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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Wrongful life: some of the problems.  

PubMed Central

The author considers that some of the reasonings used by both the American and English courts against recognising a wrongful life claim are far from persuasive. However, there may indeed be strong public policy reasons against judicial recognition of such a claim. If judicial remedy is not possible for children in wrongful life situations, society ought to assist them in the alleviation of some of the practical problems caused by deformities.

Liu, A N

1987-01-01

2

Can claims for `wrongful life' be justified?  

PubMed Central

The authors reject arguments by Professor Joseph Fletcher (author of Situation Ethics) that in some circumstances parents may be held responsible for producing genetically defective offspring, but offer arguments of their own for the same conclusion. Their arguments could, they suggest, justify `wrongful life' claims by the genetically defective infant against the mother. While researching this paper both authors were postdoctoral fellows in medical ethics in the Program on Human Values and Ethics at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences.

Jones, Gary E; Perry, Clifton

1983-01-01

3

Moral pluralism versus the total view: why Singer is wrong about radical life extension.  

PubMed

Peter Singer has argued that we should not proceed with a hypothetical life-extension drug, based on a scenario in which developing the drug would fail to achieve the greatest sum of happiness over time. However, this is the wrong test. If we ask, more simply, which policy would be more benevolent, we reach a different conclusion from Singer's: even given his (admittedly questionable) scenario, development of the drug should go ahead. Singer's rigorous utilitarian position pushes him in the direction of an implausible "total view" utilitarianism when it encounters the problems presented by certain thought experiments. A more pluralistic account of the nature of morality promises to solve these problems, and in this case it reaches a benevolent recommendation on life-extension technology. PMID:19948931

Blackford, R

2009-12-01

4

Wrong Priors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All priors are not created equal. There are right and there are wrong priors. That is the main conclusion of this contribution. I use, a cooked-up example designed to create drama, and a typical textbook example to show the pervasiveness of wrong priors in standard statistical practice.

Rodríguez, Carlos C.

2007-11-01

5

The 'radioactive dice' experiment: why is the 'half-life' slightly wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'radioactive dice' experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and suggests modifications to the experiment to minimize this effect.

Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

2012-03-01

6

The "Radioactive Dice" Experiment: Why Is the "Half-Life" Slightly Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "radioactive dice" experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and…

Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

2012-01-01

7

The "Radioactive Dice" Experiment: Why Is the "Half-Life" Slightly Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "radioactive dice" experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and…

Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

2012-01-01

8

10 years of controversy, twists and turns in the Perruche wrongful life claim: compensation for children born with a disability in France.  

PubMed

Since March 1st, 2010, French citizens have been able to call on a new legal procedure for defending their rights: the priority preliminary ruling on issues of constitutionality (question prioritaire de constitutionnalité, QPC). If, during a trial, a citizen considers that a provision of the applicable law is inconsistent with the Constitution of the French Republic, he/she may request that the matter be referred to the Constitutional Council. One ofthe first QPCs concerned legislation related to the Perruche jurisprudence. In a ruling on November 17th, 2000, the French Supreme Court of Appeal had granted the child Nicolas Perruche the right to financial compensation for the material costs related to his physical disability (caused by congenital rubella). In response, Article 1 of the Patients' Rights and Quality of Care Act (passed on March 4th, 2002) prohibited the award of compensation to a child "just because he/she has been born [with a disability]", i.e. in "wrongful life" claims. Since the enactment of the Act, compensation in a case like Perruche may only be awarded to cover the parents' psychological suffering, rather than the child's status at birth. The application of this "anti-wrongful life claim" legislation has since been subject of heated debate. In a QPC ruling on June 11th, 2010, the Constitutional Council found that Article 1 of the Patients' Rights and Quality of Care Act was (with the exception of its transitional provisions) indeed consistent with the Constitution of the French Republic. PMID:23447909

Manaouil, C; Gignon, M; Jardé, O

2012-12-01

9

Monster Mash: Protein Folding Gone Wrong  

MedlinePLUS

... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Monster Mash: Protein Folding Gone Wrong Joseph Piergrossi Posted October 31, 2013 In this image, globs of misfolded proteins called amyloid plaques (blobs) are found outside neurons ( ...

10

Torts as Public Wrongs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article is a rejoinder to the civil recourse theorist's claim that tort law will be better served by retreating to the philosopher's prefecture of private wrongs. A subsidiary goal of this Article is to refute John Goldberg's claim that my sociologically-inspired theory of torts as public wrongs serves the interests of tort reformers rather than American consumers. In a

Michael L. Rustad

2012-01-01

11

What's wrong with contraception? [letter].  

PubMed

A "reader's exchange" question solicited information on how readers respond when asked what is wrong with contraception. One correspondent couple wrote that their response is dependent upon their assessment of the questioner's perspective. Responses they use are 1) that the Catholic Church teaches that contraception is wrong and it is okay to accept this teaching in faith; 2) the Church teaches that every act of sexual intercourse must be open to life; 3) the God-given gift of intercourse involves pleasure and procreation, it is wrong to accept only part of the gift; 4) oral contraceptives have abortifacient properties; and 5) natural family planning involves temperance whereas contraception allows behavior which is similar to gluttony. A second correspondent wrote that the use of contraception makes humans behave like animals and allows them to be "takers" rather than "givers." A third letter-writer maintained that the use of contraception prohibits true love, total commitment, and complete acceptance on the part of a married couple. Contraception attempts to create a utopia and obviates the pain and suffering which are necessary in order to find true love and true happiness. PMID:12345571

Rice, L; Rice, B

12

New developments concerning wrongful termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronicles that managers and organizations are faced with unforeseen liability from situations and circumstances that have typically been standard employment practices. Discusses how some managers, through their actions, create wrongful termination liability – many times without the knowledge that they have created the situation themselves. Defines when wrongful termination liability is created; what constitutes wrongful termination; when and how to

Larry Stahlhoefer; Brian H. Kleiner

2003-01-01

13

Meteorite or Meteor-Wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a hands-on activity that introduces students to planetary science, the scientific method, and to high-tech machines. During this activity students use empirical tests to determine if an unknown sample is a meteorite or meteor-wrong.

Hagerty, J. J.; Karner, J. M.; Newsom, H. E.; Jones, R. H.

2001-03-01

14

Cheap listening?--Reflections on the concept of wrongful disability.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the concept of wrongful disability. That concept suggests that parents are morally obligated to prevent the genetic transmission of certain conditions and so, if they do not, any resulting disability is 'wrongful'. In their book From Chance to Choice, Buchanan, Brock, Daniels and Wikler defend the concept of wrongful disability using the principle of avoidability via substitution. That principle is scrutinised here. It is argued that the idea of avoidability via substitution is both conceptually problematic and rather insensitive. Instead, it is suggested that the question of whether or not bringing a particular disability about is wrongful does not simply hinge on whether or not substitution takes place. Rather, it involves an evaluation of parental aspirations and responsibilities. It is argued that the desire need not be responsible for creating challenges for others that lie outside what is perceived to be an acceptable range provides a justification for termination of pregnancy on the grounds of projected disability that neither commits one to wrongful life claim, nor requires that one substitute a non-disabled child instead. The ramifications of such an approach are explored. The paper concludes by suggesting that the question of what is considered to be an acceptable range of human capability is an increasingly important one. It is argued that, when addressing that question, we should be acutely aware of the social context that may go some way to define what we consider to be an acceptable range. PMID:16770864

Hull, Richard J

2006-04-01

15

What's wrong with contraception? [letter].  

PubMed

A "reader's exchange" question solicited information on how readers respond when asked what is wrong with contraception. One letter-writer maintained that the use of contraception prohibits true love, total commitment, and complete acceptance on the part of a married couple. Contraception attempts to create a utopia and obviates the pain and suffering which are necessary in order to find true love and true happiness. PMID:12345572

16

Prevention of wrong-site and wrong-patient surgical errors.  

PubMed

Surgical errors recorded between 2002 and 2008 in a US medical liability insurance database have been analysed. Twenty-five wrong-patient procedures were recorded, resulting in 5 serious adverse events: three unnecessary prostatectomies were performed after prostate biopsy samples were mislabelled; vitrectomy was performed on the wrong patient in an ophthalmology department after confusion between two patients with identical names; and a child scheduled for adenoidectomy received a tympanic drain. There were also 107 wrong-site procedures, with one death resulting from implantation of a pleural drain on the wrong side. Another 38 patients experienced significant harm: 5 patients had surgery on the wrong vertebrae; 4 had chest tubes placed on the wrong side; 4 underwent vascular surgery at the wrong site; and 4 underwent resection of the wrong segment of the intestine. In addition, there were: 4 organ resection errors; 6 wrong-site or wrong-sided limb surgeries; 2 wrong-sided ovariectomies; 2 wrong-sided eye operations; 2 wrong-sided craniotomies; 2 wrong-sided ureteric procedures; 1 wrong-sided maxillofacial operation; and 2 radiation therapy field errors. Most errors were due to poor communication, incorrect diagnosis, or failure to implement a final set of preoperative checks. Other studies conducted in the United Kingdom and the United States have provided similar results, while data are lacking in France. The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is an effective way of preventing such errors but its adoption by healthcare professionals is variable. In practice, surgical errors involving the wrong patient or wrong body site are preventable. Final pre-operative checks must be applied methodically and systematically.This includes asking the patient to confirm his/her identity and the intended site of the operation. Healthcare staff must be aware of these measures. PMID:23367678

2013-01-01

17

What if physics is wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics, an experiment-based science, seems to be the most appropriate subject in how to explain the inner workings of the world. We respect physics because it is based on facts that are perceived by our observations. However, what if we are not seeing the entire truth we seek? What if our observations are founded on sandy foundations? As humans, we desire to know what the truth is. Rene Descartes, a mathematician, philosopher, and physicist asked this question: what is the absolute truth in our universe? I want to solve the same puzzle. Many people believe that physics will reveal the truth of our universe. But, what if physics is wrong?

Tu, Zhoudunming

2011-11-01

18

How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

2011-01-01

19

How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

2011-01-01

20

Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

2011-01-01

21

Many Docs Wrongly Prescribe Powerful Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Many Docs Wrongly Prescribe Powerful Antibiotics: Study Using these drugs incorrectly, such as for viruses, adds to problem of drug-resistant bacteria (*this news item will not be available after ...

22

The Costs of Wrongful-Discharge Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the effects on employment and wages of wrongful-discharge protections in the United States. Over the last three decades, most U.S. state courts have adopted one or more common law wrongful discharge doctrines that limit employers' discretion to terminate workers at-will. Using this cross-state variation with a difference-in-difference framework, we find robust evidence of a modest negative impact (

David H. Autor; John J. Donohue III; Stewart J. Schwab

2003-01-01

23

The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.  

PubMed

For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

Chance, Paul

2007-01-01

24

The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong  

PubMed Central

For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong.

Chance, Paul

2007-01-01

25

Use of an anatomic marking form as an alternative to the Universal Protocol for Preventing Wrong Site, Wrong Procedure and Wrong Person Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Universal Protocol for Preventing Wrong Site, Wrong Procedure, Wrong Person Surgery was approved by the Joint Commission Board of Commissioners in July 2003 and became effective July 1, 2004. It requires the performance of a preprocedural verification process, marking of the procedure site, and performing a “time out” immediately before the start of a procedure. Compliance with the Universal

Napoleon Knight; John Aucar

2010-01-01

26

"Doing the Wrong Thing Righter"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a misplaced rush for economic prosperity through vocational training, adults are in danger of elbowing aside their potential as learning and civic communities. In this article, the author argues that a skills strategy must be integrated within a broader learning-for-life vision which ranges over every aspect of learning in health, in social…

Hooper, Richard

2007-01-01

27

UNDOING TIME: A PROPOSAL FOR COMPENSATION FOR WRONGFUL IMPRISONMENT OF INNOCENT INDIVIDUALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article identifies the shortcomings in the American justice system relating to the inadequate compensation for innocent individuals wrongfully imprisoned for crimes they did not commit and for which they were later exonerated. Fairness and justice is considered a cornerstone of the justice system and the Authors contend that a just government cannot deny its citizens of life, liberty, or

Muhammad U. Faridi; Hillel Hoffman; Paul A. Montuori

2012-01-01

28

Automatic detection and notification of "wrong patient-wrong location'' errors in the operating room.  

PubMed

When procedures and processes to assure patient location based on human performance do not work as expected, patients are brought incrementally closer to a possible "wrong patient-wrong procedure'' error. We developed a system for automated patient location monitoring and management. Real-time data from an active infrared/radio frequency identification tracking system provides patient location data that are robust and can be compared with an "expected process'' model to automatically flag wrong-location events as soon as they occur. The system also generates messages that are automatically sent to process managers via the hospital paging system, thus creating an active alerting function to annunciate errors. We deployed the system to detect and annunciate "patient-in-wrong-OR'' events. The system detected all "wrong-operating room (OR)'' events, and all "wrong-OR'' locations were correctly assigned within 0.50+/-0.28 minutes (mean+/-SD). This corresponded to the measured latency of the tracking system. All wrong-OR events were correctly annunciated via the paging function. This experiment demonstrates that current technology can automatically collect sufficient data to remotely monitor patient flow through a hospital, provide decision support based on predefined rules, and automatically notify stakeholders of errors. PMID:16224648

Sandberg, Warren S; Häkkinen, Matti; Egan, Marie; Curran, Paige K; Fairbrother, Pamela; Choquette, Ken; Daily, Bethany; Sarkka, Jukka-Pekka; Rattner, David

2005-09-01

29

What went wrong in California's electricity market?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California electricity market reform promised to deliver reliable service at low and stable prices. Frequent capacity shortages and the ensuing rolling black-outs, price spikes, and large price volatility since Summer 2000 raise a simple but substantive question: what went wrong? The answer to this question will help countries contemplating electricity market reform not to commit similar mistakes. We find

Chi-Keung Woo

2001-01-01

30

Are the Textbook Writers Wrong about Capacitors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refutes a recent article which stated that the standard textbook treatment of two capacitors in series is wrong. States that the calculated capacitance is correct if measured immediately after a dc voltage is applied and that perhaps the effect is due to the choice of materials making up the capacitor. (MVL)

French, A. P.

1993-01-01

31

The Do It Wrong Approach to Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Deliberately writing badly can be an effective way to learn to write better because knowing when writing is bad is an essential element in knowing when it's good. There are distinct advantages to encouraging students to learn the rules by breaking them. Deliberately doing it wrong removes the threat of failure. Students are playing; they are…

Grow, Gerald

32

Damages and Remedies in Wrongful Discharge Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the economic impact on employers of wrongful discharge litigation by former employees addresses the types of damages a plaintiff may receive, remedies, deductions from front pay, reinstatement, punitive and exemplary damages, injury to professional reputation, constructive discharge, and attorney's fees. (MSE)

Duffy, Patrick J.

1989-01-01

33

The Wrongful Conviction of Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of claims that faulty forensic science is a leading cause of wrongful convictions. This sentiment has been reported at length by major news outlets across the United States. It has also been a matter of great concern to a group of activists in what is known as the innocence network

John M. Collins; Jay Jarvis

2009-01-01

34

The Instructional Value of Wrong Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In early computer assisted instruction (CAI), negative feedback often insulted students and/or provided no useful knowledge. In classroom settings, teachers use the following approaches in dealing with students' wrong answers: (1) ask the question again, louder and slower; (2) ask the question again, using different words; (3) back up and reteach…

Cramer, Stephen E.

35

We're Assigning the Wrong Freud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author, a lecturer in Temple University's intellectual-heritage program, explains why colleges are teaching undergraduates the wrong Freud. Though the book "Civilization and Its Discontents" (1930), which most professors use, is Freud's most consistent and most convincing attempt to apply psychoanalytic theory to society as a…

Shusterman, Noah

2007-01-01

36

Wrong the Day It Was Decided:\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

“[W]e think Plessy [v. Ferguson] was wrong the day it was decided,” the Joint Opinion of Justices O’Connor, Kennedy, and Souter declared in Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey. Plessy, the Joint Opinion explained, had asserted that state enforced separation of the races had nothing to do with racial oppression, and that the perceived offense was merely the fantasy

Jack M Balkin

2005-01-01

37

What's wrong with animal by-products?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without looking beyond the conditions under which laying hens typically live in the contemporary U.S. egg industry, we can understand why the production and consumption of factory farmed eggs could be judged immoral. However, the question, What (if anything) is wrong with animal by-products? cannot always be adequately answered by looking at the conditions under which animals live out their

Gary E. Varner

1994-01-01

38

Developing a Criminology of Wrongful Conviction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief history of the study of miscarriages of justice in America. It analyzes the field of wrongful conviction scholarship as three distinct genres: the big-picture studies, the specialized-causes literature, and the true-crime genre. It also analyzes what these literatures have contributed to knowledge about miscarriages as well as their limitations. This article attempts to rethink the

Richard A. Leo

39

What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?  

PubMed Central

The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

Horden, Peregrine

2011-01-01

40

Wrongful death claims. Harriton v Stephens. [2002] NSWSC 461. Edwards v Blomeley. [2002] NSWSC 460. Waller v James [2002] NSWSC 462.  

PubMed

Studdert J in all three cases went to great length to summarise the global judicial position of "wrongful life" claims. He did not, however, examine in great length how or whether "wrongful life" claims or "wrongful birth" claims are reconcilable with tort and common law principles. Although the cases identify the difficulty in assessing and quantifying damages, they do not directly address the strict legal principles which apply in the assessment of damages. The main conclusion of the three judgments was that no duty of care is owed to the plaintiff in these circumstances and, even if a duty could be established, the impossibility of quantifying damages and public policy considerations warrant the rejection of such a claim: "thus conscience does make cowards of us all." The significance of the decisions cannot be understand. The decisions deny recognition of "wrongful life" claims in circumstances where a disabled person has incurred injuries en ventre sa mere (in the mother's womb) as a result of infections contracted by a plaintiff's mother or genetic material passed on by a plaintiff's parents. Some countries have now legislated for the abolition of "wrongful life and birth" suits. In January 2002 the French legislature passed a Bill overturning the "wrongful life" decision of the Cour de Cassation in Perruche (17 November 2000). As the issue now falls for ultimate determination by the French Senate, the French pro-life movement continues to lobby for the prohibition of "wrongful birth" suits as well. Furthermore, eight States in the United States have prohibited either one or both actions and the State of Michigan prohibited both actions in 2001. It is likely that all three cases will be appealed. The appeal in Harriton will re-examine the viability of a "wrongful life" claim in Australia whereas the cases of Edwards and Waller still need to determine the "wrongful birth" claims brought by the plaintiffs' parents. It is likely that the latter two cases will not be determined until the High Court has considered the Queensland "wrongful birth" case of Melchior v Cattanach, expected to be late in 2002. PMID:12497731

Devereux, John

2002-11-01

41

Wrong Way Traffic Control at Intersections, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research has 2 objectives: to assess the effectiveness of methods of signing intersections to inform drivers of travel direction and prevent wrong way movements and, to develop guidelines for the use and placement of signs to prevent wrong way movemen...

E. L. Seguin K. W. Crowley

1986-01-01

42

Teaching Earth Dynamics: What's Wrong with Plate Tectonics Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbooks frequently extol plate tectonics theory without questioning what might be wrong with the theory or without discussing a competitive theory. How can students be taught to challenge popular ideas when they are only presented a one-sided view? In just a few pages, I describe more than a century of geodynamic ideas. I review what is wrong with plate tectonics

J. Marvin Herndon

2005-01-01

43

Why Quantum Theory is Possibly Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum theory is a tremendously successful physical theory, but nevertheless suffers from two serious problems: the measurement problem and the problem of interpretational underdetermination. The latter, however, is largely overlooked as a genuine problem of its own. Both problems concern the doctrine of realism, but pull, quite curiously, into opposite directions. The measurement problem can be captured such that due to scientific realism about quantum theory common sense anti-realism follows, while theory underdetermination usually counts as an argument against scientific realism. I will also consider the more refined distinctions of ontic and epistemic realism and demonstrate that quantum theory in its most viable interpretations conflicts with at least one of the various realism claims. A way out of the conundrum is to come to the bold conclusion that quantum theory is, possibly, wrong (in the realist sense).

Lyre, Holger

2010-10-01

44

Defining basic services and de-insuring the rest: the wrong diagnosis and the wrong prescription.  

PubMed Central

The Canada Health Act of 1984 requires the provinces to cover all "medically necessary" services in order to be eligible for full federal contributions. However, neither the federal government nor any province has operationally defined the term "medically necessary service." As a result, coverage of certain medical services across the country is uneven. There is even greater variation in the coverage of nonmedical services (such as drugs and home care) that are not included in federal legislation. Recently, several provincial medical associations, with their respective provincial governments, have agreed to define and cover basic services and to de-insure services not found to be "medically necessary." The author argues that this process makes the wrong diagnosis of the cause of the woes of our health care system and then issues the wrong prescription. It also distracts decision makers from more worthwhile policies to reform the health care system.

Rachlis, M M

1995-01-01

45

Moral Value Transfer From Regulatory Fit: What Feels RightIs Right and What Feels WrongIs Wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

People experience regulatory fit (E. T. Higgins, 2000) when the strategic manner of their goal pursuit suits their regulatory orientation, and this regulatory fit feels right. Fit violation feels wrong. Four studies tested the proposal that experiences of fit can transfer to moral evaluations. The authors examined transfer of feeling wrong from fit violation by having participants in a promotion

Christopher J. Camacho; E. Tory Higgins; Lindsay Luger

2003-01-01

46

Moral value transfer from regulatory fit: What feels right is right and what feels wrong is wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

People experience regulatory fit (E. T. Higgins, 2000) when the strategic manner of their goal pursuit suits their regulatory orientation, and this regulatory fit feels right. Fit violation feels wrong. Four studies tested the proposal that experiences of fit can transfer to moral evaluations. The authors examined transfer of feeling wrong from fit violation by having participants in a promotion

Christopher J. Camacho; E. Tory Higgins; Lindsay Luger

2003-01-01

47

Wrong intraocular lens implant; learning from reported patient safety incidents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To consider wrong intraocular lens (IOL) implant events in cataract surgical care reported through a national incident reporting database. To propose potential solutions for such events where possible. Methods Thematic retrospective review of wrong IOL implantation incidents, as reported through clinical incident reporting methods in NHS care in England and Wales from 2003 to 2010, ascertained from database mining at the National Patient Safety Agency. Results In total, 164 patient safety incident (PSI) reports of wrong IOL implantation were located from the study period and considered. There were 47 reports where further surgical intervention was required. All, but one of these required IOL exchange surgery. A total of 62 reports did not provide any causal reason for the wrong IOL implantation and thus provide little if any potential learning. Inaccurate biometry (n=29), wrong IOL selection (n=21), transcription errors (n=10) and handwriting misinterpretations (n=7) were causal reasons reported and are thus potential areas for ophthalmic teams to review and improve practice. Conclusion Although infrequent, biometry/IOL implant errors or wrong implants do occasionally occur during cataract care and are thus a threat to quality. There is room for improvement in incident reporting in NHS cataract care as root causation of error was usually lacking in the PSI reports. Nevertheless, lessons for improvement of care from a national incident reporting database for a frequently undertaken surgical procedure were found. Suggestions are proposed for improving quality by reducing wrong IOL problems in cataract care based on analysis of such reports.

Kelly, S P; Jalil, A

2011-01-01

48

Quasar Lensing Statistics and ??: What Went Wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the pre-WMAP, pre-Supernova-Ia-Hubble-diagram era, quasar lensing statistics stubbornly indicated low values of ??. In contrast, a number of recent lensing statistics studies either find the data support the standard ?CDM picture, or simply take the standard cosmological parameters as a given. Have the data or the analyses changed or improved, and how? I review several of the `historical' and the more recent studies, and show that there is no particular measurement, assumption, or model parameter in the old studies that was grossly wrong. Instead, at least several effects, operating together, are likely required in order to achieve agreement between the observations and the currently standard cosmology. Most likely among these effects are: a somewhat lower lensing cross section for elliptical galaxies than assumed in the past; some loss of lensed quasars in optical samples due to extinction by the lenses; and a somewhat lower-than-standard value of ??˜ 0.6. The agreement between recent model calculations and the results of radio lens surveys may be fortuitous, and due to a cancellation between the errors in the input parameters for the lens population and the cosmology, on the one hand, and for the source population, on the other hand.

Maoz, Dan

2005-06-01

49

Locating the wrongness in ultra-violent video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremely high level of simulated violence in certain recent video games has made some people uneasy. There is a concern\\u000a that something is wrong with these violent games, but, since the violence is virtual rather than real, it is difficult to\\u000a specify the nature of the wrongness. Since there is no proven causal connection between video-game violence and real

David I. Waddington

2007-01-01

50

Teaching Earth Dynamics: What's Wrong with Plate Tectonics Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbooks frequently extol plate tectonics theory without questioning what\\u000amight be wrong with the theory or without discussing a competitive theory. How\\u000acan students be taught to challenge popular ideas when they are only presented\\u000aa one-sided view? In just a few pages, I describe more than a century of\\u000ageodynamic ideas. I review what is wrong with plate tectonics

J. Marvin Herndon

2005-01-01

51

Self-Love and Self-Respect in the Meaningful Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most people have the sense that there's something wrong with living a meaningless life. Since most meaningless lives seem morally blameless, however, it's not obvious exactly what is wrong with it. Starting with a plausible conception of a meaningful life as a life engaged with values beyond oneself, I suggest that the problem is that someone living outside of this

Erica Stonestreet

2012-01-01

52

Receiving right/wrong feedback: consequences for learning.  

PubMed

Prior work suggests that receiving feedback that one's response was correct or incorrect (right/wrong feedback) does not help learners, as compared to not receiving any feedback at all (Pashler, Cepeda, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2005). In three experiments we examined the generality of this conclusion. Right/wrong feedback did not aid error correction, regardless of whether participants learned facts embedded in prose (Experiment 1) or translations of foreign vocabulary (Experiment 2). While right/wrong feedback did not improve the overall retention of correct answers (Experiments 1 and 2), it facilitated retention of low-confidence correct answers (Experiment 3). Reviewing the original materials was very useful to learners, but this benefit was similar after receiving either right/wrong feedback or no feedback (Experiments 1 and 2). Overall, right/wrong feedback conveys some information to the learner, but is not nearly as useful as being told the correct answer or having the chance to review the to-be-learned materials. PMID:20408043

Fazio, Lisa K; Huelser, Barbie J; Johnson, Aaron; Marsh, Elizabeth J

2010-04-01

53

MINE TAILINGS DAMS: WHEN THINGS GO WRONG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine tailings impoundment failures continue to occur at unacceptable rates. The worldwide mining industry has experienced roughly one significant impoundment failure per year over the past 30 years. Many of these failure events have resulted in massive damage, severe economical impact and, in several cases, loss of life. A tailings impoundment failure case history database has been developed. In addition

Michael Davies; Todd Martin; Peter Lighthall

54

Clinical profile of congenital coronary artery anomalies with origin from the wrong aortic sinus leading to sudden death in young competitive athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study is to characterize the clinical profile and identify clinical markers that would enable the detection during life of anomalous coronary artery origin from the wrong aortic sinus (with course between the aorta and pulmonary trunk) in young competitive athletes.BACKGROUNDCongenital coronary artery anomalies are not uncommonly associated with sudden death in young athletes, the catastrophic event

Cristina Basso; Barry J Maron; Domenico Corrado; Gaetano Thiene

2000-01-01

55

Teaching Right from Wrong: The Moral Education of Today's Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For moral education to be effective, it must take into account the cultural, philosophical, and religious factors that influence moral development. The way growing children think and feel about right and wrong depends to a great extent on society's dominant culture, as expressed through mass communication media. These media promote values,…

DiGiacomo, James J.

56

When Rewards Go Wrong: A Tale of Five Motivational Misdirects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are…

Steel, Piers; MacDonnell, Rhiannon

2012-01-01

57

All the Interesting Questions, Almost All the Wrong Reasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here is the bottomline: JMK got his economic theory wrong, and the facts too. But, and not a minor feat, he got all his questions and his guess about the future right. This may prove that while the man was a tad arrogant, he perhaps was not a fool. Perhaps, indeed, he was brilliant, possibly so much so that he

Michele Boldrin; David K. Levine

2008-01-01

58

What's Wrong with Management Accounting Research? The Potential of Ethnography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Hammersley (What's Wrong with Ethnography: Routledge: 1992) and Silverman ( Interpreting Qualitative Data: 1993) have de-emphasised the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research and suggested to integrate them to make social science more valid. I argue that the management accounting research ahould be aware of that debate, but that the resort to \\

T. Ahrens

1996-01-01

59

Washington v. Glucksberg was tragically wrong.  

PubMed

Properly focused, there were two questions before the Supreme Court in Washington v. Glucksberg. First, in light of all of the other non-textual rights protected by the Supreme Court under the "liberty" of the Due Process Clause, is the right to assisted death a fundamental right? Second, if so, is the prohibition of assisted death necessary to achieve a compelling interest? Presented in this way, it is clear that the Court erred in Washington v. Glucksberg. The right of a terminally ill person to end his or her life is an essential aspect of autonomy, comparable to aspects of autonomy that the Court has protected in decisions concerning family autonomy, reproductive autonomy, and autonomy to engage in sexual activity. Moreover, the government's general interest in protecting life and preventing suicide has far less force when applied to a terminally ill patient. The tragedy of Washington v. Glucksberg is that every day across the country, terminally ill patients are being forced to suffer longer and being denied an essential aspect of their autonomy and personhood. PMID:18595212

Chemerinsky, Erwin

2008-06-01

60

Making Correct Statistical Inferences Using a Wrong Probability Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large sample methods for estimating the variance of parameter estimates for hypothesis-testing purposes and statistical test for model selection when the statistical model is wrong (i.e., misspecified) are reviewed. A parallel distributed processing (PDP) statistical model for analyzing categorical time series data is then proposed, and a theorem establishing when the quasi-maximum likelihood estimates of the model are unique is

Richard M. Golden

1995-01-01

61

Tattooing and the risk of wrong-site ear surgery.  

PubMed

Wrong-site surgery could occur in cases of bilateral pathology or in patients with normal tympanic membranes such as those undergoing stapedectomy. This report highlights the pitfalls in current surgical checklists despite best efforts being put into their design. The practice of marking the earlobe in ear surgery may be less safe than using larger arrows on the neck to indicate the side of surgery. PMID:19909607

Srouji, I; Prinsley, P

2009-11-01

62

Tattooing and the Risk of Wrong-Site Ear Surgery  

PubMed Central

Wrong-site surgery could occur in cases of bilateral pathology or in patients with normal tympanic membranes such as those undergoing stapedectomy. This report highlights the pitfalls in current surgical checklists despite best efforts being put into their design. The practice of marking the earlobe in ear surgery may be less safe than using larger arrows on the neck to indicate the side of surgery.

Srouji, I; Prinsley, P

2009-01-01

63

Executive Selection-What's Right … and What's Wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent reviews of executive selection have catalogued much that we as industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists are doing right in our research and practice, we are confronted with the facts that executive selection decisions are often, if not usually, wrong and that I-O psychologists seldom have a place at the table when these decisions are made. This article suggests that in

GEORGE P. HOLLENBECK

2009-01-01

64

Geographic disorientation: approaching and landing at the wrong airport.  

PubMed

Geographic disorientation in aviation operations results from the failure of an aircrew to recognize and/or maintain the desired position relative to the external ground and airspace environment. Becoming lost during flight, intruding inadvertently into unauthorized airspace, selecting a wrong airway, landing on the wrong runway, and approaching the wrong airport--with or without actual landing--are some examples of inflight geographic disorientation. This is a relatively common phenomenon that can be experienced by any pilot, regardless of experience level and the type of pilot certification. This paper analyzes 75 cases of geographic disorientation that occurred among air carrier pilots plus 16 cases among general aviation pilots between 1982 and 1987. Inflight geographic disorientation can result from a variety of aeromedical and human factors (aircrew, operational, environmental) which, interacting with each other, create the ideal conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon. The adverse consequences of geographic disorientation for the aircrew, passengers and aircraft are delineated along with specific preventive measures. PMID:2803168

Antuñano, M J; Mohler, S R; Gosbee, J W

1989-10-01

65

Psychopaths know right from wrong but don't care  

PubMed Central

Adult psychopaths have deficits in emotional processing and inhibitory control, engage in morally inappropriate behavior, and generally fail to distinguish moral from conventional violations. These observations, together with a dominant tradition in the discipline which sees emotional processes as causally necessary for moral judgment, have led to the conclusion that psychopaths lack an understanding of moral rights and wrongs. We test an alternative explanation: psychopaths have normal understanding of right and wrong, but abnormal regulation of morally appropriate behavior. We presented psychopaths with moral dilemmas, contrasting their judgments with age- and sex-matched (i) healthy subjects and (ii) non-psychopathic, delinquents. Subjects in each group judged cases of personal harms (i.e. requiring physical contact) as less permissible than impersonal harms, even though both types of harms led to utilitarian gains. Importantly, however, psychopaths’ pattern of judgments on different dilemmas was the same as those of the other subjects. These results force a rejection of the strong hypothesis that emotional processes are causally necessary for judgments of moral dilemmas, suggesting instead that psychopaths understand the distinction between right and wrong, but do not care about such knowledge, or the consequences that ensue from their morally inappropriate behavior.

Tonnaer, Franca; Hauser, Marc D.

2010-01-01

66

The harmful, nontherapeutic use of animals in research is morally wrong.  

PubMed

It is argued that using animals in research is morally wrong when the research is nontherapeutic and harmful to the animals. This article discusses methods of moral reasoning and discusses how arguments on this and other bioethical issues might be defended and critiqued. A basic method of moral argument analysis is presented and used to show that common objections to the view that "animal research is morally wrong" fail: ie, common arguments for the view that "animal research is morally permissible" are demonstrably unsound or in need of defense. It is argued that the best explanations why harmful, nontherapeutic research on human beings is wrong, ie, what it is about humans that makes such experimentation wrong, apply to many animals as well. Thus, harmful and nontherapeutic animal experimentation is wrong for reasons similar to the reasons that harmful and nontherapeutic human experimentation is wrong. PMID:21952174

Nobis, Nathan

2011-10-01

67

Measurement of the wrong-sign decay D0?K+?-?+?-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement of the rate for the “wrong-sign” decay D0?K+?-?+?- relative to that for the “right-sign” decay D0?K-?+?+?- is presented. Using 791fb-1 of data collected with the Belle detector, we obtain a branching fraction ratio of Rws=[0.324±0.008(stat)±0.007(sys)]%. Multiplying this ratio by the world average value for the branching fraction B(D0?K-?+?+?-) gives a branching fraction B(D0?K+?-?+?-)=(2.61±0.06-0.08+0.09)×10-4.

White, E.; Schwartz, A. J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, T. E.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Esen, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Feindt, M.; Ferber, T.; Frey, A.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Jaegle, I.; Julius, T.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kato, E.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Klucar, J.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Matvienko, D.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ng, C.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Oswald, C.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petri?, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, H.; Saito, T.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stani?, S.; Stari?, M.; Steder, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Vahsen, S. E.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Vorobyev, V.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamashita, Y.; Yashchenko, S.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

2013-09-01

68

Transgression Wrongfulness Outweighs its Harmfulness as a Determinant of Sentence Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When students suggest sentences for criminal offenders, do they rely more heavily on the harmfulness or on the wrongfulness\\u000a of the offender's conduct? In Study 1, 116 Princeton University undergraduates rated the harmfulness and wrongfulness of,\\u000a and suggested appropriate sentences for, a series of crimes. As expected, participants emphasized wrongfulness when choosing\\u000a an appropriate criminal punishment. In Study 2, 33

Adam L. Alter; Julia Kernochan; John M. Darley

2007-01-01

69

7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture...ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

2010-01-01

70

7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture...ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

2009-01-01

71

Voluntary euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the right to do wrong.  

PubMed

It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite the moral wrongness of the procedures in light of the main argument for a moral right to do wrong found in recent philosophical literature. I maintain that the argument does not provide adequate support for such a right to VE and PAS. PMID:23338120

Varelius, Jukka

2013-09-01

72

What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

Paul, Diane B.

2012-11-01

73

A Perfect Substorm: ICME-driven Magnetic Activity Catches Galaxy 15 in the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At approximately 0825 UT on April 5, 2010, an ICME-driven shock encountered Earth's magnetosphere. The IMF, slightly southward since 0805 UT, turned more so, to an average value close to -15 nT, which was maintained for nearly an hour under high dynamic pressure conditions. Following a substorm growth phase, dipolarizations were observed at 0847 and 0903 UT by GOES West (11) in the midnight sector, at 0903 UT by three THEMIS spacecraft near X=-11, Y=-2 RE, and at about 0900 by GOES 14 near 2 MLT. Electron injections began at 0903 UT at the THEMIS spacecraft, while GOES 11 detected an increase in flux of energetic protons. A major dipolarization event at 0909 UT was observed at all of these spacecraft, and transferred magnetic flux from the vicinity of THEMIS to the inner magnetosphere, resulting in "overdipolarization" in the midnight sector. Extreme currents, more than 3 MA crossing the midnight sector, are inferred from ground magnetic perturbations of over 2000 nT, indicating this was an unusually strong substorm. Flux transfer associated with large electric fields observed at THEMIS (EY of 80 mV/m) is consistent with this increase in inner magnetospheric magnetic field. A second increase in ca. 1 MeV proton flux at this time led to a factor of over 10000 overall increase of this flux in the event. When the effects of this substorm reached synchronous orbit, the Galaxy 15 satellite was in eclipse when photoemission is not available to counter charging by the potentially high fluxes of energetic magnetospheric electrons that can occur during substorms. Galaxy 15 experienced a severe operational anomaly shortly after leaving eclipse and appears to have simply been at the wrong place at the wrong time when the “perfect” substorm occurred.

Connors, M. G.; Russell, C. T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Singer, H. J.; Glassmeier, K.

2010-12-01

74

Development of Proportional Reasoning: Where Young Children Go Wrong  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found that children have difficulty solving proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units until 10- to 12-years of age, but can solve parallel problems involving continuous quantities by 6-years of age. The present studies examine where children go wrong in processing proportions that involve discrete quantities. A computerized proportional equivalence choice task was administered to kindergartners through fourth-graders in Study 1, and to first- and third-graders in Study 2. Both studies involved four between-subjects conditions that were formed by pairing continuous and discrete target proportions with continuous and discrete choice alternatives. In Study 1, target and choice alternatives were presented simultaneously and in Study 2 target and choice alternatives were presented sequentially. In both studies, children performed significantly worse when both the target and choice alternatives were represented with discrete quantities than when either or both of the proportions involved continuous quantities. Taken together, these findings indicate that children go astray on proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units only when a numerical match is possible, suggesting that their difficulty is due to an overextension of numerical equivalence concepts to proportional equivalence problems.

Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2008-01-01

75

Green Functions for the Wrong-Sign Quartic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that the Schwinger-Dyson equations for non-Hermitian theories implicitly include the Hilbert-space metric. Approximate Green functions for such theories may thus be obtained, without having to evaluate the metric explicitly, by truncation of the equations. Such a calculation has recently been carried out for various PT-symmetric theories, in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, including the wrong-sign quartic oscillator. For this particular theory the metric is known in closed form, making possible an independent check of these approximate results. We do so by numerically evaluating the ground-state wave-function for the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian and using this wave-function, in conjunction with the metric operator, to calculate the one- and two-point Green functions. We find that the Green functions evaluated by lowest-order truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations are already accurate at the 6% level. This provides a strong justification for the method and a motivation for its extension to higher order and to higher dimensions, where the calculation of the metric is extremely difficult.

Jones, H. F.

2011-04-01

76

The Kaiser's cancer revisited: was Virchow totally wrong?  

PubMed

On 15 June 1888, the German Emperor, Kaiser Friedrich III, died of laryngeal cancer. Three biopsies of his laryngeal lesion had been taken by the British laryngologist, Morel Mackenzie, in 1887 and diagnosed by Rudolf Virchow as "pachydermia verrucosa laryngis", confirming Mackenzie's assessment that the Kaiser's disease was benign. A fourth specimen coughed up by the patient was considered by Virchow to be nondiagnostic. A further specimen expectorated by the patient 3 months before his death was diagnosed as carcinoma by Wilhelm Waldeyer. The autopsy revealed squamous carcinoma in the larynx with a cervical lymph node metastasis. The discrepancies between the initial diagnoses and the final outcome of the Kaiser's disease gave rise to a never-ending medical controversy. Our investigations on this historical case were limited to the official German documents and publications and their English translations and to subsequent literature sources of the time, after having received confirmation that the histological slides and Virchow's original reports had been lost. Based on current surgical pathology knowledge, we propose that the tumour that challenged the diagnostic skills of the founder of pathology was hybrid verrucous carcinoma (HVC), an extremely rare, metastasizing variant of verrucous carcinoma (VC) composed of pure VC mixed with clusters of conventional squamous cell carcinoma. As we see it now, Virchow was therefore not totally wrong. Our retrospective evaluation suggests that Virchow's detailed description of the Kaiser's cancer preceded the paper that contributed to the full understanding of HVC of the larynx by 110 years. PMID:21494762

Cardesa, Antonio; Zidar, Nina; Alos, Llucia; Nadal, Alfons; Gale, Nina; Klöppel, Günter

2011-04-15

77

Supersymmetry with prejudice: Fitting the wrong model to LHC data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We critically examine interpretations of hypothetical supersymmetric LHC signals, fitting to alternative wrong models of supersymmetry breaking. The signals we consider are some of the most constraining on the sparticle spectrum: invariant mass distributions with edges and endpoints from the golden decay chain q˜?q?20(?l˜±l?q)??10l+l-q. We assume a constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) point to be the ‘correct’ one, but fit the signals instead with minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models (mGMSB) with a neutralino quasistable lightest supersymmetric particle, minimal anomaly mediation and large volume string compactification models. Minimal anomaly mediation and large volume scenario can be unambiguously discriminated against the CMSSM for the assumed signal and 1fb-1 of LHC data at s=14TeV. However, mGMSB would not be discriminated on the basis of the kinematic endpoints alone. The best-fit point spectra of mGMSB and CMSSM look remarkably similar, making experimental discrimination at the LHC based on the edges or Higgs properties difficult. However, using rate information for the golden chain should provide the additional separation required.

Allanach, B. C.; Dolan, Matthew J.

2012-09-01

78

Event-related potentials elicited by wrong terminal notes: effects of temporal disruption.  

PubMed

Wrong terminal notes of familiar musical phrases are known to elicit a large positive deflection of the event-related potential (ERP). The present study examined whether the effect of wrong terminal notes on ERP was modulated by the timing of their occurrence. Sixteen non-musicians were asked to rate the congruity of the endings of 50 well-known musical phrases. Four different types of endings were made for each phrase by manipulating the timing (well-timed vs. delayed for 750 ms) and pitch (correct vs. wrong) of the last note orthogonally. These ending patterns were presented equiprobably in an unpredictable order. Wrong notes elicited large late positive waves irrespective of the timing of occurrence. When the notes were delayed, however, the positive waves were reduced in amplitude to about 50% of those elicited by well-timed notes. These results suggest that the temporal (rhythmic) structure of musical phrases strongly influences the processing of melodic information. PMID:10686369

Nittono, H; Bito, T; Hayashi, M; Sakata, S; Hori, T

2000-02-01

79

The Winding Road from Employee to Complainant: Situational and Psychological Determinants of Wrongful-Termination Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured interviews with 996 recently fired or laid-off workers provided data for analyses of the situational and psychological antecedents of both thinking about filing a wrongful-termination claim and actually filing such a claim. Potential antecedents were drawn from relational theories of organizational justice, economic theories about claiming, and sociolegal studies of claiming in other contexts. Wrongful-termination claims were most strongly

E. Allan Lind; Jerald Greenberg; Kimberly S. Scott; Thomas D. Welchans

2000-01-01

80

Patient safety in spine surgery: regarding the wrong-site surgery.  

PubMed

Patient safety regarding wrong site surgery has been one of the priority issues in surgical fields including that of spine care. Since the wrong-side surgery in the DM foot patient was reported on a public mass media in 1996, the wrong-site surgery issue has attracted wide public interest as regarding patient safety. Despite the many wrong-site surgery prevention campaigns in spine care such as the operate through your initial program by the Canadian Orthopaedic Association, the sign your site program by the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeon, the sign, mark and X-ray program by the North American Spine Society, and the Universal Protocol program by the Joint Commission, the incidence of wrong-site surgery has not decreased. To prevent wrong-site surgery in spine surgeries, the spine surgeons must put patient safety first, complying with the hospital policies regarding patient safety. In the operating rooms, the surgeons need to do their best to level the hierarchy, enabling all to speak up if any patient safety concerns are noted. Changing the operating room culture is the essential part of the patient safety concerning spine surgery. PMID:23508946

Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Sup; Jeong, Yoo-Chul; Kwak, Dae-Kyung; Chun, Ja-Hae; Lee, Hwan-Mo

2013-03-06

81

What does life need?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here's an interactive exercise about the needs of all living things. The introduction explains that scientists can use the knowledge of life requirements to guide their search for life on Mars. Players identify which of these six items are necessary for life: sunlight, oxygen, water, meat, energy, and raw materials. If any wrong answers are given, players are shown the number of correct answers and are given access to Learn More buttons. All the Learn More sections are similar. In them, players adjust the amount of the given item (e.g., sunlight) to determine, based on creatures' responses, if the item is needed for life. A plant, a human, and two microbes are shown. When correct answers are submitted, a congratulatory screen appears offering additional links to explore. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.; Terc

2003-01-01

82

Foetal to neonatal transition — what can go wrong?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure of the foetus to make a successful transition from the intrauterine environment can be life threatening. Prompt recognition of problems can enable critical, life-saving interventions to take place. Whilst there are numerous adaptations of the newborn at birth, this article focuses on those which are the most common and\\/or clinically urgent, and describes not only the conventional treatments but

Peter Reynolds

2010-01-01

83

The Resurrection of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of life was progressively put aside in the second half of the 20th century with the rise of molecular biology, but has recently re-emerged. Many scientists and philosophers consider that there is no place for this question within biology; that the distinction between living and non-living is arbitrary; and that progress in synthetic biology will finally put this question out of people’s minds. I will argue that there is something wrong with the arguments supporting these statements. There are no reasons to exclude the question “What is life?” from biology. But the nature of the question has dramatically changed recently. Instead of being a search for the principles of life, the answer is now sought in the description of the historical process that has coupled the now well-established characteristics of organisms.

Morange, Michel

2010-04-01

84

Can Psychopathic Offenders Discern Moral Wrongs? A New Look at the Moral/Conventional Distinction  

PubMed Central

A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannot properly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to non-incarcerated healthy controls. Using a modified version of the classic Moral/Conventional Transgressions task (Nucci & Turiel, 1978) that employs a forced-choice format to minimize strategic responding, the present study found that total psychopathy score did not predict performance on the task. Task performance was explained by some individual sub-facets of psychopathy and by other variables unrelated to psychopathy, such as IQ. The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong.

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kiehl, Kent A.

2012-01-01

85

Can psychopathic offenders discern moral wrongs? A new look at the moral/conventional distinction.  

PubMed

A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannot properly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to nonincarcerated healthy controls. Using a modified version of the classic Moral/Conventional Transgressions task that uses a forced-choice format to minimize strategic responding, the present study found that total psychopathy score did not predict performance on the task. Task performance was explained by some individual subfacets of psychopathy and by other variables unrelated to psychopathy, such as IQ. The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong. PMID:21842959

Aharoni, Eyal; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kiehl, Kent A

2011-08-15

86

A Few of My Favorite Things: Nothing Wrong with "Stuff"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column is focused on a simple theme: the idiosyncratic furnishings, equipment, and stuff that the author would have in any center where young children are going to spend a good chunk of their childhood. Here, the author presents the "good stuff" he doesn't want to do without which can also promote success in school and life. Furthermore he…

Greenman, Jim

2007-01-01

87

Hannah Arendt's Fame Rests on the Wrong Foundation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A street is named after her. Back-to-back conferences celebrate her. New books champion her. Hannah Arendt has joined the small world of philosophical heroes. During her life, she received honorary degrees from Princeton, Smith, and other colleges and universities. Denmark awarded her its Sonning Prize for "commendable work that benefits European…

Jacoby, Russell

2006-01-01

88

What is wrong in chronic adenoiditis\\/tonsillitis anatomical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waldeyer’s ring is most prominent during childhood, when the size of the oro-nasopharyngeal space is not yet fully developed, but decreases spontaneously with age. In the child, enlarged tonsils and\\/or adenoids may cause Eustachian tube dysfunction\\/otitis media, rhinosinusitis, obstructive sleep apnea, voice changes, change in facial growth, swallowing problems and can affect overall quality of life. Consequently, tonsillectomy and\\/or adenoidectomy

Margaretha L. Casselbrant

1999-01-01

89

What's Wrong with Day Care: Freeing Parents To Raise Their Own Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Federal and state tax laws and most private programs give funding to all parents who put their children in day care but give nothing to parents who cut back on their work hours to care for their own children. Challenging the conventional wisdom about child care, this book argues that Americans have wrongly embraced day care and devalued work that…

Siegel, Charles

90

What went wrong in BSE? From prion disease to public disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent report of 10 cases of a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which could be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has precipitated alarm throughout Europe. The beef trade in the UK has collapsed and the European beef market has been seriously damaged. What went wrong? Much of the difficulty of handling the BSE epidemic arose from the

H. F. Baker; R. M. Ridley

1996-01-01

91

Moving Past "Right" or "Wrong" toward a Continuum of Young Children's Semantic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary development is a critical goal for early childhood education. However, it is difficult for researchers and teachers to determine whether this goal is being met, given the limitations of current assessment tools. These tools tend to view word knowledge dichotomously--as right or wrong. A clear sense of children's depth of semantic…

Christ, Tanya

2011-01-01

92

Effects of race on the elicitation of helping behavior: The wrong number technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used a nonreactive field research technique to indicate the extent to which racial attitudes affect helping behavior in the general adult population. 540 black ss and 569 white ss received what was ostensibly a wrong number telephone call. The caller, clearly identifiable by his voice characteristics as being black or white, explained that he was attempting to reach his mechanic

Samuel Gaertner; Leonard Bickman

1971-01-01

93

Set the Wrong Tuition and You'll Pay a Price  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For all of the attention rising college costs continue to receive, it is striking how poorly informed many decision makers are when it comes to setting tuition and fees. And it's equally astounding that so many institutions are learning the consequences of pricing decisions undertaken solely by trial and error when a wrong judgment can affect…

Strauss, David W.

2006-01-01

94

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

95

Children Do Not Follow the Rule "Ignorance Means Getting It Wrong"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments tested whether 4- and 5-year-olds follow the rule "ignorance means you get it wrong." Following this rule should lead children to infer that a character who is ignorant about some situation will also have a false belief about it. This rule should sometimes lead children into error because ignorance does not imply false belief. In…

Friedman, Ori; Petrashek, Adam R.

2009-01-01

96

What's Wrong with Our Schools and How We Can Fix Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"What's Wrong with Our Schools and How We Can Fix Them" examines the status of public education in North America and exposes many of the absurd instructional practices found in all-too-many schools. Written by three experienced educators, this book provides readers with a direct window into public education. The language is straightforward, the…

Zwaagstra, Michael C.; Clifton, Rodney A.; Long, John C.

2010-01-01

97

"Why Girls Go Wrong": Advising Female Teen Readers in the Early Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article traces historical uses of the phrase "why girls go wrong" to provide a context for analysis of Progressive Era reading guidance for girls and then turns to actual girls' responses to reading. The historic context depicts the milieu in which young women and the advisors who sought to guide them lived and read as a time of intense…

Pierce, Jennifer Burek

2007-01-01

98

The wrong of rights: the moral authority of the family.  

PubMed

I argue that the notion of human rights is a flawed notion of relatively recent historical origin, growing primarily out of Enlightenment concerns to separate human beings from their metaphysical and communal heritage. I critique liberal, secular individualism as an abstract perspective that fails to comprehend those fundamental family relations out of which genuine human life emerges and within which it must remain if it is to be perceptive, grounded, and concrete. Finally, I argue that the most important relations humans sustain to each other are internal, not external to them and that the bonding found through empathy is more insightful in decision making than the analytic connections engendered through human reason. PMID:20855425

Erickson, Stephen A

2010-09-20

99

The Personal Past as Inspiration: Authors Honor Their Life Experiences in Their Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ernest Hemingway was wrong. It is not necessary to leave home and go out and experience "Life" in capital letters to have "stuff" about which to write. The daughter of a kindergarten teacher, Louisa May Alcott wrote a book about her family life which became one of the most popular children's classics, "Little Women." All people are storytellers.…

Baghban, Marcia

100

Rethinking the Study of Miscarriages of Justice:Developing a Criminology of Wrongful Conviction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief history of the study of miscarriages of justice in America. It analyzes the field of wrongful conviction scholarship as three distinct genres: the big-picture studies, the specialized-causes literature, and the true-crime genre. It also analyzes what these literatures have contributed to knowledge about miscarriages as well as their limitations. This article attempts to rethink the

Richard A. Leo

2005-01-01

101

The Ethics of Self-Sacrifice: What's Wrong with Suicide Bombing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What's wrong with suicide bombing? The tactic has been used by the Tamil Tigers, by the Japanese kamikaze, by al-Qaeda, by Palestinian militants against Israel, by Iraqi defenders loyal to Saddam Hussein against the U.S. invasion, and by others; it is typically understood by these groups as martyrdom rather than suicide. Scientific theories of suicide—biological, psychological, and sociological—do not contribute

Margaret P. Battin

2004-01-01

102

Root cause analysis and nursing management responsibilities in wrong-site surgery.  

PubMed

The most fundamental reason for the failure or inefficiency of a process, in any work setting, is referred to as a root cause. Root cause analysis is the process of learning from consequences wherein healthcare providers take a step back and gain knowledge from near-misses, adverse events, or sentinel events in the operating room and all areas of healthcare. This article discusses root cause analysis and nursing management responsibilities as they relate to wrong-site surgery. PMID:17003581

Dattilo, Elaine; Constantino, Rose E

103

Hard supersymmetry-breaking ``wrong-Higgs'' couplings of the MSSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM), if the two-Higgs doublets are lighter than some subset of the superpartners of the standard model particles, then it is possible to integrate out the heavy states to obtain an effective broken-supersymmetric low-energy Lagrangian. This Lagrangian can contain dimension-four gauge-invariant Higgs interactions that violate supersymmetry (SUSY). The wrong-Higgs Yukawa couplings generated by one-loop radiative corrections are a well-known example of this phenomenon. In this paper, we examine gauge-invariant gaugino-higgsino-Higgs boson interactions that violate supersymmetry. Such wrong-Higgs gaugino couplings can be generated in models of gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking in which some of the messenger fields couple to the MSSM Higgs bosons. In regions of parameter space where the messenger scale is low and tan?? is large, these hard SUSY-breaking operators yield tan??-enhanced corrections to tree-level supersymmetric relations in the chargino and neutralino sectors that can be as large as 56%. We demonstrate how physical observables in the chargino sector can be used to isolate the tan??-enhanced effects derived from the wrong-Higgs gaugino operators.

Haber, Howard E.; Mason, John D.

2008-06-01

104

Hard supersymmetry-breaking 'wrong-Higgs' couplings of the MSSM  

SciTech Connect

In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM), if the two-Higgs doublets are lighter than some subset of the superpartners of the standard model particles, then it is possible to integrate out the heavy states to obtain an effective broken-supersymmetric low-energy Lagrangian. This Lagrangian can contain dimension-four gauge-invariant Higgs interactions that violate supersymmetry (SUSY). The wrong-Higgs Yukawa couplings generated by one-loop radiative corrections are a well-known example of this phenomenon. In this paper, we examine gauge-invariant gaugino-higgsino-Higgs boson interactions that violate supersymmetry. Such wrong-Higgs gaugino couplings can be generated in models of gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking in which some of the messenger fields couple to the MSSM Higgs bosons. In regions of parameter space where the messenger scale is low and tan{beta} is large, these hard SUSY-breaking operators yield tan{beta}-enhanced corrections to tree-level supersymmetric relations in the chargino and neutralino sectors that can be as large as 56%. We demonstrate how physical observables in the chargino sector can be used to isolate the tan{beta}-enhanced effects derived from the wrong-Higgs gaugino operators.

Haber, Howard E.; Mason, John D. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2008-06-01

105

Stuck with Virtue in Our Pro-Life Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callahan is wrong to be pro-death, but he’s right to say that to live well—or for society to have a real future—we have to\\u000a care about more than mere life. Futile attempts to stop the pursuit of extreme personal prolongevity are contrary to our rights-based\\u000a way of life. It’s also contrary to human love and dignity to regard the old

Peter Augustine Lawler

2009-01-01

106

Wrongfully accused.  

PubMed

Despite being embroiled in a nightmarish lawsuit that jeopardized his professional future and personal freedom, Khaled Jabboury, MD, describes his ordeal as "a message of love." The oncologist's devoted cancer survivors packed a Houston courtroom daily to support their embattled physician during his 10-day criminal trial on fraud charges last fall. Dr. Jabboury was found not guilty of defrauding insurance companies. PMID:23011968

Conde, Crystal

2012-09-01

107

An Integrated Approach for Identifying Wrongly Labelled Samples When Performing Classification in Microarray Data  

PubMed Central

Background Using hybrid approach for gene selection and classification is common as results obtained are generally better than performing the two tasks independently. Yet, for some microarray datasets, both classification accuracy and stability of gene sets obtained still have rooms for improvement. This may be due to the presence of samples with wrong class labels (i.e. outliers). Outlier detection algorithms proposed so far are either not suitable for microarray data, or only solve the outlier detection problem on their own. Results We tackle the outlier detection problem based on a previously proposed Multiple-Filter-Multiple-Wrapper (MFMW) model, which was demonstrated to yield promising results when compared to other hybrid approaches (Leung and Hung, 2010). To incorporate outlier detection and overcome limitations of the existing MFMW model, three new features are introduced in our proposed MFMW-outlier approach: 1) an unbiased external Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation framework is developed to replace internal cross-validation in the previous MFMW model; 2) wrongly labeled samples are identified within the MFMW-outlier model; and 3) a stable set of genes is selected using an L1-norm SVM that removes any redundant genes present. Six binary-class microarray datasets were tested. Comparing with outlier detection studies on the same datasets, MFMW-outlier could detect all the outliers found in the original paper (for which the data was provided for analysis), and the genes selected after outlier removal were proven to have biological relevance. We also compared MFMW-outlier with PRAPIV (Zhang et al., 2006) based on same synthetic datasets. MFMW-outlier gave better average precision and recall values on three different settings. Lastly, artificially flipped microarray datasets were created by removing our detected outliers and flipping some of the remaining samples' labels. Almost all the ‘wrong’ (artificially flipped) samples were detected, suggesting that MFMW-outlier was sufficiently powerful to detect outliers in high-dimensional microarray datasets.

Leung, Yuk Yee; Chang, Chun Qi; Hung, Yeung Sam

2012-01-01

108

Psychiatric patients’ views on why their involuntary hospitalisation was right or wrong: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To explore involuntary patients’ retrospective views on why their hospitalisation was right or wrong.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Involuntary patients were recruited from 22 hospitals in England and interviewed in-depth. The study drew on grounded theory\\u000a and thematic analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Most of the patients felt mentally unwell before admission and out of control during their treatment. Despite these common\\u000a experiences, three groups of patients with

Christina Katsakou; Diana Rose; Tim Amos; Len Bowers; Rosemarie McCabe; Danielle Oliver; Til Wykes; Stefan Priebe

109

Fitting models to correlated data II (small samples, large correlations, and wrong models)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of experimental error, data correlation and model error by the analysis of the fit residuals in an ordered sequence of data [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 224 (2004) 73] is improved by a better insight in the calculation of the statistical relevant quantities. The biases previously observed for too small samples of data, very wrong models or highly correlated data, are partially corrected and this leads to better estimates in some extreme cases provided these unfavourable conditions are not combined. However, such results are always obtained with a decrease in accuracy.

Féménias, Jean-Louis

2005-03-01

110

Burned children pay a costly price for carelessness and wrong behaviours  

PubMed Central

Summary Burns are among the most devastating injuries of all and they are responsible for higher hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality rates than other injuries in children. In addition, the management of burns and their sequelae is extremely expensive. Carelessness and wrong behaviours are the main players in burn injuries, especially in children, independently of their socioeconomic level. These burned children pay a costly price. The purpose of this study is to analyse the mechanisms of burn injuries in children in order to highlight the importance of behavioural changes for the reduction of burn injuries in children.

Khalil, A.A.M.; El-Hadidy, A.M.; Zeid, T.

2012-01-01

111

THE BEST DEFENSE IS A GOOD OFFENSE: USING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROACTIVELY TO MINIMIZE THE THREAT OF LITIGATION FROM WRONGFUL TERMINATION CASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

When it comes to employment-related litigation, human resource (HR) professionals are a business organization's first line of defense. Lawsuits by employees alleging wrongful termination, harassment or discrimination constitute a significant threat to a business. Although many employees are at-will meaning that they can be terminated at any time for any reason, exceptions exist which create the basis for wrongful termination

Richard O. Parry

112

Family life education.  

PubMed

Family life education is not just instruction of sex and reproduction, but an attitude of love and values that starts from infancy. A child who comes into the world wanted is already loved. Later on, he himself will give love because his 1st contact in the world was a happy one. Most children will go through thumb sucking and masturbation, which is normal and innocent behavior. Toilet training is another important factor in sex education. According to our attitude the child will learn that this part of his body is good or bad. By the age of 3 or 6, children learn to discover the difference in sex from our attitude to each other, and when parents practice double standards, the child is confused and worried. Children's curiousity for knowledge is insatiable. If parents find they are embarressed by their children's questions about sex, it is better to put off answering than to convey the impression that something is not quite nice. 11-year old females should be prepared for menarche with knowledge, and fathers should explain to their sons about voice changes, night emissions and fantasy dreams. Masturbation is normal during adolescence, and the only harm comes from wrong anxiety about it. If 2 young people wish to have premarital intercourse, we must have the courage to tell them that chastity remains a value whether they accept it or not. Education for family life means taking account of the child's attitudes and sex values as a future marriage partner and parent. PMID:12338669

Maniar, N

1968-01-01

113

Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

Brooker, Peter

2004-05-01

114

The ethics of self-sacrifice: what's wrong with suicide bombing?  

PubMed

What's wrong with suicide bombing? The tactic has been used by the Tamil Tigers, by the Japanese kamikaze, by al-Qaeda, by Palestinian militants against Israel, by Iraqi defenders loyal to Saddam Hussein against the U.S. invasion, and by others; it is typically understood by these groups as martyrdom rather than suicide. Scientific theories of suicide--biological, psychological, and sociological--do not contribute to an understanding. Nor is the claim that it is amoral, the product of psychopathology or mental illness, adequate. The central moral core of the issue of suicide bombing rests, rather, on the violation of a tacit assumption of equality in combat: "they" have a weapon "we" don't. PMID:16006394

Battin, Margaret P

2004-01-01

115

Trust, communication, theory of mind and the social brain hypothesis : Deep explanations for what goes wrong in health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to examine the deep conceptual underpinnings of trust and communication breakdowns via selected health inquiries into things that go wrong using evolutionary psychology. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper explains how this is carried out, and explores some of the adverse consequences for patient care. Evolutionary psychology provides a means of explaining important mental

Jeffrey Braithwaite; Rick A. Iedema; Christine Jorm

2007-01-01

116

Student Non-Completion of an Undergraduate Degree: Wrong Program Selection or Part of a Career Plan?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Institution wide comparisons of students who leave university before completing their degree and students who complete their studies, have identified "wrong course selection" and a lack of vocational focus as common reasons for non-completion. It is not fully understood, though, whether these trends are constant across different disciplines and…

O'Keefe, M.; Laven, G.; Burgess, T.

2011-01-01

117

How Non-Diagnostic Listening Led to a Rapid “Recovery” from Paranoid Schizophrenia: What is Wrong with Psychiatry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental interview with a young woman diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia led to her rapid recovery. This incident and questions raised about psychiatric practices suggest that something is seriously wrong with psychiatry. It lacks insight into its own behavior, invalidates constructive criticism, avoids the kind of selfexamination it urges on “patients,” shows little interest in accounts of successes with “schizophrenic”

Al Siebert

2000-01-01

118

Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…

Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

2004-01-01

119

Preparing Offspring for a Dangerous World: Potential Costs of Being Wrong  

PubMed Central

Adaptive maternal responses to stressful environments before young are born can follow two non-exclusive pathways: either the mother reduces current investment in favor of future investment, or influences offspring growth and development in order to fit offspring phenotype to the stressful environment. Inducing such developmental cues, however, may be risky if the environment changes meanwhile, resulting in maladapted offspring. Here we test the effects of a predator-induced maternal effect in a predator-free postnatal environment. We manipulated perceived predation-risk for breeding female great tits by exposing them to stuffed models of either a predatory bird or a non-predatory control. Offspring were raised either in an environment matching the maternal one by exchanging whole broods within a maternal treatment group, or in a mismatching environment by exchanging broods among the maternal treatments. Offspring growth depended on the matching of the two environments. While for offspring originating from control treated mothers environmental mismatch did not significantly change growth, offspring of mothers under increased perceived predation risk grew faster and larger in matching conditions. Offspring of predator treated mothers fledged about one day later when growing under mismatching conditions. This suggests costs paid by the offspring if mothers predict environmental conditions wrongly.

Coslovsky, Michael; Richner, Heinz

2012-01-01

120

Measurement of the Wrong-Sign Decays D0?K+?-?0 and D0?K+?-?+?-, and Search for CP Violation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 281fb-1 of data from the Belle experiment recorded at or near the ?(4S) resonance, we have measured the rates of the “wrong-sign” decays D0?K+?-?0 and D0?K+?-?+?- relative to those of the Cabibbo-favored decays D0?K-?+?0 and D0?K-?+?+?-. These wrong-sign decays proceed via a doubly Cabibbo-suppressed amplitude or via D0- Dmacr 0 mixing; the latter has not yet been observed. We obtain RWS(K??0)=[0.229±0.015(stat)-0.009+0.013(syst)]% and RWS(K3?)=[0.320±0.018(stat)-0.013+0.018(syst)]%. The CP asymmetries are measured to be -0.006±0.053 and -0.018±0.044 for the K+?-?0 and K+?-?+?- final states, respectively.

Tian, X. C.; Ban, Y.; Abe, K.; Abe, K.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Asano, Y.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Banerjee, S.; Barberio, E.; Barbero, M.; Bay, A.; Bedny, I.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Blyth, S.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, A.; Chen, K.-F.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Chuvikov, A.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, M.; Dong, L. Y.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Enari, Y.; Fang, F.; Fratina, S.; Gabyshev, N.; Gershon, T.; Gokhroo, G.; Golob, B.; Gorišek, A.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, S.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, K.; Imoto, A.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapusta, P.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Khan, H. R.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, S. M.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Leder, G.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Li, J.; Lin, S.-W.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Matyja, A.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Moloney, G. R.; Mori, T.; Nagamine, T.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakazawa, H.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okabe, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Onuki, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Palka, H.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sakai, Y.; Sato, N.; Satoyama, N.; Sayeed, K.; Schietinger, T.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Sevior, M. E.; Shibuya, H.; Shwartz, B.; Sidorov, V.; Singh, J. B.; Somov, A.; Soni, N.; Stani?, S.; Stari?, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Ueno, K.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Villa, S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Xie, Q. L.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Ying, J.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, Z. P.

2005-12-01

121

Deterministic clock gating to eliminate wasteful activity due to wrong-path instructions in out-of-order superscalar processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present deterministic clock gating schemes for various micro architectural blocks of a modern out-of-order superscalar processor. We propose to make use of (1) idle stages of the pipelined function units (FUs) and (2) wrong-path instruction execution during branch mis-prediction, in order to clock gate various stages of FUs. The baseline Pipelined Functional unit Clock Gating (PFCG),

Nasir Mohyuddin; Kimish Patel; Massoud Pedram

2009-01-01

122

Would you like to know what is wrong with you? On telling the truth to patients with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—To discover what dementia sufferers feel is wrong with them; what they have been told and by whom, and what they wish to know about their illness.Background—Ethical guidelines regarding telling truth appear to be equivocal. Declarations of cognitively intact subjects, attitudes of family members and current psychiatric practice all vary, but no previous research has been published concerning what patients

Marek Marzanski

2000-01-01

123

What's Right/What's Wrong With This Picture?!?: A Watershed Academy 2000 Self-Test in Stream Corridor Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-test consists of examining two photographs of sites along a stream partially damaged by flooding due to Hurricane Fran in 1996. One site underwent serious erosion, while the other site was changed, but remained relatively unharmed. The challenge is to click on those areas of each photo where something appears right or wrong in the stream bank repairs from a stream corridor restoration perspective. Answers are provided to find out whether other restoration practitioners agree.

124

Nuclear Power is Neither Right Nor Wrong: The Case for a Tertium Datur in the Ethics of Technology.  

PubMed

The debate over the civilian use of nuclear power is highly polarised. We argue that a reasonable response to this deep disagreement is to maintain that advocates of both camps should modify their positions. According to the analysis we propose, nuclear power is neither entirely right nor entirely wrong, but rather right and wrong to some degree. We are aware that this non-binary analysis of nuclear power is controversial from a theoretical point of view. Utilitarians, Kantians, and other moral theorists make sharp, binary distinctions between right and wrong acts. However, an important argument speaking in favour of our non-binary analysis is that it better reflects our considered intuitions about the ethical trade-offs we face in discussions of nuclear power. The aim of this article is to make this argument sharp by explaining how it can be rendered compatible with, and supported by, the Capability Approach, which is quickly becoming one of the most influential frameworks for thinking about human development. PMID:23703452

Hillerbrand, Rafaela; Peterson, Martin

2013-05-24

125

5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS...FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS...Responsibility to Notify Employees § 839.301...was in the wrong retirement plan? (a) If you are an employee, your...

2013-01-01

126

What's wrong with executive compensation? A roundtable moderated by Charles Elson.  

PubMed

The value that many superpaid CEO superstars supposedly created has largely disappeared, and the likelihood that it will be recovered anytime soon seems remote. On top of that, a good number of top executives treated their companies like ATMs, awarding themselves millions of dollars in corporate perks. It's hard to dispute the idea that executives were corrupted by the sums of money dangled in front of them. What's wrong with executive compensation, and what can we do about it? HBR and the University of Delaware's Center for Corporate Governance convened a round-table of compensation experts last October on the university's campus in Newark, Delaware. The 12 panelists, from CEOs to investors, from the professionals who advise them to a chief justice who rules on their disputes, provided an extraordinary diversity of viewpoints. The panelist began by debating ways to align the interests of the senior executives with the long-term interests of the company-weighing the relative benefits of stock options versus stock grants, for instance. But the discussion expanded to cover broader questions of corporate governance and company values. "The main reason compensation increases every year is that most boards want their CEO to be in the top half of the CEO peer group," said Ed Woolard,Jr., a former CEO of DuPont. And compensation lawyer Joe Bachelder pointed out the danger of structuring pay in such a way that it dampens risk taking among executives. It was a lively and wide-ranging discussion of one business's most pressing issues. PMID:12545924

Roiter, Eric; Clapman, Peter; Heard, Jamie; Bachelder, Joe; England, John; Lau, Greg; Woolard, Edgar S; Meyer, Pearl; Hall, Brian; Barnette, Hank; Batts, Warren; Veasey, E Norman

2003-01-01

127

Life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give simple upper and lower bounds on life expectancy. In a life-table population, if e(0) is the life expectancy at birth, M is the median length of life, and e(M) is the expected remaining life at age M, then (M+e(M))\\/2?e(0)?M+e(M)\\/2. In general, for any age x, if e(x) is the expected remaining life at age x, and ?(x) is

Joel E. Cohen

2011-01-01

128

Protecting raw data and psychological tests from wrongful disclosure: a primer on the law and other persuasive strategies.  

PubMed

Psychologists must advocate for more stringent legal protection of psychological test materials because using standardized tests is the most distinguishing and exclusive feature of psychological evaluation practice. With the rapid growth in forensic consulting, unrestrained discovery of raw data and psychological test materials during litigation erodes the reliability and validity of the test procedures. Dissemination of test materials reduces the interpretive value of the tests and promotes cheating, turning our best methods into junk science in the courtroom. This article proposes to reform the law and to revise the professional ethics of psychologists consistent with the strong public policy of test security as described by the U.S. Supreme Court in Detroit Edison v. NLRB (1979). Currently, federal courts and about 20 states protect psychological tests as a unique methodology, with some states enacting a psychologist nondisclosure privilege/duty to safeguard test materials from wrongful disclosure. The record management practices of psychologists vary considerably and are vulnerable to legal attack unless psychologists are aware of legal arguments to protect test materials from wrongful release. Although this article does not offer legal advice, it describes the most common records management problem confronting neuropsychologists and some practical solutions to the raw data problem. Best practice for protecting psychological tests requires the psychologist to understand the law and to assert the psychologist nondisclosure privilege. Other strategies are presented and evaluated. Organized psychology and the legal community should advocate for a uniform rule to protect the objectivity, fairness, and integrity psychological methods in litigation. PMID:19787550

Kaufmann, Paul M

2009-09-01

129

Life's crucible.  

PubMed

Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers. PMID:11541839

Radetsky, P

1998-02-01

130

Everyday Life  

MedlinePLUS

... and Diabetes FREE Diabetes Support On Your Cell Phone Receive info, recipes, tips and reminders from Care4life when you enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes program for free. Enroll today. Home > Living with Diabetes > For Parents & Kids > Everyday Life Everyday Life Listen After the initial ...

131

Sorry, wrong number: The use and misuse of numerical facts in analysis and media reporting of energy issues  

SciTech Connect

Students of public policy sometimes envision an idealized policy process where competent data collection and incisive analysis on both sides of a debate lead to reasoned judgments and sound decisions. Unfortunately, numbers that prove decisive in policy debates are not always carefully developed, credibly documented, or correct. This paper presents four widely cited examples of numbers in the energy field that are either misleading or wrong. It explores the origins of these numbers, how they missed the mark, and how they have been misused by both analysts and the media. In addition, it describes and uses a three-stage analytical process for evaluating such statistics that involves defining terms and boundaries, assessing underlying data, and critically analyzing arguments.

Koomey, Jonathan G.; Calwell, Chris; Laitner, Skip; Thornton, Jane; Brown, Richard E.; Eto, Joseph H.; Webber, Carrie; Cullicott, Cathy

2002-09-01

132

Wrongs, preferences, and the selection of children: a critique of Rebecca Bennett's argument against the principle of procreative beneficence.  

PubMed

Rebecca Bennett, in a recent paper dismissing Julian Savulescu's principle of procreative beneficence, advances both a negative and a positive thesis. The negative thesis holds that the principle's theoretical foundation - the notion of impersonal harm or non-person-affecting wrong - is indefensible. Therefore, there can be no obligations of the sort that the principle asserts. The positive thesis, on the other hand, attempts to plug an explanatory gap that arises once the principle has been rejected. That is, it holds that the intuitions of those who adhere to the principle are not genuine moral intuitions, but instead simply give voice to mere (non-moral) preferences. This paper, while agreeing that Savulescu's principle does not express a genuine moral obligation, takes issue with both of Bennett's theses. It is suggested that the argument for the negative thesis is either weak or question-begging, while there is insufficient reason to suppose the positive thesis true. PMID:21320140

Herissone-Kelly, Peter

2011-02-14

133

Life University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life University offers professional degrees in chiropractic, and undergraduate and graduate degrees in health related fields. Information is provided about the college, the chiropractic profession and research.

1997-01-01

134

Could some people be wronged by contracting swine flu? A case discussion on the links between the farm animal sector and human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the imaginary case of Gemma, presented initially at the International Swine Flu Conference (London, March 2010), to discuss whether a nurse who disagrees with most ways in which animals are farmed would be wronged if she contracted swine flu. It is argued that the farm animal sector has contributed to the emergence of H1N1 flu, and that

Jan Deckers

2011-01-01

135

Domestic Violence in Men's and Women's Magazines: Women Are Guilty of Choosing the Wrong Men, Men Are Not Guilty of Hitting Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men's and women's magazine discourse on domestic violence characterizes women as guilty of choosing the wrong men but does not hold men responsible for hitting women. Using qualitative narrative analysis on 10 leading titles over 10 years, I find an ongoing tolerance for and celebration of domestic violence in men's magazines and an enduring expectation in women's that women bear

Pamela Hill Nettleton

2011-01-01

136

Bringing life sciences to life.  

PubMed

A brief review of the status of space life sciences research is provided with an emphasis on the contributions this research has made to life here on Earth. Physiological effects of weightlessness are discussed along with methods of prevention or treatment. Several technologies are described which have resulted in advances in improved health care and in other industries. In addition, the impact of space life sciences research on women's health issues and on future space travel are discussed. PMID:11539590

David, L

1996-03-01

137

Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The life sciences investigate the diversity, complexity, and interconnectedness of life on earth. Students are naturally drawn to examine living things, and as they progress through the grade levels, they become capable of understanding the theories and models that scientists use to explain observations of nature.

K-12 Outreach,

138

Life sciences  

SciTech Connect

This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

Day, L. (ed.)

1991-04-01

139

Clinical incident reporting: wrong time, wrong place  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to generate a debate regarding the value of incident reporting in the UK. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper critiques the dominant approach to patients in the UK. Findings – It is suggested that the reliability of health care processes would need to substantially improve before an incident reporting system can have a meaningful

Mark Renshaw; Craig Vaughan; Mel Ottewill; Alan Ireland; Jane Carmody

2008-01-01

140

Defining Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030.

2010-01-01

141

Life philosophy and Life style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two categories of values are distinguished by their psychological functions. Life philosophy values secure a person's sense of personal identity; they are held regardless of what anyone else thinks of his value choice. Life style values secure a person's sense of social identity; they are held precisely because of what others think of his value choice. People sometimes run together

Howard Kamler

1984-01-01

142

Discover Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The nonprofit organization Discover Life has combined forces with the National Park Service to conduct an "All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory" -- a comprehensive inventory of all life forms in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The 800-square-mile national park lies within the states of North Carolina and Tennessee and encompasses some of the richest biodiversity in the Temperate Zone. The Discover Life homepage provides background information on this ambitious initiative, including an internal search engine (for accessing additional resources on the Park's taxa and experts involved with the project), links to educational resources, status of the inventory, and much more.

143

Early life history: A computer analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical computer calculations, based in part on measurements of ‘young’ stars obtained with an orbiting telescope, may require a reexamination of some of the basic ideas about the composition of the earth's early atmosphere and the origin of life. According to Joel S. Levine, atmospheric geophysicist at the Langley Research Center, ‘the overwhelming majority of chemical evolution experiments since the first in 1952 may have been conducted with the wrong atmospheric mixture.’Astronomical measurements indicate that considerably more ultraviolet (UV) radiation may have been emitted by the young sun in comparison to that emitted by the present sun. Therefore, high levels of such radiation from the young sun, potentially harmful to life, would have been striking the earth at the very time life was being formed.Recent photochemical calculations by Levine and others at Langley state that at the time complex organic molecules (the precursors of living systems) were first formed from atmospheric gases the earth's atmosphere was not composed primarily of methane, ammonia, and hydrogen, as was previously supposed; instead, it was composed of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor, all resulting from volcanic activity. The calculations indicate that both methane and ammonia were extremely short-lived and that such an atmosphere was photochemically unstable if it existed at all.

Bell, Peter M.

144

Component Lifing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Failure mechanisms which can occur in an aircraft engine component in service are categorized into low life failures, macroscopically nonlocalized damage accumulation, and macroscopically localized damage accumulation. The methods used to avoid these fail...

A. C. Pickard

1986-01-01

145

The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?  

PubMed

Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized 'external' environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate 'internal' biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means. PMID:22915021

Wells, Jonathan C K

2012-09-01

146

Technology Life Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OUTLINE: DoD Life Cycle - NASA Life Cycle - Generic Life Cycle - Technology Readiness Levels - Exceptions - Product Life Cycle - Product and Technology Life Cycles Together. CONCLUSION: Technology Maturity Measures Where You are in the Technology Life Cyc...

B. Nolte

2006-01-01

147

From Sakata model to Goldberg-Ne'eman quarks and Nambu QCD phenomenology and "right" and "wrong" experiments.  

SciTech Connect

The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A 'good' experiment on {bar p}p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A 'bad' experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the of the {Xi} and {Omega}{sup -}. More 'good' experiments revealed the existence and mass of the {Xi}* and the {Omega}{sup -} and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the 'tenfold way'. Further 'good experiments' revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the {phi} {yields} {rho} {pi} decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the {Delta}{sup ++} and {Omega}{sup -} contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book 'Lie Groups for Pedestrians' used the Sakata model with the name 'sakaton' for the {Lambda} triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's.

Lipkin, H. J.; High Energy Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Science; Tel Aviv Univ /

2007-01-01

148

Would you like to know what is wrong with you? On telling the truth to patients with dementia  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To discover what dementia sufferers feel is wrong with them; what they have been told and by whom, and what they wish to know about their illness. Background—Ethical guidelines regarding telling truth appear to be equivocal. Declarations of cognitively intact subjects, attitudes of family members and current psychiatric practice all vary, but no previous research has been published concerning what patients with dementia would in fact like to know about their diagnosis and prognosis. Design—Questionnaire study of the patients' opinions. Setting—Old Age Psychiatry Service in Worcester. Participants—30 consecutive patients with dementia. Results—The quality of information received has been poor and many patients have no opportunity to discuss their illness with anybody. Despite that almost half of the participants in this study had adequate insight and a majority declared that they would like to know more about their predicament. Conclusions—Although many patients would like to know the truth, the rights of those who do not want to know should also be respected. Therefore the diagnosis of dementia should not be routinely disclosed but (just as in other disorders) health care professionals should seek to understand their patients' preferences and act appropriately according to their choice. Key Words: Dementia • telling truth • patients' perspectives

Marzanski, M.

2000-01-01

149

From Sakata Model to Goldberg-Ne'eman Quarks and Nambu QCD Phenomenology and ``Right" and ``Wrong" Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, theGoldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A ``good" experiment on bar{p}p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A ``bad" experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the Xi(*) and Omega(-) . More ``good" experiments revealed the existence and mass of the Xi(*) and the Omega(-) and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the ``tenfold way". Further ``good experiments" revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the phi -> rho pi decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the Delta(++) and Omega(-) contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book ``Lie Groups for Pedestrians" used the Sakata model with the name ``sakaton" for the pnLambda triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's.

Lipkin, H. J.

150

Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For decades, many of the nation's life science classrooms have been anything but lively. Biology has been criticized for being content heavy, overloaded with vocabulary, and tested by rote. Six to seven hundred pages of text, presented to teenagers with limited abilities to reason, constituted what in most cases was the only required science in high schools. By contrast, the classroom of a life science teacher who is moving toward the Standards provides an exciting environment for inquiry and a core of content that is smaller but in greater depth than in the past. Topics are covered in more detail, coursework is integrated, and both teachers and students feel challenged. This free selection includes an inquiry-based, life science lesson and the Table of Contents.

2004-01-01

151

Life sciences.  

PubMed

Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan. PMID:14696586

Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

2003-12-01

152

Life Raft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inflatable life raft is designed as survival equipment for personnel landing in a space craft. It is made of light weight fabric and has fabric ballast buckets on its underside. It is provided with boarding handles across its floor. The raft has a rad...

G. A. Shewmake M. I. Radnofsky

1964-01-01

153

Statistical mechanics of the genetic code: a glimpse of early life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relics of early life, preceding even the last universal common ancestor of all life on Earth, are present in the structure of the modern day canonical genetic code --- the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause the wrong proteins to be translated, thus killing the organism? I show how a unique and optimal genetic code can emerge over evolutionary time from digital life simulations, but only if horizontal gene transfer was a much stronger characteristic of early life than it is now. These results suggest a natural scenario in which evolution exhibits three distinct dynamical regimes, differentiated respectively by the way in which information flow, genetic novelty and complexity emerge. Possible observational signatures of these predictions are discussed.

Goldenfeld, Nigel

2012-02-01

154

Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.  

PubMed

In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion. PMID:21597083

Nobis, Nathan

2011-05-19

155

LIFE, Life Investigation For Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of NASA outer planet life search targets and unique in its current active jets. As with comets, this enables a low-cost flyby sample return mission like STARDUST. Samples from Enceladus will expand our in-depth knowledge of \\

Peter Tsou; I. Kanic; C. Sotin; L. Spilker; T. Spilker; N. Strange

2009-01-01

156

A buckling region in locust hindlegs contains resilin and absorbs energy when jumping or kicking goes wrong.  

PubMed

If a hindleg of a locust slips during jumping, or misses its target during kicking, energy generated by the two extensor tibiae muscles is no longer expended in raising the body or striking a target. How, then, is the energy in a jump (4100-4800 ?J) or kick (1700 ?J) dissipated? A specialised buckling region found in the proximal hind-tibia where the bending moment is high, but not present in the other legs, buckled and allowed the distal part of the tibia to extend. In jumps when a hindleg slipped, it bent by a mean of 23±14 deg at a velocity of 13.4±9.5 deg ms(-1); in kicks that failed to contact a target it bent by 32±16 deg at a velocity of 32.9±9.5 deg ms(-1). It also buckled 8.5±4.0 deg at a rate of 0.063±0.005 deg ms(-1) when the tibia was prevented from flexing fully about the femur in preparation for both these movements. By experimentally buckling this region through 40 deg at velocities of 0.001-0.65 deg ms(-1), we showed that one hindleg could store about 870 ?J on bending, of which 210 ?J was dissipated back to the leg on release. A band of blue fluorescence was revealed at the buckling region under UV illumination that had the two key signatures of the elastic protein resilin. A group of campaniform sensilla 300 ?m proximal to the buckling region responded to imposed buckling movements. The features of the buckling region show that it can act as a shock absorber as proposed previously when jumping and kicking movements go wrong. PMID:22399660

Bayley, T G; Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

2012-04-01

157

Understanding Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Life is the educational website of The Physiological Society, providing "support for the teaching and learning of physiology." A good place to start is the What is Physiology? area, which offers an overview of this field of human inquiry. The Resources area is a well-designed archive of instructional materials that include "The story of a single heartbeat," "The Science of Life," and "Planning an experiment." It's worth noting that visitors can create their own accounts on the site so they can receive specialized newsletters, tailored website content, and become eligible to enter scientific competitions. Moving along, the Events area lists important goings-on that will be of interest to educators and those involved with science pedagogy. [KMG

158

Second Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, the Californian software company Linden Lab opened its virtual world to the public. Second Life (SL) is based on a unique concept that goes much further than all other MMORPG s (Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games)\\u000a in that the entire content of this synthetic environment is user-generated. In addition to the option of buying and selling\\u000a land, Linden

Florian Schmidt

159

Prehistoric Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from Museum Victoria in Australia presents an overview of fossils and what they tell us about prehistoric life. Museum Victoria developed this site in response to frequently asked questions and public interest in paleontology, resulting in a well-presented and easy-to-understand introduction to the topic. Five main sections cover invertebrate fossils, dinosaurs, Ice Age mammals, fossils found in Victoria, and a general explanation of fossils and fossilization. Although a bit text heavy with limited illustrations (but nonetheless engaging), this Web site should appeal to anyone with even a passing interest in paleontology.

2002-01-01

160

The Wrong Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joan E. Paluzzi and Paul E. Farmer argue that understanding the reasons why countries may not attain the Millennium Development Goals becomes a predictable litany of the barriers and deficiencies that exist within any profoundly poor country. They suggest a more productive approach to achieving the goals would be to identify and to challenge the continued use of obstructive and

Joan E Paluzzi; Paul E Farmer

2005-01-01

161

Neocon Wrongs and Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoconservative thought, characterized by idealism, militancy, and internationalism, has prevailed throughout America's immediate history. Neoconservatives have been proven correct time and time again—in the Cold War, in Kuwait, and in Bosnia. However, this does not hold true for the war in Iraq, and neoconservatives must take their share of the blame for this tragedy. Nonetheless, neo-conservatism should not be discredited

Joshua Muravchik

2010-01-01

162

Where Bell Went Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.

Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

2009-03-01

163

Deinstitutionalisation: What Went Wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Deinstitutionalisation’ has been the twin policy to ‘community care’ and has been a key welfare strategy in Britain for some 30 years. In the 1980s considerable political and professional activity was focused upon the shortcomings of community care, but relatively little attention was paid to the failure of ‘deinstitutionalisation’. Why has it proved so difficult to close long-stay hospitals? This

Bob Hudson

1991-01-01

164

What's Wrong with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I present a moral account of the legal notion of deceptive advertising. I argue that no harmful consequences to the consumer need follow from a deceptive advertisement as such, and I suggest instead that one should focus on the consequences of permitting the practise of deceptive advertising on society as a whole. After a brief account of

Daniel Attas

1999-01-01

165

Recruiting the Wrong Salespeople  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salesperson is central to the success of many organisations, yet job turnover in this role is reported as being excessive. Recruitment of these key individuals must be given a high priority, and practice should be as effective as is practical. This research examines the extent to which the job advertisement may be a contributory factor to this problem, by

Brian P Mathews; Tom Redman

2001-01-01

166

Influence of an outpatient multidisciplinary pain management program on the health-related quality of life and the physical fitness of chronic pain patients  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 10 to 20 percent of the population is suffering from chronic pain. Since this represents a major contribution to the costs of the health care system, more efficient measures and interventions to treat these patients are sought. Results The development of general health and physical activity of patients with chronic pain was assessed in an interdisciplinary outpatient pain management program (IOPP). 36 patients with an average age of 48 years were included in the IOPP. Subjective assessment of well-being was performed at five time points (baseline, post intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter) by using standardized questionnaires. The study focused on the quality of life survey Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, which is a validated instrument with established reliability and sensitivity. In addition, the patients participated in physical assessment testing strength, power, endurance, and mobility. Prior to therapy a substantial impairment was found on different levels. Marked improvements in the psychological parameters were obtained by the end of the program. No success was achieved with regard to the physical assessments. Conclusion Although many different studies have evaluated similar programs, only few of them have attained positive results such as improvements of general quality of life or of physical strength. Often no difference from the control group could be detected only some months after the intervention. In the present study no significant persistent improvement of well-being occurred. Possible reasons are either wrong instruments, wrong selection of patients or wrong interventions.

Joos, Bettina; Uebelhart, Daniel; Michel, Beat A; Sprott, Haiko

2004-01-01

167

Modeling life.  

PubMed

We seek to construct physical and mathematical models of life. Such models allow us to test our understanding of how living systems function and how they respond to human imposed stimuli. One system is a genomically and chemically complete model of a minimal cell. This cell is a hypothetical bacterium with the fewest number of genes possible. Such a minimal cell provides a platform to ask about the essential features of a living cell and forms a platform to investigate "synthetic biology." A second system is "Body-on-a-Chip" which is a microfabricated microfluidic system with cells or tissue constructs representing various organs in the body. It can be constructed from human or animal cells and used in drug discovery development. That model is a physical representation of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Both the computer and the physical models provide insight into the underlying biology and provide new tools to make use of that understanding to provide benefits to society. PMID:22527010

Shuler, Michael L

2012-04-17

168

Standards for risk assessment of standards: how the international community is starting to address the risk of the wrong standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical standards pervade commerce and society and allow the complexity of modern life to operate at all levels, global included. They also provide protection against many risks, whether from food, from dangerous products or from fraud. They are so self-evidently worthy that they are rarely challenged, yet anything as powerful and pervasive as the web of standards needs some element

Donald Macrae

2011-01-01

169

Automatic localization of vertebral levels in x-ray fluoroscopy using 3D-2D registration: a tool to reduce wrong-site surgery.  

PubMed

Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (wrong-level surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to the lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. The conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and visualization system (referred to as LevelCheck), for decision support in spine surgery by automatically labeling vertebral levels in fluoroscopy using a GPU-accelerated, intensity-based 3D-2D (namely CT-to-fluoroscopy) registration. A gradient information (GI) similarity metric and a CMA-ES optimizer were chosen due to their robustness and inherent suitability for parallelization. Simulation studies involved ten patient CT datasets from which 50 000 simulated fluoroscopic images were generated from C-arm poses selected to approximate the C-arm operator and positioning variability. Physical experiments used an anthropomorphic chest phantom imaged under real fluoroscopy. The registration accuracy was evaluated as the mean projection distance (mPD) between the estimated and true center of vertebral levels. Trials were defined as successful if the estimated position was within the projection of the vertebral body (namely mPD <5 mm). Simulation studies showed a success rate of 99.998% (1 failure in 50 000 trials) and computation time of 4.7 s on a midrange GPU. Analysis of failure modes identified cases of false local optima in the search space arising from longitudinal periodicity in vertebral structures. Physical experiments demonstrated the robustness of the algorithm against quantum noise and x-ray scatter. The ability to automatically localize target anatomy in fluoroscopy in near-real-time could be valuable in reducing the occurrence of wrong-site surgery while helping to reduce radiation exposure. The method is applicable beyond the specific case of vertebral labeling, since any structure defined in pre-operative (or intra-operative) CT or cone-beam CT can be automatically registered to the fluoroscopic scene. PMID:22864366

Otake, Y; Schafer, S; Stayman, J W; Zbijewski, W; Kleinszig, G; Graumann, R; Khanna, A J; Siewerdsen, J H

2012-08-03

170

Is the Good Life the Easy Life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Participantsrated the desirability and moral goodness of a life as a function of thehappiness, meaning, and effort experienced. Happiness and meaning weresolid predictors of the good life, replicating King and Napa (1998).Study 1 (N = 381) included wealth as an additional factor. Resultsshowed little desire for exorbitant (over moderate) wealth, but

Christie Napa Scollon; Laura A. King

2004-01-01

171

Lifelong, Life-Wide or Life Sentence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the life-wide dimensions of lifelong learning. Although the benefits of a life-wide approach to learning are well recognised, there appears to be little explicit attention given to the concept of life-wide learning in Australia. It is argued that recent pronouncements by the Australian Government about the challenges of an…

Clark, Terry

2005-01-01

172

Technological Forms of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

E THINK so naturally in terms of the notion of 'forms of life', that it is difficult to obtain any distance on the notion. Ludwig Wittgen- stein made the concept of 'forms of life' rather common currency across a range of scholarly disciplines. Indeed, in academic talk and everyday talk we speak incessantly of life and forms of life. We

Scott Lash

2001-01-01

173

Life in the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes adress the question: "Are we alone or are there millions of advanced life forms in the universe?" by examining life on Earth, the origin of life on Earth, the possiblity that life exists in our solar system or elsewhere.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

174

- Ancient Hawaiian life vs Colonial life-  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today we are going to research about the 13 colonies. Here are the things you will be learning about: What were the first 13 colonies? What year was each colony discovered? Who discovered each colony? Compare and contrast life in colonial days with life in ancient Hawaii.

Mr.Haiola, Mr. Asahara, Mrs Abiva, Ms. Hamada

2011-02-09

175

Is there life in Second Life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social virtual worlds such as Second Life are digital repre- sentations of the real world where human-controlled avatars evolve and interact through social activities. Understand - ing the characteristics of existing virtual worlds can be ex - tremely valuable to optimize their design. In this work we perform the first extensive analysis of Second Life. We have crawled around 13000

Matteo Varvello; Fabio Picconi; Christophe Diot; Ernst W. Biersack

2008-01-01

176

Substantial life extension and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are emerging biotechnologies that promise to substantially enhance human lifespan. CRMs like resveratrol, metformin and rapamycin have been extensively tested in animals and have undergone clinical trials in humans, with positive indications for extended lifespan. This raises important questions for individuals and society: Is it really better to have a longer life? Would life-extending biotechnologies contribute

Christopher Wareham

2012-01-01

177

BOOK REVIEW: Carl Sagan: A Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a quite remarkable book. If you want a quick and sketchy evening's read about your favourite popular scientist then this is not for you! On the other hand, if you want a detailed, fascinating and exhaustively researched story about a very special person, then read it. The author has produced a painstaking picture of Sagan. The main text consists of 430 pages of stories, anecdotes, quotations etc, which lead us through the complex life of a very complex man. This is backed up with a further 70 pages of detailed references followed by a 19 page bibliography. We learn about Sagan from his early days, when he was a somewhat precocious schoolboy, right up to his final days when he was in poor health yet still turning out books at a great rate. Like many people, I knew of him but not very much about him before I read this book. He was a man of giant energy who attempted to combine the life of a working research scientist with that of a great popularizer as well as extending his tentacles into various aspects of (scientific) government policy. Even in his early days his one aim in life seemed to be that of furthering his own career by getting to know as many well-known scientists as possible. He had fingers in many pies - academic, something mysterious and military related, book writing, popular science on TV etc, etc. He was particularly concerned with the space programme, especially the planetary probes and the Voyager vehicles which took messages from Earth to outer space. We get the impression from the book that he was especially obsessed with extraterrestrial life and was desperate to confirm its existence. He was instrumental in keeping the SETI programme going even though it eventually had to go private. We learn that he was not a good family man and work usually took precedence over domestic issues. As a result his private life seems to have been as complicated as his professional life. He was a man whose mind went in several directions at once and he was criticized at times for not following through his ideas. Perhaps he saw himself as the ideas man and preferred to leave the details to somebody else. Sometimes his ideas were wildly wrong, which is, perhaps, not surprising when working at the frontiers of science. One thing that surprised me was a suggestion by the author that his book The Dragons of Eden was `obviously written under the inspiration of marijuana'! It is easy and very tempting to criticize someone like Sagan after reading this book, which catalogues his many faults along with his many strengths. However, very few of us could attempt to accomplish even a tenth of what he accomplished in his lifetime. He had a health problem all through his life but nonetheless overcame all his personal and interpersonal problems to become the man that we all know, someone who made science, and especially astronomy, live for vast numbers of ordinary people. He aroused critical passions in many but, as Keay says, `In my years of research, I met not one person - not one - who knew Sagan closely and who strongly disliked him'. The book is an excellent read and gives a fascinating picture not only of the man but of science politics in the USA at the time.

Jakeways, Robin

2000-01-01

178

Social identity and stroke: 'they don't make me feel like, there's something wrong with me'.  

PubMed

Over 85% of the people survive stroke; and of those, over 80% are discharged to the community. However, the majority do not recover completely. Loss of identity is a commonly reported experience after stroke. Studies focus on the individual survivors' use of their own cognitive resources to adapt to change, rather than examining the effects of social interactions on stroke survivors' identities. Social relationships are the foundation upon which survivors rebuild skills to engage with the world, yet little is known about the ways in which families, friends and neighbours provide a context for the recreation of a sense of self and activities after stroke. This article draws on situational analysis grounded theory analysis of in-depth individual interviews with nine middle-aged survivors of stroke. In situational analysis, the original grounded theory methods proposed by Glaser and Strauss are used; however, the situational context, and how environments and relationships influence actions, is explicitly analysed. Our objective was to understand the ways in which family, social, and community resources might enhance stroke survivors' participation in personally meaningful activities over the long term. The qualitative accounts of these survivors reveal how social support helped them maintain or more importantly regain a position in society. Following any life-changing event, people's sense of self is fluid. A relevant social position entitles stroke survivors to become actively involved in setting their own goals and maintaining a positive identity. However, as these participants attested, stroke impaired their social position and resources to reject an imposed social position. It was difficult for these survivors to construct a valued social identity without the support of other people. Future studies should explore the consequences of social interactions with others and how social attitudes about stroke disability affects individual's activity options, professional practice, and ultimately development of a positive poststroke identity. PMID:23121474

Anderson, Sharon; Whitfield, Kyle

2012-11-02

179

How Did Life Begin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While we now know how life works, we do not know how life started on Earth, and may never know for sure, even if we do succeed\\u000a in creating life in the laboratory. The problem is that the historical trail may have been totally obliterated. We do know\\u000a the window of time for the formation of the first life on

Peter Shaver

180

The Pleasant Life, the Engaged Life, and the Meaningful Life: What about the Balanced Life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martin Seligman, in his very popular book Authentic Happiness (Seligman 2002), argued that authentic happiness is derived from three major sets of experiences in life, namely experiencing pleasantness\\u000a regularly (the pleasant life), experiencing a high level of engagement in satisfying activities (the engaged life), and experiencing\\u000a a sense of connectedness to a greater whole (the meaningful life). In this paper,

M. Joseph Sirgy; Jiyun Wu

2009-01-01

181

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

Bates, Jan P.

2005-01-01

182

Life without Carbon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon is the centerpiece of all life on Earth and one of the most abundant elements in the Solar System and Sun-like stars. Yet alien biochemistries and one's choice of a definition of life offer possibility for other forms of life.

Manfred Cuntz; Peter E. Williams

2006-01-01

183

Life Among the Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

MOSAIC, 1977

1977-01-01

184

Life on Jupiter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of life on Jupiter are discussed from the point view of life as we know it. That is, we assume that any life on Jupiter would not involve new principles foreign to us. Proteins would be a constituent as would fats and the other building blocks of living organisms on Earth. This leads us to a set of

W. F. Libby

1974-01-01

185

Life Events and Burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 54 males and 134 females, most of whom were in direct service positions of a counseling and social work nature, was given a battery of instruments, including a measure for burnout (an occupational form of excessive stress), life events, and items concerning satisfaction with work and life in general. The results indicate that negative life change events

Blair Justice; Robert S. Gold; John P. Klein

1981-01-01

186

Life in the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life in the Universe documents the largest gathering to date of experts in the exciting new field of exobiology. In 29 chapters, the book explores the whole question of the nature and distribution of life in the universe -- from the formation of planets to the origins of life on earth, the emergence of intelligence, and the future search for

John Billingham

1981-01-01

187

Life in Extreme Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astrobiology Web publishes this list of links about life in extreme environments. Subjects include general information, genomic resources, thermophilic life, endolithic organisms, bacteria in amber, dry (xerophytic) organisms, radiation tolerance, deep and dark dwelling organisms, life at varied pressures, halophilic organisms, research agencies, the domain Archaea, deep ocean thermal vents, and recommended books. The site features an internal search engine.

2010-02-04

188

Bivariate mean residual life  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of some theoretical results concerning the mean residual life function used in reliability theory. An extension of the concept to the bivariate case is introduced, and the relationship between the reliability and mean residual life function is derived. The properties of the function and conditions for asymptotic exponentiality of component life lengths are discussed

K. R. Muralidharan Nair; N. Unnikrishnan Nair

1989-01-01

189

Life without Carbon?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon is the centerpiece of all life on Earth and one of the most abundant elements in the Solar System and Sun-like stars. Yet alien biochemistries and one's choice of a definition of life offer possibility for other forms of life.

Cuntz, Manfred; Williams, Peter E.

2006-05-01

190

Auguste Comte's Blunder: An Account of the First Century of Stellar Spectroscopy and How It Took One Hundred Years to Prove That Comte was Wrong!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. I will give a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. After introducing the main players, I will concentrate mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-20th century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. My talk will emphasize these close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics. In addition laboratory physics was also an essential precursor, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early 19th century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

Hearnshaw, John B.

2010-01-01

191

Auguste Comte's blunder: an account of the first century of stellar spectroscopy and how it took one hundred years to prove that Comte was wrong!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. This paper gives a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. This paper concentrates mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-twentieth century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. The close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics will be emphasized. In addition laboratory physics, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths, was also an essential precursor to quantitative data on the chemical composition of stars. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early nineteenth century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

Hearnshaw, John

2010-07-01

192

A life with prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

The author gives an anecdotal account of his life with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). He was not formally diagnosed until the age of 53 and has evolved a complicated strategy for recognizing people based on non-facial physical features and context. He describes his experiences through infancy, school, university life and courtship, work and family life. He believes that he has lived a full and successful life despite DP but that some aspects of his social and work life were impaired by face-blindness. In his experience people react positively and helpfully if the consequences of DP are explained to them, and this improves social interactions and communications. PMID:23186078

Fine, David Roger

2012-11-27

193

Guardians at the gate: patent protection of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies through product life cycle management--Part 3.  

PubMed

Product life cycle management, which necessarily utilizes a multi-disciplinary approach, is an essential tool for companies that develop or market therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Too little attention to such a plan, or use of the wrong resources, could substantially curtail a product's life span. The most difficult part of the therapeutic antibody business is the development of high-quality, safe and effective products. Great care should thus be taken to ensure that products with these characteristics are positioned in a marketplace that is competition-free for as long as possible. In an era of mAbs with billion dollar markets, the loss of even a single day of sales could cost companies millions of dollars in lost revenue. PMID:20068401

McCabe, Kevin W; Calvo, Paul A

2009-11-14

194

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages.  

PubMed

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dalvin, Sussie T; Bron, James E; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-09-12

195

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages  

PubMed Central

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

196

Life in the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of extra-terrestrial life and intelligence is examined. It is found that the scientific case for extra-terrestrial intelligence is very weak; theological considerations render it improbable, but not def i- nitely impossible. The case against more primitive extra-terrestrial life is much weaker. . Is the earth the only cradle of life in the physical universe? Is man alone? Or

Gerald Feinberg; John Billingham

1983-01-01

197

Chemistry in second life.  

PubMed

This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students. PMID:19852781

Lang, Andrew S I D; Bradley, Jean-Claude

2009-10-23

198

Chemistry in Second Life  

PubMed Central

This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students.

Lang, Andrew SID; Bradley, Jean-Claude

2009-01-01

199

Life and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information about every aspect of life on earth. There is a section on cells that gives details about the physical make-up of cells, like how prokaryotic cells have no nucleus or organelles enclosed within membranes. There is a detailed explanation about genetics, and how certain characteristics of humans come from our parents and passed on to us. The vast diversity of life and different classifications of life are given to better understand the world around us. The image achieve gives you images of all types of different life on plant earth.

2004-04-07

200

Ingredients for Life: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth provides a comfortable and temperate environment for a wide variety of living organisms. However, in the past few decades, scientists have discovered unusual life forms thriving in areas where the majority of living things on Earth could never survive, such as near deep sea vents, in dry deserts, or on frozen ice sheets. This video segment explores life forms that survive in extreme conditions on Earth, the importance of liquid water to life, and the possibilities of life elsewhere in the solar system. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

201

WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

202

An application of the theory of life's lesions to the study of the menopausal transition.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to shed light on the experiential and contextual sources influencing menopausal manifestations, or discomforts. To do so, I propose the concept of life's lesions, suggesting that women's experiences of physiological changes occurring during the menopausal transition may be heightened by specific aspects of their lives embedded in society and culture. The concept of life's lesions advances the notion that the lived experience tends to order a person's life and shape a person's experience of his or her body, including during menopause. Indisputably, menopausal discomforts will be due to inexorable biological changes that take place when a woman reaches a certain age, but they will also be promoted by external factors that prevail in a given society, such as economic scarcity, malnutrition and public health deficits, environmental or political upheavals, civil wars, forced migration, and racism, especially in developing nations; most important, they will be furthered by irresolvable contradictions, irreconcilable incongruities, and moral indignations in their lives that lead to anger and anguish. Rooted in the notion of life's lesions is the fundamental assumption that human beings the world over exist in a moral and ideological universe, that they engage in moral evaluations by distinguishing between right and wrong in the social environment. All these factors become part of their physiology and amplify the experience of bodily changes. By pointing to the moral domain and the existence of irresolvable conundrums in human life, which could also be felt as moral affronts and injustice, the concept of life's lesions introduces an important new dimension to our understanding of the extrasomatic causality of discomforts that may occur during the menopausal transition. Although the concept of life's lesions must be studied qualitatively, requiring us to attend to the cultural and experiential characteristics of women during the menopausal transition, the article proposes several ways of applying this concept to the study of menopause that will also generate new hypotheses, which could then be tested using quantitative methodologies. PMID:17303964

Finkler, Kaja

203

Life is universal!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The game of Life1 involves forms built out of simple birth and death rules which a computer puts through a series of rapid transformations. This game was invented by John Horton Conway and recently introduced in Scientific American by Martin Gardner. Many computers have been programmed to play the game of Life. In this paper we shall show how to

Robert T. Wainwright

1974-01-01

204

Why did life emerge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each

Arto Annila; Erkki Annila

2008-01-01

205

The Miracle of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the previous chapter, we have seen that it was quite easy for life to appear in our world. But how did it arise? What processes\\u000a occurred for life to appear so quickly? Are these processes common to other worlds?

Fernando J. Ballesteros

206

Forgiveness in Late Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expands the understanding of forgiveness among a sample of older adults in Israel by exploring the contributory roles of meaning in life; stressful life events; and socio economic variables such as gender, age, and religiosity as well as time and agent of hurt. A convenience sample of 225 older adults in Israel responded to the Enright Forgiveness Inventory

Shira Hantman; Orna Cohen

2010-01-01

207

The Life of Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

Pearce, Cathie

2010-01-01

208

Life support: Nacirema redux  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attributes a range of disconcerting public health trends and social isolation in the USA to a pervasive sense of fear along with certain aspects of the built environment. Far too often, the built environment fails to support life adequately, in turn, requiring other forms of “life support.” Americans have been coping with urban fragmentation, environmental degradation, and lack

Nan Ellin

2008-01-01

209

Yawning throughout Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yawning is a behavior that begins in the first stages of life. It has not only been observed in infants and in newborns, but also in fetuses of 12–14 weeks’ gestational age. Yawning frequency changes over the life span. In preterm infants, the number of yawns decreases between 31 and 40 weeks’ postconceptional age, mainly during the day. In this

F. Giganti; P. Salzarulo

2010-01-01

210

Does Mars Have Life?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOVA article presents an interview with NASA planetary scientist Christopher McKay concerning the possibility that life has existed on Mars. The interview covers all the requirements for life, and whether they were met on Mars in the past. The discussion is accessible for general audiences.

2008-06-06

211

Life in the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2003-01-01

212

Fingerprints of Life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneered by NASA-JSC scientists, Marilyn Lindstorm and Jaclyn Allen, the partnering of teachers with scientists has ventured into the realms of the extreme... extreme life, that is. In 1998, two years after the announcement that possible evidence of life had been discovered within a Martian rock, teachers from region served by JSC were brought together with the Mars Meteorite research

Cheryl Pittman

2002-01-01

213

Empowering Students for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

Henderson, Nancy

2009-01-01

214

Mean residual life ordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new partial ordering among life distributions in terms of their mean residual life is introduced. This ordering is weaker\\u000a than the hazard rate ordering but it is stronger than the variability ordering. Characterizations of the DMRL and NBUE distribution\\u000a are given.

Abdulhamid A. Alzaid

1988-01-01

215

Mean residual life estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean residual life function is of interest in many fields such as reliability, survival analysis, actuarial studies, etc. Given a sample from an unknown distribution function, we use the local linear fitting technique to estimate the corresponding mean residual life function. The limit behaviour of the obtained estimator is presented.

Belkacem Abdous; Alexandre Berred

2005-01-01

216

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology involves the study of the origin and history of life on Earth, planets and moons where life may have arisen, and the search for extraterrestrial life. It combines the sciences of biology, chemistry, palaeontology, geology, planetary physics and astronomy. This textbook brings together world experts in each of these disciplines to provide the most comprehensive coverage of the field currently available. Topics cover the origin and evolution of life on Earth, the geological, physical and chemical conditions in which life might arise and the detection of extraterrestrial life on other planets and moons. The book also covers the history of our ideas on extraterrestrial life and the origin of life, as well as the ethical, philosophical and educational issues raised by astrobiology. Written to be accessible to students from diverse backgrounds, this text will be welcomed by advanced undergraduates and graduates who are taking astrobiology courses.• Compiled by world experts in their disciplines to create a truly comprehensive book • Accessible to students from a wide range of backgrounds • A welcome addition to this rapidly-growing field

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2001-12-01

217

Late-life Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article “best treatment” of late-life depression is discussed and an alternative way of thinking in regard to psychotherapeutical intervention is suggested. It is concluded that late-life depression is a field demanding a differentiated psychotherapeutic and rehabilitation oriented working model by the psychotherapist, and old age is treated here from a developmental point of view. It is also concluded

Karen Munk

2007-01-01

218

Late-life Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-life depression is a complicated disorder with diagnostic and treatment pitfalls due to interference of serious social and somatic conditions of life in old age and often due to an “atypical” profile of symptoms. The article treats the nature of these difficulties and discusses the concept of depression. Old age is treated from two different angles: from the perspective of

Karen Munk

2007-01-01

219

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2007-09-01

220

LifeLab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LifeLab is a Mac application for exploring John Conway's Game of Life and other cellular automata. CAs were first studied in the mid-1950s by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann. The subject became much more widely known in 1970 when Life was described by Martin Gardner in his Scientific American column. Life is played on an arbitrary-sized grid of square cells. Each cell has two states: "dead" or "alive". The state of every cell changes from one "generation" to the next according to the states of its 8 nearest neighbors: a dead cell becomes alive (a "birth") if it has exactly 3 live neighbors; a live cell dies out if it has less than 2 or more than 3 live neighbors. The "game" of Life simply involves starting off with a pattern of live cells and watching it evolve.

Trevorrow, Andrew

221

Life in extreme environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harbouring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modelling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we examine critically what it means to be an extremophile, and the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology and especially the search for life in the Universe.

Rothschild, Lynn J.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

2001-02-01

222

Origin of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Lal, Ashwini Kumar

2008-10-01

223

What's Wrong with that Kid?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current brain research shows that there are observable differences in the brain functions of people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those without it. The ADHD brain demonstrates impaired functioning in certain specific areas (executive functions) that control memory, time awareness, motivation, and attention. No amount of…

Bausch, Denise M.

2005-01-01

224

What's Wrong with This Picture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses possible health hazards associated with video display terminals (VDT). Highlights include electromagnetic fields (EMF); research on EMF and VDT; VDT emission guidelines in Sweden; conflicting interests; low emission monitors; spatial solutions; financial considerations; and a sidebar that includes questions and answers on EMF. (seven…

Eakin, Emily

1994-01-01

225

What's Wrong with This Picture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I try to break lecture into a series of mini-lectures each on a limited scope. For this they have been exposed to concepts of Stefan-Boltzman law and basics of wavelength. After the initial discussion I pose this activity and take time to let students discover what doesn't make sense to them in the image followed by open discussion for possible explanations, generally leading to an 'ah-ha' moment. Teaching Tips Adaptations that allow this activity to be successful in an online environment DO NOT ANSWER THE QUESTION! Give plenty of time for students to mull the image and subsequent question. Let discovery come from the students. Elements of this activity that are most effective It's not scientific but the collective 'ah-ha' suggests they have resolved the conflict in their minds. Recommendations for other faculty adapting this activity to their own course: Use images from your field in LectureTools (or however) to challenge interpretation of visual data. This is a skill that is integral to being a scientist and students in science courses should be expected to participate in such activities.

Samson, Perry

226

What Went Wrong: Explaining Counterexamples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model checking, initially successful in the field of hardware design, has recently been applied to software. One of the chief advantages of model checking is the production of counterexamples demonstrating that a system does not satisfy a specification. H...

A. Groce W. Visser

2002-01-01

227

What went wrong at Ricochet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricochet, which offered mobile wireless Internet access at 128 kb\\/s, had its plug pulled in August 2001 after its owner, Metricom Inc., in San Jose, Calif., spent a US $1.1 billion investment pool building and upgrading the service in 21 U.S. metropolitan areas at a furious pace. The author discusses whether the high-speed mobile access service was ahead of its

S. M. Cherry

2002-01-01

228

Boston Desegregation: What Went Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because of the violence and vocal opposition to desegregation the Boston school system drew national attention in 1974-1975. This paper attempts to develop a model for effective school desegregation and to compare this model with the desegregation events in Boston. (Author/RK)|

Clark, Karen

1977-01-01

229

Wistow-what went wrong  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the flooding and recovery of Britain's new Wistow coal mine. Eighty million litres of water suddenly poured into the mine only weeks after it had opened. Two theories about why this flood happened are presented. 1) Maybe the speed of advance of the new face-in ground which had never previously been de-stressed caused the intervening rock to give way. 2) Perhaps the coal extraction disturbed the plane of the fault which allowed water to flow into the seam.

Not Available

1984-01-01

230

Where Did Mally Go Wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1926, Ernst Mally proposed the first system of deontic logic. His system turned out to be unacceptable. How can it be repaired? We discuss several proposals to reformulate it in terms of strict implication, relevant implication and strict relevant implication.

Lokhorst, Gert-Jan C.

231

What Went Wrong: Explaining Counterexamples  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the chief advantages of model checking is the production of counterexamples demonstrating that a system does not satisfy a specification. However, it may require a great deal of human effort to extract the essence of an error from even a detailed source-level trace of a failing run. We use an automated method for finding multiple versions of an

Alex Groce; Willem Visser

2003-01-01

232

What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)|

Morrison, Adrian R.

1992-01-01

233

Right says arms control wrong  

SciTech Connect

This article asserts that the conservative right wing of the Republican party is in the midst of an attack on arms control in general, intent on sabotage of the treaties at the core of the program - the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, and the 1991 and 1993 START treaties, and treaties in negotiation at present. The author argues that this part of the political party is far right of other conservatives, and is intent on unravelling all progress made to this pont in time.

Isaacs, J. [Council for a Livable World, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

234

Why Preemption Proponents are Wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic idea of federal preemption is easily stated: It is a constitutionally mandated principle that demands that federal law trumps state law when the two conflict or in the rare instances when a federal law is so comprehensive that there’s no role left for state law to fill. But in practice, courts have often had difficulty applying the principle.

Brian Wolfman

2007-01-01

235

Introduction: Teaching Rites and Wrongs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book owes its inspiration to a canteen conversation. We were comparing experiences of university teaching, and our lack of preparation for it. Swapping tips, we began to wonder if such topics were ever discussed more formally and collec- tively. Teaching was the day job, defining much of one's time and habitus as a discipline-based academic, but unless one was

David Mills; Mark Harris

236

Utilizing Right and Wrong Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this professional development video excerpted from Getting Results, a community college instructor explains how he reviews a test with his students by having his students work in groups to discuss answers. The instructor explains that while tests can reveal to him what hasn't been grasped, this group review helps his students reflect on the rationale behind each answer. In addition, the tests help him discover whether goals are met, whether there are other benefits to the lesson, and whether he was successful in teaching the lesson. Once he has discovered the answers to these questions, he can decide whether to adjust the course design.The video runs 3:40 and is accompanied by a background essay and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

237

Early Life Conditions and Later Life Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although the idea that early life conditions shape mortality is not new, there has been a resurgence of studies on the topic\\u000a in the last two decades. In our review of this work, we weigh the evidence for the major causal mechanisms, i.e., biological\\u000a imprint and pathway processes, thought to underlie the associations between childhood conditions and adult mortality. We

Jennifer Karas Montez; Mark D. Hayward

238

Chirality and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chirality, meaning handedness, pervades much of modern science, from the physics of elementary particles to the chemistry of life. The amino acids and sugars from which the central molecules of life—proteins and nucleic acids—are constructed exhibit homochirality, which is expected to be a key biosignature in astrobiology. This article provides a brief review of molecular chirality and its significance for the detection of extant or extinct life on other worlds. Fundamental symmetry aspects are emphasized since these bring intrinsic physical properties of the universe to bear on the problem of the origin and role of homochirality in the living world.

Barron, Laurence D.

2008-03-01

239

Chirality and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chirality, meaning handedness, pervades much of modern science, from the physics of elementary particles to the chemistry of life. The amino acids and sugars from which the central molecules of life—proteins and nucleic acids—are constructed exhibit homochirality, which is expected to be a key biosignature in astrobiology. This article provides a brief review of molecular chirality and its significance for the detection of extant or extinct life on other worlds. Fundamental symmetry aspects are emphasized since these bring intrinsic physical properties of the universe to bear on the problem of the origin and role of homochirality in the living world.

Barron, Laurence D.

240

Does Life Resist Asynchrony?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoubtedly, Conway's Game of Life — or simply Life — is one of the most amazing inventions in the field of cellular automata. Forty years after its discovery, the model still fascinates researchers as if it were an inexhaustible source of puzzles. One of the most intriguing questions is to determine what makes this rule so particular among the quasi-infinite set of rules one can search. In this chapter we analyse how the Game of Life is affected by the presence of two structural pertubations: a change in the synchrony of the updates and a modification of the links between the cells.

Fatès, Nazim

241

Potential alternate life biochemistries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

Konesky, Gregory

2013-09-01

242

Life Management Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Structural integrity and safe operation of gas turbine engines for commercial aircraft was gained through the application of a life management procedure, which combines state of the art technology from various disciplines of engineering. The core of the p...

K. Rezai R. N. Tadros

1990-01-01

243

Life insurance: pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A short description of the main features of life insurance products is provided in this Section, which mainly aims at paving\\u000a the way to premium calculation and other quantitative assessments.

Annamaria Olivieri; Ermanno Pitacco

244

Slice of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Slice of Life program, which is based on the concept that career education is a lifelong process beginning in the early years. It is a vocational development program that highlights awareness, assessment, training, and placement. (JOW)|

Makowski, Teen Fredell

1982-01-01

245

Life on moduli space?  

SciTech Connect

While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

Hsu, Stephen D. H. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2009-10-15

246

Which Way to Life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the emergence of life is seen as the evolutionary transition between the non-living and the living, then it may be meaningless to draw a strict line between these two worlds. A comparison between the metabolic- and genetic-first origin-of-life proposals is made. A comparison of the empirical evidence used in favor of the metabolic-first and genetic-first theories of the origin of life shows that many of the observations and experimental findings that are used to argue in favor of one or another view are equally consistent with the premises of both theories and do not unambiguously support neither of them. However, current biology indicates that life could not have evolved in the absence of a genetic replicating mechanism insuring the stability and diversification of its basic components.

Lazcano, Antonio

2010-04-01

247

Donate Life America  

MedlinePLUS

... Donate Life. Register as an Organ, Eye and Tissue Donor Today. Contribute Support Support Our Work Now by ... sight. Register to be an organ, eye and tissue donor today and provide hope to those who wait.

248

Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having laid some extensive groundwork, we are finally ready to address the central questions of the existence and possible nature of extraterrestrial intelligent life. Although no trace of such life has so far been found, there are clearly compelling reasons for its existence. In Chap. 4 we estimated that Earth-like planets should occur quite frequently in our galaxy, and in Chaps. 5 and 6 it was shown how life, and intelligent life, have formed on Earth. Using the Drake formula, these results will now be combined to estimate the expected number of extraterrestrial intelligent societies. Since many probability factors entering this equation are controversial, the opinions of various authors will be discussed.

Peter, Ulmschneider

249

Life on Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life on Mars? is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about a discussion of what life is, its characteristics, a summary of the search for life on Mars, a description of life that survives in harsh environments, and a look at Mars in the past. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

250

Life on Mars Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When NASA researchers from the Johnson Space Center and Stanford University announced they had found combined evidence in 1996 "that strongly suggests primitive life may have existed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago," scientists buzzed with excitement at the possibility of life on Mars. Two weeks ago, the discovery of rock-eating microbes one mile beneath the ocean floor (published in the August 14, 1998 issue of Science) seemed to make that possibility more likely. But last week, new evidence based on geochemical models was discovered that indicates that, while basic geological conditions on Mars may meet life's minimal requirements, the biological potential of the red planet seems unlikely. The nine resources listed provide background information, specifics, and commentary on the hunt for Life on Mars.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

251

Life Beneath the Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site discusses life in Columbia River Plateau basalts near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and how it is related to microbial clean up of human wastes. This site also includes a links to the continued article.

Lab, Berkeley

252

Product Life Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students think about where materials in everyday products come from, and learn that knowing about product life cycles can help us make decisions that reduce waste and pollution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

253

Frog life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The life cycle of a frog includes the egg stage, tadpole stage, froglet stage, and adult frog stage. Tadpoles live in water and use gills to breathe. They develop lungs as they mature into frogs and live on land.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

254

Sexuality in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... normal operations can be found at USA.gov . Sexuality in Later Life Many people want and need ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...

255

Artificial life down under.  

PubMed

For many years, Australian researchers have been contributing to the areas of artificial life and complex adaptive systems. This report highlights some of the Australian-based activities in these areas. PMID:16053577

Abbass, Hussein A

2005-01-01

256

Ocean Life for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a variety of photos and text to teach students about life in the oceans. Various animals discussed include fish, sharks, dolphins, octopus, starfish, eels, lobster and jellyfish. Students choose an animal to look at, view some facts about that animal, and then answer questions based on the information given. The objective is for young elementary students to be able to distinguish amoung types of ocean life and what makes them unique.

257

Suicides in Late Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom\\u000a generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts\\u000a point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts,\\u000a and deaths).

Kimberly Van Orden; Yeates Conwell

2011-01-01

258

Which Way to Life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the emergence of life is seen as the evolutionary transition between the non-living and the living, then it may be meaningless\\u000a to draw a strict line between these two worlds. A comparison between the metabolic- and genetic-first origin-of-life proposals\\u000a is made. A comparison of the empirical evidence used in favor of the metabolic-first and genetic-first theories of the origin

Antonio Lazcano

2010-01-01

259

Life without definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question ‘what is life?’ has long been a source of philosophical debate and in recent years has taken on increasing scientific\\u000a importance. The most popular approach among both philosophers and scientists for answering this question is to provide a “definition”\\u000a of life. In this article I explore a variety of different definitional approaches, both traditional and non-traditional, that\\u000a have

Carol E. Cleland

260

End of Life Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although end-of-life decision making is critical for good oncology care, physicians often do not initiate discussions until\\u000a the last days of life and do not use good communication skills and evidence-based techniques. Research on deficits in decision\\u000a making has found that patients often misunderstand information the first time it is provided or may not be ready to hear bad\\u000a news,

Sydney Morss Dy

261

Life in the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2nd Graders will have the opportunity to learn more about life underneath the ocean. This goes great with 2nd Grade Science Standards 1 and 3! INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in the ocean? What would you do all day? What would you eat? What would you have to avoid so that you wouldn't get eaten? There are many different types of life that live in the ocean. ...

Bennett, Miss

2010-03-26

262

Life Cycle of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this lesson, students analyze characteristics that indicate human life cycles, then apply these principles to various NASA images of stars to synthesize patterns of stellar life cycles. This lesson contains expected outcomes for students, materials, background information, follow-up questions, and assessment procedures.

Tuthill, George; Obbink, Kim

263

From fatigue test life to structure safe life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Chinese military specifications a suitable fatigue life scatter factor must be used in determining aircraft safe life from fatigue test life. The relationship between the reliability and the life distribution scatter factor has been discussed. The difference between the life distribution scatter factor and the specification life scatter factor has been pointed out. The concept of spectrum variation factor has been emphasized. It is argued that the specification fatigue life scatter factor should be the product of the life distribution scatter factor and the spectrum variation factor. Determination of structure safe life from fatigue test results of used structures has also been considered. Two points are of significance: when converting used time to fatigue test life the time should be reduced instead of being increased, different specification fatigue life scatter factors should be chosen for service time and test time.

Chen, Zhiwei

1991-08-01

264

How Does Life Settlement Affect the Primary Life Insurance Market?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effect of the life settlement market on the structure of long term contracts offered by the primary market for life insurance, as well as the effect on consumer welfare, using a dynamic model of life insurance with one sided commitment and bequest-driven lapsation. We show that the presence of life settlement affects the extent as well as

Hanming Fang; Edward Kung

2010-01-01

265

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702.

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

266

Habitats of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

267

What is life made of?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we begin to understand the origin and evolution of terrestrial life and investigate the possibility of extraterrestrial life, the need to scientifically approach fundamental questions such as 'What is life?' increases. In beginning to answer such questions we can look at the ingredients of terrestrial life. Here we present an overview of our understanding of the composition of terrestrial

A. Chopra

2009-01-01

268

Geography of European Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

2011-01-01

269

Battery life extender  

SciTech Connect

A battery life extender is described which comprises: (a) a housing disposed around the battery with terminals of the battery extending through top of the housing so that battery clamps can be attached thereto, the housing having an access opening in the top thereof; (b) means for stabilizing temperature of the battery within the housing during hot and cold weather conditions so as to extend operating life of the battery; and (c) a removable cover sized to fit over the access opening in the top of the housing so that the battery can be serviced without having to remove the housing or any part thereof.

Foti, M.; Embry, J.

1989-06-20

270

Muslim Life in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new pamphlet from the State Department offers a basic introduction to some aspects of Muslim-American life. The front page takes care to emphasize the diversity among Muslim-Americans, and the links from this front page further amplify these differences. The site features a number of Photo Galleries, including Faces of Islam, Family Life, and Mosques and Prayers, among others. Users will also find related articles, a page of demographic facts, a bibliography with selected readings, links to Internet resources and nongovernmental organizations, along with other resources.

2001-01-01

271

The Life of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

Greene, Logan

2011-04-06

272

Learning About Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing interest in Artificial Life is part of a broader intellectual movement toward decentralized models and metaphors. But even as decentralized ideas spread through the culture, there is a deep-seated resistance to these ideas. People have strong attachments to centralized ways of thinking: they often assume centralized control where none exists. New types of computational tools and construction kits

Mitchel Resnick

1993-01-01

273

Learning for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People working in the field of education know well the positive effects adult and community learning can have on mental health and wellbeing. Participating in adult and community learning can help to widen social networks and improve life and employment chances; it makes for better general health; and can strengthen the learner's self-confidence,…

Robotham, Dan

2011-01-01

274

Life History and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

Tierney, William G.

2013-01-01

275

Lungfish and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed light…

Flannery, Maura C.

1997-01-01

276

Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that at one time Mars had liquid water habitats on its surface. Studies of microbial communities in cold and dry environments on the Earth provide a basis for discussion of the possible nature of any life that may have existed on Mars during that time. Of particular relevance are the cyanobacterial communities found in hypolithic and endolithic

Christopher P. McKay

1993-01-01

277

Make Learning for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Learning for Life--a New Framework for Adult Skills," a thought-provoking report from the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), manages to be both passionate and well argued. Resulting, in part, from a series of policy seminars during 2006, it makes an interesting contribution to current debates. Simone Delorenzi advocates the…

Watters, Kate

2007-01-01

278

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Life cycle analysis, or LCA for short, is a term that has been used more and more over the past year to describe the cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of a product. he LCA is a way of looking at the environmental demands of a product holistically; that is, looking at,the reso...

279

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

280

Lungfish and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed…

Flannery, Maura C.

1997-01-01

281

Mathematical Physics and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a fascinating subject to explore how well we can understand the processes of life on the basis of fundamental laws of physics. It is emphasised that viewing biological processes as manipulation of information extracts their essential features. This information processing can be analysed using well-known methods of computer science. The lowest level of biological information processing, involving DNA

Apoorva Patel

2002-01-01

282

Work\\/life balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much is being written about redesigning work to help encourage work\\/life balance. Companies are beginning to recognize signs of burnout. As a result, they are realizing that unless people can have balance in their lives, their productivity will suffer. Companies need to recognize their culpability and responsibility in this sphere in order to help employees create a healthier lifestyle, which

E. L. Berman

2002-01-01

283

Exploring for Martian Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the coming decade, robotic field science will play a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of the history of Mars. In particular, capable rovers are needed to survey a broad array of Martian rock types for in situ mineralogy and chemistry as a basis for interpreting globally-distributed remote sensing data obtained from orbit. The interplay between orbital and landed science will be fundamental in selecting sites for future missions aimed at exploring the ancient rock record for evidence of A) past life or prebiotic chemistry, B) the volatile and climate history of Mars, and C) materials for in situ resource utilization. The recent suggestion of evidence for life in the Martian meteorite, ALH84001 (McKay, D.S., E.K. Gibson, K.L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C.S. Romanek, S.J. Clemett, X.D.F. Chillier, C.R. Maechling, R.N. Zare. 1996. Search for past life on Mars: Possible relic biogenic activity in Martian meteorite ALH84001. Science) 273, 924-930has placed Exobiology in a more central position in the Mars exploration (The Search for Evidence of Life on Mars. Unpublished report, Mars Expeditions Strategy Group, 1996.)

Farmer, Jack D.

1997-04-01

284

Life after the Principalship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sixty-eight percent of people who are approaching retirement age report that they intend to work full time or part time after retirement, mostly because they want to. With today's life span stretching to 80 years and beyond, turning 60 is no longer an end-stage event. Instead, it is the beginning of a new developmental phase. This article…

Schmidt, Laurel

2009-01-01

285

Life Change Clusters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of life stress, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Experience (SRE), has been shown to be related to the onset of illness. This instrument was originally developed with a civilian population, and it became apparent that some questions were inappropriate when it was to be applied to a military population. Furthermore, it was believed…

Pugh, William M.; And Others

286

My Life Online!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares her experience in using online teaching and learning with students. She describes her journey that has continued from hesitant beginnings into what has almost become a life online. As a lecturer in Arts, the author was often faced with the threat of units being slashed because of low numbers. One such unit was an…

Connell, Lorraine

2002-01-01

287

Leon Trotsky: My Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Trotsky Internet Archive, part of the Marx/Engels Internet Archive (discussed in the March 21, 1997 Scout Report), has added an electronic transcription by David Walters of Trotsky's 1930 autobiography. All 45 chapters of My Life can be viewed individually. Future plans include a zipped file of the entire book, both in text and in HTML format, to facilitate downloading.

288

Life in the Galaxy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the origin of life on the basis of information about cosmic evolution, stellar alchemy, atmospheric histories, and rise and fall of civilizations. Indicates that man's contact with other civilizations in our galaxy may be made possible through studies of interstellar communication. (CC)|

Oliver, B. M.

1973-01-01

289

Living a Literate Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the personal literacy journey of the author that originated while driving through Scotland. The journey serves as one touchstone of his own personal and professional life. The author shares what he finds on "this" particular journey: (1) Particular (and often peculiar) interest; (2) Active engagement of the four language…

Kazemek, Francis E.

2004-01-01

290

The Business of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the…

Dunski, Jonathan F.

1997-01-01

291

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

292

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

Wnet

2010-11-05

293

Physics beyond life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mystery the word in English dominates all science, facts, intelligence.since time people are trying to reveal the hidden facts of nature but always nature stands millions of step far from their reach. But this nature and its behavior are all science and it acts according to certain relationship between each other. In this paper I would like put forth my own hypothesis about what is life, what happens after death and how the earth would have originated. Introduction The existence of life before birth and after death of a human is still not explained. Several philosophers, physicists and scientists have put forth their own hypothesis to explain what happens after death. Being an Indian my culture is embedded with full of philosophies with hidden facts behind it. But there was no proof to explain the concept behind those philosophies. People and saints still believe in existence of life after death. As a contribution to this ocean of science I would like to correlate life after death with concepts of physics. address s.prabhu b.e civil engg block 7 room 47 ceg hostels anna university chennai tamil nadu india

Prabhu, S.

2002-03-01

294

Chemicals in Everyday Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the dependencies of people on chemicals in various aspects of life. Describes some of the natural and synthetic chemicals currently used in food production, clothing, shelter, travel and exploration, sports and recreation, ventilation, heating and cooling, communications, decoration, sanitation, and education. (TW)|

Seymour, Raymond B.

1987-01-01

295

Coal Was Our Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with former miners and their families in North East England about education and training needs uncovered gender, age, and cultural differences in reactions to changed circumstances and view of the future. Better opportunities for education, training, and employment are needed to rebuild the fabric of community life. (SK)|

Carr, Muriel; Williamson, Bill

1994-01-01

296

A Window into Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Window underscores the concept of life as an emergent property of highly coordinated physical and biochemical processes. Opening upon a single carbon-12 atom within a human DNA duplex, Window moves at a brisk trot through successively greater levels of scale and biological organization, ultimately arriving at an individual person--defining in one sense the meaning of being human.

Kenneth Eward (Independent;); Travis Vermilye (Independent;)

2008-09-26

297

Mathematics for Real Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A set of articles with the theme "Mathematics for Real Life" is presented. These article titles are: (1) Teaching Mathematics as a Tool for Problem Solving; (2) New Math or New Education; (3) Hand Calculators and Math in Primary School; (4) Mass Media in the Mathematical Training of Polish Primary Teachers; (5) The Goals of Mathematics Teaching…

Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Draxler, Alexandra, Ed.

1979-01-01

298

Languages for Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The strategy of the Department for Education and Skills'(DfES) 2002 strategy document, "Languages for All: Languages for Life" called for improving the quality of language teaching and learning; enhancing qualifications and credit recognition arrangements; and increasing demand for language learning. This principle was to extends to adult…

Watters, Kate

2007-01-01

299

PUTTING A SECOND LIFE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the advantages and weaknesses of Multi-User Virtual Environments for teaching and explores the possible benefits of integrating them closely with traditional Learning Management Systems. We present survey findings of teachers interested in using the Second Life MUVE for teaching. The teachers gave us their opinions about integrating SL and LMS in their classrooms. We finally propose technical

Jeremy Kemp

300

Encaustic Still Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)

Mathes, Len

2002-01-01

301

Two-dimensional life?  

PubMed Central

A model [Wächtershäuser, G. (1988) Microbiol. Rev. 52, 452-484], according to which life started in the form of a monomolecular layer of interacting anionic metabolites electrostatically bound to a positively charged surface, is examined critically. The model raises a number of thermodynamic and kinetic difficulties.

de Duve, Christian; Miller, Stanley L.

1991-01-01

302

Advanced Cardiac Life Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

303

Altruism in Animal Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

YOUR Deal correspondent, Mr. Christopher Morse, has told you (p. 437) of an ablutionary caterpillar; let me tell you of life-saving ``eels'' in vinegar. I was examining the creatures with a microscope when one of them became stranded, owing to its having strayed into the shallower portion of the vinegar-drop, and there it wriggled the while the fluid grew shallower

J. H. Elgie

1910-01-01

304

Home and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa History. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is homes and family life in Iowa history. Selections address what has been important to Iowa's families over time and what homes were like before…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1996-01-01

305

The Residence Life Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the implementation, results, and the limitations of the Residence Life Cinema program at the University of Memphis. Claims that such programs offer an innovative method for fostering student development by utilizing movies to stimulate affective and cognitive processes in students--processes that may not occur without a catalyst. (RJM)

Dungan, Jane Fidler; Elion, Audrey; Gusmano, Phil

1997-01-01

306

Quality of Life Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comments, speeches, and questions delivered at the Quality of Life Symposium are compiled in these proceedings. As an exploratory session, the conference objectives were to (1) become better informed about New Mexico--its resource base, the economy, social and cultural base, and the environment; and (2) to evaluate and discuss the role of New…

New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. New Mexico Environmental Inst.

307

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

308

Circle of Life Awards.  

PubMed

This years winners of the AHAs annual awards for outstanding end-of-life care learned from the past, building lean, flexible programs that can survive the roller-coaster of health care financing and that are adaptable by nearly any hospital with a minimal investment. PMID:16225320

Greene, Jan

2005-08-01

309

Life on Europa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of \\

B. S. Shylaja

1997-01-01

310

Ingredients for Life: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA goes on a whimsical journey in search of life forms thriving in extreme conditions on Earth and in outer space. Animations show ice on Jupiter's moon, Europa, and signs that water once existed on Mars.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

311

Looking for life  

Microsoft Academic Search

With meteorites and extreme environments on Earth providing tantalizing evidence about the possibility of life on other planets, NASA this month issued a draft notice to form an astrobiology institute.The institute, which would include an interdisciplinary team of researchers from the United States and possibly other countries, will try to coordinate and encourage research in exobiology and evolutionary biology, according

Randy Showstack

1997-01-01

312

Investigations Into Life Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This laboratory manual, containing 44 exercises, is intended to be used as part of an audio-tutorial approach to laboratory work in a life-science course for student nurses. Exercises include basic techniques of miscroscopy, microbiology, electrophysiology, routine biochemical analyses of blood and urine, and microscopic examination of prepared…

Mentzer, Dean Samuel

313

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

Program, The W.

314

Symposium: Student Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To get an inside view of campus life today, the Intercollegiate Studies Institute (whose purpose is to foster in college students an appreciation of the values that sustain a free society) was approached and asked to supply a list of their Collegiate Network editors--students who are active on their campuses, interested in the issues facing…

Academic Questions, 2010

2010-01-01

315

Game of Life Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. Ejs Game of Life model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_GameOfLife.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-15

316

Service life of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has the responsibility for developing a strategy for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). An approach being considered for their disposal is to place the waste forms in concrete vaults buried in the earth. A service life of 500 years is required for the concrete vaults as they may be left unattended for

J. R. Clifton; L. I. Knab

1989-01-01

317

Life span shortening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of life shortening by ionizing radiation in experimental mammals had already been accumulated as early as 20 years ago, so that the first interpretative models could be formulated and discussed. Much more factual evidence has been discussed in the literature since then, and several models based on different approaches have been considered. From a short review of experimental data

Metalli

1979-01-01

318

My father's life.  

PubMed Central

Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies. Images p638-a p639-a

Porth, R

1995-01-01

319

Encaustic Still Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)|

Mathes, Len

2002-01-01

320

Life Space Interviewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The special issue contains 17 articles on life-space interviewing with emotional disturbed and normal children and adolescents, a technique developed by Fritz Redl which is based on psychodynamic theory and uses a problem-solving method of learning within the pupil's natural environment. (DB)

Fagen, Stanley A., Ed.; Long, Nicholas J., Ed.

1981-01-01

321

The Breath of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

All animal life in Chesapeake Bay, from the worms that inhabit its muddy bottom, to the fish and crabs found in its rivers, to the people that live on its land, need oxygen to survive. We breathe oxygen, which lets us extract energy from the food we eat. Our bodies use this energy to function. This process is essentially the

CHESAPEAKE BAY

1916-01-01

322

Ingredients for Life: Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon is the basis of all organic molecules. It is also one of the most abundant elements in the universe. This video segment illustrates the special characteristics of carbon that make it an essential ingredient for life. The segment is one minute thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

323

Freedom Road: Colonial Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

Auerbach, Barbara

2010-01-01

324

Life in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physical conditions of Space are most inhospitable and the higher forms of life probably could exist extraterrestrially only on Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn in our Solar System, and the chances there are poor in light of present knowledge. Thus intellig...

W. F. Libby

1968-01-01

325

Life after stoma creation.  

PubMed

Background: Stoma creation is a surgical operation where the surgeon makes an artificial opening on the abdomen from where the bowel is taken out. It is a radical treatment with permanent physical signs of bodily change. In general, it leads to loss of a central and personal physical function, as well as an alteration in the bodily design. Research in the field may provide additional information about central elements when adapting to life with a stoma. There are currently no studies that adequately focus on the relationship between health-related quality of life and stoma construction in a Danish context, neither for temporary or permanent construction, nor in relation to the importance of stoma handling. Purpose: The overall objective of the study was to investigate health-related quality of life related to stoma creation and patient education. Methodologically, the project was implemented as a mixed methods study in which qualitative interview studies and two systematic literature reviews identified interventions, which were subsequently tested in a clinical case/control study. Finally the case/control study was made subject to an economic analysis. The project is based on 6 papers reporting the results. Article 1: Impact of a temporary stoma on patients everyday-lives: feelings of uncertainty while waiting for closure of the stoma. The study included 7 participants who were interviewed in focus groups. The results indicated that patients experienced a high degree of uncertainty in connection with the stoma being temporary. At the same time, participants had a strong need to control both their physical appearance and their changed bodily functions. Participants opted for education programs involving teachers with a stoma. Article 2: Learning to live with a Permanent Intestinal Ostomy: Impact on everyday life and Educational Needs. The study included 15 participants who were interviewed in groups related to whether they were treated for cancer or non-cancer. The results showed that participants often experienced the stoma as a taboo, and emotions related to stigma were identified. In addition, participants were influenced by the stoma in various ways, and the stoma imposed some restrictions on the participants. Participants pointed at group-based education, as well as the involvement of teachers who had a stoma. Article 3: Spouses of patients with a stoma lack information and support and are restricted in their social and sexual life: a systematic review. The study included 6 articles based on quantitative and qualitative data showing that spouses were affected in several ways by the construction of the stoma. The results pointed at spouses not being informed and supported sufficiently by neither enterostoma therapists or surgeons. Article 4: Patient education has a positive effect in patients with a stoma - a systematic review The study included 7 studies, all with quantitative results. They showed that patient education had a positive impact in several areas including shorter hospital stay, less time until proficiency in stoma management is reached, an increase in quality of life, increased knowledge about the stoma, and increased self-efficacy. Article 5: Health-related quality of life increases when patients with a stoma attend patient education - a case/control study. The study included 50 participants shortly after stoma creation. The results showed that the disease-specific quality of life was significantly increased in the intervention group, while generic health-related quality of life was positively affected in different dimensions in both groups. Article 6: Decreased costs with patient education after stoma creation. The study was an economic analysis based on participants in Article 5. The results indicated that there were fewer unplanned re-admissions related to the stoma, and that patients in the intervention group did not visit the general practitioner as much as patients in the control group. Furthermore, we found that the average cost per patient did not increase when establishing a patient education p

Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard

2013-10-01

326

The values of life.  

PubMed

In Life's Dominion Dworkin aims at defusing the controversy about abortion and euthanasia by redefining its terms. Basically it is not a dispute about the right to life, but about its value. Liberals should grant that human life has not only a personal, but also an intrinsic value; conservatives should accept the principle of toleration which requires to let people decide for themselves about matters of intrinsic value. Dworkin fails, however, to distinguish between two kinds of personal value: (1) the value of something to a person, when he actually or dispositionally desires it, or finds it pleasant; and (2) the value of something to a person, when it's objectively contributes to his well-being, as defined by reference to his personal point of view, whether or not he ever perceives it as so contributing. He also fails to distinguish between two meanings of the concept of 'intrinsic value': (3) ultimate, i.e. non-instrumental personal value of kind (2); (4) the impersonal value of something which is not good-for-anybody, but simply good, i.e. not a constituent of someone's well-being. Dworkin argues that the human fetus from conception onwards has a value, that it is not a personal value of kind (1), and therefore must be an intrinsic value. But the value of the life of the fetus is not a personal value of kind (2) either and therefore not an intrinsic value of kind (3): it is normally a constituent of the well-being of the pregnant woman, but that doesn't constitute its value, and it is not good 'for' the fetus itself in the relevant sense, because it doesn't have a personal point of view. If, however, the fetus' life is allowed to have an intrinsic value of kind (4), the conservative cannot be refuted by appeal to the principle of toleration, for this only concerns intrinsic value of kind (3). The liberal, indeed, should recognize that the fetus' life has a value, but it is neither a personal value (1) or (2), nor an impersonal value (4), but rather a relational value which gradually develops from some point substantially later than conception. PMID:11656609

Den Hartogh, Govert

1997-01-01

327

[Qualities of life and happiness].  

PubMed

The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied. PMID:21491762

Veenhoven, R

2011-03-01

328

NASA's Exploration for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration for Life is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about kingdoms of life, environments on Earth and Mars, landforms, and the Mars Surveyor Program. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

329

Bioenergetics and Life's Origins  

PubMed Central

Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis.

Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

2010-01-01

330

Why did life emerge?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each time a new mechanism of energy transduction emerges, e.g., by random variation in syntheses, evolution prompts by punctuation and settles to a stasis when the accessed free energy has been consumed. The evolutionary course towards an increasingly larger energy transduction system accumulates a diversity of energy transduction mechanisms, i.e. species. The rate of entropy increase is identified as the fitness criterion among the diverse mechanisms, which places the theory of evolution by natural selection on the fundamental thermodynamic principle with no demarcation line between inanimate and animate.

Annila, Arto; Annila, Erkki

2008-10-01

331

This Emotional Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

332

Life Changing Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Broadcasting Company recently aired Life Changing Science, "a four-part series examining innovations that have transformed our lives." This companion Web site offers fantastic interactive features to go along with each of the four radio broadcasts. Three of the four interactive "labs" focused on the life sciences. They include Virtual Open Heart Surgery, in which users can conduct a highly simplified version of the real procedure; In Vitro Fertilization, which offers an excellent overview of the IVF cycle; and Food Preservation, in which users can test how well they know their kitchen microbes. These interactive features are truly cool, although American readers must contend with the metric units used in Food Preservation. The site also includes audio of the original radio programs, which aired in June 2003.

333

Asynchronous game of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the 8-state asynchronous equivalence of the well-known game of life (GL). Our cellular automaton, called asynchronous game of life, simulates exactly the behavior of the GL, such as universal computation and self-organization, no matter whether the update of cells is simultaneous or independent according to some updating scheme, like a step-driven or time-driven method [see BioSystems 51 (1999) 123]. We employ the updating scheme of Blok and Bergersen [Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999) 3876] such that at every time step each cell has a certain probability to be updated, and investigate the statistical properties of our model through power spectral analyses.

Lee, Jia; Adachi, Susumu; Peper, Ferdinand; Morita, Kenichi

2004-07-01

334

It's My Life: Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's My Life, a PBS Kids Web-based educational series, offers 9-12 year olds a kid-friendly way to explore and share the issues in their lives. Depression is just one of many subjects addressed in It's My Life. Topics covered in this Web site include defining depression, recognizing the symptoms, understanding the causes, getting treatment, how to help a friend or parent who may be suffering from depression, and more. In addition to articles on these topics, the Web site provides interactive activities -- such as a quiz and a chat room -- that help kids further their understanding of the disease and reach out for help if needed. Offline activities include a printable journal page, a recommended reading list, and discussion questions that kids can take to a parent or friend.

2002-01-01

335

Rivers of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rivers of Life is a full model for contextual learning: a flood of projects, adventures, and resources to help K-12 teachers and students learn about and from their watershed. Using Rivers of Life, teachers utilize rivers and watersheds as an entry point to studies of the environment, and our relationship to Earth. This site offers two hands-on project-based learning programs: The Mississippi Adventure and The Watershed Atlas Project both designed to teach students about watersheds and their importance. Other activites center around themes such as energy in watersheds, flooding, and cultural views of rivers. There are many resources available for additional information and teacher guides to assist with using these activities and modules in the classroom. The projects take place during defined 10-week periods during the school year, and require registration for access to full materials.

336

Through Life Costing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an innovation is launched in such a market, reliable information about the life cost of the novel product is naturally lacking. This has proven to be a key obstacle to venture capital funded cleantech companies with innovations that are conceptually proven and that deliver significant improvements to conventional alternatives, but that lack enough reference installations to provide reliable data on life costs. One way out of this dilemma that is increasingly discussed among practitioners is servitization, i.e., the notion that the owner of the innovation should be an agency that is specialised in using and maintaining the product, letting the end customer become a buyer of the product's service (such as heat) rather than the product itself.

Newnes, Linda; Mileham, A. R.; Cheung, W. M.; Goh, Y. M.

337

Life on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life on Earth is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about life, kingdoms, heterotrophs, autotrophs, animals, fungi, plantae, monera, and evolution. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

338

Tissues of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Science Museum of Minnesota offers a fun and interactive way to learn about the structure and function of the body's tissues. While some activities provided are designed to complement an on-site visit to the Tissues of Life exhibit, the Web site also includes many stand-alone Web-based features. For example, with Explore Body Tissues, students can take a look at cross-sections of actual human bodies, browse through a gallery of scar photos (and perhaps add a photo of their own!), explore parts of the human body at 30X actual size, or play a game while learning about the different cells involved in wound healing. Tissues of Life does not include Web-based lesson plans, but this engaging Web site would be a great addition to related classroom activities for a range of grade levels.

339

Life Stress and Transitions in the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The traditional life cycle of human beings include infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Transitions exist within\\u000a each of the life cycles and such transitions produce stress. Life has many stressful life events that mark the movement from\\u000a one condition or cycle to another, and they produce substantial challenges in the lives of human beings. The purpose of this\\u000a volume is

Thomas W. Miller

340

Peer Review for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a Web-based application, the PCS-Tool, which can be used for carrying out online peer review. The tool makes it easy to bring together communities of learners from all walks of life for purposes of sharing their written work and receiving feedback on it. In this completely learner-centered environment, writers are able to gain confidence about their written

Caroline Coit; Kira Stöwe

2006-01-01

341

Life's Little Essential  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the importance of water in supporting and sustaining life and focuses on why water, and solely in its liquid form, is so essential. The focus here is on the potential presence of water on Mars. Some of the physical and chemical properties of water are summarized, and their uniqueness is presented as the reason planetary scientists are on the lookout for water on Mars and elsewhere in the Solar System.

2007-12-12

342

Students sample university life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students from Yule Brook College in Maddington, Perth and Sacred Heart School in Beagle Bay were given an insight into life at a University recently when they visited The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Broome Campus.\\u000aThe Yule Brook students are all members of the Yule Brook Football Academy, one of six academies under the guidance of the Clontarf Foundation.

Michelle Ebbs

2006-01-01

343

Life Cycle Cost Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Life cycle costs (LCC) are cradle to grave costs summarized in a three section, three hour tutorial: 1. LCC concepts and applications are described as an overview. Details are provided about how costs are gathered and merged,to develop a LCC number,usable as a figure of merit. References are provided for additional study—some accounting math is used in this 1.5

H. Paul Barringer; David P. Weber

1996-01-01

344

The Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tree of Life website introduces students to diagrams called cladograms, which show how species are related through a common ancestor. The site explains how to read a cladogram and how to understand the family tree for all species on Earth. An interactive cladogram explains what species have in common at a branch in the tree. There is also a pie diagram illustrating the relative amounts of species and separate sections for each group of species showing fast facts and photos.

345

Literary Life Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the careers of 11 leading twentieth-century American poets. Using the frequency with which poems are reprinted in anthologies as a measure of their importance, quantitative analysis reveals that among these poets there were two distinctly different life cycles: one group produced their most important work early in their careers—in their 20s and 30s; whereas the other group

David W Galenson

2005-01-01

346

Discover life: Insecta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource (for and by college students) is meant to be a taxonomic reference for all life. This section of the site focuses on the Insecta. The database is lucid key driven and includes valuable diagnostic and behavioral information about many insect groups as well as bibliographic references. This NSF-sponsored project includes work from the University of Guelph and Animal Diversity Web at the University of Michigan. Much of the site is considered a "skeleton" awaiting further contributions.

0002-11-30

347

Serpentinization and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serendipitous discovery of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at 30N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge significantly changed our views about where and how life is sustained on our planet. Investigation of this site shows that it is like no other yet discovered, hosting carbonate chimneys that tower up to 60 m above the seafloor. The field rests on 1-2 my

2005-01-01

348

Light and life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well established fact of the generation of excited states and photons in biological systems indicates that both life and light are intrinsically associated. This association stems from the electromagnetic nature of the both phenomena. The energetic and informational role of endogenous, spontaneous photon emission is discussed in the framework of two hypotheses attempting to explain the origin, mechanism and biological significance of biogenic radiations.

Slawinski, J.

2001-07-01

349

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

350

Life, Chemistry, Action!  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Born from clumps of Stardust spinning around a central sun, the planets of our Solar System, like most planets in the universe,\\u000a began their voyage through time with a rich mixture of chemistry and energy on board. From such a cauldron, life emerged on\\u000a our planet Earth early, and diversified into the great variety of living organisms that cover the

Louis Neal Irwin; Dirk Schulze-Makuch

351

Mean residual life processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yang and Hall and Wellner initiated investigations of the asymptotic uniform behaviour of mean residual life (MRL) processes. They obtained results holding true over fixed and expanding compact subintervals of $[0, \\\\infty)$.\\u000a¶ In this exposition we study MRL processes over the whole positive half-line $[0, \\\\infty)$. We describe classes of weight functions which enable us to establish the (a)

Miklós Csörg?; Ri?ardas Zitikis

1996-01-01

352

Genetics, Life and Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were two different and partially successive attempts of geneticists to associate genes with a definition of life. The\\u000a first has its origin in the theoretical considerations elaborated at the end of the 19th century by biologists such as Hugo\\u000a de Vries and August Weismann, looking for the molecular bases of biological processes and the mechanisms of their reproduction.\\u000a It

Michel Morange

353

This American Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On their Web site, the staff of the radio show "This American Life" describes their innovative and popular show in these words: "Its mission is to document everyday life in this country. We sometimes think of it as a documentary show for people who normally hate documentaries. A public radio show for people who don't necessarily care for public radio." Hosted by Ira Glass since its inception in 1995, the show has run the gamut of compelling and fascinating topics, ranging from summer camp to gun control in the United States. On their Web site, listeners can listen to over 150 previous episodes, learn about contributors to the program, and read about how to submit story ideas and internship opportunities. Educators may also want to take a look at the For Educators section, which offers some perspectives on how This American Life may be used in the classroom. Finally, visitors can also view a list of the staff's favorite shows, including a rather memorable tribute to Frank Sinatra that features Gay Talese reading some of his own reporting on Sinatra from the 1960s.

1995-01-01

354

Harnessing our very life.  

PubMed

Abstract The Aristotelian ideas of nature (physis) and technology (techné) are taken as a starting point for understanding what it would mean for technology to be truly living. Heidegger's critique of the conflation of scientific and technological thinking in the current era is accepted as demonstrating that humanity does not have a deep enough appreciation of the nature of life to harness its essence safely. Could the vision of harnessing life be realized, which we strongly doubt, living technology would give selected humans transforming powers that could be expected to exacerbate, rather than solve, current global problems. The source of human purposefulness, and hence of both technology and ethics, is identified in nature's emergent capability to instantiate informational representations in material forms. Ethics that are properly grounded in an appreciation of intrinsic value, especially that of life, demand that proposals to give humanity the capabilities of living technology address the social, political, economic, and environmental problems inherent in its development and potential deployment. Before any development is embarked on, steps must be taken to avoid living technology, whatever the term eventually designates, becoming available for destructive or antisocial purposes such as those that might devastate humanity or irrevocably damage the natural world. PMID:23889745

Wills, Peter R; Williams, David L F; Trussell, Denys; Mann, L R B

2013-07-26

355

Obstetric life support.  

PubMed

The death of a woman during pregnancy is devastating. Although the incidence of maternal cardiac arrest is increasing, it continues to be a comparatively rare event. Obstetric healthcare providers may go through their entire career without participating in a maternal cardiac resuscitation. Concern has been raised that when an arrest does occur in the obstetric unit, providers who are trained in life support skills at 2-year intervals are ill equipped to provide the best possible care. The quality of resuscitation skills provided during cardiopulmonary arrest of inpatients often may be poor, and knowledge of critical steps to be followed during resuscitation may not be retained after life support training. The Obstetric Life Support (ObLS) training program is a method of obstetric nursing and medical staff training that is relevant, comprehensive, and cost-effective. It takes into consideration both the care needs of the obstetric patient and the adult learning needs of providers. The ObLS program brings obstetric nurses, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists together in multidisciplinary team training that is crucial to developing efficient emergency response. PMID:22551860

Puck, Andrea Lorraine; Oakeson, Ann Marie; Morales-Clark, Ana; Druzin, Maurice

356

Methods for Accelerated Life Evaluation of Long-Life Cryocoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the life and reliability capabilities of cryocoolers have improved there has been a corresponding evolution of user requirements. Tactical applications routinely require operation in excess of 10,000 hours; space-borne applications require operational life of >10 years. Demonstration of these long lifetimes provides a substantial challenge. Previous treatises have discussed means of addressing specific aspects of reliability via accelerated life

G. R. Pruitt; T. M. Davis; B. A. Ross

2004-01-01

357

All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science:…

2000

358

Business and Life in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The life support systems in the machine called the Space Shuttle is discussed and later about life support systems in a little cocoon that is far smaller than the shuttle; the more common term is a space suit.

J. Allen

1990-01-01

359

Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and ...

2008-01-01

360

Peace Corps: Life Skills Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Life Skills program is a comprehensive behavior change approach that concentrates on the development of the skills needed for life such as com- munication, decision-making, thinking, managing emotions, assertiveness, self-esteem building, resisting pe...

2001-01-01

361

News CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events

2009-05-01

362

The Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the whole process of the plant life cycle? 1) You will need to open the Flow Chart. Flow Chart 2) Be sure to print out your own Flow Chart so you can record your information. 3) Look at the chart of the Life Cycle and print out your own copy. Chart showing the steps of the life cycle 4) Record each step of the Plant Life Cycle in your Flow Chart starting ...

Kingsford, Ms.

2010-11-04

363

Educators Get a "Second Life"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For educators who think real life does not offer enough opportunities to practice their profession, there is Second Life, an Internet-based virtual environment that counts thousands of educators among its enthusiasts. Second Life bears a passing resemblance to an online game, with users represented by digitally drawn characters, called avatars,…

Trotter, Andrew

2008-01-01

364

Obesity and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this review is the impact of obesity and weight loss on quality of life. A focus on quality of life broadens the scope of treatment efficacy beyond weight loss and provides a patient-centered perspective. The concept of quality of life is defined, and both general and obesity-specific measures are reviewed. It is clear that obesity confers negative

Robert F Kushner; Gary D Foster

2000-01-01

365

Life cycle assessment in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

ciation about. Following a couple years of expert meetings, in 1994 the first environmental management standard on LCA was published, Z760 Life Cycle Assessment, under the oversight of Ahmad HUSSEINI. Subsequent documents included ZS10 Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Pulp and Paper Production Phase, and the streamlined LCA method guide PLUS 1115: Life Cycle Review. Canadian experts went on to play

Steven B. Young

2003-01-01

366

Materialism and Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made in this paper to establish a foundation for a theory of materialism and quality of life. The theory posits that overall life satisfaction (quality of life) is partly determined by satisfaction with standard of living. Satisfaction with standard of living, in turn, is determined by evaluations of one's actual standard of living compared to a set

M. Joseph Sirgy

1998-01-01

367

Strategies of Life Course Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methodologies for life course analyses must explain complex biological, psychosocial, and social factors which result in various patterns of life trajectories. Four problems are characteristic of current research: a seemingly endless list of potentially significant variables; a dearth of life course theory beyond childhood to assist in targeting…

Nydegger, Corinne N.

368

What Makes a Life Good?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Samples of college students (N=104) and community adults (N=264) were shown a career survey ostensibly completed by a person rating his or her occupation. After reading the survey, participants judged the desirability and moral goodness of the respondent's life, as a function of the amount of happiness, meaning in life, and

Laura A. King; Christie N. SCOLLON

1998-01-01

369

The beginning of human life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning of human life is seen differently by different individuals, groups, cultures, and religions. Embryonic and fetal life are a continuum, within which are time sequences and points—birth of a newborn, viability, neuromaturation, implantation, and conception—that may be declared as the beginning of human life. For each of these there are ethical and legal implications and considerations. Abortion laws

Fritz K. Beller; Gail P. Zlatnik

1995-01-01

370

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)|

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

371

Life: The Most Basic Right  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all rights have been created equal. This essay contends that the right to life—broadly understood as a right to be free from deadly violence, maiming, torture, and starvation—is paramount and argues that the unique standing of the right to life has significant implications for public policy in general, and for foreign policy in particular. The right to life is

Amitai Etzioni

2010-01-01

372

Recycler Ring beam life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the Fermilab Recyler Ring beam life time due to various physical processes associated with beam-gas interactions. This includes single Coloumb scattering, electronic excitations, nuclear and multiple scattering processes. We compare the measured life time with those obtained from theoretical estimations. The results indicate additional processes are also contributing to the actual beam life time

Krishnaswamy Gounder; J. Marriner; T. Anderson; B. C. Brown; C. Gattuso; M. Hu; D. Johnson; S. Mishra; S. Pruss; M. Yang

2001-01-01

373

Life expectancy and endogenous growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlapping generations model with uncertain lifetime and endogenous growth. Individuals have to choose the length of time devoted to schooling before starting to work. We show that it depends positively on life expectancy. Moreover, the effect of life expectancy on growth is positive for economies with a relatively low life expectancy, but could be negative in more

David de la Croix; Omar Licandro

1999-01-01

374

United States Life Tables, 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents period life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 2000. Data used to prepare these life tables are 2000 final mortality statistics; July 1, 2000, population estimates based on the 1990 decennial census; and data from the Medicare program. Presented are complete life tables by age, race, and sex. In 2000 the overall

Elizabeth Arias

2002-01-01

375

Life on Europa?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of "cities of Moon", "colonies of Mars" and so on. However, the sophisticated tools of the modern era quickly put a full stop to these developments revealing that the other planets are not hospitable, and infact hostile for a life form like ours to exist there. That explains why in the last few decades the efforts shifted to observing the satellites of large planets. The anxiety grew with the knowledge of their atmospheric structure, chemical composition and volcanic activity. Detection of water, albeit frozen, was a welcome surprise. The flyby of Voyager and Pioneer provided ample evidence for the presence of water, one of the most important ingredients for the germination of the seed of life. The detection of the fossil of a microorganism on a stone believed to have fallen from Mars, boosted the scientists zeal to pursue the research, although the date for life on Mars (more than 3 billion years ago) is not very convincing. Last year, many scientists, from different branches like astrophysics, geology, oceanography, biology and astrogeology discussed the possibilities of life elsewhere in the universe. The focal point was not Mars, but Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Their studies based on Voyager images supported the possibility of liquid water beneath the frozen sheets of ice. However, heat is also an essential parameter. Europa, being at a distance five times the sun-earth separation can have only 1/25th the warmth of the earth. Then, where does it get the necessary warmth from? There are other important sources of heat in many of these satellites that lie concealed from our view. They are the volcanoes. If present, can these keep the water warm below the ice sheets? The unmanned Galileo spacecraft has sent close up views of Europa indicating the existence of a dynamic ocean in which ice blocks seem to be drifting apart. The blocks, resembling the icebergs on the earth, are 3 to 6 kms wide and could be almost 2 kms thick. They appear to have been formed about a million years ago. Beneath these ice blocks, perhaps lies an ocean almost 100 kms deep. These numbers imply that the quantity of water is nearly three times that on the earth. The water is also rich in salts. Can it hold life, atleast the cousins of the earthly bacteria found in the volcanic underwater terrains? Why not? That is the opinion. How do we see these bacteria? There is a proposal to send a 1.5 meter long, 15 cms diameter probe called Cryobot, which can penetrate the ice and reach the water. The experience from the exercises performed over the last couple of years with the tethered satellites will come in handy now. Well, we have a site on earth fresh water lake Vostok on the Antarctica, where the probe can be tested. May the probe peruse the bacteria!

Shylaja, B. S.

1997-06-01

376

[Health and life style].  

PubMed

In the theoretically top-heavy, demanding and over-fastidiously artificial and abstract variety of Marxism, some seeds of certain anthropological and biological "constants" of illness and health had been at least sown. This notwithstanding, society as conceived and practised in the former so-called German Democratic Republic was governed by an oversocialised image of Man. The positive core of this tendency to oversocialisation was the axiom that humanising Man coincided with humanising Man's social environment. Negative sequels of such oversocialisation of the human image were, among others, separating Man's anthropological mode of existence from the social context; underestimating the role of borderline situations in human life (as conceived by Jaspers); and massive intrusions by the State into Man's private sphere. Last but by no means least, the vision of the emerging new "rich human being", of a "human being in need of the entirety of human manifestations of life" (Marx) proved to be nothing but a Utopian abstraction. One of the arguments brought forward was that chances to acquire and preserve health are actually options for translating aims of life into reality by means of the possibilities of individual development of one's innate propensities, possibilities offered to Man by and within the framework of social structures. It follows from this manner of reasoning that both the political and the intellectual strata in the German Democratic Republic were convinced that their ideological construction of "congruence" between the interests of society and those of the individual was indeed a reality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8148591

Belau, D

1994-01-01

377

Actinides and Life's Origins.  

PubMed

There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus release, and possible abiotic production of sugars, amino acids, activated phosphorus, prototypical organometallic enzymes, and oligomer catalysts at a single putative beach site. PMID:18163867

Adam, Zachary

2007-12-01

378

Coleridge's "theory of life".  

PubMed

Coleridge has been seen by some not so much as a poet spoiled by philosophy, but as a philosopher who was also a poet. It could be argued that his major endeavor was an attempt to save the life sciences form the mechanistic interpretation which he saw as the outcome of Lockean "mechanico-corpuscularian" philosophy. This contribution describes that endeavour. It shows its connection to the social circumstances of the time. It discusses its relationship to the poetic sensibility of the "Lake poets" and to the German thought which Coleridge absorbed during and after his sojourn in Gottingen in 1798-99. It describes the nature of his "Theory of Life" as seen not only from the posthumous publication itself, but also from the numerous hints and struggles recorded in his voluminous notebooks, letters and lecture notes. It is concluded that, although never adequately assembled, it forms the only serious attempt to construct a profound alternative to the ultimately mechanistic biology of Charles Darwin and the psysiologists of the second half of the century. As such it strongly influenced the young Richard Owen and, as is well known, was eventually overwhelmed by the Darwin-Huxley synthesis of the 1860s. Nevertheless, insofar as Coleridge's concept of life ultimately derived from his ambition to find a way of healing the Cartesian divide, we may wonder whether the recent upsurge in consciousness studies may cause us to look again at his panentheistic ideas and, discarding the obsolete and fanciful metaphysics, recast them into a more acceptable form. PMID:11623814

Smith, C U

1999-01-01

379

Life of the Silurian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes life in the Silurian period, which was a time when many biologically significant events occurred. The oceans saw a widespread radiation of crinoids, and a continued proliferation and expansion of the brachiopods. The time period also marks the wide and rapid spread of jawless fish, along with the important appearances of both the first known freshwater fish and the appearance of jawed fish. Other marine fossils commonly found throughout the Silurian record include trilobites, graptolites, conodonts, corals, stromatoporoids, and mollusks. The site also covers the evolution of vascular plants, which have been the basis of terrestrial ecology since their appearance.

380

Triumph of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

2011-11-14

381

Life's Really Big Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains videos and articles about the snowball Earth theory and its relation to the Cambrian explosion; the search for extrasolar planets and extraterrestrial life; simulations and experiments on robot evolution; the Lucy fossil discovery; and how the human hand and the ability for language and for self-reflection developed and contributed to the uniqueness of our species. There is a synopsis for each video; the five videos total approximately an hour in length. Other materials include an educational activity and a dinosaur game that gives a perspective to the long history of Earth.

382

Life sentence sought.  

PubMed

Humboldt County (CA) district attorney Terry Farmer is seeking a life sentence without the possibility of parole for an HIV-positive man. Thomas M. Fox may be convicted on charges of murder, child abuse, administering drugs to commit a felony, and using minors to produce pornography. An 11-year-old boy was believed to be a victim in Fox's child pornography scheme. The boy's body was found dumped on a rural road. Police found a cache of pornographic pictures of young boys in Fox's apartment. PMID:11364163

1997-03-21

383

What is Life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. The classical physicist's approach to the subject; 2. The hereditary mechanism; 3. Mutations; 4. The quantum-mechanical evidence; 5. Delbruck's model discussed and tested; 6. Order, disorder and entropy; 7. Is life based on the laws of physics?; Epilogue: on determinism and free will; Mind and Matter: 1. The physical basis of consciousness; 2. The future of understanding; 3. The principle of objectivation; 4. The arithmetical paradox: the oneness of mind; 5. Science and religion; 6. The mystery of the sensual qualities; Autobiographical sketches (translated from the German by Schrödinger's granddaughter Verena).

Schrodinger, Erwin; Penrose, Foreword by Roger

2012-03-01

384

The Shape of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new companion Web site to the PBS series The Shape of Life allows visitors to trace the "dramatic rise of the animal kingdom" through the research efforts of current scientists. The body of information is divided into eight different evolutionary "episodes" that include video clips, biographies, and research of leading scientists. Each episode also includes a featured animal page with facts, photos, and links to related Web sites. Although the content of the site seems to be aimed at a middle or high school level, teachers may appreciate the activity guide that contains several downloadable activities and questions for all ages to explore.

2002-01-01

385

Life as a Hiltern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mather Policy Intern Program, conducted through the Society of Physics Students, is an innovative internship encouraging physics students to get involved in science policy. Funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts and the American Institute of Physics, Mather Interns spend a summer at the Capitol, working as congressional interns for a representative or committee. As the first female student inducted into the Mather Policy Intern program, the author presents Life as a Hilltern, detailing her summer working with Representative Rush Holt, the only physicist currently serving in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Lemon, Courtney

2012-02-01

386

Metabolomics in neonatal life.  

PubMed

Metabolomics (or metabonomics) is based on the systematic study of the complete set of metabolites in a biological sample and is considered the most innovative of the 'omics' sciences. The metabolome is currently regarded as the 'new clinical biochemistry' it is the most predictive phenotype, through consideration of epigenetic differences. Among more than 5000 papers listed in PubMed on this topic in the last three years, less than 60 refer to neonatal life. Aim of this review is to present the clinical applications of metabolomics in neonatology, including results of recent studies performed in experimental models and newborns. PMID:23809357

Fanos, Vassilios; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Puddu, Melania; Ottonello, Giovanni; Noto, Antonio; Atzori, Luigi

2013-06-01

387

The Relationship of Workaholism With Work–Life Conflict, Life Satisfaction, and Purpose in Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the differences between 2 types of workaholics (enthusiastic and nonenthusiastic workaholics) and nonworkaholic workers (work enthusiasts, relaxed workers, unengaged workers, and disenchanted workers) with respect to work–life conflict, life satisfaction, and purpose in life in a sample of 171 salaried employees of a high technology organization. Results differed for the 2 types of workaholics, supporting the importance

Cynthia A. Bonebright; Daniel L. Clay; Robert D. Ankenmann

2000-01-01

388

Lifeness signatures and the roots of the tree of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do trees of life have roots? What do these roots look like? In this contribution, I argue that research on the origins of\\u000a life might offer glimpses on the topology of these very roots. More specifically, I argue (1) that the roots of the tree of\\u000a life go well below the level of the commonly mentioned ‘ancestral organisms’ down into

Christophe Malaterre

2010-01-01

389

Work-Life Balance: How Life Coaching Can Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing dissatisfaction by the UK Government with the way that work increasingly dominates the lives of employees, particularly managers, at the expense of their family life, led to “Work-Life Balance Week”, part of the Government’s drive to encourage the idea of flexible working arrangements, family-friendly policies and the enhancement of employees’ lives. The Work-Life Balance campaign, launched in March

Stewart McIntosh

2003-01-01

390

Life goals and purpose in life in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal of work  The purpose of the study was to analyze associations between life goals and purpose in life in cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  A sample of 153 cancer patients was assessed before the start of chemotherapy and about 9 months later. Purpose in life was\\u000a measured with a German version of Crumbaugh and Maholick’s purpose in life test, and the perceived

Martin Pinquart; Rainer K. Silbereisen; Cornelia Fröhlich

2009-01-01

391

46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each person carried on...

2012-10-01

392

46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each person carried on...

2011-10-01

393

Distribution-Free Life Test Sampling Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes life test sampling plans which assume only that the life distribution has increasing or decreasing failure rate. Tables are presented showing the minimum number of items necessary to assure a specified mean life or percentile life when...

S. S. Gupta

1966-01-01

394

Square of Life Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Square of Life: Studies in Local and Global Environments is an Internet-based, collaborative project in which students investigate their local environment and share that information with other students from around the country and the world. This projects integrates math, science, reading, writing, and technology. The students start by predicting what they will find in their school outdoor environment. Next, the students measure and rope off a one-meter square outside. They identify living and non-living things in their school yards and share their findings with other participating classes around the world. The students then compare and contrast similarities and differences in the reported data. Lastly, students prepare a final report based on their findings. This project is appropriate for all grade levels.

Science, Center F.

2009-05-15

395

POV: Steam of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many hallmarks of Finnish life is the world of the sauna and its informal rituals. It is a place for men to explore their feelings, emotions, and their hopes and dreams. It is also the subject of this fascinating film presented as part of the POV series on PBS. Created by filmmakers Joonas Bergh'll and Mika Hotakainen, this 60-minute film looks into this rather fascinating aspect of Finnish culture. Visitors can watch the entire program here, and there are a host of additional features that round out the site. On the left-hand side, visitors will find additional photo galleries, a background essay, and a helpful "Are You Pronouncing Sauna Correctly?" primer. In the "Take Action" area, visitors can learn how to plan an event around this film and download a discussion guide. Teachers shouldn't miss the "For Educators" area, which includes a lesson plan and a reading list.

396

Life in the orchestra.  

PubMed

The concert soloist and conductor are prominent figures within the orchestra. Their roles make extraordinary demands on them--demands that must often be fulfilled while dealing with the problems of travel. Maintaining one's skill is a constant concern. The orchestra musician is also constantly on guard to maintain performance excellence. Unusual work patterns, obsession with the job, and job stress can put pressure on home life. The strong emotional personality of the orchestra musician must adapt to the conductor's desires and musical tradition. The player must coordinate performance with other group members. Other factors contribute to an environment with rigid boundaries and to the isolation of orchestra members as a group. With the development of performing arts medicine, injuries are less stigmatized and better treated, and performance stress is better managed. A patient's view of medicine is offered here. PMID:8350689

Fetter, D

1993-03-01

397

Their Circular Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather provocative website (which requires Macromedia Flash Player) explores various urban environments around Italy and draws visitors into the life of a "typical" day in the different lives of these seemingly ordinary places. The website was created by Lorenzo Fonda and David Terenzi and features original music and a rather welcoming user interface for exploring the different environments. The interface for each of the five urban places allows users to drag a small triangle around a circle, and essentially move through a series of images (and related sounds recorded on site) that take place during a single day. The places featured on the site include the train station in Modena, the Campo San Barnaba in Venezia, and three additional locales. Overall, this site offers a fascinating way of looking at and experiencing different urban environments and a potential template for future online projects.

398

Utah's Cambrian Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was going on in Utah 500 million years ago? Quite a bit, and this website provides an excellent overview of the diverse Cambrian life that flourished in an ancient sea that covered what is now the Beehive State. Interestingly enough, the website was created by the division of invertebrate paleontology at the University of Kansas Natural History Museum, and it includes images of a wide array of fossilized materials from this period of geological history. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors will find four primary sections, including "Localities and Geology" and "Online Fossil Exhibits and Collections". The "Localities and Geology" area is a good place to start as it gives an overview (complete with aerial photographs and maps) of the Cambrian period in Utah. The "Online Fossil Exhibits and Collections" area features fossil representative images from groups like mollusks, algae, jellyfish, and lobopods.

399

Game of Life Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

400

Life in the Cambrian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Cambrian fossil record, which indicates a distinct development from simple organisms to organisms comparable in morphology and organization to present-day animals. The development is documented by faunal assemblages represented by the Ediacara fauna, the first complex trace fossils, the earliest shelly faunas, and the onset of the typical Cambrian macrofaunas. This rapid evolution took place in an interval of less than 25 million years and the evolution from the first hard-part animals to the presence of most of the present-day phyla was restricted to an interval of probably less than 10 million years. Multicellular life evolved at an incredible speed and for this reason this part of organismal evolution is termed the Cambrian Explosion, or Evolutions Big Bang. The site describes each group of fossils and also the locations where the faunal assemblages were found.

401

Homochirality and life.  

PubMed

After clarifying the frequently misused term homochirality, the crucial importance of homochirality and chiral purity in the development and maintenance of the essential biopolymers of life--proteins and nucleic acids--is discussed. The harsh and forbidding prebiotic environment during the era of cometary impact after formation of the Earth approximately 4.5 Gyr ago is described, after which the most important abiotic mechanisms proposed historically for the genesis of chiral molecules on the primitive Earth are enumerated. Random and determinate terrestrial mechanisms are each evaluated with regard to the environmental restraints imposed during the impact era, and it is concluded that all such mechanisms would be inapplicable and implausible in the realistic prebiotic environment. To circumvent these limitations, an extended hypothesis is presented describing an extraterrestrial source of homochiral terrestrial molecules. Illustrated in Figure 2, this scenario involves the partial asymmetric photolysis of the racemic constituents of organic mantles on interstellar dust grains by the circularly polarized ultraviolet components of the synchrotron radiation emanating from the neutron star remnants of super-novae. The resulting homochiral constituents with low enanantiomeric excesses (e.e.s) so produced in the organic mantles are subsequently conveyed to Earth either by direct accumulation or, more likely, after coalescence into comets or asteroids, followed by repetitive impingement during the impact era. Finally, the low e.e.s of the extraterrestrial homochiral molecules so introduced are amplified by terrestrial autocatalytic or polymerization mechanisms into a state of chiral purity, then are ultimately concentrated and protected by sequestration in the interiors of spontaneously formed protocellular vesicles--there to await further chemical evolution toward the biomolecules of life. Recent observations of the excess of L-over D-amino acids in the Murchison meteorite are cited as validation for the early stages of the proposed hypothesis. PMID:9949874

Bonner, W A

1998-01-01

402

Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.  

PubMed

The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. Section 6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life. PMID:20162362

Gayon, Jean

2010-02-17

403

Origins and Evolution of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiations on DNA J. Cadet and T. Douki; 24. Molecular adaptations to life at high salt: lessons from Haloarcula marismortui G. Zaccai; Part VII. Traces of Life and Biosignatures: 25. Early life: nature, distribution and evolution F. Westall; 26. Early eukaryotes in precambrian oceans E. Javaux; 27. Biomineralisation mechanisms K. Benzerara and J. Miot; 28. Limits of life and biosphere: lesson from detection of microorganisms in deep sea and deep subsurface in the Earth K. Takai; Part VIII. Life Elsewhere?: 29. Titan and the Cassini-Huygens mission J. Lunine and F. Raulin; 30. The role of terrestrial analogue environments in astrobiology R. Léveillé; Index.

Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

2011-01-01

404

Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for a description of every life sciences experiment performed in space (during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Shuttle, and NASA-Mir programs)? Students, educators, and space enthusiasts will appreciate this recent contribution from NASA, offering detailed descriptions, information and data on space flight experiments, space life sciences, and NASA missions. The 'Overview of Life Sciences Missions and Research' section offers general information and images, with links to the searchable database, 'Master Catalog,' and to an internal glossary of terms. Data may be downloaded from the Master Catalog. The 'Digital Image Library' is a searchable database of images from life sciences experiments and missions. A set of space life science links can be found in the 'Related Resources' section. For the younger learners, follow links to the 'Just for Kids' companion site, where users will find activities about space flight and space life sciences.

405

NOVA: How Did Life Begin?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interview from NOVA explores the "recipe of life", a combination of specific elements that interacted to form life on Earth. It features Andrew Knoll, a Harvard professor of biology, who answers questions about early life forms and how life evolved from fundamental chemical building blocks involving a handful of elements. Editor's Note This article provides insight into the chemistry of life and explores life from a framework of "planetary processes". The presentation is engaging and clear enough for secondary students to understand. See Related Materials for a link to an interactive version of the famous 1953 Miller-Urey experiment, in which biochemistry students combined methane, water vapor, hydrogen, and ammonia....then introduced an electric charge. The result: amino acids (the building blocks of protein) were created.

2011-08-22

406

Searching for Life on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of activities encourages students to think about the characteristics of life and about the possibility of looking for life on Mars. Activities include: drawing Martian creatures, based on science fiction as well as the students' current knowledge of Mars; developing a chart to help define important features of a living organism; and designing a plant or animal life form that might survive on Mars.

407

Seeking Life in the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seeking Life in the Universe is an outreach project of the Spanish Centro de Astrobiología (CAB). This project is intended to show, through simple and interactive experiments, the main aspects of the scientific activity developed either in the CAB or in a variety of scenarios (e.g. Río Tinto, Antarctica, or the Atacama Desert) in which the scientists study how life evolves or adapts, and to understand how life originated.

Cuesta, L.; Vaquerizo, J. A.; García-Villadangos, M.; García-Descalzo, L.; Pérez-Verde, A.

2013-05-01

408

Life in a ligand sphere.  

PubMed Central

The most fundamental divide in biology is that between heterotrophic and autotrophic ways of life. Two of the leading proponents of a heterotrophic origin of life ("hetero-origin") in a prebiotic broth, C. de Duve and S. L. Miller, have criticized my theory of a pyrite-pulled chemo-autotrophic origin of life ("auto-origin") [De Duve, C. & Miller, S. L. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 10014-10017]. This criticism is now answered.

Wachtershauser, G

1994-01-01

409

Total recall [life recording software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a Microsoft research initiative that focuses on memory augmentation. The research is primarily based on the MyLifeBits Project of Microsoft researcher, Gordon Bell, who, for two years, collected real life data using sensors and a still camera, called SenseCam, with the aim of developing a improved means of information retrieval. With the MyLifeBits software, the SenseCam, and

S. Cherry

2005-01-01

410

The life cycle concept in marketing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research seeks to provide a historical review of the life cycle concept in marketing. The paper aims to show the development of traditional life cycle models and links to the life course perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors relate to life events and transitions in consumers' life trajectories, life status, role transitions, and role identities as determinants of

Martina Bauer; Katharina J. Auer-Srnka

2012-01-01

411

The Search for Extraterrestrial Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking at the nature, origin, and evolution of life on Earth is one way of assessing whether extraterrestrial life exists on Earth-like planets elsewhere (see Chaps. 5 and 6). A more direct approach is to search for favorable conditions and traces of life on other celestial bodies, both in the solar system and beyond. Clearly, there is little chance of encountering nonhuman intelligent beings in the solar system. But there could well be primitive life on Mars, particularly as in the early history of the solar system the conditions on Mars were quite similar to those on Earth. In addition, surprisingly favorable conditions for life once existed on the moons of Jupiter. Yet even if extraterrestrial life is not encountered in forthcoming space missions, it would be of utmost importance to recover fossils of past organisms as such traces would greatly contribute to our basic understanding of the formation of life. In addition to the planned missions to Mars and Europa, there are extensive efforts to search for life outside the solar system. Rapid advances in the detection of extrasolar planets, outlined in Chap. 3, are expected to lead to the discovery of Earth-like planets in the near future. But how can we detect life on these distant bodies?

Peter, Ulmschneider

412

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

413

Sav-a-Life Self-Inflating Life Preserver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to environmentally test a proprietary gas inflated life ring known as SAV-A-LIFE. The report includes tests not covered by the environmental tests. The report describes the test procedures used and the results of the indivi...

C. Cuthrell

1967-01-01

414

Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... School Health Resources Health Calculators AOA Partnerships Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life Page Content ?Today there are ... think only about the major organs, such as the heart liver or kidneys. However, there are more ... certain types of leukemia and sickle cell anemia Skin grafts for ...

415

Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport…

Danish, Steven J.; And Others

1993-01-01

416

Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport…

Danish, Steven J.; And Others

1993-01-01

417

Life Stressors, Social Resources, and Late-Life Problem Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life stressors and social resources among late-middle-aged problem and nonproblem drinkers were studied. Problem drinkers (n = 501) reported more negative life events, chronic stressors, and social resource deficits than did nonproblem drinkers (n = 609). In a comparison of problem drinkers, men reported more ongoing stressors involving finances and friends, and fewer resources from children, extended-family members, and friends

Penny L. Brennan; Rudolf H. Moos

1990-01-01

418

The Life Engagement Test: Assessing Purpose in Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a 6-item scale, the Life Engagement Test, designed to measure purpose in life, defined in terms of the extent to which a person engages in activities that are personally valued. Psychometric data are presented including information about the scale's factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, discriminant predictive validity, and norms. The data suggest that the

Michael F. Scheier; Carsten Wrosch; Andrew Baum; Sheldon Cohen; Lynn M. Martire; Karen A. Matthews; Richard Schulz; Bozena Zdaniuk

2006-01-01

419

Life stressors, social resources, and late-life problem drinking.  

PubMed

Life stressors and social resources among late-middle-aged problem and nonproblem drinkers were studied. Problem drinkers (n = 501) reported more negative life events, chronic stressors, and social resource deficits than did nonproblem drinkers (n = 609). In a comparison of problem drinkers, men reported more ongoing stressors involving finances and friends, and fewer resources from children, extended-family members, and friends than did women. Women who are problem drinkers reported more negative life events, more ongoing difficulties with spouses and extended-family members, and fewer resources from spouses. Among both the problem and nonproblem drinkers, more stressors were associated with fewer social resources, but only within certain life domains. Late-middle-aged adults' chronic stressors and social resources helped explain their drinking behavior, depression, and self-confidence even after sex, marital status, and negative life events were considered. PMID:2278671

Brennan, P L; Moos, R H

1990-12-01

420

Reasons to love life.  

PubMed

Background: A suicide awareness campaign was initiated in the Austrian federal state of Styria to increase help-seeking behavior in the population. Billboards were shown throughout Styria depicting joyful everyday-life situations with a focus on social and family connectedness, and promoting the Telephone Emergency Service, a crisis hotline. Aims: The present study investigated the impact of this campaign on the utilization of the crisis hotline and on suicide rates. Method: Phone calls and suicide rates in the study region 3 months before the campaign were compared with rates 3 months after the campaign. The changes were contrasted with the characteristics of phone calls and the suicide rate in a comparable control region. Results: There were significantly more phone calls in the study region after the awareness campaign compared to the control region, which was similar to seasonal trends in nonintervention years, and there was no increase of suicide-related phone calls. The proportion of suicide-related phone calls referring to family problems decreased after the initiation of the campaign. Suicide rates did not change. Conclusion: The campaign may have had some minor immediate impact on the utilization of the Telephone Emergency Service, but it did not seem to motivate suicidal individuals, especially those with family problems, to call. PMID:23942384

Till, Benedikt; Sonneck, Gernot; Baldauf, Gerhard; Steiner, Elise; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

2013-01-01

421

Extracorporeal life support.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) denotes the use of prolonged extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with acute, reversible cardiac or respiratory failure. As technology has advanced, organ support functions other than gas exchange, such as liver, renal, and cardiac support, have been provided by ECLS, and others, such as immunologic support, will be developed. The future of ECLS will include improvements in devices accompanied by circuit simplification and auto-regulation. Such enhancements in technology will allow application of ECLS to populations currently excluded from such support; for example, thromboresistant circuits will eliminate the need for systemic anticoagulation and lead to the use of this technique in premature newborns. As the ECLS technique becomes safer and simpler, and as morbidity and mortality are minimized, criteria for application of ECLS will be relaxed. New approaches to ECLS, such as pumpless arteriovenous bypass, the artificial placenta, arteriovenous CO(2) removal (AVCO(2)R), and intravenous oxygenators (IVOX), will become more commonly applied. Such advances in technology will allow broader and more routine application of ECLS for lung and other organ system failure. PMID:17055954

Skinner, Sean C; Hirschl, Ronald B; Bartlett, Robert H

2006-11-01

422

The origin of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfossil finds have been firmly established at about 3.5 Ga (giga annee=10 9 years), but no rocks older than about 4.0 Ga have been demonstrated, leaving the history of the first 0.6 Ga missing. This gap has been filled by models of the solar system. The origin of the ocean, atmosphere, and much crustal material apparently lies in a heavy rain of comets, subsequent to the catastrophic Moon-forming event. The earliest microfossils are those of the Apex chert in Australia, about 3.5 Ga old. `Prebiotic' simulations of possible biochemistry have made some progress in recent years, but many obstacles remain, and there is no agreement as to the course of development. The `ribose nucleic acid (RNA) World', aboriginal `clay genes', and catalysis on iron-sulfide precipitates are not ruled out. The search for the `last common ancestor' has reached a point between the Bacteria and the Archaea. It is possible that this organism may have been a thermophile, similar to many modern hot spring organisms. But it is likely to have been an autotroph, and a late development after the true origin of life. Even more speculative are suggestions about the origins of metabolic sequences, in particular the origin of the genetic code. Since all modern organisms share this code (and many other things), there had to be a long history of development during the blank period of Earth history.

McClendon, John H.

1999-07-01

423

Russian Life magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Russian Information Services, the publisher of "Russian Life" magazine, has established a Web site for the 40-year-old magazine of Russian culture, history, travel and business. The magazine's site offers samples of cover stories and departments: Practical Traveler, Survival Russian, Travel Journal, and Russian Cuisine. Within two weeks the site will add an events database which users can add information to and/or use to search for Russia-related events in their area or sphere of interest. Also, the editors have compiled a collection of Top Ten Russian Web Site Picks. Full-text searching by keyword is available, which also encompasses an on-line catalog -- Access Russia & Central Europe -- which contains over 200 books, maps and products relating to travel and doing business in the region. The site resides on the Friends & Partners server at the University of Tennessee, a site for persons with an interest in travel to or business in Russia. http://www.friends-partners.org/rispubs/

424

Nutrition throughout life: folate.  

PubMed

Scientific evidence supports a number of roles for folate in maintaining health from early life to old age. Folate is required for one-carbon metabolism, including the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine; thus elevated plasma homocysteine reflects functional folate deficiency. Optimal folate status has an established role in preventing NTD and there is strong evidence indicating that it also has a role in the primary prevention of stroke. The most important genetic determinant of homocysteine in the general population is the common 677C ? T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, MTHFR; homozygous individuals (TT genotype) have reduced enzyme activity and elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Meta-analyses indicate that the TT genotype carries a 14 to 21 % increased risk of CVD, but there is considerable geographic variation in the extent of excess CVD risk. A novel interaction between this folate polymorphism and riboflavin (a co-factor for MTHFR) has recently been identified. Intervention with supplemental riboflavin targeted specifically at individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype was shown to result in significant lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive people and in patients with CVD. This review considers the established and emerging roles for folate throughout the lifecycle, and some public health issues related to optimising folate status. PMID:23798054

McNulty, Helene; Pentieva, Kristina; Hoey, Leane; Strain, Jj; Ward, Mary

2012-10-01

425

A "Second Life" for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author talks about the 3D virtual world known as Second Life and its potential as a learning platform. In the last few years, many colleges, universities, and libraries have established resources in what has become the preeminent multiuser virtual environment. Today, more than 100 Second Life "regions" are used for…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

426

Is life a balancing act?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this case study is to highlight to individuals and businesses the importance of work-life balance and how it can have a massive impact on one's daily life. It aims to describe the pitfalls of not having a policy in place and also how a business can go about implementing a policy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The subject

Nicola Hughes

2007-01-01

427

Life circle economic efficiency analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized life cycle of concept, design, development and maintenance is studied., Various technological and managerial strategies were estimated, such as design for manufacturing, quality for manufacturing and relatively new fault tolerant design. Comparative efficiency of these approaches were analyzed. Life Circle analysis were developed based on the model of semi-Markov processes. Shown that fault-tolerant systems have advances over those based

S. I. Plyaskota; I. V. Schagaev

2001-01-01

428

Adverse Life Events and Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAdverse life events are well-documented risk factors of psychopathology and psychological dysfunction in children and adolescents. Youth with good adjustment despite high levels of adverse life events are considered resilient. This study identifies factors that characterize resilience.

QUYEN Q. TIET; HECTOR R. BIRD; MARK DAVIES; CHRISTINA HOVEN; PATRICIA COHEN; PETER S. JENSEN; SHERRYL GOODMAN

1998-01-01

429

Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels  

EPA Science Inventory

A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

430

Second Thoughts about Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

Bugeja, Michael J.

2008-01-01

431

Second Thoughts about Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

Bugeja, Micheal J.

2007-01-01

432

Desperately seeking life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans appear to be obsessed with the idea of finding life on Mars and have latched on to any evidence—however improbable—that might support its existence. Charting the history of the often deceptive scientific (not to mention literary) findings made about Mars, this viewpoint suggests that our desire to find extraterrestrial life says more about the human need for companionship and

Steve Connor

2002-01-01

433

Enhancing Satisfaction in Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement of later life satisfaction of long-term care residents is the purpose of this study. Seventy-eight men, residents of two Veterans Affairs nursing home units, completed a survey measuring personal characteristics, relationships with family and friends, and levels of life satisfaction. Findings show that the \\

Husam F. Ghusn; David Hyde; Ellen S. Stevens; Mary Hyde; Thomas A. Teasdale

1996-01-01

434

Custom Orthotics Changed My Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narrator relates his life's downward spiral and miraculous rebound from severe foot problems using animated bullet points, images, charts, and graphs. "Custom Orthotics Changed My Life" is a work of presentation fiction, or slideshow fiction, in the form of a video with an original soundtrack. The music was composed by David Kettler, a…

Holeton, Richard

2010-01-01

435

Ecology: accumulating threats to life  

SciTech Connect

The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

Peterson, R.W.

1980-04-01

436

Loss and Transcendence Life Themes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Psychologists have often observed an underlying pattern or theme in the accounts that individuals give of their lives. To test a humanistic-existential approach to human development, 48 women were interviewed with the Loss and Transcendence (L/T) Life History Form. The L/T Life Theme is expressed in two ways: the expanded version includes the…

Weenolsen, Patricia

437

Second Life: hype or hyperlearning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to place Second Life within a learning theory framework. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology of this article is to interpret and evaluate the characteristics of a virtual world for its learning potential. Findings – This article finds that Second Life is not simply the latest online fad, but part of a continuum of

Catheryn Cheal

2007-01-01

438

Enjoyment and the Good Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents information to update parks and recreation professionals about what recent research says in regard to enjoyment and the good life, noting what applications this research has for practitioners. The article focuses on: the good life and leisure services; happiness, subjective well-being, and intrinsic motivation; leisure, happiness, and…

Estes, Cheryl; Henderson, Karla

2003-01-01

439

Expanding cosmic horizons of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned

Nalin C. Wickramasinghe; J. V. Narlikar; J. T. Wickramasinghe; Milton Wainwright

2003-01-01

440

Roots: The Life Space Pioneers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with troubled…

James, Adrienne Brant

2008-01-01

441

Wild Beasts of Still Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

Lott, Debra

2007-01-01

442

Learning for Life and Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The publication of "Learning Through Life," the main report of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning, has been welcomed across the trade union movement. It offers a useful and useable framework for discussing the learning needs of people through the different stages of life and makes compelling suggestions about how to adjust…

Blakeley, Richard

2009-01-01

443

What Makes a Life Good?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Samples of college students (N = 104) and community adults (N = 264) were shown a career survey ostensibly completed by a person rating his or her occupation. After reading the survey, participants judged the desirability and moral goodness of the respondent's life, as a function of the amount of happiness,

Laura A. King; Christie K. Napa

1998-01-01

444

The psychology of life stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest among theorists and researchers in autobiographical recollections, life stories, and narrative approaches to understanding human behavior and experience. An important development in this context is D. P. McAdams's life story model of identity (1985, 1993, 1996), which asserts that people living in modern societies provide their lives with unity and purpose by

Dan P. McAdams

2001-01-01

445

Breeding Rhythms with Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in developing intelligent systems for music composition. In this paper we focus on our research into generative rhythms. We have adopted an Artificial Life (A-Life) approach to intelligent systems design in order to develop generative algorithms inspired by the notion of music as social phenomena that emerge from the overall behaviour of interacting autonomous software agents. Whereas

Joao M. Martins; Eduardo R. Miranda

446

Space life sciences strategic plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope

Arnauld E. Nicogossian

1992-01-01

447

Longer Life and Population Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthusiasm about the prospect of large increases in human life expectancy is often dampened by fears that lower mortality will increase population size, hence population pressure. A simple mathematical model of life-cycle stretching demonstrates that if increased longevity is accompanied by later childbearing, a trend that is already underway, future declines in mortality will not increase population size. Copyright 1999

Joshua R. Goldstein; Wilhelm Schlag

1999-01-01

448

Is There Life in Space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation, students will explore the question: Can there be life outside of Earth? Students will use planet hunting models to discover how scientists find new planets and perform simulated spectroscopic measurements to determine if the chemical requirements for life are present.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-12

449

Physics for Life Sciences Wiki  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This wiki (a wiki is a website designed to let many people collaborate by adding and editing content) is a growing collection of information and resources for teaching physics for life sciences at the college and university level.The wiki includes sample courses and curricula, laboratories, assessments, and other teaching and learning resources with life science applications in physics.

Robert Fairman (Haverford College;); Catherine Crouch (Swarthmore College;); Mark Reeves (George Washington University;); Suzanne Amador Kane (Harverford College;); Robert Hilborn (University of Texas, Dallas;); Timothy McKay (University of Michigan;)

2010-05-28

450

Life sciences on the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin,

G. Horneck

1996-01-01

451

Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

Kaur, Preeti

2011-01-01

452

The Meaning of Academic Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This address reports the findings of a survey of higher education colleagues on the degree of happiness associated with personal definitions of "meaning of life" and "purpose in life." Using a unique sliding scale, the survey draws items from the Oxford Happiness Project among other sources and began with all ASHE members (N = 1,904) with a final…

Hagedorn, Linda Serra

2012-01-01

453

Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the National Task Force on Health Information recommended that in order to assess the health of Canadians, the health information system should include an aggregate index of population health. This article presents such an index—Health- Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)—as one possibility in a range of indicators. In contrast to conventional life expectancy, which considers all years as equal,

Michael C. Wolfson

1996-01-01

454

Life: Definition, Origin, and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of all the natural phenomena surrounding us, the phenomena Life, as a matter of course, is that which is the most mysterious and least understood of all. In many aspects, it seems as though it would be possible to investigate, study, and explain Life, like so many of the other subjects that fall within the category of the natural

Yoav Yigael

2010-01-01

455

The search for alien life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life

M. Meyer

2004-01-01

456

Infections during extracorporeal life support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little data exist on the type of infections patients acquire during extracorporeal life support. Through a retrospective analysis of 109 patients who underwent 115 episodes of venoarterial extracoporeal life support, it was determined that nosocomial infections developed in 18 patients (16%). Patients with nosocomial infections were supported for longer periods of time (230 versus 140 hours; P < .05) and

Gordon E Schutze; Mark J Heulitt

1995-01-01

457

Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

Roodvoets, David L.

2003-01-01

458

Life Cycle of a Pencil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)|

Reeske, Mike

2000-01-01

459

Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards.

Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

2013-01-01

460

It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?  

PubMed

"It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The warranty of the future child's physical integrity and health, an integral and inseparable part of the contract, should form the basis of the child's cause of action. PMID:18354869

Perry, Ronen

2007-11-01

461

Improving the Quality of Work Life: Work Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper attempts to advance current understanding about such questions as why work redesign is effective when it is, what goes wrong when it isn't and how the strategy can be altered to improve its general usefulness as an approach to personal and organ...

J. R. Hackman

1975-01-01

462

Extraterrestrial life in the universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility that life exists elsewhere in the universe, even in our own planetary system, has intrigued scientists, philosophers, and theologians for centuries. The spaceflight programs of NASA have provided much new information about our planetary neighbors and have put to rest some speculations about the existence of life on those planets or their satellites. However, there are still undetermined questions about the possibility of some form of life existing in the far distant past in our planetary system. Beyond our planetary system, the astronomical quest for scientific clues about life continues, largely via the radio telescope. Thus far there is no conclusive evidence. Here, some of the recent findings about our planetary neighbors are reviewed and the question about life elsewhere in the universe is addressed.

Graham, Robert W.

1990-02-01

463

Life: past, present and future.  

PubMed Central

Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth.

Nealson, K H; Conrad, P G

1999-01-01

464

Time Life Pictures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this is a commercial site with pictures and images for sale, users can nonetheless view and appreciate one of "the most extraordinary collections of pictures in the world" at The Picture Collection from Time, Inc. An initial free registration is required, and after that users need only log on to gain access to over 22 million images, including illustrations, prints, and photographs. Archival materials from many popular magazines are available here, including images from Time, Life, Sports Illustrated, People, and Entertainment Weekly, as well as material from the recently acquired Mansell Collection. "Mansell photographs date from the beginnings of the medium in the 1840s through World War II [and] depict a vast range of scenics, important news events, and historical personalities, with a special emphasis on art and architecture. In addition, the new Mansell Collection includes extraordinary holdings of engraved illustrations, lithographs, and drawings predating the advent of photographic imaging." In addition to a key word search function, The Picture Collection offers a special searching and licensing program that lets you search for and store materials in "Lightboxes" of your own creation for later use; these are similar to folders that one might use in a conventional software setting. The program also calculates licensing fees for images based on what type of usage is intended (newspaper, magazine, Website, etc.). Research help is available for those users who would like someone else to do the searching, with one half-hour of free research offered initially. After that, a fee of 85 dollars an hour is charged; some or all of this fee may be waived if one or more images are licensed. An excellent help section rounds out this site and makes perusing this amazing (if somewhat overwhelming) collection even more pleasurable.

465

Rock Surfaces as Life Indicators: New Ways to Demonstrate Life and Traces of Former Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life and its former traces can only be detected from space when they are abundant and exposed to the planetary atmosphere at the moment of investigation by orbiters. Exposed rock surfaces present a multifractal labyrinth of niches for microbial life. Based upon our studies of highly stress-resistant microcolonial fungi of stone monument and desert rock surfaces, we propose that microbial

Anna A. Gorbushina; Wolfgang E. Krumbein; Marc Volkmann

2002-01-01

466

The essence of life purpose.  

PubMed

Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings. PMID:19300082

Hodges, Pamela J

467

A year in the life of eLife  

PubMed Central

Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year.

Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M

2013-01-01

468

A year in the life of eLife.  

PubMed

Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year. PMID:24137550

Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M; Weigel, Detlef

2013-10-15

469

The Home Life of Sir David Brewster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The birthplace; 2. The child; 3. The companions; 4. The student; 5. Settling in life; 6. Notes of life from 1810 to 1814; 7. Notes of life from 1814 to 1824; 8. Miss Edgeworth - Junius; 9. Notes of life from 1824 to 1830; 10. Notes of life from 1830 to 1836; 11. Notes of life from 1836 to 1844; 12. Notes of life from 1844 to 1850; 13. Notes of life from 1850 to 1851; 14. Notes of life from 1852 to 1853; 15. Notes of life from 1854 to 1855; 16. Notes of life from 1855 to 1860; 17. Characteristics; 18. Religious history; 19. Notes of life from 1860 to 1864; 20. Notes of life from 1864 to 1867; 21. The end; Appendix.

Gordon, Margaret Maria

2010-06-01

470

Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Adolescence is a developmental phase associated with significant somatic and psychosocial changes. So far there are few studies\\u000a on developmental aspects of life satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examines the effects of age and gender on adolescent’s\\u000a life satisfaction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  1,274 German adolescents (aged 11–16 years) participated in a school-based survey study. They completed the adolescent version\\u000a of the Questions on Life Satisfaction

Lutz Goldbeck; Tim G. Schmitz; Tanja Besier; Peter Herschbach; Gerhard Henrich

2007-01-01

471

The beginning of human life  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Jewish religion is characterized by a strict association between faith and practical precept. Jewish law has two sections, the written and the oral tradition. The foundation of the written law and the origin of authority is the Torah, the first five books of the Scripture. It is an expression of God’s revelation, teaching and guiding humanity. The oral laws interpret, expand, and elucidate the written Torah and behavior patterns regulate new rules and customs. The main parts of the oral law are as follows: the Mishnah, the Talmud, Post-Talmudic Codes and. Responsa Literature. Discussion Life is a process that has a beginning and an end. The consensus about the time when human life really begins is still not reached among scientists, philosophers, ethicists, sociologists and theologizes. The scientific data suggested that a single developmental moment marking the beginning of human life does not exist. Current biological perspectives on when human life begins range through fertilization, gastrulation, to birth and even after. The development of a newborn is a smoothly continuous process. Results Procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The (Halachic) Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from The Halachic sources. The Bible does not make any other direct references regarding the beginning of human life. Conclusion While the Talmud gives the full status of humanness to a child at birth, the rabbinical writings have partially extended the acquisition of humanness to the 13th postnatal day of life for full-term infants. The Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 69b states that: “the embryo is considered to be mere water until the fortieth day.” Afterwards, it is considered subhuman until it is born. The issues of abortion, embryo research, multifetal reduction and cloning will be discussed according to Jewish Law perspectives. Life is a process that has a beginning and an end. The consensus about the time when human life really begins is still not reached among scientists, philosophers, ethicists, sociologists and theologizes. The scientific data suggested that a single developmental moment marking the beginning of human life does not exist. Current biological perspectives on when human life begins range through fertilization, gastrulation, to birth and even after. The development of a newborn is a smoothly continuous process.

2008-01-01

472

Life as a cosmic imperative?  

PubMed

The origin of life on Earth may be divided into two stages separated by the first appearance of replicable molecules, most probably of RNA. The first stage depended exclusively on chemistry. The second stage likewise involved chemistry, but with the additional participation of selection, a necessary concomitant of inevitable replication accidents. Consideration of these two processes suggests that the origin of life may have been close to obligatory under the physical-chemical conditions that prevailed at the site of its birth. Thus, an extrasolar planet in which those conditions were replicated appears as a probable site for the appearance of extra-terrestrial life. PMID:21220285

de Duve, Christian

2011-02-13

473

Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

474

Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

475

Evaluating Artificial Life and Artificial Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often heard in Artificial Life (A-Life) circles that contemporary biology studies life-as-we-know-it (an Earth based, carbon chain phenomenon), whereas A-Life takes as its domain of study life-as-it-could-be. But lacking a clear definition of \\

Brian L. Keeley

476

What to do when a competent ICU patient does not want to live anymore but is dependent on life-sustaining treatment? Experience from The Netherlands.  

PubMed

If patients on the intensive care unit (ICU) are awake and life-sustaining treatment is suspended because of the patients' request, because of recovering from the disease, or because independence from organ function supportive or replacement therapy outside the ICU can no longer be achieved, these patients can suffer before they inevitably die. In The Netherlands, two scenarios are possible for these patients: (1) deep palliative (terminal) sedation through ongoing administration of barbiturates or benzodiazepines before withdrawal of treatment, or (2) deliberate termination of life (euthanasia) before termination of treatment. In this article we describe two awake patients who asked for withdrawal of life-sustaining measures, but who were dependent on mechanical ventilation. We discuss the doctrine of double effect in relation to palliative sedation on the ICU. Administration of sedatives and analgesics before withdrawal of treatment is seen as normal palliative care. We conclude that the doctrine of the double effect is not applicable in this situation, and mentioning it criminalised the practice unnecessarily and wrongfully. PMID:20689937

van der Hoven, Ben; de Groot, Yorick J; Thijsse, Wilhelmina J; Kompanje, Erwin J O

2010-08-06

477

What to do when a competent ICU patient does not want to live anymore but is dependent on life-sustaining treatment? Experience from The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

If patients on the intensive care unit (ICU) are awake and life-sustaining treatment is suspended because of the patients’ request, because of recovering from the disease, or because independence from organ function supportive or replacement therapy outside the ICU can no longer be achieved, these patients can suffer before they inevitably die. In The Netherlands, two scenarios are possible for these patients: (1) deep palliative (terminal) sedation through ongoing administration of barbiturates or benzodiazepines before withdrawal of treatment, or (2) deliberate termination of life (euthanasia) before termination of treatment. In this article we describe two awake patients who asked for withdrawal of life-sustaining measures, but who were dependent on mechanical ventilation. We discuss the doctrine of double effect in relation to palliative sedation on the ICU. Administration of sedatives and analgesics before withdrawal of treatment is seen as normal palliative care. We conclude that the doctrine of the double effect is not applicable in this situation, and mentioning it criminalised the practice unnecessarily and wrongfully.

de Groot, Yorick J.; Thijsse, Wilhelmina J.; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.

2010-01-01

478

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

479

Emerald ash borer life cycle  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Title: Emerald ash borer life cycle ... Morgantown, WV: U.S. Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this ...

480

END-OF-LIFE ALGORITHMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools and strategies for eliciting patient preferences for end-of-life care are often absent, of poor quality, or ignored. The American Medical Association's Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs has proposed new guidelines for the \\

Kenneth W. Goodman

1998-01-01

481

Half-life of Radiocarbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFTER full discussion of the new determinations1-3 of the half-life of carbon-14, the Fifth Radiocarbon Dating Conference, meeting at Cambridge (see p. 943 of this issue of Nature), adopted the following resolution:

H. Godwin

1962-01-01

482

Where to Look for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine environment cards that describe planets and moons in terms of their temperature and atmosphere and the availability of water, energy, and nutrients. They then select the best candidates to search for life.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-08-28

483

Let's Teach Life Insurance Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents arguments for teaching life insurance concepts as part of the business education curriculum. He also presents specific facts, "knowledges," understandings, and concepts as part of the learning process. (AG)

Coleman, Larry D.

1973-01-01

484

2003 Circle of Life Awards.  

PubMed

These three winning programs are changing palliative and end-of-life care in their communities, stretching the boundaries of conventional thinking, redefining eligibility, seeking out previously underserved populations, and otherwise serving as role models. PMID:12947787

Bilchik, Gloria Shur

2003-08-01

485

Marketability of Long Life Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the marketability of long life products. We selected furniture, motorcycle, automobile, and refrigerator as study subject, used Evaluation Grid Method, AHP and conjoint analysis to clarify whether \\

S. Nagasawa; Pi-Ju Tsai

2005-01-01

486

Is There Life on Mars?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a conflict scenario for a case study on whether there is evidence of past life on Mars. Includes details about the use of this case study in developing an interdisciplinary approach to scientific ethics. (DDR)|

Allen, Bruce C.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

1998-01-01

487

Life History Grid for Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a graphic means of eliciting the life history of an adolescent during an initial interview. The grid summarizes chronological facts about the client, and is useful for both the social agency and the adolescent him/herself. (LAB)

Anderson, James E.; Brown, Ralph A.

1980-01-01

488

Recycler ring beam life time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the Fermilab Recycler Ring beam life time due to various physical processes associated with beam-gas interactions. This includes single coulomb scattering, electronic excitations, nuclear and multiple scattering processes. We compare the measured...

K. Gounder

2001-01-01

489

Life as a planetary phenomenon.  

PubMed

The success of recent spacecraft from the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. has given us a wealth of new data about the planets in our solar system. We can now develop a much better rationale for the reasons that abundant life is only found on our planet. Mars, smaller and more distant from the Sun, may nevertheless hold clues to the early development of Earth's atmosphere. The origin of life on Mars early in that planet's history cannot be ruled out. Titan offers a contemporary example of extremely primitive conditions, where chemical reactions resembling those that preceded the development of life on Earth may be occurring today. Venus and Jupiter illustrate the need for a planet to be the right size and the right distance from the sun if chemical evolution leading to the origin of life is to occur. PMID:11539610

Owen, T

1985-01-01

490

Life tables for worker honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Life tables for worker honeybees covering all life span, and those for adults, were prepared for three seasonal cohorts,June bees, July bees andwintering bees. Survivorship curves forJune andJuly bees show a convex type being exceptional for insects, with relatively high mortality at egg and feeding larval stages and at\\u000a later adult stage after most bees became potential foragers. Adult longevity

Shôichi F. Sakagami; Hiromi Fukuda

1968-01-01

491

A Woman's Life Before Serving Life: Examining the Negative Pre-Incarceration Life Events of Female Life-Sentenced Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increase in the number of females incarcerated, there is a paucity of research concerning female life-sentenced inmates in the United States. Using a nationally representative data set containing the largest known sample of this population, the present research examines the pre-incarceration traumatic experiences of female life-sentenced inmates. The results indicate that these women are more likely to experience

Margaret E. Leigey; Katie L. Reed

2010-01-01

492

Government and the Life Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

All government policies affect the lives of citizens in some direct or indirect way. Despite the pervasiveness of the influence,\\u000a relatively little attention has been given to the manner in which government impinges on the individual life course. This\\u000a article aims to show that exploring the relationship between government and life course provides a seminal perspective both\\u000a for the study

Lutz Leisering

493

Half life of 175Hf.  

PubMed

This work measured the half life of radioisotope (175)Hf, which was produced by neutron activation method at the ZF-300-II Intense Neutron Generator in Lanzhou University. The half life of (175)Hf, measured by ?-ray spectrometry using a well calibrated GEM-60P coaxial High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, has been found to be 70.65±0.19 days. The present result agrees with the literature data well, while the accuracy was improved. PMID:22871434

Fang, Kaihong; Wang, Dawei; Yang, Shaobo; Zhao, Jiangtao; Peng, Haibo; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Tieshan

2012-06-21

494

Definitely Life but not Definitively  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some\\u000a people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic\\u000a grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative

Joan D. Oliver; Randall S. Perry

2006-01-01

495

Half Life of 127Te  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the half life of the beta-unstable nucleus 127Te was studied using neutron-irradiated samples of 126Te. The gamma activity of each of the irradiated samples was followed for 3-5 consecutive half lives. The results were analysed in two different ways, and the resulting half-life was 9.295(5)h, which is compatible with the tabulated value of 9.35(7)h, with much lower uncertainty.

Batista, Wagner F.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Zahn, Guilherme S.

2009-06-01

496

Quality of life: conceptual issues.  

PubMed

The evaluation of the quality of life of oncology patients may enable us to evaluate the impact of medical and nursing interventions on patients' lives and, ultimately, to produce information that may improve health care and the quality of patients' lives. However, quality of life is a complex concept that does not have a universal definition or a standard for its measurement. It must be defined clearly in order for it to be clinically useful. PMID:2274721

Ferrans, C E

1990-11-01

497

Achieving Our Goals in Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 we distributed a questionnaire on the deadly sins. It combined two research instruments—The Life Attitudes Inventory constructed by Capps (Pastoral Psychology 37:229–253, 1989) and the Deadly Sins Scale developed by Nauta and Derckx (Pastoral Psychology 56:177–188, 2007). In a previous article (Capps and Haupt 2011) we reported on findings from the Life Attitudes Inventory. In this article we

Donald Capps; Melissa Haupt

498

Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition\\u000a of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should\\u000a not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus

Jean Gayon

2010-01-01

499

Dementia at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... End-of-Life Care Decisions Closing Thoughts Resources Dementia At the End of Life As they reach ... end of life, people suffering from conditions like Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease can present special problems ...

500

Veterans Benefits: Current Life Insurance Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administers and supervises several life insurance programs for active servicemembers and veterans. The VA supervises the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) programs...

C. Scott

2010-01-01