Sample records for wrongful life

  1. Wrong site surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. García-Germán Vázquez; J. Sanz-Martín; F. Canillas del Rey; J. Sanjurjo-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    The term “wrong site surgery” refers to surgery carried out on the wrong side, in the wrong anatomical area or in the wrong patient. It can also indicate that the surgical procedure employed was not the one intended. In spite of being a rather neglected topic, wrong site surgery is a fairly usual complication in a surgeon's professional life -

  2. Looking for life in all the wrong places - research on cryptoendoliths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Will-Discover Hively

    This article highlights the professional careers of two pioneer microbiologists, Imre Friedmann and his wife Roseli Ocampo-Friedmann. A personal interview with Friedmann gives readers a first hand account of the novel thoughts and discoveries of cryptoendolithic bacteria, or bacteria living within rock. For the past 50 years these two scientists have searched for microbial and algal life among the rocks and sediments of ancient water bodies in deserts, arid polar environments, and other places on earth once thought to be void of all life.

  3. The "Radioactive Dice" Experiment: Why Is the "Half-Life" Slightly Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The "radioactive dice" experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and…

  4. Experiencing Wrongful and Unlawful Conviction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Wildeman; Michael Costelloe; Robert Schehr

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how those wrongfully convicted and punished experience life after exoneration. Using data from intensive individual, in-person interviews with 55 exonerees, we measure both the short- and long-term psychological effects associated with wrongful conviction. The results of this research demonstrate that a substantial portion of the study participants were suffering from clinical anxiety, depression, PTSD or a combination

  5. The physician's breach of the duty to inform the parent of deformities and abnormalities in the foetus: "wrongful life" actions, a new frontier of medical responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    A recent decision of the Italian Highest Court for the first time legitimized wrongful life suits. The Court stated the following principles: (a) the contract between the mother and the doctor has also protective effects in favour of third parties (father, siblings and the disabled child) who have the right to be compensated; (b) the right to compensation is neither based on the right not to be born nor on the right to be born healthy, but rather it is based on the breach of duty of care which coincides with the child's disabled status; (c) siblings may suffer the reduced availability of their parents; (d) the doctor is held responsible for not providing full information to the mother about the foetal deformity. The Supreme Court once again emphasized the importance of information on the matter of very personal choices, such as termination of pregnancy in case of foetal malformations. In the present case, the gynaecologist breached the duty to inform, especially after the patient requested diagnostic tests designed to highlight any foetal malformations and informed the doctor of the possibility of an eventual subsequent termination of pregnancy if foetal malformations were found. PMID:24090010

  6. On Right and Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of "right" and "wrong," considering how the terms apply to science in general and to the ideas of Einstein, Newton, and other scientists in particular. Indicates that, in one sense, the terms are not questions of science but matters of dogma. (JN)

  7. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  8. What's wrong with strategy?

    PubMed

    Campbell, A; Alexander, M

    1997-01-01

    Why is it that successful strategies are rarely developed as a result of formal planning processes? What is wrong with the way most companies go about developing strategy? Andrew Campbell and Marcus Alexander take a common sense look at why the planning frameworks managers use so often yield disappointing results. Companies often fail to distinguish between purpose (what an organization exists to do) and constraints (what an organization must do in order to survive), the authors say. Many executives mistakenly believe, for example, that satisfying stakeholders is an objective that drives thinking about strategy. In fact, it's a constraint, not an objective. Companies that don't win the loyalty of stakeholders will go out of business. Strategy is not about plans but about insights, the authors add. Strategy development is the process of discovering and understanding insights and should not be confused with planning, which is about turning insights into action. Furthermore, because executives develop most of their insights while actually doing the real work of running a business, it is important for companies not to separate strategy development from implementation. Is there a better way? The answer is not new planning processes or more effort. Instead, managers must understand two fundamental points: the benefit of having a well-articulated, stable purpose and the importance of discovering, understanding, documenting, and exploiting insights about how to create value. PMID:10174797

  9. ‘You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you’: gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life

    PubMed Central

    CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

  10. Wrong paper size with LATEX?

    E-print Network

    Covington, Michael A.

    Wrong paper size with LATEX? If your printouts are consistently too high or too low on the page (11.7-inch) paper. That is the size of paper used outside the United States. American ("letter") paper is only 11 inches long and is the size specified for University of Georgia theses (and their electronic

  11. 19 CFR 112.47 - Wrongful presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrongful presentation. 112.47 Section 112.47 Customs Duties U...LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.47 Wrongful presentation. If an identification card is presented by a person...

  12. Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism

    PubMed Central

    Birks, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

  13. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

  14. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  15. Social Studies for an Empire: Thoughts on Where Did Social Studies Go Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses viewpoints on civic education reforms postulated in "Where Did Social Studies Go Wrong?," a book published by the Thomas B. Fordham Institute. The book begins with a legitimate concern about the need to educate youth to care about political life; a noble mission, dating at least to the Greeks. Unfortunately,…

  16. What is wrong with absolute individual fitness?

    E-print Network

    Wilson, David. S.

    What is wrong with absolute individual fitness? David Sloan Wilson Departments of Biology is that fit- ness is a relative concept. It does not matter how well an organism survives and reproduces, only arguments are framed in terms of absolute individual fitness. The absolute fitness criterion (AFC) can

  17. We're Assigning the Wrong Freud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Noah

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, a lecturer in Temple University's intellectual-heritage program, explains why colleges are teaching undergraduates the wrong Freud. Though the book "Civilization and Its Discontents" (1930), which most professors use, is Freud's most consistent and most convincing attempt to apply psychoanalytic theory to society as a…

  18. In search of the missing subject: narrative identity and posthumous wronging.

    PubMed

    Masterton, Malin; Hansson, Mats G; Höglund, Anna T

    2010-12-01

    With the advanced methods of analysing old biological material, it is pressing to discuss what should be allowed to be done with human remains, particularly for well documented historical individuals. We argue that Queen Christina of Sweden, who challenged the traditional gender roles, has an interest in maintaining her privacy when there are continued attempts to reveal her 'true' gender. In the long-running philosophical debate on posthumous wronging, the fundamental question is: Who is wronged? Our aim is to find this 'missing subject' using narrative theory. Narrative identity emphasises the fact that no person is alone in knowing or telling their life story. People's lives are entangled and parts of the life story of a deceased person can remain in the living realm. Since the narrative identity of a person does not necessarily end upon their death, and this narrative continues to relate directly to the person who once existed, it is the narrative subject that can continue to be posthumously wronged. Queen Christina can no longer maintain her own identity, but we maintain it by our research into her life. We propose three duties relevant for posthumous wronging: the duty of truthfulness, the duty of recognition and the duty to respect privacy. PMID:21112008

  19. Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? Xiaojin Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? Xiaojin Zhu Department of Computer Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison October 2010 (University of Wisconsin) Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? 1 / 33 #12;Iris Learns "Cow" (University of Wisconsin) Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? 2 / 33 #12;Iris Learns "Cow

  20. The Internet transport layer: what's wrong, and a way forward

    E-print Network

    Welzl, Michael

    The Internet transport layer: what's wrong, and a way forward Telecom Bretagne, Rennes, France, 3 ­The Internet is very successful, with con6nuous growth, so why do I say that something's wrong to be wrong? · It can't really be improved! · Internet transport layer = TCP, UDP ­ TCP: RFC 791, 1981

  1. Thinking All Wrong about How You Die.

    PubMed

    Battin, Margaret P

    2015-07-01

    How do we approach our deaths? By avoidance, for one thing-death, especially our own death, is hard to talk about, think about, even imagine in the dimmest way. Or we dwell on it, that black, feared vortex that will eventually engulf us, swallowing our identity and personhood. Mostly, we distract ourselves with things of the moment. But in our rational moments we make preparations. We write advance directives. We execute durable powers of attorney. We give instructions to loved ones: "No tubes, no machines." That's the wrong approach, I think. All this stuff we put together doesn't guarantee that what we say we want will actually happen or that we'll have what we'd call a "good death"-what you would think of as a good death for you. PMID:26152391

  2. How Many Solar Neutrino Experiments Are Wrong?

    E-print Network

    John N. Bahcall

    1994-07-15

    Ten recently-published solar models give $\\7be$ neutrino fluxes that lie within a range of $\\pm 10$\\% of the average value, a convergence that is independent of uncertainties in the measured laboratory rate of the $\\7be(p,\\gamma)\\8b$ reaction. If nothing happens to solar neutrinos after they are created ({\\it a la} standard electroweak theory) and the operating solar neutrino experiments are correct, then the $\\7be$ solar neutrino flux must be less than 50\\% of the solar model value. At least three of the four existing solar neutrino experiments must be wrong {\\it if}: (1) standard electroweak theory is correct, and (2) the true $\\7be$ neutrino flux lies within the range predicted by standard solar models.

  3. Science Shorts: Hypothesis Testing--It's Okay to Be Wrong

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly J. Davis

    2009-02-01

    Students often seek affirmation from their teachers about their thinking and can be embarrassed at the thought of being "wrong." In science, we want children to feel comfortable making hypotheses and to know that it's the investigative process--not being right or wrong--that really counts. In the following activity, students will participate in an experiment where they are likely to formulate a hypothesis that will ultimately be unsupported. Because most of the class will have made similar hypotheses, students won't feel singled out in being "wrong." Furthermore, students will see that surprise findings can be more interesting than outcomes that were suspected all along.

  4. Why are MD simulated protein folding times wrong? Dmitry Nerukh

    E-print Network

    Nerukh, Dmitry

    Why are MD simulated protein folding times wrong? Dmitry Nerukh Unilever Centre for Molecular.ac.uk The question of significant deviations of protein folding times simulated using molecular dynamics from

  5. Locating the wrongness in ultra-violent video games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David I. Waddington

    2007-01-01

    The extremely high level of simulated violence in certain recent video games has made some people uneasy. There is a concern\\u000a that something is wrong with these violent games, but, since the violence is virtual rather than real, it is difficult to\\u000a specify the nature of the wrongness. Since there is no proven causal connection between video-game violence and real

  6. Clinical profile of congenital coronary artery anomalies with origin from the wrong aortic sinus leading to sudden death in young competitive athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Basso; Barry J Maron; Domenico Corrado; Gaetano Thiene

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study is to characterize the clinical profile and identify clinical markers that would enable the detection during life of anomalous coronary artery origin from the wrong aortic sinus (with course between the aorta and pulmonary trunk) in young competitive athletes.BACKGROUNDCongenital coronary artery anomalies are not uncommonly associated with sudden death in young athletes, the catastrophic event

  7. MONIST; APRIL 01, 2001 WHAT IS WRONG WITH BAYES NETS?[*

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    MONIST; APRIL 01, 2001 WHAT IS WRONG WITH BAYES NETS?[*] By Nancy Cartwright London School of Economics and University of California, San Diego 1. The basic question: Can we get to causality via Bayes decades using Bayes nets supposes that probability is a very sure guide to causality. I think not, and I

  8. Why pictures look right when viewed from the wrong place

    E-print Network

    Banks, Marty

    Why pictures look right when viewed from the wrong place Dhanraj Vishwanath1, Ahna R Girshick1 & Martin S Banks1,2 A picture viewed from its center of projection generates the same retinal image as the original scene, so the viewer perceives the scene correctly. When a picture is viewed from other locations

  9. Teaching Earth Dynamics: What's Wrong with Plate Tectonics Theory?

    E-print Network

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Textbooks frequently extol plate tectonics theory without questioning what might be wrong with the theory or without discussing a competitive theory. How can students be taught to challenge popular ideas when they are only presented a one-sided view? In just a few pages, I describe more than a century of geodynamic ideas. I review what is wrong with plate tectonics theory and with Earth expansion theory, and describe my new Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics Theory, which unifies the two previous dominant theories in a self- consistent manner. Along the way, I disclose details of what real science is all about, details all too often absent in textbooks and classroom discussions. In these few pages, I only touch on highlights and just part the curtain a bit so that teachers might glimpse ways to bring to their students some of the richness and excitement of discovery that becomes evident when one begins to question prevailing, currently popular perceptions of our world.

  10. Inclusive b decays to wrong sign charmed mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Schwanda, C.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.

    2003-05-01

    The production of wrong sign charmed mesons b?overlineD(s)X, D(s)=(D0,D+,Ds), is studied using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1994 and 1995. Charmed mesons in Z?bbŻ events are exclusively reconstructed by searching for the decays D0?K-?+, D+?K-?+?+ and Ds+???+?K+K-?+. The wrong sign contribution is extracted by using two discriminant variables: the charge of the b-quark at decay time, estimated from the charges of identified particles, and the momentum of the charmed meson in the rest frame of the b-hadron. The inclusive branching fractions of b-hadrons into wrong sign charm mesons are measured to be: B(b?overlineD0X)+B(b?D-X)=(9.3±1.7(stat)±1.3(syst)±0.4(B))%, B(b?Ds-X)=(10.1±1.0(stat)±0.6(syst)±2.8(B))% where the first error is statistical, the second and third errors are systematic.

  11. Inclusive /b decays to wrong sign charmed mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DELPHI Collaboration; Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Schwanda, C.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.

    2003-05-01

    The production of wrong sign charmed mesons b-->D(s)X, D(s)=(D0,D+,Ds), is studied using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1994 and 1995. Charmed mesons in /Z-->bbŻ events are exclusively reconstructed by searching for the decays D0-->K-?+, D+-->K-?+?+ and Ds+-->??+-->K+K-?+. The wrong sign contribution is extracted by using two discriminant variables: the charge of the /b-quark at decay time, estimated from the charges of identified particles, and the momentum of the charmed meson in the rest frame of the /b-hadron. The inclusive branching fractions of /b-hadrons into wrong sign charm mesons are measured to be: B(b-->D0X)+B(b-->D-X)=(9.3+/-1.7(stat)+/-1.3(syst)+/-0.4(B))%, B(b-->Ds-X)=(10.1+/-1.0(stat)+/-0.6(syst)+/-2.8(B))% where the first error is statistical, the second and third errors are systematic.

  12. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. PMID:25277313

  13. The causal cognition of wrong doing: incest, intentionality, and morality.

    PubMed

    Astuti, Rita; Bloch, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The paper concerns the role of intentionality in reasoning about wrong doing. Anthropologists have claimed that, in certain non-Western societies, people ignore whether an act of wrong doing is committed intentionally or accidentally. To examine this proposition, we look at the case of Madagascar. We start by analyzing how Malagasy people respond to incest, and we find that in this case they do not seem to take intentionality into account: catastrophic consequences follow even if those who commit incest are not aware that they are related as kin; punishment befalls on innocent people; and the whole community is responsible for repairing the damage. However, by looking at how people reason about other types of wrong doing, we show that the role of intentionality is well understood, and that in fact this is so even in the case of incest. We therefore argue that, when people contemplate incest and its consequences, they simultaneously consider two quite different issues: the issue of intentionality and blame, and the much more troubling and dumbfounding issue of what society would be like if incest were to be permitted. This entails such a fundamental attack on kinship and on the very basis of society that issues of intentionality and blame become irrelevant. Using the insights we derive from this Malagasy case study, we re-examine the results of Haidt's psychological experiment on moral dumbfoundedness, which uses a story about incest between siblings as one of its test scenarios. We suggest that the dumbfoundedness that was documented among North American students may be explained by the same kind of complexity that we found in Madagascar. In light of this, we discuss the methodological limitations of experimental protocols, which are unable to grasp multiple levels of response. We also note the limitations of anthropological methods and the benefits of closer cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:25741304

  14. Analysis of single particle trajectories: when things go wrong

    E-print Network

    D. Holcman; N. Hoze; Z. Schuss

    2015-02-01

    To recover the long-time behavior and the statistics of molecular trajectories from the large number (tens of thousands) of their short fragments, obtained by super-resolution methods at the single molecule level, data analysis based on a stochastic model of their non-equilibrium motion is required. Recently, we characterized the local biophysical properties underlying receptor motion based on coarse-grained long-range interactions, corresponding to attracting potential wells of large sizes. The purpose of this letter is to discuss optimal estimators and show what happens when thing goes wrong.

  15. Operating Room Briefings and Wrong-Site Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin A Makary; Arnab Mukherjee; J Bryan Sexton; Dora Syin; Emmanuelle Goodrich; Lisa Rowen; Drew C Behrens; Michael Marohn; Peter J Pronovost

    optionsrangedfrom1(disagreestrongly)to5(agreestrongly).MANOVAwasusedtocompare caregiver assessments before and after the implementation of briefings, and the percentage of OR staff agreeing or disagreeing with each question was reported. RESULTS: Theprebriefingresponseratewas85%(306of360respondents),andthepostbriefingresponse rate was 75% (116 of 154). Respondents included surgeons (34.9%), anesthesiologists (14.0%), and nurses (44.4%). Briefings were associated with caregiver perceptions of reduced risk for wrong-site surgery and improved collaboration (F (6,390) 10.15, p

  16. Wrong Sample Dispensing May Cause False Positive Malaria Test

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Ajju

    2015-01-01

    Both false positive (FP) and false negative are known limitations of any diagnostic test. Malaria parasite (MP) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may give FP results due to interference by substance in blood sample. We detected a FP in a MP RDT for first time in 36-year-old female whole blood donor due to incorrect sample dispensing technique. As per manufacturer’s instructions, while allowing all kit components and blood specimen to come to room temperature before testing, blood samples usually separate into lower layer of red blood cells (RBC) and upper layer of plasma. Technician performing the test took the sample from the bottom of the vacutainer thus taking RBC instead of whole blood (WB-recommended by manufacturer). This test showed reactive result and as per our standard protocol was re-tested to confirm the result. This second test was performed after re-mixing the same sample, which now tested as non-reactive sample, buffer and other kit component mix-up were ruled out. Repeated test on another sample of same donor produced same results. Thick and thin peripheral blood smear examination for malaria was found negative. This case highlights wrong MP RDT result due to wrong sample dispensing. PMID:26023564

  17. Wrong sample dispensing may cause false positive malaria test.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2015-04-01

    Both false positive (FP) and false negative are known limitations of any diagnostic test. Malaria parasite (MP) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may give FP results due to interference by substance in blood sample. We detected a FP in a MP RDT for first time in 36-year-old female whole blood donor due to incorrect sample dispensing technique. As per manufacturer's instructions, while allowing all kit components and blood specimen to come to room temperature before testing, blood samples usually separate into lower layer of red blood cells (RBC) and upper layer of plasma. Technician performing the test took the sample from the bottom of the vacutainer thus taking RBC instead of whole blood (WB-recommended by manufacturer). This test showed reactive result and as per our standard protocol was re-tested to confirm the result. This second test was performed after re-mixing the same sample, which now tested as non-reactive sample, buffer and other kit component mix-up were ruled out. Repeated test on another sample of same donor produced same results. Thick and thin peripheral blood smear examination for malaria was found negative. This case highlights wrong MP RDT result due to wrong sample dispensing. PMID:26023564

  18. What's Wrong with Git? A Conceptual Design Analysis Santiago Perez De Rosso Daniel Jackson

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Daniel

    What's Wrong with Git? A Conceptual Design Analysis Santiago Perez De Rosso Daniel Jackson Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, US {sperezde

  19. Something went wrong on the way to the courthouse.

    PubMed

    Hyman, David A

    2013-04-01

    Almost without exception, law professors dismissed the possibility that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) might be unconstitutional - but something went wrong on the way to the courthouse. What explains the epic failure of law professors to accurately predict how Article 3 judges would approach the case? This essay identifies three distinct but complementary factors that might help explain the observed failure. First, instead of conducting a neutral assessment of the actual probabilities, law professors engaged in motivated reasoning, based on their preexisting political and policy preferences. Second, the psychology of constitutional law professors led them to massively overstate the probability of success and suppress any misgivings or cautious hedging. Third, once it became clear that the PPACA was in serious jeopardy, our nation's law professors decided to pursue politics by other means, and organized the academic equivalent of a vigilance committee. PMID:23262776

  20. Wrong-Helicity Electrons in Radiative Muon Decay

    E-print Network

    V. S. Schulz; L. M. Sehgal

    2004-05-10

    We have studied in detail the spectrum of the decay mu^- -> e^- anti-nu_e nu_mu gamma as a function of the electron helicity, and verify the prediction of Sehgal (Phys.Lett. B569, 25 (2003)) that a significant fraction of the electrons in this decay is right-handed. These ``wrong-helicity'' electrons persist in the limit lambda = m_e / m_mu -> 0, and are connected with helicity-flip bremsstrahlung in QED. The longitudinal polarization of the electron is calculated as a function of the photon and electron energy, and deviates systematically from the naive V-A prediction P_L = -1. The right-handed component is concentrated in the collinear region theta 0, we reproduce the results obtained in (Phys.Lett. B569, 25 (2003)) using the helicity-flip splitting function introduced by Falk and Sehgal.

  1. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Diane B.

    2012-11-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

  2. But he knew it was wrong: evaluating adolescent culpability.

    PubMed

    Ash, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatric evaluators of adolescent defendants are often asked to address open-ended questions that affect what court an adolescent will be tried in and what sentence he might receive. Such questions often involve the extent to which the adolescent should be considered less culpable than an adult who has committed a similar offense. Assessing partial or diminished culpability in an adolescent is difficult because the concept of partial culpability is complex, assessment methods are inexact, and the implications for legal disposition are often not clear. This article suggests 10 factors a forensic evaluator may wish to consider in reaching opinions about an adolescent's culpability: appreciation of wrongfulness, ability to conform to law, developmental course of aggression and impulsivity, psychosocial immaturity (including time sense, susceptibility to peer pressure, risk-taking, and ability to empathize), environmental circumstances, peer group norms, out-of-character action, incomplete personality development, mental illness, and reactive attitudes toward the offense. PMID:22396338

  3. Oh No! I Got the Wrong Sign! What Should I Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Getting a "wrong" sign in empirical work is a common phenomenon. Remarkably, econometrics textbooks provide very little information to practitioners on how this problem can arise. The author exposits a long list of ways in which a wrong sign can occur and how it might be corrected.

  4. Development of Proportional Reasoning: Where Young Children Go Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have found that children have difficulty solving proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units until 10- to 12-years of age, but can solve parallel problems involving continuous quantities by 6-years of age. The present studies examine where children go wrong in processing proportions that involve discrete quantities. A computerized proportional equivalence choice task was administered to kindergartners through fourth-graders in Study 1, and to first- and third-graders in Study 2. Both studies involved four between-subjects conditions that were formed by pairing continuous and discrete target proportions with continuous and discrete choice alternatives. In Study 1, target and choice alternatives were presented simultaneously and in Study 2 target and choice alternatives were presented sequentially. In both studies, children performed significantly worse when both the target and choice alternatives were represented with discrete quantities than when either or both of the proportions involved continuous quantities. Taken together, these findings indicate that children go astray on proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units only when a numerical match is possible, suggesting that their difficulty is due to an overextension of numerical equivalence concepts to proportional equivalence problems. PMID:18793078

  5. Moving to a Healthier Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2007-01-01

    This game presents you with several different choices you can make in the course of your everyday life to increase your level of physical activity and be healthier. In each situation, all the choices presented are healthy choices - there are no wrong answers. Situations presented include school, home, weekend, work, screen time, and vacation. At the end of the game, you are shown a rating of how good your choices are on a 5-star scale.

  6. It's the Curriculum, Stupid: There's Something Wrong with It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dave F.

    2006-01-01

    If teachers and parents genuinely believe that it is educators' responsibility to prepare students for a life of "meeting employers' needs," then teachers have to better examine what it is that they choose to teach students. That is, what should be in the curriculum to ensure that students have the knowledge to prepare them for a life of…

  7. 46 CFR 67.151 - Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.151 Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document....

  8. 46 CFR 67.151 - Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.151 Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document....

  9. 46 CFR 67.151 - Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.151 Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document....

  10. 46 CFR 67.151 - Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.151 Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document....

  11. 46 CFR 67.151 - Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.151 Replacement of Certificate of Documentation; special procedure for wrongfully withheld document....

  12. 26 CFR 301.6343-2 - Return of wrongfully levied upon property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...rule. If the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) determines that property has been wrongfully levied upon, the IRS may return— (i) The specific property...equal to the minimum price determined by the IRS before the sale or, if larger, the...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6343-2 - Return of wrongfully levied upon property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...rule. If the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) determines that property has been wrongfully levied upon, the IRS may return— (i) The specific property...equal to the minimum price determined by the IRS before the sale or, if larger, the...

  14. Cancer Care in the United States: What's Right, What's Wrong? - September 16, 1999

    Cancer.gov

    CANCER CARE IN THE UNITED STATES: WHAT'S RIGHT, WHAT'S WRONG? ENSURING THE QUALITY OF CANCER CARE Robert Hiatt, M.D., Ph.D., Deputy Director of the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences National Cancer Institute National Institutes

  15. A Few of My Favorite Things: Nothing Wrong with "Stuff"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This column is focused on a simple theme: the idiosyncratic furnishings, equipment, and stuff that the author would have in any center where young children are going to spend a good chunk of their childhood. Here, the author presents the "good stuff" he doesn't want to do without which can also promote success in school and life. Furthermore he…

  16. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific…

  17. Wrong sign and symmetric limits and non-decoupling in 2HDMs

    E-print Network

    P. M. Ferreira; Renato Guedes; Marco O. P. Sampaio; Rui Santos

    2014-09-23

    We analyse the possibility that, in two Higgs doublet models, one or more of the Higgs couplings to fermions or to gauge bosons change sign, relative to the respective Higgs Standard Model couplings. Possible sign changes in the coupling of a neutral scalar to charged ones are also discussed. These \\textit{wrong signs} can have important physical consequences, manifesting themselves in Higgs production via gluon fusion or Higgs decay into two gluons or into two photons. We consider all possible wrong sign scenarios, and also the \\textit{symmetric limit}, in all possible Yukawa implementations of the two Higgs doublet model, in two different possibilities: the observed Higgs boson is the lightest CP-even scalar, or the heaviest one. We also analyse thoroughly the impact of the currently available LHC data on such scenarios. With all 8 TeV data analysed, all wrong sign scenarios are allowed in all Yukawa types, even at the 1$\\sigma$ level. However, we will show that B-physics constraints are crucial in excluding the possibility of wrong sign scenarios in the case where $\\tan \\beta$ is below 1. We will also discuss the future prospects for probing the wrong sign scenarios at the next LHC run. Finally we will present a scenario where the alignment limit could be excluded due to non-decoupling in the case where the heavy CP-even Higgs is the one discovered at the LHC.

  18. Wrong sign and symmetric limits and non-decoupling in 2HDMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, P. M.; Guedes, Renato; Sampaio, Marco O. P.; Santos, Rui

    2014-12-01

    We analyse the possibility that, in two Higgs doublet models, one or more of the Higgs couplings to fermions or to gauge bosons change sign, relative to the respective Higgs Standard Model couplings. Possible sign changes in the coupling of a neutral scalar to charged ones are also discussed. These wrong signs can have important physical consequences, manifesting themselves in Higgs production via gluon fusion or Higgs decay into two gluons or into two photons. We consider all possible wrong sign scenarios, and also the symmetric limit, in all possible Yukawa implementations of the two Higgs doublet model, in two different possibilities: the observed Higgs boson is the lightest CP-even scalar, or the heaviest one. We also analyse thoroughly the impact of the currently available LHC data on such scenarios. With all 8 TeV data analysed, all wrong sign scenarios are allowed in all Yukawa types, even at the 1 ? level. However, we will show that B-physics constraints are crucial in excluding the possibility of wrong sign scenarios in the case where tan ? is below 1. We will also discuss the future prospects for probing the wrong sign scenarios at the next LHC run. Finally we will present a scenario where the alignment limit could be excluded due to non-decoupling in the case where the heavy CP-even Higgs is the one discovered at the LHC.

  19. What is wrong in chronic adenoiditis\\/tonsillitis anatomical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaretha L. Casselbrant

    1999-01-01

    Waldeyer’s ring is most prominent during childhood, when the size of the oro-nasopharyngeal space is not yet fully developed, but decreases spontaneously with age. In the child, enlarged tonsils and\\/or adenoids may cause Eustachian tube dysfunction\\/otitis media, rhinosinusitis, obstructive sleep apnea, voice changes, change in facial growth, swallowing problems and can affect overall quality of life. Consequently, tonsillectomy and\\/or adenoidectomy

  20. 'Wrong' bond interactions at inversion domain boundaries in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Amador, C.; Segall, B.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of GaAs inversion-domain boundaries (IDBs) on different planes are reported. The resulting interface energies are analyzed in terms of the number of 'wrong' bonds (Ga-Ga and As-As) and their mutual compensation. The compensation energy varies roughly inversely proportionally to the distance between the wrong bonds. This favors local compensation in stoichiometric material. This automatically occurs for 110-plane planes or by chemical reconstruction for other planes. Ga-rich IDBs are predicted to have low energy in either Ga-rich or n-type material.

  1. Life Before Earth

    E-print Network

    Alexei A. Sharov; Richard Gordon

    2013-03-28

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no intelligent life in our universe prior to the origin of Earth, thus Earth could not have been deliberately seeded with life by intelligent aliens; Earth was seeded by panspermia; experimental replication of the origin of life from scratch may have to emulate many cumulative rare events; and the Drake equation for guesstimating the number of civilizations in the universe is likely wrong, as intelligent life has just begun appearing in our universe. Evolution of advanced organisms has accelerated via development of additional information-processing systems: epigenetic memory, primitive mind, multicellular brain, language, books, computers, and Internet. As a result the doubling time of complexity has reached ca. 20 years. Finally, we discuss the issue of the predicted technological singularity and give a biosemiotics perspective on the increase of complexity.

  2. "I Always Wanted to Be a Hero." Life without Parole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls her face-to-face meeting with a prison inmate. Paul Jensen is currently serving a life sentence without parole in South Dakota for a crime committed at age 14. In January 1996, Paul was involved in a robbery that went tragically wrong and resulted in the shooting death of taxi cab driver Michael Hare. Three…

  3. Set the Wrong Tuition and You'll Pay a Price

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, David W.

    2006-01-01

    For all of the attention rising college costs continue to receive, it is striking how poorly informed many decision makers are when it comes to setting tuition and fees. And it's equally astounding that so many institutions are learning the consequences of pricing decisions undertaken solely by trial and error when a wrong judgment can affect…

  4. The Financial Crisis and the Policy Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    The Financial Crisis and the Policy Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong John B actions and interventions in the financial crisis that flared up in August 2007. It integrates analysis in these research projects. What caused the financial crisis? What prolonged it? Why did it worsen

  5. A Century of Evolution: Ernst Mayr (19042005) Mayr's view of Darwin: was Darwin wrong

    E-print Network

    Mallet, James

    read or hear that Charles Darwin successfully convinced the world about evolution and natural selection and natural selection, he was mistaken about species and therefore did not answer the question posedA Century of Evolution: Ernst Mayr (1904­2005) Mayr's view of Darwin: was Darwin wrong about

  6. Electricity Transmission Pricing: How much does it cost to get it wrong?

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-058 Electricity Transmission Pricing: How much does it cost to get it wrong? Richard Green Channing Way Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;Electricity Transmission optimal prices for electricity transmission. These are rarely applied in practice. This paper develops

  7. Is it wrong for us to want good things? The origins of Gompers Charter Middle School

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    Is it wrong for us to want good things? The origins of Gompers Charter Middle School Hugh B. Mehan.com Abstract This paper documents the initial process by which a San Diego middle school, located in a low Saadati, an eighth-grade student from Gompers Middle School, when she addressed the San Diego Unified H. B

  8. sound of one hand clapping, and the wrong hand at that (Halverson & Wampler, 1997).

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    sound of one hand clapping, and the wrong hand at that (Halverson & Wampler, 1997). Emotional-regulation and self-control (Halverson & Wampler, 1997). We may use a metaphor to describe this relation. By almost. Halverson, C. F., Jr., & Wampler, K. S. (1997). Family influences on personality development. In S. Briggs

  9. The Use of Information from Wrong Responses in Measuring Students' Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Menucha; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    Much valuable information can be gained by analyzing the students' wrong responses. When a student answers a free response item she/he gives the response which she/he considers to be the correct one. Therefore, diagnosing the algorithm that led the student to his/her answer provides an important source of information for assessing his/her…

  10. Dent-Wrong disease and other rare causes of the Fanconi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Solano, Alejandro; Lew, Susie Q; Ing, Todd S

    2014-08-01

    Dent-Wrong disease, an X-linked recessive disorder of the proximal tubules, presents with hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, low-molecular-weight proteinuria, rickets and/or osteomalacia. Dent and Friedman initially characterized the disorder in 1964 following studies of two patients with rickets who presented with hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia, proteinuria and aminoaciduria. Since then, extensive investigation identified two genetic mutations (CLCN5 and OCRL1) to be associated with Dent-Wrong disease. Clinical features supported by laboratory findings consistent with proximal tubule dysfunction help diagnose Dent-Wrong disease. Genetic analysis supports the diagnosis; however, these two genes can be normal in a small subset of patients. The differential diagnosis includes other forms of the Fanconi syndrome, which can be hereditary or acquired (e.g. those related to exposure to exogenous substances). Treatment is supportive with special attention to the prevention of nephrolithiasis and treatment of hypercalciuria. We review the rare forms of Fanconi syndrome with special attention to Dent-Wrong disease. PMID:25852908

  11. Dent–Wrong disease and other rare causes of the Fanconi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Alejandro; Lew, Susie Q; Ing, Todd S.

    2014-01-01

    Dent–Wrong disease, an X-linked recessive disorder of the proximal tubules, presents with hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, low-molecular-weight proteinuria, rickets and/or osteomalacia. Dent and Friedman initially characterized the disorder in 1964 following studies of two patients with rickets who presented with hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia, proteinuria and aminoaciduria. Since then, extensive investigation identified two genetic mutations (CLCN5 and OCRL1) to be associated with Dent–Wrong disease. Clinical features supported by laboratory findings consistent with proximal tubule dysfunction help diagnose Dent–Wrong disease. Genetic analysis supports the diagnosis; however, these two genes can be normal in a small subset of patients. The differential diagnosis includes other forms of the Fanconi syndrome, which can be hereditary or acquired (e.g. those related to exposure to exogenous substances). Treatment is supportive with special attention to the prevention of nephrolithiasis and treatment of hypercalciuria. We review the rare forms of Fanconi syndrome with special attention to Dent–Wrong disease. PMID:25852908

  12. What's Wrong with Our Schools and How We Can Fix Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaagstra, Michael C.; Clifton, Rodney A.; Long, John C.

    2010-01-01

    "What's Wrong with Our Schools and How We Can Fix Them" examines the status of public education in North America and exposes many of the absurd instructional practices found in all-too-many schools. Written by three experienced educators, this book provides readers with a direct window into public education. The language is straightforward, the…

  13. Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

  14. What's Wrong with On-Line Discussions and How To Fix It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, W. R.

    This paper summarizes what the author has seen go wrong in six years of participation in online discussions and recommends some remedies. The emphasis is on helping discussion leaders to structure and guide online discussions for maximum effectiveness. The paper has a focus on learning environments, which are central to both formal academic…

  15. Autism is uncommon in 22q: the how and why of wrong diagnoses

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    Autism is uncommon in 22q: the how and why of wrong diagnoses Kathleen Angkustsiri, Khyati Disclosures · Co-investigator on clinical trials in autism and fragile X syndrome ­Novartis ­Roche ­Seaside Pharmaceuticals ­Forest Laboratories #12;22q and Autism Spectrum Disorders · Autism Spectrum Disorders

  16. The Beijing extreme rainfall of 21 July 2012: "Right results" but for wrong reasons

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    The Beijing extreme rainfall of 21 July 2012: "Right results" but for wrong reasons Da-Lin Zhang,1 rainfall in 6 decades fell in Beijing on 21 July 2012 with a record-breaking amount of 460 mm in 18 h and hourly rainfall rates exceeding 85 mm. This extreme rainfall event appeared to be reasonably well

  17. Indication-based prescribing prevents wrong-patient medication errors in computerized provider order entry (CPOE)

    PubMed Central

    Galanter, William; Falck, Suzanne; Burns, Matthew; Laragh, Marci; Lambert, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether indication-based computer order entry alerts intercept wrong-patient medication errors. Materials and methods At an academic medical center serving inpatients and outpatients, we developed and implemented a clinical decision support system to prompt clinicians for indications when certain medications were ordered without an appropriately coded indication on the problem list. Among all the alerts that fired, we identified every instance when a medication order was started but not completed and, within a fixed time interval, the same prescriber placed an order for the same medication for a different patient. We closely reviewed each of these instances to determine whether they were likely to have been intercepted errors. Results Over a 6-year period 127?320 alerts fired, which resulted in 32 intercepted wrong-patient errors, an interception rate of 0.25 per 1000 alerts. Neither the location of the prescriber nor the type of prescriber affected the interception rate. No intercepted errors were for patients with the same last name, but in 59% of the intercepted errors the prescriber had both patients’ charts open when the first order was initiated. Discussion Indication alerts linked to the problem list have previously been shown to improve problem list completion. This analysis demonstrates another benefit, the interception of wrong-patient medication errors. Conclusions Indication-based alerts yielded a wrong-patient medication error interception rate of 0.25 per 1000 alerts. These alerts could be implemented independently or in combination with other strategies to decrease wrong-patient medication errors. PMID:23396543

  18. 27Student Life Student Life

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    26 III Student LIfe #12;27Student Life Student Life The and recreational phases of their college experience. Thesamecodeofhonorthatgovernsacademic life also governs's superior academic preparation com- bined with the character-building responsibilities of student life mark

  19. Family life education.

    PubMed

    Maniar, N

    1968-01-01

    Family life education is not just instruction of sex and reproduction, but an attitude of love and values that starts from infancy. A child who comes into the world wanted is already loved. Later on, he himself will give love because his 1st contact in the world was a happy one. Most children will go through thumb sucking and masturbation, which is normal and innocent behavior. Toilet training is another important factor in sex education. According to our attitude the child will learn that this part of his body is good or bad. By the age of 3 or 6, children learn to discover the difference in sex from our attitude to each other, and when parents practice double standards, the child is confused and worried. Children's curiousity for knowledge is insatiable. If parents find they are embarressed by their children's questions about sex, it is better to put off answering than to convey the impression that something is not quite nice. 11-year old females should be prepared for menarche with knowledge, and fathers should explain to their sons about voice changes, night emissions and fantasy dreams. Masturbation is normal during adolescence, and the only harm comes from wrong anxiety about it. If 2 young people wish to have premarital intercourse, we must have the courage to tell them that chastity remains a value whether they accept it or not. Education for family life means taking account of the child's attitudes and sex values as a future marriage partner and parent. PMID:12338669

  20. The ethics of self-sacrifice: what's wrong with suicide bombing?

    PubMed

    Battin, Margaret P

    2004-01-01

    What's wrong with suicide bombing? The tactic has been used by the Tamil Tigers, by the Japanese kamikaze, by al-Qaeda, by Palestinian militants against Israel, by Iraqi defenders loyal to Saddam Hussein against the U.S. invasion, and by others; it is typically understood by these groups as martyrdom rather than suicide. Scientific theories of suicide--biological, psychological, and sociological--do not contribute to an understanding. Nor is the claim that it is amoral, the product of psychopathology or mental illness, adequate. The central moral core of the issue of suicide bombing rests, rather, on the violation of a tacit assumption of equality in combat: "they" have a weapon "we" don't. PMID:16006394

  1. The 'nightmare' of wrong level in spine surgery: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent article published in the Journal by Lindley and colleagues (Patient Saf. Surg. 2011, 5:33) reported the successful surgical treatment of a persistent thoracic pain following a T7-8 microdiscectomy, truly performed at the ‘level immediately above’. The wrong level in spine surgery is a multi-factorial matter and several strategies have been designed and adopted to try decreasing its occurrence. We think that three of these factors are crucial: global strategy, attention, precision in level identification; and the actors we identified are the surgeon, the assistant nurse and the (neuro)radiologist respectively. Basing upon our experience, the role of the radiologist pre- and intraoperatively and the importance of the assistant nurse are briefly described. PMID:22713236

  2. Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjogreen, B.

    2011-01-01

    In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for two representative stiff detonation wave problems.

  3. Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2012-01-01

    In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities as a function of stiffness of the source term and the grid spacing.

  4. Anthropologists are speaking up (finally), but are they saying enough? A review of Besteman, C. and Gusterson, H. (Eds), Why America's Top Pundits Are Wrong: Anthropologists Talk Back

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Ingham

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the book, Why America's Top Pundits Are Wrong: Anthropologists Talk Back. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author, himself an anthropologist, evaluates how a group of anthropologists responds to popular right-of-center pundits. Findings – Why America's Top Pundits Are Wrong: Anthropologists Talk Back is just as instructive for what it reveals about the

  5. What's wrong with the field of bio-neutron scattering? 1) Not enough professional science and not enough professional scientists

    E-print Network

    Doster, Wolfgang

    What's wrong with the field of bio-neutron scattering? 1) Not enough professional science a paper in this field. Anybody can do it! The most detailed analysis of bio-neutron scattering data up independent moment analysis of the neutron scattering spectrum. Up to today nobody, not even MD people, picked

  6. Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2014-10-16

    In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future. PMID:25319456

  7. THE WRONG, THE GOOD, AND THE BETTER BOOK REVIEW OF BOHM AND PEAT: SCIENCE, ORDER, AND CREATIVITY

    E-print Network

    Dürr, Detlef

    THE WRONG, THE GOOD, AND THE BETTER BOOK REVIEW OF BOHM AND PEAT: SCIENCE, ORDER, AND CREATIVITY to think that we do not. Reading the book by Bohm and Peat one is almost assured that we do not. I do part an encyclopedia of failures of science and society to be good. Bohm and Peat wish instead to lead

  8. What's Wrong With Fault Injection As A Benchmarking Tool? This paper attempts to solidify the technical issues

    E-print Network

    Koopman, Philip

    What's Wrong With Fault Injection As A Benchmarking Tool? Abstract This paper attempts to solidify the technical issues involved in the long-standing debate about the representativeness of fault injection as a tool for measuring the dependability of general-purpose software systems. While direct fault injection

  9. Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…

  10. Mindbombs of right and wrong: cycles of contention in the activist campaign to stop Canada's seal hunt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Dauvergne; Kate J. Neville

    2011-01-01

    Activists use emotional language and images – what Greenpeace co-founder Bob Hunter coined ‘mindbombs’ – to convince people that some actions are wrong, morally and environmentally. For instance, for over 50 years anti-sealing activists have employed mindbombs to transform seal pups into babies and seal hunters into barbarians. Although ‘image politics’ contributed to the decline of the Canadian sealing industry

  11. Trust, communication, theory of mind and the social brain hypothesis : Deep explanations for what goes wrong in health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Braithwaite; Rick A. Iedema; Christine Jorm

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to examine the deep conceptual underpinnings of trust and communication breakdowns via selected health inquiries into things that go wrong using evolutionary psychology. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper explains how this is carried out, and explores some of the adverse consequences for patient care. Evolutionary psychology provides a means of explaining important mental

  12. Increasing Understanding of Right and Wrong in Relation to Cheating through the Curriculum of High School English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouritzen, Gaye S.

    A practicum was designed to deal with the problem of cheating in a public alternative high school for at-risk students. Questionnaires completed by the teachers and the student body indicated that students had a deficiency in understanding and applying principles of accepted right and wrong to situations involving the possibility of cheating.…

  13. [Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) and justice tests in the Republic of China in the context of western knowledge].

    PubMed

    Long, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) has become the important criterion and authority of the criminal justice tests in the proceedings of case and judicatory judgment, since it was issued royally and officially in the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Xi yuan lu and its traditional tests was subjected to strong criticism after the introduction of modern science. Especially since the May 4(th) New Culture Movement, not only the theory in the Xi yuan lu had been met with incredulity and condemned sharply through western chemical tests by the intelligentsia, but also the traditional methods of justice tests based on the book was fully criticized. Though the Xi yuan lu has fallen down from the altar, the traditional methods in the book still were used in practice in China during 1930s--1940s because the scientific system of forensic medicine was not established yet. Xi yuan lu, though fallen yet not defeated, reveals its deep-rooted life. The modern fate of the Xi yuan lu was not only the direct result of different historical conversation in the different periods of modern time, but also a true picture of modern China. PMID:25579214

  14. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2008/01/02/the_wrong_choice_for_massachusetts/ The wrong choice for Massachusetts

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    Communities Act" - in most respects a good piece of legislation - provides incentives for coal gasification to a project extending the life of an 80-year-old coal plant with coal gasification that would not capture fuel, converting the plant's boiler to "plasma gasification" of coal. NRG and state officials have

  15. Wrong blood in tube - potential for serious outcomes: can it be prevented?

    PubMed

    Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B; Wood, Erica M; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    'Wrong blood in tube' (WBIT) errors, where the blood in the tube is not that of the patient identified on the label, may lead to catastrophic outcomes, such as death from ABO-incompatible red cell transfusion. Transfusion is a multistep, multidisciplinary process in which the human error rate has remained unchanged despite multiple interventions (education, training, competency testing and guidelines). The most effective interventions are probably the introduction of end-to-end electronic systems and a group-check sample for patients about to receive their first transfusion, but neither of these eradicates all errors. Further longer term studies are required with assessment before and after introduction of the intervention. Although most focus has been on WBIT in relation to blood transfusion, all pathology samples should be identified and linked to the correct patient with the same degree of care. Human factors education and training could help to increase awareness of human vulnerability to error, particularly in the medical setting where there are many risk factors. PMID:25284036

  16. Applying fault tree analysis to the prevention of wrong-site surgery.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, Zachary A; McElroy, Lisa M; Patel, Ronak M; Khorzad, Rebeca; Carroll, Charles; Mehrotra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Wrong-site surgery (WSS) is a rare event that occurs to hundreds of patients each year. Despite national implementation of the Universal Protocol over the past decade, development of effective interventions remains a challenge. We performed a systematic review of the literature reporting root causes of WSS and used the results to perform a fault tree analysis to assess the reliability of the system in preventing WSS and identifying high-priority targets for interventions aimed at reducing WSS. Process components where a single error could result in WSS were labeled with OR gates; process aspects reinforced by verification were labeled with AND gates. The overall redundancy of the system was evaluated based on prevalence of AND gates and OR gates. In total, 37 studies described risk factors for WSS. The fault tree contains 35 faults, most of which fall into five main categories. Despite the Universal Protocol mandating patient verification, surgical site signing, and a brief time-out, a large proportion of the process relies on human transcription and verification. Fault tree analysis provides a standardized perspective of errors or faults within the system of surgical scheduling and site confirmation. It can be adapted by institutions or specialties to lead to more targeted interventions to increase redundancy and reliability within the preoperative process. PMID:25277361

  17. Prolonging life: an Orthodox Christian perspective.

    PubMed

    Cozby, Dimitri

    1997-12-01

    While Orthodox Christianity does not find explicit statements about the morality of prolonging life in the usual doctrinal sources, the Scriptures and the Fathers of the Church, there are elements in Tradition which bear upon the issue. These include Orthodox spirituality's emphasis on the "wholeness" of the human person, its liturgical and synergistic view of human life, and its understanding of our moral ambiguity as fallen human beings in a fallen world. This last point, in particular, means that we do not usually have a clear choice between right and wrong, and that we cannot always trust ourselves to know which choice is the right, or even the better one. Therefore, we must always approach decisions about death and dying with humility and in a spirit of repentance, aware of the imperfection of all we do and trusting in the mercy of God. PMID:11655314

  18. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. PMID:26004454

  19. The Two-Wrongs model explains perception-action dissociations for illusions driven by distortions of the egocentric reference frame.

    PubMed

    Dassonville, Paul; Reed, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of illusion on perception and action, with perception generally reported to be susceptible to illusions, while actions are seemingly immune. These findings have been interpreted to support Milner and Goodale's Two Visual Systems model, which proposes the existence of separate visual processing streams for perception and action. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that this type of behavioral dissociation will occur for any illusion that is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame, without requiring the existence of separate perception and action systems that are differently affected by the illusion. In this scenario, movements aimed at illusory targets will be accurate if they are guided within the same distorted reference frame used for target encoding, since the error of motor guidance will cancel with the error of encoding (hence, for actions, two wrongs do make a right). We further test this Two-Wrongs model by examining two illusions for which the hypothesis makes very different predictions: the rod-and-frame illusion (which affects perception but not actions) and the simultaneous-tilt illusion (which affects perception and actions equally). We demonstrate that the rod-and-frame illusion is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame suitable for the cancellation of errors predicted by the Two-Wrongs model. In contrast, the simultaneous-tilt illusion is caused by local interactions between stimulus elements within an undistorted reference frame, precluding the cancellation of errors associated with the Two-Wrongs model such that the illusion is reflected in both perception and actions. These results provide evidence for a class of illusions that lead to dissociations of perception and action through distortions of the observer's spatial reference frame, rather than through the actions of functionally separate visual processing streams. PMID:25852523

  20. Real-Time Collision Avoidance against Wrong Drivers: Differential Game Approach, Numerical Solution and Synthesis of Strategies with Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lachner; M. h. Breitner; H. j. Pesch

    1996-01-01

    . Contemporary developments of on-board systems for automatic orsemi-automatic driving include car collision avoidance. For this purpose twoworst case approaches based on pursuit-evasion differential games are compared.On a freeway a correct driver (evader) is faced with a wrong driver (pursuer)ahead. The correct driver tries to avoid collision against all possible wrongdriver's maneuvers and additionally tries to stay on the freeway.

  1. What's Right/What's Wrong With This Picture?!?: A Watershed Academy 2000 Self-Test in Stream Corridor Restoration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This self-test consists of examining two photographs of sites along a stream partially damaged by flooding due to Hurricane Fran in 1996. One site underwent serious erosion, while the other site was changed, but remained relatively unharmed. The challenge is to click on those areas of each photo where something appears right or wrong in the stream bank repairs from a stream corridor restoration perspective. Answers are provided to find out whether other restoration practitioners agree.

  2. Would you like to know what is wrong with you? On telling the truth to patients with dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Marzanski

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To discover what dementia sufferers feel is wrong with them; what they have been told and by whom, and what they wish to know about their illness.Background—Ethical guidelines regarding telling truth appear to be equivocal. Declarations of cognitively intact subjects, attitudes of family members and current psychiatric practice all vary, but no previous research has been published concerning what patients

  3. The Two-Wrongs model explains perception-action dissociations for illusions driven by distortions of the egocentric reference frame

    PubMed Central

    Dassonville, Paul; Reed, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of illusion on perception and action, with perception generally reported to be susceptible to illusions, while actions are seemingly immune. These findings have been interpreted to support Milner and Goodale's Two Visual Systems model, which proposes the existence of separate visual processing streams for perception and action. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that this type of behavioral dissociation will occur for any illusion that is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame, without requiring the existence of separate perception and action systems that are differently affected by the illusion. In this scenario, movements aimed at illusory targets will be accurate if they are guided within the same distorted reference frame used for target encoding, since the error of motor guidance will cancel with the error of encoding (hence, for actions, two wrongs do make a right). We further test this Two-Wrongs model by examining two illusions for which the hypothesis makes very different predictions: the rod-and-frame illusion (which affects perception but not actions) and the simultaneous-tilt illusion (which affects perception and actions equally). We demonstrate that the rod-and-frame illusion is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame suitable for the cancellation of errors predicted by the Two-Wrongs model. In contrast, the simultaneous-tilt illusion is caused by local interactions between stimulus elements within an undistorted reference frame, precluding the cancellation of errors associated with the Two-Wrongs model such that the illusion is reflected in both perception and actions. These results provide evidence for a class of illusions that lead to dissociations of perception and action through distortions of the observer's spatial reference frame, rather than through the actions of functionally separate visual processing streams. PMID:25852523

  4. It's not WEIRD, it's WRONG: when researchers overlook uNderlying genotypes, they will not detect universal processes.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Lowell; Sedikides, Constantine; Cai, Huajian; Brown, Jonathon D

    2010-06-01

    We dispute Henrich et al.'s analysis of cultural differences at the level of a narrow behavioral-expression for assessing a universalist argument. When Researchers Overlook uNderlying Genotypes (WRONG), they fail to detect universal processes that generate observed differences in expression. We reify this position with our own cross-cultural research on self-enhancement and self-esteem. PMID:20546667

  5. Evolution, reproduction and definition of life.

    PubMed

    Chodasewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic theory of evolution is a superior integrative biological theory. Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that multiple attempts of defining life are based on this theory. One of them even has a status of NASA's working definition. According to this definition, 'life is a self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution' Luisi (Orig Life Evol Bios 28:613-622, 1998); Cleland, Chyba (Orig Life Evol Bios 32:387-393, 2002). This definition is often considered as one of the more theoretically mature definitions of life. This Darwinian definition has nonetheless provoked a lot of criticism. One of the major arguments claims that this definition is wrong due to 'mule's problem'. Mules (and other infertile hybrids), despite being obviously living organisms, in the light of this definition are considered inanimate objects. It is strongly counterintuitive. The aim of this article was to demonstrate that this reasoning is false. In the later part of the text, I also discuss some other arguments against the Darwinian approach to defining life. PMID:23674095

  6. Life Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention Families with Kids Alcohol and Drugs ... Resilience Satisfaction with Life Sexual Truama Sleep Spirituality Stigma Stress Work Adjustment Worry Videos Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  7. Automatic localization of vertebral levels in x-ray fluoroscopy using 3D-2D registration: a tool to reduce wrong-site surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Otake; S Schafer; J W Stayman; W Zbijewski; G Kleinszig; R Graumann; A J Khanna; J H Siewerdsen

    2012-01-01

    Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (wrong-level surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to the lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. The conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and

  8. Knowing Right From Wrong In Mental Arithmetic Judgments: Calibration Of Confidence Predicts The Development Of Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Rinne, Luke F.; Mazzocco, Michčle M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right—and when they are wrong—lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the “calibration” of mental arithmetic judgments—that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25+50?=?75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic “fluency” is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance. PMID:24988539

  9. What's wrong with executive compensation? A roundtable moderated by Charles Elson.

    PubMed

    Roiter, Eric; Clapman, Peter; Heard, Jamie; Bachelder, Joe; England, John; Lau, Greg; Woolard, Edgar S; Meyer, Pearl; Hall, Brian; Barnette, Hank; Batts, Warren; Veasey, E Norman

    2003-01-01

    The value that many superpaid CEO superstars supposedly created has largely disappeared, and the likelihood that it will be recovered anytime soon seems remote. On top of that, a good number of top executives treated their companies like ATMs, awarding themselves millions of dollars in corporate perks. It's hard to dispute the idea that executives were corrupted by the sums of money dangled in front of them. What's wrong with executive compensation, and what can we do about it? HBR and the University of Delaware's Center for Corporate Governance convened a round-table of compensation experts last October on the university's campus in Newark, Delaware. The 12 panelists, from CEOs to investors, from the professionals who advise them to a chief justice who rules on their disputes, provided an extraordinary diversity of viewpoints. The panelist began by debating ways to align the interests of the senior executives with the long-term interests of the company-weighing the relative benefits of stock options versus stock grants, for instance. But the discussion expanded to cover broader questions of corporate governance and company values. "The main reason compensation increases every year is that most boards want their CEO to be in the top half of the CEO peer group," said Ed Woolard,Jr., a former CEO of DuPont. And compensation lawyer Joe Bachelder pointed out the danger of structuring pay in such a way that it dampens risk taking among executives. It was a lively and wide-ranging discussion of one business's most pressing issues. PMID:12545924

  10. Life Science EthicsLife Science Ethics Dr. Kristen Hessler

    E-print Network

    Song, Joe

    · plus · Ethical claims · equals · Ethical conclusion #12;Ethical Argument ­ Example · Human cloning of adults. · Therefore, human cloning is morally wrong. Conclusion Premises #12;Evaluating Ethical Arguments · Human cloning produces exact physical replicas of adults. · It is ethically wrong to produce exact

  11. Identifying and reducing potentially wrong immunoassay results even when plausible and "not-unreasonable".

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2014-01-01

    The primary role of the clinical laboratory is to report accurate results for diagnosis of disease and management of illnesses. This goal has, to a large extent been achieved for routine biochemical tests, but not for immunoassays which remained susceptible to interference from endogenous immunoglobulin antibodies, causing false, and clinically misleading results. Clinicians regard all abnormal results including false ones as "pathological" necessitating further investigations, or concluding iniquitous diagnosis. Even more seriously, "false-negative" results may wrongly exclude pathology, thus denying patients' necessary treatment. Analytical error rate in immunoassays is relatively high, ranging from 0.4% to 4.0%. Because analytical interference from endogenous antibodies is confined to individuals' sera, it can be inconspicuous, pernicious, sporadic, and insidious because it cannot be detected by internal or external quality assessment procedures. An approach based on Bayesian reasoning can enhance the robustness of clinical validation in highlighting potentially erroneous immunoassay results. When this rational clinical/statistical approach is followed by analytical affirmative follow-up tests, it can help identifying inaccurate and clinically misleading immunoassay data even when they appear plausible and "not-unreasonable." This chapter is largely based on peer reviewed articles associated with and related to this approach. The first section underlines (without mathematical equations) the dominance and misuse of conventional statistics and the underuse of Bayesian paradigm and shows that laboratorians are intuitively (albeit unwittingly) practicing Bayesians. Secondly, because interference from endogenous antibodies is method's dependent (with numerous formats and different reagents), it is almost impossible to accurately assess its incidence in all differently formulated immunoassays and for each analytes/biomarkers. However, reiterating the basic concepts underpinning interference from endogenous antibodies can highlight why interference will remain analytically pernicious, sporadic, and an inveterate problem. The following section discuses various stratagems to reduce this source of inaccuracy in current immunoassay results including the role of Bayesian reasoning. Finally, the role of three commonly used follow-up affirmative tests and their interpretation in confirming analytical interference is discussed. PMID:25344990

  12. Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Langton

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

  13. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  14. Life Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A preK-4th grade level observational exercise for the classroom focusing on life stages of insects, as well as metamorphosis. Students are provided mealworms to rear, and are asked to observe several other insects to identify their life stages.

  15. 25/03/2011 22:31139 Co-authors Can't Be Wrong--And That's The Problem : Evolution for Everyone Page 1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Andy

    relate in my book Evolution for Everyone: How Darwin's Theory Can Change the Way We Think About Our Lives25/03/2011 22:31139 Co-authors Can't Be Wrong--And That's The Problem : Evolution for Everyone Page 1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Now on Science

  16. Discover Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The nonprofit organization Discover Life has combined forces with the National Park Service to conduct an "All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory" -- a comprehensive inventory of all life forms in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The 800-square-mile national park lies within the states of North Carolina and Tennessee and encompasses some of the richest biodiversity in the Temperate Zone. The Discover Life homepage provides background information on this ambitious initiative, including an internal search engine (for accessing additional resources on the Park's taxa and experts involved with the project), links to educational resources, status of the inventory, and much more.

  17. Sorry, wrong number: The use and misuse of numerical facts in analysis and media reporting of energy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, Jonathan G.; Calwell, Chris; Laitner, Skip; Thornton, Jane; Brown, Richard E.; Eto, Joseph H.; Webber, Carrie; Cullicott, Cathy

    2002-09-01

    Students of public policy sometimes envision an idealized policy process where competent data collection and incisive analysis on both sides of a debate lead to reasoned judgments and sound decisions. Unfortunately, numbers that prove decisive in policy debates are not always carefully developed, credibly documented, or correct. This paper presents four widely cited examples of numbers in the energy field that are either misleading or wrong. It explores the origins of these numbers, how they missed the mark, and how they have been misused by both analysts and the media. In addition, it describes and uses a three-stage analytical process for evaluating such statistics that involves defining terms and boundaries, assessing underlying data, and critically analyzing arguments.

  18. Life Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    For decades, many of the nation's life science classrooms have been anything but lively. Biology has been criticized for being content heavy, overloaded with vocabulary, and tested by rote. Six to seven hundred pages of text, presented to teenagers with limited abilities to reason, constituted what in most cases was the only required science in high schools. By contrast, the classroom of a life science teacher who is moving toward the Standards provides an exciting environment for inquiry and a core of content that is smaller but in greater depth than in the past. Topics are covered in more detail, coursework is integrated, and both teachers and students feel challenged. This free selection includes an inquiry-based, life science lesson and the Table of Contents.

  19. The "posture second" strategy: a review of wrong priorities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Bastiaan R; Grimbergen, Yvette A M; van Dijk, J Gert; Munneke, Marten

    2006-10-25

    Falls are common in Parkinson's disease. It remains difficult to predict these falls, presumably because clinical balance tests assess single components of postural control, whereas everyday fall mechanisms are typically more complicated. A substantial proportion of everyday falls appears to occur while Parkinson patients attempt to perform multiple tasks at the same time. Furthermore, little attention is generally paid to the possible contribution of cognitive impairments to falls. The importance of mental dysfunction is supported by the fact that cognitive loading while walking or balancing can lead to marked deteriorations in postural performance, and there is some evidence to suggest that such "dual tasking" is particularly difficult for elderly persons with dementia or depression. We examined what strategies Parkinson patients used when a basic walking task became increasingly challenging by adding additional tasks (both motor and cognitive). Most patients could perform a simple "dual task" test: simultaneously walking and answering simple questions. However, as the walking task became more complex, patients' performance began to deteriorate. Interestingly, this was reflected not only by failure to answer questions, but also by an increasing number of blocks in motor performance (walking and balancing). This behaviour was different from that of both young and elderly controls, who appeared to sacrifice performance on the cognitive task in order to optimise their gait and balance ("posture first" strategy). Preliminary evidence suggest that impaired multiple task performance is associated with a two-fold increased risk of sustaining falls in daily life. We conclude that Parkinson patients are less inclined than healthy persons to maintain a safe gait. Instead, Parkinson patients use a "posture second" strategy and treat all elements of a complex task with equal priority, which in daily life may go at the expense of maintaining balance and lead to falls. PMID:16806270

  20. Book Review: Error: On Our Predicament When Things Go Wrong Nicholas Rescher Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007 ISBN 9780822943271

    E-print Network

    Cyzyk, Mark

    Book Reviews 27 Error: On Our Predicament When Things Go Wrong Nicholas Rescher Pittsburgh, PA: University o f Pittsburgh Press, 2007 ISBN 9 7 8 0 8 2 2 9 4 3 2 7 1 Review by Mark Cyzyk, Johns Hopkins University This is a short, dense book...

  1. 5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement...Notify Employees § 839.301 What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or...Boyers, Pennsylvania 16017. You can also contact us by electronic...

  2. 5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement...Notify Employees § 839.301 What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or...Boyers, Pennsylvania 16017. You can also contact us by electronic...

  3. 5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement...Notify Employees § 839.301 What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or...Boyers, Pennsylvania 16017. You can also contact us by electronic...

  4. 5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement...Notify Employees § 839.301 What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or...Boyers, Pennsylvania 16017. You can also contact us by electronic...

  5. 5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement...Notify Employees § 839.301 What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or...Boyers, Pennsylvania 16017. You can also contact us by electronic...

  6. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan. PMID:14696586

  7. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  8. What Went Wrong (and Right) in my Research for Undergraduates Program this Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Geraghty Ward, E. M.; Berthelote, A. R.; Ito, E.; Myrbo, A.; Drake, C.; Howes, T.; Woods, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates Site on Sustainable Land and Water Resources (NSF GEO-055346) is a complicated affair (like many REUs) with research teams on site on two different Native American reservations (the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, and the Flathead Indian Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Montana), mentors from 2 universities and 2 reservations, and diverse participants from across the country. Students are diverse in ethnicity, academic majors, institution type, age, and life situation, with many nontraditional students as participants. While this all adds up to an interesting and exciting program, it is not without challenges. Herein the program directors discuss some of the particular challenges faced this summer, feedback the outside evaluation specialist received from participants and mentors, and ways the program's mentor team might respond in the future. This discussion will include a look at how systemic changes to an REU can lead to positive change, including a review of the recruiting and application process, communication between and among mentors and participants, the team structure of the REU, and supports in place to lead to participant success. Also included will be a discussion of how the relationship between the Native American reservations and the academic institutions was developed and how we continue to evolve based on annual feedback from all participants.

  9. The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized ‘external’ environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate ‘internal’ biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means. PMID:22915021

  10. Understanding Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding Life is the educational website of The Physiological Society, providing "support for the teaching and learning of physiology." A good place to start is the What is Physiology? area, which offers an overview of this field of human inquiry. The Resources area is a well-designed archive of instructional materials that include "The story of a single heartbeat," "The Science of Life," and "Planning an experiment." It's worth noting that visitors can create their own accounts on the site so they can receive specialized newsletters, tailored website content, and become eligible to enter scientific competitions. Moving along, the Events area lists important goings-on that will be of interest to educators and those involved with science pedagogy. [KMG

  11. Personalization of health care in England: have the wrong lessons been drawn from the personal health budget pilots?

    PubMed

    Slasberg, Colin; Watson, Nick; Beresford, Peter; Schofield, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The Government has introduced personal health budgets in England's National Health Service (NHS). A three-year programme of pilots has shown that personal health budgets have improved outcomes and are generally cost-effective. They are seen as a key step toward creating a personalized service. However, the Government is attributing the success of the pilots to entirely the wrong factors. It believes that a process similar to the one introduced in social care - where it is called self-directed support - based on the person being given a sum of money 'up-front' with which to plan their own care - is responsible for the better outcomes. However, this is not supported by the evidence from the pilots which points to quite different factors being at play. The consequences are potentially very serious. The success of the pilots will not be repeated in roll out. Further, there is the potential to greatly weaken the service by creating confused process and practice, and additional dysfunctional bureaucracy. The practice and process implications from a correct reading of the reasons for success within the pilots centre on replacing the consumerist concepts underpinning self-directed support with what we have called 'flexibility through partnership'. This will require freeing up the resource base as cash and creating a policy framework to enable decisions about how much resource each person should get within a cash-limited budget that will almost certainly be less than would be required to meet all assessed need. PMID:24700211

  12. From Sakata model to Goldberg-Ne'eman quarks and Nambu QCD phenomenology and "right" and "wrong" experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H. J.; High Energy Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Science; Tel Aviv Univ /

    2007-01-01

    The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A 'good' experiment on {bar p}p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A 'bad' experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the of the {Xi} and {Omega}{sup -}. More 'good' experiments revealed the existence and mass of the {Xi}* and the {Omega}{sup -} and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the 'tenfold way'. Further 'good experiments' revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the {phi} {yields} {rho} {pi} decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the {Delta}{sup ++} and {Omega}{sup -} contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book 'Lie Groups for Pedestrians' used the Sakata model with the name 'sakaton' for the {Lambda} triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's.

  13. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gregory K

    2002-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for the year. Highlights of animal studies were the first long-term flight of an animal enclosure module and an avian development facility on STS-108. Plant research efforts focused on a biomass production system for eventual use on the International Space Station (ISS), the PESTO experiment on ISS, and screening of several salad crop varieties for potential use in space. Health-related studies included the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) on the Mars Odyssey mission, presentation of results from NASA's Biomolecular Physics and Chemistry Program, and research related to human liver cell function in space through an agreement with StelSys. In industry and academia, a memorandum of understanding was signed between NASA and the biotechnology industry to enhance communication between NASA and the industry, expand commercial biotechnology space research and development, and expand formal and informal education of industry and the public regarding biotechnology and space research. NASA selected Purdue University to lead an NSCORT for advanced life support research to develop technologies to enable long-duration planetary mission and sustain human space colonies. PMID:12506925

  14. A buckling region in locust hindlegs contains resilin and absorbs energy when jumping or kicking goes wrong.

    PubMed

    Bayley, T G; Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

    2012-04-01

    If a hindleg of a locust slips during jumping, or misses its target during kicking, energy generated by the two extensor tibiae muscles is no longer expended in raising the body or striking a target. How, then, is the energy in a jump (4100-4800 ?J) or kick (1700 ?J) dissipated? A specialised buckling region found in the proximal hind-tibia where the bending moment is high, but not present in the other legs, buckled and allowed the distal part of the tibia to extend. In jumps when a hindleg slipped, it bent by a mean of 23±14 deg at a velocity of 13.4±9.5 deg ms(-1); in kicks that failed to contact a target it bent by 32±16 deg at a velocity of 32.9±9.5 deg ms(-1). It also buckled 8.5±4.0 deg at a rate of 0.063±0.005 deg ms(-1) when the tibia was prevented from flexing fully about the femur in preparation for both these movements. By experimentally buckling this region through 40 deg at velocities of 0.001-0.65 deg ms(-1), we showed that one hindleg could store about 870 ?J on bending, of which 210 ?J was dissipated back to the leg on release. A band of blue fluorescence was revealed at the buckling region under UV illumination that had the two key signatures of the elastic protein resilin. A group of campaniform sensilla 300 ?m proximal to the buckling region responded to imposed buckling movements. The features of the buckling region show that it can act as a shock absorber as proposed previously when jumping and kicking movements go wrong. PMID:22399660

  15. Navigating life.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Neal J

    2015-06-01

    The discoveries of "place cells" in the hippocampus and "grid cells" in the entorhinal cortex are landmark achievements in relating behavior to neural activity, permitting analysis of a powerful system for spatial representation in the brain. The contributions of this work include not only the empirical findings but also the approach this work pioneered of examining neural activity in complex behaviors with real ecological validity in freely moving animals, and of attempting to place the findings in the larger context of how the neural representations of space are used in service of real-world behavior, namely what the Nobel committee described as permitting us to "navigate our way through a complex environment." These discoveries and approaches have had far-ranging impact on and implications for work in human cognitive neuroscience, where we see (1) confirmation in humans that the hippocampus and overlying MTL cortex are critically engaged in supporting a relational representation of space, and that it can be used for flexible spatial navigation and (2) evidence that these regions are also critically involved in aspects of relational memory not limited to space, and in the flexible use of hippocampal memory extending beyond spatial navigation. Recent work, using tasks that emphasize the requirement for the active use of memory in online processing, just as spatial navigation has long placed such a requirement on rodents, suggests that the hippocampus and related MTL cortex can support the navigating of environments even more complex than what is needed in spatial navigation. It allows us to use memory in guiding upcoming actions and choices to act optimally in and on the world, permitting us to navigate life in all its beautiful complexity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25787273

  16. What's wrong with pain? 

    E-print Network

    Shriver, Adam Joseph

    2006-10-30

    achieve the goal. So if Jane was considering whether to steal a book from the library, we could use the following description to generate a maxim: Jane?s goal is to get a textbook for her course without having to pay, 7 her circumstances... are that she is in the university library and knows that she can easily escape with the textbook, and her action would be to steal the book. It can be easily argued that Jane?s maxim is not universalizable. By imagining a world in which everyone acted...

  17. 1 -Sequence Polydispersed, wrong

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    3 -Expression conditions and 4 - Small-scale production Mono- dispersed 2-Cloning 3 2 1 3 2 1 Soluble 6 - Scale-up 5 4 6 #12;Sequence: a) Gene ID from a known database (PubMed tools, etc.) b) Domain removal f) Full translated region, DNA and AA sequences Cloning a) Vector name either commercial or from

  18. How Things Went Wrong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Rupnik

    2012-01-01

    Students of the Central and Eastern Europe long saw Hungary as a leading post-1989 “success story”—both because the country’s exit from communism was smoothly negotiated and because it appeared to have consolidated its democracy so quickly. Yet the “electoral revolution” unleashed by Viktor Orban’s Fidesz party following its April 2010 parliamentary-election victory—including the adoption of a new constitution and passage

  19. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  20. Catching the Wrong Spedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Lam, Keira

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that overall seafood consumption in the United States is rising (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2012). Other research estimates that as much as 40% of the seafood caught worldwide is discarded, while countless sharks, whales, dolphins, birds, sea turtles, and other animals are unintentionally killed or injured by fishing gear…

  1. What's Wrong with CBE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, K. Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Problems in the definition of competency-based education are discussed. Theory and examples are cited in three areas: limited range of competencies, emphasis on knowledge rather than use, and lack of requirements for a phrasebook approach. (Contains four references.) (LB)

  2. What's wrong with pain?

    E-print Network

    Shriver, Adam Joseph

    2006-10-30

    The experience of pain is something that most people are extremely familiar with. However, once we begin to examine the subject from an ethical point of view, and particularly when we examine so-called marginal cases such as nonhuman animals, we...

  3. Whoops! Wrong Flag

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2012-09-05

    not help at all. Before the teams took to the field, the national flags were displayed on the jumbotron. Pretty standard. Except, ooops, they showed the South Korean flag instead of the North Korean flag. The North Korean team was understandably upset...

  4. Where Bell Went Wrong

    SciTech Connect

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-03-10

    It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.

  5. Daily Life with Glaucoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit your life. You ...

  6. The rights and wrongs of blood-brain barrier permeability studies: a walk through 100 years of history.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Norman R; Dreifuss, Jean-Jacques; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Johansson, Pia A; Habgood, Mark D; Mřllgĺrd, Kjeld; Bauer, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Careful examination of relevant literature shows that many of the most cherished concepts of the blood-brain barrier are incorrect. These include an almost mythological belief in its immaturity that is unfortunately often equated with absence or at least leakiness in the embryo and fetus. The original concept of a blood-brain barrier is often attributed to Ehrlich; however, he did not accept that permeability of cerebral vessels was different from other organs. Goldmann is often credited with the first experiments showing dye (trypan blue) exclusion from the brain when injected systemically, but not when injected directly into it. Rarely cited are earlier experiments of Bouffard and of Franke who showed methylene blue and trypan red stained all tissues except the brain. The term "blood-brain barrier" "Blut-Hirnschranke" is often attributed to Lewandowsky, but it does not appear in his papers. The first person to use this term seems to be Stern in the early 1920s. Studies in embryos by Stern and colleagues, Weed and Wislocki showed results similar to those in adult animals. These were well-conducted experiments made a century ago, thus the persistence of a belief in barrier immaturity is puzzling. As discussed in this review, evidence for this belief, is of poor experimental quality, often misinterpreted and often not properly cited. The functional state of blood-brain barrier mechanisms in the fetus is an important biological phenomenon with implications for normal brain development. It is also important for clinicians to have proper evidence on which to advise pregnant women who may need to take medications for serious medical conditions. Beliefs in immaturity of the blood-brain barrier have held the field back for decades. Their history illustrates the importance of taking account of all the evidence and assessing its quality, rather than selecting papers that supports a preconceived notion or intuitive belief. This review attempts to right the wrongs. Based on careful translation of original papers, some published a century ago, as well as providing discussion of studies claiming to show barrier immaturity, we hope that readers will have evidence on which to base their own conclusions. PMID:25565938

  7. The rights and wrongs of blood-brain barrier permeability studies: a walk through 100 years of history

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dreifuss, Jean-Jacques; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Johansson, Pia A.; Habgood, Mark D.; Mřllgĺrd, Kjeld; Bauer, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Careful examination of relevant literature shows that many of the most cherished concepts of the blood-brain barrier are incorrect. These include an almost mythological belief in its immaturity that is unfortunately often equated with absence or at least leakiness in the embryo and fetus. The original concept of a blood-brain barrier is often attributed to Ehrlich; however, he did not accept that permeability of cerebral vessels was different from other organs. Goldmann is often credited with the first experiments showing dye (trypan blue) exclusion from the brain when injected systemically, but not when injected directly into it. Rarely cited are earlier experiments of Bouffard and of Franke who showed methylene blue and trypan red stained all tissues except the brain. The term “blood-brain barrier” “Blut-Hirnschranke” is often attributed to Lewandowsky, but it does not appear in his papers. The first person to use this term seems to be Stern in the early 1920s. Studies in embryos by Stern and colleagues, Weed and Wislocki showed results similar to those in adult animals. These were well-conducted experiments made a century ago, thus the persistence of a belief in barrier immaturity is puzzling. As discussed in this review, evidence for this belief, is of poor experimental quality, often misinterpreted and often not properly cited. The functional state of blood-brain barrier mechanisms in the fetus is an important biological phenomenon with implications for normal brain development. It is also important for clinicians to have proper evidence on which to advise pregnant women who may need to take medications for serious medical conditions. Beliefs in immaturity of the blood-brain barrier have held the field back for decades. Their history illustrates the importance of taking account of all the evidence and assessing its quality, rather than selecting papers that supports a preconceived notion or intuitive belief. This review attempts to right the wrongs. Based on careful translation of original papers, some published a century ago, as well as providing discussion of studies claiming to show barrier immaturity, we hope that readers will have evidence on which to base their own conclusions. PMID:25565938

  8. 2009 2010 Student Life

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    GREEK LIFE Brochure 2009 ­ 2010 Student Life #12;2 Table of Contents · Carnegie Mellon University considering. An option that will change your life forever. "Going Greek" is more than simply joining an after-school club. Fraternities and sororities are about creating life-long friendships rich with heritage and bound

  9. Technological Forms of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Lash

    2001-01-01

    E THINK so naturally in terms of the notion of 'forms of life', that it is difficult to obtain any distance on the notion. Ludwig Wittgen- stein made the concept of 'forms of life' rather common currency across a range of scholarly disciplines. Indeed, in academic talk and everyday talk we speak incessantly of life and forms of life. We

  10. Well for life: a way of life.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Wendi A; Thompson, Catherine E; McKenzie, Rosemary A; Naccarella, Lucio

    2007-10-01

    Well for Life is an innovative public program in Victoria, Australia that focuses on improving nutrition and increasing physical activity to promote healthy aging. For more than 4 years Aged Care has funded projects for frail older people who live in Public Sector Residential Aged Care (PSRAC) facilities or attend Home and Community Care (HACC) Planned Activity Groups (PAGs). Many stereotypes exist around what frail older people can or cannot do. Well for Life challenges many of these through organizational culture and policy change and workforce development. A person-centered approach to care is adopted that emphasizes improving participants' activities of daily living and encouraging exercise and involvement. An external provider used a participatory evaluation approach to support the first phase of Well for Life. This approach enabled funded agencies to plan, implement, and monitor progress in their projects and assist them to embed Well for Life into policy and practice. The evaluation not only revealed insight into the delivery and adoption of Well for Life, but also assisted management and staff to make Well for Life a reality. Many PSRAC residents and PAG participants have reported significant gains from their involvement in Well for Life. These achievements reflect staff enthusiasm and organizational commitment to Well for Life principles. Evidence supports the benefit of improved nutrition and physical activity for people of any age and Well for Life is adding to the evidence-base for frail older people. PMID:17986594

  11. Propranolol and the Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Is it Wrong to Erase the “Sting” of Bad Memories?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Henry; Jennifer R. Fishman; Stuart J. Youngner

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (Bethesda, MD) reports that approximately 5.2 million Americans experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) each year. PTSD can be severely debilitating and diminish quality of life for patients and those who care for them. Studies have indicated that propranolol, a beta-blocker, reduces consolidation of emotional memory. When administered immediately after a psychic trauma, it is

  12. Automatic Localization of Vertebral Levels in X-Ray Fluoroscopy Using 3D-2D Registration: A Tool to Reduce Wrong-Site Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (“wrong-level” surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to a lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. Conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error, and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and visualization system (referred to as LevelCheck), for decision support in spine surgery by automatically labeling vertebral levels in fluoroscopy using a GPU-accelerated, intensity-based 3D-2D (viz., CT-to-fluoroscopy) registration. A gradient information (GI) similarity metric and CMA-ES optimizer were chosen due to their robustness and inherent suitability for parallelization. Simulation studies involved 10 patient CT datasets from which 50,000 simulated fluoroscopic images were generated from C-arm poses selected to approximate C-arm operator and positioning variability. Physical experiments used an anthropomorphic chest phantom imaged under real fluoroscopy. The registration accuracy was evaluated as the mean projection distance (mPD) between the estimated and true center of vertebral levels. Trials were defined as successful if the estimated position was within the projection of the vertebral body (viz., mPD < 5mm). Simulation studies showed a success rate of 99.998% (1 failure in 50,000 trials) and computation time of 4.7 sec on a midrange GPU. Analysis of failure modes identified cases of false local optima in the search space arising from longitudinal periodicity in vertebral structures. Physical experiments demonstrated robustness of the algorithm against quantum noise and x-ray scatter. The ability to automatically localize target anatomy in fluoroscopy in near-real-time could be valuable in reducing the occurrence of wrong-site surgery while helping to reduce radiation exposure. The method is applicable beyond the specific case of vertebral labeling, since any structure defined in pre-operative (or intra-operative) CT or cone-beam CT can be automatically registered to the fluoroscopic scene. PMID:22864366

  13. Automatic localization of vertebral levels in x-ray fluoroscopy using 3D-2D registration: a tool to reduce wrong-site surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (wrong-level surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to the lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. The conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and visualization system (referred to as LevelCheck), for decision support in spine surgery by automatically labeling vertebral levels in fluoroscopy using a GPU-accelerated, intensity-based 3D-2D (namely CT-to-fluoroscopy) registration. A gradient information (GI) similarity metric and a CMA-ES optimizer were chosen due to their robustness and inherent suitability for parallelization. Simulation studies involved ten patient CT datasets from which 50?000 simulated fluoroscopic images were generated from C-arm poses selected to approximate the C-arm operator and positioning variability. Physical experiments used an anthropomorphic chest phantom imaged under real fluoroscopy. The registration accuracy was evaluated as the mean projection distance (mPD) between the estimated and true center of vertebral levels. Trials were defined as successful if the estimated position was within the projection of the vertebral body (namely mPD <5 mm). Simulation studies showed a success rate of 99.998% (1 failure in 50?000 trials) and computation time of 4.7 s on a midrange GPU. Analysis of failure modes identified cases of false local optima in the search space arising from longitudinal periodicity in vertebral structures. Physical experiments demonstrated the robustness of the algorithm against quantum noise and x-ray scatter. The ability to automatically localize target anatomy in fluoroscopy in near-real-time could be valuable in reducing the occurrence of wrong-site surgery while helping to reduce radiation exposure. The method is applicable beyond the specific case of vertebral labeling, since any structure defined in pre-operative (or intra-operative) CT or cone-beam CT can be automatically registered to the fluoroscopic scene.

  14. Managing Daily Life

    MedlinePLUS

    Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  15. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIV life cycle. What is the connection between HIV medicines and the HIV life cycle? Without treatment, HIV infection gradually destroys ... the risk of HIV drug resistance . What is HIV drug resistance? Drug resistance is when HIV is ...

  16. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  17. Active England `Park Life'

    E-print Network

    Active England `Park Life' ­ Greenwood Community Forest Liz O'Brien and Jake Morris Social Life: Design and implementation 6 3. Results: on site surveying and project monitoring 9 3 funded project, `Park Life', within Greenwood Community Forest (hereafter `Greenwood'), and the results

  18. SORORITY LIFE SOCIAL EVENTS

    E-print Network

    Hone, James

    & FRATERNITY SORORITY LIFE SOCIAL EVENTS HANDBOOK 2013 OFFICE OF RESIDENTIAL PROGRAMS FRATERNITY & SORORITY LIFE AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT www.columbiagreeks.info #12;Social Events- 2 Table of Contents & Sorority Life General Information Regarding BVL National Panhellenic Conference-Alcohol Resolution REQUIRED

  19. Open source life project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Cerny; Diane Figueredo; Chris Keating; Joey Lindsey; Flo McGarrell; Daniel Romano

    2003-01-01

    The experimental new media group - Nomads & Homesteaders explore biotechnology, artificial life systems and simulation through, the Open Source Life (OSL) project.OSL participants create artificially intelligent plants, designed to adapt to life in a changing environment. Once created, the virtual plant's survival is the responsibility of its \\

  20. Artificial Life and Piaget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenico Parisi; Matthew Schlesinger

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Life is the study of all phenomena of the living world through their reproduction in artificial systems. We argue that Artificial Life models of evolution and development offer a new set of theoretical and methodological tools for investigating Piaget’s ideas. The concept of an Artificial Life Neural Network (ALNN) is first introduced, and contrasted with the study of other

  1. Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life Melanie Mitchell Santa Fe Institute 1660 Old Pecos Tr­11­072 Revised December 15, 1993 To appear in Artificial Life Abstract Genetic algorithms are computational and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, using illustrative examples in which

  2. Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Melanie

    Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life Melanie Mitchell Santa Fe Institute 1660 Old Pecos Tr artificial-life models. We review the history and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, using illustrative examples in which the genetic algorithm is used to study how learning

  3. Life in Extreme Environments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Astrobiology Web publishes this list of links about life in extreme environments. Subjects include general information, genomic resources, thermophilic life, endolithic organisms, bacteria in amber, dry (xerophytic) organisms, radiation tolerance, deep and dark dwelling organisms, life at varied pressures, halophilic organisms, research agencies, the domain Archaea, deep ocean thermal vents, and recommended books. The site features an internal search engine.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Carl Sagan: A Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeways, Robin

    2000-01-01

    This is a quite remarkable book. If you want a quick and sketchy evening's read about your favourite popular scientist then this is not for you! On the other hand, if you want a detailed, fascinating and exhaustively researched story about a very special person, then read it. The author has produced a painstaking picture of Sagan. The main text consists of 430 pages of stories, anecdotes, quotations etc, which lead us through the complex life of a very complex man. This is backed up with a further 70 pages of detailed references followed by a 19 page bibliography. We learn about Sagan from his early days, when he was a somewhat precocious schoolboy, right up to his final days when he was in poor health yet still turning out books at a great rate. Like many people, I knew of him but not very much about him before I read this book. He was a man of giant energy who attempted to combine the life of a working research scientist with that of a great popularizer as well as extending his tentacles into various aspects of (scientific) government policy. Even in his early days his one aim in life seemed to be that of furthering his own career by getting to know as many well-known scientists as possible. He had fingers in many pies - academic, something mysterious and military related, book writing, popular science on TV etc, etc. He was particularly concerned with the space programme, especially the planetary probes and the Voyager vehicles which took messages from Earth to outer space. We get the impression from the book that he was especially obsessed with extraterrestrial life and was desperate to confirm its existence. He was instrumental in keeping the SETI programme going even though it eventually had to go private. We learn that he was not a good family man and work usually took precedence over domestic issues. As a result his private life seems to have been as complicated as his professional life. He was a man whose mind went in several directions at once and he was criticized at times for not following through his ideas. Perhaps he saw himself as the ideas man and preferred to leave the details to somebody else. Sometimes his ideas were wildly wrong, which is, perhaps, not surprising when working at the frontiers of science. One thing that surprised me was a suggestion by the author that his book The Dragons of Eden was `obviously written under the inspiration of marijuana'! It is easy and very tempting to criticize someone like Sagan after reading this book, which catalogues his many faults along with his many strengths. However, very few of us could attempt to accomplish even a tenth of what he accomplished in his lifetime. He had a health problem all through his life but nonetheless overcame all his personal and interpersonal problems to become the man that we all know, someone who made science, and especially astronomy, live for vast numbers of ordinary people. He aroused critical passions in many but, as Keay says, `In my years of research, I met not one person - not one - who knew Sagan closely and who strongly disliked him'. The book is an excellent read and gives a fascinating picture not only of the man but of science politics in the USA at the time.

  5. Compliance with a time-out procedure intended to prevent wrong surgery in hospitals: results of a national patient safety programme in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Schoten, Steffie M; Kop, Veerle; de Blok, Carolien; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter P; Wagner, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prevent wrong surgery, the WHO ‘Safe Surgery Checklist’ was introduced in 2008. The checklist comprises a time-out procedure (TOP): the final step before the start of the surgical procedure where the patient, surgical procedure and side/site are reviewed by the surgical team. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which hospitals carry out the TOP before anaesthesia in the operating room, whether compliance has changed over time, and to determine factors that are associated with compliance. Design Evaluation study involving observations. Setting Operating rooms of 2 academic, 4 teaching and 12 general Dutch hospitals. Participants A random selection was made from all adult patients scheduled for elective surgery on the day of the observation, preferably involving different surgeons and different procedures. Results Mean compliance with the TOP was 71.3%. Large differences between hospitals were observed. No linear trend was found in compliance during the study period. Compliance at general and teaching hospitals was higher than at academic hospitals. Compliance decreased with the age of the patient, general surgery showed lower compliance in comparison with other specialties and compliance was higher when the team was focused on the TOP. Conclusions Large differences in compliance with the TOP were observed between participating hospitals which can be attributed at least in part to the type of hospital, surgical specialty and patient characteristics. Hospitals do not comply consistently with national guidelines to prevent wrong surgery and further implementation as well as further research into non-compliance is needed. PMID:24993761

  6. Life in Icy Places

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson about the field of astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, and ice as a preservative for evidence of life. Learners will consider the relationship between ice and life as they investigate the conditions required for life to exist and sustain itself. They will study the impact of freezing on microbes and life processes and will learn about extremophiles, organisms that live in extreme conditions. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 8 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

  7. Stability of titanium oxide phases in Kohn-Sham density functional A well known problem in practical Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) calculations is that it yields the wrong order of

    E-print Network

    Bjřrnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Stability of titanium oxide phases in Kohn-Sham density functional theory A well known problem in practical Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) calculations is that it yields the wrong order-DFT, but with different levels of corrections to the exchange-correlation functional. Kohn-Sham density functional theory

  8. RealLife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivato, Marcus

    Let ?D be D-dimensional Euclidean space, and let . A 'Euclidean automaton' is a shift-commuting transformation of determined by a local rule, analogous to a cellular automaton (CA). In her study of 'Larger than Life' (LtL) CA, Evans conjectured that, as their radius grows to infinity, LtL CA converge to a 'continuum limit' Euclidean automaton. We prove Evan's conjecture, and name this family of Euclidean automata 'RealLife'. We also show that the 'life forms' (fixed points, periodic orbits, and propagating structures) of LtL CA converge to life forms of RealLife. We next prove a number of existence results for fixed points of RealLife. Finally, we turn to a more qualitative discussion of the biology of the 'bugs' which seem ubiquitous in LtL and RealLife.

  9. Life in the Universe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Feinberg; John Billingham

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of extra-terrestrial life and intelligence is examined. It is found that the scientific case for extra-terrestrial intelligence is very weak; theological considerations render it improbable, but not def i- nitely impossible. The case against more primitive extra-terrestrial life is much weaker. . Is the earth the only cradle of life in the physical universe? Is man alone? Or

  10. Life Cycle of Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Johnson

    2011-04-07

    What is the life cycle of plants? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice Plants , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the Plant Life Cycle Video and fill out the Plant Life Cycle Organizer . ...

  11. Butterfly Life Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie

    2009-10-22

    In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY??? Subject: Science, Grade level:3rd and 4th Grade. Objective# 5-Describing life cycles of various animals to include incomplete and complete metamorphosis. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and ...

  12. Ingredients for Life: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-21

    Earth provides a comfortable and temperate environment for a wide variety of living organisms. However, in the past few decades, scientists have discovered unusual life forms thriving in areas where the majority of living things on Earth could never survive, such as near deep sea vents, in dry deserts, or on frozen ice sheets. This video segment explores life forms that survive in extreme conditions on Earth, the importance of liquid water to life, and the possibilities of life elsewhere in the solar system. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

  13. Chemistry in Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andrew SID; Bradley, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students. PMID:19852781

  14. Social identity and stroke: 'they don't make me feel like, there's something wrong with me'.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon; Whitfield, Kyle

    2013-12-01

    Over 85% of the people survive stroke; and of those, over 80% are discharged to the community. However, the majority do not recover completely. Loss of identity is a commonly reported experience after stroke. Studies focus on the individual survivors' use of their own cognitive resources to adapt to change, rather than examining the effects of social interactions on stroke survivors' identities. Social relationships are the foundation upon which survivors rebuild skills to engage with the world, yet little is known about the ways in which families, friends and neighbours provide a context for the recreation of a sense of self and activities after stroke. This article draws on situational analysis grounded theory analysis of in-depth individual interviews with nine middle-aged survivors of stroke. In situational analysis, the original grounded theory methods proposed by Glaser and Strauss are used; however, the situational context, and how environments and relationships influence actions, is explicitly analysed. Our objective was to understand the ways in which family, social, and community resources might enhance stroke survivors' participation in personally meaningful activities over the long term. The qualitative accounts of these survivors reveal how social support helped them maintain or more importantly regain a position in society. Following any life-changing event, people's sense of self is fluid. A relevant social position entitles stroke survivors to become actively involved in setting their own goals and maintaining a positive identity. However, as these participants attested, stroke impaired their social position and resources to reject an imposed social position. It was difficult for these survivors to construct a valued social identity without the support of other people. Future studies should explore the consequences of social interactions with others and how social attitudes about stroke disability affects individual's activity options, professional practice, and ultimately development of a positive poststroke identity. PMID:23121474

  15. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  16. Family Life Cycle: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Arthur J.

    1983-01-01

    Used data from a 1980 national sample survey to show differences in the timing of major family life-cycle events according to age, social and economic characteristics, and marital history. Results suggest that age generational differences, more than any other factor, influence timing of life-cycle events. (Author/JAC)

  17. Life of Teenage Hemophiliacs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Giersdorf

    The life period of teenagers is characterized by rebellion, further development of identity, gradual detachment from parents,\\u000a and as a consequence steps in more independence and self responsibility. The life of a young hemophiliac has the additional\\u000a burden of chronic disease.

  18. Composing a Research Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In this article about her early career development and the experiences that shaped her life as a scholar and researcher, the author describes the work lives of university-based teacher educators and what it means to compose a research life in this field. This article draws on the author's 30 years as a university-based teacher educator. In it, she…

  19. Why did life emerge?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arto Annila; Erkki Annila

    2008-01-01

    Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each

  20. University Campus Life Programs

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    University Campus Life Programs University Recognized Student Groups Non-recognized Student of Student Life Tax and Legal Compliance Reporting handled through University. Reporting handled through University. Organization is taxable unless it has formally applied to the IRS for tax-exempt status. All

  1. Empiricism in Articial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Silverman; Seth Bullock

    Strong articial life research is often thought to rely on Alife systems as sources of novel empirical data. It is hoped that by augmenting our observations of natural life, this novel data can help settle empirical questions, and thereby separate fun- damental properties of living systems from those aspects that are merely contingent on the idiosyncrasies of terrestrial evo- lution.

  2. What life? What cycle?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Zvegintzov; Staten Island

    1982-01-01

    The traditional system life cycle model does not portray the life of a system, nor is it a cycle. An alternative model is described that portrays the modification cycle of the system and the detailed activities of making a change. Implications are drawn for maintenance, development, and the education of software engineers.

  3. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  4. Is life unique?

    PubMed

    Abel, David L

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity-heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature's orderliness-cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  5. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  6. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  7. BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY

    E-print Network

    is due to an illness Terminally ill is defined as being diagnosed with a life expectancy of six months- 42 - BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY Maximum Benefits The amount of life and receives a lower salary during the time of the sabbatical, the life insurance benefit will be calculated

  8. BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY

    E-print Network

    is due to an illness Terminally ill is defined as being diagnosed with a life expectancy of six months- 35 - BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY Maximum Benefits The amount of life loss due to accidental death or dismemberment, Anthem Life will pay the amount of insurance specified

  9. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

  10. Origin of Life

    E-print Network

    Ashwini Kumar Lal

    2012-01-16

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA World, Iron-sulphur World, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  11. Origin of Life

    E-print Network

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, astrophysics and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA(ribonucleic acid) world, iron-sulphur world, panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kickstarting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  12. Life on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These events are known as extinctions or ice ages. The crust of a planet of the Earth group is formed at the outer edge of the body. The planets after asteroid belt like Jupiter or Saturn probably form their “crusts” in the centre of the body. Due to we may see internal kitchen of element forming in detail. This processes lead to the organic life, which we may detect at the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto. But their satellites look like earth planet group - with outer crust. Huygens considered that God's wisdom and providence is clearest in the creation of life, and Earth holds no privileged position in the heavens that life must be universal. “Huygens” helps find life on Titan

  13. Department of Physics Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    ?umer, Slobodan

    different natural and social sciences. It is a discipline that studies life and life-like behaviours: growth (Soft ALife) creates digital constructions and simulations that exhibit life-like behaviours. 1 The most of life-like systems. Examples of hardware based artificial life are autonomous robots. In this seminar we

  14. Life in Egypt!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Pendleton

    2011-04-07

    What is the difference between life in the United States and life in Egypt? Use this fact chart to record your findings! Where is Egypt? Sightseeing in Egypt Use this time to record your findings in the "places" section of your fact chart and complete any other section you can with the information you have learned! Facts about Egypt Language (with audio) A Day in the Life Use this time to record your findings in the "people" section of your fact chart and complete ...

  15. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  16. Life on moduli space?

    E-print Network

    Stephen D. H. Hsu

    2009-10-15

    While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space -- i.e., in low energy effective theories with 1. exact supersymmetry and 2. some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

  17. Every sign of life

    E-print Network

    Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

  18. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  19. Life on Mars?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Life on Mars? is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about a discussion of what life is, its characteristics, a summary of the search for life on Mars, a description of life that survives in harsh environments, and a look at Mars in the past. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  20. Life Beneath the Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Berkeley Lab

    Site discusses life in Columbia River Plateau basalts near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and how it is related to microbial clean up of human wastes. This site also includes a links to the continued article.

  1. Life on Mars Revisited

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Payne, Laura X.

    1998-01-01

    When NASA researchers from the Johnson Space Center and Stanford University announced they had found combined evidence in 1996 "that strongly suggests primitive life may have existed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago," scientists buzzed with excitement at the possibility of life on Mars. Two weeks ago, the discovery of rock-eating microbes one mile beneath the ocean floor (published in the August 14, 1998 issue of Science) seemed to make that possibility more likely. But last week, new evidence based on geochemical models was discovered that indicates that, while basic geological conditions on Mars may meet life's minimal requirements, the biological potential of the red planet seems unlikely. The nine resources listed provide background information, specifics, and commentary on the hunt for Life on Mars.

  2. Life of a Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-09

    In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

  3. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  4. Life on moduli space?

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Stephen D. H. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

  5. End of Life Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Life Considerations There are situations that ill older adults may find themselves in at the end of ... not effective for people whose death is expected. Older adults generally do poorly after CPR because of serious ...

  6. Life in Colonial America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Nickles

    2010-11-04

    What are some differences in the lives of the colonists and the way we live today? 1. Use Notes sheet (your teacher will give this to you) 2. As you research record facts about life in early America. Watch: Early America Video. What are some things that the boy learned about colonist life? Look at the following: Farming, What are some tools that the early farmers used? What are some crops that ...

  7. Life in the Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Bennett

    2010-03-26

    The 2nd Graders will have the opportunity to learn more about life underneath the ocean. This goes great with 2nd Grade Science Standards 1 and 3! INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in the ocean? What would you do all day? What would you eat? What would you have to avoid so that you wouldn't get eaten? There are many different types of life that live in the ocean. ...

  8. Ocean Life for Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides a variety of photos and text to teach students about life in the oceans. Various animals discussed include fish, sharks, dolphins, octopus, starfish, eels, lobster and jellyfish. Students choose an animal to look at, view some facts about that animal, and then answer questions based on the information given. The objective is for young elementary students to be able to distinguish amoung types of ocean life and what makes them unique.

  9. Which Way to Life?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Lazcano

    2010-01-01

    If the emergence of life is seen as the evolutionary transition between the non-living and the living, then it may be meaningless\\u000a to draw a strict line between these two worlds. A comparison between the metabolic- and genetic-first origin-of-life proposals\\u000a is made. A comparison of the empirical evidence used in favor of the metabolic-first and genetic-first theories of the origin

  10. Mosquito Life Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    In this activity, learners build a plastic emergence chamber (or use purchased "mini mosquito breeder") to observe and analyze the mosquito life cycle. Learners record daily observations for 8-14 days by counting the number of larvae, pupae, and adults present in the chamber. This resource includes background information about the mosquito life cycle and mosquitoes as disease vectors plus a link to a mosquito reference manual.

  11. “I Can't Find Anything Wrong: It Must Be a Pulmonary Embolism”: Diagnosing Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in Primary Care, a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barais, Marie; Morio, Nathalie; Cuzon Breton, Amélie; Barraine, Pierre; Calvez, Amélie; Stolper, Erik; Van Royen, Paul; Liétard, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Background Before using any prediction rule oriented towards pulmonary embolism (PE), family physicians (FPs) should have some suspicion of this diagnosis. The diagnostic reasoning process leading to the suspicion of PE is not well described in primary care. Objective to explore the diagnostic reasoning of FPs when pulmonary embolism is suspected. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 28 FPs. The regional hospital supplied data of all their cases of pulmonary embolism from June to November 2011. The patient's FP was identified where he/she had been the physician who had sent the patient to the emergency unit. The first consecutive 14 FPs who agreed to participate made up the first group. A second group was chosen using a purposeful sampling method. The topic guide focused on the circumstances leading to the suspicion of PE. A thematic analysis was performed, by three researchers, using a grounded theory coding paradigm. Results In the FPs' experience, the suspicion of pulmonary embolism arose out of four considerations: the absence of indicative clinical signs for diagnoses other than PE, a sudden change in the condition of the patient, a gut feeling that something was seriously wrong and an earlier failure to diagnose PE. The FPs interviewed did not use rules in their diagnostic process. Conclusion This study illustrated the diagnostic role of gut feelings in the specific context of suspected pulmonary embolism in primary care. The FPs used the sense of alarm as a tool to prevent the diagnostic error of missing a PE. The diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings has yet to be evaluated. PMID:24840333

  12. Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC)

    E-print Network

    Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC) experiment on ExoMars 7th Appleton Space, Cranfield University #12;How to detect evidence of Life in on Mars? Photo: Karl Johaentges #12;ESA's ExoMars rover (CGI version 2010) Life Marker Chip Flight Model design (early 2010) Lateral flow immunoassay (e

  13. Research of accelerated life test of cycle-life products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianye Li; Xiaohong Wang

    2009-01-01

    Work was carried out in order to make the results of accelerated life test of the cycle-life products more accurate. Two kinds of products which both use cycle numbers as a main life indicator were mentioned to explain the essence of cycle-life of product. And by analyzing the latest research results of their failure mechanisms, possible improvements of cycle conditions

  14. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  15. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995). Subsequent NRA's will be released on a rotating two year cycle.

  16. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  17. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

  18. Life sciences accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

  19. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  20. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    E-print Network

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Out of equilibrium structuring in space and time is contingent on continuous entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the natural tendency of Nature to explore all available microstates. The process producing the greatest amount of entropy in the biosphere is the absorption and transformation of sunlight, leading to the transpiration of water by plants and cyanobacteria. Here we hypothesize that life began, and exists today, as a dynamic catalyst for the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat, which could then be efficiently harvested by the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are extremely rapid in transforming this light into heat that can be readily absorbed by liquid water. The origin and evolution of life was thus driven...

  1. Life in the Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

  2. End of life care.

    PubMed

    2015-01-28

    NHS England is working with statutory and voluntary organisations to develop a five-year plan for end of life care. In the meantime, it has published a framework titled Actions for End of Life Care 2014-2016. This has four interdependent components aimed at ensuring that: individuals and carers are engaged and informed, by providing information and seeking feedback; health and care professionals are committed to partnership working by developing capability and communities of practice; processes provide more consistent, co-ordinated care; and resources and commissioning approaches that improve end of life care are developed. Specific actions to identify and address inequalities are included in each component. To read the document, go to tinyurl.com/p3dv4ce. PMID:25629343

  3. Life Sciences Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Life Sciences Education journal started publishing peer-reviewed articles in spring 2002 on life science education at the K-12, undergraduate, and graduate levels. The journal takes a broad view of the life sciences, and they frequently feature pieces on math, chemistry, neurosciences, genetics, and other fields. The articles are written by professionals engaged in teaching biology teaching in a variety of educational environments, and first-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the "Most-Read Articles" area. Here they will find pieces such as "Rubrics: Tools for Making Learning Goals and Evaluation Criteria Explicit for Both Teachers and Learners" and "Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tools". Visitors can also search for articles in the archive and also look at the "Most-Cited Articles" section. Finally, users can also sign up to receive updates about new additions to the journal.

  4. Milstein Hall of Ocean Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

  5. The Life of a Butterfly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Logan Greene

    2011-04-06

    What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

  6. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  7. The Tree of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David R. Maddison

    2007-12-12

    The Tree of Life is a collection of about 2000 World Wide Web pages containing information about the diversity of life. These pages are authored by biologists from around the world... Each page contains information about one group of organisms. The pages are linked one to another in the form of the evolutionary tree of organisms, with the pages branching off from a group's page being about subgroups. This vast site contains a large collection of biological images, most of which can be reproduced and used for educational purposes. Since some of the topics are controversial in nature, an attempt is made to present all sides of the issue. References are included.

  8. Bioregenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems utilize plant growth for food, water, and atmosphere revitalization. Simulation studies of a simplified model are presented that suggest survivability in the face of partial plant growth chamber failure. Simulation studies demonstrate the potential for a bioregenerative life support system on an extended mission. In addition to robustness and survivability in terms of the food supply, the plant growth chamber produces exactly the right amount of oxygen for the crew's metabolic needs. The amount of water taken up by the plants during food production is balanced by the crew's metabolic water production.

  9. Life of A Butterfly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss. Watterson

    2010-04-30

    This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

  10. Muslim Life in America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new pamphlet from the State Department offers a basic introduction to some aspects of Muslim-American life. The front page takes care to emphasize the diversity among Muslim-Americans, and the links from this front page further amplify these differences. The site features a number of Photo Galleries, including Faces of Islam, Family Life, and Mosques and Prayers, among others. Users will also find related articles, a page of demographic facts, a bibliography with selected readings, links to Internet resources and nongovernmental organizations, along with other resources.

  11. Make a Life to Save a Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peggy Brickman

    2009-01-01

    In this “clicker case,” students learn about meiosis through the real-life story of a couple who used pre-implantation genetic screening to select an embryo that was a genetic match for an older sibling with leukemia, and thus able to provide a source of bone marrow cells. The case caused a stir in the medical ethics community.  Before this, parents had only used pre-implantation genetic screening to select for a baby that would be free from a genetic disorder. Instead, this child was conceived as a treatment for his older sister.  The case was developed for use in an introductory biology course.  It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.5MB) shown in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions the students respond to using clickers. It could be adpated for use without these technologies.

  12. What's Wrong with Women's Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Daphne

    1995-01-01

    A former women's studies professor is critical of the field's current direction and its perceived intolerance of criticism. "Games" played by feminists are cited, including their use of language, rejection of any masculinism, reduction of all issues to gender alone, denial of biological reality, and fostering a politics of identity. A broader…

  13. Right says arms control wrong

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J. [Council for a Livable World, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article asserts that the conservative right wing of the Republican party is in the midst of an attack on arms control in general, intent on sabotage of the treaties at the core of the program - the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, and the 1991 and 1993 START treaties, and treaties in negotiation at present. The author argues that this part of the political party is far right of other conservatives, and is intent on unravelling all progress made to this pont in time.

  14. What's Wrong with "Aesthetic Education"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luca-Marshall, Judith B.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers definitions of "aesthetic," especially that offered by Woodrow Wilson in his essay on Adam Smith. Her major contention is that too much of aesthetic and other education is not very aesthetic, for it does not excite both senses and intellect nor develop the ability to generalize. (Author/SJL)

  15. What's Wrong with Plastic Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Martin H.

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes several reasons for conservation of natural resources. Environmentalists and profit-making groups should decide together what needs preservation. Author points out that everything rare is not worth preservation. Priorities for preserving the environment are discussed. (PS)

  16. Utilizing Right and Wrong Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this professional development video excerpted from Getting Results, a community college instructor explains how he reviews a test with his students by having his students work in groups to discuss answers. The instructor explains that while tests can reveal to him what hasn't been grasped, this group review helps his students reflect on the rationale behind each answer. In addition, the tests help him discover whether goals are met, whether there are other benefits to the lesson, and whether he was successful in teaching the lesson. Once he has discovered the answers to these questions, he can decide whether to adjust the course design.The video runs 3:40 and is accompanied by a background essay and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  17. Wrong Turn on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Petrilli, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In the run-up to the 2000 presidential election, candidate George W. Bush and his advisors made a strategic decision to appropriate educational rhetoric generally associated with Democrats and the left. This decision helped Bush present himself as "different kind of Republican" and a "compassionate conservative" and to dramatically narrow the…

  18. Nuna5: What went wrong?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Van Dongen

    2010-01-01

    The Nuon Solar Team and their famous car the Nuna had a great tradition of winning the World Solar Challenge in Australia. Four times in a row the car was faster than all the other solar cars. This year, however, it was different. Some headlines claimed we lost first place, others said we won second. Because of all the hard

  19. When School Reform Goes Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2007-01-01

    In this much-needed volume, Nel Noddings uses her extensive experience at every level of schooling to challenge the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Noddings invites readers to think critically about the ideas underlying NCLB, the reform movement that shaped it, and the processes it has put into play. She considers such questions as: Is money the…

  20. What Went Wrong: Explaining Counterexamples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, Alex; Visser, Willem

    2002-01-01

    Model checking, initially successful in the field of hardware design, has recently been applied to software. One of the chief advantages of model checking is the production of counterexamples demonstrating that a system does not satisfy a speci cation. However, it may require a great deal of human effort to extract the essence of an error from even a detailed source-level trace of a failing run. We use an automated method for nding multiple versions of an error (and similar executions that do not produce an error), and analyze these executions to produce a more succinct description of the key elements of the error. The description produced includes identi cation of portions of the source code crucial to distinguishing failing and succeeding runs, di erences in invariants between failing and non-failing runs, and information on the necessary changes in scheduling and environmental actions needed to cause suc- cessful runs to fail. In addition, this analysis allows a classi cation of errors by features such as whether they are purely concurrent (i.e. can be induced by changing only thread scheduling).

  1. What Is Wrong with Obsolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Pedro; Escalona, Isabel; Pulgarin, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Discusses obsolescence as a criterion for libraries to use when selecting journals and suggests topicality of the research theme that has been cited in subsequent years as a better variable. Describes the use of the Rasch model as a measuring instrument and compares rank order using the two methods. (LRW)

  2. What's Wrong With My Plant?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A useful resource for amateur horticulturists from the University of Minnesota Extension Service, Yard and Garden Clinic. The focus here is on commonly used perennials, grasses, shrubs, and trees in the home garden and the inevitable problems one must face while gardening in a northern climate. Based on visual observations of symptoms, the navigation is easy, and the solutions equally understandable. This site is a useful stop if you want basic advice. It also provides links to other related Web resources useful to northern gardeners.

  3. The Cycle of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students? understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

  4. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  5. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. PMID:21774684

  6. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  7. Celebrating Life's Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David B.

    1997-01-01

    For six weeks, 25 Connecticut seventh graders interviewed senior citizens from a nearby assisted-independent-living facility. By celebrating their senior partners' life experiences, students formulated a better understanding of major events in 20th century American history. During the fifth and sixth weeks, students shared something from their own…

  8. Ingredients for Life: Carbon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-22

    Carbon is the basis of all organic molecules. It is also one of the most abundant elements in the universe. This video segment illustrates the special characteristics of carbon that make it an essential ingredient for life. The segment is one minute thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

  9. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sunny

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

  10. Life Cycle Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Krasowski

    This paper described LCE as a method to assess and optimise a product over its life cycle by means of LCA, LCC and Product Structure Analysis. To use LCE efficiently (both cost-effectively and time-effectively) and to increase the value of a product, two aspects are particularly important. LCE has to be integrated into both the company business processes and into

  11. Make Learning for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2007-01-01

    "Learning for Life--a New Framework for Adult Skills," a thought-provoking report from the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), manages to be both passionate and well argued. Resulting, in part, from a series of policy seminars during 2006, it makes an interesting contribution to current debates. Simone Delorenzi advocates the articulation…

  12. Black Smokers: Life Forms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Museum of Natural History

    This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

  13. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  14. Water and Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Anderson

    2013-03-12

    Paul Anderson begins with a brief description of NASA discoveries related to Mars, Mercury and water. He then explains why water is required for life. He finally uses a simulation to show you why water acts as a wonderful solvent and provides a medium for metabolism.

  15. Symposium: Student Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Questions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To get an inside view of campus life today, the Intercollegiate Studies Institute (whose purpose is to foster in college students an appreciation of the values that sustain a free society) was approached and asked to supply a list of their Collegiate Network editors--students who are active on their campuses, interested in the issues facing higher…

  16. A Window into Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kenneth Eward (Independent; )

    2008-09-26

    Window underscores the concept of life as an emergent property of highly coordinated physical and biochemical processes. Opening upon a single carbon-12 atom within a human DNA duplex, Window moves at a brisk trot through successively greater levels of scale and biological organization, ultimately arriving at an individual person--defining in one sense the meaning of being human.

  17. Life on the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Sudents learn about the physical properties of the Moon. They compare these to the properties of the Earth to determine how life would be different for people living on the Moon. Using their understanding of these differences, they think about what types of products engineers would need to design for humans to live comfortably on the Moon.

  18. Empowerment for Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This monograph purports that American society limits the behavior of older individuals based on the arbitrary criterion of chronological age and proposes the concept of empowerment--gaining a sense of personal power or control over over's life--as the antidote for older persons who face devalued status as they age and the for the accompanying drop…

  19. From Light to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    2015-06-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of H, C, N, O and S are coupled via biologically catalyzed electron transfer (redox) reactions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper I examine the evolution of the structural motifs responsible for redox reactions (the biological "transistors") across the tree of life, and the photogeochemical reactions on minerals that ultimately came to be the driving force for these biological reactions.

  20. MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Malaysian Family Life Surveys (MFLS) comprise a pair of surveys with partially overlapping samples, designed by RAND and administered in Peninsular Malaysia in 1976-77 (MFLS-1) and 1988-89 (MFLS-2). Each survey collected detailed current and retrospective information on famil...

  1. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  2. Ocean Life Web List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference list contains 35 web sites with resources that complement the museum's Hall of Ocean Life exhibit. The sites are broken into four categories: General, Conservation, Activities and Curriculum, and Ocean Folklore. A recommended grade level is listed for many of the sites.

  3. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  4. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  5. Encaustic Still Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Len

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)

  6. Life in the Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Norma Goddard

    This site is designed to teach elementary students about ocean life. Through images and large text, it provides basic information and descriptions of animals that live in various ocean habitats, including: Sandy Beach, Tide Pool, Kelp Forest, and the Open Seas.

  7. Aircraft wheel life assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. F. Spencer Jr.; D. J. Kirkner; E. E. Schudt; S. Kandarpa

    1993-01-01

    The important part of wheel life assessment problems is the accurate determination of the tire\\/wheel interface pressure distribution under various loading conditions. A combined analytical\\/experimental methodology for obtaining this pressure distribution was developed. The principal analytical tool in this methodology is the finite element program ANTWILL (Analysis of Tire Wheel Interface Loads) which recovers the pressure distribution given a number

  8. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  9. Life Cycles of Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

  10. Life in extreme environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn J. Rothschild; Rocco L. Mancinelli

    2001-01-01

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as

  11. Springs of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WNET

    2010-11-05

    In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

  12. A life of cycles.

    PubMed

    Pycock, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Jonathan Pycock is one of three equine claims consultants with the Veterinary Defence Society. His career in equine reproduction, and lecturing on the same topic, has given him the opportunity to work and travel widely, and ensure his work/life balance stays in sync. PMID:25748201

  13. Measuring small life events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex J. Zautra; Charles A. Guarnaccia; Bruce P. Dohrenwend

    1986-01-01

    The development o fan inventory to assess small events is described. In the construction of the inventory specifiC criteria were established and existing event inventories were screened for items and new items written to fit these criteria. The event had to (a) denote an observable change in a person's everyday life, (b) have a discrete beginning, (c) be classifiable as

  14. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle analysis, or LCA for short, is a term that has been used more and more over the past year to describe the cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of a product. he LCA is a way of looking at the environmental demands of a product holistically; that is, looking at,the reso...

  15. Second Life, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An article this author wrote about avatar harassment and assault in Second Life (SL) inspired a considerable response after it was published. Perhaps the most notable reply was from Linden Lab, the company that created the virtual-reality world. In his initial essay ("The Chronicle of Higher Education," September 14, 2007; "The Education Digest,"…

  16. Smacked by the Invisible Hand: The Wrong Debate at the Wrong Time with the Wrong People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitsch, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Over the past three decades, educators have faced an increasing variety of reform proposals that can best be contextualized as efforts to commodify and privatize public education. While supporters of market-based reforms attempt to place these proposals within education theory, they are in reality firmly entrenched in neoliberal economic theory.…

  17. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied. PMID:21491762

  18. Life Sciences Accomplishments 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnell, Mary Lou (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division (LBSAD) serves the Nation's life sciences community by managing all aspects of U.S. space-related life sciences research and technology development. The activities of the Division are integral components of the Nation's overall biological sciences and biomedical research efforts. However, NASA's life sciences activities are unique, in that space flight affords the opportunity to study and characterize basic biological mechanisms in ways not possible on Earth. By utilizing access to space as a research tool, NASA advances fundamental knowledge of the way in which weightlessness, radiation, and other aspects of the space-flight environment interact with biological processes. This knowledge is applied to procedures and technologies that enable humans to live and work in and explore space and contributes to the health and well-being of people on Earth. The activities of the Division are guided by the following three goals: Goal 1) Use microgravity and other unique aspects of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. Goal 2) Develop the scientific and technological foundations for supporting exploration by enabling productive human presence in space for extended periods. Goal 3) Apply our unique mission personnel, facilities, and technology to improve education, the quality of life on Earth, and U.S. competitiveness. The Division pursues these goals with integrated ground and flight programs involving the participation of NASA field centers, industry, and universities, as well as interactions with other national agencies and NASA's international partners. The published work of Division-sponsored researchers is a record of completed research in pursuit of these goals. During 1993, the LBSAD instituted significant changes in its experiment solicitation and peer review processes. For the first time, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released requesting proposals for ground-based and flight research for all programs. Areas of particular interest to NASA were defined Proposals due April 29, 1994, will be peer reviewed - externally for scientific merit. This annual NRA process is now the mechanism for recruiting both extramural and intramural investigations. As an overview of LBSAD activities in 1993, this accomplishments document covers each of the major organizational components of the Division and the accomplishments of each. The second section is a review of the Space Life Sciences Research programs Space Biology, Space Physiology and Countermeasures, Radiation Health, Environmental Health, Space Human Factors, Advanced Life Support, and Global Monitoring and Disease Prediction, The third section, Research in Space Flight, describes the substantial contributions of the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission to life sciences research and the significant contributions of the other missions flown in 1993, along with plans for future missions. The Division has greatly expanded and given high priority to its Education and Outreach Programs, which are presented in the fourth section. The fifth and final section, Partners for Space, shows the Divisions Cooperative efforts with other national and international agencies to achieve common goals, along with the accomplishments of joint research and analysis programs.

  19. Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

    2014-11-01

    Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists. PMID:25369429

  20. Life with and Life without Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenardic, A.; Hoeink, T.; Jellinek, M.; Johnson, C. L.; Cowan, N. B.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Stamenkovic, V.; O'Neill, C.; Dasgupta, R.

    2014-12-01

    The long standing notion that plate tectonics is key to planetary habitability is critically evaluated. The purported necessity of plate tectonics for planetary habitability is tied to volatile cycling, atmosphere retention, and carbon burial. Plate tectonics is not unique in allowing for cycling of volatiles between the interior of a planet and its atmosphere. Volcanism can be maintained on a single plate planet over geologic time scales and several non-plate tectonic recycling mechanisms are viable on such a planet. The frequency and efficiency of these modes of volatile recycling and volcanism are critical to evaluating whether they are sufficient to stabilize climate. An episodic mode of a volcanism and subduction also has the potential to provide the level of volatile cycling needed to maintain habitability. We combine solid planet models of degassing and regassing with climate, surface processes, and carbon sequestration models to determine the level to which habitable conditions can be maintained in the absence of plate tectonics. We also review arguments that the Earth operated in a different tectonic mode over its initial 2-3 billion years of geologic evolution, a time period over which the planet was habitable. Collectively our results suggests that habitable conditions can exist independent of the tectonic mode of a planet. However, O-rich atmospheres and complex life might require continuous recycling processes and ocean floor uplift to bury carbon onto stable platforms as provided by plate tectonics.

  1. What is life?

    PubMed

    Anbar, M

    2001-01-01

    Life is a composite process in nature that is as fundamental as the laws of physics that govern the behavior of the inanimate world. The laws of physics change qualitatively as we go from the macroscopic to the atomic and subatomic domains. Likewise, the behavior of living systems changes dramatically when a certain level of complexity, including social organization, has been reached. Moreover, live systems may change the projected course of the inanimate world, as they are already doing on our tiny planet. In brief, life does not only "make the world turn around," it can do this for the whole universe. Consequently, life is probably the most significant process in nature; it is also the least predictable. The behavior of live systems is unpredictable. Unlike the inanimate universe that can be readily modeled using a limited number of parameters, the perpetually increasing complexity of living systems defies modeling. If we would have used all the information available about the behavior of live systems on this planet just five million years ago, we could never have come up with a model describing human civilization of today. Such a prediction would have been, obviously, much harder if we knew everything about living systems on this planet five hundred million years ago. The nonpredictability of the behavior of living systems is not solely due to its stochastic nature. The behavior of live systems is unpredictable because it is based on interactions among millions of independent or partially dependent stochastic processes involving both live and inanimate systems. The number of different pathways constituting such behavior is virtually infinite. This makes the predictability of such behavior qualitatively different from that of conventional stochastic behavior, which is based on a finite number of parameters, each with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Furthermore, unlike statistical mechanics, which are applicable to inanimate systems, the behavior of living systems cannot be delimited by an analog to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The answer to the question "What is life?" is, in brief: Life is a multifunctional process in nature that is as fundamental as the basic "laws" of physics, used to model the behavior of the inanimate world. Like those "laws," life can control the behavior of our universe, including its lifespan. PMID:11446204

  2. Life Course Organization, Perceived Quality Life, and Occupational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeles, Ronald P.; Steel, Lauri

    Longitudinal data from Project TALENT are used to study how people's adult lives are patterned and how these patterns are related to their occupational achievement and perceived quality of life. Career is defined as a sequence of roles and associated activities that a person enacts within a particular life domain. The pattern of a person's life

  3. This Emotional Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

  4. Bioenergetics and Life's Origins

    PubMed Central

    Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

  5. Life on Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Life on Earth is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about life, kingdoms, heterotrophs, autotrophs, animals, fungi, plantae, monera, and evolution. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  6. It's My Life: Depression

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    It's My Life, a PBS Kids Web-based educational series, offers 9-12 year olds a kid-friendly way to explore and share the issues in their lives. Depression is just one of many subjects addressed in It's My Life. Topics covered in this Web site include defining depression, recognizing the symptoms, understanding the causes, getting treatment, how to help a friend or parent who may be suffering from depression, and more. In addition to articles on these topics, the Web site provides interactive activities -- such as a quiz and a chat room -- that help kids further their understanding of the disease and reach out for help if needed. Offline activities include a printable journal page, a recommended reading list, and discussion questions that kids can take to a parent or friend.

  7. NASA's Exploration for Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    NASA's Exploration for Life is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about kingdoms of life, environments on Earth and Mars, landforms, and the Mars Surveyor Program. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  8. Life Changing Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Australian Broadcasting Company recently aired Life Changing Science, "a four-part series examining innovations that have transformed our lives." This companion Web site offers fantastic interactive features to go along with each of the four radio broadcasts. Three of the four interactive "labs" focused on the life sciences. They include Virtual Open Heart Surgery, in which users can conduct a highly simplified version of the real procedure; In Vitro Fertilization, which offers an excellent overview of the IVF cycle; and Food Preservation, in which users can test how well they know their kitchen microbes. These interactive features are truly cool, although American readers must contend with the metric units used in Food Preservation. The site also includes audio of the original radio programs, which aired in June 2003.

  9. Earth before life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. Conclusions The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Yuri Wolf, Peter Gogarten, and Christoph Adami. PMID:24405803

  10. Determining GAC bed life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. T. Gillogly; Vernon L. Snoeyink; John C. Vogel; Claude M. Wilson; Earl P. Royal

    1999-01-01

    This study developed a way to rapidly and effectively evaluate the remaining life of a granular activated carbon (GAC) bed used to mitigate taste and odor episodes. The maximum attenuation of a 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) episode, a representative taste and odor compound, can rapidly be determined using laboratory-scale columns packed with partially spent GAC taken from full-scale operating adsorbers. These laboratory-scale

  11. Calcium, Bone, and Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Heaney

    \\u000a Calcium is a divalent mineral cation that functions as an intracellular messenger in virtually all life forms. In multicellular\\u000a organisms it functions also as an integrator tying body systems together, and in land-living vertebrates it provides the principal\\u000a mineral component of the endoskeleton (bone). Calcium cannot be synthesized and must be ingested, first to build an adult\\u000a skeleton and then

  12. Life Science Dictionary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This Life Science Dictionary is a feature of BioTech (discussed in the January 12, 1996 Scout Report), a "hybrid biology/chemistry educational resource and research tool" located at Indiana University at Bloomington. This searchable database currently contains more than 8200 terms in biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, cell biology, and genetics. Also included are "some terms relating to ecology, limnology, pharmacology, toxicology and medicine." Users may search by keyword, word fragment, or phrase. Typical returns are concise but informative.

  13. From Light to Life.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of H, C, N, O and S are coupled via biologically catalyzed electron transfer (redox) reactions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper I examine the evolution of the structural motifs responsible for redox reactions (the biological "transistors") across the tree of life, and the photogeochemical reactions on minerals that ultimately came to be the driving force for these biological reactions. PMID:26105723

  14. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll- ...

  15. Mid-Life Career Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Events common to all people, although in differing degrees, such as physiological and technological changes at mid-life, constitute important influences on career change and development in the mid-life period. (Author)

  16. Life forms: A keyword entry

    E-print Network

    Helmreich, Stefan

    We deliver a "keyword" account of the term life form as it has been used in natural philosophy and biology over the last two hundred years, beginning with its appearance in German as Lebensform. We argue that life form ...

  17. Last Days of Life (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask Your Doctor about Advanced Cancer Research Last Days of Life (PDQ®) Overview The end of life ... death. Knowing what to expect in the final days or hours helps comfort the family. Most people ...

  18. Harnessing our very life.

    PubMed

    Wills, Peter R; Williams, David L F; Trussell, Denys; Mann, L R B

    2013-01-01

    The Aristotelian ideas of nature (physis) and technology (techné) are taken as a starting point for understanding what it would mean for technology to be truly living. Heidegger's critique of the conflation of scientific and technological thinking in the current era is accepted as demonstrating that humanity does not have a deep enough appreciation of the nature of life to harness its essence safely. Could the vision of harnessing life be realized, which we strongly doubt, living technology would give selected humans transforming powers that could be expected to exacerbate, rather than solve, current global problems. The source of human purposefulness, and hence of both technology and ethics, is identified in nature's emergent capability to instantiate informational representations in material forms. Ethics that are properly grounded in an appreciation of intrinsic value, especially that of life, demand that proposals to give humanity the capabilities of living technology address the social, political, economic, and environmental problems inherent in its development and potential deployment. Before any development is embarked on, steps must be taken to avoid living technology, whatever the term eventually designates, becoming available for destructive or antisocial purposes such as those that might devastate humanity or irrevocably damage the natural world. PMID:23889745

  19. Stamina in later life.

    PubMed

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes. PMID:4081826

  20. Religious orientation and life aspirations.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R; Clayton, Spencer; Swinyard, William

    2015-04-01

    The effects of religiosity on well-being appear to depend on religious orientation, with intrinsic orientation being related to positive outcomes and extrinsic orientation being related to neutral or negative outcomes. It is not clear, however, why intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity has the relationships they do. Self-determination theory may provide a useful framework of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations that may help to answer this question. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity would be related to intrinsic and extrinsic life aspirations. We hypothesized that intrinsic religiosity would be positively related to intrinsic life aspirations and negatively related with extrinsic life aspirations, and that extrinsic religiosity would be positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and negatively related to intrinsic aspirations, and that life aspirations would partially mediate the relationships between religious orientation and outcome. To study these hypotheses, a random national sample (total number of 425, average age of 52, 59 % female) completed the measures of religious orientation, life aspirations, affect, and life satisfaction. It was found that intrinsic religiosity was positively related to positive affect, life satisfaction, and intrinsic life aspirations and was negatively related to negative affect and extrinsic life aspirations. Extrinsic religiosity was positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and was not related to the intrinsic life aspirations. When both religious orientation and life aspiration variables were included together in the model predicting outcome, both remained significant indicating that religious orientation and life aspirations are independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, although religious orientation and life aspirations are significantly related to each other and to outcome, life aspirations did not mediate the effects of religious orientation. Therefore, self-determination theory does not appear to completely account for the effects of religious orientation. PMID:24474550

  1. Life on Earth and Elsewhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from SolStation contains a chronology of life on Earth beginning with the origin of our Solar System about 4.6 billion years ago. Descriptions of the important stages in the development of carbon-based life are provided along with many photographs and links. The planetary impact of life on Earth and the possibility of life on Mars are also presented.

  2. Life's Little Essential: Liquid Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Without liquid water, terrestrial life could not exist. All living organisms on Earth depend on water and its unique chemical and physical properties. In the search for life beyond Earth, scientists have focused their efforts on looking for signs of liquid water. This essay discusses the properties of liquid water that are conducive to life, pointing out that the biochemical reactions that sustain life need a fluid in order to operate, and that water is probably the best solvent in the universe.

  3. LIFE SCIENCES & MISSOURI'S ECONOMIC FUTURE

    E-print Network

    Noble, James S.

    LIFE SCIENCES & MISSOURI'S ECONOMIC FUTURE: AN OPPORTUNITY TO BUILD "ONE MISSOURI" PREPARED FOR laws and result in civil and/or criminal penalties. #12;Final Report Life Sciences & Missouri Center in the life sciences, with world-class research stature translated into wealth creation and well

  4. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  5. Life Sciences Computational Biology 51

    E-print Network

    Henkel, Werner

    Life Sciences #12;Computational Biology 51 4 Life Sciences Research in Life Sciences at Jacobs Sciences at Jacobs clus- tered in six major areas: Cellular and Molecu- lar Biology (Protein Trafficking and Regulation); Computational Biology (Modeling of Biologi- cal Processes); Molecular Biophysics (Membrane

  6. Life testing hydraulic gear motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A McLinn

    2005-01-01

    A hydraulic gear motor for pump oil may be run as a component in an endurance type of accelerated life test (ALT) with several different applied stresses. The main failure modes may be first established and the life test developed based upon the failure modes. The purpose of an accelerated test is to demonstrate a minimum life in a simulated

  7. To Collaborative LIfe Sciences Building

    E-print Network

    To Collaborative LIfe Sciences Building To Professional Development Center Collaborative Life Sciences Building SW MEADE SW PORTER SW M OODY I-5 To Main Campus To South Waterfront I-405 Collaborative Life Sciences Building 0650 SW Meade St. Academic & Student Recreation Center (ASRC) C8 Art Building

  8. Educators Get a "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    For educators who think real life does not offer enough opportunities to practice their profession, there is Second Life, an Internet-based virtual environment that counts thousands of educators among its enthusiasts. Second Life bears a passing resemblance to an online game, with users represented by digitally drawn characters, called avatars,…

  9. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  10. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  11. Life Products of Stars

    E-print Network

    Aldo M. Serenelli; Masataka Fukugita

    2006-06-27

    We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.

  12. Life as a Hiltern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemon, Courtney

    2012-02-01

    The Mather Policy Intern Program, conducted through the Society of Physics Students, is an innovative internship encouraging physics students to get involved in science policy. Funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts and the American Institute of Physics, Mather Interns spend a summer at the Capitol, working as congressional interns for a representative or committee. As the first female student inducted into the Mather Policy Intern program, the author presents Life as a Hilltern, detailing her summer working with Representative Rush Holt, the only physicist currently serving in the U.S. House of Representatives.

  13. Drilling for Weird Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Henry Bortman

    This magazine article introduces the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Featuring an interview with NASA scientist Carol Stoker, the article describes Rio Tinto, a river in Spain with highly acidic water the color or red wine, and explains why scientists are looking to the subsurface pyrite deposits near this river's edge for signs of microbial life. Stoker describes the field site and discusses some of the research team's early results. This is the first of a four-part interview series. The resource includes images from Rio Tinto and the Mars project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

  14. Web of Life Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

  15. Life's Really Big Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page contains videos and articles about the snowball Earth theory and its relation to the Cambrian explosion; the search for extrasolar planets and extraterrestrial life; simulations and experiments on robot evolution; the Lucy fossil discovery; and how the human hand and the ability for language and for self-reflection developed and contributed to the uniqueness of our species. There is a synopsis for each video; the five videos total approximately an hour in length. Other materials include an educational activity and a dinosaur game that gives a perspective to the long history of Earth.

  16. Triumph of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

  17. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

  18. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

  19. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

  20. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

  1. Preparing for the End of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking about death, ... it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how people die ...

  2. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  3. Life Sciences Undergraduate Programme: Life Sciences Minor The Minor in Life Sciences is designed for non-Life Sciences majors to receive significant

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Life Sciences Undergraduate Programme: Life Sciences Minor The Minor in Life Sciences is designed for non-Life Sciences majors to receive significant training in selected Life Sciences topics. Students of this Minor will receive a good grounding in their choice of topics in Life Sciences as well as an insight

  4. Life on Mars Mars Terraformed Artist's

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    Life on Mars Mars Terraformed ­ Artist's Conception: Wikimedia Commons #12;Life on Mars Does Mars have the building blocks for life? If not, did Mars ever have them? Was there ever life on Mars or even the potential for life? Is there any indication that life exists on Mars today? Could we turn

  5. Origins and Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiations on DNA J. Cadet and T. Douki; 24. Molecular adaptations to life at high salt: lessons from Haloarcula marismortui G. Zaccai; Part VII. Traces of Life and Biosignatures: 25. Early life: nature, distribution and evolution F. Westall; 26. Early eukaryotes in precambrian oceans E. Javaux; 27. Biomineralisation mechanisms K. Benzerara and J. Miot; 28. Limits of life and biosphere: lesson from detection of microorganisms in deep sea and deep subsurface in the Earth K. Takai; Part VIII. Life Elsewhere?: 29. Titan and the Cassini-Huygens mission J. Lunine and F. Raulin; 30. The role of terrestrial analogue environments in astrobiology R. Léveillé; Index.

  6. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. Section 6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life. PMID:20162362

  7. Life's Chirality From Prebiotic Environments

    E-print Network

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    A key open question in the study of life is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: almost every life-form on Earth has exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. Will the same handedness be preferred if life is found elsewhere? We review some of the pertinent literature and discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events. In one scenario, autocatalytic prebiotic reactions undergo stochastic fluctuations due to environmental disturbances. In another, chiral-selective polymerization reaction rates influenced by environmental effects lead to substantial chiral excess even in the absence of autocatalysis. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has implications to the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic (chirally neutral) on average.

  8. Evolution of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

  9. Their Circular Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This rather provocative website (which requires Macromedia Flash Player) explores various urban environments around Italy and draws visitors into the life of a "typical" day in the different lives of these seemingly ordinary places. The website was created by Lorenzo Fonda and David Terenzi and features original music and a rather welcoming user interface for exploring the different environments. The interface for each of the five urban places allows users to drag a small triangle around a circle, and essentially move through a series of images (and related sounds recorded on site) that take place during a single day. The places featured on the site include the train station in Modena, the Campo San Barnaba in Venezia, and three additional locales. Overall, this site offers a fascinating way of looking at and experiencing different urban environments and a potential template for future online projects.

  10. Life on the Reef

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Expeditions Web site takes an in-depth look at life on one of the world's largest barrier reefs. The site begins with a brief explanation of the expedition and what its participants were looking to find. Dive the Reef is an interactive feature that allows students to learn what separates a lagoon from a reef from a shelf. Meet the Scientists has brief biographies of the 14 team members who participated in the expedition. At the Museum is an article that discusses the selection of the barrier reef system of Andros Island as well as the AMNH's long history of Bahamian research. The Reef from Space explains how NASA's computer-enhanced pictures from space contributed to the expedition's findings. The site also includes 12 dispatches written during the expedition, which can be found in the Today from the Bahamas section.

  11. Life shocks and homelessness.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  12. Life in the orchestra.

    PubMed

    Fetter, D

    1993-03-01

    The concert soloist and conductor are prominent figures within the orchestra. Their roles make extraordinary demands on them--demands that must often be fulfilled while dealing with the problems of travel. Maintaining one's skill is a constant concern. The orchestra musician is also constantly on guard to maintain performance excellence. Unusual work patterns, obsession with the job, and job stress can put pressure on home life. The strong emotional personality of the orchestra musician must adapt to the conductor's desires and musical tradition. The player must coordinate performance with other group members. Other factors contribute to an environment with rigid boundaries and to the isolation of orchestra members as a group. With the development of performing arts medicine, injuries are less stigmatized and better treated, and performance stress is better managed. A patient's view of medicine is offered here. PMID:8350689

  13. POV: Steam of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Among many hallmarks of Finnish life is the world of the sauna and its informal rituals. It is a place for men to explore their feelings, emotions, and their hopes and dreams. It is also the subject of this fascinating film presented as part of the POV series on PBS. Created by filmmakers Joonas Bergh'll and Mika Hotakainen, this 60-minute film looks into this rather fascinating aspect of Finnish culture. Visitors can watch the entire program here, and there are a host of additional features that round out the site. On the left-hand side, visitors will find additional photo galleries, a background essay, and a helpful "Are You Pronouncing Sauna Correctly?" primer. In the "Take Action" area, visitors can learn how to plan an event around this film and download a discussion guide. Teachers shouldn't miss the "For Educators" area, which includes a lesson plan and a reading list.

  14. Life in the City

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a close-up look at biodiversity in a city park. The site opens by telling kids that, despite appearances, a great deal of biodiversity exists in cities. From tiny mites to mighty trees, thousands of species thrive there. It then takes them to a slice of life from a thriving city park, where they are asked to find 10 hidden critters living alongside the trees, plants, and insects. Each time they locate one of the tiny critters, they are rewarded with a quick look at its importance to the habitat.

  15. IYA 2009 in Second Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrienne J. Gauthier; P. L. Gay

    2008-01-01

    The New Media Group is working to create an IYA 2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA 2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA 2009 freebie avatar clothing

  16. IYA2009 in Second Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gauthier; P. L. Gay

    2008-01-01

    The New Media Group is working to create an IYA2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA2009 freebie avatar clothing will be placed

  17. Long life cycles in insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kh. Saulich

    2010-01-01

    Long life cycles covering more than one year are known for all orders of insects. There are different mechanisms of prolongation\\u000a of the life cycle: (1) slow larval development; (2) prolongation of the adult stage with several reproduction periods; (3)\\u000a prolongation of diapause; (4) combination of these mechanisms in one life cycle. Lasting suboptimal conditions (such as low\\u000a temperature, low

  18. Recycling and Life Cycle Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

  19. Originism - Ethics and Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, C. S.

    How should we treat extraterrestrial life, if we ever find it, and does a different origin of life imply a different ethical status? The most likely source of an ethical difference, or `originism,' is the inability to find a coherent definition of `life,' required to assess moral relevance in the first place. Although from a normative point of view biochemical architecture, in itself, does not provide a reason for a difference, there are numerous positions that might encourage us to treat an independent origin of life differently to life that is related to life on Earth. For example, from an instrumental point of view it would provide an opportunity to study another biological data point; it will be a new source of information about the evolution of life, and thus it might be afforded special status. We might consider extraterrestrial life to be special as prudence against the possibility of its mistreatment through an erroneous moral assessment of its worth. Whether extraterrestrial life exists of an independent origin or not, this analysis ultimately can provide a useful device for considering how we should treat entities on Earth whose status as `living' organisms is disputed, specifically viruses.

  20. PLANETS & LIFE HUMAN & PLANETARY PERSPECTIVES PLANETS AND LIFE

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Daniel

    PLANETS & LIFE ­ HUMAN & PLANETARY PERSPECTIVES #12; 2 PLANETS AND LIFE HUMAN AND PLANETARY to thousands of years. Perhaps equally important is our genetic flexibility and the ability of our societies to significantly alter our environment on short and long timescales, based on both our knowledge of Earth's history

  1. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  2. Off-Campus Life Graphic Designer Off-Campus Life

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Off-Campus Life Graphic Designer Off-Campus Life LSC West Job Title: Student Intern Pay Rate: $10; possible training over Winter Break Graphic Designer Position Description: The Graphic Designer for communicating with other staff on a regular basis to determine office design needs and receive feedback. Graphic

  3. Nanotechnology for Life Sciences Vol. 4: Nanodevices for Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Hancock, William O.

    Nanotechnology for Life Sciences Vol. 4: Nanodevices for Life Sciences Protein-based nanotechnology such as semiconductors into functional materials.11,12 Another example of protein based nanotechnology is the push in nanotechnology18,19 and on applications of kinesin motors in microscale transport.4 Finally, there is a paralle

  4. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life

  5. Anticoagulation during extracorporeal life support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurance Lequier; Anthony Chan

    2005-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support is a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass used in patients with respiratory and\\/or cardiac failure in whom conventional therapy has failed and it is believed that the underlying organ dysfunction is reversible. During the provision of extracorporeal life support there is continuous contact between circulating blood and the foreign surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit. This exposure of

  6. Sizing down Life and Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi V. Liu

    2007-01-01

    Despite the publication of many papers claiming the mortality nature of microorganisms and the increasing evidences for the aging and death even in asexual prokaryotic organisms some mainstream biologists still consider aging and death as unique features for sexual eukaryotic macroorganisms. It is time to end this dichotomous view on life and size down life and death to the micro

  7. Life in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brack

    1999-01-01

    Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or

  8. UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE STUDENT LIFE

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE STUDENT LIFE 2010-2011 STRATEGIC INITIATIVES ANNUAL REPORT AUGUST 2011 in alignment with the University of Delaware's diversity statement. · Implement a new Path to ProminenceTM/Student #12;2 Increase the quality and impact of Student Life programs and services at the University

  9. Loss and Transcendence Life Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenolsen, Patricia

    Psychologists have often observed an underlying pattern or theme in the accounts that individuals give of their lives. To test a humanistic-existential approach to human development, 48 women were interviewed with the Loss and Transcendence (L/T) Life History Form. The L/T Life Theme is expressed in two ways: the expanded version includes the…

  10. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  11. Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Palmer; Catherine Donaldson; Con Stough

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To determine the nature of this relationship, personality constructs known to predict life satisfaction were also assessed (positive and negative affect). Emotional intelligence was assessed in 107 participants using a modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS; Salovey, P, Mayer, J., Goldman, S., Turvey, C. & Palfai, T.1995.

  12. "Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellnes, Atle

    1992-01-01

    Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

  13. Roots: The Life Space Pioneers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant

    2008-01-01

    Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with troubled…

  14. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  15. Designing Shafts For Long Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart H.

    1988-01-01

    Improved method developed for choosing sizes of power-transmitting shafts for limited or unlimited service lives under variety of operating conditions. Stress versus fatigue life of proposed shaft design plotted, modified to account for expected operating conditions and used to calculate shaft diameter required for given fatigue life. If diameter of shaft represented by plot equals or exceeds required diameter, shaft considered adequate.

  16. Way of life Extra material

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Ubiquity Way of life Extra material Ubiquity of multilevel models and how to understand them better material Making more use of existing information The problem: not enough data to estimate effects Way of life Extra material Making more use of existing information The problem: not enough data

  17. How life affects the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of life on the atmosphere is examined through a discussion of the budgets of important atmospheric constituents and the processes that control their concentrations. Life profoundly influences oxygen and a number of minor atmospheric constituents, but many important gases, including those with the greatest effect on global climate, appear to be little altered by biological processes, at least in the steady state.

  18. Learning for Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeley, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The publication of "Learning Through Life," the main report of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning, has been welcomed across the trade union movement. It offers a useful and useable framework for discussing the learning needs of people through the different stages of life and makes compelling suggestions about how to adjust…

  19. Custom Orthotics Changed My Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The narrator relates his life's downward spiral and miraculous rebound from severe foot problems using animated bullet points, images, charts, and graphs. "Custom Orthotics Changed My Life" is a work of presentation fiction, or slideshow fiction, in the form of a video with an original soundtrack. The music was composed by David Kettler, a…

  20. Ethical Issues in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Hope R.; Talab, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    There are many unethical and illegal behaviors that take place in Second Life. This article offers several scenarios which represent some of these behaviors, including copyright infringement. It is hoped that the reader will understand how copyright infringement fits in with other unethical behaviors in Second Life. (Contains 20 resources.)

  1. Anthropological Praxis and Life History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Francoise

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the ways that the life history method (a research technique based on autobiographical interviews) has been used in anthropology. Debates among French anthropologists on the method's validity are discussed. A study using life histories to examine the social functions of an Occitan language revival among French peasants is described. (AM)

  2. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  3. Modeling life expectancy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965–2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no

  4. Modelling life expectancy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2010-01-01

    This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965-2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no

  5. Proper Installation Improves Carpet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    Explains how proper carpet installation can add to carpet life; includes tips to consider before signing a carpet-installation purchasing agreement that can make the new carpet a better investment. Topics cover how color selection lengthens appearance life, the need for moisture testing, the importance of carpet seams in the purchasing process,…

  6. How Did Life Emerge Here?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    This video segment adapted from NOVA describes the emergence of life on the islands of Hawai?i from a barren volcanic platform under the ocean waves to the rich explosion of life that covers the many climate zones of the islands today.

  7. A Philosophical Time of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manheimer, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Looks at aging from three perspectives: (1) a young person who notices thinning hair; (2) an older friend who is thinking about suicide if the quality of her life deteriorates; and (3) one leading a seminar on "Your New Life," for retirees considering a move. Describes the new meanings of aging in the socioeconomic context. (JOW)

  8. A "Second Life" for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the 3D virtual world known as Second Life and its potential as a learning platform. In the last few years, many colleges, universities, and libraries have established resources in what has become the preeminent multiuser virtual environment. Today, more than 100 Second Life "regions" are used for educational…

  9. Second Thoughts about Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

  10. Second Thoughts about Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Micheal J.

    2007-01-01

    Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

  11. The Role of Bundle Sheath Extensions and Life Form in Stomatal Responses to Leaf Water Status1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas N.; Sack, Lawren; Gilbert, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure with currently little-understood functions. To test the hypothesis that BSEs reduce the hydraulic resistance from the bundle sheath to the epidermis (rbe) and thereby accelerate hydropassive stomatal movements, we compared stomatal responses with reduced humidity and leaf excision among 20 species with heterobaric or homobaric leaves and herbaceous or woody life forms. We hypothesized that low rbe due to the presence of BSEs would increase the rate of stomatal opening (V) during transient wrong-way responses, but more so during wrong-way responses to excision (Ve) than humidity (Vh), thus increasing the ratio of Ve to Vh. We predicted the same trends for herbaceous relative to woody species given greater hydraulic resistance in woody species. We found that Ve, Vh, and their ratio were 2.3 to 4.4 times greater in heterobaric than homobaric leaves and 2.0 to 3.1 times greater in herbaceous than woody species. To assess possible causes for these differences, we simulated these experiments in a dynamic compartment/resistance model, which predicted larger Ve and Ve/Vh in leaves with smaller rbe. These results support the hypothesis that BSEs reduce rbe. Comparison of our data and simulations suggested that rbe is approximately 4 to 16 times larger in homobaric than heterobaric leaves. Our study provides new evidence that variations in the distribution of hydraulic resistance within the leaf and plant are central to understanding dynamic stomatal responses to water status and their ecological correlates and that BSEs play several key roles in the functional ecology of heterobaric leaves. PMID:21459977

  12. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The life support systems employed in manned space missions have generally been based on the use of expendables, such as, for instance, liquid oxygen. For the conducted space missions, such systems have advantages related to volume, weight, and economy of power consumption. However, this situation will change in connection with Shuttle Orbiter missions of extended duration, permanent manned facilities in low-earth orbit, and ultimately manned planetary vehicles. A description is given of suitable regenerative life support systems for such extended manned space missions. Attention is given to advanced life support systems technology, air revitalization, CO2 reduction, oxygen generation, nitrogen generation, trace contaminant control, air revitalization system integration, control/monitor instrumentation, water reclamation, solid waste management, manned testing and life support integration, an enhanced duration orbiter, a space operations center, manned interplanetary life support systems, and future development requirements.

  13. The evolution of complex life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1985-01-01

    The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

  14. Nutrition throughout life: folate.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Helene; Pentieva, Kristina; Hoey, Leane; Strain, Jj; Ward, Mary

    2012-10-01

    Scientific evidence supports a number of roles for folate in maintaining health from early life to old age. Folate is required for one-carbon metabolism, including the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine; thus elevated plasma homocysteine reflects functional folate deficiency. Optimal folate status has an established role in preventing NTD and there is strong evidence indicating that it also has a role in the primary prevention of stroke. The most important genetic determinant of homocysteine in the general population is the common 677C ? T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, MTHFR; homozygous individuals (TT genotype) have reduced enzyme activity and elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Meta-analyses indicate that the TT genotype carries a 14 to 21 % increased risk of CVD, but there is considerable geographic variation in the extent of excess CVD risk. A novel interaction between this folate polymorphism and riboflavin (a co-factor for MTHFR) has recently been identified. Intervention with supplemental riboflavin targeted specifically at individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype was shown to result in significant lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive people and in patients with CVD. This review considers the established and emerging roles for folate throughout the lifecycle, and some public health issues related to optimising folate status. PMID:23798054

  15. Photonics for life.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics. PMID:21642029

  16. Life stresses of slavery.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J O; Angel, J L

    1987-10-01

    Skeletal evidence exists for life stresses of 120 Black individuals from 25 sites in Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Periods for statistical comparison are eighteenth century, 1690-1770; Catoctin Furnace, Maryland industrial slaves, 1790-ca.1820; 1800-ca.1860, nineteenth century; and a twentieth-century Black sample compiled from forensic (accidental deaths) cases. From these archaeological sources, skeletal age at death shifts from 36 years, female, and 30 years, male in eighteenth century (N = 29) to 34.8, female, and 36.3, male in nineteenth century (N = 56). Catoctin Furnace slaves' longevity may reflect special conditions for skilled males (34.6 years, female; 41.2 years, male (N = 16). Nutritional stresses are indicated by dental lesions, hypoplasias, stature, and skull base height and pelvic brim index. Occupational stress occurs in some adolescents and in many adults as exaggerated development of lifting muscles (deltoid and pectoral crests) and early vertebral and shoulder breakdown. Lead content of bone may reflect site of occupation. The most common pathology is anemia or sicklemia; parietal depressions and ulna fractures ("parry") indicate violence-related trauma. PMID:3322027

  17. Protocells: At the Interface of Life and Non-Life

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wentao; Feng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The cellular form, manifesting as a membrane-bounded system (comprising various functional molecules), is essential to life. The ultimate reason for this is that, typically, one functional molecule can only adopt one “correct” structure to perform one special function (e.g., an enzyme), and thus molecular cooperation is inevitable. While this is particularly true for advanced life with complex functions, it should have already been true for life at its outset with only limited functions, which entailed some sort of primitive cellular form—“protocells”. At the very beginning, the protocells may have even been unable to intervene in the growth of their own membrane, which can be called “pseudo-protocells”. Then, the ability to synthesize membrane components (amphiphiles) may have emerged under selective pressure, leading to “true-protocells”. The emergence of a “chromosome” (with genes linked together)—thus avoiding “gene-loss” during the protocell division, was another key event in the evolution of protocells. Such “unitary-protocells”, containing a central genetic molecule, may have appeared as a milestone—in principle, since then life could evolve endlessly, “gaining” more and more functions by introducing new genes. To synthesize in laboratory these different types of protocells, which stand at the interface between life and non-life, would greatly enhance our understanding on the essence of life. PMID:25809963

  18. Cirugía en sitio erróneo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. García-Germán Vázquez; J. Sanz-Martín; F. Canillas del Rey; J. Sanjurjo-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    The term “wrong site surgery” refers to surgery carried out on the wrong side, in the wrong anatomical area or in the wrong patient. It can also indicate that the surgical procedure employed was not the one intended. In spite of being a rather neglected topic, wrong site surgery is a fairly usual complication in a surgeon's professional life

  19. Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannen L. Robson; Bernard Wood

    2008-01-01

    In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with,

  20. Evaluating Artificial Life and Artificial Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Keeley

    It is often heard in Artificial Life (A-Life) circles that contemporary biology studies life-as-we-know-it (an Earth based, carbon chain phenomenon), whereas A-Life takes as its domain of study life-as-it-could-be. But lacking a clear definition of \\

  1. Energy: It is life

    SciTech Connect

    Arques, P.

    1998-07-01

    The relationships that seem to exist between energy and man are presented in this paper. Habitually, social coefficients are connected to the gross domestic product; some parameters with correlations are: birth rate, infant mortality rate, death rate, literacy, etc. Along with energy these define the optimal energy consumption per capita; the author presents the correlation between these parameters and energy consumed per capita. There exists a high correlation between energy consumption per capita and gross domestic product per capita. The set of parameters considered are correlated with similar values relative to these two parameters. Using data collected on a group of the different countries of the world, a table of 165 countries and 22 variables has been drawn up. From the [Country x variable] matrix, a correlation table is calculated and a factorial analysis is applied to this matrix. The first factorial plan comprises 57% of the information contained in this table. Results from this first factorial plan are presented. These parameters are analyzed: influence of a country's latitude on its inhabitants' consumption; relationship between consumed energy and gross domestic product; women's fertility rate; birth rate per 1000 population; sex ratio; life expectancy at birth; rate of literacy; death rate; population growth rate. Finally, it is difficult to define precise criteria for: an optimal distribution of population according to age, but with a power consumed of above 300 W per capita, the population becomes younger; the birth rate per 1000 population; the total fertility rate per woman; the population growth rate. The authors determine that optimal energy is approximately between 200 W and 677 W inclusive.

  2. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  3. A year in the life of eLife.

    PubMed

    Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M; Weigel, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year. PMID:24137550

  4. Functional Fitness, Life Stress, and Transitions Across the Life Span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Nyland; James D. Abbott

    \\u000a Function refers to activities identified by a client as being essential to support physical, social, and psychological wellbeing\\u000a and to create a personal sense of a meaningful life (Physical Therapist Guide to Practice 2000; Brody 2002). Maintaining functional\\u000a fitness across the lifespan is essential both to independent living and to the overall quality of life. Functional fitness\\u000a is the presence

  5. Life as a cosmic imperative?

    PubMed

    de Duve, Christian

    2011-02-13

    The origin of life on Earth may be divided into two stages separated by the first appearance of replicable molecules, most probably of RNA. The first stage depended exclusively on chemistry. The second stage likewise involved chemistry, but with the additional participation of selection, a necessary concomitant of inevitable replication accidents. Consideration of these two processes suggests that the origin of life may have been close to obligatory under the physical-chemical conditions that prevailed at the site of its birth. Thus, an extrasolar planet in which those conditions were replicated appears as a probable site for the appearance of extra-terrestrial life. PMID:21220285

  6. Trends in space life support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Brouillet, Alfred O.

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years on development of candidate physico-chemical components for use in regenerative life support systems (LSS) for future extended-duration-mission spacecraft; these life support systems provide air revitalization including carbon dioxide reduction, water reclamation, and limited waste management. For still longer duration manned space flights, such as a permanently inhabited space station, it is generally recognized that development of biological life support systems capable of generating food and regenerating wastes will be essential to reduce logistics costs.

  7. [Marital status and life expectancy].

    PubMed

    Chen, M C; Lee, M L

    1997-06-01

    "[Many] researchers [have] used RMR (Relative Mortality Rate) to study marital status and mortality trying to reveal the selection and protection effects of marriage on death. This study instead employs life table technique to analyze their effects on life expectancy. Although this study does not intend to differentiate the relative importance between selection and protection effects,...modeling various hypothetical cohort's marital experiences in [the] life course allows us to control all [factors other] than the sole effect of marital status." (EXCERPT) PMID:12222460

  8. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases. PMID:25145270

  9. Potential Habitats for Exotic Life Within the Life Supporting Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Johannes J.; Firneis, Maria G.; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2010-05-01

    Questions like "Are we alone in the universe?", "How unique is Earth as a planet?" or "How unique is water-based life in the universe?" still are nowhere near of being answered. In recent years, discussions on these topics are more and more influenced by questions whether water is really the only possible solvent, or which conditions are necessary for life to evolve in planetary habitats. A change in our present geocentric mindset on the existence of life is required, in order to address these new questions [see also 1]. In May 2009 a new research platform at the University of Vienna was initiated in order to contribute to the solution of these questions. One task is to find essential biomarkers relevant to the problem of the detection of exotic life. In this context exotic life means: life, which is not necessarily based on a double bond between carbon and oxygen (C=O) and not on water as the only possible solvent. At present little is known about metabolistic systems, which are not based on C=O or on metabolisms which are operative in alternative solvents and a high effort of future laboratory work is necessary to open this window for looking for exotic life. To address the whole spectrum of life the concept of a general life supporting zone is introduced in order to extend the classical habitable zone (which is based on liquid water on a planetary surface, [2]). The life supporting zone of a planetary system is composed of different single "habitable zones" for the liquid phases of specific solvents and composites between water and other solvents. Besides exoplanetary systems which seem to be the most promising place for exotic life in our present understanding, some potential places could also exist within our Solar System and habitats like the subsurface of Enceladus, liquid ethane/methane lakes on Titan or habitable niches in the Venus atmosphere will also be taken into account. A preliminary list of appropriate solvents and their abundances in the Solar System and beyond have been compiled. Dynamical investigations (related to the interior of superearths), but also heat transport regimes and potential cycles with exotic solvents as well as tidal heating processes and their influence on the thermal regime of the planets will help to define the regions of potential exotic life more precisely. Atmospheric and subsurface cycles which can take place in such habitats as well as cloud and droplet formation with and without cloud nuclei cores will further extend our knowledge on mechanisms relevant for the stability of these systems. Finally the question of suitable biomarkers, which can enable the observation of exotic habitats and their potential life forms will be considered in the research platform. In this context a special topic is also the bandwidth of photosynthesis: how is the influence of different atmospheric gases and what are the environment conditions for the chemical reactions of photosynthesis? First preliminary results for the life supporting zones of selected planetary systems will be presented. References: [1] NRC (National Research Council)(2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, National Academies Press, Washington, DC 20001, ISBN 978-0-309-10484-5. [2] Kasting, J.F., Whitmore D.P. and Reynolds R.T. (1993) Icarus, 101, 109-128.

  10. SAS Honors Seminar 256: Extraterrestrial Life

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    SAS Honors Seminar 256: Extraterrestrial Life 12/1/2011 #12; Readings for Tuesday Cushman responses to extraterrestrial life" #12; Audio recordings for Tuesday From the 2010 Royal Society conference "Towards a scientific and societal agenda on extraterrestrial life" (http

  11. Life Jacket Policy Study 15 Jan 2012

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Life Jacket Policy Study 15 Jan 2012 #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................18 APPENDICES: A...........................LIFE JACKET MANDATE STUDY INTERIM REPORT B...........................RESERVED G...........................LIFE JACKET LOANER PROGRAM GUIDELINES H

  12. Regression with Life Data Table Of Contents

    E-print Network

    Langseth, Helge

    Regression with Life Data #12;#12;Table Of Contents Copyright © 2003­2005 Minitab Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Table Of Contents Regression with Life Data...................................................................................................................................................... 5 Regression with Life Data Overview

  13. The Greenpath, Celebrate life sustainably

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vinod

    The Greenpath, Celebrate life sustainably The Greenpath an eco from airport, 1 kms from MSRIMS, IISC, 1 kms from palace grounds, 3: Airport pick-up / drop: (Rs 900/-). Terms & Conditions · Check-in and Check

  14. Kids and Teachers Love LIFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Glenn S.

    1975-01-01

    The General Electric Project LIFE Program is described as incorporating motivational learning principles that make it attractive to hearing impaired students, other handicapped students and non-handicapped students alike. (GW)

  15. QUALITY of LIFE 2009 Report

    E-print Network

    of Business, Economic Development & Tourism #12;2 QUALITY OF LIFE IN HAWAI`I The QOL framework Development & Tourism (DBEDT). Three decades later, in 2005, the University of Hawai`i Center on the Family

  16. Last Days of Life (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

  17. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries Assault or Homicide Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  18. A Rooted Net of Life

    E-print Network

    Williams, David

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

  19. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry ...

  20. Anxiety disorders in late life.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775

  1. Building the Encyclopedia of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiafico, P. A.; Patterson, D. J.

    2010-04-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a collaborative project that indexes information about species, and makes it freely accessible to anyone. In order to accomplish this, EOL is building collaborative tools and infrastructure to unify the information.

  2. Humor and creative life styles.

    PubMed

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883

  3. Life of a Gypsy Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

  4. What Is a Life Cycle?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mike Reeske

    2001-01-01

    Just as living things go through a series of developmental stages from birth to death, products must also complete a life cycle--from design to disposal. However, the cycle does not stop with the end of life. In nature, living things die and serve as energy for animals, plants, and bacteria. Likewise, used products can be recycled into new products, or simply discarded as waste. In both cases, matter and energy are conserved. Unit One introduces these concepts using the Life Cycle of a Pencil poster. Through class discussion, you'll extend the ideas on thisvisual depiction to other common classroom items to emphasizethat all products have origins and fates--a life cycle. This free selection includes an Introduction and Table of Contents.

  5. Space life sciences: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The scientific research and supporting technology development conducted in the Space Life Sciences Program is described. Accomplishments of the past year are highlighted. Plans for future activities are outlined. Some specific areas of study include the following: Crew health and safety; What happens to humans in space; Gravity, life, and space; Sustenance in space; Life and planet Earth; Life in the Universe; Promoting good science and good will; Building a future for the space life sciences; and Benefits of space life sciences research.

  6. Life tables for worker honeybees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shôichi F. Sakagami; Hiromi Fukuda

    1968-01-01

    Summary  Life tables for worker honeybees covering all life span, and those for adults, were prepared for three seasonal cohorts,June bees, July bees andwintering bees. Survivorship curves forJune andJuly bees show a convex type being exceptional for insects, with relatively high mortality at egg and feeding larval stages and at\\u000a later adult stage after most bees became potential foragers. Adult longevity

  7. Half life of 175Hf.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kaihong; Wang, Dawei; Yang, Shaobo; Zhao, Jiangtao; Peng, Haibo; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Tieshan

    2012-10-01

    This work measured the half life of radioisotope (175)Hf, which was produced by neutron activation method at the ZF-300-II Intense Neutron Generator in Lanzhou University. The half life of (175)Hf, measured by ?-ray spectrometry using a well calibrated GEM-60P coaxial High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, has been found to be 70.65±0.19 days. The present result agrees with the literature data well, while the accuracy was improved. PMID:22871434

  8. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  9. Microbial genomes: Blueprints for life

    SciTech Connect

    Relman, David A.; Strauss, Evelyn

    2000-12-31

    Complete microbial genome sequences hold the promise of profound new insights into microbial pathogenesis, evolution, diagnostics, and therapeutics. From these insights will come a new foundation for understanding the evolution of single-celled life, as well as the evolution of more complex life forms. This report is an in-depth analysis of scientific issues that provides recommendations and will be widely disseminated to the scientific community, federal agencies, industry and the public.

  10. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Alumni Organization With a special presentation. Agricultural Research and Extension Center With updates from: Alan Grant, Dean, College of Agriculture and Life

  11. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  12. Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near. PMID:24354330

  13. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10?? in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

  14. Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept of “life course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept of “life course” within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences of “life course events and transitions” and understanding the manner by which “life events” and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle. PMID:22399576

  15. Integrating varieties of life course concepts.

    PubMed

    Alwin, Duane F

    2012-03-01

    A body of work referred to as the "life course" framework (also known as "life course theory," the "life course paradigm," and the "life course perspective") has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the "life course" is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept of "life course" is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how "life course" is distinguished from "life span" and "life cycle," among other "life" words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term "life course": (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley's age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept of "life course" within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences of "life course events and transitions" and understanding the manner by which "life events" and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle. PMID:22399576

  16. Evidence for Ancient Martian Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Three SNC meteorites ranging in age from 4.5 Ga. to 1.3 Ga. to 165 m.y. contain features suggestive, of past biogenic activity on Mars. Because we do not know what past martian life looks like or its physical or chemical properties, the only tools or criteria which the scientific community have to evaluate evidence of past life is to use evidence for early life on earth. There are features within ALH8400 I's carbonate globules and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration phases of Nakhla and Shergotty which have been interpreted as possible evidence for past life on early Mars. Eight criteria have been established for the recognition of past life within terrestrial geologic samples. They are: (a) geologic context; (b) sample's age and stratigraphic location (c) cellular morphology; (d) colonies; (e) biominerals; (f) stable isotope patterns unique to biology; (g) organic biomarkers; (h) indigenous features to the sample. For general acceptance of past life, essentially most or all of these criteria must be met. Studies have shown conclusively that the reduced carbon components in ALH84001 and Nakhla are indigenous to the meteorites and are not terrestrial contaminants Based on carbon isotopic compositions and mineralogical morphologies, there is no question or disagreement that the carbonate globules or embedded magnetites in ALH84001 and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products in Nakhla and Shergotty were formed on Mars. Possible microfossil structures and some reduced carbon components in the carbonates and pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products are, therefore, almost certainly indigenous, but other possible evidence for life (e.g. amino acids) may be a result of terrestrial contamination Our hypothesis of possible early life on Mars was presented in August 1996. Today, we believe it stands stronger than when originally presented. To date, no fatal strikes have been made to any of our original four lines of evidence. While details of the hypothesis are evolving as new data is generated, we believe that our basic premise remains intact: these meteorites contains evidence suggestive of early life on Mars.

  17. In Brief: Ocean life census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    The Census of Marine Life, an international effort to assess the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life, issued a report on 23 September summarizing the decade­long project that the organization calls “the most comprehensive inventory of known marine life ever compiled.” The census has involved more than 2700 scientists and 670 participating institutions from more than 80 nations and territories. In addition, three books were released on 23 September that provide an overview of census insights and their implications, a summary of findings and discoveries by the 17 census projects, and portraits of about 100 species. “The Census of Marine Life is the book of oceans' nature,” census cofounder Jesse Ausubel wrote in a forward to one of the books. Ausubel is vice president of programs for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which contributed $75 million to the $650 million census. “This book reports the known, unknown, and unknowable of the first Census of Marine Life. This book is about the richness of 3.5 billion years.” For more information, visit http://www.coml.org.

  18. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  19. Life and fl N* = 4 x 1011

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Life and fl #12;Recap N = N* fs · N* = 4 x 1011 · fs = 0.2 N = 8 x 1010 #12;Solar System · 8 fp Nh = 2.4 x 1011 #12;#12;What is Life? And will you know it when you see it? #12;Properties of Life ·Responds to the Environment ·Adapts and Evolves #12;Definitions of Life ·Thermodynamic: Produces order

  20. LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates

    E-print Network

    LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates December 14, 2011 Mike Dunne LLNL #12;NIf-1111-23714.ppt LIFE power plant 2 #12;LIFE delivery timescale NIf-1111-23714.ppt 3 #12;Timely delivery is enabled fusion options exist. NIF/LIFE allows timely integrated demonstration. · Fusion performance based

  1. Life Jacket Mandate Study Interim Report

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Life Jacket Mandate Study Interim Report 2 May 2008 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................18 XI. LIFE JACKET STUDY PRODUCT DELIVERY TEAM (PDT) PARTICIPANTS..19 2 #12;I. INTRODUCTION. A Life 327 that would require members of the public to wear a life jacket while recreating on Corps waters

  2. Distribution-Free Life Test Sampling Plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Barlow; Shanti S. Gupta

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes life test sampling plans which assume only that the life distribution has increasing or decreasing failure rate. Tables are presented showing the minimum number of items necessary to assure a specified mean life or percentile life when the experiment time is fixed in advance.

  3. Master's Thesis Life Cycles of Communities

    E-print Network

    Moon, Sue B.

    the life cycle of communities in online social network. Wefirst shows that the life expectancy of large Communities over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.2 Life Expectancy of CommunitiesMaster's Thesis Life Cycles of Communities in an Online Social Network ( You, Jinyoung) Department

  4. Measuring meaning in life following cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather S. Jim; Jason Q. Purnell; Susan A. Richardson; Deanna Golden-Kreutz; Barbara L. Andersen

    2006-01-01

    Meaning in life is a multi-faceted construct that has been conceptualized in diverse ways. It refers broadly to the value and purpose of life, important life goals, and for some, spirituality. We developed a measure of meaning in life derived from this conceptualization and designed to be a synthesis of relevant theoretical and empirical traditions. Two samples, all cancer patients,

  5. Life-Span Learning: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, James E.

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses learning as embedded processes of development and aging, and as social activity over the life course. The concept of life-span learning is proposed and outlined to discuss these processes as aspects of and propositions in life-span development and aging theory. Life-span learning processes arise and continuously develop in a…

  6. Search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Brack, A; Clancy, P; Fitton, B; Hoffmann, B; Horneck, G; Kurat, G; Maxwell, J; Ori, G; Pillinger, C; Raulin, F; Thomas, N; Westall, F

    1998-06-01

    A multi-user integrated suite of instruments designed to optimize the search for evidence of life on Mars is described. The package includes: -Surface inspection and surface environment analysis to identify the potential Mars landing sites, to inspect the surface geology and mineralogy, to search for visible surficial microbial macrofossils, to study the surface radiation budget and surface oxidation processes, to search for niches for extant life. -Subsurface sample acquisition by core drilling -Analysis of surface and subsurface minerals and organics to characterize the surface mineralogy, to analyse the surface and subsurface oxidants, to analyse the mineralogy of subsurface aliquots, to analyse the organics present in the subsurface aliquots (elemental and molecular composition, isotopes, chirality). -Macroscopic and microscopic inspection of subsurface aliquots to search for life's indicators (paleontological, biological, mineralogical) and to characterize the mineralogy of the subsurface aliquots. The study is led by ESA Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity Directorate. PMID:11541878

  7. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice. PMID:25518160

  8. TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY

    PubMed Central

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933

  9. Sunday Life Sunday Life's one big goal is to

    E-print Network

    Peters, Richard

    to purchase or activity. Every week, Sunday Life aims to celebrate two of the best things in the world: women and Sundays. Profile* Why Advertise* · Our readers are 84% more likely than average to be women daily The Dominion but moved into magazines soon after coming to Australia. She edited Cosmopolitan

  10. The Life and Times of Dick Ruggles: Village Life

    E-print Network

    Lanham, Neil

    returned with stories. Dick Ruggles is both. He is a keeper and custodian of the inherited tradition of his area (called Seanachie in Ireland).His stories are as passed on (some from his mother etc and some are folk tales) or from his experience of life...

  11. Colonial life versus solitary life in Cyrtophora citricola (Araneae, Araneidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Leborgne; T. Cantarella; A. Pasquet

    1998-01-01

    Summary: Among spiders, some species could be qualified as colonial. Individuals may live alone or in colonies where each spider exploits its own capture web in a communal network. We compared solitary with colonial life in Cyrtophora female populations from South-East Sicily in 1992 and 1993. We used 6 parameters to describe and compare the populations: spider size, web size,

  12. Life on Mars: New strategies to detect life on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey L. Bada; Mark A. Sephton; Pascale Ehrenfreund; Richard A. Mathies; Allison M. Skelley; Frank J. Grunthaner; Aaron P. Zent; Richard C. Quinn; Jean-Luc Josset; François Robert; Oliver Botta; Daniel P. Glavin

    2005-01-01

    The quest to determine whether life existed, or still exists, on Mars continues with several missions planned for the red planet by both the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the next few decades. One instrument designed for these missions is the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), which uses a new approach to achieve

  13. Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Niles

    2013-12-01

    An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water–ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length. PMID:24256858

  14. Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Niles

    2013-12-01

    An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water-ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length.

  15. Battery life test using reconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is presented on nickel cadmium battery life tests using reconditioning and some comparative tests not using reconditioning. The discussion is aimed at the program application part of the testing. The goals of the program were to get an increased utilization out of the battery system in geosynchronous orbit. An attempt was made to push the depth of discharge operation up around 80 to 85 percent and the intent with the reconditioning program was to extend this type of utilization out towards a 10-year life and attune the voltage regulation.

  16. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  17. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500?Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500?Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500?Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  18. Life on the Internet (PBS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The "Age of the Internet" has arrived and already it touches virtually every aspect of life - from medicine and religion to entertainment and publishing. It has affected the way people communicate and how they relate to one another, and has raised sensitive issues of privacy and national security. In April 1996 (check local listings), PBS presents LIFE ON THE INTERNET, a new 13-part series about the World Wide Web and the millions of people who use it every day. Each half-hour episode centers on a single topic, approaching it with depth and focus. Scott Simon of National Public Radio's "Weekend Edition Saturday" hosts. http://www.pbs.org/internet/

  19. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seddon, Rhea

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from the experiments conducted by the first Shuttle/Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, the Spacelab Life Sciences 1, launched on June 5, 1991. The experiments carried out during the 9-day flight included investigations of changes in the human cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal/endocrine, blood, and vestibular systems that were brought about by microgravity. Results were also obtained from the preflight and postflight complementary experiments performed on rats, which assessed the suitability of rodents as animal models for humans. Most results verified, or expanded on, the accepted theories of adaptation to zero gravity.

  20. Complicated grief in late life

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a syndrome that affects 10% to 20% of grievers regardless of age, although proportionally more will face the death of loved ones in late life, CG is characterized by preoccupying and disabling symptoms that can persist for decades such as an inability to accept the death, intense yearning or avoidance, frequent reveries, deep sadness, crying, somatic distress, social withdrawal, and suicidal ideation. This syndrome is distinct from major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, but CG maybe comorbid with each. This communication will focus on the impact of CG in late life (over age 60) and will include a case vignette for illustrating complicated grief therapy. PMID:22754292

  1. Thermionic cathode life test studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.; Elmer, P.

    1980-01-01

    An update on the life testing of commerical, high current density impregnated tungsten cathodes is presented. The B-type cathodes, operated at a current density of 2 A/cm2 and a cathode temperature of 1100 C have now been run satisfactorily for more than four years. The M-cathode, at the same current density but at an operating temperature of only 1010 C, have been tested for more than three years. The M-cathodes show no degradation in current over their present operating life whereas the current from the B-cathodes degrade about 6 percent after four years of operation.

  2. The Role of Bundle Sheath Extensions and Life Form in Stomatal Responses to Leaf Water Status1[W][OA

    E-print Network

    Sack, Lawren

    hydropassive stomatal movements, we compared stomatal responses with reduced humidity and leaf excision among wrong-way responses, but more so during wrong-way responses to excision (Ve) than humidity (Vh), thus the hydraulic coupling of the epidermis with the rest of the leaf. During natural transpiration, water

  3. Assessing the Impact of Life Changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Irwin G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Described the development of the life experiences survey for the measurement of life changes. It was designed to eliminate shortcomings of previous life stress measures and to allow for separate assessment of positive and negative life experiences. Studies bearing on the usefulness of the life experiences survey are presented. (Author/BEF)

  4. New life for heavy lift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Demeis

    1991-01-01

    The advisory committee to NASA on overall approaches for implementing the U.S. space program in the years ahead has concluded that Shuttle missions should only be flown when a human presence is necessary. It was noted that reducing the number of missions would extend the life of the existing fleet and retain the number of orbiters required at the presently

  5. Bellows high temperature cycle life

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, R.K. [Pathway Bellows, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In most cases, the bellows elements in an expansion joint are separated or insulated from the hot flow stream and have an actual bellows metal temperature (ABMT) that is much lower than the flow stream temperature. However, when the bellows are externally insulated or when the expansion joint is located inside a hot vessel, the ABMT can be very high. For these situations, the effects of temperature on bellows cycle life should be carefully considered. The design equations presented in the Standards of the expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA), ASME Section 8, Division 1, and ASME B31.3 do not currently provide cycle life equations or temperature correction factors for bellows operating in the creep temperature range. Therefore, a method is proposed which is specifically tailored to bellows for the estimation of high temperature cycle life based upon available test results. Data is also presented which demonstrates the effect of temperatures above and below 800 F on the cycle life of various bellows materials.

  6. Longer life for steam generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Douglas; S. J. Green

    1984-01-01

    Eight years ago, corrosion and tube denting seriously threatened the reliability and design life of steam generators, especially for closed loop arrangements in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Concentrated research by the Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG) diagnosed the causes and produced effective solutions, notably guidelines for water chemistry control in the secondary loop. The guidelines recommend specific levels of water

  7. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid. PMID:18409654

  8. Student-Life Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Student-Life Stress Inventory of B. M. Gadzella (1991) was studied. The inventory consists of 51 items listed in 9 sections indicating different types of stressors (frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed stressors) and reactions to the stressors (physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) as…

  9. Value-Able Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she made a major improvement to her fifth-grade lesson plan by providing a hands-on Internet experience before students worked on their own oil pastel still life. It was a success with beautiful finished products and highly motivated, engaged students. Details of this lesson are described in this article.

  10. Powering the Future with LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2009-04-28

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Leveraging the National Ignition Facility to meet the climate-energy challenge; (2) The journal into a new era of scientific discoveries; and (3) Safe and sustainable energy with LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy).

  11. |reportinglifesciencesresearch Reporting Life Sciences Research

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    For Life Sciences Articles that this information is reported. Reporting Experimental Design Sample size the experiments what sample size is needed to ensure statistical power of detection. If no sample size calculation was performed, the authors should report why they think the sample size is adequate to measure their effect size

  12. Transformations in Mid-Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Roger L.

    1979-01-01

    Between the ages of thirty-five and fifty, adults become engrossed in questioning the meaning of work, marriage, and life itself. In the process, they must confront long-held false beliefs in their own immortality, safety, and innocence. (Author)

  13. History of Life Through Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online exhibit explores the ancestor/descendant relationships of the three domains of organisms, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Topics include the fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics, and morphology of each domain. There is also a link to a list of available taxa for the Eukaryotic kingdoms (chromista, fungi, metazoa, plantae, and protista) and to reference material on phylogeny, cladistics and evolution.

  14. A Day in the Life...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansenberg, Dania; Branch, Jennifer L.; Silvennoinen, Anneli; Wilson, Kay; McClurg, Kati; Baffour-Awuah, Margaret; Clyde, Anne; Free, John; Oberg, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    These nine articles present narrative accounts of typical days in the working life of school librarians from all over the world. Includes school librarians, teacher-librarians, network librarians, Peace Corps volunteers, and Webmasters, as well as a report from the IASL (International Association of School Librarianship) Web site. (LRW)

  15. Observed Exoplanets and Intelligent Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, G. H. A.

    2006-05-01

    If intelligent life were common in the Universe, should we not be aware of it on Earth through contact with advanced space ships and automatic probes? Would we not at least expect to intercept communication signals between space travellers? That this is not found has led to much speculation in the past. Recent discoveries of planets around other stars (called here exoplanets) and, separately, recent discoveries in the evolution of life on Earth, including Homo sapiens, allow this question to be considered again but now with more information than before. This is the subject of the present paper. The study involves aspects of physics and chemistry in combination with biological studies. It is concluded here that the places where technologically capable intelligent life might be expected to be found in our Galaxy are so few that any such “centres of civilisation” must be separated by large distances, probably in excess of 50 light years. If true, this would make the different centres essentially isolated and would suggest that each manifestation of advanced intelligent life is a purely local development. This would agree with our experience of aloneness. Nevertheless, the number of centres throughout the Universe would still be astronomically large, even if each galaxy had only one centre. An hypothesis is proposed which could account for the existence of such centres in this form.

  16. Reactor service life extension program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Caskey; R. L. Sindelar; R. S. Ondrejcin; E. W. Baumann

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The

  17. Artificial Life in Computer Graphics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

  18. Quality of Life Project Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Eleanor; And Others

    The Quality of Life Project at Eastfield College (Texas), a set of campus and community activities designed to promote involvement in influencing the campus and community environments, is described by three people who were involved in its development and activities: Kathryn Berry, Coordinator of Student Services at Eastfield; Eleanor Ott,…

  19. Dating the Tree of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Benton; Francisco J. Ayala

    2003-01-01

    The relative merits of molecular and paleontological dates of major branching points in the tree of life are currently debated. In some cases, molecular date estimates are up to twice as old as paleontological dates. However, although it is true that paleontological dates are often too young (missing fossils), molecular dates are often too old (statistical bias). Intense study of

  20. IYA 2009 in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Adrienne J.; Gay, P. L.; New Media Working Group

    2008-05-01

    The New Media Group is working to create an IYA 2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA 2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA 2009 freebie avatar clothing will be placed in a variety of science-related places and other high traffic locations in SL. The IYA 2009 cornerstone project "From Earth to the Universe” is planned to be a portable exhibit in SL that can reside in temporary locations and be unveiled for special events. Interactive exhibits for "Years of Astronomy Timeline", "Galileo's Telescope", and "Dark Sky Awareness” will also be under design. Live events such as public lectures, coffee talks, and a web-streamed opening ceremonies SL party are also in the works. These are our ideas, now we want yours! Our ultimate plan is to bring together all those nationally and internationally interested in brainstorming, creating, and developing content, exhibits, and activities in Second Life for IYA 2009. Sharing resources, sponsorship, and land space will help us all succeed in bringing astronomy to the public in 2009 and beyond.

  1. IYA2009 in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, A.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-11-01

    The New Media Group is working to create an IYA2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA2009 freebie avatar clothing will be placed in a variety of science-related places and other high traffic locations in SL. The IYA 2009 cornerstone project ``From Earth to the Universe'' is planned to be a portable exhibit in SL that can reside in temporary locations and be unveiled for special events. Interactive exhibits for ``400 Years of Astronomy Timeline,'' ``Galileo's Telescope,'' and ``Dark Sky Awareness'' will also be under design. Live events such as public lectures, coffee talks, and a web-streamed opening ceremonies SL party are also in the works. Our ultimate plan is to bring together all those interested in brainstorming, creating, and developing content, exhibits, and activities in Second Life for IYA2009. Sharing resources, sponsorship, and land space will help us all succeed in bringing astronomy to the public in 2009 and beyond.

  2. Connections: Life Cycle Kinesthetic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Office, Grand Junction, CO.

    An understanding of the environment and peoples' role in its preservation and destruction must be acquired in order to circumvent the current threat of environmental deterioration. This document provides lessons developed to help students and others reconnect with the natural systems which sustain life. The following activities are provided for…

  3. Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, M.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Thomas, D.; Shackelford, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the early days of spaceflight, space life sciences data were been collected and stored in numerous databases, formats, media-types and geographical locations. While serving the needs of individual research teams, these data were largely unknown/unavailable to the scientific community at large. As a result, the Space Act of 1958 and the Science Data Management Policy mandated that research data collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration be made available to the science community at large. The Biomedical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch of the Space Life Sciences Directorate at JSC and the Data Archive Project at ARC, with funding from the Human Research Program through the Exploration Medical Capability Element, are fulfilling these requirements through the systematic population of the Life Sciences Data Archive. This program constitutes a formal system for the acquisition, archival and distribution of data for Life Sciences-sponsored experiments and investigations. The general goal of the archive is to acquire, preserve, and distribute these data using a variety of media which are accessible and responsive to inquiries from the science communities.

  4. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  5. Life Cycle of a Glacier

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An interactive slide show explores the journey of a single snowflake onto and through a glacier. This journey, which can take as much as 30,000 years to complete, shows that the life cycle of a glacier can be more complex than originally perceived.

  6. The Family & Life Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Mellie R.

    The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

  7. Observed Exoplanets and Intelligent Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. A. Cole

    2006-01-01

    If intelligent life were common in the Universe, should we not be aware of it on Earth through contact with advanced space ships and automatic probes? Would we not at least expect to intercept communication signals between space travellers? That this is not found has led to much speculation in the past. Recent discoveries of planets around other stars (called

  8. The Early History of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Nisbet; C. M. R. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly

  9. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a close-up of the working parts of the PLSS.

  10. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a wider view of the exposed interior working parts of the PLSS and its removed cover.

  11. Life Cycles and Inherited Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Young children are fascinated as they watch lizards, frogs, butterflies and other small animals develop through life stages, from being born to adult to death. Some of them experience pets at home, while others visit zoos and learn through online resources. Gardening offers an opportunity to observe stages of growth in plants and presents another view of the diversity of life. Characteristics of living organisms, their stages of life and the diversity around us are major concepts developed within this guide. Elementary students learn about growth and development and characteristics of organisms by observing plants and animals that are part of their immediate environment. Through these observations and experiences they begin to notice and develop an understanding that offspring resemble their parents; that characteristics (traits that are observed) are diverse even within same species; and that patterns and variations occur at every level of life. This foundation provides the basic building blocks that are instrumental to the further understanding of genes, traits, heredity and reproductions that they will study in later grades. All resources within this guide correspond to the National Science Education Standards and have been reviewed and evaluated by a team of experienced science teachers, taking into account the needs and concerns of elementary school teachers and students.

  12. Important Topics about Life & Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcraft, James S.

    This teacher's guide presents material suitable for junior and senior high school physical education, health, or home economics classes concerning life cycles and sex education. Unit 1, understanding the self, contains lessons on personality, self-image, defense mechanisms, peer groups, and the conformist. Unit 2, dating, contains lessons on going…

  13. Life on the Ice (Cube)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Whitt

    This article describes daily life and work at the IceCube telescope at the South Pole, Antarctica, and links to informational text about them. Versions are available for students in grades K-1, 2-3 and 4-5. Related science and literacy activities are included.

  14. Residence Life Missouri Hall 1100

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    they are currently in, next fall. This is an online process found under My Housing on Tru- view. Don't forget, for any online process you must fill the entire room. For more information on this process visit office at 660-785-4227 or res- life@truman.edu. For more information on this process visit the following

  15. The Chemistry of Life's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James P.

    1984-01-01

    From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

  16. Whole Life Living Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Alice R.; And Others

    This manual provides ideas to enable Whole Life Program staff and friends to begin expanding on ways to reach and teach survival skills to adults. A list of suggestions for use of the curriculum activities and process appears first. Activities are provided for 11 curriculum areas: emergency procedures; apartment safety; apartment upkeep; food…

  17. Alaska SeaLife Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.

  18. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    PubMed

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the displacement from a capacitance gap sensor and impedance spectra were measured at specific intervals. The average degradation in the stroke over the life test was found to be small (<3%) for the primary stacks and <4% for the redundant stacks. It was noted that about half of the stroke reduction occurred within the first 10 billion cycles. At the end of the life test, it was found that the actuator could recover about half of the lost stroke by applying a dc voltage of 100 V at room temperature. The data up to 100 billion cycles for these tests and the analysis of the experimental results are presented in this paper. PMID:21507759

  19. Life sciences domain analysis model

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R; Freund, Elaine T; Schick, Lisa; Sharma, Mukesh K; Stafford, Grace A; Suzek, Baris E; Hernandez, Joyce; Hipp, Jason; Kelley, Jenny M; Rokicki, Konrad; Pan, Sue; Buckler, Andrew; Stokes, Todd H; Fernandez, Anna; Fore, Ian; Buetow, Kenneth H

    2012-01-01

    Objective Meaningful exchange of information is a fundamental challenge in collaborative biomedical research. To help address this, the authors developed the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM), an information model that provides a framework for communication among domain experts and technical teams developing information systems to support biomedical research. The LS DAM is harmonized with the Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) model of protocol-driven clinical research. Together, these models can facilitate data exchange for translational research. Materials and methods The content of the LS DAM was driven by analysis of life sciences and translational research scenarios and the concepts in the model are derived from existing information models, reference models and data exchange formats. The model is represented in the Unified Modeling Language and uses ISO 21090 data types. Results The LS DAM v2.2.1 is comprised of 130 classes and covers several core areas including Experiment, Molecular Biology, Molecular Databases and Specimen. Nearly half of these classes originate from the BRIDG model, emphasizing the semantic harmonization between these models. Validation of the LS DAM against independently derived information models, research scenarios and reference databases supports its general applicability to represent life sciences research. Discussion The LS DAM provides unambiguous definitions for concepts required to describe life sciences research. The processes established to achieve consensus among domain experts will be applied in future iterations and may be broadly applicable to other standardization efforts. Conclusions The LS DAM provides common semantics for life sciences research. Through harmonization with BRIDG, it promotes interoperability in translational science. PMID:22744959

  20. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  1. Life from Non-Life? A Quantitative Determination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Michael Burnham N:Burnham; Michael ORG:Kent Denver School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD

    1995-06-30

    Students consider the origin of life as they carry out Pasteur's nutrient broth flash experiments, look at data both quantitatively and qualitatively, and use their data to attempt to define and recognize "life". Students find information on how to use microscopes and other equipment if this equipment is used. They have access to protocols and equipment needed to determine pH and turbidity, to make hanging-drop slides and agar plate transfers, to do vital staining, and to develop other tests as they determine necessary. They decide which tests to use and determine what the completed test results mean. At the conclusion of this project, students must submit a written document that supports their position, create a "science-fair" poster board that clearly illustrates their lab work and research, and present orally (lab coats and all) their Biotechnology Company's position to the class.

  2. Mid-life Crisis: Growth or Stagnation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Robert; Prosen, Harry

    1972-01-01

    Mid-life has developmental stages and particular tasks that must be successfully completed for growth to continue and psychological stagnation to be avoided. Characteristic of different phases of mid-life are three stages of ego mastery: alloplastic mastery is associated with early adulthood, autoplastic mastery is associated with maturity, and omniplastic mastery is found in old age. A special perspective on one's life and a need to examine one's life are found in mid-life. Difficulties can occur in dealing with this phase and the family physician can be of significant help to his patients who are working through the mid-life crisis. PMID:20468848

  3. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 - Dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) mission is discussed, and an overview of the SLS-1 Spacelab configuration is shown. Twenty interdisciplinary experiments, planned for this mission, are intended to explore the early stages of human and animal physiological adaptation to space flight conditions. Biomedical and gravitational biology experiments include cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary deconditioning, altered vestibular functions, altered metabolic functions (including altered fluid-electrolyte regulation), muscle atrophy, bone demineralization, decreased red blood cell mass, and altered immunologic responses.

  4. Habitability and Life - an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehöft, J. H.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The search for habitable planets has seen a significant boost, since much effort was invested into development of newer and more powerful techniques of detecting such planetary bodies. This search is fuelled by the interest that is sparked by its help in answering the bigger question of the origin of life on Earth and its abundance in the universe. Traditionally a planetary body has been deemed habitable when it provides conditions under which water is liquid. This led to the formulation of a habitable zone across stars, in which liquid water can exist. [1] Liquid water remains to this day the single most important feature in the search for life. There have been various suggestions of life being present in waterless environments like liquid hydrocarbons or even liquid ammonia, but how exactly a living system under such conditions might work, no one can satisfactorily explain. [2] A very important point in this context that is not often raised is that while water might be a favourable medium in which to live and certainly a major constituent of all living organism we know of, water alone is not alive and it will not spontaneously evolve into life. It would thus seem that apart from the presence of liquid water there a number of other, minor, necessary ingredients to life that determine whether a planet is habitable (meaning capable of sustaining life) or whether it is also capable of providing the starting grounds for the evolution of living systems. These other ingredients are determined by the minimum requirements of life itself. They include the molecular components of the most primitive encasing of an organism, the most primitive molecules needed for something like a metabolism and the most primitive way of storing information. [3] In addition to these molecular components, life must be able to utilise a source of energy to drive chemical reactions. Observations of various extremophiles on Earth utilising all kinds disequilibria suggest that these can be very diverse. The exact nature of these other ingredients, their possible presence and history of formation and their impact for the formation and evolution of life will be discussed for several different types of habitats all across the regime in which liquid water can be found, such as very dry and cold bodies like Mars, hot bodies like Venus, bodies covered completely in water or bodies with subsurface oceans. References [1] Kasting J.F., Whitmire D.P., Reynolds R.T., (1993) Icarus 101(1), 108-128 [2] Benner S.A., Ricardo A., Carrigan M.A. (2004) Curr Opin Chem Biol 8(6), 672-689 [3] Ruiz-Mirazo K., Peretó J., Moreno A., (2004) OLEB 34(3), 323-346 EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00039, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008

  5. The conception of life in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2012-12-01

    The phrase 'synthetic biology' is used to describe a set of different scientific and technological disciplines, which share the objective to design and produce new life forms. This essay addresses the following questions: What conception of life stands behind this ambitious objective? In what relation does this conception of life stand to that of traditional biology and biotechnology? And, could such a conception of life raise ethical concerns? Three different observations that provide useful indications for the conception of life in synthetic biology will be discussed in detail: 1. Synthetic biologists focus on different features of living organisms in order to design new life forms, 2. Synthetic biologists want to contribute to the understanding of life, and 3. Synthetic biologists want to modify life through a rational design, which implies the notions of utilising, minimising/optimising, varying and overcoming life. These observations indicate a tight connection between science and technology, a focus on selected aspects of life, a production-oriented approach to life, and a design-oriented understanding of life. It will be argued that through this conception of life synthetic biologists present life in a different light. This conception of life will be illustrated by the metaphor of a toolbox. According to the notion of life as a toolbox, the different features of living organisms are perceived as various rationally designed instruments that can be used for the production of the living organism itself or secondary products made by the organism. According to certain ethical positions this conception of life might raise ethical concerns related to the status of the organism, the motives of the scientists and the role of technology in our society. PMID:21484320

  6. Life support subsystem monitoring instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Kostell, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.

  7. Cycles: African Life Through Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interpretations of the human life cycle take many forms, including those offered by the fields of human development, biology, and perhaps most creatively, in the fields of visual culture and art. This lovely online exhibit from the Indianapolis Museum of Art explores this very topic as seen through the cultures of Africa and their various artistic traditions. The extremely aesthetically appealing interface presents four images that represent the different stages of life--ancestors, youth, adulthood, and leadership. Clicking on any of these brings the viewer into another section that contains a gallery and a glossary of terms. Each gallery features important African artifacts, such as figurines, headpieces, and paintings. As viewers click on each item, they are presented with information on the importance of each item, along with some material about the item in its original context. Designed for users of all ages, this exhibit is both visually appealing and worthy of several visits.

  8. Finnish life tables since 1751.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, V; Turpeinen, O; Nieminen, M

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the completed series of life tables from 1751 to 1995 that was used in identifying the four stages of mortality transition in Finland, separated by the years 1880, 1945, and 1970. The series documents all the different stages of mortality transition from high to low levels in an originally agricultural country experiencing many wars, famines, and other crises, as well as major political change. The cyclical fluctuation of the death rate in the 18th and 19th centuries is measured and examined in relation to epidemics, famines, and wars. Important permanent changes in mortality also took place in this period. Each of the successive stages of transition produced its own characteristic pattern of mortality change, which contrasted with those of the other stages. Finally, the age profile of the years added to life is drawn to illustrate the end result of each stage of mortality transition. PMID:12178149

  9. Loneliness across the life span.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Vanhalst, Janne; Harris, Rebecca; Van Roekel, Eeske; Lodder, Gerine; Bangee, Munirah; Maes, Marlies; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-03-01

    Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of loneliness-a component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents the motivation to reconnect with others that is triggered by perceived social isolation. Loneliness is often a transient experience because the RAM leads to reconnection, but sometimes this motivation can fail, leading to prolonged loneliness. We review evidence of how aspects of the RAM change across development and how these aspects can fail for different reasons across the life span. We conclude with a discussion of age-appropriate interventions that may help to alleviate prolonged loneliness. PMID:25910393

  10. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  11. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  12. Learning, life history, and productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Bock

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces a new model of the relationship between growth and learning and tests a set of hypotheses related\\u000a to the development of adult competency using time allocation, anthropometric, and experimental task performance data collected\\u000a between 1992 and 1997 in a multiethnic community in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Building on seminal work in life history\\u000a theory by Hawkes, Blurton

  13. Can Music Save Your Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Who hasn't at least once had the feeling of being remade through music? Who is there who does not date a new phase in life to hearing this or that symphony or song? But does music constantly provide revelation--or does it have some other effects, maybe less desirable? For those who teach, the question is especially pressing. Students tend to spend…

  14. Life Cycle of a Glacier

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This slide show follows a snowflake through its life in a glacier. The path of the ice crystal is traced from its incorporation in the zone of accumulation, through the zone of ablation to its final departure, whether being calved as an iceberg or melting or sublimated. There is also information on the speed of the glacier and the difference between a cold and a warm glacier.

  15. NTRE extended life feasibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

  16. The Secret Life of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Alan; Abramson, Louis

    2015-04-01

    We have learned much about galaxy evolution since z = 2, and something to even higher redshifts. How can it be that we know so little about! the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies? Although great progress has been made accumulating huge samples with only rudimentary properties, progress in galaxy evolution means connecting what we've learned to detailed measurements of the life-histories of specific - not just representative - systems.

  17. Water's quantum structures and life.

    PubMed

    Germano, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses several clues pointing to the spontaneous quantum origin of the recently discovered dissipative structures induced in liquid water by low-energy physical perturbations. These structures show an astonishing permanence, so much that large ponderal quantities of supramolecular aggregates of water - at ambient pressure and temperature - subsist even in the solid phase, strongly suggesting the possibility that these structures are the matrix itself of life. PMID:26098524

  18. A distinct dinosaur life history?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Varricchio

    2011-01-01

    Five factors, mobile terrestrial lifestyle, oviparity, parental care, multi-year maturation and juvenile sociality, contribute to a distinct life history for Mesozoic dinosaurs in comparison to extant archosaurs and mammals. Upright, para-sagittal gait reflects several synapomorphies of Dinosauria, and wide histological sampling suggests that multi-year maturation typified dinosaurs across a range of body sizes. Fossil support for juvenile sociality exceeds that

  19. Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rossman, Allan

    This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

  20. Observed Exoplanets and Intelligent Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. A. Cole

    2006-01-01

    If intelligent life were common in the Universe, should we not be aware of it on Earth through contact with advanced space\\u000a ships and automatic probes? Would we not at least expect to intercept communication signals between space travellers? That\\u000a this is not found has led to much speculation in the past. Recent discoveries of planets around other stars (called