacterial growth in a partial thickness burn model. This reduction in the level of wound infection was associated with an attenuation of the local dermal inflammatory response and diminished neutrophil sequestration. NB-201 represents a novel potent antimicrobial and antiinflammatory treatment for use in burn wounds.
Hemmila, Mark R.; Mattar, Aladdein; Taddonio, Michael A.; Arbabi, Saman; Hamouda, Tarek; Ward, Peter A.; Wang, Stewart C.; Baker, James R.
Though seldom reported, Solobacterium moorei, which was first described in 2000, has been identified in specimens from patients with root canals, periradicular lesions, periodontal disease, dentoalveolar abscesses, bacteremia, septic thrombophlebitis, and halitosis. In the present study, we describe 9 cases of mixed wound infection, from a pool of 400 surgical wound infections that we have studied, in which S. moorei was isolated or found in a clone library. All isolates of S. moorei were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and then six were examined for their physiological and biochemical characteristics and for antimicrobial susceptibility. The results of the present study indicate that Solobacterium moorei may be a significant component in some mixed surgical wound infections and that surgical management and antimicrobial therapy may be indicated when these bacteria are identified in significant situations.
Zheng, Guili; Summanen, Paula H.; Talan, David; Bennion, Robert; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Finegold, Sydney M.
Though seldom reported, Solobacterium moorei, which was first described in 2000, has been identified in specimens from patients with root canals, periradicular lesions, periodontal disease, dentoalveolar abscesses, bacteremia, septic thrombophlebitis, and halitosis. In the present study, we describe 9 cases of mixed wound infection, from a pool of 400 surgical wound infections that we have studied, in which S. moorei was isolated or found in a clone library. All isolates of S. moorei were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and then six were examined for their physiological and biochemical characteristics and for antimicrobial susceptibility. The results of the present study indicate that Solobacterium moorei may be a significant component in some mixed surgical wound infections and that surgical management and antimicrobial therapy may be indicated when these bacteria are identified in significant situations. PMID:20071554
Zheng, Guili; Summanen, Paula H; Talan, David; Bennion, Robert; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Finegold, Sydney M
Cutaneous fistula as a clinical presentation of intracardiac abscess of the right side is such an unusual occurrence that it has not until now been reported in the English-language medical literature. We present a rare case of right-sided infective endocarditis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans in which recurrent infection presented as sternal wound discharge. The infection was found to have an intracardiac origin and was successfully managed by radical débridement on cardiopulmonary bypass.
Keshavamurthy, Suresh; Sepulveda, Edgardo; Miranda, Cyndee Cruz; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Pettersson, Gosta Bengt
OBJECTIVES Deep sternal wound infections are significant and severe complications following cardiac surgery and substantially influence perioperative morbidity and mortality. We present the experience of our department using two different surgical treatments over a three-year period. METHODS Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 3274 cardiac procedures with complete median sternotomy were performed in our department. In 94 patients (3%), a deep sternal wound infection occurred, including sternal instability with consecutive surgical treatment. The patients either received wound debridement with sternum refixation and suction-irrigation drainage (SID; n = 72) or sternum refixation only (RF; n = 22) if there was sternal instability with limited signs of infection. SID was routinely installed for 7 days: the irrigation solution contained neomycin. In all cases, swabs were taken and analysed. The different methods were evaluated in respect of their clinical outcomes. RESULTS The success rate—defined as single, uncomplicated procedure—of the SID treatment was 74%, compared with 59% of the isolated sternum refixation. Complications included continuous infection, recurrence of sternal instability and wound necrosis. Eighty-eight percent of the swabs in the SID group were positive, compared with 32% in the sternal refixation only group. The dominating pathogenic germs were coagulase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus. Mortality was 10% for the SID group and 5% for the RF group. CONCLUSIONS Contrary to accepted opinion, the suction-irrigation drainage is an appropriate therapy for deep sternal wound infections. Nevertheless, deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery remain severe complications and are related to increased morbidity and mortality.
Deschka, Heinz; Erler, Stefan; El-Ayoubi, Lemir; Vogel, Cordula; Vohringer, Luise; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard
Neutrophil influx is an early inflammatory response that is essential for the clearance of bacteria and cellular debris during cutaneous wounding. A non-invasive real-time fluorescence imaging technique was developed to examine the kinetics of enhanced green fluorescence protein-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (EGFP-PMN) influx within a wound. We hypothesized that infection or systemic availability would directly regulate the dynamics of EGFP-PMN recruitment and the efficiency of wound closure. Neutrophil recruitment increased dramatically over the first 24 hours from 106 at 4 hours up to a maximum of 5×106 EGFP-PMNs at 18 hours. A high rate of EGFP-PMN turnover was evidenced by ?80% decrease in EGFP signal within 6 hours. In response to wound colonization by Staphylococcus aureus or injection of GM-CSF, systemic PMNs increased twofold above saline control. This correlated with an increase in EGFP-PMN recruitment up to ?107 within the wound. Despite this effect by these distinct inflammatory drivers, wound closure occurred at a rate similar to the saline-treated control group. In summary, a non-invasive fluorescence-based imaging approach combined with genetic labeling of neutrophils provides a dynamic inner view of inflammation and the kinetics of neutrophil infiltration into the wounded skin over extended durations.
Kim, Min-Ho; Liu, Wei; Borjesson, Dori L.; Curry, Fitz-Roy E.; Miller, Lloyd S.; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Liu, Fu-Tong; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Simon, Scott I.
Few studies have analysed the bacterial pathogenesis of infections associated with war-wound in the Eastern Mediterranean region. We analysed surgical wound infections of 1200 patients injured during the Libyan conflict in 2011 and admitted to the emergency services at Tripoli medical centre. Culture swabs or surgical wound debridement samples were collected and cultures were identified and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Of the 1200 patients studied, 498 (42%) were infected with at least 1 pathogen and 57 with >2 pathogens. The most common species were Acinetobacter spp. (isolated from 144 patients), coagulase-negative staphylococci (122), Escherichia coli (107), Pseudomnonas aeruginosa (92) and Klebsiella spp. (86). A high level of resistance to the antibiotics tested was found, especially among Acinetobacter spp. Multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli were an important complicating factor in wound infections associated with war injuries among injured patients in Libya. Effective policies are needed to control and treat such infections particularly in trauma and emergency services. PMID:23882961
Dau, A A; Tloba, S; Daw, M A
During an 11.5-year period, 100 consecutive patients (79 male, 21 female) underwent repair of an infected sternotomy wound. Sixty-five patients had failed attempts at wound closure by other physicians. Median age was 61.5 years (range, 5 to 85 years). Reconstruction included muscle in 79 patients, omentum in 4, and both in 15. A total of 175 muscles were transposed, including 169 pectoralis major, 3 rectus abdominis, 2 external oblique, and 1 latissimus dorsi. Median number of operations was four (range, 1 to 11). Mechanical ventilation was required in 30 patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred, one related to sepsis. Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range, 1.3 to 13.5 years). Twenty-six patients had recurrent infection. Median time from our closure to recurrence was 5.5 months (range, 0.3 to 27.6 months). Cause of recurrence was inadequate removal of cartilage in 16 patients, bone in 6, and retained foreign body in 4. Eighteen patients had the wound reopened with further resection; 10 had another muscle or omentum transposition. There were 30 late deaths, only one related to recurrent infection. At the time of death or last follow-up, 92 patients had a healed chest wall. Transposition of the pectoralis major muscle remains an excellent method of management for infected sternotomy wounds. Failure is directly related to persistent infection of cartilage, bone, or retained foreign bodies.
Pairolero, P C; Arnold, P G; Harris, J B
Platinum coordination complexes, such as cisplatin, potentiate the cytotoxicity of irradiation on squamous cell carcinoma and certain other solid tumors. Using a rat oro-cutaneous fistula model, an investigation was carried out to determine whether or not there was a concomitant potentiation with cisplatin of the deleterious effect of preoperative irradiation on the ability of a subsequent wound to handle a bacterial challenge. Auto-contaminated wounds were found to have increased rates of infection at single-dose orthovoltage pretreatments of 1500 rads or more. Using quantitative bacteriologic techniques, wound infection was found to be no more frequent after platinum-enhanced irradiation than after irradiation alone; however, there was the additive effect of weight loss associated with combined cisplatin treatment and irradiation.
Morain, W.D.; Richmond, R.C.; Jacobs, N.J.; Douple, E.B.; Coughlin, C.T.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 23.6 million people in the USA and approximately 20–25% of diabetic patients will develop foot ulceration during the course of their disease. Up to a quarter of these patients will develop infections that will necessitate amputation. Although many studies report that the rates of antibiotic resistant infections have increased dramatically in the DM population over the last decade, to our knowledge there have been no reports directly comparing the rates of antibiotic resistant infections in DM versus non-DM wounds. We performed a retrospective study comparing the wound infections of 41 DM patients to those of 74 non-DM patients to test the hypothesis that infections with multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) were more prevalent in the DM population. We found that 63.4% of DM and 50% of non-DM patients had MDRO infections, which was not statistically different. However, 61% of the DM patients had Pseudomonas infections compared to only 18.9% of non-DM patients. Furthermore, DM patients had significantly more coinfections with both Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus. Though our initial hypothesis was incorrect, we demonstrated a significant correlation between Pseudomonas and Pseudomonas/S. aureus coinfections within DM wounds.
Trivedi, Urvish; Parameswaran, Shamini; Griswold, John; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.
OBJECTIVE: Our experience with omental flap transposition in the treatment of deep sternal wound infections is reviewed here with an emphasis on efficacy, risk factors for in-hospital mortality rates, and long-term results. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Even with improvements in muscle and omental flap transposition, the timing of closure and the surgical strategy are controversial. METHODS: Forty-four consecutive patients with deep sternal wound infections were treated using the omental flap transposition from 1985 through 1994. The strategies included debridement with delayed omental flap transposition or single-stage management, which consisted of debridement of the sternal wound and omental flap transposition. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from more than 50% of the wounds. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of in-hospital death after omental flap transposition. RESULTS: There were seven (16%) in-hospital deaths. Univariate analysis demonstrated that hemodialysis and ventilatory support at the time of omental flap transposition were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality rates (p = 0.0023 and p = 0.0075, respectively). Thirty-seven patients whose wounds healed well were discharged from the hospital. Two patients with cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus had recurrent sternal infections. Patients without positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures had good long-term results after reconstructive surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Transposition of an omental flap is a reliable option in the treatment of deep sternal wound infections, unless the patients require ventilatory support or hemodialysis at the time of transposition. Images Figure 1.
Yasuura, K; Okamoto, H; Morita, S; Ogawa, Y; Sawazaki, M; Seki, A; Masumoto, H; Matsuura, A; Maseki, T; Torii, S
Background Badgers are involved in the transmission to cattle of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a serious problem for the UK farming industry. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between bite wounds and TB infection in badgers which may have implications for M. bovis transmission and control, although the sequence of these two events is unclear. Transmission during aggressive encounters could potentially reduce the effectiveness of policies which increase the average range of a badger and thus its opportunities for interaction with other social groups. Methods Data were obtained on badgers captured during a long term study at Woodchester Park, UK (1998–2006). Many badgers had multiple observations. At each observation, the badger was assigned a “state” depending on presence of bite wounds and/or TB infection. Hence each badger had a “transition” from the previous state to the current state. We calculated the numbers of each type of transition and the time spent in each state. Transition rates were calculated for each transition category, dividing the number of such transitions by the total time at risk. We compared the rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers with that for uninfected badgers and the rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers with that in unbitten badgers. Results The rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers (0.291 per year) was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.08) times that in uninfected badgers (0.139 per year). The rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers (0.097 per year) was 2.45 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.65) times that in unbitten badgers (0.040 per year). Conclusions We found strong evidence of both potential sequences of events consistent with transmission via bite wounds and distinctive behaviour in infected badgers. The complex relationship between behaviour and infection must be considered when planning TB control strategies.
Jenkins, Helen E.; Cox, D. R.; Delahay, Richard J.
An elderly gentleman presented with an open fracture of the calcaneum and ankle, following a boating accident. Despite treatment with repeated surgical debridement, delayed closure, prolonged antibiotics and strict adherence to national guidelines on the management of open fractures, he developed a wound infection with a rare organism, Shewanella putrefaciens, that appears to be increasing in prevalence. PMID:23417948
Prinja, Aditya; Singh, Jagwant; Davis, Nwaka; Urwin, Gillian
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of colonization and infection in both acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds. Objective: Our objective is to define this current epidemic problem caused by both community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), focusing on the similarities and differences between these 2 isolates as well as the impact on wound management decisions. Methods: Methods used include a literature review on the growth of the current MRSA problem and its International scope. In addition, a current up-to-date assessment had been made of the problem and the current approach to management of MRSA in acute soft-tissue and chronic wounds. Burns are not discussed because this injury usually does not fit either categories and is managed quite uniquely. Results: Results included the following: (1) There are very distinct properties of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA, which must be considered for acute and chronic wound care. Management of both requires rigorous barrier precaution techniques to avoid cross-contamination. The presence of MRSA as a carrier state increases the risk of both a systemic and local wound infection in the carrier. There are large and increasing reservoirs of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA worldwide leading to more bacteremias and wound problems. Topical antimicrobial therapy has not been addressed in managing MRSA in acute and chronic wounds. Conclusion: Conclusions include the fact that both HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA wound infections are rapidly increasing, especially with CA-MRSA. This high incidence requires appropriate wound prediction and management decisions as well as attempts to avoid further cross-contamination and reservoir growth. Topical antimicrobial therapy would seem to be an important component in controlling this tremendous problem. Yet this topic has yet to be adequately addressed.
Demling, Robert H.; Waterhouse, Barbara
Silver nanoparticles supported on nanoscale silicate platelets (AgNP/NSP) possess interesting properties, including a large surface area and high biocide effectiveness. The nanohybrid of AgNP/NSP at a weight ratio 7/93 contains 5-nm Ag particles supported on the surface of platelets with dimensions of approximately 80×80×1 nm3. The nanohybrid expresses a trend of lower cytotoxicity at the concentration of 8.75 ppm Ag and low genotoxicity. Compared with conventional silver ions and the organically dispersed AgNPs, the nanohybrid promotes wound healing. We investigated overall wound healing by using acute burn and excision wound healing models. Tests on both infected wound models of mice were compared among the AgNP/NSP, polymer-dispersed AgNPs, the commercially available Aquacel, and silver sulfadiazine. The AgNP/NSP nanohybrid was superior for wound appearance, but had similar wound healing rates, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A levels and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 expressions to Aquacel and silver sulfadiazine.
Chu, Chia-Yu; Peng, Fu-Chuo; Chiu, Ying-Fang; Lee, Hsing-Chuan; Chen, Chien-Wen; Wei, Jiun-Chiou; Lin, Jiang-Jen
One of the important problems of modern medicine is treatment of infected wounds. There are many diversified expedients of treatment, but none of them obey the modern physician completely. The aim of this study is to develop and test a new combined method of photodynamic ultrasonic therapy (PDUST) for treatment of infected wounds with focus on experimental trials. PDUST is based on a combination of two methods: photodynamic (PD) therapy (PDT) with photosensitizer and low frequency ultrasonic (US) therapy with antibiotic as tools for treatment of wounds and effectively killing bacteria. The main parameters are: US frequency - 26.5 kHz; US tip elongation - 40+/-20 ?m wavelength of light emitting diodes (LED) array - 660+/-10 nm; light intensity on biotissue surface - 1-2 mW/cm2; photosensitizer - an aluminum disulfonated phtalocyanine dissolved in a physiological solution in concentration 10 mg/l. The experiments were carried out with 70 male chinchilla rabbits divided into 7 groups, thus the dynamics of wounds healing were studied in different modes of PDUST. The PD and US methods supplement each other and in conjunction provide additive and especially synergetic effects. The experimental data demonstrated advantages of new technology in comparison with conventional methods in cases of treatment of extended suppurative inflammatory and profound wounds. The more detailed study of PDUST method's mechanism, which is based on low intensity of LED light, PD therapy and US influence is required.
Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.
Silver-containing dressings have been widely used for controlling wound infection. However, the relationship between different concentrations of silver in dressings and their antimicrobial activities and wound-healing efficacies remains unclear. In the present study, we (in cooperation with Bio-medical Carbon Technology) investigated various silver-containing activated carbon fibers to understand the effects of different silver concentrations on the efficacies of a silver containing dressing. Our results indicated that various silver-containing activated carbon fibers exhibited good antibacterial effects and biocompatibility in terms of cell viability and that silver concentration showed a minor influence on cell growth. The infected excision wound model indicated that compared to silver-containing activated carbon fiber and other commercial silver-containing dressings assisted wound healing by promoting granulation and collagen deposition. Meanwhile, the silver ion can only be restrained in epidermis by intact skin. During application on the wound area, a temporary increase of serum silver can be detected, but this elevated serum silver level decreased to a subtle level after the removal of silver-containing activated carbon fiber. PMID:24449026
Lin, Yu-Hsin; Hsu, Wei-Shan; Chung, Wan-Yu; Ko, Tse-Hao; Lin, Jui-Hsiang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of colonization and infection in both acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds. Objective: Our objective is to define this current epidemic problem caused by both community- acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), focusing on the similarities and differences between these 2 isolates as well as the impact on wound management decisions.
Robert H. Demling; Barbara Waterhouse
Advanced age is associated with alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to an increased risk of infection in elderly patients. Coupled with this immune dysfunction, elderly patients demonstrate impaired wound healing with elevated rates of wound dehiscence and chronic wounds. To evaluate how advanced age alters the host immune response to cutaneous wound infection, we developed a murine model of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus wound infection in young (3–4 month) and aged (18–20 month) BALB/c mice. Aged mice exhibit increased bacterial colonization and delayed wound closure over time compared to young mice. These differences were not attributed to alterations in wound neutrophil or macrophage TLR2 or Fc?RIII expression, or age-related changes in phagocytic potential and bactericidal activity. To evaluate the role of chemotaxis in our model, we first examined in vivo chemotaxis in the absence of wound injury to KC, a neutrophil chemokine. In response to a subcutaneous injection of KC, aged mice recruited fewer neutrophils at increasing doses of KC compared to young mice. This paralleled our model of wound infection, where diminished neutrophil and macrophage recruitment was observed in aged mice relative to young mice despite equivalent levels of KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1 chemokine levels at the wound site. This reduced leukocyte accumulation was also associated with lower levels of ICAM-1 in wounds from aged mice at early time points. These age-mediated defects in early neutrophil recruitment may alter the dynamics of the inflammatory phase of wound healing, impacting macrophage recruitment, bacterial clearance and wound closure.
Brubaker, Aleah L.; Rendon, Juan L.; Ramirez, Luis; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.
Background Although the utility of flaps for the treatment of sternal wound infections following median sternotomy has been reported for 30 years, there have been few reports on the risk factors for complications after reconstruction. The objective of this investigation was to identify factors related to complications after the reconstruction of sternal wound infections. Methods A retrospective analysis of 74 patients with reconstructive surgery after sternal wound infection over a 5-year period was performed. Clinical data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, bacterial culture, previous cardiac surgery, wound depth, mortality rate, type of reconstructive procedure, and complication rate were collected. Results The patients' BMI ranged from 15.2 to 33.6 kg/m2 (mean, 23.1±3.74 kg/m2). Wound closure complications after reconstructive surgery were observed in 36.5% of the cases. The mortality rate was 2.7%. Diabetes mellitus significantly affected the rate of wound closure complications (P=0.041). A significant difference in the number of complications was seen between Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (P=0.011). There was a correlation between harvesting of the internal thoracic artery and postoperative complications (P=0.048). The complication rates of the pectoralis major flap, rectus abdominis flap, omentum flap, a combination of pectoralis major flap and rectus abdominis flap, and direct closure were 23.3%, 33.3%, 100%, 37.5%, and 35.7%, respectively. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus, S. aureus, harvesting of the internal thoracic artery, and omentum flap were significant factors for complications after reconstruction. The omentum flap volume may be related to the complications associated with the omentum flap transfer in the present study.
Takaku, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Shinji; Abe, Yoshiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Nagae, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Yusuke; Anraku, Kuniaki; Inagawa, Kiichi; Nakanishi, Hideki
Staphylococcus aureus isolates which produce type A staphylococcal ?-lactamase have been associated with wound infections complicating the use of cefazolin prophylaxis in surgery. To further evaluate this finding, 215 wound isolates from 14 cities in the United States were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility and ?-lactamase type and correlated with the preoperative prophylactic regimen. Borderline-susceptible S. aureus isolates of phage group 5 (BSSA-5), which produce large amounts of type A ?-lactamase and exhibit borderline susceptibility to oxacillin, comprised a greater percentage of the 120 wound isolates associated with cefazolin prophylaxis than they did of the 95 isolates associated with other prophylactic regimens (25% versus 12.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). In contrast, methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were distributed evenly between the two groups (8.3% versus 11.6%, respectively). In vitro assays demonstrated that cefazolin was hydrolyzed faster by BSSA-5 strains than by other ?-lactamase-producing, methicillin-susceptible strains (1.54 versus 0.50 ?g/min/108 CFU, respectively; P < 0.0001). These data demonstrate that BSSA-5 strains are a distinct subpopulation of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus which frequently cause deep surgical wound infections. Cefazolin use in prophylaxis is a risk factor for BSSA-5 infection.
Kernodle, Douglas S.; Classen, David C.; Stratton, Charles W.; Kaiser, Allen B.
Hydroactive wound dressings retain exsudate in the wound region or incorporate wound exsudate by gel formation. They create the local environment for moist wound healing which is experimentally and clinically characterized by accelerated reepithelialization, inflammatory reaction and angiogenesis as well as reduced wound pain and wound infection rates. Clinically relevant product groups of hydroactive wound dressings (hydrocolloids and hydropolymers, semipermeable films, calcium alginates) are distinct as to chemical structure, physical properties and functional characteristics in local wound treatment. Between the product groups, there are considerable differences with respect to inflammatory reactions at the wound bottom, absorption of exsudate, occlusion properties, wound edge adherence, adaptability to the wound shape and material integrity of wound dressings. Experimental and clinical results of moist wound treatment by hydroactive wound dressings such as hydrocolloids and hydropolymers, semipermeable films or calcium alginates reveal a wide range of local response on the different types of dressings. They offer the opportunity of therapeutic differentiation. To elucidate the differential indication for different product groups of hydroactive wound dressings in local treatment of chronic wounds, additional experimental and clinical research is required. PMID:10436530
Mohr, V D; Spelter, H; Schmidt, J; Zirngibl, H
Among all hospitalized patients, surgical site infections (SSI) are the third most frequently hospital-acquired-infection. SSIs remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality among surgical patients. This may be partially explained by the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens and the increased numbers of patients who are elderly and/or have a wide variety of chronic, debilitating, or immunocompromising underlying diseases. This is why it is essential to implement SSI prevention measures. In April 1999 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) presented the "Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection". The recommendations represent the consensus of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) regarding strategies for the prevention of SSIs. Whenever possible, the recommendations are based on data from well-designed scientific studies. This guideline is a major step forward and is also essential to optimize the management of surgical patients in Germany. PMID:11253544
Geffers, C; Gastmeier, P; Daschner, F; Rüden, H
Data supporting the concept that microbial biofilms are a major cause of non-healing ulcers remain limited. A porcine model was established where delayed healing resulted from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in full-thickness wounds. At the end of one study a wound remaining open was sampled and a MRSA strain was isolated. This pig-passaged strain was used as the inoculating strain in several subsequent studies. The resulting MRSA wound infections exhibited a greater, more stable tissue bioburden than seen in studies using the parent strain. Furthermore, wounds infected with the passaged strain experienced a greater delay in healing. To understand whether these changes corresponded to an increased biofilm character of the wound infection, wound biopsy samples from studies using either the parent or passaged MRSA strains were examined microscopically. Evidence of biofilm was observed for both strains, as most samples at a minimum had multiple isolated, dense microcolonies of bacteria. However, the passaged MRSA resulted in bacterial colonies of greater frequency and size that occurred more often in concatenated fashion to generate extended sections of biofilm. These results provide a model case in which increasing biofilm character of a wound infection corresponded with a greater delay in wound healing. PMID:22672311
Roche, Eric D; Renick, Paul J; Tetens, Shannon P; Ramsay, Sarah J; Daniels, Egeenee Q; Carson, Dennis L
Background The prosthetic dura is an essential element in the protection of the cranial parenchyma and prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Although prosthetic dura are widely used in neurosurgery, they occasionally provoke infection, which can be a major concern after neurosurgical treatment. However, removal of the prosthetic dura carries a risk of brain parenchyma injury and cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The salvage of infected prosthetic dural material has not been adequately addressed in the literature. In this study, we demonstrate the value of the combination of a meticulous surgical debridement of necrotic tissue and simultaneous muscle free flap for intractable postoperative epidural abscess without removal of the infected prosthetic dura. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we reviewed the data of 11 patients with persistent infection on the prosthetic dura. The epidural infections each occurred after a neurosurgical procedure, and there was soft tissue necrosis with the disclosure of the underlying prosthetic dura and dead bone around the scalp wound. To salvage the infected prosthetic dura, meticulous debridement and a muscle free flap were performed. Results All 11 patients experienced complete recovery from the complicated wound problem without the need for further surgical intervention. No signs of prosthetic dural infection were observed during the mean follow-up period of 11 months. Conclusions The combination of a meticulous surgical debridement and coverage with a muscle free flap is an effective treatment for salvage of infected prosthetic dura.
Han, Dae Hee; Park, Myong Chul; Park, Dong Ha; Song, Hyunsuk
Wound infection is a common risk for patients with chronic nonhealing wounds, causing high morbidity and mortality. Currently, systemic antibiotic treatment is the therapy of choice, despite often leading to several side effects and the risk of an insufficient tissue penetration due to impaired blood supply. If systemically delivered, moxifloxacin penetrates well into inflammatory blister fluid, muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissues and might therefore be a possible option for the topical treatment of skin and infected skin wounds. In this study, topical application of moxifloxacin was investigated in comparison to mupirocin, linezolid, and gentamicin using a porcine wound infection and a rat burn infection model. Both animal models were performed either by an inoculation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wound fluid, tissue, and blood samples were taken, and bacterial counts as well as the moxifloxacin concentration were determined for a 14-day follow-up. A histological comparison of the rat burn wound tissues was performed. Both strains were susceptible to moxifloxacin and gentamicin, whereas mupirocin and linezolid were effective only against MRSA. All antibiotics showed efficient reduction of bacterial counts, and except with MRSA, infected burn wounds reached bacterial counts below 10(5) CFU/g tissue. Additionally, moxifloxacin was observed to promote wound healing as determined by histologic analysis, while no induction of bacterial resistance was observed during the treatment period. The use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of infected wounds confers many benefits. Moxifloxacin is therefore an ideal candidate, due to its broad antibacterial spectrum, its high efficiency, and its potential to promote wound healing. PMID:21343458
Jacobsen, F; Fisahn, C; Sorkin, M; Thiele, I; Hirsch, T; Stricker, I; Klaassen, T; Roemer, A; Fugmann, B; Steinstraesser, L
Wound infection is a common risk for patients with chronic nonhealing wounds, causing high morbidity and mortality. Currently, systemic antibiotic treatment is the therapy of choice, despite often leading to several side effects and the risk of an insufficient tissue penetration due to impaired blood supply. If systemically delivered, moxifloxacin penetrates well into inflammatory blister fluid, muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissues and might therefore be a possible option for the topical treatment of skin and infected skin wounds. In this study, topical application of moxifloxacin was investigated in comparison to mupirocin, linezolid, and gentamicin using a porcine wound infection and a rat burn infection model. Both animal models were performed either by an inoculation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wound fluid, tissue, and blood samples were taken, and bacterial counts as well as the moxifloxacin concentration were determined for a 14-day follow-up. A histological comparison of the rat burn wound tissues was performed. Both strains were susceptible to moxifloxacin and gentamicin, whereas mupirocin and linezolid were effective only against MRSA. All antibiotics showed efficient reduction of bacterial counts, and except with MRSA, infected burn wounds reached bacterial counts below 105 CFU/g tissue. Additionally, moxifloxacin was observed to promote wound healing as determined by histologic analysis, while no induction of bacterial resistance was observed during the treatment period. The use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of infected wounds confers many benefits. Moxifloxacin is therefore an ideal candidate, due to its broad antibacterial spectrum, its high efficiency, and its potential to promote wound healing.
Jacobsen, F.; Fisahn, C.; Sorkin, M.; Thiele, I.; Hirsch, T.; Stricker, I.; Klaassen, T.; Roemer, A.; Fugmann, B.; Steinstraesser, L.
HemCon® bandage is an engineered chitosan acetate preparation used as a hemostatic control dressing, and its chemical structure suggests that it should also be antimicrobial. We tested its ability to rapidly kill bacteria in vitro and in mouse models of infected wounds. We used the Gram-negative species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus that had all been stably transduced with the entire bacterial lux operon to allow in vivo bioluminescence imaging. An excisional wound in Balb/c mice was inoculated with 50–250 million cells followed after 30 min by application of HemCon bandage, alginate sponge bandage, silver sulfadiazine cream or no treatment. HemCon was more adhesive to the wound and conformed well to the injury compared to alginate. Animal survival was followed over 15 days with observations of bioluminescence emission and animal activity daily. Chitosan acetate treated mice infected with P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis all survived while those receiving no treatment, alginate and silver sulfadiazine demonstrated 25–100% mortality. Chitosan acetate was much more effective than other treatments in rapidly reducing bioluminescence in the wound consistent with its rapid bactericidal activity in vitro as well as its light-scattering properties. S. aureus formed only non-lethal localized infections after temporary immunosuppression of the mice but HemCon was again more effective in reducing bioluminescence. The data suggest that chitosan acetate rapidly kills bacteria in the wound before systemic invasion can take place, and is superior to alginate bandage and silver sulfadiazine that may both encourage bacterial growth in the short term.
Burkatovskaya, Marina; Tegos, George P; Swietlik, Emilia; Demidova, Tatiana N; Castano, Ana P; Hamblin, Michael R.
Objective: The influence of endoscopic harvesting techniques on the prevalence of leg-wound complications after coronary artery bypass grafting remains to be defined for patients at high risk for the development of wound infections. Methods: Among 1473 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting who had the saphenous vein harvested by either a continuous incision or skip incisions leaving intact skin bridges,
Phillip A. Carpino; Kamal R. Khabbaz; Robert M. Bojar; Hassan Rastegar; Kenneth G. Warner; Richard E. Murphy; Douglas D. Payne
Wound infection is a threatening, troublesome, and costly complication contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. The methods and materials used to close a wound significantly influence the quality of the repair process and the risk of surgical site infection. Six pigs were used to evaluate the influence of four separate skin-closure modalities on the potentiation of infection in contaminated wounds. Full-thickness skin wounds on the abdomen were contaminated with S. aureus and then closed with one of four devices: a novel absorbable staple (InsorbTM) placed in the subcuticular tissue; a braided absorbable suture (VicrylTM); a monofilament absorbable suture (MonocrylTM); percutaneous metal staples. Wound infection was assessed 7 days after closure by clinical signs and quantitative bacterial swabs. InsorbTM staples had significantly lower infection rates than continuous VicrylTM (39% vs. 100%, p=0.002) or MonocrylTM suture (39% vs. 89%, p=0.014). The InsorbTM subcuticular staple and the metal percutaneous skin staple were statistically equivalent in wound infection rate and parameters of inflammation. The combined data for both interrupted staple modalities documented less inflammation compared to the combined data for continuous sutures. These lower levels of inflammatory metrics were statistically significant for edema (p=0.018), gauze exudate observed (p=0.007) and purulent exudate in wound (p<0.0001). In conclusion, InsorbTM staples were shown to be an acceptable choice for the closure of contaminated wounds because they had a significantly lower incidence of wound infection and inflammation when compared to continuous intradermal suture. PMID:23428250
Pineros-Fernandez, Angela; Salopek, Lisa S; Rodeheaver, Pamela F; Rodeheaver, George
A case of a mixed infection due to Candida albicans and the zygomycete Absidia corymbifera in a 38-year-old, previously healthy, Caucasian male is presented. The infection developed following serial rib fractures, and ruptures of kidney, liver and biliary tract as well as a pancreatic contusion resulting from a traffic accident. During intensive care treatment the patient underwent several surgical procedures but subsequently experienced multi-organ failure and sepsis. Some weeks later, fungal growth was observed macroscopically on the patient's skin and wounds. From wound swabs C. albicans and A. corymbifera were grown. Histopathology of abdominal tissue yielded pseudohyphae and coenocytic hyphae. Although surgical debridement and antifungal treatment with amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine were started immediately, the patient died in therapy-refractory septic multi-organ failure. PMID:15473364
Horré, R; Jovani?, B; Herff, S; Marklein, G; Zhou, H; Heinze, I; De Hoog, G S; Rüchel, R; Schaal, K P
Disease-causing microorganisms that have become resistant to drug therapy are an increasing cause of burn, wound, blast and bone infections, with many traditional antimicrobial agents becoming ineffective. Our main hypothesis is that predatory prokaryotes...
D. E. Kadouri
Disease-causing microorganisms that have become resistant to drug therapy are an increasing cause of burns and wound infections. Bdellovibrio and Micavibrio are Gram-negative obligatory predators that feed on other Gram- negative bacteria. The focus of th...
A man in his early 80s presented to our emergency department with painless redness and swelling in his right leg. One week prior, he cleaned up floodwater in his basement after Hurricane Irene passed the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA in August 2011. Physical examination included large purple bullae and raised concern for necrotising fasciitis. Wound culture revealed a polymicrobial infection including Leclercia adecarboxylata. PMID:23109419
Tam, Vernissia; Nayak, Seema
We present the results of the treatment of infected primary or delayed spine wounds after spinal surgery using negative pressure wound therapy. In our institution (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland) nine patients (three women and six men; mean age 68.6, range 43-87 years) were treated in the period between January to December 2011 for non-healing spinal wounds. The treatment consisted of repeated debridements, irrigation and temporary closure with negative pressure wound therapy system. Three patients were admitted with a spinal epidural abscess; two with osteoporotic lumbar fracture; two with pathologic vertebra fracture and spinal cord compression, and two with vertebra fracture after trauma. All nine patients have been treated with antibiotic therapy. In one case the hardware has been removed, in three patients laminectomy was performed without instrumentation, in five patients there was no need to remove the hardware. The average hospital stay was 16.6 days (range 11-30). The average follow-up was 3.8, range 0.5-14 months. The average number of negative pressure wound therapy procedures was three, with the range 1-11. Our retrospective study focuses on the clinical problems faced by the spinal surgeon, clinical outcomes after spinal surgery followed by wound infection, and negative pressure wound therapy. Moreover, we would like to emphasize the importance for the patients and their relatives to be fully informed about the increased complications of surgery and about the limitations of treatment of these wounds with negative pressure wound therapy.
Zwolak, Pawel; Konig, Matthias Alexander; Osterhoff, Georg; Wilzeck, Verena; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Jukema, Gerrolt Nico
Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390).
A total of 3482 general surgical patients entered a trial in which they had a chlorhexidine or placebo detergent shower three times before elective clean wound or potentially contaminated surgery. Patients who showered with a chlorhexidine detergent (N = 1744) had a significant reduction in skin flora compared with those who showered with a placebo detergent (N = 1738). The majority of wound infections occurred outside hospital (312 outpatient infections vs. 201 inpatient infections). Wound infection rates were similar in the chlorhexidine and placebo groups (5.79% vs. 5.75% for inpatient infections and 8.54% vs. 9.38% for outpatient infections). The average hospital cost of both non-infected and infected patients was higher in the chlorhexidine group. The average cost of a non-infected chlorhexidine patient was 847.95 pounds as opposed to 804.60 pounds for a non-infected placebo patient, whilst the average cost of an infected patient was 1459.70 pounds (chlorhexidine) and 1414.22 pounds (placebo). A cross-match comparison of patients undergoing vascular surgery revealed no statistical significance in the difference between the two experimental groups. Patients were matched for age, sex, type of operation and surgeon. We conclude that preoperative whole-body disinfection with a chlorhexidine detergent is not a cost-effective treatment for reducing wound infection. PMID:1353510
Lynch, W; Davey, P G; Malek, M; Byrne, D J; Napier, A
Exudate removed from an infection that developed below the left eye of a 10-year-old male following a previously inflicted wound after aquatic exposure was cultured and revealed two different Aeromonas spp. Further characterization showed that one strain was phenotypically identical to Aeromonas veronii, while the other strain was confirmed by DNA hybridization analysis to be Aeromonas jandaei sp. nov. This is the first report of these more recently described aeromonads, thus far rarely reported from clinical disease, occurring simultaneously in a human infection. PMID:2037674
Joseph, S W; Carnahan, A M; Brayton, P R; Fanning, G R; Almazan, R; Drabick, C; Trudo, E W; Colwell, R R
OBJECTIVES Sternal wound infections occurring after cardiac surgery have a critical impact on morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. This study evaluated the efficacy of a gentamicin–collagen sponge in decreasing deep sternal-wound infections in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. METHODS We conducted a quasi-experimental single-centre prospective cohort study in diabetic and/or overweight patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass surgery with bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. The end-point was the rate of reoperation for deep sternal wound infection. The period from January 2006 to October 2008, before the introduction of the gentamicin sponge, was compared with the period from November 2008 to December 2010. RESULTS Of 552 patients (median body mass index, 31.5; 37.7% with diabetes requiring insulin), 68 (12.3%) had deep sternal wound infections. Reoperation for deep sternal wound infections occurred in 40/289 (13.8%) preintervention patients and 22/175 (12.6%) patients managed with the sponge. Independent risk factors were female sex and longer time on mechanical ventilation, but not use of the sponge (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.52–1.73; P = 0.88). The group managed with the sponge had a higher proportion of gentamicin-resistant micro-organisms (21/27, 77.8%) compared with the other patients (23/56, 41.1%; P < 0.01). The median time to reoperation for wound infection was higher with the sponge (21 vs 17 days, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS A gentamicin–collagen sponge was not effective in preventing deep sternal wound infections in high-risk patients. Our results suggest that a substantial proportion of wound contaminations occur after bypass surgery with bilateral internal mammary artery grafts.
Birgand, Gabriel; Radu, Costin; Alkhoder, Soleiman; Al Attar, Nawwar; Raffoul, Richard; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Nataf, Patrick; Lucet, Jean-Christophe
Background Sternal wound infection is a devastating complication of cardiothoracic surgery that carries high postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. We explored whether our current program of extensive bacteriological examination including repeat blood cultures may contribute to the early diagnosis of sternal wound infection. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 112 patients who were subjected to our bacteriological examination protocol including within 90 days after cardiothoracic surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were made in order to identify risk factors for sternal infection. Results The median patient age was 75 years, and 65 patients were male. In 35 cases (31.2%) the blood cultures showed the presence of bacterial infection with the following frequencies: Staphylococcus aureus, 18 cases; Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 7 cases; other organisms, 10 cases. Eleven patients presented repeat bacteremia on at least 2 different occasions. Twenty patients (17.8%) presented sternal wound infections. There was no difference in operative mortality between the patients with and without sternal wound infection. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that bilateral mammary artery use (OR, 13.68, 95% CI, 1.09-167.36, p?=?0.043), positive blood culture for Staphylococcus aureus (OR, 19.51, 95% CI, 4.46-104.33, p?0.0001), repeat bacteremia (OR, 17.98, 95% CI, 2.51-161.77, p?=?0.004) were risk factors that were associated for sternal wound infection. Conclusion Repeat blood cultures in febrile patients appear to be useful for the early detection of Staphylococcus aureus and repeat bacteremia, and these were associated with sternal wound infection. Bilateral internal mammary artery use was another risk factor of sternal wound infection in febrile patients. These factors may identify patients suitable for expeditious radiological examination and aggressive treatments.
The aim of this study was to compare microbiologically the effects of the CO2 Laser and Chlorohexidine Gluconate (4%) on Staphylococcus aureus infected cutaneous wounds. Wound infection constitutes a big risk for patients and it is usually associated to increased morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. It is accepted that local treatment of these infections is effective. Standardized wounds created on the dorsum of 36 rats were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and treated during six days as follows: Group I: Chlorohexidine Gluconate applied to the wound surface during one minute during six days; Group II: Single CO2 Laser irradiation (8W,CW, unfocused, 8cm focal distance, 81530W/cm2), maintaining surface debris; Group III: Single CO2 Laser irradiation (8W,CW, unfocused, 8cm focal distance, 81530W/cm2), removing the surface debris. Daily samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Seven days after wounding the animals were killed a final sample taken. The use of Chlorohexidine Gluconate solution and the CO2 laser with the removal of the surface debris result in a significant reduction on the infectability of the Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-treated infected wounds (p=0.00 e p=0.02). However, if the debris is left on the wound surface the resolution of the infection is less significant and results in non-significant differences on the number of Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non treated controls (p=0.14). No difference on infectability of the Staphylococcus aureus was detectable when the debris was removed of the surface of the wounds and when the Chlorohexidine solution was used (p=0.05). Therefore, the use of the CO2 laser would improve the resolution of the infection without further irradiating the tissue and consequently without further impairing wound healing. The fact that significant differences were observed between the two modalities of CO2 treatment indicates that the surface debris acts as a culture medium for bacterial growth keeping a higher infectability of the wound in which the debris was not removed (p=0.04).
Lima Verde Santos, Jose Z.; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio L.; Cavalcanti das Neves, Jerlucia; Ribeiro de Sena, Kesia X. d. F.; Matos de Oliveira, Marcos A.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of treatment for deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) in a nationwide patient cohort, before and after the introduction of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). METHODS This was a population-based cohort of all patients treated for DSWI in Iceland out of 2446 open heart operations performed between 2000 and 2010. Length of hospital stay, survival and reoperations were compared in (i) 23 patients treated with open and/or closed irrigation before August 2005 (conventional treatment, CvT group) and in (ii) 20 patients treated after this time with NPWT as a first-line therapy (NPWT group). RESULTS The DSWI rate was 1.8% and did not change during the study period. Demographics were similar for both groups, except for peripheral arterial disease which was less common in the NPWT group. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were also more common (as the only pathogen identified) in the NPWT group (70% vs 30%, P = 0.01). The median length of hospital stay was 43 days in both groups and the sternum could be closed with delayed primary closure in all except 2 patients, one in each group. Eight patients in the CvT group required surgical revision for re-infections, including debridement and rewiring, when compared with 1 patient in the NPWT group (P = 0.02). Furthermore, 6 patients in the CvT group developed late chronic infections of the sternum requiring surgical revision, compared with one in the NPWT group (P = 0.10). The 30-day mortality was not significantly different between groups (4% vs 0%, P > 0.1) and the same was true for 1-year mortality (17% vs 0%, P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS NPWT significantly reduces the risk of early re-infections in patients with DSWI. There was a lower rate of late chronic sternal infections and lower mortality in the NPWT group, but the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that NPWT should be considered as a first-line treatment for most DSWIs.
Steingrimsson, Steinn; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Gudmundsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sjogren, Johan; Gudbjartsson, Tomas
A randomized controlled clinical trial was undertaken in 542 consecutive emergency and elective abdominal operations, with one group of patients receiving tetracycline peritoneal and wound lavage and the other a single intravenous injection of 1 g latamoxef at induction of anaesthesia. Seventy-five patients were withdrawn because no potentially contaminated hollow viscus was opened, and a further 36 because they could not be assessed for wound infection. Of the remaining 431 patients, 212 received latamoxef resulting in 5 major and 8 minor wound infections in hospital; another 4 minor infections occurred at home (total incidence 8.0%). In the tetracycline group (n = 219) there were 7 major and 19 minor wound infections in hospital and 10 minor infections later (total incidence 16.4%). This is significantly higher than the rate with latamoxef (P = 0.012). Monitoring of operative and postoperative bleeding revealed no evidence (except in one doubtful case) of excessive bleeding associated with the use of a single dose of latamoxef. It is concluded that single-dose preoperative latamoxef is more effective than peroperative tetracycline lavage for the prevention of wound infections after potentially contaminated abdominal operations.
Sauven, P; Playforth, M J; Smith, G M; Evans, M; Pollock, A V
Infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) play an increasing role in the postoperative course. Although wound infections after cardiac surgery are rare, the outcome is limited by the prolonged treatment with high mortality. Not only surgical debridement is crucial, but also antibiotic support. Next to vancomycin and linezolid, daptomycin gains increasing importance. Although clinical evidence is limited, daptomycin has immunomodulatory properties, resulting in the suppression of cytokine expression after host immune response stimulation by MRSA. Experimental studies showed an improved efficacy of daptomycin in combination with administration of vitamin E before infecting wounds by MRSA.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of toluidine blue (TB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on oral wound\\u000a infections in rats. The study called for a combination treatment of a 1mg\\/ml solution of TB with a red light at three intensity\\u000a settings of 12 J\\/cm2, 24 J\\/cm2 and 48 J\\/cm2. In the group that was given the highest light dose of
J. Lin; L. J. Bi; Z. G. Zhang; Y. M. Fu; T. T. Dong
Purulent infection of a surgical wound developed after discectomy, and a mannitol-nonfermenting Staphylococcus aureus isolate was cultivated as the etiologic agent. Nonfermenting S. aureus strains are exceedingly rare and may be erroneously mistaken and dismissed as contaminants. This report then emphasizes that pure and massive cultures must be carefully evaluated, even if preliminary examination does not suggest a pathogenic organism. Also, although mannitol-negative, the studied strain was correctly detected as S. aureus by both the-FISH test (AdvanDx, USA) and the Liofilchem ‘Chromatic Staph aureus’, highlighting that additional diagnostic methods may support recognition of uncommon, nonfermenting S. aureus strains in the daily practice.
Savini, Vincenzo; Nigro, Raffaele; Marrollo, Roberta; Polilli, Ennio; Campitelli, Irma; Buonaguidi, Roberto; Fazii, Paolo; Carretto, Edoardo
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) in patients undergoing a Caesarean section (CS) and to identify risk factors, common bacterial pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity. SSI significantly affect the patient’s quality of life by increasing morbidity and extending hospital stays. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Nizwa Hospital, Oman, to determine the incidence of post-Caesarean (PCS) SSI from 2001 to 2012. This was followed by a case-control study of 211 PCS cases with SSI. Controls (220) were randomly selected cases, at the same hospital in the same time period, who had undergone CS without any SSI. Data was collected on CS type, risk factors, demographic profile, type of organism, drug sensitivity and date of infection. Results: The total number of PCS wound infections was 211 (2.66%). There was a four-fold higher incidence of premature rupture of the membranes (37, 17.53%) and a three-fold higher incidence of diabetes (32, 15.16%) in the PCS cases compared with controls. The most common organisms responsible for SSI were Staphylococcus aureus (66, 31.27%) and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli group (40, 18.95%). The most sensitive antibiotics were aminoglycoside and cephalosporin. Polymicrobial infections were noted in 42 (19.90%), while 47 (22.27%) yielded no growth. A high incidence of associated risk factors like obesity, hypertension, anaemia and wound haematoma was noted. Conclusion: Measures are recommended to reduce the incidence of SSI, including the implementation of infection prevention practices and the administration of antibiotic prophylaxis with rigorous surgical techniques.
Dhar, Hansa; Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim; Rathi, Bhawna; Nimre, Eman A.; Sachdeva, Vibha; Hamdi, Ilham
Background Deep wound infection after spinal surgery is a severe complication that often requires prolonged medical and surgical management. It can compromise the outcome of the deformity correction, especially in patients requiring surgical intervention with subsequent removal of implants. Ascertaining the incidence and risk factors leading to infection may help to prevent this problem. Methods We reviewed the hospital charts of all patients who underwent spinal deformity correction from 1996 to 2005. Results In all, 227 patients were identified (139 idiopathic, 57 neuromuscular, 8 syndromic, 6 congenital, 17 other); 191 patients were treated with posterior instrumentation and fusion, 11 with anterior-only procedures and 24 with combined anterior and posterior procedures. Final follow-up ranged from 1 to 9.5 years. Infection developed in 14 patients. The overall incidence of infection was 6.2%. Drainage and back pain were the most common presenting symptoms. The incidence of infection was higher among patients with nonidiopathic diagnoses (risk ratio [RR] 8.65, p < 0.001). Use of allograft bone was associated with a higher rate of infection (RR 9.66, p < 0.001) even when stratified by diagnosis (nonidiopathic diagnoses, RR 7.6, p = 0.012). Higher volume of instrumentation was also a risk factor for infection (p = 0.022). Coagulase-negative Staphyloccocus was the most commonly identified organism, followed by Propionibacterium acnes and Pseudomonas. Conclusion Development of infection following scoliosis surgery was found to be associated with several risk factors, including a nonidiopathic diagnosis, the use of allograft and a higher volume of instrumentation. Preventative measures addressing these factors may decrease the rate of infection.
Aleissa, Sami; Parsons, David; Grant, John; Harder, James; Howard, Jason
An account is given of the methods used and the results obtained in a series of experimental studies, carried out over the past 15 years, of the effects of various factors on the healing of abdominal wounds in animals. The factors examined include uraemia, jaundice, infections, and the technique of wound closure. The preliminary findings in a comparison now in progress of the results of one- and two-layer closure of laparotomy wounds in human patients are also given. The relative neglect of the study of wound healing in the past is emphasized and some aspects that are in urgent need of further investigation are mentioned.
A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in 116 consecutive patients undergoing colorectal surgery to compare single dose prophylaxis with mezlocillin to cefuroxime plus metronidazole in three doses. Patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of iv mezlocillin (5.0 g) or three doses of iv cefuroxime plus metronidazole at 8-hourly intervals. The first dose was given on the operating table. The overall wound infection rate in the mezlocillin treated patients (n = 54) was 30% and in the patients treated with cefuroxime plus metronidazole (n = 56) 25%. This difference is not statistically significant. When trivial wound infections were disregarded the wound infection rates were 11% and 16% respectively, which again was not statistically significant. PMID:2886534
Stubbs, R S; Griggs, N J; Kelleher, J P; Dickinson, I K; Moat, N; Rimmer, D M
In this study prophylactic effects of ceftriaxone and ornidazole on the patients undergoing elective colon surgery was studied in the surgical clinics, Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University. Colon cleaning with Nichol's method was performed in all cases. But kanamycin and metronidazole were given instead of erythromycin and metronidazole. One hour before the operation ceftriaxone 1 gr. and ornidazole 500 mg. (IV, IM) were administered. Those antibiotics were followed by ceftriaxone 2 gr. daily and ornidazole 1 gr. daily (IV, IM) three days after operation. The wound infection were observed in the postoperative period (5%). The average hospitalization time of the cases were 12 days. This period was 18 days and 21 days in the cases having infection. Side effects related the drugs were not observed and there were no significant laboratory changes. PMID:2283963
Alhan, E; Calik, A; Oncü, M; Yandi, M; Köksal, I
(See the editorial commentary by Beck, on pages 172–3, and the article by Kim et al, on pages 244–51.) For the first time, obesity appeared as a risk factor for developing severe 2009 pandemic influenza infection. Given the increase in obesity, there is a need to understand the mechanisms underlying poor outcomes in this population. In these studies, we examined the severity of pandemic influenza virus in obese mice and evaluated antiviral effectiveness. We found that genetically and diet-induced obese mice challenged with either 2009 influenza A virus subtype H1N1 or 1968 subtype H3N2 strains were more likely to have increased mortality and lung pathology associated with impaired wound repair and subsequent pulmonary edema. Antiviral treatment with oseltamivir enhanced survival of obese mice. Overall, these studies demonstrate that impaired wound lung repair in the lungs of obese animals may result in severe influenza virus infection. Alternative approaches to prevention and control of influenza may be needed in the setting of obesity.
O'Brien, Kevin B.; Vogel, Peter; Duan, Susu; Govorkova, Elena A.; Webby, Richard J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.
The effect of combinations of the crude methanolic extract of the leaves of Helichrysum pedunculatum and eight first-line antibiotics were investigated by time kill assays against a panel of bacterial strains that have been implicated in wound infections. The plant extract showed appreciable antibacterial activities against the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 18 and 27 mm, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varying between 0.1 and 5.0 mg/ml. The MICs of the test antibiotics range between 0.001 and 0.412 mg/ml, and combination of the plant extract and the antibiotics resulted in reduction of bacterial counts by between 0 and 6.63 Log10 cfu/ml. At V2 MIC, 56.81% synergy; 43.19% indifference and no antagonism were observed, and at MIC levels, 55.68% synergy; 44.32% indifference and no antagonism were observed when the extracts were combined with eight different antibiotics. In all, 60% of the interactions were synergistic. All combination regimes on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 yielded no synergy, neither was antagonism detected in any of the assays. We propose that extracts of the leaves of Helichrysum pedunculatum could be of relevance in combination therapy and as a source of resistance modifying principies that could be useful as treatment options for persistent wound infections. PMID:19915741
Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Afolayan, Anthony J; Okoh, Anthony I
This report presents the difficulties encountered in managing a wound colonized with methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) following a complex knee surgery in an elderly female patient with generalized psoriasis. The patient’s chronic wound was successfully treated with nanocrystalline silver-releasing dressings (Acticoat™). The patient did not develop a deep-seated infection, nor was removal of the implant needed. However, the wound infection
Mayukh Bhattacharyya; Helen Bradley
Background: The aim was to determine whether systemic antibiotic prophylaxis prevented wound infection after of abdominal wall hernia with mesh. Method: This was a systematic review of the available literature identified from multiple database using the terms 'hernia' and 'antibiotic prophylaxis'. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal wall mesh hernia repair with explicitly defined wound infection criteria and
T. J. Aufenacker; M. J. W. Koelemay; D. J. Gouma; M. P. Simons
We retrospectively investigated factors associated with wound infection after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with special reference to use of a plastic adhesive drape impregnated with iodophor. The subjects were 296 patients undergoing liver resection for HCC. Wound infection was defined as purulent drainage from the superficial incision with or without laboratory confirmation. One or more of the following
Yasuko Yoshimura; Shoji Kubo; Kazuhiro Hirohashi; Masao Ogawa; Ken Morimoto; Kumiko Shirata; Hiroaki Kinoshita
Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction. Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery. Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.
Bae, Sung Kyu; Kang, Seok Joo; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Hwan
Infection constitutes an important part of wound pathology and impedes wound healing. Plasma-mediated bipolar radiofrequency ablation (Coblation(®)) is a tissue-removal technique suggested for use in wound treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial effect of ablation exposure on bacteria and fungi relevant to wound infection, and how exposure time, temperature and aerobic/anaerobic growth influence the effect. Suspensions of 10(6) colony-forming units/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were exposed to ablation or thermal control for 500, 1000 or 2000 ms, or left untreated, and incubated aerobically. E. coli was also incubated anaerobically. Ablation was significantly (p?0.0001) microbicidal on all strains compared with untreated and thermal control. The reductions compared with untreated control were 99.87-99.99% for all strains. In conclusion, plasma-mediated bipolar radio-frequency ablation has a general microbicidal effect in vitro on microbes relevant to wound infection independent of aerobic/anaerobic growth and thermal effect. PMID:21727993
Sönnergren, Henrik H; Strömbeck, Louise; Faergemann, Jan
Eleven clinical strains isolated from infected wound specimens were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all 11 strains were phylogenetically related to Slackia exigua. Additionally, conventional and biochemical tests of 6 of the 11 strains were performed as supplementary methods to obtain phenotypic identification by comparison with the phenotypes of the relevant type strains. S. exigua has been considered an oral bacterial species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. This organism is fastidious and grows poorly, so it may easily be overlooked. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and the biochemical characteristics of four of the S. exigua strains isolated for this study from various infections indicative of an intestinal source were almost identical to those of the validated S. exigua type strain from an oral source and two of the S. exigua strains from oral sources evaluated in this study. Thus, we show for the first time that S. exigua species can be isolated from extraoral infections as well as from oral infections. The profiles of susceptibility to selected antimicrobials of this species were also investigated for the first time. PMID:20107092
Kim, Keun-Sung; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Bennion, Robert; Liu, Chengxu; Talan, David; Summanen, Paula; Finegold, Sydney M
Eleven clinical strains isolated from infected wound specimens were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all 11 strains were phylogenetically related to Slackia exigua. Additionally, conventional and biochemical tests of 6 of the 11 strains were performed as supplementary methods to obtain phenotypic identification by comparison with the phenotypes of the relevant type strains. S. exigua has been considered an oral bacterial species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. This organism is fastidious and grows poorly, so it may easily be overlooked. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and the biochemical characteristics of four of the S. exigua strains isolated for this study from various infections indicative of an intestinal source were almost identical to those of the validated S. exigua type strain from an oral source and two of the S. exigua strains from oral sources evaluated in this study. Thus, we show for the first time that S. exigua species can be isolated from extraoral infections as well as from oral infections. The profiles of susceptibility to selected antimicrobials of this species were also investigated for the first time.
Kim, Keun-Sung; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Bennion, Robert; Liu, Chengxu; Talan, David; Summanen, Paula; Finegold, Sydney M.
The great saphenous vein remains the most commonly harvested conduit for revascularization in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Our aim is to compare minimally invasive vein harvest techniques to conventional vein harvest with regards to leg wound infection rates. A meta-analysis of identified randomized controlled trials, reporting a comparison between the two techniques published between 1965 and 2002, was undertaken. The outcome of interest was leg wound infection. Fourteen randomized studies were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Our study revealed that wound infection was significantly lower in the minimally invasive vein harvest group (odds ratio 0.22 with 95% confidence intervals of 0.14 to 0.34). Our study suggests that using minimally invasive techniques might reduce leg wound infection rate following great saphenous vein harvesting for CABG. Further research is required to evaluate the potential benefits of minimally invasive vein harvesting techniques on the cost of postoperative care and quality of the harvested vein. PMID:14667670
Athanasiou, Thanos; Aziz, Omer; Skapinakis, Petros; Perunovic, Branco; Hart, Jonathan; Crossman, Mary Claire; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Glenville, Brian; Casula, Roberto
Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. In a previous randomized controlled trial, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin in the sternal wound before wound closure was found to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infections compared with the routine intravenous prophylaxis of isoxazolyl-penicillin only. The aims of the present study were to analyse the microbiological findings of the SWIs from the previous trial as well as to correlate these findings with the clinical presentation of SWI. Differences in clinical presentation of SWIs, depending on the causative agent, could be identified. Most infections had a late, insidious onset, and the majority of these were caused by staphylococci, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. The clinically most fulminant infections were caused by gram-negative bacteria and presented early after surgery. Local administration of gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by all major, clinically important bacterial species. Propionibacterium acnes was identified as a possible cause of SWI and may be linked to instability in the sternal fixation. There was no indication of an increase in the occurrence of gentamicin-resistant bacterial isolates in the treatment group. Furthermore, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. This technique warrants further evaluation as an alternative to prophylactic vancomycin in settings with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:17211605
Friberg, O; Svedjeholm, R; Källman, J; Söderquist, B
Question Can supplemental administration of oxygen during the perioperative period decrease the incidence of postoperative wound infections\\u000a in patients undergoing colorectal resection?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting Three hospitals in Europe (Austria and Germany).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients Five hundred patients between 18 to 80 yr of age (mean age 57 yr, 44% women) undergoing elective open colorectal resection.\\u000a Exclusion criteria were minor colon surgery,
André Denault; Denise Fréchette; Yoanna Skrobik
Background\\/Aims\\/Methods: This is a follow-up study from a recent randomized controlled trial conducted at the Women and Children’s Hospital of Buffalo that investigated the use of antimicrobial sutures (AMS) for wound closure during cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures. Our purpose was to determine the average cost of shunt infections at our institution and estimate the healthcare savings associated with reduced infection
Jonathan Stone; Thomas J. Gruber; Curtis J. Rozzelle
Non healing chronic wounds are difficult to treat in patients with diabetes and can result in severe medical problems for these patients and for society. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been adopted to treat intractable chronic wounds and has been reported to be effective. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of this treatment have not been elucidated. To assess the vasculogenic effect of NPWT, we evaluated the systemic mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during NPWT. Twenty-two of 29 consecutive patients who presented at the clinic of Seoul National Universty Hospital between December 2009 and November 2010 who underwent NPWT for diabetic foot infections or skin ulcers were included in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken before NPWT (pre-NPWT) and 7–14 days after the initiation of NPWT (during-NPWT). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis showed that the number of cells in EPC-enriched fractions increased after NPWT, and the numbers of EPC colony forming units (CFUs) significantly increased during NPWT. We believe that NPWT is useful for treating patients with diabetic foot infections and skin ulcers, especially when these conditions are accompanied by peripheral arterial insufficiency. The systemic mobilization of EPCs during NPWT may be a mechanism for healing intractable wounds in diabetic patients with foot infections or skin defects via the formation of increased granulation tissue with numerous small blood vessels.
Seo, Sang Gyo; Yeo, Ji Hyun; Kim, JI Hye; Kim, Ji-Beom; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Dong Yeon
Studies directed toward improving wound healing and resistance to wound infection of severely injured soldiers have been carried out aimed at establishing improved prophylactic and therapeutic measures. The studies are based on our view that some of the c...
S. M. Levenson
Combat wound healing and resolution are highly affected by the resident microbial flora. We therefore sought to achieve comprehensive detection of microbial populations in wounds using novel genomic technologies and bioinformatics analyses. We employed a microarray capable of detecting all sequenced pathogens for interrogation of 124 wound samples from extremity injuries in combat-injured U.S. service members. A subset of samples was also processed via next-generation sequencing and metagenomic analysis. Array analysis detected microbial targets in 51% of all wound samples, with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most frequently detected species. Multiple Pseudomonas species were also detected in tissue biopsy specimens. Detection of the Acinetobacter plasmid pRAY correlated significantly with wound failure, while detection of enteric-associated bacteria was associated significantly with successful healing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed broad microbial biodiversity between samples. The total wound bioburden did not associate significantly with wound outcome, although temporal shifts were observed over the course of treatment. Given that standard microbiological methods do not detect the full range of microbes in each wound, these data emphasize the importance of supplementation with molecular techniques for thorough characterization of wound-associated microbes. Future application of genomic protocols for assessing microbial content could allow application of specialized care through early and rapid identification and management of critical patterns in wound bioburden. PMID:24829242
Be, Nicholas A; Allen, Jonathan E; Brown, Trevor S; Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin S; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Kirkup, Benjamin C; Chromy, Brett A; Luciw, Paul A; Elster, Eric A; Jaing, Crystal J
The aim of this study was to compare histologic and microbiogically the use of the CO2 Laser and Chlorohexidine Gluconate (0.5% and 2%) on cutaneous wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus. Wound infection constitutes a risk for the patients and it is usually associated to increase morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. It is accepted that local treatment of these infections is effective. Standardised wounds created on the dorsum of Wistar rats were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and treated as follows: Group 1: control; Group 2: Chlorohexidien Gluconate (0.5%), 1 min, six days; Group 3: Chlorohexidine Gluconate (2%), 1 min, six days; Group 4: CO2 Laser, CW, RSP, 8W, 10s, single application, maintaining surface debris; Group 5: CO2 Laser, CW, RSP, 8W, 10s, single application, removing surface debris. Eight days after wounding material from the surface of the wound was collected for microbiology and the animals were sacrificed and specimens taken for light microscopy. Microbiological examinations showed that on group 2 the bacteria were not found on 50% of the animals. On group 3 83% were germ-free, on group 4 50% and on group 5 66%. Histological examination showed a better result for CO2 laser treated wounds compared to others. It is concluded that the use of a 2% Cholohexidine solution was more effective on decontaminating the wounds. However, wounds treated with the CO2 laer and with the removal of surface debris healed better than the others.
Matos de Oliveira, Marcos A.; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio L.; Azevedo Moreira, Ana C.; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana M.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Costa Lima, Taciano L.
Aims: There is a cultural barrier to early medical intervention for diabetic foot infections in Trinidad & Tobago, stemming from the strong cultural belief in “soft candle” as effective treatment. We carried out a case-control study to evaluate the outcomes of “soft candle” to treat diabetic foot infections. Methods: All consecutive patients admitted with diabetic foot infections were interviewed to collect data on: demographics, medical history, unhealthy lifestyle markers (exposure to risk factors for chronic diseases), chosen treatment and details of “soft candle” use. The hospital records were accessed on discharge to records the main outcome measures: HbA1c readings, duration of hospitalization, amputation and in-hospital mortality. Two groups were defined: The control group included patients who sought medical attention after detecting a foot infection. The study group included patients who recognized their infection but voluntarily chose to utilize “soft candle” regimens. We excluded patients who voluntarily chose to use other forms of non-traditional treatment or sought no treatment at all. Outcomes were compared using SPSS ver 19. A two-tailed P value was calculated for variables of interest in each group using Fisher’s exact test. The duration of hospitalization between the groups was compared using paired T-Test. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were 442 patients who met inclusion criteria: There were 60 patients in the study group at an average age of 55.2 years (SD ± 11.4; range 43-88): 63% had HBA1c readings >7.0% at presentation and 95% had unhealthy lifestyle habits. There were 382 patients in the control group at an average age of 59.1 years (SD ± 12.6, Range 37-89): 74% with HBA1c readings >7.0% at presentation and 48% with unhealthy lifestyle habits. Patients who used “soft candle” had significantly longer duration of hospitalization (15.5 ± 10.2 vs 9.2 ± 3.9 days; P<0.001) and major amputations (13.3% vs 5.6%; P=0.048) that was considered clinically significant. There was no difference in minor amputations (31.7% vs 34.3%; P=0.770) or in-hospital mortality (1.7% vs 0.52%; P=0.355) between the groups. Conclusion: In its current form, the traditional practice of topical “soft candle” application to diabetic foot wounds may be potentially harmful. Persons with diabetes should be warned about these effects. We have identified the target population for educational campaigns.
Cawich, Shamir O.; Harnarayan, Patrick; Islam, Shariful; Nahmorah J., Bobb; Budhooram, Steve; Ramsewak, Shivaa; Ramdass, Michael J.; Naraynsingh, Vijay
A new design of dual-functional polyurea microcapsules was proposed for chronic wound dressings to provide both non-leaching infection control and sustained topical drug delivery functionalities. Quaternary ammonium functionalized polyurea microcapsules (MCQs) were synthesized under mild conditions through an interfacial crosslinking reaction between branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in a dimethylformamide/cyclohexane emulsion. An in-situ modification method was developed to endow non-leaching surface antimicrobial properties to MCQs via bonding antimicrobial surfactants to surface isocyanate residues on the polyurea shells. The resultant robust MCQs with both non-leaching antimicrobial properties and sustained drug releasing properties have potential applications in medical textiles, such as chronic wound dressings, for infection control and drug delivery.
Background: Heart rupture resulting in lethal bleeding is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). We have previously reported that the use of a protective HeartShield device in combination with NPWT decreases the risk of damage to the heart. This article presents a retrospective analysis of NPWT duration with and without the HeartShield device. Subjects and patients: The study included 6 patients treated with the HeartShield device in combination with NPWT and 6 patients treated with conventional NPWT during the same time period. The duration of active treatment time was measured. Results: The median duration of NPWT was 8 days (range: 6-14 days) in the HeartShield device NPWT group and 14 days in the conventional group (range: 10-18 days). The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). Conclusions: It appears that the treatment of patients with DSWI with the HeartShield device reduces the duration of NPWT.
Ingemansson, Richard; Malmsjo, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra
Background: Heart rupture resulting in lethal bleeding is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). We have previously reported that the use of a protective HeartShield device in combination with NPWT decreases the risk of damage to the heart. This article presents a retrospective analysis of NPWT duration with and without the HeartShield device. Subjects and patients: The study included 6 patients treated with the HeartShield device in combination with NPWT and 6 patients treated with conventional NPWT during the same time period. The duration of active treatment time was measured. Results: The median duration of NPWT was 8 days (range: 6-14 days) in the HeartShield device NPWT group and 14 days in the conventional group (range: 10-18 days). The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). Conclusions: It appears that the treatment of patients with DSWI with the HeartShield device reduces the duration of NPWT. PMID:24741387
Ingemansson, Richard; Malmsjö, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra
A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-reaction-positive, catalase- and oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from an infected human wound caused by a dog bite was characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain IMMIB Q2029717T was a member of the order Micrococcales of the class Actinobacteria, displaying 91.6% to 96% sequence similarity with members of the family Microbacteriaceae. Phylogentic trees generated by different algorithms indicated that the strain forms an independent phylogenetic line of descent that consistently clustered proximal to the base of the genus Leucobacter. Chemical studies revealed the presence of a cell-wall murein based on L-lysine (type B1?), major menaquinone (MK-10) and a DNA G+C content of 56.9 mol%. The distinct phylogenetic position, ribotyping and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS profiles and the significant phenotypic differences clearly separate strain IMMIB Q2029717T from its nearest phylogenetic neighbour and support its classification as a representative of a novel genus and species, with the suggested name Canibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is IMMIB Q2029717T (=DSM 27064T=CCUG 64069T). PMID:24510975
Aravena-Román, M; Inglis, T J J; Siering, C; Schumann, P; Yassin, A F
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sternal wound infection (SWI) after cardiac surgery is endemic in our hospital. An infection control care bundle with preoperative chlorhexidine showering and povidone iodine paint before bathing was introduced in 2006. From 2001 to 2012, 23 (2.3%) of 1,010 patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass had SWIs. SWI significantly decreased after 2006 (1.4% vs 3.4%, respectively; P = .03). Care bundle was more protective against MRSA infection (2.3% vs 0.5%, respectively; P = .021). SWI remained a common complication after off-pump coronary artery bypass. MRSA infection was most common, and the mortality was high. Care bundle can effectively decrease the incidence of SWI, especially infection caused by MRSA. PMID:24773797
Chien, Chen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Hsu, Ron-Bin
A method for label-free, electrochemical impedance immunosensing for the detection and quantification of three infection biomarkers in both buffer and directly in the defined model matrix of mock wound fluid is demonstrated. Triggering Receptor-1 Expressed on Myeloid cells (TREM-1) and Matrix MetalloPeptidase 9 (MMP-9) are detected via direct assay and N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-l-HomoSerineLactone (HSL), relevant in bacterial quorum sensing, is detected using a competition assay. Detection is performed with gold screen-printed electrodes modified with a specific thiolated antibody. Detection is achieved in less than 1h straight from mock wound fluid without any extensive sample preparation steps. The limits of detection of 3.3 pM for TREM-1, 1.1 nM for MMP-9 and 1.4 nM for HSL are either near or below the threshold required to indicate infection. A relatively large dynamic range for sensor response is also found, consistent with interaction between neighbouring antibody-antigen complexes in the close-packed surface layer. Together, these three novel electrochemical immunosensors demonstrate viable multi-parameter sensing with the required sensitivity for rapid wound infection detection directly from a clinically relevant specimen. PMID:22137369
Ciani, Ilenia; Schulze, Holger; Corrigan, Damion K; Henihan, Grace; Giraud, Gerard; Terry, Jonathan G; Walton, Anthony J; Pethig, Ronald; Ghazal, Peter; Crain, Jason; Campbell, Colin J; Bachmann, Till T; Mount, Andrew R
The authors report the findings of in vivo studies of XF-70 (a novel, dicationic porphyrin) against Staphylococcus aureus in a murine model of a burn wound infection. Mice received a 15% total body scald burn wound, which were inoculated with S. aureus (1.8 x 10 CFU). After 24 hours, escharectomies were performed and groups (n = 8) received single or two doses (6 hours apart) of XF-70* (100 microg/wound) or silver sulfadiazine, Acticoat, or saline applied topically. Viable bacteria were quantified from homogenized burn tissue biopsies and the spleen by plating dilutions onto agar plates and CFU determination. A single dose of XF-70 reduced bacterial burden by 98.77% (untreated: 2.78 +/- 2.96 x 10 CFU/g vs XF-70 treated: 3.4 +/- 0.19 x 10 CFU/g, P < .01). Two XF-70 doses reduced the growth of S. aureus by 99.96% (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10 CFU/g, P < .01). These results were similar to the results obtained from commonly used topical antibacterials silver sulfadiazine and Acticoat. The spleens of mice treated with saline had a robust growth of S. aureus (7.0 +/- 1.97 x 10 CFU/g) whereas those treated with one or two XF-70 doses grew only 3.5 +/- 0.002 x 10 CFU/g and 5.7 +/- 0.002 x 10 CFU/g, respectively, a significant (P < .001) reduction in S. aureus dissemination. Single and multiple doses of XF-70 were effective in controlling S. aureus growth in burn wounds and inhibited systemic dissemination of S. aureus. Early treatment of burn wounds with XF-70 may be effective in slowing bacterial dissemination to other tissues. PMID:20453736
Hurtuk, Michael G; He, L-K; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L; Hecht, David W; Kennedy, Richard H; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William G; Shankar, Ravi
The authors report the use of nanocrystalline silver (Acticoat 7, Smith and Nephew, London, UK) in an acute surgical wound to prevent localized skin necrosis due to infection, thereby avoiding skin grafting as a secondary procedure. Two patients were successfully treated with Acticoat 7 dressings without using systemic antimicrobials after developing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the surgical site. Despite
Mayukh Bhattacharyya; Helen Bradley
When host antimicrobial defenses are severely compromised by radiation or trauma in conjunction with radiation, death from sepsis results. To evaluate therapies for sepsis in radiation casualties, we developed models of acquired and induced bacterial infections in irradiated and irradiated-wounded mice. Animals were exposed to either a mixed radiation field of equal proportions of neutrons and gamma rays (n/gamma = 1) from a TRIGA reactor or pure gamma rays from 60[Co sources. Skin wounds (15% of total body surface area) were inflicted under methoxyflurane anesthesia 1 h after irradiation. In all mice, wounding after irradiation decreased resistance to infection. Treatments with the immunomodulator synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) before or after mixed neutron-gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation increased survival. Therapy with S-TDCM for mice irradiated with either a mixed field or gamma rays increased resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced infections. Combined therapy with S-TDCM and ceftriaxone for K. pneumoniae infections in mice exposed to a mixed radiation field or to gamma rays was more effective than single-agent therapy. In all irradiated-wounded mice, single therapy of acquired infections with an antibiotic or S-TDCM did not increase survival. Survival of irradiated-wounded mice after topical application of gentamicin sulfate cream suggested that bacteria colonizing the wound disseminated systemically in untreated irradiated mice, resulting in death from sepsis. In lethal models of acquired infections in irradiated-wounded mice, significant increases in survival were achieved when systemic treatments with S-TDCM or gentamicin were combined with topical treatments of gentamicin cream. Therapies for sepsis in all mice exposed to a mixed field were less effective than in mice exposed to gamma rays. Nonetheless, the data show a principle by which successful therapy may be provided to individuals receiving tissue trauma in conjunction with radiation injury. PMID:1924743
Ledney, G D; Madonna, G S; Elliott, T B; Moore, M M; Jackson, W E
Marine microorganisms are uncommon etiologies of skin and skin structure infections, that is, wound infections. We report a case of severe wound infection, caused by the marine Photobacterium damselae (Vibrionaceae), in a 64-year-old male patient, returning from Australia. The isolate tested positive for pPHDD1, a plasmid conferring high-level virulence. Furthermore, the wound was coinfected with Vibrio harveyi, a halophile bacterium, which has never been reported from human infections before. Identification was achieved by use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Data retrieval from bibliography was complicated since P. damselae has been renamed often with a number of synonyms present in the literature: Photobacterium damsela, Vibrio damselae, Vibrio damsela, Pasteurella damselae, and Listonella damsela. With all synonyms used as query terms, a literature search provided less than 20 cases published worldwide. A majority of those cases presenting as severe wound infection are even fatal following progression into necrotizing fasciitis. Management with daily wound dressing and antibiotic therapy (ofloxacin empirically, followed by doxycycline after availability of microbiology) led in the reported case to a favorable outcome, which seems to be, however, the exception based on a review of the available literature.
Hundenborn, Jorg; Thurig, Steffi
In this paper, we present a case review of a 58-year-old female who presented to our emergency department with pyrexia, dyspnoea, dehydration and pain in her left breast six months following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although her sternotomy wound had healed well, examination revealed fluctuance of the whole precordium and left breast. She underwent antibiotic treatment and subsequent surgical debridement, followed by the application of vacuum-assisted dressings. Surgical reconstruction was deemed unsuitable and therefore the patient continued to be managed with vacuum dressings followed by routine dressings to allow the wound to heal by secondary intention. The patient was discharged three months after initial presentation in a good condition. The wound had completely healed four months later. PMID:24526171
Mustafa, A; Carr, C; Alkhafagi, S; Mughal, N; Omer, M; Alkhulaifi, A
Plants and animals can recognize the invasion of pathogens through their perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Plant PRRs identified have been exclusively receptor-like kinases/proteins (RLK/Ps), and no RLK/P that can detect viruses has been identified to date. RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) is regarded as an antiviral basal immunity because the majority of plant viruses has RNA as their genomes and encode RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins to counterattack antiviral RNAi. Many RSSs were reported to bind to double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which are regarded as viral PAMPs. We have recently identified a tobacco calmodulin (CaM)-like protein, rgs-CaM, as a PRR that binds to diverse viral RSSs through its affinity for the dsRNA-binding domains. Because rgs-CaM seems to target RSSs for autophagic degradation with self-sacrifice, the expression level of rgs-CaM is important for antiviral activity. Here, we found that the rgs-CaM expression was induced immediately (within 1 h) after wounding at a wound site on tobacco leaves. Since the invasion of plant viruses is usually associated with wounding, and several hours are required for viruses to replicate to a detectable level in invaded cells, the wound-induced expression of rgs-CaM seems to be linked to its antiviral function, which should be ready before the virus establishes infection. CaMs and CaM-like proteins usually transduce calcium signals through their binding to endogenous targets. Therefore, rgs-CaM is a unique CaM-like protein in terms of binding to exogenous targets and functioning as an antiviral PRR.
Tadamura, Kazuki; Nakahara, Kenji S.; Masuta, Chikara; Uyeda, Ichiro
Wound infection constitutes a big risk for patients and it is usually associated to increased morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. It is accepted that local treatment of these infections is effective. The aim of this study was to compare histologically the effects of the CO2 laser and Chlorohexidine Gluconate on Staphylococcus aureus infected cutaneous wounds. Standardized wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and treated during six days as follows: Group I: Chlorohexidine Gluconate, 1 min, six days; Group II: CO2 Laser, one day, maintaining surface debris; Group III: CO2 Laser, one day, removing the surface debris. Seven days after wounding the animals were killed and specimens taken for light microscopy. On control wounds, it was observed epithelial ulceration, and neutrophylic and lymphoplasmocitary inflammatory infiltrate. On group II, there was epithelial hyperplasia, areas of ulceration and intense neutrophylic and lymphoplasmocitary inflammatory infiltrate. On the other hand, on group III, there was a neutrophylic inflammatory infiltrate underneath the surface debris and below that intense lymphoplasmocitary inflammatory infiltrate. When the surface debris was removed, there was epithelial ulceration and mild lymphoplasmocitary inflammatory infiltrate and fibroblasts and collagen fibers. The result of this study shows that infected wounds treated with 4 percent Chlorohexidine shows a more pronounced inflammatory reaction when compared to that observed when the CO2 Laser is used, especially when surface debris are removed; Surface debris removal on Laser treated wounds results ona better and quicker healing; the surface debris may act as a culture medium for bacterial growth, or because of its characteristics, it may act as local irritant and delay healing.
Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; das Neves, Jerlucia C.; de Castro, Jurema F. L.; Santos, Jose Z. L. V.; Ribeiro de Sena, Kesia X. d. F.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.
Ten patients with a mean age of 14.5 years and partial skin thickness burns involving 3-5 per cent body surface areas developed rapidly proliferating tumour-like growths on the surface of their healing wounds within 10-21 days of sustaining the injuries. The number of tumours on every patient was either single or multiple and each increased in size daily. The growths were unique in their fulminating-type fleshy mass, with a consistency varying from soft to firm, absence of purulent material or head, and extension up to the fibrous layer covering the musculatuve. Histopathology was suggestive of granulomatous rather than a suppurative nature of the lesions. Isolation of MRSA from the burn wounds of four cases on the first day of dressing and then from the surface of the tumours of all of them and the excised tissues, as well as from the environment of the dressing room, indicated its involvement in the causation of the growths through contaminations of wounds with a hospital endemic strain while handling or dressing. The organisms were resistant to most antibiotics except vancomycin and teicoplanin. The growths in four cases subsided within 72 h with daily dressing, using an injectable solution of either vancomycin or teicoplanin, while the rest required radical excision and immediate cover with split skin grafts and systemic administration of either of the antibiotics. The wounds healed over a period of 8-10 days. PMID:8719319
Gang, R K; Bajec, J; Krishna, J; Sanyal, S C
Antimicrobial activities of 10-100% (wt/vol) concentrations of new honey, stored honey, heated honey, ultraviolet-exposed honey, and heated stored honey were tested against common human pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Entrobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus hemolyticus group B, and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial activity of honey was tested in acidic, neutral, or alkaline media. These were compared with similar concentrations of glucose in nutrient broth. Surgical wounds were made on the dorsum of mice and infected with S. aureus or Klebsiella sp. The wounds were treated with local application of honey four times a day or appropriate antibiotics and compared with control values. Bacterial conjunctivitis due to E. coli, Proteus sp., S. aureus, Klebsiella sp., and P. aeruginosa was induced in rats. Conjunctival application of honey four times a day or appropriate antibiotics was used for treatment and compared with control values. Growth of all the isolates was completely inhibited by 30-100% honey concentrations. The most sensitive microbes were E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and H. influenzae. Glucose showed less antimicrobial activity than honey, and many microbes showed positive culture even in 100% glucose. Heating to 80 degrees C for 1 hour decreased antimicrobial activity of both new and stored honey. Storage of honey for 5 years decreased its antimicrobial activity, while ultraviolet light exposure increased its activity against some of the microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of honey was stronger in acidic media than in neutral or alkaline media. Single doses of honey used to prepare the 60% concentration in nutrient broth were bacteriocidal for P. aeruginosa and bacteriostatic for S. aureus and Klebsiella sp. during certain periods. Local application of raw honey on infected wounds reduced redness, swelling, time for complete resolution of lesion, and time for eradication of bacterial infection due to S. aureus or Klebsiella sp. Its potency was comparable to that of local antibiotics. Honey application into infective conjunctivitis reduced redness, swelling, pus discharge, and time for eradication of bacterial infections due to all the isolates tested. PMID:15298770
Al-Waili, Noori S
When host antimicrobial defenses are severely compromised by radiation or trauma in conjunction with radiation, death from sepsis results. To evaluate therapies for sepsis in radiation casualties, the authors developed models of acquired and induced bacterial infections in irradiated and irradiated-wounded mice. Animals were exposed to either a mixed radiation field of equal proportions of neutrons and gamma rays (n/gamma = 1) from a TRIGA reactor or pure gamma rays from 60 (Co sources). Skin wounds (15% of total body surface area) were inflicted under methoxyflurane anesthesia 1 h after irradiation. In all mice, wounding after irradiation decreased resistance to infection. Treatments with the immunomodulator synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) before or after mixed neutron-gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation increased survival. Therapy with S-TDCM for mice irradiated with either a mixed field or gamma rays increased resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced infections.
Ledney, G.D.; Madonna, G.S.; Elliott, T.B.; Moore, M.M.; Jackson, W.E.
Background: Multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-P. aeruginosa) is a worldwide threat for public health. Hyperexpression of efflux pump systems (MexAB-OprM and MexCD-OprJ), which is a well-known mechanisms for MDR emerging, is controlled by regulatory genes, mexR and nfxB, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate point mutations in mexR and nfxB genes in MDR- P. aeruginosa isolated from wound infections. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 P. aeruginosa cultures obtained from wound infections were analyzed. Among them eight isolates identified as MDR-P. aeruginosa and were subjected to determination of mutations in mexR and nfxB genes. Results: We detected eight-point mutations in mexR and 12-point mutations in nfxB. The most common mutations were common G327-A (eight isolates), G384-A (eight isolates), G411-A (eight isolates). Mutations in A371-C and A372-C were the predominant substitution which was seen in nfxB. Amino acid substitutions were also found at position 124 and 126 for NfxB and MexR, respectively. Conclusions: P. aeruginosa isolates with mutation in efflux pump regulatory genes such as mexR and nfxB could be a main factor contributed to antibiotic resistance and must be considered in antibiotic treatment.
Vaez, Hamid; Faghri, Jamshid; Isfahani, Bahram Nasr; Moghim, Sharareh; Yadegari, Sima; Fazeli, Hossein; Moghofeei, Mohsen; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian
Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) recovering from a 90–100% defoliation 2–3 years previously were pretreated with small mechanical wounds or inoculations with the blue-stain fungi Leptographium wingfieldii and Ophiostoma canum. Pretreated trees were less susceptible to a subsequent massive inoculation with L. wingfieldii than untreated control trees, which were extensively colonised by the mass-inoculation. A low pretreatment dosage of L.
Paal Krokene; Halvor Solheim; Bo Långström
Background The purpose of this study was to develop novel sandwich-structured nanofibrous membranes to provide sustained-release delivery of vancomycin, gentamicin, and lidocaine for repair of infected wounds. Methods To prepare the biodegradable membranes, poly(D, L)-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), collagen, and various pharmaceuticals, including vancomycin, gentamicin, and lidocaine, were first dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. They were electrospun into sandwich-structured membranes with PLGA/collagen as the surface layers and PLGA/drugs as the core. An elution method and a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay were used to characterize in vivo and in vitro drug release from the membranes. In addition, repair of infected wounds in rats was studied. Histological examination of epithelialization and granulation at the wound site was also performed. Results The biodegradable nanofibrous membranes released large amounts of vancomycin and gentamicin (well above the minimum inhibition concentration) and lidocaine in vivo for more than 3 weeks. A bacterial inhibition test was carried out to determine the relative activity of the antibiotics released. The bioactivity ranged from 40% to 100%. The nanofibrous membranes were functionally active in treating infected wounds, and were very effective as accelerators in early-stage wound healing. Conclusion Using the electrospinning technique, we will be able to manufacture biodegradable, biomimetic, nanofibrous, extracellular membranes for long-term delivery of various drugs.
Chen, Dave Wei-Chih; Liao, Jun-Yi; Liu, Shih-Jung; Chan, Err-Cheng
Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as traditional or conventional therapy in the literature, although they typically are not the first line of treatment in Ontario. Modern moist interactive dressings are foams, calcium alginates, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, and films. Topical antibacterial agents—antiseptics, topical antibiotics, and newer antimicrobial dressings—are used to treat infection. The Technology Being Reviewed Negative pressure wound therapy is not a new concept in wound therapy. It is also called subatmospheric pressure therapy, vacuum sealing, vacuum pack therapy, and sealing aspirative therapy. The aim of the procedure is to use negative pressure to create suction, which drains the wound of exudate (i.e., fluid, cells, and cellular waste that has escaped from blood vessels and seeped into tissue) and influences the shape and growth of the surface tissues in a way that helps healing. During the procedure, a piece of foam is placed over the wound, and a drain tube is placed over the foam. A large piece of transparent tape is placed over the whole area, including the healthy tissue, to secure the foam and drain the wound. The tube is connected to a vacuum source, and fluid is drawn from the wound through the foam into a disposable canister. Thus, the entire wound area is subjected to negative pressure. The device can be programmed to provide varying degrees of pressure either continuously or intermittently. It has an alarm to alert the provider or patient if the pressure seal breaks or the canister is full. Negative pressure wound therapy may be used for patients with chronic and acute wounds; subacute wounds (dehisced incisions); chronic, diabetic wounds or pressure ulcers; meshed grafts (before and after); or flaps. It should not be used for patients with fistulae to organs/body cavities, necrotic tissue that has not been debrided, untreated osteomyelitis, wound malignancy, wounds that require hemostasis, or for patients who are taking anticoagulants. Review Strategy The inclusion criteria were as follows: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample size of 20 or more Human s
Background Wound infection is one of the health problems that are caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Information on local pathogens and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, and topical agents like acetic acid is crucial for successful treatment of wounds. Objectives To determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to alternative topical agents at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among patients with wound infection visiting Jimma University Specialized Hospital, from May to September 2013. Wound swab was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed for bacterial isolation and susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and dabkin solution following standard bacteriological techniques. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of the organisms. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration was done using tube dilution method. Results In this study 145 bacterial isolates were recovered from 150 specimens showing an isolation rate of 87.3%. The predominant bacteria isolated from the infected wounds were Staphylococcus aureus 47 (32.4%) followed by Escherichia coli 29 (20%), Proteus species 23 (16%), Coagulase negative Staphylococci 21 (14.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 14 (10%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 11 (8%). All isolates showed high frequency of resistance to ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin and tetracycline. The overall multiple drug resistance patterns were found to be 85%. Acetic acid (0.5%), Dabkin solution (1%) and 3% hydrogen peroxide were bactericidal to all isolated bacteria and lethal effect observed when applied for 10 minutes. Conclusions On in vitro sensitivity testing, ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin and tetracycline were the least effective. Gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and amikacin were the most effective antibiotics. Acetic acid (0.5%), dabkin solution (1%) and H2O2 (3%) were bactericidal to all isolates.
Wounding of plants by insects is often mimicked in the laboratory by mechanical means such as cutting or crushing, and has not been compared directly with other forms of biotic stress such as virus infection. To compare the response of plants to these types of biotic and abiotic stress, trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity induced locally and systemically in mature tobacco
Maarten A. Jongsma; Petra L. Bakker; Bert Visser; Willem J. Stiekema
Triple-antibiotic ointment (TAO) is a safe and effective topical agent for preventing infections in minor skin trauma. The formulation contains neomycin, polymyxin B and bacitracin in a petrolatum base. TAO is active against the most common disease-causing pathogens found in wounds and on the skin and may be an attractive alternative to oral therapy in select circumstances. Resistance to TAO does not develop readily, and safety studies have shown that the risk of allergic sensitivity to TAO is low. Susceptibility profiles of TAO have remained relatively unchanged since its discovery. Prophylaxis or treatment with TAO should be considered as resistant organisms continue to emerge in the community and hospital setting. PMID:17914912
Bonomo, Robert A; Van Zile, Peter S; Li, Qing; Shermock, Kenneth M; McCormick, William G; Kohut, Bruce
Introduction It is unknown whether intraoperative subcutaneous wound closing culture samples (WCCS) are useful to predict periprosthetic\\u000a joint infection (PJI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Here we prospectively followed 167 out of a total of 175 consecutive patients with primary total hip (THR) or knee replacement\\u000a (TKR) between 01\\/2002 and 12\\/2002 for a mean follow-up period of 5 years; of those patients, n = 159 (96.8%) underwent WCCS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The
Christian B. Frank; Martin Adams; Markus Kroeber; Andreas Wentzensen; Volkmar Heppert; Dietrich Schulte-Bockholt; Thorsten Guehring
A stabilized collagen gel is disclosed as are methods of making this collagen gel which is useful as a wound dressing to prevent dehydration of the subject being treated and infection of the wound. The collagen gel of the invention is stabilized by combin...
The main goal of this study was to develop a vaccination strategy that would enhance the protective response against the recombinant type A flagellin (r-fla-A) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the burn wound sepsis model. Inbred mice were immunized with r-fla-A with or without alum adjuvant. The vaccinated mice were burned and challenged with P. aeruginosa. To evaluate the type of induced immune response, sera were analyzed by ELISA for total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes. To determine the functional activity of anti r-fla IgG, opsonophagocytic killing and motility inhibition assay was performed. In vivo administration of r-fla-A afforded a remarkable improvement in survival of mice (83.3%) challenged with homologous strain (PAK) in the burn wound infection. The antibodies generated against the r-fla-A achieved 25% survival in immunized mice that had been infected with heterologous strain PAO1. Flagellin also induced high level humoral immune response via high titers of serum IgG1 in the burn and challenged mice. Anti r-fla-A antibody promoted phagocytosis of the PAK strain, and the number of viable bacterial cells decreased over 53.1%; In contrast, low opsonophagocytic killing activity (17.4%) was observed when the antiserum to r-fla-A was treated with the PAO1 strain. The anti r-fla-A antisera was able to inhibit the motility of the homologous strains; however, they did not inhibit the heterologous strains. We concluded that active immunization with recombinant type A-flagellin could protect burn mice against lethal P. aeruginosa challenge via immobilization of the pathogen which promoted the phagocytic activity. PMID:23758581
Faezi, Sobhan; Safarloo, Maryam; Amirmozafari, Nour; Nikokar, Iraj; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Holder, Ian Alan; Mahdavi, Mehdi
Burn wounds are prone to infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is an opportunistic pathogen causing various human diseases. During infection, the bacterium senses environmental changes and regulates the expression of genes appropriate for survival. A purine-auxotrophic mutant of P. aeruginosa was unable to replicate efficiently on burn wounds, suggesting that burn wounds are purine-deficient environments. An in vivo expression technology based on purEK gene expression was applied to the burned mouse infection model to isolate P. aeruginosa genes that are specifically induced during infection. Four such in vivo-inducible (ivi) genetic loci were identified, including the gene for a superoxide response regulator (soxR), the gene for a malate synthase G homologue (glcG), an antisense transcript of a putative regulator responding to copper (copR), and an uncharacterized genetic locus. SoxR of Escherichia coli is known to regulate genes involved in protecting the bacterium against oxidative stress. The expression of soxR was proven to be highly inducible during the infection of burned mice and also inducible by treatment with paraquat, which is a redox-cycling reagent generating intracellular superoxide. The SoxR protein functions as an autorepressor in the absence of paraquat, whereas in the presence of paraquat, this autorepression is diminished. Furthermore, a soxR null mutant was shown to be much more sensitive than wild-type P. aeruginosa to macrophage-mediated killing. In support of this observation, a soxR null mutant exhibited a significant delay in causing systemic infections in the burned mice. Since most mortality in burn patients is caused by systemic infection, the defect in the ability to cause efficient bacteremia in burned mice suggests an important role of the soxR gene in the infection of burn wounds.
Ha, Unhwan; Jin, Shouguang
Surgical Wound Infection; Infection; Cesarean Section; Cesarean Section; Dehiscence; Complications; Cesarean Section; Complications; Cesarean Section, Wound, Dehiscence; Wound; Rupture, Surgery, Cesarean Section
Notes from the field: rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium wound infections among medical tourists undergoing cosmetic surgeries in the Dominican Republic--multiple states, March 2013-February 2014.
In August 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (MDHMH) was notified of two persons with rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterial (RG-NTM) surgical-site infections. Both patients had undergone surgical procedures as medical tourists at the same private surgical clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic the previous month. Within 7 days of returning to the United States, both sought care for symptoms that included surgical wound abscesses, clear fluid drainage, pain, and fever. Initial antibiotic therapy was ineffective. Material collected from both patients' wounds grew Mycobacterium abscessus exhibiting a high degree of antibiotic resistance characteristic of this organism. PMID:24598597
Schnabel, David; Gaines, Joanna; Nguyen, Duc B; Esposito, Douglas H; Ridpath, Alison; Yacisin, Kari; Poy, Joe A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Lijewski, Virginia; McElroy, Nora P; Ahmad, Nina; Harrison, Cassandra; Parinelli, Ellen J; Beaudoin, Amanda L; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Pritchard, Scott; Jensen, Bette J; Toney, Nadege C; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Nyangoma, Edith N; Barry, Anita M; Feldman, Katherine A; Blythe, David; Perz, Joseph F; Morgan, Oliver W; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Brunette, Gary W; Sotir, Mark
Wound infection and tissue damage are common and sever complications of injuries and burns sustained in baffle. The surgical excision of dead and devitalized tissue, antibiotics, and the removal of foreign matter are the mainstay of current therapies. Pre...
S. L. Hazen
Background We investigate disinfection of a reconstructed human skin model contaminated with biofilm-formative Staphylococcus aureus employing plasma discharge in liquid. Principal Findings We observed statistically significant 3.83-log10 (p<0.001) and 1.59-log10 (p<0.05) decreases in colony forming units of adherent S. aureus bacteria and 24 h S. aureus biofilm culture with plasma treatment. Plasma treatment was associated with minimal changes in histological morphology and tissue viability determined by means of MTT assay. Spectral analysis of the plasma discharge indicated the presence of highly reactive atomic oxygen radicals (777 nm and 844 nm) and OH bands in the UV region. The contribution of these and other plasma-generated agents and physical conditions to the reduction in bacterial load are discussed. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of liquid plasma treatment as a potential adjunct therapy for chronic wounds.
Kim, Paul Y.; Kim, Yoon-Sun; Koo, Il Gyo; Jung, Jae Chul; Kim, Gon Jun; Choi, Myeong Yeol; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George J.
In the present study, a novel hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension was developed for the treatment of infected wound. Hydrogel-grafted fabric was prepared by graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and alginate using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. Berberine nanosuspension was prepared and embedded in the hydrogel-grafted fabrics to achieve sustained drug release. The prepared hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and swelling degree studies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that berberine was embedded into the matrix of hydrogel-grafted fabrics, rather than on the surface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a thin hydrogel layer was formed on the surface of nonwoven fibers. The swelling study showed that hydrogel-grafted fabric had water absorbing characteristic with reversible temperature sensitivity. The drug release study demonstrated that hydrogel-grafted fabrics can be used as a sustained drug delivery system of hydrophobic compounds. The berberine nanosuspension embedded hydrogel-grafted fabric was further investigated in an animal infected wound model and was found to be a very promising wound healing dressing for the treatment and healing of infected wounds. PMID:24163330
Xu, He; Yuan, Xu-Dong; Shen, Bao-De; Han, Jin; Lv, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Ling; Lin, Ming-Gui; Yu, Chao; Bai, Jin-Xia; Yuan, Hai-Long
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.
Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.
Despite recent advances in our understanding the pathophysiology of trauma, the basis of the predisposition of trauma patients to infection remains unclear. A Drosophila melanogaster/Pseudomonas aeruginosa injury and infection model was used to identify host genetic components that contribute to the hyper-susceptibility to infection that follows severe trauma. We show that P. aeruginosa compromises skeletal muscle gene (SMG) expression at the injury site to promote infection. We demonstrate that activation of SMG structural components is under the control of cJun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Kinase, Hemipterous (Hep), and activation of this pathway promotes local resistance to P. aeruginosa in flies and mice. Our study links SMG expression and function to increased susceptibility to infection, and suggests that P. aeruginosa affects SMG homeostasis locally by restricting SMG expression in injured skeletal muscle tissue. Local potentiation of these host responses, and/or inhibition of their suppression by virulent P. aeruginosa cells, could lead to novel therapies that prevent or treat deleterious and potentially fatal infections in severely injured individuals.
Xiao, Wenzhong; Tegos, George P.; Papisov, Michail I.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Rahme, Laurence G.
OBJECTIVES We studied the influence of the number of sternotomy mechanical fixation points on deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). METHODS Between September 2007 and February 2011, 2672 patients underwent a standard peri-sternal wire closure following a median sternotomy for a first-time cardiac surgery. Data were collected during the study period. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11 and 1978 (74.0%) were male. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.9 ± 9.3 and the median of the logistic EuroSCORE was 3.14, with a range of 0.88–54.1. Postoperatively, 40 (1.5%) patients developed DSWI after 14 ± 6 days, of whom 39 (92.5%) had positive deep sternal wound specimen cultures, predominantly Staphylococci (62.5%). The risk of DSWI was significantly increased in patients in whom eight or fewer paired points of sternal wire fixation were used when compared with patients in whom nine or more paired points of fixation were used (P = 0.002). Preoperative myocardial infarction (P = 0.001), elevated BMI (P = 0.046), bilateral internal mammary artery harvest (P < 0.0001), postoperative hypoxia (P < 0.0001), sepsis (P = 0.019) and postoperative inotrope use (P = 0.007) significantly increased the risk of DSWI. CONCLUSIONS DSWI is associated with hypoxia, ischaemia, sepsis and mechanical sternal instability. DSWI may be prevented by using nine or more paired fixation points when closing with standard peri-sternal wires.
Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Robertson, Faye L.; Anderson, Susan E.; Slight, Robert D.; Brackenbury, Edward T.
A wound is defined as any physical break in tissue continuity. Wounds differ depending on the type and severity, mechanism\\u000a of wounding, location, and desired outcome. The act of wounding or injury disrupts anatomical continuity, tissue function,\\u000a and cellular integrity 1. Alterations in wound healing may result in impaired or delayed healing. Impaired wound healing often occurs in the presence
Marion F. Winkler; Suzanne Makowski
The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become a widely used feeding tube for long-term delivery of fluids, liquid feed and medicines. PEG tube insertion can be considered a minimally invasive technique, associated with rapid recovery and early discharge from hospital but is not without risk (Vervloessem et al 2009; Naiditch et al 2010). A lack of nationally agreed, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines makes PEG exit site care a matter of local clinical practice and clinical judgement. In paediatric practice, children experience care shared across several healthcare settings, meeting clinical teams with varying levels of knowledge and experience of PEG care. This can lead to conflicting advice, which can have a negative effect on patient safety and experience. The case history in this article demonstrates how PEG tube insertion is never a minor procedure for a child and family (Vervloessem et al 2009; Khattak et al 1998). It highlights areas of potential conflict in clinical management of PEG exit sites, and it shows how application of wound care principles, along with a range of modern products can have a positive outcome. PMID:24335863
Rollins, Hazel; Nathwani, Nisha; Morrison, Denise
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is part of an emerging group of Gram negative bacterial infections with potentially severe sequelae, especially in the immunocompromised population such as burn patients. While antimicrobial therapy for patients with A. xylosoxidans bacteremia has been reported, the literature is scarce with regard to treatment in patients with positive tissue cultures only. Herein, we report our institution's experience with such a case and a brief review of the current literature on this micro-organism in the setting of non-bacteremic infection.
Ng, Zhi Yang; Fang, George; Leo, Kah Woon
With the help of a surgical nurse and using data-processing techniques, a prospective clinical study was conducted to determine the wound infection rate in two hospitals in Calgary. The overall sepsis rate was 5.2% and the clean wound rate 3.5%. The latter is the more meaningful figure as it allows for comparison between hospitals, specialties and individuals and is a good guide for hospital morbidity reviews. The groundwork for succeeding wound infection is laid in the operating theatre, and it is believed that wound infection would be reduced more by attention to Halsted's principles than by more rigid aseptic techniques. It is estimated that wound sepsis costs the Province of Alberta 1.5 million dollars per year for hospitalization alone. This amounts to roughly $1 per person per year. The annual cost of a prospective study such as the present one is approximately $7000. This is equivalent to the cost of hospitalizing 24 patients with infected wounds for one week (at $300 per week). One dividend of a prospective study is an associated reduction in infection rate. This reduction more than pays for the cost of the program.
Cruse, P. J. E.
Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria are emerging and impacting significantly on the management of patients and hospital costs. Besides, they are not being routinely sought after in diagnostic laboratories thus contributing to treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Bacterial isolates from wounds of 45 patients were identified using commercial identification kits and antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by the Bauer-Kirby method. Screening and phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production were done as prescribed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The conjugation experiment was performed by the mating assay in broth between the ESBL producers and E. coli ATCC 25922 as the recipient. Results: Out of 102 Gram-negative bacteria isolated, 36 were positive for ESBL mainly of the Enterobacteriaceae family (33) and the rest were oxidase-positive bacilli (3). The predominant bacteria were Klebsiella spp. and E. coli. Others were Serratia rubidae, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morgannii, Proteus spp., Providencia stuartii, and Enterobacter spp. There was a significant association between treatment with third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) and isolation of ESBLs (P=0.0020). The ESBL producers were multiply resistant and moderately sensitive to colistin. The conjugation experiment showed that the ESBL gene was transferred horizontally and tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and aztreonam resistance genes were co-transferred. No mortality was recorded but the mean length of stay in the hospital was 82 days. Conclusion: The development and spread of ESBL among Gram-negative bacteria and possible horizontal transfer calls for concern, especially in view of treatment failure, high treatment cost, and consequent discomfort to patients.
Idowu, Olusolabomi J; Onipede, Anthony O; Orimolade, Ayodele E; Akinyoola, Lawrence A; Babalola, Gbolahan O
The goal of disinfection of surgical wounds is to destroy as large a number as possible of the microbes that have made their way into the surgical wounds during the time of surgery, without disturbing the normal wound-healing process. It is not a substitute for preoperative disinfection of the skin or aseptic technique, but makes it possible to further decrease the rate of infection in slightly or moderately contaminated wounds. This was shown with a series of 294 pediatric surgical patients, 283 of whom had undergone appendectomy. A 5% povidone-iodine solution, especially in combination with excipients, was too strong, whereas a 1% povidone-iodine solution without excipients applied to the surgical wound was safe from the standpoint of wound healing, and decresed the number of wound infections in those patients with appendicitis in whom neither peritonitis nor periappendicular abscess had yet developed. PMID:7356379
Creative surgical strategies are often warranted for long-term closure of diabetic foot wounds. This article provides a case report describing the successive use of negative pressure wound therapy, advanced biologics, and split thickness skin grafting for healing an extensive surgical wound. Although the success of these therapies is enticing, their use should be based on careful patient selection in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:22243576
Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas
The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)/rabbit model has proved useful for the investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines and for the study of the pathogenesis of papillomavirus infection. It is currently the only animal model in which the entire viral program can be recapitulated, including progression to cancer. CRPV DNA is infectious in domestic rabbits and therefore mutants can be studied without the need to generate corresponding viruses. Although the CRPV animal model is used widely in various laboratories, no optimized or standardized method is used for creating CRPV viral and especially DNA infections. These different methods have made it difficult for investigators to compare results from laboratory to laboratory. A simple and highly efficient method is reported here; it has been refined based on previous methodology for the production of CRPV infections from both virus and plasmid DNA. This method can be adapted easily by other investigators in the field. The resulting standardization will aid in the evaluation of data from different laboratories. PMID:18061687
Cladel, Nancy M; Hu, Jiafen; Balogh, Karla; Mejia, Andres; Christensen, Neil D
From 25 August to 28 September 1994, 7 cardiovascular surgery (CVS) patients at a California hospital acquired postoperative Serratia marcescens infections, and 1 died. To identify the outbreak source, a cohort study was done of all 55 adults who underwent CVS at the hospital during the outbreak. Specimens from the hospital environment and from hands of selected staff were cultured. S. marcescens isolates were compared using restriction-endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Several risk factors for S. marcescens infection were identified, but hospital and hand cultures were negative. In October, a patient exposed to scrub nurse A (who wore artificial fingernails) and to another nurse-but not to other identified risk factors-became infected with the outbreak strain. Subsequent cultures from nurse A's home identified the strain in a jar of exfoliant cream. Removal of the cream ended the outbreak. S. marcescens does not normally colonize human skin, but artificial nails may have facilitated transmission via nurse A's hands. PMID:9086167
Passaro, D J; Waring, L; Armstrong, R; Bolding, F; Bouvier, B; Rosenberg, J; Reingold, A W; McQuitty, M; Philpott, S M; Jarvis, W R; Werner, S B; Tompkins, L S; Vugia, D J
In Pieris brassicae, parasitism by Cotesia glomerata and bacterial infection are differentiated with respect to haemolymph protein arrays, and production or suppression of antibacterial agents. Bacteriolytic activity in haemolymph from parasitized larvae was slightly, but significantly, higher 24h post-treatment than that of untreated and wounded controls. Micrococcus lysodeikticus- or lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) injected insects exhibited an 11-fold greater response than those parasitized.
K. S Ockroy; T. E Trenczek; S Dorn
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a new therapeutic option in wound healing and was first described in its present form in 1997. A vacuum source is used to create sub-atmospheric pressure in the local wound environment to promote healing. This is achieved by connecting a vacuum pump to a tube that is threaded into a wound gauze or foam filler dressing covered with a drape. This concept in wound treatment has been shown to be useful in treating different wound infections, including diabetic wounds as well as complex infections of the abdomen and thorax. NPWT has been used in Iceland for over a decade and its use is steadily increasing. This review describes the indications and outcome of NPWT and is aimed at a broad group of doctors and nurses where recent Icelandic studies on the subject are covered. PMID:24713539
Gudmundsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Valsdottir, Elsa; Gudbjartsson, Tomas
The peptide snakin-2 (StSN2) has been isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Jaerla) tubers and found to be active (EC50 = 1–20 ?m) against fungal and bacterial plant pathogens. It causes a rapid aggregation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The corresponding StSN2 cDNA encodes a signal sequence followed by a 15-residue acidic sequence that precedes the mature StSN2 peptide, which is basic (isoelectric point = 9.16) and 66 amino acid residues long (molecular weight of 7,025). The StSN2 gene is developmentally expressed in tubers, stems, flowers, shoot apex, and leaves, but not in roots, or stolons, and is locally up-regulated by wounding and by abscisic acid treatment. Expression of this gene is also up-regulated after infection of potato tubers with the compatible fungus Botritys cinerea and down-regulated by the virulent bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Erwinia chrysanthemi. These observations are congruent with the hypothesis that the StSN2 is a component of both constitutive and inducible defense barriers.
Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Segura, Ana; Moreno, Manuel; Lopez, Gemma; Garcia-Olmedo, Francisco; Molina, Antonio
Superficial wounds resulting from athletic injury are common in sports medicine. Although such wounds can be quite painful, they are usually merely inconvenient to the athlete. If improperly managed, however, superficial wounds may heal slowly and cause unnecessary scar tissue proliferation at the wound site. Scar formation causes the wound to break open frequently and puts the athlete at risk of cross-contamination by pathogenic organisms. New advances in the science of wound management strongly favor the use of occlusive dressings to increase patient comfort, increase patient compliance, decrease the risk of infection, and decrease overall healing time. Occlusion has clearly been proven to aid in the healing of superficial wounds and should be considered as a treatment alternative for wounds in the sports medicine setting. In this paper, I discuss three of the most widely used types of occlusive dressings: 1) films, 2) hydrogels, and 3) hydrocolloids.
Rheinecker, Scot B.
We are developing a drug dispensing field wound dressing. The wound dressing, which can be easily applied by an untrained person, contains a coagulant to stop bleeding, and an antibiotic to prevent bacterial infection. The medicated wound dressing is made...
M. Szycher J. L. Rolfe
Early and adequate wound debridement is the therapy of choice in treating war wounds. Topical antibiotics, used early, will reduce the incidence of wound infection when debridement is delayed. Additional studies are needed to define the complete value of ...
C. Heisterkamp J. Vernick R. L. Simmons T. Motsumoto
Since 1997, the absence of a global, DoD public health laboratory system has been identified as a vulnerability in the U.S. military's effort to identify and quickly respond to emerging infections. The AFHSC Division of GEIS Operations has attempted to mitigate this vulnerability by supporting initiatives such as the DoD Global Influenza Surveillance Program and the DoD Directory of Public Health Laboratory Services. AFHSC continues to be engaged in identifying and addressing diagnostics needed to protect deployed forces. The GASI and the enhanced capability for identification of MDROs and threatening influenza strains in deployed areas are recent examples of GEIS utilizing its financial resources and position as a DoD organization to coordinate the efforts of the military services and other U.S. government organizations to improve preparedness for EID agents. However, the absence of a defined, comprehensive public health system that contains surveillance systems, reference laboratories, and public health communication systems functioning in unison to provide reach back and reference laboratory support to the global MHS remains a significant gap. PMID:22479910
Lindler, Luther; Lesho, Emil P; Harms, Dan E; Myers, Todd E; Gaydos, Joel C
Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.
Tiwari, V. K.
Objectives: Production of extended spectrum beta -lactamases (ESBLs) by clinical isolates of pathogenic E. coli is a very serious therapeutic threat. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of ESBLs and associated drug resistance in E. coli isolates from urine and pus, and to report the drift from 2005 to 2009-10. Methodology: Among 173 E. coli isolates, 82 were phenotypically detected as ESBL producers by standard cefotaxime / clavulanic acid and ceftazidime / clavulanic acid disc diffusion tests. Antimicrobial resistance of all ESBL producers was assessed by disc diffusion method. Presence of CTX-M, TEM, SHV and OXA groups was investigated by PCR. Results: The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli increased significantly from 33.7% in 2005 to 60.0% in 2009-10 (urine: 31.8% to 62.9%; pus: 41.1% to 55.5%). Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was above 85% in both sets of isolates. Imipenem and Fosfomycin resistance was non-existent in 2005 but ranged from 3-15% in 2009-10. Remarkable increase from 9.5% to 64.7% in urinary tract isolates and from 0 to 55% in pus isolates was observed in colistin sulphate resistance. The dissemination of genes encoding ESBLs was: CTX-M 3.5%; TEM 10.7%; both CTX-M and TEM 3.5% in 2005, and CTX-M 42.5%; TEM 48.1%; both CTX-M and TEM 29.6% in 2009-10. Conclusions: Our results showed very rapid emergence of multidrug resistant ESBL producing E. coli in Pakistan posing a very serious threat in the treatment of nosocomial and community acquired infections. PMID:24353573
Habeeb, Muhammad Asif; Sarwar, Yasra; Ali, Aamir; Salman, Muhammad; Haque, Abdul
Background Sternal wound infection (SWI) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of cardiac surgery. Predisposing factors for SWI are multiple with varied frequencies in different studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of SWI after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at Tehran Heart Center. Methods This study prospectively evaluated multiple risk factors for SWI in 9201 patients who underwent CABG at Tehran Heart Center between January 2002 and February 2006. Cases of SWI were confirmed based on the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Deep SWI (bone and mediastinitis) was categorized according to the Oakley classification. Results In the study period, 9201 CABGs were performed with a total SWI rate of 0.47 percent (44 cases) and deep SWI of 0.22 percent (21 cases). Perioperative (in-hospital) mortality was 9.1% for total SWI and about 14% for deep SWI versus 1.1% for non-SWI CABG patients. Female gender, preoperative hypertension, high functional class, diabetes mellitus, obesity, prolonged intubation time (more than 48 h), and re-exploration for bleeding were significant risk factors for developing SWI (p = 0.05) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, hypertension (OR = 10.7), re-exploration (OR = 13.4), and female gender (OR = 2.7) were identified as significant predictors of SWI (p < 0.05 for all). The rate of SWI was relatively similar in 3 groups of prophylactic antibiotic regimen (Cefazolin, Cefazolin + Gentamycin and Cefazolin + Amikacin: 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0.34% respectively). Conclusion Rarely reported previously, the two risk factors of hypertension and the female gender were significant risk factors in our study. Conversely, some other risk factors such as cigarette smoking and age mentioned as significant in other reports were not significant in our study. Further studies are needed for better documentation.
Salehi Omran, Abbas; Karimi, Abbasali; Ahmadi, S Hossein; Davoodi, Setareh; Marzban, Mehrab; Movahedi, Namvar; Abbasi, Kyomars; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Davoodi, Saeed; Moshtaghi, Naghmeh
Wound care is the central theme of burn patient management after successful resuscitation. Burn wound care has been revolutionized during the past four decades. The development of effective topical chemo-therapy, the timely surgical removal of burned tiss...
B. A. Pruitt
Chronic wounds are a challenge to treat for the clinician. We present a current overview of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development chronic nonhealing wounds. Solutions to some of these difficult problems are presented. PMID:15814118
Izadi, Kouros; Ganchi, Parham
To date, we have enrolled 148 patients into the study that have either been wounded in Iraq or Afghanistan and 5 control tissue patients who hae had their patella tendon repaired and donated pieces of the Autologous tendon.
B. K. Potter
Al-Qattan et al. (1989) demonstrated that for difficult infected surgical wounds the CO2 laser was a much more effective sterilising agent than a standard surgical scrub (P < 0.005). This study compares the effectiveness of a standard electrocautery unit against that of the CO2 laser for wound sterilisation. Cautery sterilisation of infected wounds was found to be significantly superior to that of the CO2 laser (P < 0.05). Infection was noted in 4% of the cautery sterilised wounds and 12% of the wounds treated with CO2 laser. Case reports are also presented to demonstrate the clinical applications and effectiveness of this technique. PMID:1446199
Stranc, M F; Yang, F W
Bite wounds are frequently located on the face; injuries inflicted by dogs are most common, especially in children. Bacteriology of infected dog and cat bite wounds includes Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, and oral anaerobes. Infected human bites yield a similar spectrum of bacteria except for Pasteurellae and C. canimorsus; instead human bites are frequently complicated by Eikenella corrodens. Antibiotic therapy against these bacteria is indicated both for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (and other combinations of extended-spectrum penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors) and moxifloxacin offer the best in vitro coverage of the pathogenic flora. Initial wound management consisting in irrigation and debridement is at least equally important with antibiotics for prevention of infection. The need for prophylaxis against systemic infectious complications, particularly tetanus, should also be evaluated. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most clinically uninfected facial bite wounds, whereas delayed closure should be reserved for certain high risk or already infected wounds. Avulsive injuries with significant tissue loss represent the most difficult cases for definitive management and are also those most likely to require hospitalization. PMID:16053863
Stefanopoulos, P K; Tarantzopoulou, A D
Objective To examine the impact of VAC therapy on mortality of patients with sternal wound infections after cardiothoracic surgery. Summary Background Data Controversial results regarding mortality of patients with sternal wound infections were published. Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Scopus. Mortality was the primary outcome of the meta-analysis. Recurrences, complications and length of stay were secondary outcomes. Results Twenty-two retrospective studies including 2467 patients were eligible for inclusion. Patients treated with VAC had significantly lower mortality compared to those treated without VAC [2233 patients, RR?=?0.40, (95% CI 0.28, 0.57)]. This finding was consistent regardless of the study design, the exclusion of studies with positive findings, the criteria for establishment of the compared groups, the time of mortality assessment or the type of infections under study, provided that adequate data was available. VAC therapy was associated with fewer recurrences (RR?=?0.34, 95% CI: 0.19–0.59). The meta-analysis did not show any difference in the length of stay (RR?=??2.25, 95% CI: ?7.52–3.02). Conclusions VAC therapy was associated with lower mortality than other surgical techniques in retrospective cohorts of patients with DSWIs following cardiothoracic surgery.
Falagas, Matthew E.; Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Kapaskelis, Anastasios; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z.
The activity of gatifloxacin against 308 aerobes and 112 anaerobes isolated from bite wound infections was studied. Gatifloxacin was active at ?0.016 ?g/ml against all 148 Pasteurella isolates (eight species and three subspecies) tested and all other aerobes tested, including Actinobacillus-Haemophilus spp., Eikenella corrodens, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, staphylococci, and streptococci. Fusobacteria were sometimes resistant. Gatifloxacin MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 0.125 ?g/ml against Bacteroides tectum and Prevotella spp., 0.25 ?g/ml against Porphyromonas spp., and 0.5 ?g/ml against peptostreptococci.
Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; TyRrell, Kerin; Warren, Yumi
Introduction There has been recent interest in the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NWPT) as an adjunct to parenteral antibiotics in the treatment of infection in orthopaedic patients with metalwork in situ. To address some of the limitations of standard NPWT in this situation, the senior author has developed a modified method of treatment for infected metalwork (excluding arthroplasty) in orthopaedic patients that includes irrigation and skin closure over the standard NPWT dressing. Methods This retrospective study examined the outcome of a case series of 16 trauma and orthopaedic patients with deep infection involving metalwork in whom this modified form of NPWT was used. In conjunction with standard parenteral antibiotic therapy and a multidisciplinary approach, this modified technique included serial debridements in theatre, irrigation and negative pressure dressings over a white polyvinyl alcohol foam (KCI, Kidlington, UK) as well as closure of the skin over the foam. Results Among the 16 patients, there was a variety of upper and lower limb as well as spinal trauma and elective cases. In all 16 patients, there was successful resolution of the infection with no early or unplanned removal of any metalwork required. Conclusions Patients with infected metalwork are a heterogeneous group, and often suffer high morbidity and mortality. The modified NPWT technique shows potential as an adjunct in the treatment of complex orthopaedic patients with infected metalwork.
Chapman, AWP; Krikler, S; Krkovic, M
Management of perineal wounds can be very frustrating as these invariably get contaminated from the ano-genital tracts. Moreover, the apparent skin defect may be associated with a significant three dimensional dead space in the pelvic region. Such wounds are likely to become chronic and recalcitrant if appropriate wound management is not instituted in a timely manner. These wounds usually result after tumor excision, following trauma or as a result of infective pathologies like hideradenitis suppurativa or following thermal burns. Many options are available for management of perineal wounds and these have been discussed with illustrative case examples. A review of literature has been done for listing commonly instituted options for management of the wounds in perineum.
Sharma, Ramesh K.; Parashar, Atul
We report on the effect of wound drains on wound healing following surgery for proximal femoral fractures. One hundred and seventy-seven patients undergoing AO dynamic hip screw (DHS) or hemiarthroplasty were randomized whether or not to receive wound drainage. Patients who received wound drainage showed statistically better wound healing in terms of the ASEPSIS wound scoring system and a reduced infection rate. This study conflicts with previous smaller studies which failed to show an effect of wound drainage upon wound healing.
Varley, G W; Milner, S A
Wounds are a hallmark of various skin diseases. Most patients with wounds suffer from chronic venous insufficiency or other vascular diseases. Autoimmune, infective, metabolic, malignant, some psychiatric and diseases caused by environmental factors like radiation, present with skin and mucosal erosions and ulcerations. Lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Kaposi sarcoma, genodermatoses like Hailey-Hailey and Darier's disease belong to different dermatological entities, they have different etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation, but at some stage ulcerations and erosions dominate through the disease course as a result of complications of untreated disease or as part of a complex clinical presentation. Wounds demand a different multidisciplinary therapeutic approach, sometimes even in intensive care unit, where special care is available. Most patients are followed-up to avoid fatal complications like sepsis, as well as a potential malignant transformation of cells in the environment of chronic inflammation. Wounds are found in female genital lichen planus and lichen sclerosus. Oral lichen planus has a potential for malignant transformation and is considered a precancerous disease. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life threatening disease similar to burns. Wounds cover most of the body surface as well as mucosa. The high mortality rate is due to complications like sepsis, loss of thermoregulation, electrolyte and fluid disbalance and shock. Chronic wounds are also a hallmark of skin tumors and other skin malignancies like Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. The primary treatment goal in genodermatoses like epidermolysis bullosa is wound care, and to a less extent in other inherited skin diseases like Hailey-Hailey and Darier's disease wound healing is important for sustaining a good quality of life in affected individuals. PMID:23193818
Buli?, Suzana Ozani?; Kotrulja, Lena; Sjerobabski-Masnec, Ines
Background: The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the isolates of postoperative wound and its susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: During a 2-year period, specimens were received as postoperative wound swabs in Microbiology Laboratory, Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha (Hisar), Haryana, India. Result: Of the 300 bacterial isolates, 89 (29.6%) were P. aeruginosa, followed by Escherichia coli (61, 20.3%), Klebsiella spp. (50, 16.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (43, 14.3%), Proteus spp. (19, 6.3%), Acinetobacter spp. (9, 3.0%), and Citrobacter freundii (2, 0.6%). There was no growth in 27 (9.0%) specimens. Conclusion: P. aeruginosa isolation was higher in male patients and most common in the age group of 21-40 years. The susceptibility pattern showed the organism to be most commonly susceptible to imipenem, followed by meropenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate, and amikacin.
Ranjan, K Prabhat; Ranjan, Neelima; Bansal, Satish K; Arora, D R
Factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase activity (FAN) is an adaptor protein that specifically binds to the p55 receptor for TNF (TNF-RI). Our previous investigations demonstrated that FAN plays a role in TNF-induced actin reorganization by connecting the plasma membrane with actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that FAN may impact on cellular motility in response to TNF and in the context of immune inflammatory conditions. In this study, we used the translucent zebrafish larvae for in vivo analysis of leukocyte migration after morpholino knockdown of FAN. FAN-deficient zebrafish leukocytes were impaired in their migration toward tail fin wounds, leading to a reduced number of cells reaching the wound. Furthermore, FAN-deficient leukocytes show an impaired response to bacterial infections, suggesting that FAN is generally required for the directed chemotactic response of immune cells independent of the nature of the stimulus. Cell-tracking analysis up to 3 h after injury revealed that the reduced number of leukocytes is not due to a reduction in random motility or speed of movement. Leukocytes from FAN-deficient embryos protrude pseudopodia in all directions instead of having one clear leading edge. Our results suggest that FAN-deficient leukocytes exhibit an impaired navigational capacity, leading to a disrupted chemotactic response. PMID:22802420
Boecke, Alexandra; Sieger, Dirk; Neacsu, Cristian Dan; Kashkar, Hamid; Krönke, Martin
Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot wounds are a tremendous burden to the health care system and often require a multidisciplinary approach to prevent amputations. Advanced technologies such as negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and bioengineered tissues have been successfully used in the treatment of these types of complex wounds. However, the introduction of NPWT with instillation (NPWTi) has provided an alternative treatment for treating complex and difficult-to-heal wounds. This article provides an overview of NPWT and the new NPWTi system and describes preliminary experience using NPWTi on patients with complicated infected diabetic foot wounds after surgical debridement and in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:24251841
Dalla Paola, Luca
Because of a possible delayed wound healing, critical colonization and infection of wounds present a problem for surgeons, particularly in patients with compromised immune system or in case where the wound is heavy contaminated or poorly perfused. Molndal technique of wound dressing has proven to be effective in prevention of infection. In our study we wanted to describe the benefits of the application of Molndal technique wound dressing compared to traditional wound dressing technique at potentially contaminated and clean postoperative wounds. We examined postoperative wound after radical excision of pilonidal sinus and after implantation of partial endoprosthesis in hip fracture. Molndal technique consisted of wound dressing with Aquacel Ag - Hydrofiber. Traditional technique was performed using gauze compresses and hypoallergic adhesives. We analyzed the results of 50 patients after radical excision of pilonidal sinus. 25 patients were treated by Molndal technique and 25 patients by the traditional technique of wound dressing. In the group treated by Molndal technique only 1 (4%) patient has revealed a wound infection, proven by positive microbiological examination and suppuration. In the traditional technique group 4 (16%) patients developed wound infection as inflammation and secretion as a sign of superficial infection. In the other group we analyzed the results of 50 patients after implantation of partial endoprosthesis after hip fracture. 20 patients were treated by Molndal technique and 30 patients by the traditional technique of wound dressing. In the group treated by Molndal technique no patient has revealed a wound infection (0%). In the traditional technique group 4 (13%) patients developed wound infection. All complication in both group were superficial incisional surgical infection (according to HPSC). There was no deep incisional surgical site infection or organ/space surgical site infection. Our results are clearly showing that Molndal technique is effective in preventing the postoperative wound infection. PMID:22220414
Marinovi?, Marin; Cicvari?, Tedi; Grzalja, Nikola; Baci?, Giordano; Radovi?, Endi
Poly(vinyl alcohol)-borate complexes were evaluated as a potentially novel drug delivery platform suitable for in vivo use in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) of wound infections. An optimised formulation (8.0%w/w PVA, 2.0%w/w borax) was loaded with 1.0 mg ml(-1) of the photosensitisers Methylene Blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP). Both drugs were released to yield receiver compartment concentrations (>5.0 microg ml(-1)) found to be phototoxic to both planktonic and biofilm-grown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a common cause of wound infections in hospitals. Newborn calf serum, used to simulate the conditions prevalent in an exuding wound, did not adversely affect the properties of the hydrogels and had no significant effect on the rate of TMP-mediated photodynamic kill of MRSA, despite appreciably reducing the fluence rate of incident light. However, MB-mediated photodynamic kill of MRSA was significantly reduced in the presence of calf serum and when the clinical isolate was grown in a biofilm. Results support the contention that delivery of MB or TMP using gel-type vehicles as part of PACT could make a contribution to the photodynamic eradication of MRSA from infected wounds. PMID:19651522
Donnelly, Ryan F; Cassidy, Corona M; Loughlin, Ryan G; Brown, Anthony; Tunney, Michael M; Jenkins, Mark G; McCarron, Paul A
On the 150th anniversary of the Unification of Italy in 1860, this paper relates the events linked to Giuseppe Garibaldi wounding by fire-arms as well as the difficulties encountered while the famous patient was being treated. The class of physicians, widely represented among the ranks of Garibaldi volunteers, enthusiastically joined the Italian Risorgimento. Its contribution was essential to the immediate treatment of the wounded on battlefields. Garibaldi himself, during his military career, was struck by fire-arms on at least three occasions. In particular, this issue covers the diagnostic and therapeutic problems to be tackled following his wounding by a Bersagliere on Aspromonte in 1862 as well as in the course of fighting against Austrian soldiers on Mount Suello (1866) during the Third War of Independence. PMID:21196825
The state of wound oxygenation is a key determinant of healing outcomes. From a diagnostic standpoint, measurements of wound oxygenation are commonly used to guide treatment planning such as amputation decision. In preventive applications, optimizing wound perfusion and providing supplemental O2 in the peri-operative period reduces the incidence of post-operative infections. Correction of wound pO2 may, by itself, trigger some healing responses. Importantly, approaches to correct wound pO2 favorably influence outcomes of other therapies such as responsiveness to growth factors and acceptance of grafts. Chronic ischemic wounds are essentially hypoxic. Primarily based on the tumor literature, hypoxia is generally viewed as being angiogenic. This is true with the condition that hypoxia be acute and mild to modest in magnitude. Extreme near-anoxic hypoxia, as commonly noted in problem wounds, is not compatible with tissue repair. Adequate wound tissue oxygenation is required but may not be sufficient to favorably influence healing outcomes. Success in wound care may be improved by a personalized health care approach. The key lies in our ability to specifically identify the key limitations of a given wound and in developing a multifaceted strategy to specifically address those limitations. In considering approaches to oxygenate the wound tissue it is important to recognize that both too little as well as too much may impede the healing process. Oxygen dosing based on the specific need of a wound therefore seems prudent. Therapeutic approaches targeting the oxygen sensing and redox signaling pathways are promising.
Sen, Chandan K.
Wounds, especially chronic wounds, represent a global problem costing millions of dollars per year in developed countries and are characterised by microbial complications including local or overt infection, delayed healing and spread of multiresistant germs. Therefore, antimicrobial wound management is a major challenge that continues to require new solutions against microbes and their biofilms. As systemic antibiotics can barely penetrate into wound biofilms and topically applied ones can easily lead to sensitisation, antisepsis is the method of choice to treat germs in wounds. This brief review discusses the role of antiseptics in reducing bioburden in chronic wounds. Balancing antimicrobial potency and tolerability of antiseptic procedures is critical in wound therapy. However, antiseptics alone may not be able to achieve wound healing without addressing other factors regarding the patient's general health or the wound's physical environment. Although the precise role of bioburden in chronic wounds remains to be evaluated, planktonic as well as biofilm-bound microbes are indications for antiseptic intervention. Octenidine dihydrochloride and polyhexanide are the most effective, as well as best tolerated, antiseptics in wound management today, and new strategies to reduce bacterial wound burden and support the body's immune response are being developed. PMID:24251838
Management of Gunshot Wounds provides a review of wound ballistics and a systemic review of gunshot wound management of all major body areas and systems. This volume includes information on pre-hospital care, nursing care, and care of infants, children, and the elderly patient with gunshot wounds. This volume also features information on: lead toxicity; complications of gunshot wounds; socioeconomic aspects of gunshot wounds; the forensic and pathological aspects of gunshot wounds; future directions in the care of gunshot wounds.
Ordog, G.; Drew, R.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of different skin preparation solutions on surgical-site infection rates. DESIGN Three skin preparations were compared by means of a sequential implementation design. Each agent was adopted as the preferred modality for a 6-month period for all general surgery cases. Period 1 used a povidone-iodine scrub-paint combination (Betadine) with an isopropyl alcohol application between these steps, period 2 used 2% chlorhexidine and 70% isopropyl alcohol (ChloraPrep), and period 3 used iodine povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol (DuraPrep). Surgical-site infections were tracked for 30 days as part of ongoing data collection for the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project initiative. The primary outcome was the overall rate of surgical-site infection by 6-month period performed in an intent-to-treat manner. SETTING Single large academic medical center. PATIENTS All adult general surgery patients. RESULTS The study comprised 3,209 operations. The lowest infection rate was seen in period 3, with iodine povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol as the preferred preparation method (3.9%, compared with 6.4% for period 1 and 7.1% for period 2; P = .002). In subgroup analysis, no difference in outcomes was seen between patients prepared with povidone-iodine scrub-paint and those prepared with iodine povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol, but patients in both these groups had significantly lower surgical-site infection rates, compared with rates for patients prepared with 2% chlorhexidine and 70% isopropyl alcohol (4.8% vs 8.2%; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS Skin preparation solution is an important factor in the prevention of surgical-site infections. Iodophor-based compounds may be superior to chlorhexidine for this purpose in general surgery patients.
Swenson, Brian R.; Hedrick, Traci L.; Metzger, Rosemarie; Bonatti, Hugo; Pruett, Timothy L.; Sawyer, Robert G.
While occlusive wound dressings help provide patients with moist wound healing to reduce pain and increase reepithelialization rate, the moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) of these dressings remains constant even though wound exudate levels may vary with time and from wound to wound. The clinician is therefore faced with exudate buildup in heavily exuding wounds and desiccation in lightly exuding
Shashi Palamand; Andrew M. Reed; Ludwig J. Weimann
In this work, the supercritical assisted atomisation (SAA) is proposed, for the first time, for the production of topical carrier microsystems based on alginate-pectin blend. Gentamicin sulphate (GS) was loaded as high soluble and hygroscopic antibiotic model with poor flowability. Particularly, different water solutions of GS/alginate/pectin were processed by SAA to produce spherical microparticles (GAP) of narrow size (about 2 ?m). GS loading was varied between 20% and 33% (w/w) with an encapsulation efficiency reaching about 100%. The micronised powders also showed high flow properties, good stability and constant water content after 90 days in accelerated storage conditions. The release profiles of the encapsulated drug were monitored using vertical diffusion Franz cells to evaluate the application of GAP microsystems as self-consistent powder formulation or in specific fibres or gels for wound dressing. All formulations showed an initial burst effect in the first 6h of application (40-65% of GS loaded), and in particular GAP4 produced with a GS/alginate/pectin ratio of 1:3:1, exhibited the ability to release GS continuously over 6 days. Antimicrobial tests against Staphylococcus aureus indicated that GS antibiotic activity was preserved at 6 days and higher than pure GS at 12 and 24 days for all SAA formulations, especially for GAP1. PMID:22917746
Aquino, Rita P; Auriemma, Giulia; Mencherini, Teresa; Russo, Paola; Porta, Amalia; Adami, Renata; Liparoti, Sara; Della Porta, Giovanna; Reverchon, Ernesto; Del Gaudio, Pasquale
Soldiers have been killed and wounded in wars throughout history. With new medical technologies, more soldiers survive their injuries and return home. Unfortunately, those injuries often include permanent disabilities either through loss of limb(s) or brain injury or post-traumatic stress disorder, among other possibilities. Perhaps equally unfortunate is the way that soldiers with disabilities and persons with disabilities generally are
Optimal wound healing requires adequate nutrition. Nutrition deficiencies impede the normal processes that allow progression through stages of wound healing. Malnutrition has also been related to decreased wound tensile strength and increased infection rates. Malnourished patients can develop pressure ulcers, infections, and delayed wound healing that result in chronic nonhealing wounds. Chronic wounds are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for many patients and therefore constitute a serious clinical concern. Because most patients with chronic skin ulcers suffer micronutrient status alterations and malnutrition to some degree, current nutrition therapies are aimed at correcting nutrition deficiencies responsible for delayed wound healing. This review provides current information on nutrition management for simple acute wounds and complex nonhealing wounds and offers some insights into innovative future treatments. PMID:20130158
Stechmiller, Joyce K
Topical chemotherapy, prompt excision, and timely closure of the burn wound have significantly reduced the occurrence of invasive burn wound infection and its related mortality. Since wound protection is imperfect and invasive wound infection may still occur in patients with massive burns in whom wound closure is delayed, scheduled wound surveillance and biopsy monitoring are necessary to assess the microbial
Basil A. Pruitt; Albert T. McManus
Investigations in wound management have not only identified the potentiators of infection but also improvements in the therapy which will reduce the incidence of infection. In the area of infection potentiators, our studies have included soil, surgical dr...
M. T. Edgerton R. F. Edlich G. T. Rodeheaver
In surgery, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is applied for thoracic, abdominal, and extremity wounds, particularly if there is traumatic tissue loss, if primary wound closure is not possible or if the wound has to be left open or reopened because of an infection. The NPWT applications are, however, running ahead of scientific evidence to support their use. Although there is plenty of literature available, very little convincing evidence exists based on well-conducted, randomised trials. NPWT can be applied to thoracic wounds (usually due to deep sternal wound infections) to reduce treatment duration. NPWT also appears useful if primary closure of the abdomen is not possible. For traumatic extremity wounds, NPWT can be helpful as a practical temporary wound cover. Possible disadvantages of NPWT are skin irritation, painful dressing changes, entero-atmospheric fistulae, and the risk of bleeding in patients using anticoagulants. The effect of NPWT on wound healing, infection, mortality, and costs remains unclear. To obtain convincing evidence, we call for greater NPWT application in a research context. PMID:20003553
Ubbink, Dirk T; Vermeulen, Hester; Segers, Patrique; Goslings, J Carel
Skin wounds are common in sports but are rarely documented by the certified athletic trainer. The literature is unclear about wound types, and none of the articles reviewed reported frequencies. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the frequency of common athletic skin wounds and their specific management. Management of skin wounds can sometimes be problematic. Hydrogen peroxide has been used on wounds since 1947, yet some researchers report that hydrogen peroxide and iodophor solution can delay or interfere with wound healing, or cause damage to the wounded area if use is intense and prolonged. Occlusive dressings have been reported to have considerable advantage in maintaining a moist wound bed and in decreasing healing time. Infection rates beneath occlusive dressings, however, are similar to those associated with other types of dressings. Complications to wounds, with or without the use of occlusive dressings, such as keloids and seborrheic dermatitis, occur in low frequencies. Due to a lack of specific information about sports-induced skin wounds and their management, we recommend that standardized documentation for common wounds be developed along with further study of techniques for management.
Foster, Danny T.; Rowedder, Laura J.; Reese, Steven K.
Wound bed preparation has been performed for over two decades, and the concept is well accepted. The 'TIME' acronym, consisting of tissue debridement, infection or inflammation, moisture balance and edge effect, has assisted clinicians systematically in wound assessment and management. While the focus has usually been concentrated around the wound, the evolving concept of wound bed preparation promotes the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article discusses wound bed preparation and its clinical management components along with the principles of advanced wound care management at the present time. Management of tissue necrosis can be tailored according to the wound and local expertise. It ranges from simple to modern techniques like wet to dry dressing, enzymatic, biological and surgical debridement. Restoration of the bacterial balance is also an important element in managing chronic wounds that are critically colonized. Achieving a balance moist wound will hasten healing and correct biochemical imbalance by removing the excessive enzymes and growth factors. This can be achieved will multitude of dressing materials. The negative pressure wound therapy being one of the great breakthroughs. The progress and understanding on scientific basis of the wound bed preparation over the last two decades are discussed further in this article in the clinical perspectives. PMID:23162216
Halim, A S; Khoo, T L; Saad, A Z Mat
Background Wound-edge protection devices (WEPDs) have been used in surgery for more than 40 years to reduce surgical site infection (SSI). No economic evaluation of WEPDs against any comparator has ever been conducted. The aim of the paper was to assess whether WEPDs are cost-effective in reducing SSI compared to standard care alone in the United Kingdom. Methods and Findings An economic evaluation was conducted alongside the ROSSINI trial. The study perspective was that of the UK National Health Service and the time horizon was 30 days post-operatively. The study was conducted in 21 UK hospitals. 760 patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to either WEPD or standard care and 735 were included in the primary analysis. The main economic outcome was cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost (£) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients in the WEPD arm accessed health care worth £5,420 on average and gained 0.02131 QALYs, compared to £5,130 and 0.02133 QALYs gained in the standard care arm. The WEPD strategy was more costly and equally effective compared to standard care, but there was significant uncertainty around incremental costs and QALYs. The findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence to suggest that WEPDs can be considered a cost effective device to reduce SSI. Their continued use is a waste of limited health care resources.
Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy E.; Pinkney, Thomas D.; Bartlett, David C.; Morton, Dion; Calvert, Melanie
The authors are developing a drug-dispensing field wound dressing. The wound dressing, which can be easily applied by an untrained person, contains a coagulant stop bleeding, and an antibiotic to prevent bacterial infection. The medicated wound dressing i...
M. Szycher J. L. Rolfe
The aim of our study was to find the incidence of wound complications following operative fixation of fractured calcanea and identify the risk factors contributing to them. We retrospectively reviewed the results of operative treatment of 33 calcaneal fractures in 30 patients over a 4-year period. We report an overall wound complication rate of 18.1%. Wound infection, haematoma, dehiscence and
M Al-Mudhaffar; C. V. R Prasad; A Mofidi
The judicious use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the infectious complications of surgery. However, increased bacterial resistance within hospitals may make antibiotic prophylaxis less effective in the future and alternative strategies are needed. New immunomodulatory agents might prevent wound infections by stimulation of the host immune system. To test this hypothesis, we administered poly-[1-6]-?-d-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-?-d-glucopyranose glucan (PGG glucan), which enhances neutrophil microbicidal activity, intravenously to guinea pigs in doses ranging from 0.015 to 4 mg/kg of body weight on the day before, on the day of, and on the day after intermuscular inoculation with methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Abscesses were identified at 72 h, and median infective doses (ID50) and statistical significance were determined by logistic regression. Guinea pigs receiving PGG glucan and inoculated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis exhibited ID50 of as much as 2.5- and 60-fold higher, respectively, than those of control guinea pigs not receiving PGG glucan. Maximal protection was observed with a dose of 1 mg of PGG glucan per kg, and efficacy was reduced at higher as well as at lower PGG glucan doses. Furthermore, a single dose of PGG glucan given 24 h following bacterial inoculation was found to be effective in preventing infection. We conclude that PGG glucan reduces the risk of staphylococcal abscess formation. Neutrophil-activating agents are a novel means of prophylaxis against surgical infection and may be less likely than antibiotics to be affected adversely by the increasing antibiotic resistance of nosocomial pathogens.
Kernodle, Douglas S.; Gates, Hiriam; Kaiser, Allen B.
GhWRKY40, a Multiple Stress-Responsive Cotton WRKY Gene, Plays an Important Role in the Wounding Response and Enhances Susceptibility to Ralstonia solanacearum Infection in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana
WRKY transcription factors form one of the largest transcription factor families and function as important components in the complex signaling processes that occur during plant stress responses. However, relative to the research progress in model plants, far less information is available on the function of WRKY proteins in cotton. In the present study, we identified the GhWRKY40 gene in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and determined that the GhWRKY40 protein is targeted to the nucleus and is a stress-inducible transcription factor. The GhWRKY40 transcript level was increased upon wounding and infection with the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The overexpression of GhWRKY40 down-regulated most of the defense-related genes, enhanced the wounding tolerance and increased the susceptibility to R. solanacearum. Consistent with a role in multiple stress responses, we found that the GhWRKY40 transcript level was increased by the stress hormones salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). Moreover, GhWRKY40 interacted with the MAPK kinase GhMPK20, as shown using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation systems. Collectively, these results suggest that GhWRKY40 is regulated by SA, MeJA and ET signaling and coordinates responses to wounding and R. solanacearum attack. These findings highlight the importance of WRKYs in regulating wounding- and pathogen-induced responses.
Wang, Xiuling; Yan, Yan; Li, Yuzhen; Chu, Xiaoqian; Wu, Changai; Guo, Xingqi
This paper considers the wounding effects of small fragments in modern warfare. Small fragment wounds may be expected to predominate on a future conventional battlefield; however, studies and models of "military" wounds have tended to focus on bullets as the wounding projectile. This paper discusses briefly the types of fragment projectile expected from modern munitions. It goes on to define a model for such projectiles, and describes the interaction with soft tissue simulants. The extent of penetration, temporary cavitation, and contamination by foreign material are all considered. This work with simulants is validated by experimental shots against animal tissue. A wound model in an experimental animal is described. This model was used to investigate the hematologic, biochemical, and histologic effects of a small fragment wound. The effects on skin and skeletal muscle are described. By sampling at various times (up to 1 week) after wounding, the natural progress of these wounds has been ascertained. The results from 28 experimental animals, with untreated fragment wounds, are reported. The most important findings are that the skin damage is very localized and that the muscle damage is limited, with little necrotic tissue in the track. Furthermore, the extent of the muscle damage, peripheral to the wound track, improves with time, healing within a few days, provided the wound remains free from infection. There was no clinical or microbiologic evidence of infection in those animals followed for up to 3 days. However, of eight animals followed to 1 week, three developed infected wounds. This work has implications for the management of soft tissue wounds caused by fragmentation munitions. The conventional military approach has been to treat penetrating war wounds by exploration, debridement, excision of dead tissue, and delayed primary closure; conservative treatment has largely been regarded as inappropriate. The work presented here shows that the potential culture medium within the wound is small and can be removed by the normal bodily responses. There is no need for surgery, provided that infection can be prevented. It may be inferred that if bacterial colonization can be prevented in the early stages by the timely use of antibiotics, surgery may be unnecessary. Further studies are planned to investigate this possibility. PMID:8606400
Bowyer, G W; Cooper, G J; Rice, P
This article builds and expands upon the concept of wound bed preparation introduced by Sibbald et al in 2000 as a holistic approach to wound diagnosis and treatment of the cause and patient-centered concerns such as pain management, optimizing the components of local wound care: Debridement, Infection and persistent Inflammation, along with Moisture balance before Edge effect for healable but stalled chronic wounds. PMID:21860264
Sibbald, R Gary; Goodman, Laurie; Woo, Kevin Y; Krasner, Diane L; Smart, Hiske; Tariq, Gulnaz; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Burrell, Robert E; Keast, David H; Mayer, Dieter; Norton, Linda; Salcido, Richard Sal
Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. PMID:22998924
Shvyrkov, Michael B
In this study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model. A bioluminescent clinical isolate of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was obtained. The susceptibility of A. baumannii to blue light (415 nm)-inactivation was compared in vitro to that of human keratinocytes. Repeated cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacterial by blue light were performed to investigate the potential resistance development of A. baumannii to blue light. A mouse model of third degree burn infected with A. baumannii was developed. A single exposure of blue light was initiated 30 minutes after bacterial inoculation to inactivate A. baumannii in mouse burns. It was found that the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain was significantly more susceptible than keratinocytes to blue light inactivation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light-induced ultrastructural damage in A. baumannii cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that endogenous porphyrins exist in A. baumannii cells. Blue light at an exposure of 55.8 J/cm(2) significantly reduced the bacterial burden in mouse burns. No resistance development to blue light inactivation was observed in A. baumannii after 10 cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacteria. No significant DNA damage was detected in mouse skin by means of a skin TUNEL assay after a blue light exposure of 195 J/cm(2). PMID:24381206
Zhang, Yunsong; Zhu, Yingbo; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Yingying; Murray, Clinton K; Vrahas, Mark S; Sherwood, Margaret E; Baer, David G; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong
The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro wound infection model that allows the comparison of the bacterial kill rate of antimicrobial wound dressings over the course of 3 days, with renewed microbial challenges each day, under realistic wound-like conditions. A test bed model of a moderately exuding wound was constructed from a hydrogel containing releasable foetal
John Greenman; Saliah Saad; Andrew J Austin
Chronic wounds, defined as those wounds which fail to proceed through an or- derly process to produce anatomic and functional integrity, are a significant so- cioeconomic problem. A wound may fail to heal for a variety of reasons including the use of corticosteroids, formation of squamous cell carcinoma, persistent infection, unrelieved pressure, and underlying hypoxia within the wound bed. Hypoxia
Jennifer A. Thackham; D. L. Sean McElwain; Robert J. Long
Bacterial cellulose was produced by Acetobacter xylinum (strain TISTR 975). Bacterial cellulose is an interesting material for using as a wound dressing since it provides moist environment to a wound resulting in a better wound healing. However, bacterial cellulose itself has no antimicrobial activity to prevent wound infection. To achieve antimicrobial activity, silver nanoparticles were impregnated into bacterial cellulose by
Thawatchai Maneerung; Seiichi Tokura; Ratana Rujiravanit
Wounds are the result of injuries to the skin that disrupt the other soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and protracted process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. Various plant products have been used in treatment of wounds over the years. Wound healing herbal extracts promote blood clotting, fight infection, and accelerate the healing of wounds. Phytoconstituents derived from plants need to be identified and screened for antimicrobial activity for management of wounds. The in vitro assays are useful, quick, and relatively inexpensive. Small animals provide a multitude of model choices for various human wound conditions. The study must be conducted after obtaining approval of the Ethics Committee and according to the guidelines for care and use of animals. The prepared formulations of herbal extract can be evaluated by various physicopharmaceutical parameters. The wound healing efficacies of various herbal extracts have been evaluated in excision, incision, dead space, and burn wound models. In vitro and in vivo assays are stepping stones to well-controlled clinical trials of herbal extracts.
Thakur, Rupesh; Jain, Nitika; Pathak, Raghvendra; Sandhu, Sardul Singh
Chronic problem wounds can result from both local and systemic factors that impair wound healing. The only way to achieve successful closure of these wounds is by an accurate diagnosis based on a thorough history, careful physical examination, optimal wound care, control of systemic and/or local factors, and correction of hypoxia. With a careful, planned management protocol, most wounds eventually heal. Recurrence of some wounds, such as pressure sores and venous stasis ulcers, is a tougher challenge in some patients. Prevention is a very important step in these patients. Efforts are underway that may improve the management of chronic nonhealing wounds. PMID:9696899
Ramasastry, S S
Foot injuries caused by firearms and high pressure washing machines are not common, but due to high energy can be very destructive and contaminated with microorganisms. Due to the anatomical specificity of the foot, injures of the specific structure such as blood vessels, nerves and tendon-ligament apparatus are frequent. Soft tissue defect is often present. Functional and aesthetic recovery of the foot is a challenge for the surgeon. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds. PMID:24371982
Marinovi?, Marin; Spanjol, Josip; Laginja, Stanislava; Grzalja, Nikola; Stigli?, Damir; Ekl, Darko; Fumi?, Nera; Sepac, Brigita
Intentional penetrating wounds, self inflicted or inflicted by others, are increasingly common. As a result, it can be difficult for the forensic examiner to determine whether the cause is self-inflicted or not. This type of trauma has been studied from a psychological perspective and from a surgical perspective but the literature concerning the forensic perspective is poorer. The objective of this study was to compare the epidemiology of abdominal stab wounds so as to distinguish specific features of each type. This could help the forensic scientist to determine the manner of infliction of the wound. We proposed a retrospective monocentric study that included all patients with an abdominal wound who were managed by the visceral surgery department at Angers University Hospital. Demographic criteria, patient history, circumstances and location of the wound were noted and compared. A comparison was drawn between group 1 (self inflicted wound) and group 2 (assault). This study showed that the only significant differences are represented by the patient's prior history and the circumstances surrounding the wound, i.e. the scene and time of day. In our study, neither the site, nor the injuries sustained reveal significant clues as to the origin of the wound. According to our findings, in order to determine the cause, the forensic examiner should thus carefully study the circumstances and any associated injuries. PMID:23622473
Venara, Aurélien; Jousset, Nathalie; Airagnes, Guillaume; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde
Significance The incidence, cost, morbidity, and mortality associated with non-healing of chronic skin wounds are dramatic. With the increasing numbers of people with obesity, chronic medical conditions, and an increasing life expectancy, the healthcare cost of non-healing ulcers has recently been estimated at $25 billion annually in the United States. The role played by bacterial biofilm in chronic wounds has been emphasized in recent years, particularly in the context of the prolongation of the inflammatory phase of repair. Recent Advances Rapid high-throughput genomic approaches have revolutionized the ability to identify and quantify microbial organisms from wounds. Defining bacterial genomes and using genetic approaches to knock out specific bacterial functions, then studying bacterial survival on cutaneous wounds is a promising strategy for understanding which genes are essential for pathogenicity. Critical Issues When an animal sustains a cutaneous wound, understanding mechanisms involved in adaptations by bacteria and adaptations by the host in the struggle for survival is central to development of interventions that favor the host. Future Directions Characterization of microbiomes of clinically well characterized chronic human wounds is now under way. The use of in vivo models of biofilm-infected cutaneous wounds will permit the study of the mechanisms needed for biofilm formation, persistence, and potential synergistic interactions among bacteria. A more complete understanding of bacterial survival mechanisms and how microbes influence host repair mechanisms are likely to provide targets for chronic wound therapy.
Zhao, Ge; Usui, Marcia L.; Lippman, Soyeon I.; James, Garth A.; Stewart, Philip S.; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E.
Chronic, nonhealing wounds and their therapy are not only a medical problem but a severe economic one as well. Such wounds have a great effect on quality of life. Basic research has enhanced our understanding of the stimulation and inhibition of wound healing and provides the basis for introducing new and innovative treatment methods. This paper reviews the most relevant in- and extrinsic factors that disturb physiologic wound healing to result in chronic nonhealing wounds. In addition, molecular intervention modalities targeting various aspects of wound repair are demonstrated. PMID:18483714
Riedel, K; Ryssel, H; Koellensperger, E; Germann, G; Kremer, T
Optimal nutrition, immunological state and psychological condition play an important role in the process of chronic wound healing. Infections caused by pathogens resistant to commonly used antibiotics additionally complicate and disturb regeneration of wounds. As part of the treatment, modern wound dressings are used, for example designed on the basis of alginates, dextranomers, hydrogels, hydrofiber, polyurethanes foams, hydrocolloids and liquids for wound debridement such us 0.9% NaCl, the PWE liquid, Ringer's liquid, octenidine. Owing to their features, treatment in accordance with TIME concept could be realized, because they provide moisture wound bed, protection against contamination, gas exchange, protection of wound edges and infection control. Repairing process in chronic wounds is dependent on blood flow in tissues, which may be insufficient. The result is a permanent hypoxia. Natural occurring antioxidants are becoming more crucial in chronic wound treatment. They decrease oxygen radical concentration, increase angiogenesis, reduce inflammatory response, stimulate fibroblasts and keratinocytes proliferation, possess antibacterial properties against chemotherapeutic resistant strains. There are a lot of antioxidants in honey, papaya fruit (Carrica papaia L.), transgenic flax (Linum usitatissimum), and in orange oil (Citrus sinensis), stem of acanthus (Acanthus ebracteatus), leafs of tea (Camellia sinensis). Application of biologically active, natural derived compounds is nowadays a direction of intense in vitro and in vivo research focused on the chronic wound treatment. Results suggest beneficial influence of antioxidant on wound repairing process. Clinical research are needed to state effective influence of natural compound in the chronic wound treatment. PMID:24377187
Rusak, Agnieszka; Rybak, Zbigniew
Patients prescribed morphine for the management of chronic pain, and chronic heroin abusers, often present with complications such as increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and inadequate healing of wounds. We investigated the effect of morphine on wound-healing events in the presence of an infection in an in vivo murine model that mimics the clinical manifestations seen in opioid user and abuser populations. We show for the first time that in the presence of an inflammatory inducer, lipopolysaccharide, chronic morphine treatment results in a marked decrease in wound closure, compromised wound integrity, and increased bacterial sepsis. Morphine treatment resulted in a significant delay and reduction in both neutrophil and macrophage recruitment to the wound site. The delay and reduction in neutrophil reduction was attributed to altered early expression of keratinocyte derived cytokine and was independent of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 expression, whereas suppression of macrophage infiltration was attributed to suppressed levels of the potent macrophage chemoattractant monocyte chemotactic protein-1. When the effects of chronic morphine on later wound healing events were investigated, a significant suppression in angiogenesis and myofibroblast recruitment were observed in animals that received chronic morphine administration. Taken together, our findings indicate that morphine treatment results in a delay in the recruitment of cellular events following wounding, resulting in a lack of bacterial clearance and delayed wound closure.
Martin, Josephine L.; Koodie, Lisa; Krishnan, Anitha G.; Charboneau, Richard; Barke, Roderick A.; Roy, Sabita
The effect of topical recombinant murine and human GM-CSF, 1 or 10 µg\\/cm2 for one to ten days, on the contraction and healing of acute and chronic granulating wounds infected withEscherichia coli was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bacterial contamination of wounds produced significant inhibition of wound contraction. Application of GM-CSF at either dose level to infected wounds markedly increased the
M. Robson; A. Kucukcelebi; S. S. Carp; P. G. Hayward; P. S. Hui; W. T. Cowan; F. Ko; D. M. Cooper
The goal of our project is to develop a Wound Dressing Tool (WDT) that in addition to extracting overabundant chemicals like the VAC system does, can also allow for variable rates of mass transfer as well as a way for clinicians to monitor the fluid chemical composition of the wound bed during the healing and treatment processes.
This prospective, single-centre study compared wound closure methods in patients undergoing arthroscopy. Closure of arthroscopic portal wounds with sterile adhesive strips is effective and convenient for wound management. The method was associated with a reduced potential for infection, faster renewal of tensile strength, greater cost effectiveness, and better cosmetic effects comparing with suture closure. This method of wound closure may also reduce the incidence of needle stick injury in the theatre environment. Thereby the incidence of percutaneous exposure following a surgical procedure may not facilitate transmission of blood borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus. As a result it may reduce litigation in today's changing healthcare climate. PMID:18578357
Bhattacharyya, Mayukh; Bradley, Helen
Wound dressings have undergone an evolutionary process from natural materials that simply covered and concealed the wound, to materials that focused on moisture management, and more recently, to materials that either deliver active ingredients or interact directly with cells or specific chemicals in the local wound environment. Advances in dressings technology have led to a new proliferation of topical products that do more than just cover and conceal, but that also can facilitate the healing process as well as address specific issues in nonhealing wounds. Dressings may play an important adjunctive role in concert with overall efforts to manage the underlying causes of chronic nonhealing wounds. PMID:17276199
Ovington, Liza G
Acrylate glues used in a childrens' day care unit to close small surgical wounds were compared. In 157 children, aged 12 weeks to 3.7 years, either Histoacryl or Dermabond was used (respectively, H: Ethicon Inc., Johnson & Johnson, NJ or D: Dermabond, Braun Surgical Gmbh, Melsungen, Germany). Operations were for inguinal hernia (110 cases), hydrocele (25), undescended testis (16), umbilical hernia (13) and funiculocele (3). 1 week after surgery the wounds were evaluated in terms of integrity of closure, redness or infection, need for antibiotics, wound granuloma, and parental satisfaction with instructions and actual method of wound caring. 3 months after surgery the wound/scar was reexamined. The margins of the wounds were separated partially or completely in 8 of 85 in group H (9.4%) while in the D group, 2 wounds (2.4%) had partially opened (p < 0.05). There were no differences between the glues with regard to wound infection or cosmetic results. Parental satisfaction was higher with D (96%) than H (82%) but the difference was not statistically significant. It is convenient to use glue to close operative wounds in children after ambulatory surgery. The use of D significantly reduced wound ruptures compared to H. Long-term cosmetic results were similar. PMID:11341181
Steiner, Z; Mogilner, J
The use of honey in wound management has enjoyed a resurgence. This is largely due to the growing clinical problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the combined difficulties for the practitioner in managing chronic wound types, such as burns, leg ulcers or surgical wounds, that may become infected, for example, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas. The associated costs of treating such wounds are escalating as a result. While the use of honey as a wound dressing has been recognized, at least since Egyptian times circa 2000 BC, it is only more recently, due to the development and licensing of modern honey wound dressings, that such dressings have become more widely available and used in wound management. This article focuses on the use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds and burns. It will examine the effects of honey at the wound bed and its clinical applications, along with the current dressings available. Also discussed are the practical considerations, if, like any wound dressing, honey is to be used safely, appropriately and for the benefit of the patient. PMID:18773594
Significance: Bacterial burden is believed to play a significant role in impaired wound healing of chronic wounds and the development of infection-related complications. The standard of care in the clinic relies upon cultivation-dependent methods to identify microorganisms. These assays are biased toward microorganisms that thrive in isolation under laboratory conditions. Recent Advances: Significant advances in genomic technologies have enabled less-biased, culture-independent approaches to characterize microbial communities, or microbiomes. The aggregate sequencing and analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes has demonstrated that cultures under-represent true microbial diversity and load. Critical Issues: Despite recent advances that enable culture-independent analyses of microbiomes, those organisms that are important in impaired healing remain ambiguous. Inconsistent findings across various studies highlight the need to characterize microbiomes of chronic wounds with homogenous etiology to determine differences in microbiomes that may be driven by the wound environment and that may affect wound outcomes. Rigorous analyses of wound microbiomes in light of the three dimensions of bioburden (microbial diversity, microbial load, and pathogenic organisms), clinical metadata, and wound outcomes will be a significant step forward in our quest to understand the role of microorganisms in impaired healing. Future Directions: Longitudinal studies employing serial sampling are needed to appreciate the role of the dynamic microbial community in chronic wound healing. The value of clinical metadata needs to be examined as potential biomarkers of problematic microbiota and wound outcomes. Lastly, better characterization and understanding of wound microbiomes will open avenues for improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the nonhealing wound.
Misic, Ana M.; Gardner, Sue E.; Grice, Elizabeth A.
Background Full-thickness burn wounds require excision and skin grafting. Multiple surgical procedures are inevitable in managing moderate to severe full-thickness burns. Wound bed preparations prior to surgery are necessary in order to prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. Honey can be used to treat burn wounds. However, not all the honey is the same. This study aims to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally-produced Tualang honey on managing full-thickness burn wounds in vivo. Methods Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Under anaesthesia, three full-thickness burn wounds were created on the dorsum of the rats. The full-thickness burn wounds were inoculated with a specific organism (104), namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 12), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 12), or Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 12). The three burn wounds were dressed with Tualang honey, hydrofibre and hydrofibre silver respectively. Swab samples were obtained every 3 days (day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21) for quantitative and semi-quantitative microbiological analyses. Clinical assessments, including observations concerning the appearance and wound size, were measured at the same time. Results There was a rapid 32.26% reduction in wound size by day 6 (p = 0.008) in the Tualang honey-treated wounds, and 49.27% by day 15 (p = 0.005). The wounds remained smaller by day 18 (p < 0.032). Tualang honey-treated rats demonstrated a reduction in bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated wounds (p = 0.005). However, hydrofibre silver and hydrofibre-treated wounds are superior to honey-treated wounds with Acinetobacter baumannii (p = 0.035). There was no statistical significant of antibacterial property in Klebsiella pneumonia inoculated wounds. Conclusions Tualang honey has better results with regards to its control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its wound contraction effects on full-thickness burn wound in vivo.
Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment
Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.
Between 1997 and 1999, more than 300 patients have been treated using negative pressure wound dressings. The technique has been used successfully to prepare various acute, chronic or infected wounds to accept a skin graft or flap, and to promote graft take at difficult donor sites. The advantages include rapid healing by secondary intention, reduced time to skin grafting, an
C. Avery; J. Pereira; A. Moody; I. Whitworth
Background Wounding following whole-body ?-irradiation (radiation combined injury, RCI) increases mortality. Wounding-induced increases in radiation mortality are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. Among these factors, cytokines along with other biomarkers have been adopted for biodosimetric evaluation and assessment of radiation dose and injury. Therefore, wounding could complicate biodosimetric assessments. Results In this report, such confounding effects were addressed. Mice were given 60Co ?-photon radiation followed by skin wounding. Wound trauma exacerbated radiation-induced mortality, body-weight loss, and wound healing. Analyses of DNA damage in bone-marrow cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), changes in hematology and cytokine profiles, and fundamental clinical signs were evaluated. Early biomarkers (1 d after RCI) vs. irradiation alone included significant decreases in survivin expression in bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in ?-H2AX formation in Lin+ bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood, and concomitant decreases in ?-H2AX formation in PBMCs and decreases in numbers of splenocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Intermediate biomarkers (7 – 10 d after RCI) included continuously decreased ?-H2AX formation in PBMC and enhanced increases in IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood. The clinical signs evaluated after RCI were increased water consumption, decreased body weight, and decreased wound healing rate and survival rate. Late clinical signs (30 d after RCI) included poor survival and wound healing. Conclusion Results suggest that confounding factors such as wounding alters ionizing radiation dose assessment and agents inhibiting these responses may prove therapeutic for radiation combined injury and reduce related mortality.
Postpartum episiotomy dehiscence is a rare complication of vaginal delivery. Infection rates in episiotomy wounds are surprisingly low; however, it remains the most common cause of wound dehiscence, which may lead to major physical, psychological and social problems if left untreated. Most dehisced perineal wounds are left to heal naturally by secondary intention. This approach often results in a protracted period of significant morbidity for women. There is emerging evidence that early re-suturing closure of broken-down perineal wounds may have a better outcome, but randomised controlled trials are needed to yield evidence-based guidance for this management approach. PMID:24484355
Kamel, A; Khaled, M
Fifty-nine patients with wounds and ulcers most of which (80 per cent) had failed to heal with conventional treatment were treated with unprocessed honey. Fifty-eight cases showed remarkable improvement following topical application of honey. One case, later diagnosed as Buruli ulcer, failed to respond. Wounds that were sterile at the outset, remained sterile until healed, while infected wounds and ulcer became sterile within 1 week of topical application of honey. Honey debrided wounds rapidly, replacing sloughs with granulation tissue. It also promoted rapid epithelialization, and absorption of oedema from around the ulcer margins. PMID:3416123
Efem, S E
Skin wound healing is a vital process that is important for re-establishing the epithelial barrier following disease or injury. Aberrant or delayed skin wound healing increases the risk of infection, causes patient morbidity, and may lead to the formation of scar tissue. One of the most important events in wound healing is coverage of the wound with a new epithelial layer. This occurs when keratinocytes at the wound periphery divide and migrate to re-populate the wound bed. Many approaches are under investigation to promote and expedite this process, including the topical application of growth factors and the addition of autologous and allogeneic tissue or cell grafts. The mechanical environment of the wound site is also of fundamental importance for the rate and quality of wound healing. It is known that mechanical stress can influence wound healing by affecting the behaviour of cells within the dermis, but it remains unclear how mechanical forces affect the healing epidermis. Tensile forces are known to affect the behaviour of cells within epithelia, however, and the material properties of extracellular matrices, such as substrate stiffness, have been shown to affect the morphology, proliferation, differentiation and migration of many different cell types. In this review we will introduce the structure of the skin and the process of wound healing. We will then discuss the evidence for the effect of tissue mechanics in re-epithelialisation and, in particular, on stem cell behaviour in the wound microenvironment and in intact skin. We will discuss how the elasticity, mechanical heterogeneity and topography of the wound extracellular matrix impact the rate and quality of wound healing, and how we may exploit this knowledge to expedite wound healing and mitigate scarring. PMID:23746929
Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard O C; Healy, Eugene; Thurner, Philipp J; Man, Yu Hin
1 Abstract. Closure and internal compartmentalization of wounds on red maple and American elm were not stimulated by dressings of an asphalt-based material, orange shellac, or polyurethane varnish. After 5 years, decay fungi had infected many treated and control wounds. Some trees closed woun- ds rapidly; others closed wounds slowly regardless of the treatments.
Alex L. Shigo; Charles L. Wilson
Background Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rapid progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue or fascia and may result in large open wounds. The surgical options to cover these wounds are often limited by the patient condition and result in suboptimal functional and cosmetic wound coverage. Dermatotraction can restore the function and appearance of the fasciotomy wound and is less invasive in patients with comorbidities. However, dermatotraction for scarred, stiff NF fasciotomy wounds is often ineffective, resulting in skin necrosis. The authors use extended negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as an assist in dermatotraction to close open NF fasciotomy wounds. The authors present the clinical results, followed by a discussion of the clinical basis of extended NPWT-assisted dermatotraction. Methods A retrospective case series of eight patients with NF who underwent open fasciotomy was approved for the study. After serial wound preparation, dermatotraction was applied in a shoelace manner using elastic vessel loops. Next, the extended NPWT was applied over the wound. The sponge was three times wider than the wound width, and the transparent covering drape almost encircled the anatomical wound area. The negative pressure of the NPWT was set at a continuous 100 mmHg by suction barometer. The clinical outcome was assessed based on wound area reduction after treatment and by the achievement of direct wound closure. Results After the first set of extended NPWT-assisted dermatotraction procedures, the mean wound area was significantly decreased (658.12 cm2 to 29.37 cm2; p?=?0.002), as five out of eight patients achieved direct wound closure. One patient with a chest wall defect underwent latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap coverage, with primary closure of the donor site. Two Fournier’s gangrene patients underwent multiple sets of treatment and finally achieved secondary wound closure with skin grafts. The patients were followed up for 18.3 months on average and showed satisfactory results without wound recurrence. Conclusions Extended NPWT-assisted dermatotraction advances scarred, stiff fasciotomy wound margins synergistically in NF and allows direct closure of the wound without complications. This method can be another good treatment option for the NF patient with large open wounds whose general condition is unsuitable for extensive reconstructive surgery.
Problem statement: The developing microbial resistance to the existin g anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious pr oblem facing patients suffering from skin infection s. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine fo r the treatment of such infections. Production of new potent agents is urge ntly needed, especially
Mariam A. Abu-Al-Basal
The acute wound presents a spectrum of issues that prevent its ultimate closure. These issues include host factors, etiology, anatomic location, timing, and surgical techniques to achieve successful wound closure. Basic surgical principles need to be followed to obtain stable, long-term coverage, ultimately restoring form and function. Recent advances in dressings, debridement techniques, and surgical repertoire allow the modern plastic surgeon to address any wound of any complexity. This article discusses these principles that can be applied to any wound. PMID:19465203
Lee, Charles K; Hansen, Scott L
Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In addition, saliva contains several proteins which play a role in the different stages of wound healing. Saliva contains substantial amounts of tissue factor, which dramatically accelerates blood clotting. Subsequently, epidermal growth factor in saliva promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor inhibits the tissue-degrading activity of enzymes like elastase and trypsin. Absence of this protease inhibitor delays oral wound healing. Salivary histatins in vitro promote wound closure by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration, but do not stimulate cell proliferation. A synthetic cyclic variant of histatin exhibits a 1,000-fold higher activity than linear histatin, which makes this cyclic variant a promising agent for the development of a new wound healing medication. Conclusively, recognition of the many roles salivary proteins play in wound healing makes saliva a promising source for the development of new drugs involved in tissue regeneration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24862594
Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I
The escalating physiological, psychological, social and financial burdens of wounds and wound care on patients, families and society demand the immediate attention of the health care sector. Many forces are affecting the changes in health care provision for patients with chronic wounds, including managed care, the limited number of wound care therapists, an increasingly ageing and disabled population, regulatory and malpractice issues, and compromised care. The physician is also faced with a number of difficult issues when caring for chronic wound patients because their conditions are time consuming and high risk, represent an unprofitable part of care practice and raise issues of liability. Telemedicine enhances communication with the surgical wound care specialist. Digital image for skin lesions is a safe, accurate and cost-effective referral pathway. The two basic modes of telemedicine applications, store and forward (asynchronous transfer) and real-time transmission (synchronous transfer, e.g. video conference), are utilized in the wound care setting. Telemedicine technology in the hands of an experienced physician can streamline management of a problem wound. Although there is always an element of anxiety related to technical change, the evolution of wound care telemedicine technology has demonstrated a predictable maturation process.
Chittoria, Ravi K.
The increasing incidence and complications arising from combat wounds has necessitated a reassessment of methods for effective treatment. Infection, excessive inflammation, and incidence of drug-resistant organisms all contribute toward negative outcomes for afflicted individuals. The organisms and host processes involved in wound progression, however, are incompletely understood. We therefore set out, using our unique technical resources, to construct a profile of combat wounds which did or did not successfully resolve. We employed the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array and identified a number of nosocomial pathogens present in wound samples. Some of these identities corresponded with bacterial isolates previously cultured, while others were not obtained via standard microbiology. Further, we optimized proteomics protocols for the identification of host biomarkers indicative of various stages in wound progression. In combination with our pathogen data, our biomarker discovery efforts will provide a profile corresponding to wound complications, and will assist significantly in treatment of these complex cases.
Chronic nonhealing wounds represent a large clinical problem resulting in severe disabilities and large healthcare expenditures. Despite the scope of this problem, effective new therapies are lacking. The deficiency of growth factors in chronic wounds has brought attention to the topical application of growth factors, but initial clinical trials have resulted in only modest improvements in healing despite large, repetitive doses. The modest improvement in healing observed in these trials show that growth factors can improve chronic wound healing, but a better means of growth factor delivery is needed. We hypothesized that gene therapy using a recombinant adenoviral vector could be used to induce transgene production directly by cells in the wound. An adenovirus containing the beta-galactosidase reporter transgene (Ad-LacZ) was used in the ischemic rabbit ear model to test this hypothesis. Ad-LacZ resulted in efficient transgene delivery to cells participating in the wound healing response, with expression up to 2 weeks. However, wound reepithelialization was impaired in Ad-LacZ treated wounds compared to vehicle control wounds. Adenoviral mediated gene transfer is a promising efficient means of growth factor delivery to chronic wounds. However, selection of the proper transgene with appropriate biologic activity in wound healing may be essential to overcome the potential adverse effects of adenoviral infection. PMID:10417750
Liechty, K W; Sablich, T J; Adzick, N S; Crombleholme, T M
Objectives: We are often confused on selecting a suitable wound dressing for the treatment of infected wounds from huge number of available wound dressings. Then, to help clinicians easily select a wound dressing, we compared the antibacterial effects and bacterial retentivity (ie, potency of keeping absorbed bacteria inside wound dressings and preventing them from leaking out) of wound dressings. Methods: Five wound dressings with antibacterial constituents were compared to research antibacterial effects against nonpathogenic Escherichia coli using an in vitro model. The 5 other wound dressings with no antibacterial constituent were compared to research bacterial retentivity. The relative amount of E coli was determined using cell proliferation reagent WST-1 (11644807001, Roche Applied Science, United States) with time. Results: The results have shown that the antibacterial effects and bacterial retentivity differed among various wound dressings. Silver ions quickly exerted a very strong antibacterial effect, and hydrofibers had a high potency of bacterial retentivity by gelling the absorbed bacteria in wound dressings. Conclusions: The present study indicated the differences of antibacterial strength, time of onset and duration of the antibacterial effect, and bacterial retentivity between each wound dressing. Clinicians should use appropriate wound dressings according the wound condition in consideration of the different characteristics of wound dressings. The present results are helpful for clinicians to select appropriate wound dressing.
Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Hosokawa, Ko; Kubo, Tateki
Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent that causes vesication in human skin. These blisters make the victims more susceptible to infection and delay healing of the skin. The first step in treating wounds is to cleanse the wound to prevent infection. M...
A. H. Chuang A. L. Adkins C. L. Henemyre-Harris J. S. Graham
Temporary dressings protect wounds from desiccation and infection. In our previous study, we used meshed acellular porcine dermis (APD) to enhance wound healing and decrease wound contraction; however, the wounds showed meshed scar [Wang HJ, Chen TM, Cheng TY. Use of a porcine dermis template to enhance widely expanded mesh autologous split-thickness skin graft growth: preliminary report. J Trauma 1997;42(2):177–82].
Hsian-Jenn Wang; Trong-Duo Chou; Tai-Li Tsou; Tim-Mo Chen; Shao-Liang Chen; Shyi-Gen Chen; Lin-Gwei Wei; Kuan-Jeh Yeh; Yao-Huang Ko; Chi-Shyran Wang; Wei-Hwa Lee
The incidence of lower extremity wounds, infections, and amputations continues to increase worldwide. Fortunately, the past\\u000a decade has seen a surge of activity in research into new modalities in wound healing and, even more recently, prevention.\\u000a This article discusses the basic physiology of wound healing, with particular attention being paid to current and potential\\u000a wound healing modalities. These include, among
Matthew J. Claxton; David G. Armstrong; Andrew J. M. Boulton
Autolytic debridement describes the body's natural method of wound-bed cleansing, helping it to prepare the wound bed for healing. In acute wounds, autolytic debridement occurs automatically and often does not require intervention, as during the inflammatory stage of a wound, neutrophils and macrophages digest and removes devitalised tissue, cell debris and contaminants, clearing the wound of any cellular barriers to healing. In chronic wounds, by contrast, healing is often delayed, frequently because of inadequate debridement. The autolytic process becomes overwhelmed by high levels of endotoxins released from damaged tissue (Broadus, 2013). Therefore wound debridement becomes an integral part of chronic-wound management and practitioners involved in wound care must be fully competent at wound-bed assessment and have an awareness of the options available for debridement. This article will review wound-bed assessment, highlighting variations in devitalised tissue, and explore options available for wound debridement, taking into consideration patients’ pain and quality of life. PMID:25075385
Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. As the traditional methods of treatment have proven ineffective against chronic wounds involving biofilms, there is an unmet clinical need for developing products with an antibiofilm component that inhibits and/or disrupts biofilms and thus make the biofilm-embedded bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobial therapy. We developed a DispersinB® antibiofilm enzyme-based wound spray for treating chronic wounds in conjunction with an antimicrobial. Under in vitro conditions, the DispersinB® and Acticoat™ combination performed significantly better (P < 0.05) than Acticoat™ alone, indicating the synergy between the two compounds because of DispersinB® enhancing the antimicrobial activity of Acticoat™. Furthermore, DispersinB® wound spray enhanced the antimicrobial activity of Acticoat™ in a chronic wound mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Thus, this novel combination of DispersinB® and Acticoat™, an antimicrobial dressing, prompts clinical evaluation for potential applications in biofilm-based chronic wound management.
Gawande, Purushottam V; Clinton, Allie P; LoVetri, Karen; Yakandawala, Nandadeva; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Madhyastha, Srinivasa
Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. As the traditional methods of treatment have proven ineffective against chronic wounds involving biofilms, there is an unmet clinical need for developing products with an antibiofilm component that inhibits and/or disrupts biofilms and thus make the biofilm-embedded bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobial therapy. We developed a DispersinB® antibiofilm enzyme-based wound spray for treating chronic wounds in conjunction with an antimicrobial. Under in vitro conditions, the DispersinB® and Acticoat™ combination performed significantly better (P < 0.05) than Acticoat™ alone, indicating the synergy between the two compounds because of DispersinB® enhancing the antimicrobial activity of Acticoat™. Furthermore, DispersinB® wound spray enhanced the antimicrobial activity of Acticoat™ in a chronic wound mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Thus, this novel combination of DispersinB® and Acticoat™, an antimicrobial dressing, prompts clinical evaluation for potential applications in biofilm-based chronic wound management. PMID:24826078
Gawande, Purushottam V; Clinton, Allie P; LoVetri, Karen; Yakandawala, Nandadeva; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Madhyastha, Srinivasa
Since its discovery approximately 200 years ago, chitosan, as a cationic natural polymer, has been widely used as a topical dressing in wound management owing to its hemostatic, stimulation of healing, antimicrobial, nontoxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. This article covers the antimicrobial and wound-healing effects of chitosan, as well as its derivatives and complexes, and its use as a vehicle to deliver biopharmaceuticals, antimicrobials and growth factors into tissue. Studies covering applications of chitosan in wounds and burns can be classified into in vitro, animal and clinical studies. Chitosan preparations are classified into native chitosan, chitosan formulations, complexes and derivatives with other substances. Chitosan can be used to prevent or treat wound and burn infections not only because of its intrinsic antimicrobial properties, but also by virtue of its ability to deliver extrinsic antimicrobial agents to wounds and burns. It can also be used as a slow-release drug-delivery vehicle for growth factors to improve wound healing. The large number of publications in this area suggests that chitosan will continue to be an important agent in the management of wounds and burns. PMID:21810057
Dai, Tianhong; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R
The ability to heal wounds is an ancient and conserved function of epidermal epithelial layers. The importance of skin wound healing to human life and biology has long been evident, however many of the molecular mechanisms underlying wound repair remain little understood. In the past several years, analysis of the C. elegans innate immune response to fungal infection of the epidermis has led to investigations of the ability of the C. elegans skin to respond to damage. In a recent paper we used live imaging to investigate the cell biological basis of wound repair in the adult C. elegans epidermis. We found that needle or laser injury of the skin triggers a large and sustained increase in epidermal calcium. Epidermal calcium signals appear to specifically promote actin-dependent processes of wound closure. The innate immune and wound closure responses act in parallel to promote survival after injury. Our findings indicate that wounding triggers multiple signals in the C. elegans skin. C. elegans offers a tractable model to dissect how epidermal epithelia activate coordinated responses to repair damage. PMID:24058838
Xu, Suhong; Hsiao, Tiffany I; Chisholm, Andrew D
Since its discovery approximately 200 years ago, chitosan, as a cationic natural polymer, has been widely used as a topical dressing in wound management owing to its hemostatic, stimulation of healing, antimicrobial, nontoxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. This article covers the antimicrobial and wound-healing effects of chitosan, as well as its derivatives and complexes, and its use as a vehicle to deliver biopharmaceuticals, antimicrobials and growth factors into tissue. Studies covering applications of chitosan in wounds and burns can be classified into in vitro, animal and clinical studies. Chitosan preparations are classified into native chitosan, chitosan formulations, complexes and derivatives with other substances. Chitosan can be used to prevent or treat wound and burn infections not only because of its intrinsic antimicrobial properties, but also by virtue of its ability to deliver extrinsic antimicrobial agents to wounds and burns. It can also be used as a slow-release drug-delivery vehicle for growth factors to improve wound healing. The large number of publications in this area suggests that chitosan will continue to be an important agent in the management of wounds and burns.
Dai, Tianhong; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R
Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. Furthermore, saliva contains a variety of proteins that play a role in the various stages of the intraoral wound healing. Tissue factor, present in salivary exosomes, accelerates the clotting of blood dramatically. The subsequent proliferation of epithelial cells is promoted by growth factors in saliva, especially epidermal growth factor. The importance of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor is demonstrated by the observation that in the absence of this salivary protein, oral wound healing is considerably delayed. Members of the salivary histatin family promote wound closure in vitro by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration. Cell proliferation is not enhanced by histatin. Cyclization of histatin increased its biological activity approximately 1,000-fold compared to linear histatin. These studies suggest that histatins could potentially be used for the development of new wound healing medications. PMID:23878824
Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I
Herbivores, and particularly chewing insects, cause substantial damage to the plant. In addition to lost tissue, there are great concerns of pathogen invasion and water loss at the site of the attack. One of the plant’s defense strategies is the formation of wound periderm at the boundaries of the invaded or damaged region to isolate it from non-wounded healthy tissue.
... Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yersiniosis Ear Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause ... Immunizations: Chickenpox Vaccine Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Your Child's Immunizations: Hepatitis A Vaccine ( ...
Background Ceftriaxone is an effective prophylactic antibiotic. However, there is no consensus about whether ceftriaxone should be used\\u000a as a first-line antibiotic for the prevention of incisional surgical site infection (SSI). Its role in preventing urinary\\u000a tract infection (UTI) and pneumonia also is controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials assessing the prophylactic use of ceftriaxone between 1983 and 2005 was
J. C. Woodfield; N. Beshay; A. M. van Rij
This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care. PMID:24912830
Skerritt, Louise; Moore, Zena
Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care and management resulting\\u000a in complications like infection and delayed wound healing. Currently a lot of research is focused on developing newer antimicrobials\\u000a to treat wounds infected with antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long\\u000a time in
K. Madhumathi; P. T. Sudheesh Kumar; S. Abhilash; V. Sreeja; H. Tamura; K. Manzoor; S. V. Nair; R. Jayakumar
Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed.
Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana
With our aging population, chronic diseases that compromise skin integrity such as diabetes, peripheral vascular disease (venous hypertension, arterial insufficiency) are becoming increasingly common. Skin breakdown with ulcer and chronic wound formation is a frequent consequence of these diseases. Types of ulcers include pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers (arterial and venous hypertension), and neuropathic ulcers. Treatment of these ulcers involves recognizing the four stages of healing: coagulation, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Chronic wounds are frequently stalled in the inflammatory stage. Moving past the inflammation stage requires considering the bacterial burden, necrotic tissue, and moisture balance of the wound being treated. Bacterial overgrowth or infection needs to be treated with topical or systemic agents. In most cases, necrotic tissue needs to be debrided and moisture balance needs to be addressed by wetting dry tissue and drying wet tissue. Special dressings have been developed to accomplish these tasks. They include films, hydrocolloids, hydrogel dressings, foams, hydrofibers, composite and alginate dressings. PMID:19554098
Gist, Steve; Tio-Matos, Iris; Falzgraf, Sharon; Cameron, Shirley; Beebe, Michael
One of the major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes for wound healing is to promote the healing of cutaneous wounds. In this respect, many important clinical milestones have been reached in the past decades. However, currently available skin substitutes for wound healing often suffer from a range of problems including wound contraction, scar formation, and poor integration with host tissue. Engineering skin substitutes by tissue engineering approach has relied upon the creation of three-dimensional scaffolds as extracellular matrix (ECM) analog to guide cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation to form skin-functional and structural tissue. The three-dimensional scaffolds can not only cover wound and give a physical barrier against external infection as wound dressing, but also can provide support both for dermal fibroblasts and the overlying keratinocytes for skin tissue engineering. A successful tissue scaffold should exhibit appropriate physical and mechanical characteristics and provide an appropriate surface chemistry and nano and microstructures to facilitate cellular attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. A variety of scaffolds have been fabricated based on materials ranging from naturally occurring ones to those manufactured synthetically. This review discusses a variety of commercial or laboratory-engineered skin substitutes for wound healing. Central to the discussion are the scaffolds/materials, fabrication techniques, and their characteristics associated with wound healing. One specifically highlighted emerging fabrication technique is electrospinning that allows the design and fabrication of biomimetic scaffolds that offer tremendous potential applications in wound healing of skin. PMID:20607703
Zhong, S P; Zhang, Y Z; Lim, C T
This paper describes the properties of nanocrystalline silver products (Acticoat™) and their applications and examines available evidence supporting their use in wound management. Acticoat utilizes nanotechnology to release nanocrystalline silver crystals. Acticoat releases 30 times less silver cations than silversulfadiazine cream or 0.5% silver nitrate solution but more of the silver released (by Acticoat). Silver-impregnated slow-release dressings release minute concentrations of silver which are quickly bound up by the chloride in the wound exudate. While extrapolations from in vitro and animal studies are cautious, evidence from these studies suggests Acticoat is: effective against most common strains of wound pathogens; can be used as a protective covering over skin grafts; has a broader antibiotic spectrum activity; and is toxic to keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Animal studies suggest a role for nanocrystalline silver in altering wound inflammatory events and facilitation of the early phase of wound healing. Quality human clinical trials into nanocrystalline silver are few. However, evidence suggests using Acticoat in wound management is cost effective, reduces wound infection, decreases the frequency of dressing changes and pain levels, decreases matrix metalloproteinase activity, wound exudate and bioburden levels, and promotes wound healing in chronic wounds. Although there is no in vivo evidence to suggest nanocrystalline silver is toxic to human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, there is in vitro evidence to suggest so; thus these dressings should be used cautiously over epithelializing and proliferating wounds. Future clinical research, preferably randomized controlled trials into nanocrystalline silver technology, may provide clinicians a better understanding of its applications in wound management.
Fong, Joy; Wood, Fiona
Wound bed preparation is an organized approach to create an optimal environment for wound healing by the use of the most cost-effective therapeutic options. It has become an essential part of wound management and seeks to use the latest findings from molecular and cellular research to maximize the benefits of today’s advanced wound care products. The international advisory panel on wound bed preparation met in 2002 to develop a systemic approach to wound management. These principles of this approach are referred to by the mnemonic TIME, which stands for the management of nonviable or deficient tissue (T), infection or inflammation (I), prolonged moisture imbalance (M), and nonadvancing or undermined epidermal edge (E). One critical element of pathophysiology, understanding of the hypoxic nature of the wound and correction of hypoxia as a critical element of wound bed preparation, is not covered. This article proposes to add correction of hypoxia to the TIME principle (TIMEO2 principle) based on the evidence. The evidence that will support the reason and the need for modification of the wound bed preparation protocol is discussed.
Shah, Jayesh B.
The US Department of Energy reports of events that occurred in the chemical processing 200 Areas of the Hanford Site during the period from 1972 through 1986 were reviewed to identify the causes of contaminated wounds. Contaminated wounds were reported in 19 events involving 20 workers. The causal agents (high risk operations) and the root causes were characterized. Emergency actions taken and their efficacy were noted. The 19 wound events were compared with 17 events with the potential for inhalation. It was found that the wound events involve a single worker and frequently result in an internal contamination and its resulting dose. Inhalation events involve groups of workers and rarely resulted in detectable internal contamination. The difference is attributed to anticipation of an inhalation event and use of respiratory protection and continuous air monitors to mitigate its effects.
The US Department of Energy reports of events that occurred in the chemical processing 200 Areas of the Hanford Site during the period from 1972 through 1986 were reviewed to identify the causes of contaminated wounds. Contaminated wounds were reported in 19 events involving 20 workers. The causal agents (high risk operations) and the root causes were characterized. Emergency actions taken and their efficacy were noted. The 19 wound events were compared with 17 events with the potential for inhalation. It was found that the wound events involve a single worker and frequently result in an internal contamination and its resulting dose. Inhalation events involve groups of workers and rarely resulted in detectable internal contamination. The difference is attributed to anticipation of an inhalation event and use of respiratory protection and continuous air monitors to mitigate its effects.
The oral mucosa is frequently exposed to mechanical forces, which may result in tissue damage. Saliva contributes to the repair of the oral mucosa in several ways. In the first place, it creates a humid environment to improve the function of inflammatory cells. During the last few years, it has been shown that saliva also contains a large number of proteins with a role in wound healing. Saliva contains growth factors, especially Epidermal Growth FACTOR, which promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Trefoil factor 3 and histatin promote the process of wound closure. The importance of Secretory Leucocyte Protease Inhibitor is demonstrated by the fact that in the absence of this salivary protein, oral wound healing is considerably delayed. Understanding these salivary proteins opens the way for the development of new wound healing medications. PMID:21661245
Veerman, E C I; Oudhoff, M J; Brand, H S
Collagen plays a major role in wound healing. Its presence is important in all stages of the healing process. Catrix is a new collagen wound-healing powder that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of wounds healing by secondary intent such as pressure ulcers, venous stasis ulcers and diabetic ulcers as well as second-degree burns and post-radiation dermatitis. Catrix has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of wounds unresponsive to conventional treatments. It promotes the growth of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound, prevents loss of fluid from the wound and protects the wound from bacterial infections and other agents. Catrix is biodegradable and therefore does not require removal from the wound bed before re-application. PMID:16245393
The healing wound offers a variety of potential end results. The surgeon's responsibility is to define what he wants and then\\u000a arrange to get it. History has proved that technical improvements can eliminate disorders such as dehiscence and incisional\\u000a hernias. Technical improvements should diminish the frequency of failed tendon repairs.\\u000a \\u000a When the author first became interested in wound healing and
Thomas K. Kunt
Chronic non-healing wounds affect a significant number of patients worldwide. Although the etiologies of these wounds are varied, bacterial infection has been suggested as a major factor responsible for the perpetual inflammation and tissue destruction observed in such wounds. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that bacterial biofilms in particular may have a significant role in this process. At the same time, topical negative pressure dressing is gaining acceptance as a therapy which promotes healing in recalcitrant wounds. In this study an in vitro Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm model was developed to mimic potential surface wound biofilms. Topical negative pressure dressing was applied to the model and the effects of topical negative pressure dressing on the in vitro wound biofilms were examined using both quantitative microbiological counting technique and imaging studies. The results demonstrated a small but statistically significant reduction in biofilm bacteria at 2 weeks when exposed to topical negative pressure. When this was combined with silver impregnated foam, the reduction was far more significant and was observable within 24 hours. Microscopically, it was also noted that topical negative pressure compressed the biofilm architecture with a reduction in thickness and diffusion distance. PMID:22126340
Ngo, Quan D; Vickery, Karen; Deva, Anand K
A 39-year-old patient suffered a stab wound of the right thenar prominence after an accident with a screwdriver. In the first hospital the deep wound was irrigated with octenidine dihydrochloride/2-phenoxyethanol and closed by suture. During the further course pressure pain and numbness of the right thenar and swelling of the right hand occurred. Three weeks after the accident an operative revision of the wound in a second hospital was performed. The intraoperative findings showed inflammation and necrosis of the right m. abductor pollicis brevis, but no infection with pus.The patient accused the first hospital of irrigating the tissue of his right hand with Octenisept®. The expert option of the Arbitration Board identified improper care in the first hospital with insufficient excision of the wound and incorrect use of the Octenisept® solution. Against the explicit advice of the manufacturing company the wound had been sutured without the possibility of drainage for the Octenisept® solution. PMID:21229225
Högele, A M; Neu, J
\\u000a The normal wound healing response can be divided into (1) inflammatory, (2) proliferative, and (3) tissue remodeling (i.e.,\\u000a fibroplasia and maturation) phases that involve complex interactions between various cutaneous-derived and inflammatory cells,\\u000a cytokines, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) [1–6]. Numerous studies continue to uncover the genetic, epigenetic (i.e., microRNA),\\u000a cellular (including stem cells), molecular, and biochemical mechanisms underlying this process
Michael J. Murphy
The aim of the present study was to incorporate a model water-insoluble photosensitizer, curcumin, in novel alginate foams, further to evaluate the suitability of the curcumin loaded foams in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy of infected wounds. Six foam formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to physical characteristics, in vitro release and storage- and photo-stability of curcumin. One formulation was sterilized (gamma-sterilization). The foams contained hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrins or hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrins as solubilizers of curcumin. A reference foam without cyclodextrins was prepared with PEG 400 as the solubilizer. At a curcumin load of 0.153% (w/w), the water insoluble photosensitizer was uniformly distributed in the hydrophilic foams matrix. All foams were easy to handle, flexible and hydrated rapidly in a model physiological fluid. Release of curcumin in its monomeric form was demonstrated in vitro and found to be dependent on the type and amount of cyclodextrins in the formulation. Curcumin was stable during storage, but susceptible to photodegradation in the foams, especially when the formulations contain PEG 400 or hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrins. Curcumin did not degrade after gamma-sterilization, however a decrease in the in vitro release rate of curcumin and changes in the foams physical characteristics were detected. PMID:20564381
Hegge, Anne Bee; Andersen, T; Melvik, J E; Kristensen, S; Tønnesen, H H
Determinants of the wounding effects of a metallic projectile include the velocity, mass, shape, and stability of the missile, and whether it tumbles, deforms, or fragments within the body. The velocity, mass, shape, and stability influence its capability to penetrate through the skin, and the other factors influence the depth and volume of the wound. The energy lost into the tissues (kinetic energy deposition) is a greater determinant of potential wound volume than is the striking velocity, even though, because K.E. = 1/2 MV2, the potential striking K.E. is more strongly influenced by velocity than mass. The actual size and shape of the wound is influenced by tumbling, deformation, and fragmentation of the projectile and by the characteristics of the tissues and organs contacted. The pulsating temporary cavitation resulting from the passage of a high-velocity projectile produces blunt trauma that extends beyond the tissue actually contacted by the missile. The pulsation of the temporary cavitation with resulting strong negative pressure components permits contamination of the entire wound track of a perforating wound, with entrance of external contaminants from both the exit and the entrance sites. The extent and type of treatment required is determined more by the tissues and organs injured than by the characteristics of the wounding agent. Although extremity wounds from high-velocity projectiles may heal uneventfully, surgical exploration is indicated whenever there is a possibility of subfascial penetration, and obviously devascularized tissue should be excised. In circumstances in which contaminated devascularized tissue cannot be excised promptly or adequately, prophylactic topical antibacterial therapy (such as mafenide aqueous spray, which can penetrate through devascularized tissue) may prevent otherwise lethal infection. PMID:1920548
Mendelson, J A
Background Circular-stapled anastomosis with trans-oral anvil insertion for the creation of the gastrojejunostomy in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y\\u000a gastric bypass (LRYGBP) is associated with frequent infections at the abdominal wall site where the circular stapler is inserted.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients who underwent routine LRYGBP over a 1.5-year period at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation without any concomitant procedures\\u000a were included. After our initial experience with circular-stapled
Fahad Alasfar; Adheesh Sabnis; Rockson Liu; Bipan Chand
Combined use of adjunctive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and instillation of topical wound solutions and suspensions (NPWTi) has proven to be an effective next-generation NPWT technique for wounds at risk for compromised healing. Fluid instillation has been shown to enhance exudate and debris removal, provide regular cleansing of the wound bed, and add moisture to the wound. Positive results have been demonstrated with NPWTi in assisting healing of stalled wounds and treating painful wounds as well as wounds at high risk for amputation. NPWTi has been used instead of conventional NPWT in wounds with thick exudate and slough content, acute traumatic wounds, wounds acutely debrided due to infected soft tissue, large areas of post-debrided exposed bone, and cases of critical bacterial colonization. Instilled solutions have included topical solutions such as saline, topical wound cleansers, and antiseptics. While various systems that combine instillation or irrigation with NPWT have been commercialized during the past decade, until very recently these have been relatively cumbersome to use and limited in their ability to regulate solution volume delivery. Recent advances in NPWTi technology (V.A.C. VeraFlo™ Therapy, KCI, San Antonio, TX) include automated volumetrically controlled delivery of fluids and upgraded foam dressing technology to provide better control and delivery of solutions to the wound bed. This article describes the latest NPWTi technology and provides recommendations for successful application of NPWTi in an effort to inform clinicians about product decision-making and practice. PMID:24700215
Gabriel, Allen; Kahn, Kevin M
Wound geometry measurements have long been associated with wound-healing outcomes but there is little published evidence to support this. We studied serial wound tracings of 338 venous leg ulcers (VLUs) that had been followed during a controlled, prospective, randomized pivotal trial of two topical wound treatments, to determine whether the relationship between wound surface area and wound perimeter planimetry measurements, as well as the qualitative assessment of wound shape, could be correlated to wound-healing outcomes. VLUs that transitioned to a more convex wound shape, and maintained a linear relationship between their wound margin size and wound surface area size, had faster healing rates and were more likely to completely heal by 12 weeks (odds ratio=4.84, p=0.001). VLUs that initially presented with isolated areas of epithelium within the wound margins, large concavities, or were segmented into multiple ulcers typically had a poorer linear correlation between their margins and their surface area. Only 18 out of 134 (13%) VLUs with a linear r(2)<0.80 eventually reached full wound closure, vs. 43% (102 of 270) of the remaining wounds with an r(2)> or =0.80 (Fisher's exact p<0.001). We believe our results show that the proportional relationship between one-dimensional perimeter and area measurements accurately correlates to the healing progress of the wound. Wounds that do not correlate to this linear relationship (concave geometries or multiple islands of healing) may be physiologically different than wounds that have good linear correlation, which we concluded through the analysis of wound acetate tracings. PMID:19320884
Cardinal, Matthew; Eisenbud, David E; Armstrong, David G
For hundreds of years poor and chronic nonhealing wounds have constituted a serious problem to medicine. What is more, treating such wounds is an expensive let alone a long-lasting process. The following paper describes Professor Scheller's achievements in using propolis for poor and chronic non-healing wounds. The authors' intention was to present the results connected with the use of the ethanolic extract propolis, in the treatment of patients suffering from burns, venous crural ulceration, local sacral bone pressure ulcers, suppurative osteitis and arthritis, suppurative postoperative local wound complications, and infected traumatic wounds. PMID:23710220
Kucharzewski, M; Kubacka, S; Urbanek, T; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, K; Morawiec, T
For hundreds of years poor and chronic nonhealing wounds have constituted a serious problem to medicine. What is more, treating such wounds is an expensive let alone a long-lasting process. The following paper describes Professor Scheller's achievements in using propolis for poor and chronic non-healing wounds. The authors' intention was to present the results connected with the use of the ethanolic extract propolis, in the treatment of patients suffering from burns, venous crural ulceration, local sacral bone pressure ulcers, suppurative osteitis and arthritis, suppurative postoperative local wound complications, and infected traumatic wounds.
Kucharzewski, M.; Kubacka, S.; Urbanek, T.; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, K.; Morawiec, T.
Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins have been used as markers of plant defense responses, and are classified into 17 families. However, precise information on the majority members in specific PR families is still limited. We were interested in the individual characteristics of rice PR1 family genes, and selected 12 putatively active genes using rice genome databases for expressed genes. All were upregulated upon compatible and/or incompatible rice-blast fungus interactions; three were upregulated in the early infection period and four in the late infection period. Upon compatible rice-bacterial blight interaction, four genes were upregulated, six were not affected, and one was downregulated. These results are in striking contrast to those among 22 Arabidopsis PR1 genes where only one gene was pathogen-inducible. The responses of individual genes to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene induced defense signaling pathways in rice are likely to be different from those in dicot plants. Transcript levels in healthy leaves, roots, and flowers varied according to each gene. Analysis of the partially overlapping expression patterns of rice PR1 genes in healthy tissues and in response to pathogens and other stresses would be useful to understand their possible functions and for use as characteristic markers for defense-related studies in rice. PMID:18247056
Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Iwai, Takayoshi; Seo, Shigemi; Yanagawa, Yuki; Kawahigasi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakino; Ohkawa, Yasunobu; Ohashi, Yuko
The study indentifies the factors in soil that potentiate the development of infection. The infection potentiating factors in soil appear to be clay and organic colloids. In addition, studies were devised to test the value of Pluronic F-68 as a wound clea...
D. Pettry G. Rodeheaver M. T. Edgerton R. T. Edlich
A drug-dispensing field wound dressing is being developed. The wound dressing, which can be easily applied by an untrained person, contains a coagulant to stop bleeding, and an antibiotic to prevent bacterial infection. The medicated wound dressing is mad...
M. Szycher J. L. Rolfe
The aim of this study is to prepare a novel wound dressing material which provides burst release of an antibiotic in combination with sustained release of growth factor delivery. This might be beneficial for the prevention of infections and to stimulate wound healing. As a wound dressing material, the semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogel based on polyacrylamide (PAAm) and chitosan (CS)
Mehlika Pulat; An?l Sera Kahraman; Nur Tan; Menem?e Gümü?derelio?lu
Disinfectant and antibacterial properties of ozone are utilized in the treatment of nonhealing or ischemic wounds. We present here a case of 59 years old woman with compartment syndrome following surgical treatment of stress fracture of proximal tibia with extensively infected wound and exposed tibia to about 4/5 of its extent. The knee joint was also infected with active pus draining from a medial wound. At presentation the patient had already taken treatment for 15 days in the form of repeated wound debridements and parenteral antibiotics, which failed to heal the wound and she was advised amputation. Topical ozone therapy twice daily and ozone autohemotherapy once daily were given to the patient along with daily dressings and parenteral antibiotics. Within 5 days, the wound was healthy enough for spilt thickness skin graft to provide biological dressing to the exposed tibia bone. Topical ozone therapy was continued for further 5 days till the knee wound healed. On the 15th day, implant removal, intramedullary nailing, and latissimus dorsi pedicle flap were performed. Both the bone and the soft tissue healed without further complications and at 20 months follow-up, the patient was walking independently with minimal disability.
Shah, Prasham; Shyam, Ashok K; Shah, Sambhav
Disinfectant and antibacterial properties of ozone are utilized in the treatment of nonhealing or ischemic wounds. We present here a case of 59 years old woman with compartment syndrome following surgical treatment of stress fracture of proximal tibia with extensively infected wound and exposed tibia to about 4/5 of its extent. The knee joint was also infected with active pus draining from a medial wound. At presentation the patient had already taken treatment for 15 days in the form of repeated wound debridements and parenteral antibiotics, which failed to heal the wound and she was advised amputation. Topical ozone therapy twice daily and ozone autohemotherapy once daily were given to the patient along with daily dressings and parenteral antibiotics. Within 5 days, the wound was healthy enough for spilt thickness skin graft to provide biological dressing to the exposed tibia bone. Topical ozone therapy was continued for further 5 days till the knee wound healed. On the 15(th) day, implant removal, intramedullary nailing, and latissimus dorsi pedicle flap were performed. Both the bone and the soft tissue healed without further complications and at 20 months follow-up, the patient was walking independently with minimal disability. PMID:21772635
Shah, Prasham; Shyam, Ashok K; Shah, Sambhav
Wound healing involves a complex series of biochemical events and has traditionally been managed with 'low tech' dressings and bandages. The concept that diagnostic and theranostic sensors can complement wound management is rapidly growing in popularity as there is tremendous potential to apply this technology to both acute and chronic wounds. Benefits in sensing the wound environment include reduction of hospitalization time, prevention of amputations and better understanding of the processes which impair healing. This review discusses the state-of-the-art in detection of markers associated with wound healing and infection, utilizing devices imbedded within dressings or as point-of-care techniques to allow for continual or rapid wound assessment and monitoring. Approaches include using biological or chemical sensors of wound exudates and volatiles to directly or indirectly detect bacteria, monitor pH, temperature, oxygen and enzymes. Spectroscopic and imaging techniques are also reviewed as advanced wound monitoring techniques. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of and future directions for this field. PMID:23058663
Dargaville, Tim R; Farrugia, Brooke L; Broadbent, James A; Pace, Stephanie; Upton, Zee; Voelcker, Nicolas H
As research techniques in wound care management improve, treatment protocols for the care of wounds must also change to ensure safe and optimal healing. In this study, I surveyed current practices of athletic trainers regarding the care of athletic wounds and compared the findings to current literature. I contacted 501 athletic trainers, including all NATA curricular undergraduate directors. Overall response rate was 58%; 78% of the athletic trainers from the curricular schools responded. Wet-to-dry, irrigation, and soaks were the three most common methods used to debride and cleanse a wound. Povidone-iodine (Betadine) and hydrogen peroxide were the two most popular cleansing agents. Conventional gauze was the primary dressing used by 67% of the athletic trainers, while 20% of those surveyed used occlusive dressings. Although povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide are commonly used, both are toxic to cells involved in the wound-healing process and delay healing. Research indicates that the best method of cleansing and debriding a wound is to irrigate it with saline. Occlusive dressings have a lower infection rate, are viral barriers, and are associated with faster wound healing and less pain than gauze dressings. Athletic trainers need to assess their wound care protocols so that they give the best possible care to their athletes.
Goldenberg, Michael S.
This study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing the standard type of dry dressing, Mepore, with moist wound healing, using a hydrofiber dressing, Aquacel, in primary closed wounds after vascular surgery. The endpoints were patient comfort, cost-effectiveness, infections, wound complications, and length of hospital stay. One hundred and sixty patients were randomized to receive either Mepore or Aquacel dressing. There was no significant difference in patient comfort between the two groups, but a higher cost in the Aquacel group despite significantly fewer changes of dressings in these patients. No difference in the infection rate (13% vs. 11%, p=0.73), length of hospital stay, or wound complications was noted between the two groups. We conclude that although the Aquacel dressing needed significantly fewer changes than the conventional dressing, this did not influence the patient comfort. Moreover, the traditional dressing scheme was significantly less expensive. PMID:17971007
Vogt, Katja C; Uhlyarik, M; Schroeder, Torben V
Chronic wounds, defined as those wounds which fail to proceed through an orderly process to produce anatomic and functional integrity, are a significant socioeconomic problem. A wound may fail to heal for a variety of reasons including the use of corticosteroids, formation of squamous cell carcinoma, persistent infection, unrelieved pressure, and underlying hypoxia within the wound bed. Hypoxia appears to inhibit the wound healing process by blocking fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and capillary angiogenesis and to increase the risk of infection. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to aid the healing of ulcerated wounds and demonstrated to reduce the risk of amputation in diabetic patients. However, the causal reasons for the response of the underlying biological processes of wound repair to HBOT, such as the up-regulation of angiogenesis and collagen synthesis are unclear and, consequently, current protocols remain empirical. Here we review chronic wound healing and the use of hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunctive treatment for nonhealing wounds. Databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Blackwell Synergy, and The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant phrases including HBOT, HBO/HBOT, wound healing, and chronic/nonhealing wounds/ulcers. PMID:18471250
Thackham, Jennifer A; McElwain, D L Sean; Long, Robert J
Wound infections represent a major problem, particularly in patients with chronic wounds. Bacteria in the wound exist mainly in the form of biofilms and are thus resistant to most antibiotics and antimicrobials. A simple and cost-effective in vitro model of chronic wound biofilms applied for testing treatments and solid devices, especially wound dressings, is presented in this work. The method is based on the well-established Lubbock chronic wound biofilm transferred onto an artificial agar wound bed. The biofilm formed by four bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was stable for up to 48h post-transplant. The applicability of the model was evaluated by testing two common iodine wound treatments. These observations indicate that this method enables assessing the effects of treatments on established resilient wound biofilms and is clinically highly relevant. PMID:24880129
Kucera, J; Sojka, M; Pavlik, V; Szuszkiewicz, K; Velebny, V; Klein, P
Healing large chronic and acute wounds is a challenging task for wound care providers. It requires numerous visits and frequent dressing changes and often involves expensive therapeutic modalities. Our primary and ultimate goal is to heal these wounds as quickly as possible. In a prepared wound bed, covered with granulation tissue and free of infection, skin graft is the gold standard procedure to achieve this goal. One should keep in mind that not all patients are good candidates for surgery.
Simman, Richard; Phavixay, Laemthong
Antibiotic administration at the time of wound manipulation has not been shown to decrease infection rates for simple traumatic wounds. Antibiotic administration at the time of initial emergency department (ED) presentation, however, has not been explored. Patients presenting to the ED with simple traumatic wounds received 1 g of oral flucloxacillin, or identical placebo, at triage. Wound closure was completed at the discretion of a physician blinded to study contents. Wound infection rates were determined at 1 month. Time from drug administration to wound manipulation was 64.3 min [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.6-91.9] placebo versus 75.0 min (95% CI: 51.7-98.3) flucloxacillin, P=0.657. Six of 36 patients (17%) reported wound infection in the placebo group, and four of 34 (12%) in the flucloxacillin group, P=0.736. Administration of oral flucloxacillin at triage failed to reduce the rate of wound infection for simple traumatic wounds closed in the ED. PMID:21389858
Cowell, David Lord; Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant
The advent of modern wound care management constitutes one of the most innovative applications of medical device technology. The foundation for wound care recent advances has been built upon the developments achieved in polymer technology over the last three decades. New and unique materials have been engineered to provide properties with significant technical and clinical benefits.These new wound care products
Michael Szycher; Steven James Lee
Radiotherapy forms an integral part in cancer treatment today. It is used alone or in combination with surgery and chemotherapy. Although radiotherapy is useful to effect tumour death, it also exerts a deleterious effect on surrounding normal tissues. These effects are either acute or can manifest months or years after the treatment. The chronic wounds are a result of impaired wound healing. This impairment results in fibrosis, nonhealing ulcers, lymphoedema and radionecrosis amongst others. This article will discuss the pathophysiology in brief, along with the manifestations of radiation-induced injury and the treatment available currently. PMID:23162232
Iyer, Subramania; Balasubramanian, Deepak
The aim of this paper was to provide a literature synthesis on current wound care practices for the management of chronic wounds in palliative care and end-of-life patients, focusing on the control of wound-related symptoms for comfort and improved quality of life. These wounds included pressure ulcers, venous and arterial leg ulcers, diabetic ulcers and fungating malignant wounds. Wound-related symptoms included pain, exudate, malodour, infection, bleeding, dressing comfort and negative psychological and social functioning. Best care wound practices were formulated for each wound type to ease suffering based on the literature review. Although symptom management strategies for comfort may work in tandem with healing interventions, it is important to recognise when efforts towards wound closure may become unrealistic or burdensome for the patient at end of life. Thus, unique aspects of palliative wound care feature clinical indicators for early recognition of delayed healing, quality of life measurement tools related to chronic wounds, and comfort care strategies that align with patient wishes and realistic expectations for wound improvement. PMID:20528993
Chrisman, Christine A
Background: A topical antimicrobial that can decrease the bacterial bioburden of chronic wounds without impairing the wound's ability to heal is a therapeutic imperative. A stabilized form of hypochlorous acid (NVC-101) has been demonstrated in vitro and in standard toxicity testing to possess properties that could fulfill these criteria. Materials and Methods: Using a standard rodent model of a chronically infected granulating wound, various preparations of NVC-101 and multiple treatment regimens were investigated to evaluate the role of NVC-101 in decreasing tissue bacterial bioburden and overcoming the inhibition of infection on wound healing. Quantitative bacteriology of tissue biopsies and wound healing trajectories were used to compare the various NVC-101 preparations and regimens to saline-treated negative controls and silver sulfadiazine–treated positive controls. Results: NVC-101 at 0.01% hypochlorous acid with a pH of 3.5 to 4.0 proved to be an effective topical antimicrobial. It was most effective when used for a brief period (15–30 minutes), and followed with another application. Possibly this was due to its rapid neutralization in the wound bed environment. Although not as effective at decreasing the tissue bacterial bioburden as silver sulfadiazine, NVC-101 was associated with improved wound closure. Conclusions: This stabilized form of hypochlorous acid (NVC-101) could have potential application as an antimicrobial wound irrigation and treatment solution if its effective pH range can be maintained in the clinical situation. NVC-101 solution was equally effective at pH 3.5 or 4.0 and more efficient soon after its application. As opposed to other antimicrobials investigated in this animal model, NVC-101 controls the tissue bacterial bioburden without inhibiting the wound healing process.
Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.; Ko, Francis; Mentis, Marni; Donati, Guillermo; Shafii, Susan M.; Culverhouse, Susan; Wang, Lu; Khosrovi, Behzad; Najafi, Ramin; Cooper, Diane M.; Bassiri, Mansour
Changes that take place in the nutritional requirements of persons under stress are discussed, metabolic alterations triggered by wounding are described, and practical approaches to the nutritional management of the wounded or injured patient are suggeste...
J. M. Navia L. Menaker
Wound care is an important step for promoting wound healing. Nevertheless it is also a major source of pain for patients with wounds. The results of a survey showed that not only burn patients but also non-burn ones suffered from wound care pain which occurred in inpatients and outpatients. One of the significant factors causing wound care pain was that the dressing adhered to the wound bed. Although some agencies claimed that particular dressings with low adhesion can result in painless removal, the actual effects needed to be verified. Results of clinical trials revealed that for relieving wound care pain of certain kinds of wound, it was recommended to use particular dressings, such as banana leaf dressing, boiled potato peel bandage, Acticoat, Mepital or Mefix. PMID:17160873
Wound problems can often be prevented with careful planning. When transverse incisions are used for knee surgery many years prior to any anticipated knee arthroplasty, no major problems are typically encountered with a conventional, anterior longitudinal incision. We recommend lateral incisions (eg, after a previous lateral tibial plateau fracture) be reused for TKA. When confronted with multiple previous incisions, surgeons would best use the most recently healed or the most lateral. We prefer soft tissue reconstruction with expanders or a gastrocnemius flap if there are multiple incisions, if the skin and scar tissue are adherent to underlying tissue, or if wound healing seems questionable. Deep infection must be determined by aspiration. When present, we believe treatment must include irrigation, débridement, polyethylene exchange if acute, and resection arthroplasty if chronic. Poor wound healing is a potentially devastating complication that may result in multiple reconstructive procedures and even amputation. Early recognition followed by expeditious débridement and soft tissue reconstruction should be used for managing wound complications after TKA. PMID:17079990
Vince, Kelly G; Abdeen, Ayesha
Abstract Objective: Risk factors for post-cesarean wound infection, but not disruption, are well-described in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a single-center randomized controlled trial of staple versus suture skin closure in women ?24 weeks' gestation undergoing cesarean delivery. Wound disruption was defined as subcutaneous skin or fascial dehiscence excluding primary wound infections. Composite wound morbidity (disruption or infection) was examined as a secondary outcome. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, and intrapartum characteristics were evaluated as potential risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of the 398 randomized patients, 340, including 26 with disruptions (7.6%) met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. After multivariable adjustments, African-American race (aOR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-13.8) and staple - as opposed to suture - wound closure (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.1) remained significant risk factors for disruption; non-significant increases were observed for body mass index ?30 (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.5), but not for diabetes mellitus (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3-2.9). Results for composite wound morbidity were similar. Conclusions: Skin closure with staples, African-American race, and considering the relatively small sample size, potentially obesity are associated with increased risk of non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption. PMID:24090116
Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria C; Figueroa, Dana; Biggio, Joseph R; Owen, John; Tita, Alan T N
Objectives: Bioengineered skin grafts, including acellular dermal matrices, may be effective in treating lower extremity and trunk wounds that are not responsive to traditional wound management. Acellular dermal wound matrix is derived from human acellular dermal wound matrix (HADWM) tissue and provides a scaffold that supports cellular repopulation and revascularization. The major structural components of the dermis are retained during processing, and a single application has been shown to help achieve wound closure. Methods: This patient case series examined the use of HADWM on lower extremity and trunk wounds in 11 patients (6 male and 5 female) with a mean age of 55 years (range: 31–83 years). Wounds were debrided 1 to 2 times, followed by placement of HADWM (range: 4–330 cm2) on wounds that varied from the dorsal surface of the foot, lower abdomen, and lower extremity to the Achilles flap. A nonadherent layer in conjunction with bacitracin was placed over HADWM. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was placed over the HADWM and initiated continuously at ?125 mm Hg for 1 to 2 weeks. After the application of NPWT, HADWM was covered with various gauze dressings using mineral oil. Results: All patients completed their treatment successfully, and follow-up ranged from 1 week to 6 months. One patient experienced an infection, which resulted in partial graft loss that required replacement with HADWM and NPWT. No additional complications occurred in the other patients. Conclusions: This patient case series demonstrated successful use of HADWM and NPWT, which further supports published studies documenting HADWM success in chronic wounds.
Stacey, D. Heath
Objective: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with impaired cutaneous wound healing and can result in ulceration, infection, and/or amputation. More than 25 million people in the United States have T2D and are vulnerable to epithelial-related complications. Current therapies are limited in their efficacy. New treatments for full-thickness cutaneous wounds that focus on underlying diabetic pathways are needed. Approach: Topical application of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) dissolved in cream reverses delayed wound closure in type 1 diabetic rat by the acceleration of reepithelialization and enhancement of angiogenesis and remodeling. NTX blocks the opioid growth factor (OGF)–OGF receptor (OGFr) axis and upregulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. To investigate whether NTX is an effective therapy for T2D wound closure, genetically obese mice (db/db) and normal C57Bl/6J mice received full-thickness cutaneous wounds. Wounds (5?mm in diameter) were treated topically three times daily with 10?5 M NTX or sterile saline dissolved in cream and photographed every 2 days. Results: Wounds in db/db mice treated with saline were 11–92% larger than those in normal mice throughout the 2-week observation. Topical NTX therapy in T2D mice reduced the residual wound size by 13–30% between days 8 and 14 relative to diabetic mice receiving saline. Reepithelialization and DNA synthesis, as analyzed by epithelial thickness and BrdU labeling indexes, respectively, were accelerated in NTX-treated wounds. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that the OGF-OGFr axis plays a role in epithelial-related complications of T2D and that blockade of this pathway by NTX may be an effective treatment for wound repair.
Immonen, Jessica A.; Zagon, Ian S.; McLaughlin, Patricia J.
As many as 9 in 10 justice-involved youth are affected by traumatic childhood experiences. According to "Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense," between 75 and 93 percent of youth currently incarcerated in the justice system have had at least one traumatic experience, including sexual abuse, war,…
Adams, Erica J.
A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite. 4 figs.
Wisted, E.E.; Lundquist, S.H.
A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite.
Wisted, Eric E. (Apple Valley, MN); Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)
Wound closure should be carried out at the earliest possible stage. In suitable cases it can be done almost immediately, i.e., at day 2 or 3, with some form of excision being followed by the immediate application of autograft. If necessary, further staged...
J. H. Heslop
Objectives: Traumatic wounds and surgery inherently have their complications. Localized infections, wound dehiscence, and excessive wound leakage can be devastating to the patient with a prolonged recovery, but it is also costly to the hospital with an increased length of stay, extra workload, and dressing changes. The single use PICO (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, United Kingdom) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) dressing has revolutionized our management of various acute, chronic, and high output wounds. It requires fewer dressing changes than conventional practice, is used in the outpatient setting, and is a necessary adjuvant therapy to hasten wound healing. Aims: To observe the efficacy of the PICO vacuum-assisted healing within a cost improvement programme. Settings: Plastic surgery department, Royal London Hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with a diversity of postoperative or posttraumatic wounds were considered suitable for PICO application and treated totally on an outpatient basis once the PICO dressing was applied. All wounds were then subjected to continued PICO dressings until healed. Results: All patients tolerated the PICO well with no dressing failure or failure to comply. The number of dressings per patient ranged from 1 to 7. The cost per patient of treatment ranged from £120 to £1578. Estimated cost of all PICO dressing for 21 patients including plastic surgery dressing clinic appointments = £13,345. Median length of treatment to healing (days) = 16; standard deviation = 9.5. Eight patients would have had an inpatient bed stay with conventional therapy, total 24 bed days saved at Bartshealth @£325 per day. Conclusions: The outpatient application of a disposable NPWT can benefit a wide range of clinical wounds that optimizes patient care, promotes rapid wound healing, and importantly helps manage costs.
Payne, Caroline; Edwards, Daren
Objectives: Traumatic wounds and surgery inherently have their complications. Localized infections, wound dehiscence, and excessive wound leakage can be devastating to the patient with a prolonged recovery, but it is also costly to the hospital with an increased length of stay, extra workload, and dressing changes. The single use PICO (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, United Kingdom) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) dressing has revolutionized our management of various acute, chronic, and high output wounds. It requires fewer dressing changes than conventional practice, is used in the outpatient setting, and is a necessary adjuvant therapy to hasten wound healing. Aims: To observe the efficacy of the PICO vacuum-assisted healing within a cost improvement programme. Settings: Plastic surgery department, Royal London Hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with a diversity of postoperative or posttraumatic wounds were considered suitable for PICO application and treated totally on an outpatient basis once the PICO dressing was applied. All wounds were then subjected to continued PICO dressings until healed. Results: All patients tolerated the PICO well with no dressing failure or failure to comply. The number of dressings per patient ranged from 1 to 7. The cost per patient of treatment ranged from £120 to £1578. Estimated cost of all PICO dressing for 21 patients including plastic surgery dressing clinic appointments = £13,345. Median length of treatment to healing (days) = 16; standard deviation = 9.5. Eight patients would have had an inpatient bed stay with conventional therapy, total 24 bed days saved at Bartshealth @£325 per day. Conclusions: The outpatient application of a disposable NPWT can benefit a wide range of clinical wounds that optimizes patient care, promotes rapid wound healing, and importantly helps manage costs. PMID:24917894
Payne, Caroline; Edwards, Daren
While report of animal bites contaminating wounds is reported commonly, direct wound contamination with squirrel flesh has never been reported in the literature. The patient suffered an accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound that drove squirrel flesh and buck shot deep within his right buttock. This case outlines his hospital course and wound treatment. The patient was treated with ten days of broad spectrum antibiotics, extensive debridement of the wound in the operating room, and further treatment of the wound with a vacuum dressing system. While squirrel tissue and buckshot had to be removed from the wound on day six of the hospital stay, the patient remained afebrile without signs or symptoms of systemic illness.
Maerz, Porter W.; Falgiani, Tricia B.; Hoelle, Robyn M.
We present three cases of Absidia corymbifera necrotising fasciitis presenting to our centre within 1 month of each other. All patients had wound dressings with non sterile crepe bandages at peripheral centres. One patient was lost to follow-up, another improved on timely antifungal therapy, while the last patient succumbed to disseminated infection. We propose that traumatic and deep wounds be dressed with sterile roller bandages to prevent outbreaks of wound zygomycosis. PMID:21883933
Shakoor, Sadia; Jabeen, Kauser; Idrees, Romana; Jamil, Bushra; Irfan, Seema; Zafar, Afia
Protection of wounds against infection by trunk disease pathogens is the most efficient and cost-effective means to prevent\\u000a grapevine trunk diseases. Studies done to determine the effectiveness of chemical pruning wound protectants have mostly focused\\u000a on the control of Eutypa lata. However, other important wound pathogens, such as Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp., Phomopsis spp. and species of Botryosphaeriaceae (including Botryosphaeria
W. Bester; P. W. Crous; P. H. Fourie
Chronic wounds are an important health problem because they are difficult to heal and treatment is often complicated, lengthy and expensive. For a majority of sufferers the most common outcomes are long-term immobility, infection and prolonged hospitalisation. There is therefore an urgent need for effective therapeutics that will enhance ulcer healing and patient quality of life, and will reduce healthcare costs. Studies in our laboratory have revealed elevated levels of purine catabolites in wound fluid from patients with venous leg ulcers. In particular, we have discovered that uric acid is elevated in wound fluid, with higher concentrations correlating with increased wound severity. We have also revealed a corresponding depletion in uric acid precursors, including adenosine. Further, we have revealed that xanthine oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyses the production of uric acid, is present at elevated levels in wound fluid. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that xanthine oxidoreductase may have a function in the formation or persistence of chronic wounds. Here we describe the potential function of xanthine oxidoreductase and uric acid accumulation in the wound site, and the effect of xanthine oxidoreductase in potentiating the inflammatory response. PMID:24357442
Fernandez, Melissa L; Upton, Zee; Shooter, Gary K
Objective We demonstrate an innovative use of a barrier surgical wound retractor/protector system for use in a variety of prosthetic urologic procedures (penile prosthetics, artificial urinary sphincters, male slings). Materials and Methods We demonstrate the use of a self-retaining ring wound retractor in a multitude of prosthetic urological procedures: insertion of an inflatable penile prosthesis through an infrapubic approach as well as penoscrotal approach, placement of a transperineal artificial urinary sphincter, and placement of a male urethral sling. Results The self-retaining ring wound retractor facilitated a more rapid setup and takedown, provided 360 degrees of atraumatic retraction as well as 360 degrees of wound protection, allowed for maximum exposure with a minimum incision size, significantly shortened the operating wound depth thus maximizing exposure, and isolated the surgical field minimizing prosthesis to skin contact. Conclusion Our experience shows that prosthetic urologic surgeries can be enhanced with the use of the self-retaining ring wound retractor as it provides better surgical exposure, lowers wound infection risks, sets up more quickly as a safer retraction system with substantial cost savings.
Biewenga, Eric D.; Choe, Chong; Chang, Joseph; Rhee, Eugene Y.
It is generally assumed that a missile fired from a gun is subjected to sufficient heat to render it sterilized. For this reason, retained bullets are not usually considered a source of infection. The infectious complications associated with gunshot wounds are typically attributed to perforation of a hollow viscus with leakage of gastrointestinal contents causing peritonitis or intra-abdominal abscess. There are several reports of bacterial meningitis involving the spinal cord in gunshot wounds that perforate the intestine prior to involving the thoracic or lumbar vertebral column; however, there are no published reports of cerebral meningitis resulting from a retained projectile in the spinal canal in which there was no injury to the gastrointestinal tract. This manuscript describes a woman who died as a result of unsuspected acute bacterial meningitis which developed secondary to a gunshot wound of the neck. The projectile fractured the first thoracic vertebra, lacerated the dura and contused the spinal cord at the C7-T1 junction. Meningitis developed at the C7-T1 level and ascended along the cervical spinal cord to the brain. The infection caused acute neurologic deterioration and death four days following the initial injury. PMID:14640287
Spitz, Daniel J; Ouban, Abderrahman
Significance Neutrophils are one of the most abundant cells of the immune system and they are extremely active during the repair of cutaneous wounds. In general, the antimicrobial activity of neutrophils is effective and allows these cells to carry out their primary function of preventing wounds from becoming infected. Recent Advances It is now known that in addition to sterilizing the wound, the weapons used by neutrophils to kill potential pathogens can also cause significant tissue damage to the host. This additional damage can lead to delayed healing and excessive scar formation. Critical Issues Much of the host damage caused by neutrophils results from the activity of proteases secreted by these cells. The clinical significance of this problem is highlighted by numerous studies showing that high levels of neutrophil-derived proteases are associated with chronic, non-healing wounds. Future Directions Studies are currently being performed to evaluate new ways of counteracting protease activity in chronic wounds. Additional studies will have to be carried out to determine whether neutralizing neutrophil proteases can improve the healing of chronic wounds without sacrificing the ability of neutrophils to eliminate pathogens and risking infection.
Wilgus, Traci A.; Roy, Sashwati; McDaniel, Jodi C.
Fibrous materials in some modern absorbent wound dressings have the ability to sequester and retain bacteria; however, this ability varies according to the nature of the fibres. We studied the bacterial retention capacity of alginate and carboxymethylcellulose dressings, using an infected skin ulcer model on the backs of rats. Wound surfaces were inoculated with either Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration of 1.5 x 10(6) colony-forming units per wound. AQUACEL; Hydrofiber;, Kaltostat; or Sorbsan; were applied to the contaminated wounds for 12 h. Each dressing was then divided into two pieces. Total viable bacterial count within the dressing was calculated using one piece, and bacterial count released from the dressing into physiological saline was determined using the other piece, enabling bacterial retention rate to be calculated. Bacterial counts in tissue were also determined. Each dressing was tested on each of 10 wounds contaminated with each bacterium. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for replicated measures combined with Duncan's multiple comparison test. AQUACEL; Hydrofiber; dressing was most effective in its ability to retain both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < 0.05). Bacterial counts in tissue showed no significant change with respect to pathogen or the type of dressing used. It can be concluded that the bacterial retaining ability of AQUACEL; Hydrofiber; dressing was found to be significantly higher than that of alginate dressings in an infected animal wound model. PMID:16722876
Tachi, Masahiro; Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Yonehara, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Bowler, Philip
Diabetic patients are more susceptible to the development of chronic wounds than non-diabetics. The impaired healing properties of these wounds, which often develop debilitating bacterial infections, significantly increase the rate of lower extremity amputation in diabetic patients. We hypothesize that bacterial biofilms, or sessile communities of bacteria that reside in a complex matrix of exopolymeric material, contribute to the severity of diabetic wounds. To test this hypothesis, we developed an in vivo chronic wound, diabetic mouse model to determine the ability of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to cause biofilm-associated infections. Utilizing this model, we observed that diabetic mice with P. aeruginosa-infected chronic wounds displayed impaired bacterial clearing and wound closure in comparison with their non-diabetic littermates. While treating diabetic mice with insulin improved their overall health, it did not restore their ability to resolve P. aeruginosa wound infections or speed healing. In fact, the prevalence of biofilms and the tolerance of P. aeruginosa to gentamicin treatment increased when diabetic mice were treated with insulin. Insulin treatment was observed to directly affect the ability of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms in vitro. These data demonstrate that the chronically wounded diabetic mouse appears to be a useful model to study wound healing and biofilm infection dynamics, and suggest that the diabetic wound environment may promote the formation of biofilms. Further, this model provides for the elucidation of mechanistic factors, such as the ability of insulin to influence antimicrobial effectiveness, which may be relevant to the formation of biofilms in diabetic wounds.
Watters, Chase; DeLeon, Katrina; Trivedi, Urvish; Griswold, John A.; Lyte, Mark; Hampel, Ken J.; Wargo, Matthew J.
OBJECTIVES Sternal wound complications following median sternotomy remain a challenge in cardiac surgery. Changes in both patient profile and type of operations have been observed in recent years. Therefore, we analysed current wound healing complications after median sternotomy at our centre. METHODS All adult patients undergoing a median sternotomy between January 2009 and April 2011 were included in this retrospective analysis. Transplants and assist devices implantations were omitted. We assessed outcome, prognostic factors and microbiological results of standardized wound swabs. RESULTS In total, 1297 patients with an average age of 67.0 ± 12.7 years were analysed. Operation types included 598 solitary coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs), 213 solitary valve procedures, 105 CABGs with aortic valve replacement and 116 solitary aortic operations or conduit implantations. Furthermore, 255 of the remaining 265 were combined or otherwise complex procedures. Superficial healing disorders occurred in 43 patients (3.3%), while 33 (2.5%) developed deep wound complications. Six patients with sternal wound complications (7.9%) died in-hospital. In 7 patients, no pathogen was identified and the wound appeared uninfected (21% of all deep complications or 0.05% of all patients). These healing disorders were considered deep dehiscences. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, BMI of >40 kg/m2 and who underwent reoperation were prone to superficial infections. Risk factors for all deep sternal wound complications were insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, COPD and reoperation. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed ‘emergency’ as an independent prognostic factor for all sternal wound complications. Microbial swabs of the sternal wound were taken in 82 of the 1297 patients (6.6%). Pathogens of the normal skin flora represented the majority of pathogens in both superficial and deep wound complications. Eight patients with deep, but only 2 patients with superficial complications suffered from polymicrobial infections. All deep polymicrobial infections involved coagulase-negative Staphylococci. CONCLUSIONS Wound complications following median sternotomy remain a challenge to cardiac surgery. Redo and emergency operations are the most important risk factors in this contemporary series. More efforts seem mandatory to decrease this arduous morbidity and the costs of prolonged treatment.
Heilmann, Claudia; Stahl, Rahel; Schneider, Christian; Sukhodolya, Tetyana; Siepe, Matthias; Olschewski, Manfred; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm
Measuring the prevalence of wounds within health care systems is a challenging and complex undertaking. This is often compounded by the clinicians' training, the availability of the required data to collect, incomplete documentation and lack of reporting of this type of data across the various health care settings. To date, there is little published data on wound prevalence across regions or states. This study aims to identify the number and types of wounds treated in the Gippsland area using the Mobile Wound Care (MWC™) program. The MWC program has enabled clinicians in Gippsland to collect data on wounds managed by district nurses from four health services. The main outcomes measured were patient characteristics, wound characteristics and treatment characteristics of wounds in Gippsland. These data create several clinical and research opportunities. The identification of predominant wound aetiologies in Gippsland provides a basis on which to determine a regional wound prospective and the impact of the regional epidemiology. Training that incorporates best practice guidelines can be tailored to the most prevalent wound types. Clinical pathways that encompass the Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the management of venous leg ulcers can be introduced and the clinical and economical outcomes can be quantitatively measured. The MWC allows healing times (days) to be benchmarked both regionally and against established literature, for example, venous leg ulcers. PMID:23848943
Walker, Judi; Cullen, Marianne; Chambers, Helen; Mitchell, Eleanor; Steers, Nicole; Khalil, Hanan
Chronic wounds are an important problem worldwide. These wounds are characterized by a persistent inflammatory stage associated with excessive accumulation and elevated cell activity of neutrophils, suggesting that there must be a persistent stimulus that attracts and recruits neutrophils to the wound. One such stimulus might be the presence of bacterial biofilms in chronic wounds. In the present study, biopsy specimens from chronic venous leg ulcers were investigated for the detection of bacteria using peptide nucleic acid-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The bacteria in the wounds were often situated in large aggregates. To obtain a measure of the cellular inflammatory response against the bacteria in the chronic wounds, the amount of neutrophils accumulated at the site of infection was evaluated through differential neutrophil counting on the tissue sections from wounds containing either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. The P. aeruginosa-containing wounds had significantly higher numbers of neutrophils accumulated compared with the S. aureus-containing wounds. These results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the presence of P. aeruginosa biofilms in chronic wounds may be one of the main factors leading to a persistent inflammatory response and impaired wound healing. PMID:21518086
Fazli, Mustafa; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Jørgensen, Anne; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim
Here we report results of non-invasive measurements of indirect markers of soft tissue healing of traumatic wounds in an observational swine study and describe the quantification of analog physiological signals. The primary purpose of the study was to measure bone healing of fractures with four different wound treatments. A second purpose was to quantify soft tissue wound healing by measuring the following indirect markers: (1) tissue oxygenation, (2) fluid content, and (3) blood flow, which were all measured by non-invasive modalities, measured with available devices. Tissue oxygenation was measured by near infrared spectroscopy; fluid content was measured by bipolar bio-impedance; and blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound. Immediately after comminuted femur fractures were produced in the right hind legs of thirty anesthetized female Yorkshire swine, one of four wound treatments was instilled into each wound. The four wound treatments were as follows: salmon fibrinogen/thrombin-n = 8; commercial bone filler matrix-n = 7; bovine collagen-n = 8; porcine fibrinogen/thrombin-n = 7. Fractures were stabilized with an external fixation device. Immediately following wound treatments, measurements were made of tissue oxygenation, fluid content and blood flow; these measurements were repeated weekly for 3 weeks after surgery. Analog signals of each modality were recorded on both the wounded (right) hind leg and the healthy (left) hind leg, for comparison purposes. Data were processed off-line. The mean values of 10-s periods were calculated for right-left leg comparison. ANOVA was applied for statistical analysis. Results of the bone healing studies are published separately (Rothwell et al. in J Spec Oper Med 13:7-18, 2013). For soft tissue wounds, healing did not differ significantly among the four wound treatments; however, regional oxygenation of wounds treated with salmon fibrinogen/thrombin showed slightly different time trends. Further studies are needed to establish standards for healthy wound healing and for detection of pathological alterations such as infection. Non-invasive measurement and quantification of indirect markers of soft tissue wound healing support the goals and principles of evidence-based medicine and show potential as easy to administer tools for clinicians and battlefield medical personnel to apply when procedures such as the PET scan are not available or affordable. The method we developed for storing analog physiological signals could be used for maintaining electronic health records, by incorporating vital signs such as ECG and EEG, etc. PMID:23832619
Bodo, Michael; Settle, Timothy; Royal, Joseph; Lombardini, Eric; Sawyer, Evelyn; Rothwell, Stephen W
The escalating incidence of diabetic mellitus has given rise to the increasing problems of chronic diabetic ulcers that confront the practice of medicine. Peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and infection contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of diabetic ulcers. Approaches to the management of diabetic ulcers should start with an assessment and optimization of the patient's general conditions, followed by considerations of the local and regional factors. This paper aims to address the management strategies for wound bed preparation in chronic diabetic foot ulcers and also emphasizes the importance of preventive measures and future directions. The “TIME” framework in wound bed preparation encompasses tissue management, inflammation and infection control, moisture balance, and epithelial (edge) advancement. Tissue management aims to remove the necrotic tissue burden via various methods of debridement. Infection and inflammation control restores bacterial balance with the reduction of bacterial biofilms. Achieving a moist wound healing environment without excessive wound moisture or dryness will result in moisture balance. Epithelial advancement is promoted via removing the physical and biochemical barriers for migration of epithelium from wound edges. These systematic and holistic approaches will potentiate the healing abilities of the chronic diabetic ulcers, including those that are recalcitrant.
Mat Saad, Arman Zaharil; Khoo, Teng Lye; Halim, Ahmad Sukari
Soft tissue and wound treatment after orthopaedic interventions (especially after trauma) is still an enormously challenging situation for every surgeon. Since development of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), new indications have been consistently added to the original field of application. Recently, NPWT has been applied directly over high-risk closed surgical incisions. Review of the literature indicates that this therapy has shown positive effects on incisions after total ankle replacement or calcaneal fractures, preventing haematoma and wound dehiscence. In those cases reduced swelling, decreased pain and healing time of the wound were seen. Additionally, NPWT applied on incisions after acetabular fractures showed a decreased rate of infection and wound healing problems compared with published infection rates. Even after total hip arthroplasty, incisional NPWT reduced incidence of postoperative seroma and improved wound healing. In patients with tibial plateau, pilon or calcaneus fractures requiring surgical stabilisation after blunt trauma, reduced risk of developing acute and chronic wound dehiscence and infection was observed when using incisional NPWT. To conclude, incisional NPWT can help to reduce risk of delayed wound healing and infection after severe trauma and orthopaedic interventions. PMID:24851728
Brem, Matthias H; Bail, Hermann J; Biber, Roland
OBJECTIVE: To investigate topical honey in superficial burns and wounds though a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, reference lists and databases were used to seek randomised controlled trials. Seven randomised trials involved superficial burns, partial thickness burns, moderate to severe burns that included full thickness injury, and infected postoperative wounds. REVIEW METHODS:
Owen A Moore; Lesley A Smith; Fiona Campbell; Kate Seers; Henry J McQuay; R Andrew Moore
The healing of a skin wound is a complex process involving many cell lineages. In adult tissues, repair is always accompanied by a robust inflammatory response, which is necessary to counter the potential for infection at any site where the skin barrier is breached. Unlike embryonic tissues that can repair perfectly without a remnant scar at the wound site, adult
Brian M Stramer; Ryoichi Mori; Paul Martin
Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes. PMID:24572884
Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget
Significance Proteases and their inhibitors contribute to the balance between extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and deposition, creating an equilibrium that is essential for the timely and coordinated healing of cutaneous wounds. However, when this balance is disrupted, wounds are led into a state of chronicity characterized by abundant levels of proteases and decreased levels of protease inhibitors. Recent Advances Researchers have sought to investigate the roles of proteases within both acute and chronic wounds and how the manipulation of protease activity may aid healing. Indeed, numerous wound dressings have been developed that target such proteases in an attempt to promote wound healing. Critical Issues The normal tissue response to injury involves a complex interaction between cells and cellular mediators. In particular, the inflammatory response is augmented in chronic wounds which are characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and proteases. While controlling levels of inflammation and protease expression is a critical part of normal wound healing, elevated and prolonged expression of proteases produced during the inflammatory phase of healing can lead to excessive ECM degradation associated with impaired healing. Future Directions It seems plausible that future research should aim to investigate the ways in which proteases may be targeted as an alternative therapeutic approach to wound management and to assess the benefits and draw-backs of utilizing wound fluids to assess wound progression in terms of proteolytic activity.
McCarty, Sara M.; Percival, Steven L.
This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.
The treatment of chronic wounds represents a major cost to society and has a profound effect on the participant's quality of life. Chronic wounds may have an increased bacterial burden that can impair healing without all the clinical signs of infection. Silver dressings may provide an alternative topical method to control bacterial burden. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical improvement in chronic wounds through the effect on wound size, maceration, resolution of surface slough and conversion to healthy granulation during a 4-week application of the silver-containing Hydrofiber dressing. This was a single centre, open-label case series study which included a total of 30 evaluable participants: four with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers, 13 venous stasis ulcers, four pressure ulcers and nine miscellaneous wounds that did not fit any of the previous categories. All participants had adequate vascular supply, indicating the potential to heal. The wounds were stalled or had the signs and symptoms consistent with critical colonisation. The underlying cause of the ulceration was identified and corrected, or the symptoms and signs were treated. This was followed by the application of silver-containing Hydrofiber dressings for a period of 4 weeks. The majority of wounds treated decreased in size (70%) with decreased exudate, decreased purulence and resolution of surface slough (75%). There was an increased quality and quantity of healthy granulation tissue. Unlike some silver dressings, the Hydrofiber and silver combination dressing was unlikely to cause burning and stinging on application. Peri-wound maceration was present in 54% of participants at baseline, and 85% of these resolved with this dressing. A desloughing action was seen in those patients with pre-existing slough at baseline and its removal will lower the bacterial burden of the wound. PMID:16618321
Coutts, Pat; Sibbald, R Gary
Post-sternotomy mediastinitis is the most severe surgical site infection after sternotomy with an incidence between 1-4% related to the patient co-morbidity. This complication will increase morbidity and mortality and may also have an economic impact. There are guidelines to prevent surgical site infections; however, age and co-morbidities increase and therefore it is important to develop new tools to improve wound healing. This manuscript will give an overview of a new concept using negative pressure wound therapy over a closed incision (so-called, closed incision management) after surgery and will include the principles of negative pressure wound therapy and the positively applied mechanical forces as a permutation of Wolff's law. The use and indication of this therapy is supported by experimental studies divided into physiological and biomechanical property studies. Finally, an overview of clinical studies is given based on the evidence rating scale for therapeutic studies. PMID:24754343
Dohmen, Pascal M; Misfeld, Martin; Borger, Michael A; Mohr, Friedrich W
Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn-wound sepsis in rats was employed as an experimental model infection against which therapy consisting of daily exposure to hyperbaric oxygen and chemotherapeutic agents (topical mafenide acetate, or systemic or topical polymyxi...
G. H. Bornside F. C. Nance
The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use.
Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.
The ability of physicians to stimulate healing of mid-dermal injuries and incision in the skin is mainly limited at present to preventing infection and providing proper opposition of wound margins. The major goals of this contract are to elevate the actio...
A 5-year-old, Quarter horse mare was treated for severe cellulitis secondary to a gunshot wound near the right humerus. The bullet was not retrieved due to the risk of damaging the radial nerve or elbow joint. Despite the presence of the bullet, the mare resumed athletic soundness once the infection had resolved.
Mellish, Martha A.; Adreani, Christine M.
Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.
Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))
Significance The process of wound healing includes the regulated destruction of proteins via enzymes called proteinases. However, when the proteolytic process becomes excessive, pro-healing factors are destroyed and the wound healing process stalls. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one key class of proteinases that have been observed to be elevated in many cases of failed wound healing. Recent Advances Two key advances have been made in recent years. First is that, until recently, MMPs were only implicated in impaired healing of chronic wounds. Measurements of MMPs in wound fluids and serum from individuals with acute traumatic wounds have revealed that elevated MMPs are predictive of both impaired healing and of dehiscence of surgically closed wounds. The second advance is in the development of at least three clinically viable methods for measuring MMPs at the point of care. Critical Issues At present there is no objective method of determining proteinase levels within a wound. Since elevated MMPs have now been shown to be predictive of dehiscence in surgically closed acute wounds, a new clinical utility for measuring MMPs has been established. With the advent of several new technologies to measure MMPs, the translation of this valuable molecular knowledge into improved therapeutic regimens is nearly complete. Future Directions The clinical utility of measuring MMPs continues to expand and be further validated with each new investigation. The tools that will enable clinicians to leverage this valuable information are nearing maturity and integration into the clinic.
Gibson, Daniel J.; Schultz, Gregory S.
Wound management covers all aspects of patient care from initial injury, treatment of infection, fluid loss, tissue regeneration, wound closure to final scar formation and remodeling. There are many wound-care products available including simple protective layers, hydrogels, metal ion-impregnated dressings and artificial skin substitutes, which facilitate surface closure. This review examines recent developments in wound dressings, biomaterials and devices. Particular attention is focused on the design and manufacture of hydrogel-based dressings, their polymeric constituents and chemical modification. Finally, topical negative pressure and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are considered. Current wound-management strategies can be expensive, time consuming and labor intensive. Progress in the multidisciplinary arena of wound care will address these issues and be of immense benefit to patients, by improving both clinical outcomes and their quality of life. PMID:24237061
Martin, Claire; Low, Wan Li; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Radecka, Iza; Raj, Prem; Kenward, Ken
Young shoots of Rubus species have been used for healing of wounds, infected insect bites and pimples in folk medicine for ages. In order to evaluate the wound healing activity of Rubus sanctus, four different extracts were prepared from the whole aerial parts of the plant by using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Incision wound healing model by using tensiometer on rats and excision model on mice were employed to assess the activity. Remarkable wound healing activity was observed with the ointment formulation of the methanol extract at 1% concentration on the mentioned models. The results of histopathological examination also supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a reference ointment Madecassol. The experimental data confirmed the ethnobotanical usage of R. sanctus. PMID:19755505
Süntar, Ipek; Koca, Ufuk; Kele?, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli
Cardiovascular Disease; Healthcare Associated Infectious Disease; Sternal Superficial Wound Infection; Deep Sternal Infection; Mediastinitis; Thoracotomy; Conduit Harvest or Cannulation Site; Sepsis; Pneumonia
Purpose of Review Defective wound healing is one of the most prominent clinical manifestations of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As the global rates of diabetes increase, a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular defects that give rise to unresolved inflammation and delayed wound healing in diabetes is urgently required. Emerging evidence indicates that timely resolution of inflammation is mediated in part by endogenous pro-resolving lipid mediators, such as resolvins. Here, we review recent advances in the area of resolution and diabetes and highlight the potential of novel pro-resolving strategies for promoting wound healing in diabetes. Recent Findings Macrophage dysfunction is a critical underlying feature of altered wound healing in diabetic patients. This is associated with defective clearance of apoptotic cells, increased risk of infection and altered angiogenesis. Diabetes and obesity are associated with chronic inflammation and altered biosynthesis of bioactive lipid mediators that promote the resolution of inflammation. Stimulating resolution with pro-resolving lipid mediators improves metabolic parameters in diabetes, blunts systemic inflammation, restores defective macrophage phagocytosis and accelerates wound healing in animal models of obesity and diabetes. Summary Stimulating resolution with pro-resolving lipid mediators may represent a novel strategy for promoting wound healing in diabetes.
Hellmann, Jason; Tang, Yunan; Spite, Matthew
Few studies have addressed the effects of dressings on malignant wounds. A 20-month (May 2010 to January 2011) descriptive, prospective cohort study was conducted by the Wound Care Unit of Institute Curie, Paris, France to evaluate the use of various local care procedures and characteristics of malignant wounds. Symptoms and wound management methods were observed over a period of 42 days in 32 patients (all women, mean age 60 years, range 30-96 years, most with infiltrating ductal carcinoma). After cleansing (with either sterile saline or water), a variety of wound treatments were used based on specific wound characteristics, including calcium alginate, hydrocellular, interface, and active charcoal and superabsorbent dressings. Wound size, color (red, pink, black, yellow), periwound condition, surface wound organisms (number of species and quantity), and signs of infection, along with wound-related pain (rated on a verbal rating scale), odor, bleeding (spontaneous or induced), and exudate (rated on a four-level scale as none, slight, moderate, intense) were assessed at baseline and on days 21 and 42 of treatment. The degree to which each symptom was managed was scored as controlled, partly controlled, or not controlled. Mean initial wound size did not change over the evaluation period; most (74%) wounds were characterized as being inflamed. No infectious episodes were observed during the duration of the evaluation. Exudate and bleeding were generally controlled with hemostatic dressings, calcium alginate dressings, or absorbent pads. Odor was not completely controlled with charcoal dressing and was noted to be significantly greater in patients with >105/g bacterial counts and/or with one or more anaerobic bacteria (P = 0.05). At day 0, 13 out of 25 patients (50%) had uncontrolled pain; pain ratings did not change over the course of the study. Clinical research on specific clinical practice (eg, topical morphine for pain) and to assess the comparative efficacy of different care approaches on controlling the local symptoms of malignant wounds is warranted to improve the quality of care, which may affect patient quality of life. PMID:24905356
Fromantin, Isabelle; Watson, Sarah; Baffie, Aurélie; Rivat, Alexandra; Falcou, Marie-Christine; Kriegel, Irene; de Rycke Ingenior, Yann
Two of the main functions of the immune system are to control infections and to contribute to wound closure. Here we present the results of an RNAseq study of immune- and wound-response gene expression in the damselfly Coenagrion puella, a representative of the odonates, the oldest taxon of winged insects. De novo assembly of RNAseq data revealed a rich repertoire of canonical immune pathways, as known from model insects, including recognition, transduction and effector gene expression. A shared set of immune and wound repair genes were differentially expressed in both wounded and immune-challenged larvae. Moreover 3-fold more immune genes were induced only in the immune-challenged treatment. This is consistent with the notion that the immune-system reads a balance of signals related to wounding and infection and that the response is tailored accordingly. PMID:23395998
Johnston, Paul R; Rolff, Jens
What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.
Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)
Infection is one of the most important obstacles in the wound-healing process. Conventional methods used for the treatment of wound infections have their own limitations and hence, are difficult to control. If infection is not addressed well in time, it will further increase morbidity and cost of treatment. An attempt was made to develop a simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as the sole antimicrobial agent to control bacterial infections of traumatic wounds. A total of 259 cases of traumatic wounds infected with a variety of bacteria were investigated for culture and susceptibility, and susceptibility to citric acid. Citric acid ointment (3%) was applied to traumatic wounds to determine its efficacy in their treatment of traumatic wounds. In a culture and susceptibility study, a total of 369 aerobic bacteria and 7 fungi were isolated, with Staphylococcus aureus (30.31%) being the most common isolate and ciprofloxacin (61.43%) being the most effective agent. All the isolates were found to be inhibited by citric acid in in vitro studies (minimum inhibitory concentration--500-2500 µg/ml). Citric acid ointment was found effective in controlling infections. Out of 259 cases, 244 (around 95%) were healed completely in 5-25 applications of 3% citric acid. As citric acid has antibacterial activity and wound-healing property; hence it is the best alternative for the treatment of traumatic wounds. Besides these properties, citric acid has no adverse effects and it is a good dressing agent. PMID:22781002
Nagoba, Basavraj; Gandhi, Rajan; Wadher, Bharat; Rao, Arunkumar; Selkar, Sohan
Introduction: Vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy has widely been used in various clinical applications with successful results and has considerably increased in popularity over the past decade. The patient who sustained a complex war wound to his perineum has been presented. Methods: After the initial treatment he was discharged from the hospital in which he had been treated for 4 days in Iraq. On the examination, all wounds were deeply contaminated with foreign bodies and also involved significant volume of devitalized tissue. Perineal injury had not only caused a large skin defect but also left a deep wound leading to rectal perforation, so the wound and its borders were quite contaminated and infected by rectal contents. After improving his general condition with medical treatment, he underwent an immediate operation in which first a colostomy was performed and then the wound tract placed between perineum and rectum was sharply and extensively debrided to viable-appearing bleeding tissue to remove the whole necrotic tissues, foreign bodies, cloths, and debris. At the end of the intervention, a negative pressure dressing was applied and used during 12 days and then completed. Results: The wound tract obliterated entirely without permitting any leakage of rectal contents, and wound bed appeared clean, granulated, contracted, and viable enough for definitive closure with flap mobilization. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience presenting an unusual wound that was in a very difficult area of the body for the treatment, perineum, caused