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1

Wrongful life: some of the problems.  

PubMed

The author considers that some of the reasonings used by both the American and English courts against recognising a wrongful life claim are far from persuasive. However, there may indeed be strong public policy reasons against judicial recognition of such a claim. If judicial remedy is not possible for children in wrongful life situations, society ought to assist them in the alleviation of some of the practical problems caused by deformities. PMID:2956424

Liu, A N

1987-06-01

2

Tay-Sachs disease, wrongful life, and preventive malpractive.  

PubMed

2 recent decisions in New York concerning responsibility of physicians in genetic counseling have confused the law in New York and the legal obligations of obstetricians. In Howard v. Lecher a majority of the ''Appellate Division of the Supreme Court denied a cause of action against an obstetrician alleged to be negligent in not properly advising a couple about the dangers they were running, as potential carriers, in having a child afflicted with Tay-Sachs disease.'' The couple sued for 2 types of damages: 1) their medical, hospital, nursing bills, and funeral expenses; and 2) their own emotional distress. The defendant appealed only on the 2nd count. 2 months later the Supreme Court imposed a legal duty upon obstetricians to perform genetic counseling in a case in which a woman gave birth to a 2nd child born with polycystic kidneys. Justice Hyman determined that New York should recognize an action for ''wronged life.'' Hyman's legal logic is difficult to follow, although the result may be considered a victory to some. PMID:869092

Curran, W J

1977-06-01

3

The "Radioactive Dice" Experiment: Why Is the "Half-Life" Slightly Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "radioactive dice" experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and…

Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

2012-01-01

4

Why Is Cheating Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since cheating is obviously wrong, arguments against it (it provides an unfair advantage, it hinders learning) need only be mentioned in passing. But the argument of unfair advantage absurdly takes education to be essentially a race of all against all; moreover, it ignores that many cases of unfair (dis)advantages are widely accepted. On the other…

Bouville, Mathieu

2010-01-01

5

What's wrong with strategy?  

PubMed

Why is it that successful strategies are rarely developed as a result of formal planning processes? What is wrong with the way most companies go about developing strategy? Andrew Campbell and Marcus Alexander take a common sense look at why the planning frameworks managers use so often yield disappointing results. Companies often fail to distinguish between purpose (what an organization exists to do) and constraints (what an organization must do in order to survive), the authors say. Many executives mistakenly believe, for example, that satisfying stakeholders is an objective that drives thinking about strategy. In fact, it's a constraint, not an objective. Companies that don't win the loyalty of stakeholders will go out of business. Strategy is not about plans but about insights, the authors add. Strategy development is the process of discovering and understanding insights and should not be confused with planning, which is about turning insights into action. Furthermore, because executives develop most of their insights while actually doing the real work of running a business, it is important for companies not to separate strategy development from implementation. Is there a better way? The answer is not new planning processes or more effort. Instead, managers must understand two fundamental points: the benefit of having a well-articulated, stable purpose and the importance of discovering, understanding, documenting, and exploiting insights about how to create value. PMID:10174797

Campbell, A; Alexander, M

1997-01-01

6

Five Things Right, Five Wrong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a brief description of a young librarians' first six months in the profession. The article lists five things the librarian knows he has done wrong, and five things he knows he has done right.

Morley, Gabriel

2005-01-01

7

'You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you': gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life  

PubMed Central

This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses.

CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

2014-01-01

8

Producing wrong data without doing anything obviously wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a surprising result: changing a seemingly innocuous aspect of an experimental setup can cause a sys- tems researcher to draw wrong conclusions from an experi- ment. What appears to be an innocuous aspect in the exper- imental setup may in fact introduce a significant bias in an evaluation. This phenomenon is called measurement bias in the natural

Todd Mytkowicz; Amer Diwan; Matthias Hauswirth; Peter F. Sweeney

2009-01-01

9

Teacher Professionalism: The Wrong Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining teachers as professionals in the same way that doctors or engineers are professionals is reductionist because such definition generally distorts the moral dimensions of teaching by using the wrong language (clients, customers), focusing on limited forms of knowledge, and ignoring the fundamental democratic character of education.…

Coulter, David; Orme, Liz

2000-01-01

10

Possible Life Found at a Wrong Place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A re-examination of images of venusian surface returned from the VENERA landers 32 years ago has been undertaken using a modern processing technique. It allowed the detection of some new interesting entities that hypothetically may be related to fauna and flora of the planet.

Ksanfomality, L. V.

2014-06-01

11

Why is the ethics of euthanasia wrong?  

PubMed

Human beings are made in the image and likeness of God and are therefore of intrinsic worth or value, beyond all prices. Almost all Christian pro-life arguments spring from the fountain of personal dignity. Euthanasia would make moral sense only if it were possible to say, morally, that this dignity had vanished. To commit euthanasia is to act with the specific intention that somebody should be nobody. This is the fundamental error of all immorality in human relations. To commit euthanasia is to fail to see the intrinsic worth or dignity of the person. The judgement that what has worth, intrinsically, somehow does not have worth, is both logically and morally wrong. The ethics of euthanasia is based on dualistic anthropology and wrong moral presuppositions underlying the defence of euthanasia, namely, proportionalism and consequentialism. The basic claim of proponents of the ethics of euthanasia is that human persons are consciously experiencing subjects whose dignity consists of their ability to made choices and to determine their own lives. Bodily life, according to them, is a condition for personal life because without bodily life one cannot be a consciously experiencing subject. It means that bodily life is distinct from personal life. Thus, the body and bodily life are instrumental goods, goods for the person, not goods of the person. It thus follows that there can be such a thing as a life not worth living--one can judge that bodily life itself is useless or burdensome, and when it is, the person, i.e., the consciously experiencing subject, is at liberty to free himself of this useless burden. Today a key in fighting euthanasia and assisted suicide is better care for the sick and dying. The dignity of the sick cannot be erased by illness and suffering. Such procedures are not private decisions; they affect the whole society. Death with dignity, in the end, is the realisation that human beings are also spiritual beings. We have to promote the way of caring for the dying in which mercy is extended to the patients without inducing death. PMID:16294446

Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

2004-01-01

12

Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong)

Helena Dedic; Steven Rosenfield; Nathaniel Lasry

2010-01-01

13

Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts.

Birks, David

2014-01-01

14

How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

2011-01-01

15

Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

2011-01-01

16

The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.  

PubMed

For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

Chance, Paul

2007-01-01

17

Automatic detection and notification of "wrong patient-wrong location'' errors in the operating room.  

PubMed

When procedures and processes to assure patient location based on human performance do not work as expected, patients are brought incrementally closer to a possible "wrong patient-wrong procedure'' error. We developed a system for automated patient location monitoring and management. Real-time data from an active infrared/radio frequency identification tracking system provides patient location data that are robust and can be compared with an "expected process'' model to automatically flag wrong-location events as soon as they occur. The system also generates messages that are automatically sent to process managers via the hospital paging system, thus creating an active alerting function to annunciate errors. We deployed the system to detect and annunciate "patient-in-wrong-OR'' events. The system detected all "wrong-operating room (OR)'' events, and all "wrong-OR'' locations were correctly assigned within 0.50+/-0.28 minutes (mean+/-SD). This corresponded to the measured latency of the tracking system. All wrong-OR events were correctly annunciated via the paging function. This experiment demonstrates that current technology can automatically collect sufficient data to remotely monitor patient flow through a hospital, provide decision support based on predefined rules, and automatically notify stakeholders of errors. PMID:16224648

Sandberg, Warren S; Häkkinen, Matti; Egan, Marie; Curran, Paige K; Fairbrother, Pamela; Choquette, Ken; Daily, Bethany; Sarkka, Jukka-Pekka; Rattner, David

2005-09-01

18

Are the Textbook Writers Wrong about Capacitors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refutes a recent article which stated that the standard textbook treatment of two capacitors in series is wrong. States that the calculated capacitance is correct if measured immediately after a dc voltage is applied and that perhaps the effect is due to the choice of materials making up the capacitor. (MVL)

French, A. P.

1993-01-01

19

Classrooms as Safe Places To Be Wrong.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contends that classrooms should be safe places for students and their teachers to be wrong, suggesting that this concept should provide the mainspring for educational reform in Hong Kong and in other places in the world. It notes that education in Hong Kong is harsh and has a tendency to label students; for the majority of students,…

Sankey, Derek

20

We're Assigning the Wrong Freud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author, a lecturer in Temple University's intellectual-heritage program, explains why colleges are teaching undergraduates the wrong Freud. Though the book "Civilization and Its Discontents" (1930), which most professors use, is Freud's most consistent and most convincing attempt to apply psychoanalytic theory to society as a…

Shusterman, Noah

2007-01-01

21

What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?  

PubMed Central

The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

Horden, Peregrine

2011-01-01

22

Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package is a collection of models for electrostatics with errors intentionally built into each model. Users can move charges around and see the force, observe the electric field generated by charge configurations, and observe the motion of test particles in electric fields to try to identify the errors in the simulation. Users can inspect, modify and correct any simulation in the package by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The package also includes a brief overview of programming basics needed to correct the models. The Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_electric_wiw.jar file will launch the package if Java is installed. Navigate within the package and click on a green triangle to run a particular simulation. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available on ComPADRE.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2010-04-16

23

Wrong-site surgery: can we prevent it?  

PubMed

Wrong-site surgery happens frequently enough that it is a significant risk for many surgeons during their professional careers. But it is an event that should never happen. Most wrong-site surgery is wrong-side surgery, followed by wrong-digit and wrong-vertebral-level surgery. Wrong-site surgery results from misinformation or misperception of the patient's orientation. The key to preventing wrong-site surgery is to have multiple independent checks of critical information. Discrepancies among the operative record, consent, and the surgeon's record of the history and physical examination should ideally be resolved prior to the day of surgery to avoid time-consuming reconciliations. We noted that the preoperative verification was the most effective of the three steps of the Universal Protocol and that the patient was a more reliable source of accurate information than the documents. Marking the operative site gives patients a voice after they are sedated or anesthesia is induced. Wrong-site surgery has involved local or regional anesthesia at the wrong site when anesthesiologists did not adhere to formal time-outs for their procedures. Surgeons need to have access to all relevant information and to be engaged in the processes to prevent wrong-site surgery, particularly in the final time-out. Junior members of the operating room team must be made comfortable about speaking up if concerned. During spinal surgery, the vertebral level needs to be confirmed radiographically. Wrong-site surgical problems can occur after an operation if accurate information is not provided to accompany the specimen or if leftover labels from a previous patient are used to identify the specimen. PMID:18953807

Clarke, John R; Johnston, Janet; Blanco, Mary; Martindell, Denise P

2008-01-01

24

Writing wrongs: on narratives of moral distress.  

PubMed

The perception that one is being forced to do wrong, or being prevented from doing the right thing, is often described in the most brutal terms, as a situation that feels like participating in the torture of another human being. The emotional force of the experience of moral distress, and the perception that one is powerless to do anything to change the situation producing moral distress, can make it hard to look at these experiences critically, and to imagine a different reality. Writing about the experience of moral distress is a way to look critically at this experience. This commentary discusses how these narratives explore moral distress in relation to the formation of professional identity, as a "dirty" experience, as a potential consequence of unrelieved moral uncertainty, in the care of "difficult" patients, and as a response to systemic problems. PMID:24407085

Berlinger, Nancy

2013-01-01

25

Wrongful death claims. Harriton v Stephens. [2002] NSWSC 461. Edwards v Blomeley. [2002] NSWSC 460. Waller v James [2002] NSWSC 462.  

PubMed

Studdert J in all three cases went to great length to summarise the global judicial position of "wrongful life" claims. He did not, however, examine in great length how or whether "wrongful life" claims or "wrongful birth" claims are reconcilable with tort and common law principles. Although the cases identify the difficulty in assessing and quantifying damages, they do not directly address the strict legal principles which apply in the assessment of damages. The main conclusion of the three judgments was that no duty of care is owed to the plaintiff in these circumstances and, even if a duty could be established, the impossibility of quantifying damages and public policy considerations warrant the rejection of such a claim: "thus conscience does make cowards of us all." The significance of the decisions cannot be understand. The decisions deny recognition of "wrongful life" claims in circumstances where a disabled person has incurred injuries en ventre sa mere (in the mother's womb) as a result of infections contracted by a plaintiff's mother or genetic material passed on by a plaintiff's parents. Some countries have now legislated for the abolition of "wrongful life and birth" suits. In January 2002 the French legislature passed a Bill overturning the "wrongful life" decision of the Cour de Cassation in Perruche (17 November 2000). As the issue now falls for ultimate determination by the French Senate, the French pro-life movement continues to lobby for the prohibition of "wrongful birth" suits as well. Furthermore, eight States in the United States have prohibited either one or both actions and the State of Michigan prohibited both actions in 2001. It is likely that all three cases will be appealed. The appeal in Harriton will re-examine the viability of a "wrongful life" claim in Australia whereas the cases of Edwards and Waller still need to determine the "wrongful birth" claims brought by the plaintiffs' parents. It is likely that the latter two cases will not be determined until the High Court has considered the Queensland "wrongful birth" case of Melchior v Cattanach, expected to be late in 2002. PMID:12497731

Devereux, John

2002-11-01

26

Wrong intraocular lens implant; learning from reported patient safety incidents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To consider wrong intraocular lens (IOL) implant events in cataract surgical care reported through a national incident reporting database. To propose potential solutions for such events where possible. Methods Thematic retrospective review of wrong IOL implantation incidents, as reported through clinical incident reporting methods in NHS care in England and Wales from 2003 to 2010, ascertained from database mining at the National Patient Safety Agency. Results In total, 164 patient safety incident (PSI) reports of wrong IOL implantation were located from the study period and considered. There were 47 reports where further surgical intervention was required. All, but one of these required IOL exchange surgery. A total of 62 reports did not provide any causal reason for the wrong IOL implantation and thus provide little if any potential learning. Inaccurate biometry (n=29), wrong IOL selection (n=21), transcription errors (n=10) and handwriting misinterpretations (n=7) were causal reasons reported and are thus potential areas for ophthalmic teams to review and improve practice. Conclusion Although infrequent, biometry/IOL implant errors or wrong implants do occasionally occur during cataract care and are thus a threat to quality. There is room for improvement in incident reporting in NHS cataract care as root causation of error was usually lacking in the PSI reports. Nevertheless, lessons for improvement of care from a national incident reporting database for a frequently undertaken surgical procedure were found. Suggestions are proposed for improving quality by reducing wrong IOL problems in cataract care based on analysis of such reports.

Kelly, S P; Jalil, A

2011-01-01

27

Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses the general characteristics of life as we know it. Uses a number of examples to show how life has adapted to earth conditions and certain life forms can withstand environmental shocks. Describes the conditions on Mars with the question raised as...

1994-01-01

28

Could Energy Drinks Be Wrong Choice for Some Teens?  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Could Energy Drinks Be Wrong Choice for Some Teens? Unhealthy ... 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Teens who regularly drink energy and sports drinks tend to engage in some ...

29

Inclusive b Decays to Wrong Sign Charmed mesons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of wrong sign charmed mesons b -> Dbar_(s)X, D_(s) = (D0, D+, Ds), is studied using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1994 and 1995. Charmed mesons in Z -> bbbar events are exclusively reconstructed by searching for the decays D0 -> K-pi+, D+ -> K-pi+pi+ and D+_s -> phipi+ -> K+K-pi+. The wrong

J Abdallah; P Abreu; W Adam; P Adzic; T Albrecht; T Alderweireld; R Alemany-Fernandez; T Allmendinger; P P Allport; Ugo Amaldi; N Amapane; S Amato; E Anashkin; A Andreazza; S Andringa; N Anjos; P Antilogus; W D Apel; Y Arnoud; S Ask; B Åsman; J E Augustin; A Augustinus; Paul Baillon; A Ballestrero; P Bambade; R Barbier; Dimitri Yuri Bardin; G Barker; A Baroncelli; Marco Battaglia; M Baubillier; K H Becks; M Begalli; A Behrmann; E Ben-Haim; N C Benekos; Alberto C Benvenuti; C Bérat; M Berggren; L Berntzon; D Bertrand; M Besançon; N Besson; D Bloch; M Blom; M Bluj; M Bonesini; M Boonekamp; P S L Booth; G Borisov; O Botner; B Bouquet; T J V Bowcock; I Boyko; M Bracko; R Brenner; E Brodet; P Brückman; J M Brunet; L Bugge; P Buschmann; M Calvi; T Camporesi; V Canale; F Carena; N Castro; F R Cavallo; M M Chapkin; P Charpentier; P Checchia; R Chierici; P Shlyapnikov; J Chudoba; S U Chung; K Cieslik; P Collins; R Contri; G Cosme; F Cossutti; M J Costa; B Crawley; D J Crennell; J Cuevas-Maestro; J D'Hondt; J Dalmau; T Da Silva; W Da Silva; G Della Ricca; A De Angelis; Wim de Boer; C De Clercq; B De Lotto; N De Maria; A De Min; L S De Paula; Lucia Di Ciaccio; A Di Simone; K Doroba; J Drees; M Dris; G Eigen; T J C Ekelöf; M Ellert; M Elsing; M C Espirito-Santo; G K Fanourakis; D Fassouliotis; M Feindt; J Fernández; A Ferrer; F Ferro; U Flagmeyer; H Föth; E Fokitis; F Fulda-Quenzer; J A Fuster; M Gandelman; C García; P Gavillet; E N Gazis; T Geralis; R Gokieli; B Golob; G Gómez-Ceballos; P Gonçalves; E Graziani; G Grosdidier; K Grzelak; J Guy; C Haag; A Hallgren; K Hamacher; J Hansen; S Haug; F Hauler; V Hedberg; M Hennecke; H Herr; J Hoffman; S O Holmgren; P J Holt; M A Houlden; K Hultqvist; J N Jackson; G Jarlskog; P Jarry; D Jeans; E K Johansson; P D Johansson; P Jonsson; C Joram; L Jungermann; F Kapusta; S Katsanevas; E C Katsoufis; Borut P Kersevan; A P Kiiskinen; B T King; N J Kjaer; P Kluit; P Kokkinias; C Kourkoumelis; O Kuznetsov; Z Krumshtein; M Kucharczyk; J Lamsa; G Leder; F Ledroit; L Leinonen; R Leitner; J Lemonne; V Lepeltier; T Lesiak; W Liebig; D Liko; A Lipniacka; J H Lopes; J M López; D Loukas; P Lutz; L Lyons; J MacNaughton; A Malek; S Maltezos; F Mandl; J Marco; R Marco; B Maréchal; M Margoni; J C Marin; C Mariotti; A Markou; C Martínez-Rivero; J Masik; N Mastroyiannopoulos; F Matorras; C Matteuzzi; F Mazzucato; M Mazzucato; R McNulty; C Meroni; W T Meyer; E Migliore; W A Mitaroff; U Mjörnmark; T Moa; M Moch; K Mönig; R Monge; J Montenegro; D Moraes; S Moreno; P Morettini; U Müller; K Münich; M Mulders; L M Mundim; W Murray; B Muryn; Gerald Myatt; T Myklebust; M Nassiakou; Francesco Luigi Navarria; K Nawrocki; R Nicolaidou; M Nikolenko; A Oblakowska-Mucha; V F Obraztsov; A G Olshevskii; A Onofre; Risto Orava; K Österberg; A Ouraou; A Oyanguren; M Paganoni; S Paiano; J P Palacios; H Palka; T D Papadopoulou; L Pape; C Parkes; F Parodi; U Parzefall; A Passeri; O Passon; L Peralta; V F Perepelitsa; A Perrotta; A Petrolini; J Piedra; L Pieri; F Pierre; M Pimenta; E Piotto; T Podobnik; V Poireau; M E Pol; G Polok; P Poropat; V Pozdnyakov; N Pukhaeva; Antonio Pullia; J Rames; L Ramler; A Read; P Rebecchi; J Rehn; D Reid; R Reinhardt; P B Renton; F Richard; J Rídky; M Rivero; D Rodríguez; A Romero; P Ronchese; E I Rosenberg; Patrick Roudeau; T Rovelli; V Ruhlmann-Kleider; D Ryabtchikov; A Sadovskii; L Salmi; J Salt; A Savoy-Navarro; U Schwickerath; C Schwanda; A Segar; R L Sekulin; M Siebel; A N Sissakian; G Smadja; O G Smirnova; A Sokolov; A Sopczak; R Sosnowski; Tz Spassoff; M Stanitzki; A Stocchi; J Strauss; B Stugu; M Szczekowski; M Szeptycka; T Szumlak; T Tabarelli de Fatis; A C Taffard; F Tegenfeldt; J Timmermans; L G Tkatchev; M Tobin; S Todorovova; A G Tomaradze; B Tomé; A Tonazzo; P Tortosa; P Travnicek; D Treille; G Tristram; M Trochimczuk; C Troncon; M L Turluer; I A Tyapkin; P Tyapkin; S Tzamarias; V Uvarov; G Valenti; P van Dam; J Van Eldik; A Van Lysebetten; N Van Remortel; I B Van Vulpen; G Vegni; F Veloso; W A Venus; F Verbeure; P Verdier; V Verzi; D Vilanova; L Vitale; V Vrba; H Wahlen; A J Washbrook; C Weiser; D Wicke; J H Wickens; G Wilkinson; M Winter; M Witek; O P Yushchenko; A Zalewska-Bak; Piotr Zalewski; D Zavrtanik; N I Zimin; A I Zinchenko; M Zupan

2002-01-01

30

Wrong site frenulectomy in a child: a serious safety event.  

PubMed

Wrong site surgery is a serious safety event that can result in temporary or even permanent harm. Various safety checklists and procedures have been added to our standard work in the operating room, but errors still get through our safety nets and patients are harmed. In this case report, we describe a wrong site frenulectomy in a child and discuss the root cause analysis of this error and also SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timed) preventative actions that could be put into place to prevent a recurrence. PMID:24945126

Rampersad, Sally; Rossi, Michael G; Yarnell, Christie; Uejima, Tetsu

2014-07-01

31

Clinical profile of congenital coronary artery anomalies with origin from the wrong aortic sinus leading to sudden death in young competitive athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study is to characterize the clinical profile and identify clinical markers that would enable the detection during life of anomalous coronary artery origin from the wrong aortic sinus (with course between the aorta and pulmonary trunk) in young competitive athletes.BACKGROUNDCongenital coronary artery anomalies are not uncommonly associated with sudden death in young athletes, the catastrophic event

Cristina Basso; Barry J Maron; Domenico Corrado; Gaetano Thiene

2000-01-01

32

Teaching Right from Wrong: The Moral Education of Today's Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For moral education to be effective, it must take into account the cultural, philosophical, and religious factors that influence moral development. The way growing children think and feel about right and wrong depends to a great extent on society's dominant culture, as expressed through mass communication media. These media promote values,…

DiGiacomo, James J.

33

When Rewards Go Wrong: A Tale of Five Motivational Misdirects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are…

Steel, Piers; MacDonnell, Rhiannon

2012-01-01

34

On the wrong area of CAI in industrial design teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some problems occur during the course of applying CAI technology in industrial design. This paper analysis the existing problems and explores the way to solve them. It is unavoidable to teach the industrial design class under the support of CAI technology. It should avoid applying the multimedia technology in wrong area and making use of the specialty of CAI to

Ying Zhu; Chunming Han; Ping Zhang; Xiaochen Yin; Jia Jing

2010-01-01

35

40 CFR 2.211 - Safeguarding of business information; penalty for wrongful disclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safeguarding of business information; penalty for wrongful disclosure... PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.211 Safeguarding of business information; penalty for wrongful...

2013-07-01

36

The Impact of an Exonoree’s Guest Lecture on Students’ Attitudes toward Wrongly Convicted Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has addressed factors underlying wrongful conviction, relatively little research investigates how people who have been wrongly convicted are perceived by others. In particular, we examined the impact of an exonoree speaking about his experiences on attitudes and perceptions of wrongful conviction. To contribute to this understudied area, we surveyed two groups of students before and after hearing a

Rosemary Ricciardelli; Kimberley A. Clow

2011-01-01

37

The Impact of an Exonoree’s Guest Lecture on Students’ Attitudes toward Wrongly Convicted Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has addressed factors underlying wrongful conviction, relatively little research investigates how people who have been wrongly convicted are perceived by others. In particular, we examined the impact of an exonoree speaking about his experiences on attitudes and perceptions of wrongful conviction. To contribute to this understudied area, we surveyed two groups of students before and after hearing a

Rosemary Ricciardelli; Kimberley A. Clow

2012-01-01

38

Medical negligence and wrongful birth actions: Australian developments.  

PubMed

Wrongful birth actions aim to compensate litigants who are negligently deprived by health professionals of their right to reproductive choice. Access to safe and legal abortion is integral to the action and wrongful birth claims in the United Kingdom have been facilitated by the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended). The recent Australian case CES v Superclinics (1995) 38 NSWLR 47 shows how judicial confusion about the legality of abortion can result in judges condoning medical negligence. The Superclinics case also suggests that doctors are not required to provide pregnant women with the same standard of care as other patients. These developments show that law can become incoherent and health professionals can act negligently with impunity when reproductive choice does not have a secure legal foundation. PMID:9358354

Petersen, K

1997-10-01

39

Why Was Kelvin's Estimate of the Earth's Age Wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a companion to our previous paper1 in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry's work,2,3 of a graph of ln y versus t when y is an exponential function of t. This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin's (William Thomson's) estimate of the Earth's age was wrong not because he did not account for radioactivity, as is commonly believed,4 but because he used the wrong model for Earth's heat loss. We feel this idea is worth spreading. To this end (following England et al.2,3), we examine two questions, the first about the radioactivity part and the second about Perry's alternate model for Earth's heat loss.

Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

2014-05-01

40

Psychopaths know right from wrong but don't care  

PubMed Central

Adult psychopaths have deficits in emotional processing and inhibitory control, engage in morally inappropriate behavior, and generally fail to distinguish moral from conventional violations. These observations, together with a dominant tradition in the discipline which sees emotional processes as causally necessary for moral judgment, have led to the conclusion that psychopaths lack an understanding of moral rights and wrongs. We test an alternative explanation: psychopaths have normal understanding of right and wrong, but abnormal regulation of morally appropriate behavior. We presented psychopaths with moral dilemmas, contrasting their judgments with age- and sex-matched (i) healthy subjects and (ii) non-psychopathic, delinquents. Subjects in each group judged cases of personal harms (i.e. requiring physical contact) as less permissible than impersonal harms, even though both types of harms led to utilitarian gains. Importantly, however, psychopaths’ pattern of judgments on different dilemmas was the same as those of the other subjects. These results force a rejection of the strong hypothesis that emotional processes are causally necessary for judgments of moral dilemmas, suggesting instead that psychopaths understand the distinction between right and wrong, but do not care about such knowledge, or the consequences that ensue from their morally inappropriate behavior.

Tonnaer, Franca; Hauser, Marc D.

2010-01-01

41

Deficits in dyslexia: barking up the wrong tree?  

PubMed

Reviews of the dyslexia literature often seem to suggest that children with dyslexia perform at a lower level on almost any task. Richards et al. (Dyslexia 2002; 8: 1-8) note the importance of being able to demonstrate dissociations between tasks. However, increasingly elegant experiments, in which dissociations are found, almost inevitably find that the performance of children with dyslexia is lower as tasks become more difficult! By looking for deficits in dyslexia, could we be barking up the wrong tree? A methodological approach for circumventing this potential problem is discussed. PMID:15573961

Moores, Elisabeth

2004-11-01

42

Measurement of the wrong-sign decay D0?K+?-?+?-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement of the rate for the “wrong-sign” decay D0?K+?-?+?- relative to that for the “right-sign” decay D0?K-?+?+?- is presented. Using 791fb-1 of data collected with the Belle detector, we obtain a branching fraction ratio of Rws=[0.324±0.008(stat)±0.007(sys)]%. Multiplying this ratio by the world average value for the branching fraction B(D0?K-?+?+?-) gives a branching fraction B(D0?K+?-?+?-)=(2.61±0.06-0.08+0.09)×10-4.

White, E.; Schwartz, A. J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, T. E.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Esen, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Feindt, M.; Ferber, T.; Frey, A.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Jaegle, I.; Julius, T.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kato, E.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Klucar, J.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Matvienko, D.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ng, C.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Oswald, C.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petri?, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, H.; Saito, T.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stani?, S.; Stari?, M.; Steder, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Vahsen, S. E.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Vorobyev, V.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamashita, Y.; Yashchenko, S.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

2013-09-01

43

The harmful, nontherapeutic use of animals in research is morally wrong.  

PubMed

It is argued that using animals in research is morally wrong when the research is nontherapeutic and harmful to the animals. This article discusses methods of moral reasoning and discusses how arguments on this and other bioethical issues might be defended and critiqued. A basic method of moral argument analysis is presented and used to show that common objections to the view that "animal research is morally wrong" fail: ie, common arguments for the view that "animal research is morally permissible" are demonstrably unsound or in need of defense. It is argued that the best explanations why harmful, nontherapeutic research on human beings is wrong, ie, what it is about humans that makes such experimentation wrong, apply to many animals as well. Thus, harmful and nontherapeutic animal experimentation is wrong for reasons similar to the reasons that harmful and nontherapeutic human experimentation is wrong. PMID:21952174

Nobis, Nathan

2011-10-01

44

Wearing the wrong size latex surgical gloves impairs manual dexterity.  

PubMed

Universal precautions mandate that health care workers wear gloves when dealing with patients, often in situations requiring a high level of technical skill. Although it seems obvious that wearing the wrong size gloves could impair or prolong tasks involving manual dexterity, the issue has not been formally studied. We tested the hypothesis that wearing the wrong size gloves impairs manual dexterity. We administered a grooved pegboard test to 20 healthy, paid, volunteer health care workers. The subjects performed the test with bare hands and while wearing their preferred size of latex surgical gloves, gloves that were a full size smaller, and gloves that were a full size larger. Each subject did three runs with each size glove and three runs with bare hands. The time necessary to insert pegs was measured with a stopwatch. Peg insertion time was not affected by wearing preferred size gloves (vs. bare-handed) but was increased 7-10% by gloves that were either too small or too large (both effects: P < 0.05 vs. preferred size; both P < 0.001 vs. bare-handed). The subjects reported that the too-small gloves limited hand motion or hurt their hands, whereas the too-large gloves were clumsy but comfortable. Health care workers should wear gloves that fit properly when doing tasks that require manual dexterity. If the preferred size is unavailable, wearing gloves that are too large seems the best alternative. PMID:20017056

Drabek, Tomas; Boucek, Charles D; Buffington, Charles W

2010-03-01

45

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity Is Absolutely Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest frauds perpetuated on mankind is the Special Theory Relativity. Relativity is like the Leaning Tower of Pisa, which has perfect structure, but the foundation is sitting on a swamp. The basis of relativity is the velocity of light but "c" does not give a true description of light. The missing factor is frequency. There are several characteristics of a photon and two of these are: that it travels at the speed of light in any moving frame and it has a frequency. This paper describes a proof of Einstein's error by applying a frequency to the velocity of light and then deriving a red shift equation, which is exactly the same for low velocities as the standard equation and close to Einstein's erroneous equation for high velocities. There is a 5to.9 the velocity of light. But like I said I believe relativity is wrong and it takes a simple experiment to prove who is correct. The modified equation of light is then applied to the basis of special relativity, showing where relativity is absolutely wrong.

Theofilos, George

2000-11-01

46

Something went wrong on the way to the courthouse.  

PubMed

Almost without exception, law professors dismissed the possibility that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) might be unconstitutional - but something went wrong on the way to the courthouse. What explains the epic failure of law professors to accurately predict how Article 3 judges would approach the case? This essay identifies three distinct but complementary factors that might help explain the observed failure. First, instead of conducting a neutral assessment of the actual probabilities, law professors engaged in motivated reasoning, based on their preexisting political and policy preferences. Second, the psychology of constitutional law professors led them to massively overstate the probability of success and suppress any misgivings or cautious hedging. Third, once it became clear that the PPACA was in serious jeopardy, our nation's law professors decided to pursue politics by other means, and organized the academic equivalent of a vigilance committee. PMID:23262776

Hyman, David A

2013-04-01

47

To Interpret the Earth: Ten Ways to Be Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientist Likes Contemplation: Do Senior Scientists Contemplate Everything Methodically? Thus runs one mnemonic suggested by Stanley Schumm to epitomize the central thesis of the slim but provocative book, To Interpret the Earth: Ten Ways to Be Wrong. No, the author warns us, neither is this a discourse on some presumed “scientific method” nor is it a treatise on either the philosophy of science in general or its application to the Earth sciences. Extensive references are given to those literatures. “For example, Schumm gives an insightful account of the method of multiple working hypotheses (or, as one wag termed it, “the method of multiple prejudices”) which has numbered among its proponents several influential Earth scientists.”

Le Grand, Homer

48

7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture...ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

2009-01-01

49

7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture...ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

2010-01-01

50

Oh No! I Got the Wrong Sign! What Should I Do?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Getting a "wrong" sign in empirical work is a common phenomenon. Remarkably, econometrics textbooks provide very little information to practitioners on how this problem can arise. The author exposits a long list of ways in which a wrong sign can occur and how it might be corrected.

Kennedy, Peter E.

2005-01-01

51

Investigation of Contributing Factors Regarding Wrong-Way Driving on Freeways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Illinois, there were 217 wrong-way crashes on freeways from 2004 to 2009, resulting in 44 killed and 248 injured. This research project sought to determine the contributing factors to wrong-way crashes on freeways and to develop promising, cost-conscio...

B. Ayyalasomayajula B. Vaughn H. Zhou J. Zhao K. Bahaaldin L. Wang M. R. Gahrooei R. Fries

2012-01-01

52

Voluntary euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the right to do wrong.  

PubMed

It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite the moral wrongness of the procedures in light of the main argument for a moral right to do wrong found in recent philosophical literature. I maintain that the argument does not provide adequate support for such a right to VE and PAS. PMID:23338120

Varelius, Jukka

2013-09-01

53

Search for wrong sign D/sup 0/ decays with the HRS detector  

SciTech Connect

Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300pb/sup -1/ obtained at PEP with the HRS detector we have searched for the wrong sign decay of D/sup 0/ mesons in the decays D* ..-->.. D/sup 0/..pi... We obtain a 90% confidence level limit of 4.0% on the ratio of the wrong sign to the right sign decay rate in the K..pi.. mode. This is the best model independent limit on mixing currently available and constrains the nature of the wrong sign signal recently reported by the MARK III group. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Barringer, P.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J.M.; Bylsma, B.G.; Chapman, J.; Cork, B.; DeBonte, R.

1986-01-01

54

Supersymmetry with prejudice: Fitting the wrong model to LHC data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We critically examine interpretations of hypothetical supersymmetric LHC signals, fitting to alternative wrong models of supersymmetry breaking. The signals we consider are some of the most constraining on the sparticle spectrum: invariant mass distributions with edges and endpoints from the golden decay chain q˜?q?20(?l˜±l?q)??10l+l-q. We assume a constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) point to be the ‘correct’ one, but fit the signals instead with minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models (mGMSB) with a neutralino quasistable lightest supersymmetric particle, minimal anomaly mediation and large volume string compactification models. Minimal anomaly mediation and large volume scenario can be unambiguously discriminated against the CMSSM for the assumed signal and 1fb-1 of LHC data at s=14TeV. However, mGMSB would not be discriminated on the basis of the kinematic endpoints alone. The best-fit point spectra of mGMSB and CMSSM look remarkably similar, making experimental discrimination at the LHC based on the edges or Higgs properties difficult. However, using rate information for the golden chain should provide the additional separation required.

Allanach, B. C.; Dolan, Matthew J.

2012-09-01

55

46 CFR 67.151 - Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.151 Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document....

2013-10-01

56

Cancer Care in the United States: What's Right, What's Wrong? - September 16, 1999  

Cancer.gov

CANCER CARE IN THE UNITED STATES: WHAT'S RIGHT, WHAT'S WRONG? ENSURING THE QUALITY OF CANCER CARE Robert Hiatt, M.D., Ph.D., Deputy Director of the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences National Cancer Institute National Institutes

57

Patient Safety in Spine Surgery: Regarding the Wrong-Site Surgery  

PubMed Central

Patient safety regarding wrong site surgery has been one of the priority issues in surgical fields including that of spine care. Since the wrong-side surgery in the DM foot patient was reported on a public mass media in 1996, the wrong-site surgery issue has attracted wide public interest as regarding patient safety. Despite the many wrong-site surgery prevention campaigns in spine care such as the operate through your initial program by the Canadian Orthopaedic Association, the sign your site program by the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeon, the sign, mark and X-ray program by the North American Spine Society, and the Universal Protocol program by the Joint Commission, the incidence of wrong-site surgery has not decreased. To prevent wrong-site surgery in spine surgeries, the spine surgeons must put patient safety first, complying with the hospital policies regarding patient safety. In the operating rooms, the surgeons need to do their best to level the hierarchy, enabling all to speak up if any patient safety concerns are noted. Changing the operating room culture is the essential part of the patient safety concerning spine surgery.

Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Sup; Jeong, Yoo-Chul; Kwak, Dae-Kyung; Chun, Ja-Hae

2013-01-01

58

What does life need?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here's an interactive exercise about the needs of all living things. The introduction explains that scientists can use the knowledge of life requirements to guide their search for life on Mars. Players identify which of these six items are necessary for life: sunlight, oxygen, water, meat, energy, and raw materials. If any wrong answers are given, players are shown the number of correct answers and are given access to Learn More buttons. All the Learn More sections are similar. In them, players adjust the amount of the given item (e.g., sunlight) to determine, based on creatures' responses, if the item is needed for life. A plant, a human, and two microbes are shown. When correct answers are submitted, a congratulatory screen appears offering additional links to explore. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.; Terc

2003-01-01

59

Moving to a Healthier Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game presents you with several different choices you can make in the course of your everyday life to increase your level of physical activity and be healthier. In each situation, all the choices presented are healthy choices - there are no wrong answers. Situations presented include school, home, weekend, work, screen time, and vacation. At the end of the game, you are shown a rating of how good your choices are on a 5-star scale.

Omsi

2007-01-01

60

The myth of harmless wrongs in moral cognition: Automatic dyadic completion from sin to suffering.  

PubMed

When something is wrong, someone is harmed. This hypothesis derives from the theory of dyadic morality, which suggests a moral cognitive template of wrongdoing agent and suffering patient (i.e., victim). This dyadic template means that victimless wrongs (e.g., masturbation) are psychologically incomplete, compelling the mind to perceive victims even when they are objectively absent. Five studies reveal that dyadic completion occurs automatically and implicitly: Ostensibly harmless wrongs are perceived to have victims (Study 1), activate concepts of harm (Studies 2 and 3), and increase perceptions of suffering (Studies 4 and 5). These results suggest that perceiving harm in immorality is intuitive and does not require effortful rationalization. This interpretation argues against both standard interpretations of moral dumbfounding and domain-specific theories of morality that assume the psychological existence of harmless wrongs. Dyadic completion also suggests that moral dilemmas in which wrongness (deontology) and harm (utilitarianism) conflict are unrepresentative of typical moral cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24635184

Gray, Kurt; Schein, Chelsea; Ward, Adrian F

2014-08-01

61

A Few of My Favorite Things: Nothing Wrong with "Stuff"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column is focused on a simple theme: the idiosyncratic furnishings, equipment, and stuff that the author would have in any center where young children are going to spend a good chunk of their childhood. Here, the author presents the "good stuff" he doesn't want to do without which can also promote success in school and life. Furthermore he…

Greenman, Jim

2007-01-01

62

The Resurrection of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of life was progressively put aside in the second half of the 20th century with the rise of molecular biology, but has recently re-emerged. Many scientists and philosophers consider that there is no place for this question within biology; that the distinction between living and non-living is arbitrary; and that progress in synthetic biology will finally put this question out of people’s minds. I will argue that there is something wrong with the arguments supporting these statements. There are no reasons to exclude the question “What is life?” from biology. But the nature of the question has dramatically changed recently. Instead of being a search for the principles of life, the answer is now sought in the description of the historical process that has coupled the now well-established characteristics of organisms.

Morange, Michel

2010-04-01

63

Can psychopathic offenders discern moral wrongs? A new look at the moral/conventional distinction.  

PubMed

A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannot properly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to nonincarcerated healthy controls. Using a modified version of the classic Moral/Conventional Transgressions task that uses a forced-choice format to minimize strategic responding, the present study found that total psychopathy score did not predict performance on the task. Task performance was explained by some individual subfacets of psychopathy and by other variables unrelated to psychopathy, such as IQ. The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong. PMID:21842959

Aharoni, Eyal; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kiehl, Kent A

2012-05-01

64

Can Psychopathic Offenders Discern Moral Wrongs? A New Look at the Moral/Conventional Distinction  

PubMed Central

A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannot properly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to non-incarcerated healthy controls. Using a modified version of the classic Moral/Conventional Transgressions task (Nucci & Turiel, 1978) that employs a forced-choice format to minimize strategic responding, the present study found that total psychopathy score did not predict performance on the task. Task performance was explained by some individual sub-facets of psychopathy and by other variables unrelated to psychopathy, such as IQ. The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong.

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kiehl, Kent A.

2012-01-01

65

Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The discovery that the jet was coming from a spiral galaxy dubbed 0313-192 required using a combination of radio, optical and infrared observations to examine the galaxy and its surroundings. The story began more than 20 years ago, when Owen began a survey of 500 galaxy clusters using the National Science Foundation's then-new VLA to make radio images of the clusters. In the 1990s, Ledlow joined the project, making optical-telescope images of the same clusters as part of his research for a Ph.D dissertation at the University of New Mexico. An optical image from Kitt Peak National Observatory gave a hint that this galaxy, clearly seen with a jet in the VLA images, might be a spiral. Nearly a billion light-years from Earth, 0313-192 proved an elusive target, however. Subsequent observations with the VLA and the 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory supported the idea that the galaxy might be a spiral but still were inconclusive. In the Spring of 2002, astronauts installed the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This new facility produced a richly-detailed image of 0313-192, showing that it is a dust-rich spiral seen almost exactly edge-on. "The finely-detailed Hubble image resolved any doubt and proved that this galaxy is a spiral," Ledlow said. Infrared images with the Gemini-South telescope complemented the Hubble images and further confirmed the galaxy's spiral nature. Now, the astronomers seek to understand why this one spiral galaxy, unlike all others seen so far, is producing the bright jets seen with the VLA and other radio telescopes. Several factors may have combined, the researchers feel. "This galaxy's disk is twisted, and that may indicate that it has been disturbed by a close passage of another galaxy or may have swallowed up a companion dwarf galaxy," Keel said. He added, "This galaxy shows signs of having a very massive black hole at its core, and the jets are taking the shortest path out of the galaxy's own gas." Owen points

2003-01-01

66

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

67

What's Wrong with Our Schools and How We Can Fix Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"What's Wrong with Our Schools and How We Can Fix Them" examines the status of public education in North America and exposes many of the absurd instructional practices found in all-too-many schools. Written by three experienced educators, this book provides readers with a direct window into public education. The language is straightforward, the…

Zwaagstra, Michael C.; Clifton, Rodney A.; Long, John C.

2010-01-01

68

Set the Wrong Tuition and You'll Pay a Price  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For all of the attention rising college costs continue to receive, it is striking how poorly informed many decision makers are when it comes to setting tuition and fees. And it's equally astounding that so many institutions are learning the consequences of pricing decisions undertaken solely by trial and error when a wrong judgment can affect…

Strauss, David W.

2006-01-01

69

Moving Past "Right" or "Wrong" toward a Continuum of Young Children's Semantic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development is a critical goal for early childhood education. However, it is difficult for researchers and teachers to determine whether this goal is being met, given the limitations of current assessment tools. These tools tend to view word knowledge dichotomously--as right or wrong. A clear sense of children's depth of semantic…

Christ, Tanya

2011-01-01

70

Morality and technology, or is it wrong to create and let loose a computer virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stories about computer related actions (e.g., placing a document about how a computer virus works on an electronic network\\/bulletin board) were presented to users. Data indicate that women end users compared to men have a less libertarian sense of what is right and wrong and also, younger respondents are more libertarian than their older compatriots. Data also indicate that participants

Urs E. Gattiker; Helen Kelley

1995-01-01

71

What's Wrong with On-Line Discussions and How To Fix It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes what the author has seen go wrong in six years of participation in online discussions and recommends some remedies. The emphasis is on helping discussion leaders to structure and guide online discussions for maximum effectiveness. The paper has a focus on learning environments, which are central to both formal academic…

Klemm, W. R.

72

Indication-based prescribing prevents wrong-patient medication errors in computerized provider order entry (CPOE)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether indication-based computer order entry alerts intercept wrong-patient medication errors. Materials and methods At an academic medical center serving inpatients and outpatients, we developed and implemented a clinical decision support system to prompt clinicians for indications when certain medications were ordered without an appropriately coded indication on the problem list. Among all the alerts that fired, we identified every instance when a medication order was started but not completed and, within a fixed time interval, the same prescriber placed an order for the same medication for a different patient. We closely reviewed each of these instances to determine whether they were likely to have been intercepted errors. Results Over a 6-year period 127?320 alerts fired, which resulted in 32 intercepted wrong-patient errors, an interception rate of 0.25 per 1000 alerts. Neither the location of the prescriber nor the type of prescriber affected the interception rate. No intercepted errors were for patients with the same last name, but in 59% of the intercepted errors the prescriber had both patients’ charts open when the first order was initiated. Discussion Indication alerts linked to the problem list have previously been shown to improve problem list completion. This analysis demonstrates another benefit, the interception of wrong-patient medication errors. Conclusions Indication-based alerts yielded a wrong-patient medication error interception rate of 0.25 per 1000 alerts. These alerts could be implemented independently or in combination with other strategies to decrease wrong-patient medication errors.

Galanter, William; Falck, Suzanne; Burns, Matthew; Laragh, Marci; Lambert, Bruce L

2013-01-01

73

Correction of target-controlled infusion following wrong selection of emulsion concentrations of propofol  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the correction methods following wrong-settings of emulsion concentrations of propofol as a countermeasure against erroneous target-controlled infusions (TCI). Methods TCIs were started with targeting 4.0 µg/ml of effect-site concentration (Ceff) of propofol, and the emulsion concentrations were selected for 2.0% instead of 1.0% (FALSE1-2, n = 24), or 1.0% instead of 2.0% (FALSE2-1, n = 24). These wrong TCIs were corrected at 3 min after infusion start. During FALSE1-2, the deficit was filled up while injecting after equilibrium (n = 12), or while overriding (n = 12). During FALSE2-1, the overdose was evacuated while targeting Ceff (n = 12) or targeting plasma concentration (Cp) (n = 12). The gravimetrical measurements of TCI reproduced the Cp and Ceff using simulations. The reproduced Ceff at 3 min (Ceff-3min) and the time to be normalized within ± 5% of target Ceff (T±5%), were compared between the correction methods. Results During the wrong TCI, Ceff-3min was 1.98 ± 0.01 µg/ml in FALSE1-2, and 7.99 ± 0.05 µg/ml in FALSE2-1. In FALSE1-2, T±5% was significantly shorter when corrected while overriding (3.9 ± 0.25 min), than corrected after equilibrium (6.9 ± 0.05 min) (P < 0.001). In FALSE2-1, T±5% was significantly shorter during targeting Cp (3.6 ± 0.04 min) than targeting Ceff (6.7 ± 0.15 min) (P < 0.001). Conclusions The correction methods, based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, could effectively and rapidly normalize the wrong TCI following erroneously selections of the emulsion concentration of propofol.

Chae, Yun-Jeong; Joe, Han Bum; Lee, Won-Il; Kim, Jin-A

2014-01-01

74

A measurement of the rate of wrong-sign decays D0 -> K+ pi-  

Microsoft Academic Search

A D0 meson can decay to K+ pi- through doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay or via D0-D0bar mixing. With 46.2 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity collected by Belle, we have measured the time integrated rate of the wrong-sign process D0 -> K+ pi- relative to that of the Cabibbo-favored process D0 -> K- pi+ to be R_WS = (0.372 +- 0.025 +0.009\\/-0.014) %

K. Abe; N. Abe; T. Abe; I. Adachi; H. Aihara; M. Akatsu; M. Asai; Y. Asano; T. Aso; V. Aulchenko; T. Aushev; A. M. Bakich; Y. Ban; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; A. Bay; I. Bedny; P. K. Behera; D. Beiline; I. Bizjak; A. Bondar; A. Bozek; J. Brodzicka; T. E. Browder; B. C. K. Casey; M.-C. Chang; P. Chang; Y. Chao; K.-F. Chen; B. G. Cheon; R. Chistov; S.-K. Choi; Y. Choi; M. Danilov; L. Y. Dong; R. Dowd; J. Dragic; A. Drutskoy; S. Eidelman; V. Eiges; Y. Enari; C. W. Everton; H. Fujii; C. Fukunaga; N. Gabyshev; A. Garmash; T. Gershon; B. Golob; A. Gordon; K. Gotow; H. Guler; R. Guo; J. Haba; K. Hanagaki; F. Handa; K. Hara; T. Hara; Y. Harada; K. Hashimoto; N. C. Hastings; H. Hayashii; M. Hazumi; E. M. Heenan; I. Higuchi; T. Higuchi; L. Hinz; T. Hirai; T. Hojo; T. Hokuue; Y. Hoshi; K. Hoshina; W.-S. Hou; S.-C. Hsu; H.-C. Huang; T. Igaki; Y. Igarashi; T. Iijima; K. Inami; A. Ishikawa; H. Ishino; R. Itoh; M. Iwamoto; H. Iwasaki; Y. Iwasaki; D. J. Jackson; P. Jalocha; H. K. Jang; M. Jones; R. Kagan; H. Kakuno; J. Kaneko; J. H. Kang; J. S. Kang; P. Kapusta; M. Kataoka; N. Katayama; H. Kawai; Y. Kawakami; N. Kawamura; T. Kawasaki; H. Kichimi; D. W. Kim; Heejong Kim; H. J. Kim; H. O. Kim; Hyunwoo Kim; S. K. Kim; T. H. Kim; K. Kinoshita; S. Kobayashi; S. Koishi; K. Korotushenko; S. Korpar; P. Krokovny; R. Kulasiri

2002-01-01

75

Perceived Sexual Orientation and Helping BehaviourThe Wrong Number Technique, a Swiss Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A replication of Shaw, Borough, and Fink’s and Gore, Tobiasen, and Kayson’s nonreactive measure of homophobia is presented. In the original study (Shaw et al.), residents of Los Angeles received an apparently wrong-number telephone call from a male caller portraying himself as either homosexual or heterosexual. His car had broken down and he was out of change at a pay

Ute Gabriel; Gerhard Beyeler; Nora Däniker; Werner Fey; Karin Gutweniger; Margrit Lienhart; Beatrice Luder Gerber

2001-01-01

76

Hard supersymmetry-breaking 'wrong-Higgs' couplings of the MSSM  

SciTech Connect

In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM), if the two-Higgs doublets are lighter than some subset of the superpartners of the standard model particles, then it is possible to integrate out the heavy states to obtain an effective broken-supersymmetric low-energy Lagrangian. This Lagrangian can contain dimension-four gauge-invariant Higgs interactions that violate supersymmetry (SUSY). The wrong-Higgs Yukawa couplings generated by one-loop radiative corrections are a well-known example of this phenomenon. In this paper, we examine gauge-invariant gaugino-higgsino-Higgs boson interactions that violate supersymmetry. Such wrong-Higgs gaugino couplings can be generated in models of gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking in which some of the messenger fields couple to the MSSM Higgs bosons. In regions of parameter space where the messenger scale is low and tan{beta} is large, these hard SUSY-breaking operators yield tan{beta}-enhanced corrections to tree-level supersymmetric relations in the chargino and neutralino sectors that can be as large as 56%. We demonstrate how physical observables in the chargino sector can be used to isolate the tan{beta}-enhanced effects derived from the wrong-Higgs gaugino operators.

Haber, Howard E.; Mason, John D. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2008-06-01

77

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01

78

Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for two representative stiff detonation wave problems.

Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjogreen, B.

2011-01-01

79

Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities as a function of stiffness of the source term and the grid spacing.

Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjoegreen, B.

2012-01-01

80

Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Have We Been Pursuing the Wrong Paradigm?  

PubMed Central

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) is the clinical syndrome of heart failure associated with normal or near-normal systolic function. Because inhibition of the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems has been so effective in the treatment of systolic heart failure, these same therapies have been the subject of recent clinical trials of HF-PEF. In this review, we examine the current evidence about treatment of HF-PEF, with particular emphasis on reviewing the literature for large-scale randomized clinical studies. The lack of significant benefit with neurohormonal antagonism in HF-PEF suggests that this condition might not involve neurohormonal activation as a critical pathophysiologic mechanism. Perhaps heart failure as we traditionally think of it is the wrong paradigm to pursue as we try to understand this condition of volume overload known as HF-PEF.

Oghlakian, Gerard O.; Sipahi, Ilke; Fang, James C.

2011-01-01

81

'Talking your way out of it', 'rigging' and 'conjuring': what science teachers do when practicals go wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary and secondary teachers of science were interviewed and asked to recall their actions and procedures when practicals ‘went wrong’. Three broad categories of response were found. Examples of each category are provided and analysed in terms of the norms, counter?norms and values used by teachers of science and compared with the norms, counter?norms and values in science research. Primary

Mick Nott; Robin Smith

1995-01-01

82

Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…

Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

2004-01-01

83

Right but basically wrong: Comments on Canales et al. 'A Critical Assessment of the Consciousness by Synchrony Hypothesis'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are right in holding the view that neural synchrony does not seem to provide a solution for the 'hard problem of consciousness' (Chalmers 1996). They are also right in that most of the evidence presented for the role of neural synchronization in perceptual binding is correlative and not causal. They are essentially wrong in all their remaining

EUGENIO RODRÍGUEZ; JOSÉ CORTÉS

2007-01-01

84

How Non-Diagnostic Listening Led to a Rapid “Recovery” from Paranoid Schizophrenia: What is Wrong with Psychiatry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental interview with a young woman diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia led to her rapid recovery. This incident and questions raised about psychiatric practices suggest that something is seriously wrong with psychiatry. It lacks insight into its own behavior, invalidates constructive criticism, avoids the kind of selfexamination it urges on “patients,” shows little interest in accounts of successes with “schizophrenic”

Al Siebert

2000-01-01

85

'Wrong parents' and 'right parents': shared perspectives about citizen participation in policy implementation.  

PubMed

Government policies, both in Europe and the U.S., increasingly mandate that community-based citizens partner with professionals to plan and implement policy-relevant programs. In the U.S., parents of children with serious emotional disturbances may participate in Community Collaboratives which are charged with implementing children's mental health policy in local communities. This qualitative study examined three Community Collaboratives and identified organizational features associated with how the groups prioritized lay involvement, among other competing goals which they legitimately could pursue. Thirty-four key informants participated in in-depth interviews. Although the overall study identified several factors which permitted greater and lesser degrees of family involvement, this paper reports on one: the symbolic meaning shared by members about lay participation in their shared perspectives about "wrong parents" and "right parents." Furthermore, two alternate types of "right parents" identified a psychologized version of parents as consumers, and a civic vision of parents as partners. Results from this study are applicable to a wide array of lay-professional partnerships. This study suggests that in order to foster lay-professional partnerships in policy initiatives, lay participants must possess additional, civic-based skills, beyond those needed in the service delivery arena. Furthermore, organizational and professional change may be required to address professional dominance. Within mental health, lack of acceptance of nationally touted recovery-based models is a significant barrier. Finally, sociological implications of developing a civic-based framework for lay-professional partnerships are discussed. PMID:20227806

Potter, Deborah Anne

2010-06-01

86

Preparing Offspring for a Dangerous World: Potential Costs of Being Wrong  

PubMed Central

Adaptive maternal responses to stressful environments before young are born can follow two non-exclusive pathways: either the mother reduces current investment in favor of future investment, or influences offspring growth and development in order to fit offspring phenotype to the stressful environment. Inducing such developmental cues, however, may be risky if the environment changes meanwhile, resulting in maladapted offspring. Here we test the effects of a predator-induced maternal effect in a predator-free postnatal environment. We manipulated perceived predation-risk for breeding female great tits by exposing them to stuffed models of either a predatory bird or a non-predatory control. Offspring were raised either in an environment matching the maternal one by exchanging whole broods within a maternal treatment group, or in a mismatching environment by exchanging broods among the maternal treatments. Offspring growth depended on the matching of the two environments. While for offspring originating from control treated mothers environmental mismatch did not significantly change growth, offspring of mothers under increased perceived predation risk grew faster and larger in matching conditions. Offspring of predator treated mothers fledged about one day later when growing under mismatching conditions. This suggests costs paid by the offspring if mothers predict environmental conditions wrongly.

Coslovsky, Michael; Richner, Heinz

2012-01-01

87

What's Right/What's Wrong With This Picture?!?: A Watershed Academy 2000 Self-Test in Stream Corridor Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-test consists of examining two photographs of sites along a stream partially damaged by flooding due to Hurricane Fran in 1996. One site underwent serious erosion, while the other site was changed, but remained relatively unharmed. The challenge is to click on those areas of each photo where something appears right or wrong in the stream bank repairs from a stream corridor restoration perspective. Answers are provided to find out whether other restoration practitioners agree.

88

Life's Still Lifes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de Bruijn diagram describing those decompositions of the neighborhoods of a one dimensional cellular automaton which conform to predetermined requirements of periodicity and translational symmetry shows how to construct extended configurations satisfying the same requirements. Similar diagrams, formed by stages, describe higher dimensional automata, although they become more laborious to compute with increasing neighborhood size. The procedure is illustrated by computing some still lifes for Conway's game of Life, a widely known two dimensional cellular automaton. This paper is written in September 10, 1988.

McIntosh, Harold V.

89

Nuclear Power is Neither Right Nor Wrong: The Case for a Tertium Datur in the Ethics of Technology.  

PubMed

The debate over the civilian use of nuclear power is highly polarised. We argue that a reasonable response to this deep disagreement is to maintain that advocates of both camps should modify their positions. According to the analysis we propose, nuclear power is neither entirely right nor entirely wrong, but rather right and wrong to some degree. We are aware that this non-binary analysis of nuclear power is controversial from a theoretical point of view. Utilitarians, Kantians, and other moral theorists make sharp, binary distinctions between right and wrong acts. However, an important argument speaking in favour of our non-binary analysis is that it better reflects our considered intuitions about the ethical trade-offs we face in discussions of nuclear power. The aim of this article is to make this argument sharp by explaining how it can be rendered compatible with, and supported by, the Capability Approach, which is quickly becoming one of the most influential frameworks for thinking about human development. PMID:23703452

Hillerbrand, Rafaela; Peterson, Martin

2014-06-01

90

Knowing right from wrong in mental arithmetic judgments: calibration of confidence predicts the development of accuracy.  

PubMed

Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right-and when they are wrong-lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the "calibration" of mental arithmetic judgments-that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25+50?=?75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic "fluency" is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance. PMID:24988539

Rinne, Luke F; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

2014-01-01

91

Knowing Right From Wrong In Mental Arithmetic Judgments: Calibration Of Confidence Predicts The Development Of Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right—and when they are wrong—lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the “calibration” of mental arithmetic judgments—that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25+50?=?75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic “fluency” is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance.

Rinne, Luke F.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

2014-01-01

92

Interventions to reduce wrong blood in tube errors in transfusion: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review addresses the issue of wrong blood in tube (WBIT). The objective was to identify interventions that have been implemented and the effectiveness of these interventions to reduce WBIT incidence in red blood cell transfusion. Eligible articles were identified through a comprehensive search of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, BNID, and the Transfusion Evidence Library to April 2013. Initial search criteria were wide including primary intervention or observational studies, case reports, expert opinion, and guidelines. There was no restriction by study type, language, or status. Publications before 1995, reviews or reports of a secondary nature, studies of sampling errors outwith transfusion, and articles involving animals were excluded. The primary outcome was a reduction in errors. Study characteristics, outcomes measured, and methodological quality were extracted by 2 authors independently. The principal method of analysis was descriptive. A total of 12,703 references were initially identified. Preliminary secondary screening by 2 reviewers reduced articles for detailed screening to 128 articles. Eleven articles were eventually identified as eligible, resulting in 9 independent studies being included in the review. The overall finding was that all the identified interventions reduced WBIT incidence. Five studies measured the effect of a single intervention, for example, changes to blood sample labeling, weekly feedback, handwritten transfusion requests, and an electronic transfusion system. Four studies reported multiple interventions including education, second check of ID at sampling, and confirmatory sampling. It was not clear which intervention was the most effective. Sustainability of the effectiveness of interventions was also unclear. Targeted interventions, either single or multiple, can lead to a reduction in WBIT; but the sustainability of effectiveness is uncertain. Data on the pre- and postimplementation of interventions need to be collected in future trials to demonstrate effectiveness, and comparative studies are needed of different interventions. PMID:24075096

Cottrell, Susan; Watson, Douglas; Eyre, Toby A; Brunskill, Susan J; Dorée, Carolyn; Murphy, Michael F

2013-10-01

93

What's wrong with executive compensation? A roundtable moderated by Charles Elson.  

PubMed

The value that many superpaid CEO superstars supposedly created has largely disappeared, and the likelihood that it will be recovered anytime soon seems remote. On top of that, a good number of top executives treated their companies like ATMs, awarding themselves millions of dollars in corporate perks. It's hard to dispute the idea that executives were corrupted by the sums of money dangled in front of them. What's wrong with executive compensation, and what can we do about it? HBR and the University of Delaware's Center for Corporate Governance convened a round-table of compensation experts last October on the university's campus in Newark, Delaware. The 12 panelists, from CEOs to investors, from the professionals who advise them to a chief justice who rules on their disputes, provided an extraordinary diversity of viewpoints. The panelist began by debating ways to align the interests of the senior executives with the long-term interests of the company-weighing the relative benefits of stock options versus stock grants, for instance. But the discussion expanded to cover broader questions of corporate governance and company values. "The main reason compensation increases every year is that most boards want their CEO to be in the top half of the CEO peer group," said Ed Woolard,Jr., a former CEO of DuPont. And compensation lawyer Joe Bachelder pointed out the danger of structuring pay in such a way that it dampens risk taking among executives. It was a lively and wide-ranging discussion of one business's most pressing issues. PMID:12545924

Roiter, Eric; Clapman, Peter; Heard, Jamie; Bachelder, Joe; England, John; Lau, Greg; Woolard, Edgar S; Meyer, Pearl; Hall, Brian; Barnette, Hank; Batts, Warren; Veasey, E Norman

2003-01-01

94

Prolonging life: an Orthodox Christian perspective.  

PubMed

While Orthodox Christianity does not find explicit statements about the morality of prolonging life in the usual doctrinal sources, the Scriptures and the Fathers of the Church, there are elements in Tradition which bear upon the issue. These include Orthodox spirituality's emphasis on the "wholeness" of the human person, its liturgical and synergistic view of human life, and its understanding of our moral ambiguity as fallen human beings in a fallen world. This last point, in particular, means that we do not usually have a clear choice between right and wrong, and that we cannot always trust ourselves to know which choice is the right, or even the better one. Therefore, we must always approach decisions about death and dying with humility and in a spirit of repentance, aware of the imperfection of all we do and trusting in the mercy of God. PMID:11655314

Cozby, Dimitri

1997-12-01

95

East meets West: Cross-cultural perspective in end-of-life decision making from Indian and German viewpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture creates the context within which individuals experience life and comprehend moral meaning of illness, suffering and\\u000a death. The ways the patient, family and the physician communicate and make decisions in the end-of-life care are profoundly\\u000a influenced by culture. What is considered as right or wrong in the healthcare setting may depend on the socio-cultural context.\\u000a The present article is

Subrata Chattopadhyay; Alfred Simon

2008-01-01

96

What Did Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Get Right and What Did They Get Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this critical assessment of the Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Report was to provoke discussion and improvements in future developments of quality of life research undertaken by official statistical agencies. I would like to thank Jochen Jesinghaus and Andrea Saltelli for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of the paper.

Michalos, Alex C.

2011-01-01

97

Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students extend their knowledge of matter and energy cycles in organisms to engineering life cycle assessment of products. They learn about product life cycle assessment and the flow of energy through the cycle, comparing it to the flow of nutrients and energy in the life cycles of organisms.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

98

Where did WEEE go wrong in Europe? Practical and academic lessons for the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper links lessons drawn from the WEEE directive implementation process going on in Europe with academic lessons obtained from the TU Delft eco-efficiency studies on electronics recycling. The combination of eco-efficiency and organizational analysis is proven to be very useful for enhancing stakeholder interactions on improving end-of-life chains. From this, a roadmap is proposed for US developments, in order

Jaco Huisman; Ab Stevels; Thomas Marinelli; Federico Magalini

2006-01-01

99

Olympic medals or long life: what's the bottom line?  

PubMed

On a per capita basis, Australia spent more than seven times as much on its Sydney Olympic team as did Canada, to win four times as many medals. Compared with Australia, Canada spent an additional amount per capita (standardised to the purchasing power parity rate at year 2000) of US dollars 1605 per life-year gained on healthcare in 2000. Neither country is "right" or "wrong" in making these funding choices, but they highlight the need for more explicit discussion about what is being spent, what is obtained for the given expenditure and what society actually values. PMID:14723588

Mitton, Craig R; Davies, H Dele; Donaldson, Cam R

2004-01-19

100

Beta-Test Data on an Assessment of Textbook Problem Solving Ability: An Argument for Right/Wrong Grading?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have developed an assessment of students' ability to solve standard textbook style problems and are currently engaged in the validation and revision process. The assessment covers the topics of force and motion, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy at a level consistent with most calculus-based, introductory physics courses. This tool is discussed in more detail in an accompanying paper by Marx and Cummings. [1] Here we present preliminary beta-test data collected at four schools during the 2009/2010 academic year. Data include both pre- and post-instruction results for introductory physics courses as well as results for physics majors in later years. In addition, we present evidence that right/wrong grading may well be a perfectly acceptable grading procedure for a course-level assessment of this type.

Cummings, Karen; Marx, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

101

Sorry, wrong number: The use and misuse of numerical facts in analysis and media reporting of energy issues  

SciTech Connect

Students of public policy sometimes envision an idealized policy process where competent data collection and incisive analysis on both sides of a debate lead to reasoned judgments and sound decisions. Unfortunately, numbers that prove decisive in policy debates are not always carefully developed, credibly documented, or correct. This paper presents four widely cited examples of numbers in the energy field that are either misleading or wrong. It explores the origins of these numbers, how they missed the mark, and how they have been misused by both analysts and the media. In addition, it describes and uses a three-stage analytical process for evaluating such statistics that involves defining terms and boundaries, assessing underlying data, and critically analyzing arguments.

Koomey, Jonathan G.; Calwell, Chris; Laitner, Skip; Thornton, Jane; Brown, Richard E.; Eto, Joseph H.; Webber, Carrie; Cullicott, Cathy

2002-09-01

102

Student Reactions to Being Wrongly Informed of Failing a High-Stakes Test: The Case of the Minnesota Basic Standards Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do students react to being told that they have failed a test required for high school graduation? In 2000, 7,989 students were wrongly informed that they had failed the Minnesota Basic Standards Test in mathematics. The authors conducted a survey of 911 of these students to assess the psychosocial impact of this event. More than 80% of…

Cornell, Dewey G.; Krosnick, Jon A.; Chang, LinChiat

2006-01-01

103

Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.  

PubMed

This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

Macdermott, Alexandra J

2012-09-01

104

Life sciences  

SciTech Connect

This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

Day, L. (ed.)

1991-04-01

105

Nurturing Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the requirements of life. Learners will explore what living things need to survive and thrive by creating and caring for a garden plot (outdoors where appropriate) or a container garden (indoors) at the program facility. The garden will be used to beautify the facility with plant life with many planting and landscaping options provided. Children will consider the requirements of living things, compare the surface conditions on Mars to those found on Earth, view images/video of a NASA Astrobiology Institute "garden" where astrobiologists are studying life under extreme conditions, and consider the similarities and differences in the type of life that would be possible on Mars as compared to their garden on Earth. It also includes specific tips for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 3 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

106

Defining Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030.

2010-01-01

107

Discover Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The nonprofit organization Discover Life has combined forces with the National Park Service to conduct an "All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory" -- a comprehensive inventory of all life forms in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The 800-square-mile national park lies within the states of North Carolina and Tennessee and encompasses some of the richest biodiversity in the Temperate Zone. The Discover Life homepage provides background information on this ambitious initiative, including an internal search engine (for accessing additional resources on the Park's taxa and experts involved with the project), links to educational resources, status of the inventory, and much more.

108

The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?  

PubMed Central

Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized ‘external’ environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate ‘internal’ biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means.

Wells, Jonathan C. K.

2012-01-01

109

The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?  

PubMed

Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized 'external' environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate 'internal' biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means. PMID:22915021

Wells, Jonathan C K

2012-09-01

110

What Went Wrong (and Right) in my Research for Undergraduates Program this Summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Experience for Undergraduates Site on Sustainable Land and Water Resources (NSF GEO-055346) is a complicated affair (like many REUs) with research teams on site on two different Native American reservations (the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, and the Flathead Indian Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Montana), mentors from 2 universities and 2 reservations, and diverse participants from across the country. Students are diverse in ethnicity, academic majors, institution type, age, and life situation, with many nontraditional students as participants. While this all adds up to an interesting and exciting program, it is not without challenges. Herein the program directors discuss some of the particular challenges faced this summer, feedback the outside evaluation specialist received from participants and mentors, and ways the program's mentor team might respond in the future. This discussion will include a look at how systemic changes to an REU can lead to positive change, including a review of the recruiting and application process, communication between and among mentors and participants, the team structure of the REU, and supports in place to lead to participant success. Also included will be a discussion of how the relationship between the Native American reservations and the academic institutions was developed and how we continue to evolve based on annual feedback from all participants.

Dalbotten, D. M.; Geraghty Ward, E. M.; Berthelote, A. R.; Ito, E.; Myrbo, A.; Drake, C.; Howes, T.; Woods, P.

2013-12-01

111

Extraterrestrial Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

Klein, M. J.

1993-01-01

112

Life's Limit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental limits to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh conditions of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.

Mancinelli, Rocco; Magazine, Astrobiology

113

"The right answer for the wrong reason" revisited: validation of a spatially-explicit soil erosion model (RillGrow)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One finding from the GCTE evaluation of soil erosion models (Jetten et al., 1999) is that the models tested were, in general, weak regarding the spatial aspects of erosion. A perfectly adequate simulation of runoff and soil loss at the catchment outlet could be produced even if the model did a poor job of identifying the location of erosion hotspots within that catchment. Spatially, the models could give "the right answer for the wrong reason". As well as casting doubt on the validity of process representations within such a model, this kind of result is clearly unacceptable when using it to plan or evaluate soil conservation measures within the catchment. With this as a background, the RillGrow series of soil erosion models were developed. These represent an eroding hillslope area as a self-organizing system (e.g. Favis-Mortlock, 1998; Favis-Mortlock et al., 2000). Microtopography is considered to determine the spatial pattern of overland flow and hence of surface lowering; such lowering modifies the path of subsequent flow. This simple iterative relationship generates rill networks emergently, i.e. as a collective whole-system response to many local interactions. The approach removes a requirement of many erosion models: the need to ‘pre-specify' rill characteristics even for an unrilled surface. However, computational constraints currently confine RillGrow to simulation of small, plot-sized, areas. Even on such small areas however, model validation is not straightforward. In a series of validation studies, DEMs of the microtopography of real soil surfaces (from both laboratory flumes and hillslope plots) were used as inputs to the RillGrow model. Model-simulated rill networks were then compared with those which developed on the real soil surfaces. Other model outputs (e.g. hydrographs and sedigraphs at the outlet; water depths and velocities at points on the surface) were similarly compared. While conceptually simple, problems with this approach include: * The difficulty of objectively comparing two rilled soil surfaces. Real and modelled surfaces might appear very similar, but if planwise rill locations differ by even a few mm, then correlation-based measures indicate a poor result. The converse can also be true. * Flow velocity within rills can vary widely over short distances. However velocity values obtained using e.g. dye tracers have had this small-scale variation smoothed away. How should such values be compared with point-based simulated flow velocity values? Such ambiguities once again open the possibility of obtaining "the right answer for the wrong reason". Thus this paper highlights these and other issues which can arise when validating a spatially-explicit soil erosion model such as RillGrow.

Favis-Mortlock, David

2010-05-01

114

Technology Life Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OUTLINE: DoD Life Cycle - NASA Life Cycle - Generic Life Cycle - Technology Readiness Levels - Exceptions - Product Life Cycle - Product and Technology Life Cycles Together. CONCLUSION: Technology Maturity Measures Where You are in the Technology Life Cyc...

B. Nolte

2006-01-01

115

Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often invoke Murphy's Law when inanimate "things go wrong", when skis break or fires occur or instruments fail due to corrosion or tires unexpectedly wear out. But why don't similar upsetting events happen to everyone every minute? Unwanted combustion and corrosion of common materials, although energetically favored, are not kinetically instantaneous. (The second law of thermodynamics is time's arrow but chemical kinetics is time's clock.) Chemistry students learn that chemical changes are usually obstructed by activation energy barriers whose origins lie in the energy required for bond breaking as new bonds are formed. Thus, activation energies act as obstacles to Murphy's Law in being deterrents to undesirable reactions and, lightly, as our "Maxwell's Angels". The fracture of solids - whether surfboards or car fenders - also involves breaking chemical bonds. However, such incidents are classed as physical changes because the free energy of the fragments is not notably different from the unbroken whole. The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.

Lambert, Frank L.

1997-08-01

116

Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For decades, many of the nation's life science classrooms have been anything but lively. Biology has been criticized for being content heavy, overloaded with vocabulary, and tested by rote. Six to seven hundred pages of text, presented to teenagers with limited abilities to reason, constituted what in most cases was the only required science in high schools. By contrast, the classroom of a life science teacher who is moving toward the Standards provides an exciting environment for inquiry and a core of content that is smaller but in greater depth than in the past. Topics are covered in more detail, coursework is integrated, and both teachers and students feel challenged. This free selection includes an inquiry-based, life science lesson and the Table of Contents.

2004-01-01

117

Effects of Correct and Wrong Answers on ERPs Recorded under Conditions of the Continuous Performance Test in ADHD\\/Normal Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of event-related potentials (ERPs) regarding correct and wrong answers under conditions of the continuous performance\\u000a test (CPT) were measured in 50 adult subjects characterized by different levels of sustained attention with the absence\\/presence\\u000a of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). For ERP extraction, the average for each group of signals, which were\\u000a time-locked to the onset of stimuli, was calculated; two

F. Ghassemi; M. H. Moradi; M. Tehrani-Doost; V. Abootalebi

2010-01-01

118

Life Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of life-cycle analyses in conjunction with a roofing database to manage educational facility roofing as assets. Roofing database development, quantifying and benchmarking roofing investigations, and using warranties as part of a roof asset-management program are discussed. Tips on how to start a roofing management program are…

Spencer, William

1997-01-01

119

Synthesizing life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in directed evolution and membrane biophysics make the synthesis of simple living cells, if not yet foreseeable reality, an imaginable goal. Overcoming the many scientific challenges along the way will deepen our understanding of the essence of cellular life and its origin on Earth.

Szostak, Jack W.; Bartel, David P.; Luisi, P. Luigi

2001-01-01

120

Lake Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1993-01-01

121

Conway's Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rules of Conway's Life, a two dimensional cellular automaton, are explained. Some of its characteristics and typical behavior are described. An algorithm to calculate periodic states using de Bruijn diagrams is explained. The paper is written in July 4, 1988.

McIntosh, Harold V.

122

A buckling region in locust hindlegs contains resilin and absorbs energy when jumping or kicking goes wrong.  

PubMed

If a hindleg of a locust slips during jumping, or misses its target during kicking, energy generated by the two extensor tibiae muscles is no longer expended in raising the body or striking a target. How, then, is the energy in a jump (4100-4800 ?J) or kick (1700 ?J) dissipated? A specialised buckling region found in the proximal hind-tibia where the bending moment is high, but not present in the other legs, buckled and allowed the distal part of the tibia to extend. In jumps when a hindleg slipped, it bent by a mean of 23±14 deg at a velocity of 13.4±9.5 deg ms(-1); in kicks that failed to contact a target it bent by 32±16 deg at a velocity of 32.9±9.5 deg ms(-1). It also buckled 8.5±4.0 deg at a rate of 0.063±0.005 deg ms(-1) when the tibia was prevented from flexing fully about the femur in preparation for both these movements. By experimentally buckling this region through 40 deg at velocities of 0.001-0.65 deg ms(-1), we showed that one hindleg could store about 870 ?J on bending, of which 210 ?J was dissipated back to the leg on release. A band of blue fluorescence was revealed at the buckling region under UV illumination that had the two key signatures of the elastic protein resilin. A group of campaniform sensilla 300 ?m proximal to the buckling region responded to imposed buckling movements. The features of the buckling region show that it can act as a shock absorber as proposed previously when jumping and kicking movements go wrong. PMID:22399660

Bayley, T G; Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

2012-04-01

123

Dead Right, Dead Wrong  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will research and evaluate information about global warming, identify decision-making criteria for action or lack of action, and decide what level of certainty is sufficient to take action. They should debate the issue of when we know enough to act, based on the results of their research. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

124

What's wrong with Libertarianism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libertarian arguments about the empirical benefits of capitalism are, as yet, inadequate to convince anyone who lacks libertarian philosophical convictions. Yet “philosophical” libertarianism founders on internal contradictions that render it unfit to make libertarians out of anyone who does not have strong consequentialist reasons for libertarian belief. The joint failure of these two approaches to libertarianism explains why they are

Jeffrey Friedman

1997-01-01

125

When fue goes wrong!  

PubMed

Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is an accepted method of extracting individual follicular unit grafts for hair transplant surgery. Since follicles are harvested from the back of the scalp using tiny punches resulting in minimal scarring, it has gained rapid acceptance among the patients. However, due care needs to be exercised while performing FUE. FUE should not be confused with the older plug graft extraction methods of coring out hair-bearing skin plugs. Lack of due diligence while performing such extractions can lead to subluxation of the grafts into the subdermal layer of scalp. Overtumescence of the scalp donor area, use of blunt punches and trying to "core" out the full thickness grafts can all contribute to this. The following cases illustrate some pitfalls to be avoided while performing FUE and the adverse consequences if they occur. PMID:22121268

Poswal, Arvind; Bhutia, Sangay; Mehta, Ruby

2011-01-01

126

Right Place, Wrong Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Songbirds tend to breed at the same time their primary prey is most abundant. Climate warming appears to be disrupting this match, causing reproductive failures in some species. Scientists have detected the consequences of warming for birds primarily thro

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.

2008-10-01

127

All models are wrong.  

PubMed

As the field of phylogeography has continued to move in the model-based direction, researchers continue struggling to construct useful models for inference. These models must be both simple enough to be tractable yet contain enough of the complexity of the natural world to make meaningful inference. Beyond constructing such models for inference, researchers explore model space and test competing models with the data on hand, with the goal of improving the understanding of the natural world and the processes underlying natural biological communities. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has increased in recent popularity as a tool for evaluating alternative historical demographic models given population genetic samples. As a thorough demonstration, Pelletier & Carstens () use ABC to test 143 phylogeographic submodels given geographically widespread genetic samples from the salamander species Plethodon idahoensis (Carstens et al. ) and, in so doing, demonstrate how the results of the ABC model choice procedure are dependent on the model set one chooses to evaluate. PMID:24931159

Hickerson, Michael J

2014-06-01

128

Prehistoric Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from Museum Victoria in Australia presents an overview of fossils and what they tell us about prehistoric life. Museum Victoria developed this site in response to frequently asked questions and public interest in paleontology, resulting in a well-presented and easy-to-understand introduction to the topic. Five main sections cover invertebrate fossils, dinosaurs, Ice Age mammals, fossils found in Victoria, and a general explanation of fossils and fossilization. Although a bit text heavy with limited illustrations (but nonetheless engaging), this Web site should appeal to anyone with even a passing interest in paleontology.

2002-01-01

129

Embryonic viability, parental care and the pro-life thesis: a defence of Bovens.  

PubMed

On the basis of three empirical assumptions about the rhythm method and the viability of embryos, Bovens concludes that the pro-life position regarding empbryos implies that it is prima facie wrong to use the rhythm method. Pruss objects to Bovens's philosophical presuppositions and Kennedy to his empirical premises. This essay defends two revised versions of Bovens's argument. These arguments revise Bovens's empirical assumptions in response to Kennedy and, in response to Pruss, supplement Bovens's argument with what I call 'the principle of parental care'. PMID:23625736

Surovell, Jonathan

2014-04-01

130

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... here Home » Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven ... ability to build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is ...

131

Influence of an outpatient multidisciplinary pain management program on the health-related quality of life and the physical fitness of chronic pain patients  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 10 to 20 percent of the population is suffering from chronic pain. Since this represents a major contribution to the costs of the health care system, more efficient measures and interventions to treat these patients are sought. Results The development of general health and physical activity of patients with chronic pain was assessed in an interdisciplinary outpatient pain management program (IOPP). 36 patients with an average age of 48 years were included in the IOPP. Subjective assessment of well-being was performed at five time points (baseline, post intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter) by using standardized questionnaires. The study focused on the quality of life survey Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, which is a validated instrument with established reliability and sensitivity. In addition, the patients participated in physical assessment testing strength, power, endurance, and mobility. Prior to therapy a substantial impairment was found on different levels. Marked improvements in the psychological parameters were obtained by the end of the program. No success was achieved with regard to the physical assessments. Conclusion Although many different studies have evaluated similar programs, only few of them have attained positive results such as improvements of general quality of life or of physical strength. Often no difference from the control group could be detected only some months after the intervention. In the present study no significant persistent improvement of well-being occurred. Possible reasons are either wrong instruments, wrong selection of patients or wrong interventions.

Joos, Bettina; Uebelhart, Daniel; Michel, Beat A; Sprott, Haiko

2004-01-01

132

Automatic localization of vertebral levels in x-ray fluoroscopy using 3D-2D registration: a tool to reduce wrong-site surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (wrong-level surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to the lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. The conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and visualization system (referred to as LevelCheck), for decision support in spine surgery by automatically labeling vertebral levels in fluoroscopy using a GPU-accelerated, intensity-based 3D-2D (namely CT-to-fluoroscopy) registration. A gradient information (GI) similarity metric and a CMA-ES optimizer were chosen due to their robustness and inherent suitability for parallelization. Simulation studies involved ten patient CT datasets from which 50?000 simulated fluoroscopic images were generated from C-arm poses selected to approximate the C-arm operator and positioning variability. Physical experiments used an anthropomorphic chest phantom imaged under real fluoroscopy. The registration accuracy was evaluated as the mean projection distance (mPD) between the estimated and true center of vertebral levels. Trials were defined as successful if the estimated position was within the projection of the vertebral body (namely mPD <5 mm). Simulation studies showed a success rate of 99.998% (1 failure in 50?000 trials) and computation time of 4.7 s on a midrange GPU. Analysis of failure modes identified cases of false local optima in the search space arising from longitudinal periodicity in vertebral structures. Physical experiments demonstrated the robustness of the algorithm against quantum noise and x-ray scatter. The ability to automatically localize target anatomy in fluoroscopy in near-real-time could be valuable in reducing the occurrence of wrong-site surgery while helping to reduce radiation exposure. The method is applicable beyond the specific case of vertebral labeling, since any structure defined in pre-operative (or intra-operative) CT or cone-beam CT can be automatically registered to the fluoroscopic scene.

Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2012-09-01

133

Lifelong, Life-Wide or Life Sentence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the life-wide dimensions of lifelong learning. Although the benefits of a life-wide approach to learning are well recognised, there appears to be little explicit attention given to the concept of life-wide learning in Australia. It is argued that recent pronouncements by the Australian Government about the challenges of an…

Clark, Terry

2005-01-01

134

Ditching the single-payer system in the national health service: how the English Department of Health is learning the wrong lessons from the United States.  

PubMed

Reforms to the British National Health Service introduce major changes to how health care will be delivered. The core elements include the creation of new purchaser organizations, Clinical Commissioning Groups, which unlike their predecessors will be able to recruit and reject general practices and their patients without geographical restriction. The Clinical Commissioning Groups are to transition from statutory bodies to freestanding organizations, with most of their functions privatized and an increasingly privatized system of provision, In this paper, we explore the likely consequences of these proposals, drawing in particular on the experience of managed care organizations in the United States, whose approach has influenced the English proposals extensively. We argue that the wrong lessons are being learned and the English reforms are likely to fundamentally undermine the principles on which the British National Health Service was founded. PMID:22993967

Reynolds, Lucy; Gerada, Clare; McKee, Martin

2012-01-01

135

Compliance with a time-out procedure intended to prevent wrong surgery in hospitals: results of a national patient safety programme in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Objective To prevent wrong surgery, the WHO ‘Safe Surgery Checklist’ was introduced in 2008. The checklist comprises a time-out procedure (TOP): the final step before the start of the surgical procedure where the patient, surgical procedure and side/site are reviewed by the surgical team. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which hospitals carry out the TOP before anaesthesia in the operating room, whether compliance has changed over time, and to determine factors that are associated with compliance. Design Evaluation study involving observations. Setting Operating rooms of 2 academic, 4 teaching and 12 general Dutch hospitals. Participants A random selection was made from all adult patients scheduled for elective surgery on the day of the observation, preferably involving different surgeons and different procedures. Results Mean compliance with the TOP was 71.3%. Large differences between hospitals were observed. No linear trend was found in compliance during the study period. Compliance at general and teaching hospitals was higher than at academic hospitals. Compliance decreased with the age of the patient, general surgery showed lower compliance in comparison with other specialties and compliance was higher when the team was focused on the TOP. Conclusions Large differences in compliance with the TOP were observed between participating hospitals which can be attributed at least in part to the type of hospital, surgical specialty and patient characteristics. Hospitals do not comply consistently with national guidelines to prevent wrong surgery and further implementation as well as further research into non-compliance is needed.

van Schoten, Steffie M; Kop, Veerle; de Blok, Carolien; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter P; Wagner, Cordula

2014-01-01

136

A category theoretical argument against the possibility of artificial life: Robert Rosen's central proof revisited.  

PubMed

One of Robert Rosen's main contributions to the scientific community is summarized in his book Life itself. There Rosen presents a theoretical framework to define living systems; given this definition, he goes on to show that living systems are not realizable in computational universes. Despite being well known and often cited, Rosen's central proof has so far not been evaluated by the scientific community. In this article we review the essence of Rosen's ideas leading up to his rejection of the possibility of real artificial life in silico. We also evaluate his arguments and point out that some of Rosen's central notions are ill defined. The conclusion of this article is that Rosen's central proof is wrong. PMID:16393453

Chu, Dominique; Ho, Weng Kin

2006-01-01

137

Life in the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes adress the question: "Are we alone or are there millions of advanced life forms in the universe?" by examining life on Earth, the origin of life on Earth, the possiblity that life exists in our solar system or elsewhere.

O'Connell, Robert W.

2010-10-11

138

Social identity and stroke: 'they don't make me feel like, there's something wrong with me'.  

PubMed

Over 85% of the people survive stroke; and of those, over 80% are discharged to the community. However, the majority do not recover completely. Loss of identity is a commonly reported experience after stroke. Studies focus on the individual survivors' use of their own cognitive resources to adapt to change, rather than examining the effects of social interactions on stroke survivors' identities. Social relationships are the foundation upon which survivors rebuild skills to engage with the world, yet little is known about the ways in which families, friends and neighbours provide a context for the recreation of a sense of self and activities after stroke. This article draws on situational analysis grounded theory analysis of in-depth individual interviews with nine middle-aged survivors of stroke. In situational analysis, the original grounded theory methods proposed by Glaser and Strauss are used; however, the situational context, and how environments and relationships influence actions, is explicitly analysed. Our objective was to understand the ways in which family, social, and community resources might enhance stroke survivors' participation in personally meaningful activities over the long term. The qualitative accounts of these survivors reveal how social support helped them maintain or more importantly regain a position in society. Following any life-changing event, people's sense of self is fluid. A relevant social position entitles stroke survivors to become actively involved in setting their own goals and maintaining a positive identity. However, as these participants attested, stroke impaired their social position and resources to reject an imposed social position. It was difficult for these survivors to construct a valued social identity without the support of other people. Future studies should explore the consequences of social interactions with others and how social attitudes about stroke disability affects individual's activity options, professional practice, and ultimately development of a positive poststroke identity. PMID:23121474

Anderson, Sharon; Whitfield, Kyle

2013-12-01

139

BOOK REVIEW: Carl Sagan: A Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a quite remarkable book. If you want a quick and sketchy evening's read about your favourite popular scientist then this is not for you! On the other hand, if you want a detailed, fascinating and exhaustively researched story about a very special person, then read it. The author has produced a painstaking picture of Sagan. The main text consists of 430 pages of stories, anecdotes, quotations etc, which lead us through the complex life of a very complex man. This is backed up with a further 70 pages of detailed references followed by a 19 page bibliography. We learn about Sagan from his early days, when he was a somewhat precocious schoolboy, right up to his final days when he was in poor health yet still turning out books at a great rate. Like many people, I knew of him but not very much about him before I read this book. He was a man of giant energy who attempted to combine the life of a working research scientist with that of a great popularizer as well as extending his tentacles into various aspects of (scientific) government policy. Even in his early days his one aim in life seemed to be that of furthering his own career by getting to know as many well-known scientists as possible. He had fingers in many pies - academic, something mysterious and military related, book writing, popular science on TV etc, etc. He was particularly concerned with the space programme, especially the planetary probes and the Voyager vehicles which took messages from Earth to outer space. We get the impression from the book that he was especially obsessed with extraterrestrial life and was desperate to confirm its existence. He was instrumental in keeping the SETI programme going even though it eventually had to go private. We learn that he was not a good family man and work usually took precedence over domestic issues. As a result his private life seems to have been as complicated as his professional life. He was a man whose mind went in several directions at once and he was criticized at times for not following through his ideas. Perhaps he saw himself as the ideas man and preferred to leave the details to somebody else. Sometimes his ideas were wildly wrong, which is, perhaps, not surprising when working at the frontiers of science. One thing that surprised me was a suggestion by the author that his book The Dragons of Eden was `obviously written under the inspiration of marijuana'! It is easy and very tempting to criticize someone like Sagan after reading this book, which catalogues his many faults along with his many strengths. However, very few of us could attempt to accomplish even a tenth of what he accomplished in his lifetime. He had a health problem all through his life but nonetheless overcame all his personal and interpersonal problems to become the man that we all know, someone who made science, and especially astronomy, live for vast numbers of ordinary people. He aroused critical passions in many but, as Keay says, `In my years of research, I met not one person - not one - who knew Sagan closely and who strongly disliked him'. The book is an excellent read and gives a fascinating picture not only of the man but of science politics in the USA at the time.

Jakeways, Robin

2000-01-01

140

It's a Frog's Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats.

Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

2003-09-01

141

Life Cycle Costing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

McCraley, Thomas L.

1985-01-01

142

Life in Alternate Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lecture provides information about life in extreme environments from the perspective of an undergraduate geology class. It explores current conditions for life, the origins of life, and contemporary harsh environments- particularly the ocean floor. A few extremophiles are introduced: thermophiles, psychrophiles, acidophiles, alkaliphiles, and halophiles. The possibility of life on other planets is examined by highlighting Mars, Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Io, Jovian planets, comets, and meteorites. Images and links to related websites and publications are included.

Murray, Norma; Astrophysics, Canadian I.

143

The smart life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smart Life is an approach conceptualized from a frame of prevention, focused on youth, and aimed toward fostering independent and productive life styles. Currently, the focal concern is on African American youths, ages 12 through 18, who reside in rural areas of North Central Florida. Implemented through seminars, the Smart Life approach is grounded in theory and practice. It

Faye Gary; Loretta Ramella Lopez

1996-01-01

144

Engaging with Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores an ancient world view rediscovered through modern science: the world is essentially cooperative and systems-seeking; relationships are a requirement for existence; life is a great experimenter; the processes of life are redundant and messy but ultimately self-organizing; and life supports uniqueness and is unpredictable. Relates these…

Wheatley, Margaret J.

1997-01-01

145

Life in Extreme Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astrobiology Web publishes this list of links about life in extreme environments. Subjects include general information, genomic resources, thermophilic life, endolithic organisms, bacteria in amber, dry (xerophytic) organisms, radiation tolerance, deep and dark dwelling organisms, life at varied pressures, halophilic organisms, research agencies, the domain Archaea, deep ocean thermal vents, and recommended books. The site features an internal search engine.

2010-02-04

146

Question of Life, A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses a definition of life and general conditions necessary to sustain life. Viewers are introduced to the possible past history of Mars as well as its present surface topography and its capacity to support life as we know it. Emphasizes the viking li...

1994-01-01

147

Quality of life indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is considered to be a function of biophysical, environmental and social conditions. No system of quality of life indicators has been developed as yet, however some progress has been made lately to this end. Methods appropriate for designing quality ot life indexes are suggested in this paper. Such indexes could be used to evaluate different quality of

John C. Papageorgiou

1976-01-01

148

Bivariate mean residual life  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of some theoretical results concerning the mean residual life function used in reliability theory. An extension of the concept to the bivariate case is introduced, and the relationship between the reliability and mean residual life function is derived. The properties of the function and conditions for asymptotic exponentiality of component life lengths are discussed

K. R. Muralidharan Nair; N. Unnikrishnan Nair

1989-01-01

149

Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

Chambliss, Joe

2004-01-01

150

A life with prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

The author gives an anecdotal account of his life with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). He was not formally diagnosed until the age of 53 and has evolved a complicated strategy for recognizing people based on non-facial physical features and context. He describes his experiences through infancy, school, university life and courtship, work and family life. He believes that he has lived a full and successful life despite DP but that some aspects of his social and work life were impaired by face-blindness. In his experience people react positively and helpfully if the consequences of DP are explained to them, and this improves social interactions and communications. PMID:23186078

Fine, David Roger

2012-01-01

151

Searching for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity designed to develop a working definition of life. Learners will conduct a simple experiment, looking for signs of life in three different "soil" samples. The experiment introduces children to the difficulty that scientists face in defining life. By observing the soil samples, participants try to determine if any contain signs of life and work to identify, refine, and create a set of characteristics that may be used to identify living versus nonliving things. The activity concludes with the development of a group definition of life. This group definition will be referred to in subsequent activities. It also includes specific tips within each activity for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 1 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

152

"I Can't Find Anything Wrong: It Must Be a Pulmonary Embolism": Diagnosing Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in Primary Care, a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Before using any prediction rule oriented towards pulmonary embolism (PE), family physicians (FPs) should have some suspicion of this diagnosis. The diagnostic reasoning process leading to the suspicion of PE is not well described in primary care. Objective to explore the diagnostic reasoning of FPs when pulmonary embolism is suspected. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 28 FPs. The regional hospital supplied data of all their cases of pulmonary embolism from June to November 2011. The patient's FP was identified where he/she had been the physician who had sent the patient to the emergency unit. The first consecutive 14 FPs who agreed to participate made up the first group. A second group was chosen using a purposeful sampling method. The topic guide focused on the circumstances leading to the suspicion of PE. A thematic analysis was performed, by three researchers, using a grounded theory coding paradigm. Results In the FPs' experience, the suspicion of pulmonary embolism arose out of four considerations: the absence of indicative clinical signs for diagnoses other than PE, a sudden change in the condition of the patient, a gut feeling that something was seriously wrong and an earlier failure to diagnose PE. The FPs interviewed did not use rules in their diagnostic process. Conclusion This study illustrated the diagnostic role of gut feelings in the specific context of suspected pulmonary embolism in primary care. The FPs used the sense of alarm as a tool to prevent the diagnostic error of missing a PE. The diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings has yet to be evaluated.

Barais, Marie; Morio, Nathalie; Cuzon Breton, Amelie; Barraine, Pierre; Calvez, Amelie; Stolper, Erik; Van Royen, Paul; Lietard, Claire

2014-01-01

153

Hypochodriasis in Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed two issues regarding hypochondriasis of later life: (1) whether this disorder is related more to psychopathology or health problems; and (2) the relationship of hypochondriasis to other later-life problems of anxiety, depression and paranoid reactions. Sixty later-life (>55) psychiatric inpatients were given a battery of psychological scales: MMPI-Pa (Harris-Lingoes subscales), State-Trait Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (somatic

Immogene Gouvia; Lee Hyer; William R. Harrison; Janet Warsaw; Denise Coutsouridis

1986-01-01

154

Artificial life and Piaget.  

PubMed

Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour. PMID:12691760

Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

2003-04-01

155

Life in the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of extra-terrestrial life and intelligence is examined. It is found that the scientific case for extra-terrestrial intelligence is very weak; theological considerations render it improbable, but not def i- nitely impossible. The case against more primitive extra-terrestrial life is much weaker. . Is the earth the only cradle of life in the physical universe? Is man alone? Or

Gerald Feinberg; John Billingham

1983-01-01

156

Life and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information about every aspect of life on earth. There is a section on cells that gives details about the physical make-up of cells, like how prokaryotic cells have no nucleus or organelles enclosed within membranes. There is a detailed explanation about genetics, and how certain characteristics of humans come from our parents and passed on to us. The vast diversity of life and different classifications of life are given to better understand the world around us. The image achieve gives you images of all types of different life on plant earth.

2004-04-07

157

Ingredients for Life: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth provides a comfortable and temperate environment for a wide variety of living organisms. However, in the past few decades, scientists have discovered unusual life forms thriving in areas where the majority of living things on Earth could never survive, such as near deep sea vents, in dry deserts, or on frozen ice sheets. This video segment explores life forms that survive in extreme conditions on Earth, the importance of liquid water to life, and the possibilities of life elsewhere in the solar system. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2011-07-21

158

Superintendent Shortage: The Wrong Problem and Wrong Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges assumptions regarding insufficient supply of superintendents and conclusions about underlying causes of this condition. Argues that the longstanding practice of overproducing administrators and then allowing employers to determine competence is not indicative of a true profession. Recommends the strengthening of preparation and…

Kowalski, Theodore J.

2003-01-01

159

Life in the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2003-01-01

160

It's a Frog's Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

2003-01-01

161

Life sciences report 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here are the major research efforts of the NASA Life Sciences Division during the past year. Topics covered include remote health care delivery in space, space biomedical research, gravitational biology, biospherics (studying planet Earth), the NASA Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), exobiology, flight programs, international cooperation, and education programs.

1987-01-01

162

Thermostable Shelf Life Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

2008-01-01

163

Composing a Research Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article about her early career development and the experiences that shaped her life as a scholar and researcher, the author describes the work lives of university-based teacher educators and what it means to compose a research life in this field. This article draws on the author's 30 years as a university-based teacher educator. In it, she…

Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

2012-01-01

164

Intelligent life in cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I

Frank J. Tipler

2003-01-01

165

Life and teleology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A comprehensive definition of the phenomenon called “life” led to the addition of many dimensions to the natural sciences, and especially the conscious mental dimension. Historical attention is paid not only to those employing the natural philosophical paradigms, but also to evolutionary theories and to the Kantian teleological philosophy. The belief that science can solve the riddle of life

Israel Idalovichi

1992-01-01

166

Artificial Life and Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is developing into a new type of discipline, based on computational construction as its main tool for exploring and producing a science of life as it could be. In this area of research, the generation of complex virtual systems, in place of the traditional empirical domain, has become the actual object of theory. This entails a profound change

Alvaro Moreno

2002-01-01

167

Mean residual life estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean residual life function is of interest in many fields such as reliability, survival analysis, actuarial studies, etc. Given a sample from an unknown distribution function, we use the local linear fitting technique to estimate the corresponding mean residual life function. The limit behaviour of the obtained estimator is presented.

Belkacem Abdous; Alexandre Berred

2005-01-01

168

Mean residual life ordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new partial ordering among life distributions in terms of their mean residual life is introduced. This ordering is weaker\\u000a than the hazard rate ordering but it is stronger than the variability ordering. Characterizations of the DMRL and NBUE distribution\\u000a are given.

Abdulhamid A. Alzaid

1988-01-01

169

Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

2009-01-01

170

Ecotourism as Life Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical consumption has been identified by many sociologists as an important nexus through which people make sense of and attempt to act upon the contemporary world. As a form of ‘life politics’ it involves action at the level of everyday life that connects to a wider social agenda, be it environmentalism, development or human rights. This paper argues that ecotourism

Jim Butcher

2008-01-01

171

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2007-09-01

172

Rejecting Wrong Matches in Stereovision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block matching methods in stereo vision must de- cide when two pixels match, and usually do it by thresh- olding a similarity measure between two blocks. This paper proposes a more elaborate statistical block matching method ensuring that the detected block matches are not likely to have occurred \\

Neus Sabater; Andres Almansa; Jean-Michel Morel

2008-01-01

173

Where Sex Education Went Wrong.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing up in a highly eroticized environment, children are preoccupied with sex in developmentally distorted ways and increasingly likely to act out their sexual impulses. Abstinence is the only totally effective way to avoid pregnancy, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Chastity education promises great success through promotion of…

Lickona, Thomas

1993-01-01

174

Investigation of a wrongful death.  

PubMed

This reprint of a 1979 article tells the story of Rosie Jiminez, a 27-year-old Mexican-American woman who died in McAllen General Hospital in Texas on October 3, 1977, from the complications of an illegal abortion. Jiminez was the first reported victim of the Hyde Amendment which cut off federal Medicaid funding for abortion. She was a daughter of migrant workers, a single mother of a 5-year-old daughter, a welfare recipient, a part-time worker, and a university student 6 months from receiving a bachelor's degree in education. When she died, she had a $700 scholarship check in her pocket, but if she had used that money to pay for an abortion, her education would have been curtailed. Initial reports to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the agency charged with monitoring the effects of the Hyde Amendment, indicated that Jiminez had obtained her abortion in Mexico to protect her privacy. Four months of independent investigation uncovered two women who had accompanied Jiminez to a lay midwife who performed the abortion in Texas. The local police did nothing with this information, and only arrested the midwife when abortion activists set up a trap in which she was recorded offering to perform an abortion for $125. The abortionist was sentenced to 3 days in jail and fined $100 but was not charged in Jiminez's death. The CDC included this information in a two-paragraph report but failed to take any other action to determine the scale of morbidity and mortality following the Hyde Amendment. The women of America must refuse to tolerate the death of a single woman because of a lack of funding for abortion. PMID:12178869

Kissling, F; Frankfort, E

1996-01-01

175

What's Wrong With My Plant?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A useful resource for amateur horticulturists from the University of Minnesota Extension Service, Yard and Garden Clinic. The focus here is on commonly used perennials, grasses, shrubs, and trees in the home garden and the inevitable problems one must face while gardening in a northern climate. Based on visual observations of symptoms, the navigation is easy, and the solutions equally understandable. This site is a useful stop if you want basic advice. It also provides links to other related Web resources useful to northern gardeners.

2008-07-15

176

What's Wrong with WAC Anthologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three kinds of Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) anthologies and explains how they frustrate WAC aims, sever the healthy relations between reading and writing, and subject students to nonacademic rhetorical situations. Expresses concern about anthologies that contain non-academic or belletristic selections as a means of retaining student…

Byrnes, Robert; Turner, Brian

1995-01-01

177

What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

Morrison, Adrian R.

1992-01-01

178

Overpopulation: Where Malthus Went Wrong.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the theories of 18th-century social scientist Thomas Malthus regarding population and his predictions of massive worldwide famine. Maintains that countries with a tradition of private property rights can sustain a dense population and food supply. Examines the relationship between low birth rate and economic prosperity. (MJP)

Morton, John S.; Shaw, Jane S.; Stroup, Richard L.

1997-01-01

179

Right says arms control wrong  

SciTech Connect

This article asserts that the conservative right wing of the Republican party is in the midst of an attack on arms control in general, intent on sabotage of the treaties at the core of the program - the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, and the 1991 and 1993 START treaties, and treaties in negotiation at present. The author argues that this part of the political party is far right of other conservatives, and is intent on unravelling all progress made to this pont in time.

Isaacs, J. [Council for a Livable World, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

180

What's wrong with female circumcision?  

PubMed

Why should the multicultural society of Canada outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) as proposed by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock or allow avoidance of the procedure to be a legitimate reason for gaining refugee status? Is this anti-FGM position simply an ethnocentric stance that would be called racism in other circumstances? Canadian objections to FGM can not arise from objections about mutilation of a child's sexual organs because male circumcision is legal in Canada, although it, too, is medically questionable. Perhaps Rock is being patriarchal in reserving his concern for females. In Somali culture, women determine the nature and extent of FGM, so Rock may simply be exhibiting his inability to understand other cultures. On the other hand, it is politically incorrect for Canadian government workers to criticize other cultures, and immigrants are assured that their values and beliefs will be accommodated in Canada. Thus, polygamy among Somali immigrants is ignored. The question is why should FGM be a major exception and invoke efforts at repression instead of a respect for diversity. PMID:12294340

Nelson, D

1994-03-16

181

Wrong...But Right Enough  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates his experience in a recent trip to Sweden. He was assigned to supervise a research student who is preparing a very interesting PhD about the role of the many different kinds of knowledge that have relevance to people in technology. His latest tutorial paper included a fascinating account of some examples of…

Kimbell, Richard

2011-01-01

182

What Did We Do Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the hiring dilemma confronting liberal-arts colleges and offers advice to job seekers who are interested in working at liberal-arts colleges. One should read the college's mission statements and research its history. If it's serving a minority-students population and one has worked with those students, one…

Rifkin, Zelda

2006-01-01

183

Nuna5: What went wrong?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuon Solar Team and their famous car the Nuna had a great tradition of winning the World Solar Challenge in Australia. Four times in a row the car was faster than all the other solar cars. This year, however, it was different. Some headlines claimed we lost first place, others said we won second. Because of all the hard

R. Van Dongen

2010-01-01

184

What's wrong with risk matrices?  

PubMed

Risk matrices-tables mapping "frequency" and "severity" ratings to corresponding risk priority levels-are popular in applications as diverse as terrorism risk analysis, highway construction project management, office building risk analysis, climate change risk management, and enterprise risk management (ERM). National and international standards (e.g., Military Standard 882C and AS/NZS 4360:1999) have stimulated adoption of risk matrices by many organizations and risk consultants. However, little research rigorously validates their performance in actually improving risk management decisions. This article examines some mathematical properties of risk matrices and shows that they have the following limitations. (a) Poor Resolution. Typical risk matrices can correctly and unambiguously compare only a small fraction (e.g., less than 10%) of randomly selected pairs of hazards. They can assign identical ratings to quantitatively very different risks ("range compression"). (b) Errors. Risk matrices can mistakenly assign higher qualitative ratings to quantitatively smaller risks. For risks with negatively correlated frequencies and severities, they can be "worse than useless," leading to worse-than-random decisions. (c) Suboptimal Resource Allocation. Effective allocation of resources to risk-reducing countermeasures cannot be based on the categories provided by risk matrices. (d) Ambiguous Inputs and Outputs. Categorizations of severity cannot be made objectively for uncertain consequences. Inputs to risk matrices (e.g., frequency and severity categorizations) and resulting outputs (i.e., risk ratings) require subjective interpretation, and different users may obtain opposite ratings of the same quantitative risks. These limitations suggest that risk matrices should be used with caution, and only with careful explanations of embedded judgments. PMID:18419665

Cox, Louis Anthony

2008-04-01

185

What's Wrong with This Picture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses possible health hazards associated with video display terminals (VDT). Highlights include electromagnetic fields (EMF); research on EMF and VDT; VDT emission guidelines in Sweden; conflicting interests; low emission monitors; spatial solutions; financial considerations; and a sidebar that includes questions and answers on EMF. (seven…

Eakin, Emily

1994-01-01

186

What's Wrong with This Picture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I try to break lecture into a series of mini-lectures each on a limited scope. For this they have been exposed to concepts of Stefan-Boltzman law and basics of wavelength. After the initial discussion I pose this activity and take time to let students discover what doesn't make sense to them in the image followed by open discussion for possible explanations, generally leading to an 'ah-ha' moment. Teaching Tips Adaptations that allow this activity to be successful in an online environment DO NOT ANSWER THE QUESTION! Give plenty of time for students to mull the image and subsequent question. Let discovery come from the students. Elements of this activity that are most effective It's not scientific but the collective 'ah-ha' suggests they have resolved the conflict in their minds. Recommendations for other faculty adapting this activity to their own course: Use images from your field in LectureTools (or however) to challenge interpretation of visual data. This is a skill that is integral to being a scientist and students in science courses should be expected to participate in such activities.

Samson, Perry

187

When School Reform Goes Wrong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this much-needed volume, Nel Noddings uses her extensive experience at every level of schooling to challenge the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Noddings invites readers to think critically about the ideas underlying NCLB, the reform movement that shaped it, and the processes it has put into play. She considers such questions as: Is money the…

Noddings, Nel

2007-01-01

188

What's Wrong with College Athletics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the highly visible character of intercollegiate athletics, there is a dangerous confusion about who makes decisions, suggests this university president. It ought to be the president, with the board's backing, who deals with intercollegiate programs, including financing women's athletics and breaking down all sports into levels of emphasis,…

Davis, William E.

1978-01-01

189

Life is not a dream: the importance of being real.  

PubMed

This paper explores the value attached to "being real," how it is used in various contexts, and how this value persists outside the purview of reality testing or other objective criteria. It addresses how we view the form of a dream and other illusions of reality, including fetishes, whose sole value resides in their material reality. With Proust's description of the experience of tasting a madeleine (compared with the indistinctness of highly charged emotional memories) and a clinical incident as examples, it is possible to assess the important role the search for perceptual identity plays in making the past come to life. Because this search stems from a period of development earlier than the striving for thought identity, it has wrongly attained the status of a poor relative. To counter this, an effort is made to demonstrate its implicit value as a motive underlying repetition. Because in analysis insistence on the reality of an experience is frequently used defensively, analysts run the danger of joining patients in treating external and psychic reality as dichotomous, thereby underestimating the beneficial potential of being real for limiting unconscious omnipotence and thereby restoring from oblivion the past and the wider context of an experience. PMID:21364182

Oliner, Marion M

2010-12-01

190

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

191

Defining Life or Bringing Biology to Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called ‘omics’ revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough—but also encompassing enough—terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

2010-04-01

192

Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

193

Census of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census of Marine Life is an initiative to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life in the oceans in the past, present, and future. Materials available at the census site include news articles, press releases, and other media resources such as images and video. There is an overview of the project, information on partners and sponsors, and searchable databases of publications and participants. The educational materials page features illustrated articles on marine life discoveries, the use of research techniques and technology, and links to education and outreach programs of related organizations.

194

Toxic Marine Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report makes a brief presentation on toxic marine life, with emphasis on those organisms responsible for injuries and illnesses which are likely to be brought to the military medical officer for treatment. Since the sea harbors numerous potentially ha...

P. G. Linaweaver

1967-01-01

195

Bringing Literature to Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how an English lesson can be made interesting by relating yesterday's literature to today's life experiences. Offers a sample of lessons integrating English literature into the language arts curriculum. (JOW)

Avery, Chip; Avery, Beth

1996-01-01

196

LIFE Target Fabrication Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Target costs for the LIFE IFE plant comprises a significant portion of the operating costs for the commercial plant. A preliminary target fabrication and cost study was undertaken previously for a fast ignition target. An updated cost model is documented ...

G. Meyer J. Biener M. Wang R. Miles

2009-01-01

197

Diversity of Life Possible  

NASA Video Gallery

Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

198

End-of-Life  

MedlinePLUS

... to provide greater comfort, assist in symptom and pain management, and ease the burden of an illness. Patients ... end-of-life care, create new interventions for pain and symptom management, identify effective, accessible treatments, and develop new health ...

199

Life on moduli space?  

SciTech Connect

While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

Hsu, Stephen D. H. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2009-10-15

200

End of Life Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

201

Life on Mars Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When NASA researchers from the Johnson Space Center and Stanford University announced they had found combined evidence in 1996 "that strongly suggests primitive life may have existed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago," scientists buzzed with excitement at the possibility of life on Mars. Two weeks ago, the discovery of rock-eating microbes one mile beneath the ocean floor (published in the August 14, 1998 issue of Science) seemed to make that possibility more likely. But last week, new evidence based on geochemical models was discovered that indicates that, while basic geological conditions on Mars may meet life's minimal requirements, the biological potential of the red planet seems unlikely. The nine resources listed provide background information, specifics, and commentary on the hunt for Life on Mars.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

202

Children and Life Satisfaction  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... MedlinePlus Pages Mental Health Parenting Transcript Do your kids make you happy? Can't imagine life without them? A surprising new study suggests kids really don't raise the happiness stakes for ...

203

Regenerative Life Support Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

1977-01-01

204

Facts for Life  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... for life far and wide to help ensure children's and women's rights! Click here to access supplementary resources ...go ahead and delve deeper into the topics! Click here to view short video clips ...see how putting FFL messages into practice ...

205

Life on Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life on Mars? is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about a discussion of what life is, its characteristics, a summary of the search for life on Mars, a description of life that survives in harsh environments, and a look at Mars in the past. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

206

Life of a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

207

Running for Life  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools To use the ... a day can help extend your life new research suggests. The conclusion published in the Journal of ...

208

Product Life Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students think about where materials in everyday products come from, and learn that knowing about product life cycles can help us make decisions that reduce waste and pollution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

209

My Reproductive Life Plan  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks My Reproductive Life Plan Thinking about your goals for ... prevent pregnancy? Am I sure that I or my partner will be able to use the method ...

210

Mosquito Life Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a plastic emergence chamber (or use purchased "mini mosquito breeder") to observe and analyze the mosquito life cycle. Learners record daily observations for 8-14 days by counting the number of larvae, pupae, and adults present in the chamber. This resource includes background information about the mosquito life cycle and mosquitoes as disease vectors plus a link to a mosquito reference manual.

Institute, Howard H.

2010-01-01

211

Cosmic Life Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that the first principle of biology is a useful guide in exploring cosmic life forms. Moreover, it determines the\\u000a basic prerequisites of life in material-independent form. Starting from the Bauer principle (BP), we made explicit its content,\\u000a and found that the Bauer principle is mediated by virtual interaction (VI) which generates biological couplings (BC) opening\\u000a up an enormous

Attila Grandpierre

212

Intelligent Life in Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is\\u000avery rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of\\u000athe founders of the Modern Synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski, and Mayr) that the\\u000aevolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Second, I shall\\u000adevelop the Fermi Paradox: if they existed they'd be here. Third, I shall

Frank J. Tipler

2007-01-01

213

Life Vest Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the engineering behind life vests or personal flotation devices and the challenges met by these devices. Learners work in teams to design and build a flotation device out of everyday materials that can keep an unopened can of soup or vegetables afloat in a bucket of water or sink for a minute. They design their life vest, build and test it, evaluate their designs and those of other learners, and share observations with the group.

Ieee

2014-01-28

214

Ethics and extraterrestrial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study of other planets and moons in the Solar System has revealed the presence of environments that may be conducive to\\u000a life. The discovery of sulphate- bearing rocks on Mars,201 and the suggestion that they were formed in bodies of standing water,has invigorated the debate on the subject of the past,or\\u000a even present,existence of life on Mars. In parallel,the

Charles Cockell

215

End of Life Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although end-of-life decision making is critical for good oncology care, physicians often do not initiate discussions until\\u000a the last days of life and do not use good communication skills and evidence-based techniques. Research on deficits in decision\\u000a making has found that patients often misunderstand information the first time it is provided or may not be ready to hear bad\\u000a news,

Sydney Morss Dy

216

Local River Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify rivers in their local area and compile information about aquatic life in or near these habitats. Through research in various books or other sources, the students will learn more about the various animal and plant species living in riparian areas. The compiled information can be assembled into a class book, combining both text and drawings related to aquatic life.

2004-01-01

217

Life sciences recruitment objectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995). Subsequent NRA's will be released on a rotating two year cycle.

Keefe, J. Richard

1992-01-01

218

Life without water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anhydrobiosis, or life without water is commonly demonstrated by a number of plants and animals. These organisms have the capacity to loose all body water, remain dry for various periods, and then be revived by rehydration. While in the anhydrobiotic state, these organisms become highly resistant to several environmental stresses such as extremely low temperatures, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and high vacuum. Since water is commonly thought to be essential for life, survival of anhydrobiotic organisms with an almost total loss of water is examined. A search of literature reveal that many anhydrobiotic organisms make large quantities of trehalose or other carbohydrates. Laboratory experiments have shown that trehalose is able to stabilize and preserve microsomes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and artificial liposomes. It was demonstrated that trehalose and other disaccharides can interact directly with phosopipid headgroups and maintain membranes in their native configuration by replacing water in the headgroup region. Recent studies show that trehalose is an effective stabilizer of proteins during drying and that it does so by direct interaction with groups on the protein. If life that is able to withstand environmental extremes has ever developed on Mars, it is expected that such life would have developed some protective compounds which can stabilize macromolecular structure in the absence of water and at cold temperatures. On Earth, that role appears to be filled by carbohydrates that can stabilize both membrane and protein stuctures during freezing and drying. By analog with terrestrial systems, such life forms might develop resistance either during some reproductive stage or at any time during adult existence. If the resistant form is a developmental stage, the life cycle of the organism must be completed with a reasonable time period relative to time when environmental conditions are favorable. This would suggest that simple organisms with a short life cycle might be most sucessful.

Crowe, Lois M.; Crowe, John H.

1989-01-01

219

Balancing Life Roles to Achieve Career Happiness and Life Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study guided by Super's Life Span, Life Space approach included a survey of 119 women and 66 men about sacrifices made in life and work roles to achieve balance and satisfaction. Differences in sacrifices and satisfaction were related to the combination of life roles they occupied. (SK)

Peronne, Kristin Marie

2000-01-01

220

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

221

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702.

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

222

Intelligent life in cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

Tipler, Frank J.

2003-04-01

223

Make a Life to Save a Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this “clicker case,” students learn about meiosis through the real-life story of a couple who used pre-implantation genetic screening to select an embryo that was a genetic match for an older sibling with leukemia, and thus able to provide a source of bone marrow cells. The case caused a stir in the medical ethics community.  Before this, parents had only used pre-implantation genetic screening to select for a baby that would be free from a genetic disorder. Instead, this child was conceived as a treatment for his older sister.  The case was developed for use in an introductory biology course.  It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.5MB) shown in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions the students respond to using clickers. It could be adpated for use without these technologies.

Brickman, Peggy

2009-01-01

224

Stress and life history.  

PubMed

In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories. PMID:24845673

Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

2014-05-19

225

Life in the Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

2003-01-01

226

Life sciences accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

1985-01-01

227

Autonomy: Life and Being  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

Williams, Mary-Anne

228

The planets and life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

Young, R. S.

1971-01-01

229

Italian Life Under Fascism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Special Collections within the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Memorial Library presents Italian Life Under Fascism, a virtual exhibition exploring the nature of Italian fascism in the early twentieth century. Digital reproductions of original documents provide insight into "the character and range of Fascist propaganda and the special cult of the Duce that it fostered." The site covers an array of topics related to the political, educational, social, and racial policies of Italian Fascism. Included are sections devoted to family life, youth organizations, Italian colonialism, the role of women in the regime, the anti-fascist resistance, and the rise and fall of Fascism in Italy.

230

Life in a Nutshell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-faceted game (on pages 25-35), learners recreate what happens to creatures in the Brazilian rain forest as they grow from egg to adultâespecially those that use fallen, empty Brazil nut pods as a home during some part of their life cycle. These creatures include damsel flies, mosquitoes, toads and poison frogs. The object for players is to make it around the game board, grow faster than the competition, and leave the nutshell nursery before the neighbors eat them. Learners graph the results of all games played. This activity makes a fun connection between life science and math.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

231

Muslim Life in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new pamphlet from the State Department offers a basic introduction to some aspects of Muslim-American life. The front page takes care to emphasize the diversity among Muslim-Americans, and the links from this front page further amplify these differences. The site features a number of Photo Galleries, including Faces of Islam, Family Life, and Mosques and Prayers, among others. Users will also find related articles, a page of demographic facts, a bibliography with selected readings, links to Internet resources and nongovernmental organizations, along with other resources.

2001-01-01

232

Spacelab Life Sciences-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

1995-01-01

233

Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

Soffen, G. A.

1981-01-01

234

Reflexive Planning for Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

2004-01-01

235

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

236

LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

237

Black Smokers: Life Forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

History, The A.

238

Spacelab Life Sciences-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-40, carrying Spacelab Life Sciences-1, was the first dedicated to study the human body in microgravity. Experiments regarding adaptation to space and readaptation to the world of gravity are discussed in this video. Spacelab is another precursor to long-term science aboard the space station.

1991-01-01

239

Life in the Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on what life is like in the three major regions of the ocean: (1) the sunlit surface waters; (2) the dim mid-waters; and (3) the dark ocean depths. Five activities and three pages of ocean organisms for copying are included. (Author/RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

240

Work\\/life balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much is being written about redesigning work to help encourage work\\/life balance. Companies are beginning to recognize signs of burnout. As a result, they are realizing that unless people can have balance in their lives, their productivity will suffer. Companies need to recognize their culpability and responsibility in this sphere in order to help employees create a healthier lifestyle, which

E. L. Berman

2002-01-01

241

Life Cycle Cost Workbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workbook presents a methodology to compare total or relative (Life Cycle) cost of the alternative plans. It is designed to be useable by any person who has access to the necessary financial data and rudimentary understanding of normal business financi...

J. W. Griffith

1979-01-01

242

Two-dimensional life?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model [Wachtershauser, G. (1988) Microbiol. Rev. 52, 452-484], according to which life started in the form of a monomolecular layer of interacting anionic metabolites electrostatically bound to a positively charged surface, is examined critically. The model raises a number of thermodynamic and kinetic difficulties.

de Duve, C.; Miller, S. L.

1991-01-01

243

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

244

Life on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sudents learn about the physical properties of the Moon. They compare these to the properties of the Earth to determine how life would be different for people living on the Moon. Using their understanding of these differences, they think about what types of products engineers would need to design for humans to live comfortably on the Moon.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

245

Home and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa History. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is homes and family life in Iowa history. Selections address what has been important to Iowa's families over time and what homes were like before…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1996-01-01

246

Game of Life Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. Ejs Game of Life model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_GameOfLife.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-15

247

Life Sciences Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Life Sciences Foundation (LSF) is recording and preserving the history of biotechnology. The Foundation has been established to create a record of the achievements of contemporary bioscientists. To learn about the people, institutions, and organizations that are making biotech history, visit the site's timelines, oral histories, feature stories, videos, and archives.

2012-11-13

248

PUTTING A SECOND LIFE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the advantages and weaknesses of Multi-User Virtual Environments for teaching and explores the possible benefits of integrating them closely with traditional Learning Management Systems. We present survey findings of teachers interested in using the Second Life MUVE for teaching. The teachers gave us their opinions about integrating SL and LMS in their classrooms. We finally propose technical

Jeremy Kemp

249

Ocean Life Book List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 50 books on ocean life, with titles for both children and adults. A short description is given for each book, along with author name, publisher, and publication date. The list is divided into two sections: one for teachers with general listings and curriculum and one for students.

250

Zebra Mussel Life History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large part to a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion

Josef Daniel Ackerman

251

A Window into Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Window underscores the concept of life as an emergent property of highly coordinated physical and biochemical processes. Opening upon a single carbon-12 atom within a human DNA duplex, Window moves at a brisk trot through successively greater levels of scale and biological organization, ultimately arriving at an individual person--defining in one sense the meaning of being human.

Kenneth Eward (Independent;); Travis Vermilye (Independent;)

2008-09-26

252

Water and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Anderson begins with a brief description of NASA discoveries related to Mars, Mercury and water. He then explains why water is required for life. He finally uses a simulation to show you why water acts as a wonderful solvent and provides a medium for metabolism.

Anderson, Paul

2013-03-12

253

Chemicals in Everyday Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dependencies of people on chemicals in various aspects of life. Describes some of the natural and synthetic chemicals currently used in food production, clothing, shelter, travel and exploration, sports and recreation, ventilation, heating and cooling, communications, decoration, sanitation, and education. (TW)

Seymour, Raymond B.

1987-01-01

254

CONSUMPTION OVERTHE LIFE CYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates a structural model of optimal life-cycle consumption expendi- tures in the presence of realistic labor income uncertainty. We employ synthetic cohort techniques and Consumer Expenditure Survey data to construct average age-profiles of consumption and income over the working lives of typical households across different edu- cation and occupation groups. The model fits the profiles quite well. In

Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas; Jonathan A. Parker

1995-01-01

255

Between Life and Death.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demonstrates how an emergency medical services system should respond to an emergency. Shows how life is sustained and prolonged through proper pre-hospital measures both at the scene of an emergency and in transit. explains how an efficient EMS system pro...

1994-01-01

256

MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Malaysian Family Life Surveys (MFLS) comprise a pair of surveys with partially overlapping samples, designed by RAND and administered in Peninsular Malaysia in 1976-77 (MFLS-1) and 1988-89 (MFLS-2). Each survey collected detailed current and retrospective information on famil...

257

Life Space Interviewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The special issue contains 17 articles on life-space interviewing with emotional disturbed and normal children and adolescents, a technique developed by Fritz Redl which is based on psychodynamic theory and uses a problem-solving method of learning within the pupil's natural environment. (DB)

Fagen, Stanley A., Ed.; Long, Nicholas J., Ed.

1981-01-01

258

Life Cycles of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

259

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

Program, The W.

260

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

Schwartz, Sunny

2005-01-01

261

Life Cycles of Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a brief introduction, the page is divided into Places to go, People to see, Things to do, Teacher resources and a Bibliography. Each division has several links. For example the Places to go division has links to frog, ant, coral reef, and American bald eagle life cycles.

2010-01-01

262

Learning for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People working in the field of education know well the positive effects adult and community learning can have on mental health and wellbeing. Participating in adult and community learning can help to widen social networks and improve life and employment chances; it makes for better general health; and can strengthen the learner's self-confidence,…

Robotham, Dan

2011-01-01

263

Life in the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to teach elementary students about ocean life. Through images and large text, it provides basic information and descriptions of animals that live in various ocean habitats, including: Sandy Beach, Tide Pool, Kelp Forest, and the Open Seas.

Goddard, Norma

264

Selling Your Life Insurance  

MedlinePLUS

... including: You might lose your eligibility for some public assistance benefits. This would most likely happen for benefits that are based on your income and assets, such as food stamps, Medicaid, welfare, and some Social Security benefits. Your life insurance benefits won’t be ...

265

Halophilic life on Mars ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The search for extraterrestrial life has been declared as a goal for the 21th century by several space agencies. Potential candidates are microorganisms on or in the surface of moons and planets, such as Mars. Extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are of astrobiological interest since viable strains have been isolated from million years old salt deposits (1) and halite has

Helga Stan-Lotter; Sergiu Fendrihan; Marion Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer; Anita Holzinger; Tatjana K. Polacsek; Andrea Legat; Michael Grösbacher; Andreas Weigl

2010-01-01

266

Christ and extraterrestrial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between Incarnation and extraterrestrial life in view of the question: can extraterrestrials be saved? The Franciscan theology of Bonaventure and Scotus is used to explore “exoChristology” by examining the Incarnation as a theological rather than anthropological event. The primacy of Christ, held by Franciscan theologians, provides an integral relationship between Christ and creation. From this

Ilia Delio O. S. F

2007-01-01

267

Biological Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

1997-01-01

268

Micromodule Life Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on a micromodule life test program to determine the Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of a typical analog and a typical digital micromodule when tested for ten-thousand (10,000) hours under load at elevated temperature. The causes of microm...

F. E. Farmer

1966-01-01

269

Advanced Cardiac Life Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

270

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

271

Learning from Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is currently widespread interest in exploring the opportunities to develop learning that can be delivered in three-dimensional multiuser virtual environments (3-D MUVEs). In this paper, I argue for the need to conduct research into the emerging cultures of use in 3-D MUVEs, focussing on the example of Second Life. Drawing on social and…

Bell, David

2009-01-01

272

Life Change Clusters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of life stress, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Experience (SRE), has been shown to be related to the onset of illness. This instrument was originally developed with a civilian population, and it became apparent that some questions were inappropriate when it was to be applied to a military population. Furthermore, it was believed…

Pugh, William M.; And Others

273

Symposium: Student Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To get an inside view of campus life today, the Intercollegiate Studies Institute (whose purpose is to foster in college students an appreciation of the values that sustain a free society) was approached and asked to supply a list of their Collegiate Network editors--students who are active on their campuses, interested in the issues facing higher…

Academic Questions, 2010

2010-01-01

274

Web Of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation game where students represent plants and animals living in a forest habitat. Sitting in a circle, they connect themselves using string to represent the ways they depend on each other. As they make connections, the string forms a web of life. They will also learn what occurs when an invasive species enters their environment.

Resources, Wisconsin D.

2012-05-12

275

The encyclopedia of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative biology, crossing the digital divide, has begun a still largely unheralded revolution: the exploration and analysis of biodiversity at a vastly accelerated pace. Its momentum will return systematics from its long sojourn at the margin and back into the mainstream of science. Its principal achievement will be a single-portal electronic encyclopedia of life.

Edward O. Wilson

2003-01-01

276

Ingredients for Life: Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon is the basis of all organic molecules. It is also one of the most abundant elements in the universe. This video segment illustrates the special characteristics of carbon that make it an essential ingredient for life. The segment is one minute thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2011-07-22

277

Life History and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

Tierney, William G.

2013-01-01

278

Life in the Galaxy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origin of life on the basis of information about cosmic evolution, stellar alchemy, atmospheric histories, and rise and fall of civilizations. Indicates that man's contact with other civilizations in our galaxy may be made possible through studies of interstellar communication. (CC)

Oliver, B. M.

1973-01-01

279

[Patents on life? No patent on life!].  

PubMed

Inventions related to living material are in principle patentable as well as inventions in the "classical" fields of technology as long as they are new, industrially applicable and involve an inventive step. A patent gives to its owner for a limited period of time the exclusive right to prevent others from using his patented new technical know-how. Starting point of patent protection in the field of genetic engineering is a genetic information or a genetically induced characteristic of an organism; there is no such thing as a "Patent on Life". As far as inventions relate to genetically modified organisms, patents give to their owners no additional property rights that might exclude the applicability e.g. of the laws on animal protection. Intellectual property like any other property is subject to the limits set up by law. It is neither scientifically correct nor does it help in finding a solution for the conflict within society to shift the--undoubtedly necessary--discussion about research and application in the field of genetic engineering to a discussion about patent law. PMID:9581373

van Raden, L

1998-03-01

280

Life Sciences Accomplishments 1994  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division (LBSAD) serves the Nation's life sciences community by managing all aspects of U.S. space-related life sciences research and technology development. The activities of the Division are integral components of the Nation's overall biological sciences and biomedical research efforts. However, NASA's life sciences activities are unique, in that space flight affords the opportunity to study and characterize basic biological mechanisms in ways not possible on Earth. By utilizing access to space as a research tool, NASA advances fundamental knowledge of the way in which weightlessness, radiation, and other aspects of the space-flight environment interact with biological processes. This knowledge is applied to procedures and technologies that enable humans to live and work in and explore space and contributes to the health and well-being of people on Earth. The activities of the Division are guided by the following three goals: Goal 1) Use microgravity and other unique aspects of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. Goal 2) Develop the scientific and technological foundations for supporting exploration by enabling productive human presence in space for extended periods. Goal 3) Apply our unique mission personnel, facilities, and technology to improve education, the quality of life on Earth, and U.S. competitiveness. The Division pursues these goals with integrated ground and flight programs involving the participation of NASA field centers, industry, and universities, as well as interactions with other national agencies and NASA's international partners. The published work of Division-sponsored researchers is a record of completed research in pursuit of these goals. During 1993, the LBSAD instituted significant changes in its experiment solicitation and peer review processes. For the first time, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released requesting proposals for ground-based and flight research for all programs. Areas of particular interest to NASA were defined Proposals due April 29, 1994, will be peer reviewed - externally for scientific merit. This annual NRA process is now the mechanism for recruiting both extramural and intramural investigations. As an overview of LBSAD activities in 1993, this accomplishments document covers each of the major organizational components of the Division and the accomplishments of each. The second section is a review of the Space Life Sciences Research programs Space Biology, Space Physiology and Countermeasures, Radiation Health, Environmental Health, Space Human Factors, Advanced Life Support, and Global Monitoring and Disease Prediction, The third section, Research in Space Flight, describes the substantial contributions of the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission to life sciences research and the significant contributions of the other missions flown in 1993, along with plans for future missions. The Division has greatly expanded and given high priority to its Education and Outreach Programs, which are presented in the fourth section. The fifth and final section, Partners for Space, shows the Divisions Cooperative efforts with other national and international agencies to achieve common goals, along with the accomplishments of joint research and analysis programs.

Burnell, Mary Lou (Editor)

1993-01-01

281

Starship Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet would have cost similar to that of the Apollo program. Cost is reduced if a small crew travels slowly and lands with minimal equipment. We can go to the stars!

Jones, Harry W.

2009-01-01

282

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

283

It's My Life: Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's My Life, a PBS Kids Web-based educational series, offers 9-12 year olds a kid-friendly way to explore and share the issues in their lives. Depression is just one of many subjects addressed in It's My Life. Topics covered in this Web site include defining depression, recognizing the symptoms, understanding the causes, getting treatment, how to help a friend or parent who may be suffering from depression, and more. In addition to articles on these topics, the Web site provides interactive activities -- such as a quiz and a chat room -- that help kids further their understanding of the disease and reach out for help if needed. Offline activities include a printable journal page, a recommended reading list, and discussion questions that kids can take to a parent or friend.

2002-01-01

284

Bioenergetics and Life's Origins  

PubMed Central

Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis.

Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

2010-01-01

285

Life Changing Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Broadcasting Company recently aired Life Changing Science, "a four-part series examining innovations that have transformed our lives." This companion Web site offers fantastic interactive features to go along with each of the four radio broadcasts. Three of the four interactive "labs" focused on the life sciences. They include Virtual Open Heart Surgery, in which users can conduct a highly simplified version of the real procedure; In Vitro Fertilization, which offers an excellent overview of the IVF cycle; and Food Preservation, in which users can test how well they know their kitchen microbes. These interactive features are truly cool, although American readers must contend with the metric units used in Food Preservation. The site also includes audio of the original radio programs, which aired in June 2003.

286

Why did life emerge?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each time a new mechanism of energy transduction emerges, e.g., by random variation in syntheses, evolution prompts by punctuation and settles to a stasis when the accessed free energy has been consumed. The evolutionary course towards an increasingly larger energy transduction system accumulates a diversity of energy transduction mechanisms, i.e. species. The rate of entropy increase is identified as the fitness criterion among the diverse mechanisms, which places the theory of evolution by natural selection on the fundamental thermodynamic principle with no demarcation line between inanimate and animate.

Annila, Arto; Annila, Erkki

2008-10-01

287

Species' Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) provides these colorful pages summarizing different stages of several species's life cycles. Focusing on the interconnected and fragile nature of existence, this site features a half dozen species: Karner Blue Butterfly, Dwarf Wedgemussel, Chinook Salmon, Indiana Bat, Grizzly Bear, and Mauna Kea Silversword. This could serve as a fine supplement for introductory courses on basic ecology, population biology, conservation biology, or wildlife management.

288

Discover life: Insecta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource (for and by college students) is meant to be a taxonomic reference for all life. This section of the site focuses on the Insecta. The database is lucid key driven and includes valuable diagnostic and behavioral information about many insect groups as well as bibliographic references. This NSF-sponsored project includes work from the University of Guelph and Animal Diversity Web at the University of Michigan. Much of the site is considered a "skeleton" awaiting further contributions.

0002-11-30

289

Life Science Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Life Science Dictionary is a feature of BioTech (discussed in the January 12, 1996 Scout Report), a "hybrid biology/chemistry educational resource and research tool" located at Indiana University at Bloomington. This searchable database currently contains more than 8200 terms in biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, cell biology, and genetics. Also included are "some terms relating to ecology, limnology, pharmacology, toxicology and medicine." Users may search by keyword, word fragment, or phrase. Typical returns are concise but informative.

1998-01-01

290

Life down under.  

PubMed

LORRAINE DICKSON has led an eventful life. Since training as a nurse in Sydney in the 1970s she has married a Vietnam veteran, been forced from her home by a cyclone, worked in a prison, run a shop in a remote part of Australia and taught English to health workers in Hanoi. She has also studied for three degrees, and the finishing line for her professional doctorate is now in sight. PMID:24787947

Allen, Daniel

2014-04-30

291

Mean residual life processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yang and Hall and Wellner initiated investigations of the asymptotic uniform behaviour of mean residual life (MRL) processes. They obtained results holding true over fixed and expanding compact subintervals of $[0, \\\\infty)$.\\u000a¶ In this exposition we study MRL processes over the whole positive half-line $[0, \\\\infty)$. We describe classes of weight functions which enable us to establish the (a)

Miklós Csörg?

1996-01-01

292

Life Stress and Transitions in the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The traditional life cycle of human beings include infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Transitions exist within\\u000a each of the life cycles and such transitions produce stress. Life has many stressful life events that mark the movement from\\u000a one condition or cycle to another, and they produce substantial challenges in the lives of human beings. The purpose of this\\u000a volume is

Thomas W. Miller

293

Exploration Life Support Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project is now developing new technologies for the Vision for Space Exploration announced in 2004. ELS project development work is organized around the three major vehicles of the Exploration Program. The first vehicle is the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The ELS project will develop prototype hardware for this short duration orbital and trans-lunar vehicle s mission. The second vehicle is for sortie landings on the moon. Life support technology hardware for lunar surface access vehicles will include upgrades of existing CEV equipment and technologies to maximize commonality between the two vehicles as well as new technologies needed for the harsher thermal environments of the moon and the new element of dust. The third vehicle will be a longer duration lunar outpost. Crew stays of 180 days are planned for the lunar outpost. To minimize the need for consumables needed for resupply, a new set of hardware developments and processes better suited for long duration life support will be used. The water loop will be almost completely closed. The air revitalization will be partially closed. The outpost mission will have the continuous environment of 1/6th gravity making the separations of fluids and gases easier than the zero gravity for the CEV and orbital phases of lunar lander vehicles. This presentation will describe the planned technologies that are expected to be developed and considerations for how those technologies will be developed and demonstrated by the ELS project for these major program vehicles.

Lawson, B. Michael

2006-01-01

294

All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

2000

295

Life-Cycle Costing of Life Support Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study has been accomplished on applying life-cycle costing (LCC) to aircrew life support equipment (LSE). The AFLC Logistics Support Cost (LSC) model was examined and found to be too complex for application to life support devices (LSD). A p...

C. C. Petersen C. L. Moodie J. Posey G. Schulties J. Chen

1981-01-01

296

Spacelab Life Sciences Research Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes some of the life sciences research that was conducted on Spacelab missions. Dr. Larry Young, Director of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, provides an overview of the Life Sciences Spacelabs.

Sulzman, Frank; Young, Laurence R.; Seddon, Rhea; Ross, Muriel; Baldwin, Kenneth; Frey, Mary Anne; Hughes, Rod

2000-01-01

297

End-of-Life Decisions  

MedlinePLUS

... their end-of-life choices. Is it considered suicide to refuse artificial nutrition and hydration? No. When ... hydration, it is not considered an act of suicide. A person at the end of life is ...

298

Business and Life in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The life support systems in the machine called the Space Shuttle is discussed and later about life support systems in a little cocoon that is far smaller than the shuttle; the more common term is a space suit.

J. Allen

1990-01-01

299

Business and life in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life support systems in the machine called the Space Shuttle is discussed and later about life support systems in a little cocoon that is far smaller than the shuttle; the more common term is a space suit.

Allen, Joseph

1990-01-01

300

Life, Death, and Second Chances  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... that she was beginning to fear for her life. Was there any hope at all? Dr. Richard ...

301

"Control Your Diabetes. For Life."  

MedlinePLUS

... Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll- ...

302

The Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the whole process of the plant life cycle? 1) You will need to open the Flow Chart. Flow Chart 2) Be sure to print out your own Flow Chart so you can record your information. 3) Look at the chart of the Life Cycle and print out your own copy. Chart showing the steps of the life cycle 4) Record each step of the Plant Life Cycle in your Flow Chart starting ...

Kingsford, Ms.

2010-11-04

303

Life's Little Essential: Liquid Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Without liquid water, terrestrial life could not exist. All living organisms on Earth depend on water and its unique chemical and physical properties. In the search for life beyond Earth, scientists have focused their efforts on looking for signs of liquid water. This essay discusses the properties of liquid water that are conducive to life, pointing out that the biochemical reactions that sustain life need a fluid in order to operate, and that water is probably the best solvent in the universe.

2011-04-15

304

Early Life Exposures and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

305

Life's Little Essential: Liquid Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Without liquid water, terrestrial life could not exist. All living organisms on Earth depend on water and its unique chemical and physical properties. In the search for life beyond Earth, scientists have focused their efforts on looking for signs of liquid water. This essay discusses the properties of liquid water that are conducive to life, pointing out that the biochemical reactions that sustain life need a fluid in order to operate, and that water is probably the best solvent in the universe.

306

LifeSat - Program overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LifeSat is a reusable reentry satellite for use by NASA and the international space life sciences community. It will be employed beginning in late 1994, to understand the effects of the space environment (i.e., high energy space radiation and microgravity) on biological systems. This paper describes the program for LifeSat.

Gilbreath, William P.; Dunning, Robert W.; Richardson, Michael L.

1990-01-01

307

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

308

Life cycle inventory for cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of energy for cooking is one of the most important sectors for the energy consumption in India. Results of a life cycle inventory are presented for the use of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas as cooking fuels. The situation in India was investigated through life cycle inventories for the following stages of the life cycle: Extraction of crude

Niels Jungbluth; Markus Kollar; Volker Ko?

1997-01-01

309

Classifying Life: The Astrobiological Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will discuss efforts to define life. I will address how astrobiological research might allows us to conceptualise extreme conditions for life and thus allow us to give a much more nuanced definition of life. I also look at why this has ethical implications for society and humankin.

Tobin, E.

2013-09-01

310

The Early Years: "Life" Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2013-01-01

311

Educators Get a "Second Life"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For educators who think real life does not offer enough opportunities to practice their profession, there is Second Life, an Internet-based virtual environment that counts thousands of educators among its enthusiasts. Second Life bears a passing resemblance to an online game, with users represented by digitally drawn characters, called avatars,…

Trotter, Andrew

2008-01-01

312

News CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events

2009-05-01

313

Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator  

DOE Data Explorer

This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

John Sullivan

314

Drilling for Weird Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Featuring an interview with NASA scientist Carol Stoker, the article describes Rio Tinto, a river in Spain with highly acidic water the color or red wine, and explains why scientists are looking to the subsurface pyrite deposits near this river's edge for signs of microbial life. Stoker describes the field site and discusses some of the research team's early results. This is the first of a four-part interview series. The resource includes images from Rio Tinto and the Mars project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology

315

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

316

Surfing Second Life: What Does Second Life Have to Do with Real-Life Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second Life's unstructured atmosphere and wide-open spaces where student creativity can grow and flourish are two of the reasons Pepperdine University Professor Bill Moseley integrated the program into his curriculum. In this article, the author discusses how Second Life works and its challenges. Second Life is often described as a 3-D version of…

Oishi, Lindsay

2007-01-01

317

Venus: Water and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amphiboles that contain the hydroxide ion form only in the presence of water and this fact has become the way for scientists to prove that Venus was once a water world. Though, tremolite is considered the main mineral to look for, it requires life that is analogous to the ancient life here on Earth for it to form. Dolomite is the main ingredient for the formation of this low grade metamorphic mineral and without it would be very difficult for tremolite to form, unless there is another process that is unknown to science. Venus is known to have extensive volcanic features (over 1600 confirmed shield volcanoes dot its surface) and with little erosion taking place; a mineral that is associated with volcanism and forms only in the presence of water should be regarded as the main goal. Hornblende can form via volcanism or a metamorphic process but requires water for initial formation. The European Space Agency is currently trying to determine whether or not the continents on Venus' surface are made of granite, as they argue granite requires water for formation. Either way, computer models suggest that any oceans that formed on the surface would have lasted at best 2 billion years, as the surface is estimated to be only 800 million years old, any hornblende that would have formed is more than likely going to be deep underground. To find this mineral, as well as others, it would require a mission that has the ability to drill into the surface, as the easiest place to do this would be on the mountain peaks in the Northern Hemisphere on the Ishtar Terra continent. Through the process of uplift, any remaining hornblende may have been exposed or very near exposed to the surface. Do to the amount of fluorine in the atmosphere and the interaction between this and the lithosphere, the hydroxyl ions may have been replaced with fluorine turning the hornblende into the more stable fluoro-hornblende. To further add to the mystery of Venus is the unusual atmospheric composition. The presence of both sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide demand further research as these gases are not being replenished by any geologic activity. Both of these compounds are found is sufficient quantity in the cloud decks, but are almost nonexistent at the surface, further supporting the idea of a chemical reaction/process in the atmosphere. There are particles that have been detected in the atmosphere that seem to be absorbing UV radiation is also located at these same altitudes. Finding tremolite on Venus would only further excite the possibility that we are not alone in the universe. Could life on Venus be related to life here on Earth? Where in the Solar System did life originate? These are questions that would need serious thought if such an event took place. Finding hornblende on Venus would give further support to several theories, but finding tremolite would change everything.

Ditkof, J. F.

2013-05-01

318

Quality of life philosophy I. Quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life.  

PubMed

In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL). The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one"s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it "coherence". Maslow called it "transcendence". Frankl called it "meaning of life". We call it simply "being". To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with "quality of life as medicine" that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient"s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence. PMID:14646011

Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

2003-12-01

319

Work-Life Balance: How Life Coaching Can Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing dissatisfaction by the UK Government with the way that work increasingly dominates the lives of employees, particularly managers, at the expense of their family life, led to “Work-Life Balance Week”, part of the Government’s drive to encourage the idea of flexible working arrangements, family-friendly policies and the enhancement of employees’ lives. The Work-Life Balance campaign, launched in March

Stewart McIntosh

2003-01-01

320

Life on other worlds : the twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of illustrations; List of tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Life in the solar system; 3. Solar systems beyond; 4. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 5. The UFO controversy and the extraterrestrial hypothesis; 6. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 7. SETI: the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; 8. The meaning of life; 9. Summary and conclusion: the biological universe; Select bibliographical essay; Index.

Dick, Steven J.

1998-12-01

321

POV: Steam of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many hallmarks of Finnish life is the world of the sauna and its informal rituals. It is a place for men to explore their feelings, emotions, and their hopes and dreams. It is also the subject of this fascinating film presented as part of the POV series on PBS. Created by filmmakers Joonas Bergh'll and Mika Hotakainen, this 60-minute film looks into this rather fascinating aspect of Finnish culture. Visitors can watch the entire program here, and there are a host of additional features that round out the site. On the left-hand side, visitors will find additional photo galleries, a background essay, and a helpful "Are You Pronouncing Sauna Correctly?" primer. In the "Take Action" area, visitors can learn how to plan an event around this film and download a discussion guide. Teachers shouldn't miss the "For Educators" area, which includes a lesson plan and a reading list.

322

"A life worth living.".  

PubMed

Reviews the book, The Examined Life: How We Lose and Find Ourselves by Stephen Grosz (see record 2012-32542-000). Grosz, an American-born British analyst, has put together groupings of brief clinical vignettes drawn from his more than 25 years of psychoanalytic practice. He calculates he has spent more than 50,000 hours with patients, largely adults seen individually at four or five times a week for a number of years. Such a practice stands in stark contrast, of course, to what the majority of analysts in the United States find themselves doing. It speaks not only to a national health plan that makes long-term talk therapy affordable and commonplace, but also to a cultural rift. It suggests a British openness toward serious introspection in contrast to an American proclivity for the quick (and quickly forgotten?) fix. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24884341

Langan, Robert

2014-06-01

323

Life shocks and homelessness.  

PubMed

We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

2013-12-01

324

Koopmans' springs to life.  

PubMed

The meaning of orbital energies (OOEs) in Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) is subject to a longstanding controversy. In local, semilocal, and hybrid density functionals (DFs) a Koopmans' approach, where OOEs approximate negative ionization potentials (IPs), is unreliable. We discuss a methodology based on the Baer-Neuhauser-Livshits range-separated hybrid DFs for which Koopmans' approach "springs to life." The OOEs are remarkably close to the negative IPs with typical deviances of +/-0.3 eV down to IPs of 30 eV, as demonstrated on several molecules. An essential component is the ab initio motivated range-parameter tuning procedure, forcing the highest OOE to be exactly equal to the negative first IP. We develop a theory for the curvature of the energy as a function of fractional occupation numbers to explain some of the results. PMID:20025305

Salzner, Ulrike; Baer, Roi

2009-12-21

325

Life in the Cambrian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Cambrian fossil record, which indicates a distinct development from simple organisms to organisms comparable in morphology and organization to present-day animals. The development is documented by faunal assemblages represented by the Ediacara fauna, the first complex trace fossils, the earliest shelly faunas, and the onset of the typical Cambrian macrofaunas. This rapid evolution took place in an interval of less than 25 million years and the evolution from the first hard-part animals to the presence of most of the present-day phyla was restricted to an interval of probably less than 10 million years. Multicellular life evolved at an incredible speed and for this reason this part of organismal evolution is termed the Cambrian Explosion, or Evolutions Big Bang. The site describes each group of fossils and also the locations where the faunal assemblages were found.

326

Evolution of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

327

Cerebral palsy life expectancy.  

PubMed

The life expectancy of people who have perinatally acquired cerebral palsy can be similar to that of the general population, or it can be reduced substantially. The most important factors that are associated with reduced survival are disabilities of motor, cognitive, or visual functions. Prematurity and low birth weight are associated with lower rates of disability, and better survival. A 2-year-old who has severe cerebral palsy has about a 40% chance of living to age 20, in contrast to a child who has mild cerebral palsy, for whom the chance is 99%. Cerebral palsy, respiratory diseases, epilepsy, and congenital malformation are the most commonly recorded causes of early death. PMID:16765736

Hutton, Jane L

2006-06-01

328

Life in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a close-up look at biodiversity in a city park. The site opens by telling kids that, despite appearances, a great deal of biodiversity exists in cities. From tiny mites to mighty trees, thousands of species thrive there. It then takes them to a slice of life from a thriving city park, where they are asked to find 10 hidden critters living alongside the trees, plants, and insects. Each time they locate one of the tiny critters, they are rewarded with a quick look at its importance to the habitat.

329

The Life of Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Life of Mammals is a new 10-part BBC Nature series hosted by David Attenborough. This "biggest ever wildlife series devoted to mammals" has a suitably enormous companion Web site, which offers more interactive, multimedia features than you can imagine. Video previews, quizzes and challenges, Web cams, in-depth articles, recommended books -- the list goes on. Mammalian social behavior, body shape, intelligence, diet, and habitat comprise the main themes of this Web site, presented with so much dazzle as to cast aside any doubt that we as mammals find ourselves endlessly fascinating. Particularly engaging are the Web cams, including one for Margot the mouse and her new brood (born January 12, 2003).

2001-01-01

330

Life on the Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Expeditions Web site takes an in-depth look at life on one of the world's largest barrier reefs. The site begins with a brief explanation of the expedition and what its participants were looking to find. Dive the Reef is an interactive feature that allows students to learn what separates a lagoon from a reef from a shelf. Meet the Scientists has brief biographies of the 14 team members who participated in the expedition. At the Museum is an article that discusses the selection of the barrier reef system of Andros Island as well as the AMNH's long history of Bahamian research. The Reef from Space explains how NASA's computer-enhanced pictures from space contributed to the expedition's findings. The site also includes 12 dispatches written during the expedition, which can be found in the Today from the Bahamas section.

331

The Role of Bundle Sheath Extensions and Life Form in Stomatal Responses to Leaf Water Status1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure with currently little-understood functions. To test the hypothesis that BSEs reduce the hydraulic resistance from the bundle sheath to the epidermis (rbe) and thereby accelerate hydropassive stomatal movements, we compared stomatal responses with reduced humidity and leaf excision among 20 species with heterobaric or homobaric leaves and herbaceous or woody life forms. We hypothesized that low rbe due to the presence of BSEs would increase the rate of stomatal opening (V) during transient wrong-way responses, but more so during wrong-way responses to excision (Ve) than humidity (Vh), thus increasing the ratio of Ve to Vh. We predicted the same trends for herbaceous relative to woody species given greater hydraulic resistance in woody species. We found that Ve, Vh, and their ratio were 2.3 to 4.4 times greater in heterobaric than homobaric leaves and 2.0 to 3.1 times greater in herbaceous than woody species. To assess possible causes for these differences, we simulated these experiments in a dynamic compartment/resistance model, which predicted larger Ve and Ve/Vh in leaves with smaller rbe. These results support the hypothesis that BSEs reduce rbe. Comparison of our data and simulations suggested that rbe is approximately 4 to 16 times larger in homobaric than heterobaric leaves. Our study provides new evidence that variations in the distribution of hydraulic resistance within the leaf and plant are central to understanding dynamic stomatal responses to water status and their ecological correlates and that BSEs play several key roles in the functional ecology of heterobaric leaves.

Buckley, Thomas N.; Sack, Lawren; Gilbert, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

332

Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.  

PubMed

The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. Section 6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life. PMID:20162362

Gayon, Jean

2010-04-01

333

Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. §6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life.

Gayon, Jean

2010-04-01

334

Life extending control: A concept paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of Life Extending Control is defined. Life is defined in terms of mechanical fatigue life. A brief description is given of the current approach to life prediction using a local, cyclic, stress-strain approach for a critical system component. An alternative approach to life prediction based on a continuous functional relationship to component performance is proposed.Base on cyclic life prediction an approach to Life Extending Control, called the Life Management Approach is proposed. A second approach, also based on cyclic life prediction, called the Implicit Approach, is presented. Assuming the existence of the alternative functional life prediction approach, two additional concepts for Life Extending Control are presented.

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

1991-01-01

335

NOVA: How Did Life Begin?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interview from NOVA explores the "recipe of life", a combination of specific elements that interacted to form life on Earth. It features Andrew Knoll, a Harvard professor of biology, who answers questions about early life forms and how life evolved from fundamental chemical building blocks involving a handful of elements. Editor's Note This article provides insight into the chemistry of life and explores life from a framework of "planetary processes". The presentation is engaging and clear enough for secondary students to understand. See Related Materials for a link to an interactive version of the famous 1953 Miller-Urey experiment, in which biochemistry students combined methane, water vapor, hydrogen, and ammonia....then introduced an electric charge. The result: amino acids (the building blocks of protein) were created.

2011-08-22

336

Life sciences payloads for Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

Dunning, R. W.

1974-01-01

337

Extended mission life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

Quattrone, P. D.

1985-01-01

338

Life's chirality from prebiotic environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key open question in the study of life is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: almost every life-form on Earth has exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. Will the same handedness be preferred if life is found elsewhere? We review some of the pertinent literature and discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events. In one scenario, autocatalytic prebiotic reactions undergo stochastic fluctuations due to environmental disturbances, in a mechanism reminiscent of evolutionary punctuated equilibrium: short-lived destructive events may lead to long-term enantiomeric excess. In another, chiral-selective polymerization reaction rates influenced by environmental effects lead to substantial chiral excess even in the absence of autocatalysis. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has implications to the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic (chirally neutral) on average.

Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

2012-10-01

339

Biological life-support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment of human living environments by biologic methods, utilizing the appropriate functions of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms is examined. Natural biologic systems discussed in terms of modeling biologic life support systems (BLSS), the structure of biologic life support systems, and the development of individual functional links in biologic life support systems are among the factors considered. Experimental modeling of BLSS in order to determine functional characteristics, mechanisms by which stability is maintained, and principles underlying control and regulation is also discussed.

Shepelev, Y. Y.

1975-01-01

340

The evolution of late life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late life is a distinct phase of life characterized by a cessation in the deterioration of survivorship and fecundity characteristic of normal aging. Several theories have been proposed to explain non-aging at late ages, specifically with regards to late-life mortality-rate plateaus. All such theories must be compatible with formal evolutionary theory and experimental findings. Here, we develop a critique of

Casandra L. Rauser; Laurence D. Mueller; Michael R. Rose

2006-01-01

341

Searching for Life on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the search for life on Mars. Learners will participate in three activities. In the first activity (Imaginary Martians) learners will compare a fictional organism with what they know about life on Mars today. In the second activity (Looking for Life), learners will define important features of a living organism and use them to analyze three different soil samples. In the third activity (Mars Critters), learners will design a plant or animal life form that might survive on Mars. This is lesson 6 of 24 in a collection, titled Mars Activities.

342

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

343

Originism - Ethics and Extraterrestrial Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How should we treat extraterrestrial life, if we ever find it, and does a different origin of life imply a different ethical status? The most likely source of an ethical difference, or `originism,' is the inability to find a coherent definition of `life,' required to assess moral relevance in the first place. Although from a normative point of view biochemical architecture, in itself, does not provide a reason for a difference, there are numerous positions that might encourage us to treat an independent origin of life differently to life that is related to life on Earth. For example, from an instrumental point of view it would provide an opportunity to study another biological data point; it will be a new source of information about the evolution of life, and thus it might be afforded special status. We might consider extraterrestrial life to be special as prudence against the possibility of its mistreatment through an erroneous moral assessment of its worth. Whether extraterrestrial life exists of an independent origin or not, this analysis ultimately can provide a useful device for considering how we should treat entities on Earth whose status as `living' organisms is disputed, specifically viruses.

Cockell, C. S.

344

Halophilic life on Mars ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: The search for extraterrestrial life has been declared as a goal for the 21th century by several space agencies. Potential candidates are microorganisms on or in the surface of moons and planets, such as Mars. Extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are of astrobiological interest since viable strains have been isolated from million years old salt deposits (1) and halite has been found in Martian meteorites and in surface pools. Therefore, haloarchaeal responses to simulated and real space conditions were explored. Immuno assays for a potential Life Marker Chip experiment were developed with antisera against the universal enzyme ATP synthase. Methods: The focus of these studies was on the application of fluorescent probes since they provide strong signals, and detection devices are suitable for miniaturization. Viability of haloarchaeal strains (Halococcus dombrowskii and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1) was probed with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit and the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the DNA, following exposure to simulated and real space conditions (UV irradiation from 200 - 400 nm; 18 months exposure on the International Space Station [ISS] within the ADAPT experiment by Dr. P. Rettberg), were detected with fluorescent Alexa-Fluor-488-coupled antibodies. Immuno assays with antisera against the A-ATPase subunits from Halorubrum saccharovorum were carried out with the highly sensitive Immun-Star ™ WesternC ™ chemiluminescent kit (Bio-Rad). Results: Using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit, the D37 (dose of 37% survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii and Hbt. salinarum NRC-1, following exposure to UV (200-400 nm) was about 400 kJ/m2, when cells were embedded in halite and about 1 kJ/m2, when cells were in liquid cultures. Fluorescent staining indicated a slightly higher cellular activity than that which was derived from the determination of colony forming units. Assessment of viability with the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit gave strong signals with Hcc. dombrowskii and the control microorganism E. coli; as expected, the uncoupler CCCP diminished the membrane potential. Reaction times were generally longer with Hcc. dombrowskii than with E. coli. Hcc. dombrowskii from the ISS experiment showed > 80% viable cells when judged with the LIVE/DEAD kit. CPD formation was detectable in about 3-5 % of the total cells. It is not yet known if growing cells of Hcc. dombrowskii were recovered from the ISS. ATPase subunits were detected in crude membrane preparations, in whole haloarchaeal and bacterial cells, and even in spores (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus), suggesting the usefulness of the ATP synthase as a molecular target for life detection. Conclusions: Fluorescent dyes provide strong signals, which are suitable for remote detection and are compatible with high ionic strength. The advantages of staining with fluorescent dyes are rapid results on membrane intactness, membrane potential, and the presence of certain biomolecules. But more data are needed for a better correlation to cellular viability. (1) Stan-Lotter H, Pfaffenhuemer M, Legat A, Busse H-J, Radax C, Gruber C (2002) Halococcus dombrowskii sp. nov., an archaeal isolate from a Permian alpine salt deposit. Int System Evol Microbiol 52, 1807-1814.

Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Holzinger, Anita; Polacsek, Tatjana K.; Legat, Andrea; Grösbacher, Michael; Weigl, Andreas

2010-05-01

345

Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

Tierney, William G.

2010-01-01

346

Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen

1996-01-01

347

Diversity of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students perform library research on an assigned marine animal, create a formatted poster of their topic, and share with their classmates what they've learned in a poster session, conducted in the way of poster sessions at science conferences. Afterward, students complete a written assignment where they are asked to reflect on their experience as a participant in a community of science students, their focused learning on their own marine animal, their larger learning about the diversity of marine life from their poster session participation, and what it implies about the intrinsic value of the ocean realm, and the need for conservation. The outcomes for this assignment are aligned with course-specific outcomes articulated in the Minnesota Transfer Curriculum. They are: Synthesize central concepts from assigned readings of scientific literature in written assignments. Discuss/compare characteristics of diverse environments in the context of ocean science. Interpret data generated by oceanographic techniques, and present written and oral summaries of their findings. Explain the basic structure and function of the ocean realm, the impact of humans on it, and the impact of the ocean realm on humans.

Kobilka, David

348

The papillomavirus life cycle.  

PubMed

Papillomaviruses infect epithelial cells, and depend on epithelial differentiation for completion of their life cycle. The expression of viral gene products is closely regulated as the infected basal cell migrates towards the epithelial surface. Expression of E6 and E7 in the lower epithelial layers drives cells into S-phase, which creates an environment that is conducive for viral genome replication and cell proliferation. Genome amplification, which is necessary for the production of infectious virions, is prevented until the levels of viral replication proteins rise, and depends on the co-expression of several viral proteins. Virus capsid proteins are expressed in cells that also express E4 as the infected cell enters the upper epithelial layers. The timing of these events varies depending on the infecting papillomavirus, and in the case of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), on the severity of neoplasia. Viruses that are evolutionarily related, such as HPV1 and canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), generally organize their productive cycle in a similar way, despite infecting different hosts and epithelial sites. In some instances, such as following HPV16 infection of the cervix or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection of domestic rabbits, papillomaviruses can undergo abortive infections in which the productive cycle of the virus is not completed. As with other DNA tumour viruses, such abortive infections can predispose to cancer. PMID:15753007

Doorbar, John

2005-03-01

349

Is ``Silicate Life'' Possible?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simplest theory of chemical reactions (including also structural isomerisation reactions) is based on the model of potential barrier overcoming which separates combining states (chemical forms) of molecular objects. In a more complicated model not only the zero but other oscillation level positions are taken into account that in the theory of temperature reactions leads to the statistical sum changes on the states. In all traditional models only energetic factors are taken into consideration. A close structural similarity of some organic and silicon organic compositions (for example, paraffins and silans) and similarity of electron building of carbon and silicon atoms, that also reflects in the similarity of their atomic orbitals, were noticed by researchers long ago. These options cause an idea of a possibility of what can be called “the silicate life”. In connection with new visions at the mechanism of the elementary act at chemical reactions there was an opportunity to consider some chemical factors which influence the run of the reactions that earlier had slipped out from the attention.

Gribov, L.; Baranov, V.; Magarshak, Yu.

350

This American Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While most subscribers to the Scout Report may have heard of Chicago Public Radio's own "This American Life" radio program, those who have not may truly appreciate an introduction to their delightful website. Since the show debuted in 1995, it has garnered a great deal of critical acclaim, both for its straight-ahead approach to crafting a narrative and for its diverse set of guest commentators, which include Sarah Vowell and David Sedaris, among others. Visitors to the site can learn about the show's host, Ira Glass on the "About Us" section, then proceed to the "Favorites" area to get a sense of what the show is all about. Some of the episodes featured here include the story of the people who come in and out of Chicago diner in a 24-hour period and the rather complex story that surrounded a yacht that supposedly belonged to Adolf Hitler. Of course, visitors can listen to all of these programs here in their archive, along with many others.

351

Second Thoughts about Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

Bugeja, Micheal J.

2007-01-01

352

Second Thoughts about Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

Bugeja, Michael J.

2008-01-01

353

Desperately seeking life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans appear to be obsessed with the idea of finding life on Mars and have latched on to any evidence—however improbable—that might support its existence. Charting the history of the often deceptive scientific (not to mention literary) findings made about Mars, this viewpoint suggests that our desire to find extraterrestrial life says more about the human need for companionship and

Steve Connor

2002-01-01

354

The Psychology of Life Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest among theorists and researchers in autobiographical recollections, life stories, and narrative approaches to understanding human behavior and experience. An important development in this context is D. P. McAdams's life story model of identity (1985, 1993, 1996), which asserts that people living in modern societies provide their lives with unity and purpose by

Dan P. McAdams

2001-01-01

355

Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To determine the nature of this relationship, personality constructs known to predict life satisfaction were also assessed (positive and negative affect). Emotional intelligence was assessed in 107 participants using a modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS; Salovey, P, Mayer, J., Goldman, S., Turvey, C. & Palfai, T.1995.

Benjamin Palmer; Catherine Donaldson; Con Stough

2002-01-01

356

The search for alien life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life

M. Meyer

2004-01-01

357

Computer aided life cycle engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in the Computer Aided Life Cycle Engineering (CALC) research program at the University of Maryland, USA are reported. The CALCE system program is a computer application of the Unified Life Cycle Engineering (ULCE) design process. ULCE differs from the traditional design process in that consideration is given to design issues such as performance, cost, schedule, supportability and producibility in

G. Braunberg; J. Naft; M. Pecht; R. L. Madison

1988-01-01

358

Life Science. A Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life science curriculum is designed to promote the development of healthy living habits. Emphasis is placed on problems of major concern in the daily life of students and on significant problems in modern society. The curriculum is designed for students enrolled in the coordinated vocational education and training for disadvantaged and…

Spann, Margaret; Cowan, Connie

359

Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

Kaur, Preeti

2011-01-01

360

Life sciences on the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin,

G. Horneck

1996-01-01

361

Detection of life in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft experiments and equipment to detect extraterrestrial life outside earth centers on observations of chemical compounds similar to amino acids and proteins, on signs of metabolism in the form of nutrient absorption, and life form impressions in fossiles or signs of civilization.

Corliss, W.

1974-01-01

362

How Did Life Emerge Here?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA describes the emergence of life on the islands of Hawaiʻi from a barren volcanic platform under the ocean waves to the rich explosion of life that covers the many climate zones of the islands today.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

363

Ecology: accumulating threats to life  

SciTech Connect

The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

Peterson, R.W.

1980-04-01

364

Ethical Issues in Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many unethical and illegal behaviors that take place in Second Life. This article offers several scenarios which represent some of these behaviors, including copyright infringement. It is hoped that the reader will understand how copyright infringement fits in with other unethical behaviors in Second Life. (Contains 20 resources.)

Botterbusch, Hope R.; Talab, R. S.

2009-01-01

365

Life Cycle of a Pencil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

Reeske, Mike

2000-01-01

366

Education and a Meaningful Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone will agree that education ought to prepare young people to lead a meaningful life, but there are different ways in which this notion can be understood. A religious interpretation has to be distinguished from the secular one on which this paper focuses. Meaningfulness in this non-religious sense is a necessary condition of a life of…

White, John

2009-01-01

367

Life sciences and Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

1990-01-01

368

Life Style Assessment: So What!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

Aubry, William E.

369

Custom Orthotics Changed My Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narrator relates his life's downward spiral and miraculous rebound from severe foot problems using animated bullet points, images, charts, and graphs. "Custom Orthotics Changed My Life" is a work of presentation fiction, or slideshow fiction, in the form of a video with an original soundtrack. The music was composed by David Kettler, a…

Holeton, Richard

2010-01-01

370

Roots: The Life Space Pioneers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with troubled…

James, Adrienne Brant

2008-01-01

371

Life Stress and Academic Burnout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life

Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

2014-01-01

372

A "Second Life" for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about the 3D virtual world known as Second Life and its potential as a learning platform. In the last few years, many colleges, universities, and libraries have established resources in what has become the preeminent multiuser virtual environment. Today, more than 100 Second Life "regions" are used for educational…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

373

"Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

Tellnes, Atle

1992-01-01

374

Instant messaging in teen life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instant Messaging (IM) is being widely adopted by teenagers. In a study of 16 teenage IM users, we explore IM as an emerging feature of teen life, focusing our questions on its support of interpersonal communication and its role and salience in everyday life. We qualitatively describe the teens' IM use interpersonally, as well as its place in the domestic

Rebecca E. Grinter; Leysia Palen

2002-01-01

375

An Ecological View: Earth = Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Earth” rather than “organism” expresses “the way Nature works” where the phenomena of “life” are concerned, and so Earth is the more meaningful symbol of Life. This concept broadens and moves the focus of highest value from organisms, including Homo sapiens sapiens, to the creative, encompassing world: the Ecosphere, Nature, Planet Earth. Such a shift emphasizes the fact that biodiversity

J. Stan Rowe

2002-01-01

376

The evolution of complex life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

Billingham, J.

1985-01-01

377

Extraterrestrial life in the universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that life exists elsewhere in the universe, even in our own planetary system, has intrigued scientists, philosophers, and theologians for centuries. The spaceflight programs of NASA have provided much new information about our planetary neighbors and have put to rest some speculations about the existence of life on those planets or their satellites. However, there are still undetermined questions about the possibility of some form of life existing in the far distant past in our planetary system. Beyond our planetary system, the astronomical quest for scientific clues about life continues, largely via the radio telescope. Thus far there is no conclusive evidence. Here, some of the recent findings about our planetary neighbors are reviewed and the question about life elsewhere in the universe is addressed.

Graham, Robert W.

1990-01-01

378

The Evolution of Complex Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

Billingham, John

1989-01-01

379

Extended mission life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life support systems employed in manned space missions have generally been based on the use of expendables, such as, for instance, liquid oxygen. For the conducted space missions, such systems have advantages related to volume, weight, and economy of power consumption. However, this situation will change in connection with Shuttle Orbiter missions of extended duration, permanent manned facilities in low-earth orbit, and ultimately manned planetary vehicles. A description is given of suitable regenerative life support systems for such extended manned space missions. Attention is given to advanced life support systems technology, air revitalization, CO2 reduction, oxygen generation, nitrogen generation, trace contaminant control, air revitalization system integration, control/monitor instrumentation, water reclamation, solid waste management, manned testing and life support integration, an enhanced duration orbiter, a space operations center, manned interplanetary life support systems, and future development requirements.

Quattrone, P. D.

1984-01-01

380

Charting Ingredients for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrum Charts Light from a Faraway Galaxy

This graph, or spectrum, charts light from a faraway galaxy located 10 billion light years from Earth. It tracks mid-infrared light from an extremely luminous galaxy when the universe was only 1/4 of its current age.

Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They reveal the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that make up a galaxy and contribute to its light.

Spitzer's infrared spectrometer identified characteristic fingerprints of complex organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, illustrated in the artist's concept in the inset. These large molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are considered among the building blocks of life.

Scientists determined it took 10 billion years for photons from this galaxy to reach Spitzer's infrared eyes. These complex carbon and hydrogen molecules are from a young galaxy which is undergoing intense star formation, at the time the universe was only 3.5 billion years old.

These distant galaxies with enormous amounts of gas being converted into young stars are some of the most luminous objects in the sky. Enshrouded by dust, they are only faint, inconspicuous little dots in optical images. They are as bright as 10 trillion suns put together and 10 times brighter than starburst galaxies seen in our local universe.

This prompts a fascinating question as to what physical process is driving such enormous energy production in these galaxies when the universe is so young.

These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in August and September 2004.

2005-01-01

381

The LIFE Picture Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this is a commercial site with pictures and images for sale, users can nonetheless view and appreciate one of "the most extraordinary collections of pictures in the world" at The Picture Collection from Time, Inc. An initial free registration is required, and after that users need only log on to gain access to over 22 million images, including illustrations, prints, and photographs. Archival materials from many popular magazines are available here, including images from Time, Life, Sports Illustrated, People, and Entertainment Weekly, as well as material from the recently acquired Mansell Collection. "Mansell photographs date from the beginnings of the medium in the 1840s through World War II [and] depict a vast range of scenics, important news events, and historical personalities, with a special emphasis on art and architecture. In addition, the new Mansell Collection includes extraordinary holdings of engraved illustrations, lithographs, and drawings predating the advent of photographic imaging." In addition to a key word search function, The Picture Collection offers a special searching and licensing program that lets you search for and store materials in "Lightboxes" of your own creation for later use; these are similar to folders that one might use in a conventional software setting. The program also calculates licensing fees for images based on what type of usage is intended (newspaper, magazine, Website, etc.). Research help is available for those users who would like someone else to do the searching, with one half-hour of free research offered initially. After that, a fee of 85 dollars an hour is charged; some or all of this fee may be waived if one or more images are licensed. An excellent help section rounds out this site and makes perusing this amazing (if somewhat overwhelming) collection even more pleasurable.

382

Life Cycle of Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

1999-01-01

383

Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards.

Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

2013-01-01

384

The essence of life purpose.  

PubMed

Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings. PMID:19300082

Hodges, Pamela J

2009-01-01

385

A year in the life of eLife  

PubMed Central

Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year.

Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M

2013-01-01

386

Quality of Life and Functional Status across the Life Course.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Behavioral Center of Excellence in Breast Cancer contains three separate, but related research projects focused on breast cancer patients quality of life and functional status. There is also a Biostatistics's Core Facility supporting all three studie...

M. J. Naughton

2007-01-01

387

It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?  

PubMed

"It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The warranty of the future child's physical integrity and health, an integral and inseparable part of the contract, should form the basis of the child's cause of action. PMID:18354869

Perry, Ronen

2007-11-01

388

Life as a cosmic imperative?  

PubMed

The origin of life on Earth may be divided into two stages separated by the first appearance of replicable molecules, most probably of RNA. The first stage depended exclusively on chemistry. The second stage likewise involved chemistry, but with the additional participation of selection, a necessary concomitant of inevitable replication accidents. Consideration of these two processes suggests that the origin of life may have been close to obligatory under the physical-chemical conditions that prevailed at the site of its birth. Thus, an extrasolar planet in which those conditions were replicated appears as a probable site for the appearance of extra-terrestrial life. PMID:21220285

de Duve, Christian

2011-02-13

389

Lubricant effects on bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1986-01-01

390

A small life in detail.  

PubMed

End-of-life care for extremely low-birth-weight newborns is complex. Newborns cannot be informed or make personal choices. Uncertainty in outcomes as well as defining futility can make decisions about withdrawing or withholding care nebulous. Major ethical, legal and professional problems can arise when clinicians are not skilled in extending end-of-life care to include the family, healthcare team and all involved. The competent, caring and compassionate clinician can often facilitate a positive outcome in end-of-life experiences. PMID:15608623

Muraskas, Jonathan

2005-01-01

391

Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with,

Shannen L. Robson; Bernard Wood

2008-01-01

392

Environmental policy for long-life pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses life-cycle assessment to evaluate the role of long-life pavements in achieving environmental goals. The success of such pavements in reducing environmental impacts over their life cycle hinges on their ability to serve their intended purpose for their design life. Those pavements that do serve for their entire design life offer extreme longevity at only a marginal environmental

Nicholas J. Santero; John Harvey; Arpad Horvath

2011-01-01

393

Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

394

Where to Look for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine environment cards that describe planets and moons in terms of their temperature and atmosphere and the availability of water, energy, and nutrients. They then select the best candidates to search for life.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-08-28

395

Basic Life Support (BLS) Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Instruction establishes policy, prescribes procedures, and assigns responsibility for training requirements for Basic Life Support for health care personnel within the Department of Defense medical and dental treatment facilities (MTFs and DTFs).

B. Ramsey

1987-01-01

396

Last Days of Life (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

397

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

398

Tree of Life Workshop Report  

NSF Publications Database

... Development meets Tree Of Life What are the most exciting questions in the Evolution of Development ... the key questions about the Evolution of Development? How does the community exploit these increased ...

399

Humor and creative life styles.  

PubMed

This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883

Richman, J

2001-01-01

400

Life Sciences Flight Experiments Microcomputer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A promising microcomputer configuration for the Spacelab Life Sciences Lab. Equipment inventory consists of multiple processors. One processor's use is reserved, with additional processors dedicated to real time input and output operations. A simple form ...

P. N. Bartram

1987-01-01

401

Kids and Teachers Love LIFE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Electric Project LIFE Program is described as incorporating motivational learning principles that make it attractive to hearing impaired students, other handicapped students and non-handicapped students alike. (GW)

Pfau, Glenn S.

1975-01-01

402

Life in Tropical Rain Forests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the diversity of rain forest life, the adaptations of rain forest plants and animals, and ways these organisms interact. Includes activities on canopy critters with a copyable sheet, rain forest revue, design a plant, and jungle sleuths. (RT)

NatureScope, 1989

1989-01-01

403

Definitely Life but not Definitively  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative usefulness as aids to arriving at a scientific definition of life. We look at some of the more recent definitions and analyse them in the light of our criteria for a good definition. We argue that since there are so many linguistic and philosophical difficulties with such a definition of life, what is needed is a series of working descriptions, which are suited to the audience and context in which they are used and useful for the intended purpose. We provide some ideas and examples of the forms these may take.

Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Randall S.

2006-12-01

404

Living Life as a Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson, students investigate how plants respond to their environment. They also explore adaptations, such as how some plants are adapted to life in the desert and why some plants trap and digest insects.

2007-08-09

405

Is There Life on Mars?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a conflict scenario for a case study on whether there is evidence of past life on Mars. Includes details about the use of this case study in developing an interdisciplinary approach to scientific ethics. (DDR)

Allen, Bruce C.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

1998-01-01

406

Building the Encyclopedia of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a collaborative project that indexes information about species, and makes it freely accessible to anyone. In order to accomplish this, EOL is building collaborative tools and infrastructure to unify the information.

Mangiafico, P. A.; Patterson, D. J.

2010-04-01

407

Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

Roman, Monserrate C.

2009-01-01

408

Chemical Kinetics: half-life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that emphasizes graphical interpretation of chemical kinetics. The half-life is measured for various initial concentrations for zero-, first-, and second-order reactions. The data is analyzed graphically to determine the relationship between the half-life and reactant concentration for each order reaction and to determine the rate constant for each reaction. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

409

Half life of 175Hf.  

PubMed

This work measured the half life of radioisotope (175)Hf, which was produced by neutron activation method at the ZF-300-II Intense Neutron Generator in Lanzhou University. The half life of (175)Hf, measured by ?-ray spectrometry using a well calibrated GEM-60P coaxial High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, has been found to be 70.65±0.19 days. The present result agrees with the literature data well, while the accuracy was improved. PMID:22871434

Fang, Kaihong; Wang, Dawei; Yang, Shaobo; Zhao, Jiangtao; Peng, Haibo; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Tieshan

2012-10-01

410

Skylab astronaut life support assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative study was performed to define an optimum portable life support system for suited operations inside and outside the Skylab Program. Emphasis was placed on utilization of qualified equipment, modified versions of qualified equipment, and new systems made up to state-of-the-art components. Outlined are the mission constraints, operational modes, and evaluation ground rules by which the Skylab portable life support system was selected and the resulting design.

Brown, J. T.

1972-01-01

411

Microbial genomes: Blueprints for life  

SciTech Connect

Complete microbial genome sequences hold the promise of profound new insights into microbial pathogenesis, evolution, diagnostics, and therapeutics. From these insights will come a new foundation for understanding the evolution of single-celled life, as well as the evolution of more complex life forms. This report is an in-depth analysis of scientific issues that provides recommendations and will be widely disseminated to the scientific community, federal agencies, industry and the public.

Relman, David A.; Strauss, Evelyn

2000-12-31

412

Life tables for worker honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Life tables for worker honeybees covering all life span, and those for adults, were prepared for three seasonal cohorts,June bees, July bees andwintering bees. Survivorship curves forJune andJuly bees show a convex type being exceptional for insects, with relatively high mortality at egg and feeding larval stages and at\\u000a later adult stage after most bees became potential foragers. Adult longevity

Shôichi F. Sakagami; Hiromi Fukuda

1968-01-01

413

A Woman's Life Before Serving Life: Examining the Negative Pre-Incarceration Life Events of Female Life-Sentenced Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increase in the number of females incarcerated, there is a paucity of research concerning female life-sentenced inmates in the United States. Using a nationally representative data set containing the largest known sample of this population, the present research examines the pre-incarceration traumatic experiences of female life-sentenced inmates. The results indicate that these women are more likely to experience

Margaret E. Leigey; Katie L. Reed

2010-01-01

414

Enteric pathogens through life stages  

PubMed Central

Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”).

Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

2012-01-01

415

Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

416

Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's astrobiology program should include a search for exotic life forms having an unearthly biochemistry in our solar system and beyond. Exotic life forms may have biochemistry totally unlike that of Earth organisms. Alien life forms may be disturbingly...

H. Jones

2004-01-01

417

Life Extending Control for Rocket Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of life extending control is defined. A brief discussion of current fatigue life prediction methods is given and the need for an alternative life prediction model based on a continuous functional relationship is established. Two approaches to ...

C. F. Lorenzo J. R. Saus A. Ray M. Carpino M. Wu

1992-01-01

418

Space life sciences: A status report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific research and supporting technology development conducted in the Space Life Sciences Program is described. Accomplishments of the past year are highlighted. Plans for future activities are outlined. Some specific areas of study include the following: Crew health and safety; What happens to humans in space; Gravity, life, and space; Sustenance in space; Life and planet Earth; Life in the Universe; Promoting good science and good will; Building a future for the space life sciences; and Benefits of space life sciences research.

1990-01-01

419

Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.  

PubMed

When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near. PMID:24354330

Carpenter, Brian D

2014-01-01

420

Social inequality in the later life: cross-national comparison of quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses quality of life and inequality in old age in an international comparative and a life course perspective. Quality of life is seen as an outcome of unequal chances in life. We distinguish between overall and domain specific expressions of quality of life which allows us to analyse the determinants of overall quality of life and their development

Andreas Motel-Klingebiel; Hans-Joachim von Kondratowitz; Clemens Tesch-Römer

2004-01-01

421

LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.  

PubMed

Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10?? in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

2012-08-01

422

The Search for Life on Other Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The search for life in the universe; 2. Impacts, extinctions, and the earliest history of life on Earth; 3. The history of the Earth; 4. The Earth's geological record and the earliest life; 5. Energy and life in unique environments on Earth; 6. Origin of life on Earth; 7. Requirements for extraterrestrial life; 8. Is life on Mars possible?; 9. Possible fossil life in meteorites from Mars; 10. Implanting life on Mars; 11. The exobiology of Venus; 12. Titan - a natural exobiology laboratory?; 13. Exobiology in the Jupiter system; 14. Formation of planets around other stars; 15. Searching for planets around other stars; 16. The habitability of planets around other stars; 17. Intelligent life in the universe; 18. Life in the universe; Additional reading and bibliography; Index.

Jakosky, Bruce

1998-10-01

423

Game of life on phyllosilicates: Gliders, oscillators and still life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines - silicon nodes and oxygen nodes - which mimics structure of the phyllosilicate. A node takes states 0 and 1. Each node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon) or six (oxygen) neighbours. Phyllosilicate automata exhibit localisations attributed to Conway's Game of Life: gliders, oscillators, still lifes, and a glider gun. Configurations and behaviour of typical localisations, and interactions between the localisations are illustrated.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2013-10-01

424

Evidence for Ancient Martian Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three SNC meteorites ranging in age from 4.5 Ga. to 1.3 Ga. to 165 m.y. contain features suggestive, of past biogenic activity on Mars. Because we do not know what past martian life looks like or its physical or chemical properties, the only tools or criteria which the scientific community have to evaluate evidence of past life is to use evidence for early life on earth. There are features within ALH8400 I's carbonate globules and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration phases of Nakhla and Shergotty which have been interpreted as possible evidence for past life on early Mars. Eight criteria have been established for the recognition of past life within terrestrial geologic samples. They are: (a) geologic context; (b) sample's age and stratigraphic location (c) cellular morphology; (d) colonies; (e) biominerals; (f) stable isotope patterns unique to biology; (g) organic biomarkers; (h) indigenous features to the sample. For general acceptance of past life, essentially most or all of these criteria must be met. Studies have shown conclusively that the reduced carbon components in ALH84001 and Nakhla are indigenous to the meteorites and are not terrestrial contaminants Based on carbon isotopic compositions and mineralogical morphologies, there is no question or disagreement that the carbonate globules or embedded magnetites in ALH84001 and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products in Nakhla and Shergotty were formed on Mars. Possible microfossil structures and some reduced carbon components in the carbonates and pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products are, therefore, almost certainly indigenous, but other possible evidence for life (e.g. amino acids) may be a result of terrestrial contamination Our hypothesis of possible early life on Mars was presented in August 1996. Today, we believe it stands stronger than when originally presented. To date, no fatal strikes have been made to any of our original four lines of evidence. While details of the hypothesis are evolving as new data is generated, we believe that our basic premise remains intact: these meteorites contains evidence suggestive of early life on Mars.

Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

1999-01-01

425

Space life sciences strategic plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the options to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy. The strategies detailed in this document are fully supportive of the Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee's 'A Rationale for the Life Sciences,' and the recent Aerospace Medicine Advisory Committee report entitled 'Strategic Considerations for Support of Humans in Space and Moon/Mars Exploration Missions.' Information contained within this document is intended for internal NASA planning and is subject to policy decisions and direction, and to budgets allocated to NASA's Life Sciences Program.

Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

1992-01-01

426

Advanced Life Support Project Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

2002-01-01

427

Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts  

PubMed Central

A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept of “life course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept of “life course” within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences of “life course events and transitions” and understanding the manner by which “life events” and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle.

2012-01-01

428

Early assembly of cellular life.  

PubMed

Popular hypotheses that attempt to explain the origin of prebiotic molecules and cellular life capable of growth and division are not always agreed upon. In this manuscript, information on early bacterial life on Earth is examined using information from several disciplines. For example, knowledge can be integrated from physics, thermodynamics, planetary sciences, geology, biogeochemistry, lipid chemistry, primordial cell structures, cell and molecular biology, microbiology, metabolism and genetics. The origin of life also required a combination of elements, compounds and environmental physical-chemical conditions that allowed cells to assemble in less than a billion years. This may have been widespread in the subsurface of the early Earth located at microscopic physical domains. PMID:12732262

Trevors, J T

2003-04-01

429

Game of Life JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. The Game of Life JS Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 5. It is distributed as a ready-to-run html page and requires only a browser with JavaScript support.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2013-09-05

430

Environmental control/life support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the life support systems technology used on projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle required an employment of expendables. Skylab was the only manned space project which made use of regenerable life support technology, taking into account the employment of a silica gel/molecular sieve for carbon dioxide removal. A number of investigations indicate that significant launch weight and volume as well as recurring cost savings can be realized by using regenerative life support processes for a Space Station. A number of developed regenerative processes are believed to be applicable to a Space Station. Aspects of air revitalization are discussed, taking into account carbon dioxide reduction, oxygen generation, trace contaminant control, temperature and humidity control, instrumentation, and nitrogen supply. Attention is also given to water reclamation, solid waste treatment, and future development and testing programs.

Quattrone, P. D.

1984-01-01

431

Optimization of data life cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

2014-06-01

432

Advances in Artificial Life - Impacts on Human Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents a series of interdisciplinary exchanges between the authors - one a psychologist and philosopher, the other a computer scientist- as they pondered some of the scientific and cultural challenges of the new millennium. The paper briefly reviews the closer-than-ever possibility of creating artificial life, intelligence and cultures brought about by recent developments in the fields of biology,

R. Krasnogor; N. Krasnogor

433

Using Second Life to Teach about Marketing in Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are compelling reasons for educators to consider incorporating virtual worlds (VWs) in their marketing curriculum. That said, the ways in which VWs can be implemented into the teaching curriculum are many and varied. This article reports on two studies in which notionally similar graduate classes are taught about marketing in Second Life

Halvorson, Wade; Ewing, Mike; Windisch, Lydia

2011-01-01

434

Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water-ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length.

Lehman, Niles

2013-12-01

435

Daily Life in Later Life: A Comparative Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time use data collected from older adults in seven nations were used to identify commonalities and differences in levels of paid labor, unpaid productivity, and type and amount of leisure time. Public policy, cultural values, economic resources, and social role constraints were found to define and delimit the life-styles of the elderly. (SK)

Altergott, Karen

1989-01-01

436

Life on other worlds : the twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are we alone in the Universe? From the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars at the beginning of the century to the more recent controversial rock from Mars and the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), the prospect of otherworldly life has often titillated and occasionally consumed science and the public. The search for planetary systems, the

Steven J. Dick

1998-01-01

437

Life on Mars: New strategies to detect life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quest to determine whether life existed, or still exists, on Mars continues with several missions planned for the red planet by both the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the next few decades. One instrument designed for these missions is the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), which uses a new approach to achieve

Jeffrey L. Bada; Mark A. Sephton; Pascale Ehrenfreund; Richard A. Mathies; Allison M. Skelley; Frank J. Grunthaner; Aaron P. Zent; Richard C. Quinn; Jean-Luc Josset; François Robert; Oliver Botta; Daniel P. Glavin

2005-01-01

438

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

439

Something is wrong with climate theory.  

PubMed

We frequently forget that there is more to science than the making of a more precise measurement or a more elaborate calculation. It is even more than applying to new problems the methods that worked on old problems. These activities, which keep most of us busy most of the time, are important, but the new and unexpected discoveries are more important. And many radically new discoveries arise from scientific puzzles, the "anomalies." We believe that studies of past climates have exposed an anomaly that deserves attention and that may result in a fundamentally new understanding of the climate system. The poles have been much warmer throughout much of Earth's history than they are now. Ice-age episodes with durations of millions of years have been separated by periods of hundreds of millions of years that have left little or no evidence of polar ice sheets. The data are best for the most recent of these ice-free episodes so we will concentrate on the Eocene. PMID:11538501

Walker, J C; Sloan, L C

1992-06-01

440

Is Something Wrong with my Baby?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents are often the first to recognize early signs of developmental challenges, launching the family into an unanticipated journey that sometimes resolves quickly but sometimes not. Development depends on nurturing relationships that provide the necessary experiences to allow the child to develop. Equally important are the relationships that…

Wieder, Serena

2011-01-01

441

Where Did Social Studies Go Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of a collection of critiques by educators who fault the teaching methods and curricular ideas of their field and suggest how the field can be reformed. Following a "Foreword" (Chester E. Finn, Jr.) and an "Introduction" (James S. Leming; Lucien Ellington), there are seven articles in the book: (1) "A Brief History of Social…

Leming, James, Ed.; Ellington, Lucien, Ed.; Porter, Kathleen, Ed.

442

What Is Wrong with Water Barometers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every student who studies atmospheric pressure in physics or chemistry learns the principles behind the construction of barometers. Cistern barometers, such as those found in most laboratories, consist of a long glass tube containing an inverted column of liquid having an open end in a cistern of the liquid. Students learn that the column of…

Sullivan, Dan M.; Smith, Robert W.; Kemnitz, E. J.; Barton, Kevin; Graham, Robert M.; Guenther, Raymond A.; Webber, Larry

2010-01-01

443

Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry: what can go wrong?  

PubMed

Although immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an integral component of the surgical pathology laboratory and practice, it remains a subspecialty in search of a definition. The rapid expansion of this discipline is continually contributing to the struggle of interested pathologists and technologists to identify the proper working conditions of antibody reagents and the right choice of detection systems and instrumentations. Training programs have not, for the most part, successfully incorporated IHC in their curricula. Thus, pitfalls in diagnostic IHC, in our opinion, are becoming more frequent than they used to. In this review, we highlight and attempt to provide solutions for the most common pitfalls in diagnostic IHC as it relates to the routine practice of surgical pathology. PMID:16998317

Yaziji, Hadi; Barry, Todd

2006-09-01

444

Wrongful Adoption: Law, Policy and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade has seen an increase in cases where adoptive parents fail to receive accurate or complete information about a child's physical, emotional, or developmental problems or about the child's birth family and history. In these cases adoptive parents are confronted with extremely expensive medical care or mental health care. This…

Freundlich, Madelyn; Peterson, Lisa

445

Circumcision--what's wrong with plastic rings?  

PubMed

A key issue facing countries that are scaling up circumcision services is the technical difficulty, resources used, complications, and time to healing using open surgical techniques, the only methods approved by the major external funding agency, PEPFAR. The WHO has developed a framework for evaluating new circumcision devices, and two promising disposable plastic devices that have been partially evaluated are the Shang Ring and the Prepex system. However, given South Africa's disastrous experience with the Tara KLamp, healthy scepticism about plastic ring devices is justified. The Gomco clamp has been used in children and adults since 1935 in the USA, but there are no published studies demonstrating its use in adults. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive, widely used in all areas of medicine, has been shown to be superior to sutures in circumcision in terms of safety, ease of use, operative time, and cosmetic results. Our experience in Mozambique suggests that Gomco clamp circumcision plus tissue adhesive closure meets all the WHO criteria for the ideal circumcision technique, and we strongly recommend that African researchers conduct clinical trials to compare it with open surgical circumcision. PMID:22380898

Millard, Peter S

2012-03-01

446

Got It Wrong? Think Again. And Again.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the human mind resists confusion, this feeling of disequilibrium nurtures learning. Newkirk, the author quotes, says intelligence is not a matter of being smart--it is the capacity to view difficulty as an opportunity to stop, reassess, and employ strategies for making sense of problems. These same habits of mind define reflection, a…

Miller, Donna L.

2013-01-01

447

Monster Mash: Protein Folding Gone Wrong  

MedlinePLUS

... in cell membranes, causing the cells to die. Amyloid beta sheets can accumulate on one another almost endlessly, ... Keeping Away the Monsters This structure from an amyloid-forming prion protein shows one way beta sheets can stack. Credit: Douglas Fowler, University of ...

448

Communications Skills Project: What Really Went Wrong.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the genesis or formation and operations of the Communication Skills Project (COMSKIP), whose primary aim was to revitalize the teaching and learning in the Use of English (UOE) curriculum in Nigeria. In the process of accessing the achievements of COMSKIP, there was limited synchronicity between the people who conceived of the…

Onukaogu, C. E.; Olowu, C. O.

449

Something is wrong with climate theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We frequently forget that there is more to science than the making of a more precise measurement or a more elaborate calculation. It is even more than applying to new problems the methods that worked on old problems. These activities, which keep most of us busy most of the time, are important, but the new and unexpected discoveries are more important. And many radically new discoveries arise from scientific puzzles, the "anomalies." We believe that studies of past climates have exposed an anomaly that deserves attention and that may result in a fundamentally new understanding of the climate system. The poles have been much warmer throughout much of Earth's history than they are now. Ice-age episodes with durations of millions of years have been separated by periods of hundreds of millions of years that have left little or no evidence of polar ice sheets. The data are best for the most recent of these ice-free episodes so we will concentrate on the Eocene.

Walker, J. C.; Sloan, L. C.

1992-01-01

450

What's Wrong with "the Student Experience"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speaking about "the student experience" has become common-place in higher education and the phrase has acquired the aura of a sacred utterance in UK higher education policy over the last decade. A critical discourse analysis of selected higher education policy texts reveals what "the student experience" has come to signify, and how it structures…

Sabri, Duna

2011-01-01

451

The double helix and the 'wronged heroine'.  

PubMed

In 1962, James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins received the Nobel prize for the discovery of the structure of DNA. Notably absent from the podium was Rosalind Franklin, whose X-ray photographs of DNA contributed directly to the discovery of the double helix. Franklin's premature death, combined with misogynist treatment by the male scientific establishment, cast her as a feminist icon. This myth overshadowed her intellectual strength and independence both as a scientist and as an individual. PMID:12540909

Maddox, Brenda

2003-01-23

452

Structural adjustment: the wrong prescription for Africa?  

PubMed

The medical and social consequences and the wide effects of the African structural adjustment program (SAP), specifically for women and children, and examples of the impact in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Senegal, are discussed. Structural adjustment is defined and the history of its inception is provided. Significant economic and social welfare improvement occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, and considerable decline occurred during the 1980s. The present reality is that Africa,m contrary to popular myths about being a "bottomless pit of Western charity," transfers $10 billion/year to the rich North. Debtor countries are 61% more indebted in 1990 than they were in 1982. During the 1980s, oil prices and interest rates rose dramatically, African export prices dropped, and industrialized countries set up protectionist policies. In addition, there was civil war, drought, poor leadership which put military spending before poverty reduction, and the AIDS epidemic. The Western response was to restructure debt payments in return for implementation of SAPs. Structural adjustment involved a package of trade liberalization, devaluation, removal of government subsidies and price controls, privatization, credit shortages, higher interest rates, and "cost recovery" in health and education. The theory is that economic growth will "ultimately" lead to poverty reduction. A critical view is that SAP insures debt repayment, export of cheap raw materials to the North, and may not sustain longterm economic growth. The results for the poor have been high prices for food, transportation, school and medical fees, and a decline in wages and unemployment. Land is used for exports. A solution is to reduce the debt burden, to place the needs of the poor as a top priority in SAPs, and to put pressure on the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and governments to consider health outcomes. Other alternatives noted in the African Framework to SAPs are to place well being and self-reliance as development goals and outcome as a product of the society's value system. Education and training and food self-sufficiency need to be assured fully. The poor need better access to land and employment opportunities. The environment must be managed effectively. Economic development must expand beyond the export of cheap primary commodities. PMID:8343672

Logie, D E; Woodroffe, J

1993-07-01

453

What happens when things go wrong?  

PubMed

When a patient is injured or dies during anesthesia care, both the family of the patient and the health care providers suffer. The family needs to know what happened. The family can benefit from personal contact with the involved physicians. Apology to the injured is very important. The health care providers must report adverse events. Systematic review of adverse events can provide improved patient safety. Mechanisms exist to support the health care providers recovering from these potentially devastating experiences, but useful support is often not immediately available. PMID:21251144

Brandom, Barbara W; Callahan, Patrick; Micalizzi, Dale Ann

2011-07-01

454

Joe Knew There Was Something Wrong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a poem about Joe Cytrynbaum. The poem brings together all the many facets of Joe's personality into a crystal-clear image of the beautiful, smart, and magnanimous individual Joe's family, friends, students, and colleagues all knew him to be.

Coval, Kevin

2010-01-01

455

Estimating Ability With the Wrong Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

No model is ever a perfect reflection of the data it is to summarize. There are always errors of fit. This is as true with modern item response theory (IRT) as with all other models. It is important to know to what extent the accuracy of measurement made with these models is influenced by misfit and what can be done

Howard Wainer; David Thissen

1987-01-01

456

Channel One: Asking the Wrong Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All arguments about the 10 minutes of Channel One programming are side issues, including concerns about the bias or superficiality of new coverage, "infotainment" methods, and learning effectiveness. The main issue is the presence of television advertising (commercial persuasion)--aimed at a captive audience of schoolchildren and sanctioned by the…

Rank, Hugh

1994-01-01

457

What's Wrong with Images of Women?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses "an unabridged gap within the women's movement between an awareness of the role of ideology in visual respresentations of women in our oppression and the level of critical and theoretical analysis developed by a small number of largely professionally involved women". (Author)

Pollock, Griselda

1977-01-01

458

Where Did Distance Education Go Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education (DE) practices around the world use a wide range of audio-visual technologies to overcome the lack of direct contact between teachers and students. These are not universally adopted by DE teachers, however, nor even encouraged by their institutions. This article discusses the organisational attitudes that can lead to outdated…

Baggaley, Jon

2008-01-01

459

What is wrong with orphan drug policies?  

PubMed

The effects of orphan drug policies raise serious concerns among payer organizations and lead to often-tragic disappointment for patients who are denied much anticipated drug reimbursements. We evaluate the effects of orphan drug policies on the basis of this concern for real accessibility to drugs. We highlight two unforeseen effects of orphan drug policies: 1) they provide unique business opportunities for manufacturers and 2) drugs approved through these policies are often inaccessible because of their high price. We identify six causes of this emergence of effects. The first four are the direct result of incentives included in orphan drug policies. The fifth cause is the "off-label" use of orphan drugs. These emergent effects have several implications: 1) they raise doubts about the equity of access to drugs, 2) they highlight the limitations of the cohort paradigm in medicine, and c) they force third-party payers to make drugs accessible even when the prices of drugs are believed to be disproportionate to the clinical effects obtained. PMID:23244823

Côté, André; Keating, Bernard

2012-12-01

460

Undermining Evolution: Where State Standards Go Wrong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many states are handling evolution better today than in the past, anti-evolution pressures continue to threaten state science standards. In April 2012, for example, Tennessee passed a law that enables teachers to bring anti-evolution materials into the classroom without being challenged by administrators. This law is similar to the Science…

American Educator, 2012

2012-01-01

461

Rights and Wrongs of Ethics Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics initiatives should provide employees with the tools they need to identify, clarify, and resolve ethical issues. Training efforts should focus on defining desired outcomes and considering the company's values and guidelines in working toward solutions to ethical problems. (SK)

Rice, Dan; Dreilinger, Craig

1990-01-01

462

What's wrong with epigenetics in Huntington's disease?  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) can be considered the paradigm of epigenetic dysregulation in neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we attempted to compile the evidence that indicates, on the one hand, that several epigenetic marks (histone acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation and DNA modifications) are altered in multiple models and in postmortem patient samples, and on the other hand, that pharmacological treatments aimed to reverse such alterations have beneficial effects on HD phenotypic and biochemical traits. However, the working hypotheses regarding the biological significance of epigenetic dysregulation in this disease and the mechanisms of action of the tested ameliorative strategies need to be refined. Understanding the complexity of the epigenetics in HD will provide useful insights to examine the role of epigenetic dysregulation in other neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neuroepigenetic Disorders'. PMID:24184315

Valor, Luis M; Guiretti, Deisy

2014-05-01

463

Life-Span Learning: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses learning as embedded processes of development and aging, and as social activity over the life course. The concept of life-span learning is proposed and outlined to discuss these processes as aspects of and propositions in life-span development and aging theory. Life-span learning processes arise and continuously develop in a…

Thornton, James E.

2003-01-01

464

Dementia at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Finding Care At the End of Life Understanding Health Care Decisions Related Publications Mourning the Death of a Spouse Getting Your Affairs in Order Also of Interest End-of-Life Care - Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tip Sheet (PDF, ... Care At the End of Life Dementia At the End of Life Understanding Health Care Decisions What Happens When Someone Dies Things ...

465

Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

Haber, David

2006-01-01

466

An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

Bedau, Mark A.

2010-12-01

467

Mid-Life Professional Crises: Two Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Burnout must be considered as symptomatic of a serious event in a person's life--a mid-life crisis, as it is widely termed. Numerous writings point out that during a period of life, roughly between the ages of 30 and 55, many people reach a crisis brought on by the realization that everyone's career, status, and life are measurable and limited.…

Cardinell, C. F.

468

Does It Have a Life Cycle?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

Keeley, Page

2010-01-01

469

Investigations in Life Science, Junior High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for teachers of junior high school science classes, this unit presents ten investigations on plant growth, animal life, pond life, and general science interests. These investigations are designed to accompany any popular life science textbooks, may be used to supplement a year-long course in life science, are intended as a springboard…

Stephenson, Robert L.

470

Is There Life without Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the way retirees perceive retirement and continue to work post-retirement. Using a longitudinal design, qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to examine the effect of preoccupation with work on adjustment to retirement. The findings indicate a wide range of attitudes toward cessation of the working life on…

Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

2007-01-01

471

The physical nature of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life evolved from the primeval world of physics. Sensory systems inform animals of the natural environment, enabling them to conduct responsively. The discovery of weak, DC bioelectric fields in the vicinity of aquatic organisms and the role they play in guiding sharks and rays to their prey have led to the recognition of fundamental, hitherto less well known, physical aspects

Ad. J. Kalmijn; Ivan Fernando Gonzalez; Michael C. McClune

2002-01-01

472

Longer life for steam generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight years ago, corrosion and tube denting seriously threatened the reliability and design life of steam generators, especially for closed loop arrangements in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Concentrated research by the Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG) diagnosed the causes and produced effective solutions, notably guidelines for water chemistry control in the secondary loop. The guidelines recommend specific levels of water

J. Douglas; S. J. Green

1984-01-01

473

Extending wire rope service life  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

Not Available

1982-06-01

474

Artificial Life in Computer Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

2007-01-20

475

Structured life-cycle assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

New programmers, some managers, and lots of users don't understand the advantages of a structured software life-cycle. However, only a single experience with coding while designing will convince any incipient software engineer that a controlled process is needed from the time of system concept though the last maintenance phase. Software Configuration Management has become almost a religion, and EDP auditors

Thomas E. Bell

1981-01-01

476

Prayer Life of a Professor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoethnographic account describes interconnections among the author's personal prayer life, teaching, and research. The contextual frame for the story includes episodes and observations from a twelve-year span, encompassing postacademic tenure and promotion to the present. The author's prayer is that others might resonate with parts of this…

Baesler, E. James

2009-01-01

477

Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.  

PubMed

Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid. PMID:18409654

Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

2008-03-15

478

Breaking the Bread of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

2000-01-01

479

MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

480

The Family & Life Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

Brand, Mellie R.

481

The origins of cellular life.  

PubMed

All life on earth can be naturally classified into cellular life forms and virus-like selfish elements, the latter being fully dependent on the former for their reproduction. Cells are reproducers that not only replicate their genome but also reproduce the cellular organization that depends on semipermeable, energy-transforming membranes and cannot be recovered from the genome alone, under the famous dictum of Rudolf Virchow, Omnis cellula e cellula. In contrast, simple selfish elements are replicators that can complete their life cycles within the host cell starting from genomic RNA or DNA alone. The origin of the cellular organization is the central and perhaps the hardest problem of evolutionary biology. I argue that the origin of cells can be understood only in conjunction with the origin and evolution of selfish genetic elements. A scenario of precellular evolution is presented that involves cohesion of the genomes of the emerging cellular life forms from primordial pools of small genetic elements that eventually segregated into hosts and parasites. I further present a model of the coevolution of primordial membranes and membrane proteins, discuss protocellular and non-cellular models of early evolution, and examine the habitats on the primordial earth that could have been conducive to precellular evolution and the origin of cells. PMID:24756907

Koonin, Eugene V

2014-07-01

482

Make a Life for Yourself.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a booklet for teenagers about life planning. It discusses hopes and dreams that adolescents may have and gives tips for reaching goals. A sentence completion exercise is included to help readers set goals. Four important goals for teenagers are presented and discussed: (1) graduating from high school; (2) waiting to have a baby; (3)…

Haffner, Debra; Casey, Sean

483

Life span of the biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological,

J. E. Lovelock; M. Whitfield

1982-01-01

484

Curriculum Development for Life Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by several colleges in California, this guide contains a curriculum for a course in Life Management (usually taught in the home economics area). The introductory sections of the guide contain the following information: recommendations from the pilot test teachers, rationale, course description, goals, justification for including the…

Morse, Betty R.; And Others

485

The adipocyte life cycle hypothesis.  

PubMed

The adipocyte life cycle hypothesis states that the metabolic properties of an adipocyte vary predictably during its life cycle: that as an adipocyte matures, it accumulates triacylglycerol (triglyceride) and becomes larger; that the rates of triacylglycerol synthesis and lipolysis are matched within adipocytes and that larger adipocytes, in general, have greater rates of triacylglycerol synthesis and, concurrently, greater rates of lipolysis and, therefore, larger adipocytes have greater rates of transmembrane fatty acid flux; and that the secretion of cytokines can also be related to adipocyte size with larger adipocytes having a more unfavourable profile of cytokine secretion than smaller adipocytes. Adipocyte location is an important modifier of this relationship and the favoured sites of adipocyte proliferation are a function of gender and the position within the life cycle of the organism at which proliferation occurs. The adipocyte life cycle hypothesis posits that the metabolic consequences of obesity depend on whether expansion of adipose tissue is achieved primarily by an increase in adipocyte number or adipocyte size. This hypothesis may explain a variety of previously unanswered clinical puzzles such as the vulnerability of many peoples from South East Asia to the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. PMID:16336200

Smith, Jessica; Al-Amri, Maha; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Sniderman, Allan

2006-01-01

486

Structural analysis: Fatigue life assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lectures on the structural analysis of turbomachinery covering fatigue life assessment, stresses due to centrifugal, pressure, and thermal loads, and blade disc vibration and rotor dynamics, are presented. Concepts and techniques, modeling methods, and structural design evaluation and optimization are desribed.

Marscher, William D.

487

Life Cycle Cost of Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a continuation of the 2004 project to use historical cost data from a variety of geographically distributed bridges of different structural designs to (a) formulate a cost model for bridge life cycle cost, (b) assess the impact of deferred mainten...

R. Krizek

2009-01-01

488

The Norwegian Nature Life Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly introduces the Norwegian Seminar for Nature Life with a discussion of the course methods, values, and attitudes as related to Norwegian culture. Explains the difference between this and other programs that use nature for experiential education, and addresses the need for creativity in experiential education. (SB)

Pendleton, Sarah

1983-01-01

489

Consumption Over the Life Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates a structural model of optimal life-cycle consumption expenditures in the presence of realistic labor income uncertainty. We employ synthetic cohort techniques and Consumer Expenditure Survey data to construct average age-profiles of consumption and income over the working lives of typical households across different education and occupation groups. The model fits the profiles quite well. In addition to

Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas; Jonathan A

2002-01-01

490

Career Advice for Life Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume represents selected articles from the acclaimed Women in Cell Biology column of the award-winning ASCB Newsletter, those ranked by WICB members as providing the most helpful career advice for life scientists. We trust that the compilation will...

E. Marincola

2002-01-01

491

History of Life Through Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit explores the ancestor/descendant relationships of the three domains of organisms, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Topics include the fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics, and morphology of each domain. There is also a link to a list of available taxa for the Eukaryotic kingdoms (chromista, fungi, metazoa, plantae, and protista) and to reference material on phylogeny, cladistics and evolution.

492

Quality of Working Life Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook is developed by the U.S. Postal Service and the National Postal Mail Handlers Union to provide policy guidance in implementing a Quality Working Life (QWL) process at the Postal Service. The handbook includes QWL phases of development, struct...

1988-01-01

493

Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

1979-01-01

494

Modeling Advance Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

1996-01-01

495

Powering the Future with LIFE  

SciTech Connect

This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Leveraging the National Ignition Facility to meet the climate-energy challenge; (2) The journal into a new era of scientific discoveries; and (3) Safe and sustainable energy with LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy).

Moses, E I; Diaz de la Rubia, T

2009-04-28

496

Life on the Ice (Cube)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes daily life and work at the IceCube telescope at the South Pole, Antarctica, and links to informational text about them. Versions are available for students in grades K-1, 2-3 and 4-5. Related science and literacy activities are included.

Whitt, Stephen

497

Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early days of spaceflight, space life sciences data were been collected and stored in numerous databases, formats, media-types and geographical locations. While serving the needs of individual research teams, these data were largely unknown/unavailable to the scientific community at large. As a result, the Space Act of 1958 and the Science Data Management Policy mandated that research data collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration be made available to the science community at large. The Biomedical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch of the Space Life Sciences Directorate at JSC and the Data Archive Project at ARC, with funding from the Human Research Program through the Exploration Medical Capability Element, are fulfilling these requirements through the systematic population of the Life Sciences Data Archive. This program constitutes a formal system for the acquisition, archival and distribution of data for Life Sciences-sponsored experiments and investigations. The general goal of the archive is to acquire, preserve, and distribute these data using a variety of media which are accessible and responsive to inquiries from the science communities.

Fitts, M.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Thomas, D.; Shackelford, K.

2008-01-01

498

The Chemistry of Life's Origin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

Ferris, James P.

1984-01-01

499

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

Lewis, C. S. (editor); Donnelly, K. L. (editor)

1980-01-01

500

Venture Kapital und Life Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik und die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten und Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- und Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens und die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln und letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden und erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- und Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer und potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen und Engagement die Umsetzung und der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.

Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian