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1

Wrongful life and birth.  

PubMed

The main scope of the article is the bioethical and legal issues of wrongful birth and wrongful life with reference to doctors' medical liability. Nowadays, prenatal tests tend to substitute the eugenic practice of Spartan inspection to raise a strong and healthy child. Should the doctor misinform the parents that the child is healthy and the parents do not exercise the right to abort the pregnancy, the doctor can be held liable and claims on wrongful life or birth are raised against him. "Wrongful life" is an oxymoron itself since "life" which has an intrinsic value and sanctity is attributed a negative aspect and is regarded as damage. Courts around the world have awarded parents compensation on that legal ground. In the Perruche affair (2000), where the mother was wrongly diagnosed and gave birth to Nicholas, who had serious neurological problems, the court conferred the right on the child itself, causing an uproar in France. The decision was criticized for encouraging eugenics and diminishing the value of handicapped people. The different approaches to the above issues by different courts around the world (US, EU) with reference to (bio) ethical concerns are going to be examined. We will try to give an answer on whether it is possible for courts to support on legal and bioethical grounds that a child with disabilities should not have been born as a result of the doctor's negligent conduct. In such cases, the limits of normality and the value of life are challenged PMID:22908740

Evgenia, Smyrnaki

2012-03-01

2

Wrongful life: some of the problems.  

PubMed

The author considers that some of the reasonings used by both the American and English courts against recognising a wrongful life claim are far from persuasive. However, there may indeed be strong public policy reasons against judicial recognition of such a claim. If judicial remedy is not possible for children in wrongful life situations, society ought to assist them in the alleviation of some of the practical problems caused by deformities. PMID:2956424

Liu, A N

1987-06-01

3

My life changing experience following wrong site surgery.  

PubMed

Since being asked to write this article for the Journal of Perioperative Practice, I have been thinking a lot more about myself being a patient and not so much as a medical professional. Before this, being an Orthopaedic Nurse Practitioner took precedence as I couldn't get my head around being a patient or indeed that I had suffered as a result of wrong site surgery! PMID:19908669

McMonagle, Claudia

2009-10-01

4

'Wrongful life' lawsuits for faulty genetic counselling: should the impaired newborn be entitled to sue?  

PubMed

A "wrongful life" suit is based on the purported tortious liability of a genetic counsellor towards an infant with hereditary defects, with the latter asserting that he or she would not have been born at all if not for the counsellor's negligence. This negligence allegedly lies in the failure on the part of the defendant adequately to advice the parents or to conduct properly the relevant testing and thereby prevent the child's conception or birth (where unimpaired life was not possible). This paper will offer support for the thesis that it would be both feasible and desirable to endorse "wrongful life" compensation actions. The genetic counsellor owed a duty of due professional care to the impaired newborn who now claims that but for the counsellor's negligence, he or she would not have been born at all. The plaintiff's defective life (where healthy life was never an option) constitutes a compensable injury. A sufficient causal link may exist between the plaintiff's injury and the defendant's breach of duty of due professional care and an appropriate measure of damages can be allocated to the disabled newborn. Sanctioning a "wrongful life" cause of action does not necessarily entail abandoning valuable constraints with regard to abortion and euthanasia. Nor does it inevitably lead to an uncontrolled slide down a "slippery slope". PMID:9873975

Shapira, A

1998-12-01

5

'Wrongful life' lawsuits for faulty genetic counselling: should the impaired newborn be entitled to sue?  

PubMed Central

A "wrongful life" suit is based on the purported tortious liability of a genetic counsellor towards an infant with hereditary defects, with the latter asserting that he or she would not have been born at all if not for the counsellor's negligence. This negligence allegedly lies in the failure on the part of the defendant adequately to advice the parents or to conduct properly the relevant testing and thereby prevent the child's conception or birth (where unimpaired life was not possible). This paper will offer support for the thesis that it would be both feasible and desirable to endorse "wrongful life" compensation actions. The genetic counsellor owed a duty of due professional care to the impaired newborn who now claims that but for the counsellor's negligence, he or she would not have been born at all. The plaintiff's defective life (where healthy life was never an option) constitutes a compensable injury. A sufficient causal link may exist between the plaintiff's injury and the defendant's breach of duty of due professional care and an appropriate measure of damages can be allocated to the disabled newborn. Sanctioning a "wrongful life" cause of action does not necessarily entail abandoning valuable constraints with regard to abortion and euthanasia. Nor does it inevitably lead to an uncontrolled slide down a "slippery slope". PMID:9873975

Shapira, A

1998-01-01

6

VENUS: Hypothetical life found at ``a wrong place''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The position of the hypothetical habitability zone in extrasolar planetary system was considered by many authors. Approximately 1/4 of exoplanets orbit their stars at very low orbits, which leads to high temperatures of their surface (if any), up to 800 K or more. Some of them should have the physical conditions close to those of Venus. Is there any possibility that the life forms can exist at quite different environment than “normal”, Earth-like physical settings? Namely the planet Venus could be the natural laboratory for studies of this type, having the dense, hot (735 K) oxygenless CO2 - atmosphere and high, 9.2 MPa, pressure at the surface. It should be recalled that the only existing data of actual close in TV-observations of Venus’ surface are the results of a series of missions of the Russian VENERA landers which took place the 1970s and 80s, working in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. No other results of this kind were obtained since. A re-examination of images of Venusian surface returned from the VENERA landers has been undertaken using a modern processing technique, with a view to detect any possible signs of life under the specific conditions on Venus. This speculative identification rests on two characteristics of these features: (a) their somewhat suggestive morphology and (b) their temporal appearance and behavior (present, than absent on subsequent images of the same area; or changing appearances). The re-exemination has identified previously unreported features that may correspond to hypothetical life forms on Venus’ surface. A new analysis and comparison of the content of the sequence of panoramas of the Venusian surface made in 2013, allowed the author to detect some new interesting objects displayed on the panoramas that hypothetically may be related to fauna and flora of the planet. Some of the objects found were described in a dozen of papers (2012, 2013). There are also found and listed in the report images of objects with special morphology resembling the shape of some terrestrial fauna and flora. References: Ksanfomality L.V. 2013 Doklady Physics. 58 (5), 204 Ksanfomality L.V. 2013 Doklady Physics. 58 (11), 514

Ksanfomality, Leonid

7

The "Radioactive Dice" Experiment: Why Is the "Half-Life" Slightly Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "radioactive dice" experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and…

Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

2012-01-01

8

Neither Right nor Wrong: How a Teacher Integrates Her Personal and Professional Life with Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the importance of recognizing and appreciating the ways that a teacher integrates her personal and professional life with an English-only policy. Much can be learned from the ways in which she negotiates social forces and integrates them into her individual reality while making sense of the restrictive language policy.…

Bunten, Bridget A.

2014-01-01

9

What's wrong with quality-of-life measures? A philosophical reflection and insights from neuroimaging.  

PubMed

The authors propose a reflection on quality of life (QoL) measures in medicine following the work of G. Canguilhem on health and disease and the latest results from neuroimaging. The use of QoL measures implies that the tension between the two competing visions of health (i.e., normative and descriptive) needs to be overcome. A profound cultural change is needed if we want clinicians, researchers and decision makers to suspend their prevailing scientific ideologies about disease and examine the content of the patient's experience. Another issue that concerns the direction of future QoL is that until now, the available measurements and recent work were ambiguous, trying to find a commonly acceptable, intermediate position halfway between these normative and descriptive visions. It may be time to discard the medical normative vision and instead assume a radically humanistic approach to medicine by providing purely descriptive measures based on the values and emotions of patients. PMID:25269567

Boyer, Laurent; Baumstarck, Karine; Guedj, Eric; Auquier, Pascal

2014-12-01

10

What's wrong with contraception?  

PubMed

A "reader's exchange" question solicited information on how readers respond when asked what is wrong with contraception. One correspondent couple wrote that their response is dependent upon their assessment of the questioner's perspective. Responses they use are 1) that the Catholic Church teaches that contraception is wrong and it is okay to accept this teaching in faith; 2) the Church teaches that every act of sexual intercourse must be open to life; 3) the God-given gift of intercourse involves pleasure and procreation, it is wrong to accept only part of the gift; 4) oral contraceptives have abortifacient properties; and 5) natural family planning involves temperance whereas contraception allows behavior which is similar to gluttony. A second correspondent wrote that the use of contraception makes humans behave like animals and allows them to be "takers" rather than "givers." A third letter-writer maintained that the use of contraception prohibits true love, total commitment, and complete acceptance on the part of a married couple. Contraception attempts to create a utopia and obviates the pain and suffering which are necessary in order to find true love and true happiness. PMID:12345571

Rice, L; Rice, B

1994-01-01

11

10 years of controversy, twists and turns in the Perruche wrongful life claim: compensation for children born with a disability in France.  

PubMed

Since March 1st, 2010, French citizens have been able to call on a new legal procedure for defending their rights: the priority preliminary ruling on issues of constitutionality (question prioritaire de constitutionnalité, QPC). If, during a trial, a citizen considers that a provision of the applicable law is inconsistent with the Constitution of the French Republic, he/she may request that the matter be referred to the Constitutional Council. One ofthe first QPCs concerned legislation related to the Perruche jurisprudence. In a ruling on November 17th, 2000, the French Supreme Court of Appeal had granted the child Nicolas Perruche the right to financial compensation for the material costs related to his physical disability (caused by congenital rubella). In response, Article 1 of the Patients' Rights and Quality of Care Act (passed on March 4th, 2002) prohibited the award of compensation to a child "just because he/she has been born [with a disability]", i.e. in "wrongful life" claims. Since the enactment of the Act, compensation in a case like Perruche may only be awarded to cover the parents' psychological suffering, rather than the child's status at birth. The application of this "anti-wrongful life claim" legislation has since been subject of heated debate. In a QPC ruling on June 11th, 2010, the Constitutional Council found that Article 1 of the Patients' Rights and Quality of Care Act was (with the exception of its transitional provisions) indeed consistent with the Constitution of the French Republic. PMID:23447909

Manaouil, C; Gignon, M; Jardé, O

2012-12-01

12

Torts as Public Wrongs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article is a rejoinder to the civil recourse theorist's claim that tort law will be better served by retreating to the philosopher's prefecture of private wrongs. A subsidiary goal of this Article is to refute John Goldberg's claim that my sociologically-inspired theory of torts as public wrongs serves the interests of tort reformers rather than American consumers. In a

Michael L. Rustad

2012-01-01

13

Late-Life Decline in Well-Being Across Adulthood in Germany, the UK, and the US: Something is Seriously Wrong at the End of Life  

PubMed Central

Throughout adulthood and old age, levels of well-being appear to remain relatively stable. However, evidence is emerging that late in life well-being declines considerably. Using long-term longitudinal data of deceased participants in national samples from Germany, the UK, and the US, we examine how long this period lasts. In all three nations and across the adult age range, well-being was relatively stable over age, but declined rapidly with impending death. Articulating notions of terminal decline associated with impending death, we identified prototypical transition points in each study between three and five years prior to death, after which normative rates of decline steepened by a factor of three or more. The findings suggest that mortality-related mechanisms drive late-life changes in well-being and highlight the need for further refinement of psychological concepts about how and when late-life declines in psychosocial functioning prototypically begin. PMID:20545432

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Mayraz, Guy; Hidajat, Mira; Lindenberger, Ulman; Wagner, Gert G.; Schupp, Jurgen

2010-01-01

14

Late-Life Decline in Well-Being Across Adulthood in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States: Something Is Seriously Wrong at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout adulthood and old age, levels of well-being appear to remain relatively stable. However, evidence is emerging that late in life well-being declines considerably. Using long-term longitudinal data of deceased participants in national samples from Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, we examined how long this period lasts. In all 3 nations and across the adult age range,

Denis Gerstorf; Nilam Ram; Guy Mayraz; Mira Hidajat; Ulman Lindenberger; Gert G. Wagner; Jürgen Schupp

2010-01-01

15

Rights and Wrongs...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue concerns itself with several conflicts between individual rights and allegedly wrongful acts that the Supreme Court has not considered previously. The articles on these topics illuminate the constitutional issues of equal protection, due process, and freedom of expression. Specific issues addressed include: (1) equal educational…

Update on the Courts, 1996

1996-01-01

16

New developments concerning wrongful termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronicles that managers and organizations are faced with unforeseen liability from situations and circumstances that have typically been standard employment practices. Discusses how some managers, through their actions, create wrongful termination liability – many times without the knowledge that they have created the situation themselves. Defines when wrongful termination liability is created; what constitutes wrongful termination; when and how to

Larry Stahlhoefer; Brian H. Kleiner

2003-01-01

17

Potty Training Gone Terribly Wrong  

E-print Network

-intestinal tract," that is, "drastic toilet training". Happily, Western understanding of Japan has improved over the years and today no one would suggest that Pearl Harbor was the result of potty training gone terribly wrong. At least not in public... #ceas...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-05-31

18

Why is the ethics of euthanasia wrong?  

PubMed

Human beings are made in the image and likeness of God and are therefore of intrinsic worth or value, beyond all prices. Almost all Christian pro-life arguments spring from the fountain of personal dignity. Euthanasia would make moral sense only if it were possible to say, morally, that this dignity had vanished. To commit euthanasia is to act with the specific intention that somebody should be nobody. This is the fundamental error of all immorality in human relations. To commit euthanasia is to fail to see the intrinsic worth or dignity of the person. The judgement that what has worth, intrinsically, somehow does not have worth, is both logically and morally wrong. The ethics of euthanasia is based on dualistic anthropology and wrong moral presuppositions underlying the defence of euthanasia, namely, proportionalism and consequentialism. The basic claim of proponents of the ethics of euthanasia is that human persons are consciously experiencing subjects whose dignity consists of their ability to made choices and to determine their own lives. Bodily life, according to them, is a condition for personal life because without bodily life one cannot be a consciously experiencing subject. It means that bodily life is distinct from personal life. Thus, the body and bodily life are instrumental goods, goods for the person, not goods of the person. It thus follows that there can be such a thing as a life not worth living--one can judge that bodily life itself is useless or burdensome, and when it is, the person, i.e., the consciously experiencing subject, is at liberty to free himself of this useless burden. Today a key in fighting euthanasia and assisted suicide is better care for the sick and dying. The dignity of the sick cannot be erased by illness and suffering. Such procedures are not private decisions; they affect the whole society. Death with dignity, in the end, is the realisation that human beings are also spiritual beings. We have to promote the way of caring for the dying in which mercy is extended to the patients without inducing death. PMID:16294446

Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

2004-01-01

19

Possible Life Found at a Wrong Place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A re-examination of images of venusian surface returned from the VENERA landers 32 years ago has been undertaken using a modern processing technique. It allowed the detection of some new interesting entities that hypothetically may be related to fauna and flora of the planet.

Ksanfomality, L. V.

2014-06-01

20

Living with the Wrong Sign  

E-print Network

We describe a UV complete asymptotically fragile Lorentz-invariant theory exhibiting superluminal signal propagation. Its low energy effective action contains "wrong" sign higher dimensional operators. Nevertheless, the theory gives rise to an S-matrix, which is defined at all energies. As expected for a non-local theory, the corresponding scattering amplitudes are not exponentially bounded on the physical sheet, but otherwise are healthy. We study some of the physical consequences of this S-matrix.

Patrick Cooper; Sergei Dubovsky; Ali Mohsen

2013-12-06

21

Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

Birks, David

2014-01-01

22

Righting wrongs and reforming rights.  

PubMed

Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

Ivey, Laurie C

2014-03-01

23

An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

Donlon, Thomas F.

24

Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

2011-01-01

25

Why wrongful birth actions are right.  

PubMed

A wrongful birth action is a claim in negligence brought by parents of a child against a doctor who has "wrongfully" caused their child to be born. These claims can be divided into two categories: those where a doctor performs a failed sterilisation procedure that leads to a healthy child being born; and those where a doctor fails to provide sufficient information to allow parents to choose to abort a handicapped child. The recent decision of the High Court of Australia in Cattanach v Melchior (2003) 77 ALJR 1312 falls into the former category. The decision to allow the parents to receive damages for the costs of raising and maintaining their child has generated much public debate. Despite the endorsement of this "wrongful birth" action, there are indications that the legislature will overturn the decision. This article examines whether there is a sound doctrinal basis for recognising wrongful birth actions. PMID:14655586

Dimopoulos, Penny; Bagaric, Mirko

2003-11-01

26

"Doing the Wrong Thing Righter"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a misplaced rush for economic prosperity through vocational training, adults are in danger of elbowing aside their potential as learning and civic communities. In this article, the author argues that a skills strategy must be integrated within a broader learning-for-life vision which ranges over every aspect of learning in health, in social…

Hooper, Richard

2007-01-01

27

The Wrongful Conviction of Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of claims that faulty forensic science is a leading cause of wrongful convictions. This sentiment has been reported at length by major news outlets across the United States. It has also been a matter of great concern to a group of activists in what is known as the innocence network

John M. Collins; Jay Jarvis

2009-01-01

28

Are the Textbook Writers Wrong about Capacitors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refutes a recent article which stated that the standard textbook treatment of two capacitors in series is wrong. States that the calculated capacitance is correct if measured immediately after a dc voltage is applied and that perhaps the effect is due to the choice of materials making up the capacitor. (MVL)

French, A. P.

1993-01-01

29

The Do It Wrong Approach to Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deliberately writing badly can be an effective way to learn to write better because knowing when writing is bad is an essential element in knowing when it's good. There are distinct advantages to encouraging students to learn the rules by breaking them. Deliberately doing it wrong removes the threat of failure. Students are playing; they are…

Grow, Gerald

30

What's wrong with animal by-products?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without looking beyond the conditions under which laying hens typically live in the contemporary U.S. egg industry, we can understand why the production and consumption of factory farmed eggs could be judged immoral. However, the question, What (if anything) is wrong with animal by-products? cannot always be adequately answered by looking at the conditions under which animals live out their

Gary E. Varner

1994-01-01

31

Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? Xiaojin Zhu  

E-print Network

Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? Xiaojin Zhu Department of Computer Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison October 2010 (University of Wisconsin) Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? 1 / 33 #12;Iris Learns "Cow" (University of Wisconsin) Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? 2 / 33 #12;Iris Learns "Cow

Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

32

When experiments go wrong: the U.S. perspective.  

PubMed

The view that once prevailed in the U.S.--that research is no more dangerous than the activities of daily life--no longer holds in light of recent experience. Within the past few years, a number of subjects (including normal volunteers) have been seriously injured or killed in research conducted at prestigious institutions. Plainly, when we are talking about research going wrong, we're talking about something very important. We have seen that experiments can go wrong in several ways. Subjects can be injured--physically, mentally, or by having other interests violated. Investigators can commit fraud in data collection or can abuse subjects. And review mechanisms--such as IRBs--don't always work. The two major issues when research goes wrong in any of these ways are, first: What will be done for subjects who have suffered an injury or other wrong? and second: How will future problems be prevented? The present system in the U.S. is better at the second task than the first one. Part of the difficulty in addressing the first lies in knowing what "caused" an apparent injury. Moreover, since until recently the problem of research-related injuries was thought to be a small one, there was considerable resistance to setting up a non-fault compensation system, for fear that it would lead to payment in many cases where such compensation was not deserved. Now, with a further nudge from the NBAC there is renewed interest in developing a formal system to compensate for research injuries. Finally, I have tried to show that our system of local oversight is only partially effective in improving the design of experiments and the consent process in light of "unexpected (adverse) results." As many observers, including the federal General Accounting Office (GAO), have reported, the requirement for "continuing review" of approved research projects is the weak point in the IRB system. The probable solution would be to more strictly apply the requirement that investigators report back any adverse results, de-emphasizing the "screen" introduced by the present language about "unexpected" findings. Yet, despite its weaknesses, there are good aspects to the local basis of our oversight system, and when problems become severe enough, OHRP is likely to evaluate a system and insist on local improvements. Thus, while the U.S. system is far from perfect in responding when research goes wrong, our experience may be useful to others in crafting a system appropriate to their own circumstances. One of the major tasks will be to adequately define what triggers oversight--that is, who reports what to whom and when? The setting of this trigger needs to balance appropriate incentives and penalties. Any system, including our own, will, in my opinion, work much better once an accreditation process is in place, which will offer much more current and detailed information on how each IRB is functioning and what steps are needed to help avoid "experiments going wrong." PMID:15202353

Capron, Alexander M

2004-01-01

33

Developing a Criminology of Wrongful Conviction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief history of the study of miscarriages of justice in America. It analyzes the field of wrongful conviction scholarship as three distinct genres: the big-picture studies, the specialized-causes literature, and the true-crime genre. It also analyzes what these literatures have contributed to knowledge about miscarriages as well as their limitations. This article attempts to rethink the

Richard A. Leo

34

What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?  

PubMed Central

The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

Horden, Peregrine

2011-01-01

35

What Is Wrong With This Picture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This drawing depicts people taking care of their home and car in ways that damage the environment, especially our water. Clicking on areas of the picture produces explanations of what people are doing wrong and how we can better protect the environment. Mistakes include dumping motor oil down a storm drain, leaving oil and antifreeze to leak out of a car, using fertilizer and pesticides improperly, sprinkling the sidewalk, throwing away grass clippings and leaves, littering, and eroding stream banks by removing plants and trees.

36

Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package is a collection of models for electrostatics with errors intentionally built into each model. Users can move charges around and see the force, observe the electric field generated by charge configurations, and observe the motion of test particles in electric fields to try to identify the errors in the simulation. Users can inspect, modify and correct any simulation in the package by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The package also includes a brief overview of programming basics needed to correct the models. The Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_electric_wiw.jar file will launch the package if Java is installed. Navigate within the package and click on a green triangle to run a particular simulation. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available on ComPADRE.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2010-04-16

37

Science Shorts: Hypothesis Testing--It's Okay to Be Wrong  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students often seek affirmation from their teachers about their thinking and can be embarrassed at the thought of being "wrong." In science, we want children to feel comfortable making hypotheses and to know that it's the investigative process--not being right or wrong--that really counts. In the following activity, students will participate in an experiment where they are likely to formulate a hypothesis that will ultimately be unsupported. Because most of the class will have made similar hypotheses, students won't feel singled out in being "wrong." Furthermore, students will see that surprise findings can be more interesting than outcomes that were suspected all along.

Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

2009-02-01

38

Approaches to Biology Teaching and Learning: Understanding the Wrong Answers--  

E-print Network

in designing learning experiences for students. MOVING FROM KNOWING FACTS TOWARD DEEP UNDERSTANDING THROUGHFeature Approaches to Biology Teaching and Learning: Understanding the Wrong Answers-- Teaching, 1993, 2001; National Research Council, 1996). However, this transition to teaching toward deep

39

Locating the wrongness in ultra-violent video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremely high level of simulated violence in certain recent video games has made some people uneasy. There is a concern\\u000a that something is wrong with these violent games, but, since the violence is virtual rather than real, it is difficult to\\u000a specify the nature of the wrongness. Since there is no proven causal connection between video-game violence and real

David I. Waddington

2007-01-01

40

Damages claim for wrongful birth due to a systems failure.  

PubMed

Health professionals are well versed in the need to have systems in place which avoid mishaps happening to patients due to human error or breakdown in communications: for example, legal actions for damages for operations wrongfully performed on patients due to a failure in the identification process; surgery involving the wrong limb or organ; medications being given to the wrong patient. Hospitals set in place systems by which a patient's name and procedures to be performed are checked multiple times throughout the patient's stay. This process is particularly vital when a patient is undergoing a surgical procedure which will be performed under anaesthesia. Nevertheless, systems failures continue to occur resulting in claims for damages by affected patients. PMID:23705133

Mair, Judith

2012-01-01

41

Wrong site frenulectomy in a child: a serious safety event.  

PubMed

Wrong site surgery is a serious safety event that can result in temporary or even permanent harm. Various safety checklists and procedures have been added to our standard work in the operating room, but errors still get through our safety nets and patients are harmed. In this case report, we describe a wrong site frenulectomy in a child and discuss the root cause analysis of this error and also SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timed) preventative actions that could be put into place to prevent a recurrence. PMID:24945126

Rampersad, Sally; Rossi, Michael G; Yarnell, Christie; Uejima, Tetsu

2014-07-01

42

Washington v. Glucksberg was tragically wrong.  

PubMed

Properly focused, there were two questions before the Supreme Court in Washington v. Glucksberg. First, in light of all of the other non-textual rights protected by the Supreme Court under the "liberty" of the Due Process Clause, is the right to assisted death a fundamental right? Second, if so, is the prohibition of assisted death necessary to achieve a compelling interest? Presented in this way, it is clear that the Court erred in Washington v. Glucksberg. The right of a terminally ill person to end his or her life is an essential aspect of autonomy, comparable to aspects of autonomy that the Court has protected in decisions concerning family autonomy, reproductive autonomy, and autonomy to engage in sexual activity. Moreover, the government's general interest in protecting life and preventing suicide has far less force when applied to a terminally ill patient. The tragedy of Washington v. Glucksberg is that every day across the country, terminally ill patients are being forced to suffer longer and being denied an essential aspect of their autonomy and personhood. PMID:18595212

Chemerinsky, Erwin

2008-06-01

43

Clinical profile of congenital coronary artery anomalies with origin from the wrong aortic sinus leading to sudden death in young competitive athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study is to characterize the clinical profile and identify clinical markers that would enable the detection during life of anomalous coronary artery origin from the wrong aortic sinus (with course between the aorta and pulmonary trunk) in young competitive athletes.BACKGROUNDCongenital coronary artery anomalies are not uncommonly associated with sudden death in young athletes, the catastrophic event

Cristina Basso; Barry J Maron; Domenico Corrado; Gaetano Thiene

2000-01-01

44

When Rewards Go Wrong: A Tale of Five Motivational Misdirects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are…

Steel, Piers; MacDonnell, Rhiannon

2012-01-01

45

How Far Away are Gravitational Lens Caustics? Wrong Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a persistent question at least for a decade where the gravitational lens caustics are in the radial direction: whether in front of the lensing mass, behind the lensing mass, or on the plane normal to the line of sight that passes through the lensing mass, the radiation source, or the observer. It is a wrong question. And,

Sun Hong Rhie

2005-01-01

46

On warming, Williams is 'just plain wrong' Durham Herald Sun  

E-print Network

-Sun, Williams devoted a third of his piece to a subject I know something about -- global warming -- and there I found that his points were both superficial and just plain wrong. Williams cites some global warming fuels burned in the late 20th century. Stossel's and Williams' implication is that global warming

47

Wrongful Death: Oklahoma Supreme Court Replaces Viability Standard with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 7, 1999, a divided Oklahoma Supreme Court held in Nealis v. Baird that a claim may be brought under Oklahoma's wrongful death statute on behalf of a nonviable fetus born alive. The decision represents a departure from the traditional notion that \\

Fatma E. Marouf

2000-01-01

48

Development of Proportional Reasoning: Where Young Children Go Wrong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have found that children have difficulty solving proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units until 10 to 12 years of age, but can solve parallel problems involving continuous quantities by 6 years of age. The present studies examine where children go wrong in processing proportions that involve discrete quantities. A…

Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2008-01-01

49

The Rapture of Discovering (How Wrong We Can Be).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author provides several reasons why every child should become a field naturalist, including the chance for children to discover on their own, to experience the complexity of nature, and to realize how easy it can be to make wrong assumptions. (LZ)

Nabhan, Gary Paul

1995-01-01

50

Two Wrongs and Two Rights: Reason and Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I am honored by the articulate comments of the respondents to the questions raised in the lead paper, "Two Wrongs Do Not Make a Right: Sacrificing the Needs of Gifted Students Does Not Solve Society's Unsolved Problems." These five colleagues have proved themselves to be sensitive to the multiple issues and constituencies involved and highly…

Robinson, Nancy M.

2003-01-01

51

Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Run the classic game of life, learning about probabilities, chaos and simulation. This activity allows the user to run a randomly generated world or test out various patterns. This is a very powerful activity with a wide range of options. It runs in a separate window.

52

Wrongful Death of the Fetus: Viability Is Not a Viable Distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment reviews the history of tort law treatment of the fetus who is wrongfully injured or killed. The Comment discusses case history and wrongful death statutes, with a focus on Washington law. Finally, the Comment concludes that courts should ignore viability when deciding cases of fetal wrongful death.

Sheryl Anne Symonds

1984-01-01

53

Wrongful birth and the politics of reproduction: West German and English law considered.  

PubMed

This article considers the law relating to compensation in tort and contract for failed sterilizations and failed abortions leading to the birth of an unplanned but healthy child in the Federal Republic of Germany and England. It uses a policy-based analysis which takes the social construction of gender as a significant factor in judicial decision making. It criticizes existing literature for failing to take into account gender divisions in society and points to ways in which both the framework within which wrongful birth cases are discussed generally and the limitations which have been placed on recovery specifically reflect gender stereotyped notions of female and male behaviour and sexuality. I conclude that there are three main areas of concern in the wrongful birth cases: a) the inadequate recognition which the law accords to women's work in the home when awarding damages for maintenance of the unplanned child to majority; b) the awarding damages exercised by the politics of abortion, which can lead to undue restrictions on recovery; and c) the difficulties which the law experiences when attempting to conceptualize an interference in a woman's procreative autonomy in the same terms as an interference in a typically 'male' sphere of life, such as professional autonomy. Thus there is an urgent need to reconsider the categories of the law of obligations such as 'damage' and 'compensation', which are central to the principle of individual responsibility for harm caused, in order to reveal their gendered content and differential effects. PMID:16032819

Shaw, J

1990-01-01

54

Teaching Earth Dynamics: What's Wrong with Plate Tectonics Theory?  

E-print Network

Textbooks frequently extol plate tectonics theory without questioning what might be wrong with the theory or without discussing a competitive theory. How can students be taught to challenge popular ideas when they are only presented a one-sided view? In just a few pages, I describe more than a century of geodynamic ideas. I review what is wrong with plate tectonics theory and with Earth expansion theory, and describe my new Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics Theory, which unifies the two previous dominant theories in a self- consistent manner. Along the way, I disclose details of what real science is all about, details all too often absent in textbooks and classroom discussions. In these few pages, I only touch on highlights and just part the curtain a bit so that teachers might glimpse ways to bring to their students some of the richness and excitement of discovery that becomes evident when one begins to question prevailing, currently popular perceptions of our world.

Herndon, J M

2005-01-01

55

Why Was Kelvin's Estimate of the Earth's Age Wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry's work, of a graph of ln y versus t when y is an exponential function of t. This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin's (William Thomson's) estimate of the Earth's age was wrong not because he did not account for radioactivity, as is commonly believed,4 but because he used the wrong model for Earth's heat loss. We feel this idea is worth spreading. To this end (following England et al.), we examine two questions, the first about the radioactivity part and the second about Perry's alternate model for Earth's heat loss.

Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

2014-05-01

56

Simple Payback: The Wrong Tool for Energy Project Analysis?  

E-print Network

Simple Payback: The Wrong Tool for Energy Project Analysis? Christopher Russell New Business Development Manager Science Applications International Corporation ABSTRACT Industrial decision-makers everywhere depend on "payback" as a way...-risk, or it will pay to reduce that volume of consumption. The save-or-buy criterion is the decision tool for making that choice. *~*~* Christopher Russell is the new business development manager for Science Applications International Corporation?s Energy...

Russell, C.

2008-01-01

57

How Far Away are Gravitational Lens Caustics? Wrong Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a persistent question at least for a decade where the\\u000agravitational lens caustics are in the radial direction: whether in front of\\u000athe lensing mass, behind the lensing mass, or on the plane normal to the line\\u000aof sight that passes through the lensing mass, the radiation source, or the\\u000aobserver. It is a wrong question. And,

Sun Hong Rhie

2005-01-01

58

Psychopaths know right from wrong but don't care  

PubMed Central

Adult psychopaths have deficits in emotional processing and inhibitory control, engage in morally inappropriate behavior, and generally fail to distinguish moral from conventional violations. These observations, together with a dominant tradition in the discipline which sees emotional processes as causally necessary for moral judgment, have led to the conclusion that psychopaths lack an understanding of moral rights and wrongs. We test an alternative explanation: psychopaths have normal understanding of right and wrong, but abnormal regulation of morally appropriate behavior. We presented psychopaths with moral dilemmas, contrasting their judgments with age- and sex-matched (i) healthy subjects and (ii) non-psychopathic, delinquents. Subjects in each group judged cases of personal harms (i.e. requiring physical contact) as less permissible than impersonal harms, even though both types of harms led to utilitarian gains. Importantly, however, psychopaths’ pattern of judgments on different dilemmas was the same as those of the other subjects. These results force a rejection of the strong hypothesis that emotional processes are causally necessary for judgments of moral dilemmas, suggesting instead that psychopaths understand the distinction between right and wrong, but do not care about such knowledge, or the consequences that ensue from their morally inappropriate behavior. PMID:20053752

Tonnaer, Franca; Hauser, Marc D.

2010-01-01

59

But he knew it was wrong: evaluating adolescent culpability.  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatric evaluators of adolescent defendants are often asked to address open-ended questions that affect what court an adolescent will be tried in and what sentence he might receive. Such questions often involve the extent to which the adolescent should be considered less culpable than an adult who has committed a similar offense. Assessing partial or diminished culpability in an adolescent is difficult because the concept of partial culpability is complex, assessment methods are inexact, and the implications for legal disposition are often not clear. This article suggests 10 factors a forensic evaluator may wish to consider in reaching opinions about an adolescent's culpability: appreciation of wrongfulness, ability to conform to law, developmental course of aggression and impulsivity, psychosocial immaturity (including time sense, susceptibility to peer pressure, risk-taking, and ability to empathize), environmental circumstances, peer group norms, out-of-character action, incomplete personality development, mental illness, and reactive attitudes toward the offense. PMID:22396338

Ash, Peter

2012-01-01

60

What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

Paul, Diane B.

2012-11-01

61

7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture...ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

2010-01-01

62

Voluntary euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the right to do wrong.  

PubMed

It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite the moral wrongness of the procedures in light of the main argument for a moral right to do wrong found in recent philosophical literature. I maintain that the argument does not provide adequate support for such a right to VE and PAS. PMID:23338120

Varelius, Jukka

2013-09-01

63

The myth of harmless wrongs in moral cognition: Automatic dyadic completion from sin to suffering.  

PubMed

When something is wrong, someone is harmed. This hypothesis derives from the theory of dyadic morality, which suggests a moral cognitive template of wrongdoing agent and suffering patient (i.e., victim). This dyadic template means that victimless wrongs (e.g., masturbation) are psychologically incomplete, compelling the mind to perceive victims even when they are objectively absent. Five studies reveal that dyadic completion occurs automatically and implicitly: Ostensibly harmless wrongs are perceived to have victims (Study 1), activate concepts of harm (Studies 2 and 3), and increase perceptions of suffering (Studies 4 and 5). These results suggest that perceiving harm in immorality is intuitive and does not require effortful rationalization. This interpretation argues against both standard interpretations of moral dumbfounding and domain-specific theories of morality that assume the psychological existence of harmless wrongs. Dyadic completion also suggests that moral dilemmas in which wrongness (deontology) and harm (utilitarianism) conflict are unrepresentative of typical moral cognition. PMID:24635184

Gray, Kurt; Schein, Chelsea; Ward, Adrian F

2014-08-01

64

A Perfect Substorm: ICME-driven Magnetic Activity Catches Galaxy 15 in the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At approximately 0825 UT on April 5, 2010, an ICME-driven shock encountered Earth's magnetosphere. The IMF, slightly southward since 0805 UT, turned more so, to an average value close to -15 nT, which was maintained for nearly an hour under high dynamic pressure conditions. Following a substorm growth phase, dipolarizations were observed at 0847 and 0903 UT by GOES West (11) in the midnight sector, at 0903 UT by three THEMIS spacecraft near X=-11, Y=-2 RE, and at about 0900 by GOES 14 near 2 MLT. Electron injections began at 0903 UT at the THEMIS spacecraft, while GOES 11 detected an increase in flux of energetic protons. A major dipolarization event at 0909 UT was observed at all of these spacecraft, and transferred magnetic flux from the vicinity of THEMIS to the inner magnetosphere, resulting in "overdipolarization" in the midnight sector. Extreme currents, more than 3 MA crossing the midnight sector, are inferred from ground magnetic perturbations of over 2000 nT, indicating this was an unusually strong substorm. Flux transfer associated with large electric fields observed at THEMIS (EY of 80 mV/m) is consistent with this increase in inner magnetospheric magnetic field. A second increase in ca. 1 MeV proton flux at this time led to a factor of over 10000 overall increase of this flux in the event. When the effects of this substorm reached synchronous orbit, the Galaxy 15 satellite was in eclipse when photoemission is not available to counter charging by the potentially high fluxes of energetic magnetospheric electrons that can occur during substorms. Galaxy 15 experienced a severe operational anomaly shortly after leaving eclipse and appears to have simply been at the wrong place at the wrong time when the “perfect” substorm occurred.

Connors, M. G.; Russell, C. T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Singer, H. J.; Glassmeier, K.

2010-12-01

65

27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. 70.227 Section 70.227... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of...

2013-04-01

66

27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. 70.227 Section 70.227... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of...

2012-04-01

67

27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. 70.227 Section 70.227... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of...

2010-04-01

68

27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. 70.227 Section 70.227... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of...

2011-04-01

69

27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.  

... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. 70.227 Section 70.227... Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of...

2014-04-01

70

VLDB 2008 What's Wrong with High-Dimensional Similarity Search? 2 of 62 The Similarity Search Paradigm 1  

E-print Network

VLDB 2008 ­ What's Wrong with High-Dimensional Similarity Search? 2 of 62 The Similarity Search VLDB 2008 ­ What's Wrong with High-Dimensional Similarity Search? 3 of 62 The Similarity Search What's Wrong with High-Dimensional Similarity Search? Stephen Blott (blott@computing.dcu.ie) School

Blott, Stephen

71

When invariance-learning goes wrong... A 9.520 project should you choose to accept it......  

E-print Network

;When invariance-learning goes wrong... The brain must learn representations that tolerate identityWhen invariance-learning goes wrong... A 9.520 project should you choose to accept it...... #12-preserving stimulus transformations. Temporal contiguity is a useful cue. #12;When invariance-learning goes wrong

Entekhabi, Dara

72

How Far Away are Gravitational Lens Caustics? Wrong Question  

E-print Network

It has been a persistent question at least for a decade where the gravitational lens caustics are in the radial direction: whether in front of the lensing mass, behind the lensing mass, or on the plane normal to the line of sight that passes through the lensing mass, the radiation source, or the observer. It is a wrong question. And, the truth angers certain referees who somehow possess the ability to write lengthy rubbish referee reports and delay certain papers indefinitely. General relativity is a metric theory, particularly of Riemannian geometry, which is characterized by the existence of an inner product -- or, the invariance of the proper time. According to Einstein field equations, a compact mass defines a spherical geometry around it and focuses photons from a distant source to an observer with the source and observer as the two focal points. When the mass is spherically symmetric, the two dimensional lens equation that relates the angular positions of a source and its images defines a point caustic at the angular position of the lensing mass. The third (radial) position of the point caustic is not defined. For an arbitrary mass, the caustic extends into a web of piecewise smooth curves punctuated by cusps and again its notion exists only within the context of the lens equation. We point out a few errors in a couple of papers, published in the Astrophysical Journal, which may be influential.

Sun Hong Rhie

2005-07-31

73

Cancer Care in the United States: What's Right, What's Wrong? - September 16, 1999  

Cancer.gov

CANCER CARE IN THE UNITED STATES: WHAT'S RIGHT, WHAT'S WRONG? ENSURING THE QUALITY OF CANCER CARE Robert Hiatt, M.D., Ph.D., Deputy Director of the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences National Cancer Institute National Institutes

74

The Nut Island effect. When good teams go wrong.  

PubMed

The team that operated the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy, Massachusetts, was every manager's dream. Members of the group performed difficult, dangerous work without complaint. They needed little supervision. They improvised their way around operational difficulties and budgetary constraints. They were dedicated to the organization's mission. But their hard work led to catastrophic failure. How could such a good team go so wrong? In this article, the author tells the story of the Nut Island plant and identifies a common, yet destructive organizational dynamic that can strike any business. The Nut Island effect begins with a deeply committed team that is isolated from a company's mainstream activities. Pitted against this team is its senior management. Preoccupied with high-visibility problems, management assigns the team a vital but behind-the-scenes task. Allowed considerable autonomy, team members become adept at managing themselves. Management takes the team's self-sufficiency for granted and ignores team members when they ask for help. When trouble strikes and management is unresponsive, team members feel betrayed and develop an us-against-the-world mentality. They stay out of management's line of sight, hiding problems. The team begins to make up its own rules, which mask grave problems in its operations. Management, disinclined in the first place to focus on the team's work, is easily misled by team members' skillful disguising of its performance deficiencies. The resulting stalemate typically can be broken only by an external event. The Nut Island story serves as a warning to managers who concentrate their efforts on their organization's most visible shortcomings: sometimes the most debilitating problems are the ones we can't see. PMID:11246924

Levy, P F

2001-03-01

75

Wrong-way behavior of packed-bed reactors; Influence of reactant adsorption on support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that wrong-way behavior refers to a large transient temperature increase caused by a sudden reduction in the feed temperature or increase in the feed rate to a packed-bed reactor operating at an intermediate or high level of conversion. This dynamic temperature rise may be affected by reactant adsorption on the inert catalyst support. The wrong-way behavior usually

A. Ilin; Dan Luss

1992-01-01

76

The Winding Road from Employee to Complainant: Situational and Psychological Determinants of Wrongful-Termination Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured interviews with 996 recently fired or laid-off workers provided data for analyses of the situational and psychological antecedents of both thinking about filing a wrongful-termination claim and actually filing such a claim. Potential antecedents were drawn from relational theories of organizational justice, economic theories about claiming, and sociolegal studies of claiming in other contexts. Wrongful-termination claims were most strongly

E. Allan Lind; Jerald Greenberg; Kimberly S. Scott; Thomas D. Welchans

2000-01-01

77

Sincere but Sincerely Wrong: A Reply to Nicholas Long.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article criticizes the technique of life space interviewing (LSI) as supported in EC 230192. The body of supportive empirical evidence for LSI's effectiveness is discussed and considered inadequate, and a call is made for further empirical research. (PB)

Gardner, Ralph, III

1990-01-01

78

What does life need?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here's an interactive exercise about the needs of all living things. The introduction explains that scientists can use the knowledge of life requirements to guide their search for life on Mars. Players identify which of these six items are necessary for life: sunlight, oxygen, water, meat, energy, and raw materials. If any wrong answers are given, players are shown the number of correct answers and are given access to Learn More buttons. All the Learn More sections are similar. In them, players adjust the amount of the given item (e.g., sunlight) to determine, based on creatures' responses, if the item is needed for life. A plant, a human, and two microbes are shown. When correct answers are submitted, a congratulatory screen appears offering additional links to explore. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.; Terc

2003-01-01

79

Moving to a Healthier Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game presents you with several different choices you can make in the course of your everyday life to increase your level of physical activity and be healthier. In each situation, all the choices presented are healthy choices - there are no wrong answers. Situations presented include school, home, weekend, work, screen time, and vacation. At the end of the game, you are shown a rating of how good your choices are on a 5-star scale.

Omsi

2007-01-01

80

Hannah Arendt's Fame Rests on the Wrong Foundation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A street is named after her. Back-to-back conferences celebrate her. New books champion her. Hannah Arendt has joined the small world of philosophical heroes. During her life, she received honorary degrees from Princeton, Smith, and other colleges and universities. Denmark awarded her its Sonning Prize for "commendable work that benefits European…

Jacoby, Russell

2006-01-01

81

Compliance With Advance Directives: Wrongful Living and Tort Law Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern ethical and legal norms generally require that deference be accorded to patients' decisions regarding treatment, including decisions to refuse life-sustaining care, even when patients no longer have the capacity to communicate those decisions to their physicians. Advance directives were developed as a means by which a patient's autonomy regarding medical care might survive such incapacity. Unfortunately, preserving patient autonomy

Holly Fernandez Lynch; Michele Mathes; Nadia N. Sawicki

2008-01-01

82

'Wrong' bond interactions at inversion domain boundaries in GaAs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic structure calculations of GaAs inversion-domain boundaries (IDBs) on different planes are reported. The resulting interface energies are analyzed in terms of the number of 'wrong' bonds (Ga-Ga and As-As) and their mutual compensation. The compensation energy varies roughly inversely proportionally to the distance between the wrong bonds. This favors local compensation in stoichiometric material. This automatically occurs for 110-plane planes or by chemical reconstruction for other planes. Ga-rich IDBs are predicted to have low energy in either Ga-rich or n-type material.

Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Amador, C.; Segall, B.

1992-01-01

83

Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The discovery that the jet was coming from a spiral galaxy dubbed 0313-192 required using a combination of radio, optical and infrared observations to examine the galaxy and its surroundings. The story began more than 20 years ago, when Owen began a survey of 500 galaxy clusters using the National Science Foundation's then-new VLA to make radio images of the clusters. In the 1990s, Ledlow joined the project, making optical-telescope images of the same clusters as part of his research for a Ph.D dissertation at the University of New Mexico. An optical image from Kitt Peak National Observatory gave a hint that this galaxy, clearly seen with a jet in the VLA images, might be a spiral. Nearly a billion light-years from Earth, 0313-192 proved an elusive target, however. Subsequent observations with the VLA and the 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory supported the idea that the galaxy might be a spiral but still were inconclusive. In the Spring of 2002, astronauts installed the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This new facility produced a richly-detailed image of 0313-192, showing that it is a dust-rich spiral seen almost exactly edge-on. "The finely-detailed Hubble image resolved any doubt and proved that this galaxy is a spiral," Ledlow said. Infrared images with the Gemini-South telescope complemented the Hubble images and further confirmed the galaxy's spiral nature. Now, the astronomers seek to understand why this one spiral galaxy, unlike all others seen so far, is producing the bright jets seen with the VLA and other radio telescopes. Several factors may have combined, the researchers feel. "This galaxy's disk is twisted, and that may indicate that it has been disturbed by a close passage of another galaxy or may have swallowed up a companion dwarf galaxy," Keel said. He added, "This galaxy shows signs of having a very massive black hole at its core, and the jets are taking the shortest path out of the galaxy's own gas." Owen points

2003-01-01

84

What is Wrong with this Word? Dyseggxia: a Game for Children with Dyslexia  

E-print Network

% of the population in Europe has dyslexia. Dyslexia is a neurologically based learning disability which typicallyWhat is Wrong with this Word? Dyseggxia: a Game for Children with Dyslexia Luz Rello Clara Bayarri Dyseggxia, a game application with word exer- cises for children with dyslexia. We design the content

85

Climate change in a shoebox: Right result, wrong physics Paul Wagoner  

E-print Network

Climate change in a shoebox: Right result, wrong physics Paul Wagoner TERC, Cambridge of carbon dioxide's far-infrared absorption in global climate change are more subtle than is commonly Teachers. DOI: 10.1119/1.3322738 I. INTRODUCTION The worldwide interest in climate change induced by the by

Tobin, Roger G.

86

Is it wrong for us to want good things? The origins of Gompers Charter Middle School  

E-print Network

Is it wrong for us to want good things? The origins of Gompers Charter Middle School Hugh B. Mehan into an academically rigorous, detracked charter school. The discussion of the political experience and working relationships between the charter organizers, the school district, and its superintendent illustrate the often

Russell, Lynn

87

Perspective by incongruity in Norman Thomas's “some wrong roads to peace”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widely respected as the nation's “Great Dissenter,” Norman Thomas was leader of the Socialist Party in the United States during the second quarter of the twentieth century. His rhetorical career consisted of passionate calls for social justice and of carefully crafted challenges to the prevailing public views on the major issues of his time. This essay examines “Some Wrong Koads

Karen Whedbee

2001-01-01

88

What’s Wrong with Argumentum ad Baculum ? Reasons, Threats, and Logical Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dialogue-based analysis of informal fallacies does not provide a fully adequate explanation of our intuitions about what is wrong with ad baculum and of when it is admissible and when it is not. The dialogue-based analysis explains well why mild, benign threats can be legitimate in some situations, such as cooperative bargaining and negotiation, but does not satisfactorily account

Robert H. Kimball

2006-01-01

89

Autism is uncommon in 22q: the how and why of wrong diagnoses  

E-print Network

Autism is uncommon in 22q: the how and why of wrong diagnoses Kathleen Angkustsiri, Khyati Disclosures · Co-investigator on clinical trials in autism and fragile X syndrome ­Novartis ­Roche ­Seaside Pharmaceuticals ­Forest Laboratories #12;22q and Autism Spectrum Disorders · Autism Spectrum Disorders

Nguyen, Danh

90

Electricity Transmission Pricing: How much does it cost to get it wrong?  

E-print Network

PWP-058 Electricity Transmission Pricing: How much does it cost to get it wrong? Richard Green Channing Way Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;Electricity Transmission optimal prices for electricity transmission. These are rarely applied in practice. This paper develops

California at Berkeley. University of

91

Our Nation's Kids: Is Something Wrong? An Issue Book for National Issues Forums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that a majority of adults believe something is fundamentally wrong with America's current moral climate, this booklet presents a framework for discussing the issue of troubled youths. The booklet presents three approaches, or choices, for addressing the problem: greater parental focus on children's needs; social partnerships in…

Hinds, Michael deCourcy

92

A Study of Responses to Wrong-Number Telephone Calls. CATESOL Occasional Papers, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study designed to investigate the kinds of responses people produce during wrong-number telephone calls and to discover the rules that appear to govern the choices of the responses and their relationships. Fifty-seven calls were placed at different times during the day over a period of several weeks. The sentences used to…

Ferrin, Barbara

93

What's Wrong with High-Dimensional Similarity Search? Stephen Blott (blott@computing.dcu.ie)  

E-print Network

What's Wrong with High-Dimensional Similarity Search? Stephen Blott (blott@computing.dcu.ie) School, Switzerland Originally: A Quantitative Analysis and Performance Study for Similarity-Search Methods in High with High-Dimensional Similarity Search? 1 of 62 Contents 1 ­ Similarity Search ten years ago: · why

Blott, Stephen

94

What's Wrong with Day Care: Freeing Parents To Raise Their Own Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal and state tax laws and most private programs give funding to all parents who put their children in day care but give nothing to parents who cut back on their work hours to care for their own children. Challenging the conventional wisdom about child care, this book argues that Americans have wrongly embraced day care and devalued work that…

Siegel, Charles

95

Navigation in human crowds; testing the many-wrongs principle Jolyon J. Faria a,*, Edward A. Codling b,c,1  

E-print Network

Articles Navigation in human crowds; testing the many-wrongs principle Jolyon J. Faria a,*, Edward, University of Bielefeld a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 5 February 2009 Initial acceptance 17: collective behaviour group human many-wrongs principle navigation The `many-wrongs principle' predicts

Codling, Edward A.

96

26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...  

...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...substitution of value. (a) Wrongful seizure. The running of the...

2014-04-01

97

26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...substitution of value. (a) Wrongful seizure . The running of the...

2013-04-01

98

26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...substitution of value. (a) Wrongful seizure . The running of the...

2010-04-01

99

26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...substitution of value. (a) Wrongful seizure . The running of the...

2011-04-01

100

26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and...substitution of value. (a) Wrongful seizure . The running of the...

2012-04-01

101

Preventing wrong tooth extraction: experience in development and implementation of an outpatient safety checklist.  

PubMed

Extraction of the wrong tooth or teeth is a serious and avoidable clinical error causing harm to the patient. All NHS Trusts in England are required to use a surgical safety checklist in operating theatres to prevent incorrect site surgery and ensure safe management of patients. However, the majority of patients have dental extractions and other oral surgical procedures undertaken on an outpatient basis and these patients are also at risk of having an incorrect site surgical procedure such as a wrong tooth extraction. We describe our experience in developing, introducing and refining a surgical safety checklist for outpatient oral surgery along with the key strategic actions needed to ensure effective cultural change and optimum patient safety in the outpatient setting. PMID:25303583

Saksena, A; Pemberton, M N; Shaw, A; Dickson, S; Ashley, M P

2014-10-10

102

a Study of Wrong Sign Muon and Trimuon Events in Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wrong sign muon events in neutrino-nucleon scattering are characterized by a single muon in the final state carrying lepton number different from that of the incident neutrino. A search for such events in two experiments employing the Fermilab Narrow Band Neutrino beam is reported here. We derive an upper limit of 3.1 x 10('-4) on the rate of production of

Sanjib Ratan Mishra

1986-01-01

103

Life Before Earth  

E-print Network

An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no intelligent life in our universe prior to the origin of Earth, thus Earth could not have been deliberately seeded with life by intelligent aliens; Earth was seeded by panspermia; experimental replication of the origin of life from scratch may have to emulate many cumulative rare events; and the Drake equation for guesstimating the number of civilizations in the universe is likely wrong, as intelligent life has just begun appearing in our universe. Evolution of advanced organisms has accelerated via development of additional information-processing systems: epigenetic memory, primitive mind, multicellular brain, language, books, computers, and Internet. As a result the doubling time of complexity has reached ca. 20 years. Finally, we discuss the issue of the predicted technological singularity and give a biosemiotics perspective on the increase of complexity.

Alexei A. Sharov; Richard Gordon

2013-03-28

104

The Personal Past as Inspiration: Authors Honor Their Life Experiences in Their Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ernest Hemingway was wrong. It is not necessary to leave home and go out and experience "Life" in capital letters to have "stuff" about which to write. The daughter of a kindergarten teacher, Louisa May Alcott wrote a book about her family life which became one of the most popular children's classics, "Little Women." All people are storytellers.…

Baghban, Marcia

105

Patient data from Philips IntelliVue monitors may appear on wrong XDS remote display.  

PubMed

Under certain circumstances, when a Philips IntelliVue physiologic monitor is disconnected from an IntelliVue XDS remote display and reconnected to a different XDS remote display, monitored patient information will not be automatically transferred to the new display, but instead will reappear on the original display. As a result, the data on the original display may be associated with the wrong patient. This problem is limited to IntelliVue XDS software version H.00.xx or earlier. A software upgrade is available that permits automatic data transfer when a monitor is moved from one XDS remote display to another. PMID:23444533

2011-08-01

106

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01

107

UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way  

SciTech Connect

Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

Stout, F.W. Jr. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31

108

Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for two representative stiff detonation wave problems.

Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjogreen, B.

2011-01-01

109

Measurement of the Wrong-Sign Decay D0 -> K+ pi- pi+ pi-  

E-print Network

A measurement of the rate for the "wrong-sign" decay D0 -> K+ pi- pi+ pi- relative to that for the "right-sign" decay D0 -> K- pi+ pi+ pi- is presented. Using 791 fb-1 of data collected with the Belle detector, we obtain a branching fraction ratio of R_WS = [0.324 +- 0.008 (stat) +- 0.007 (sys)]%. Multiplying this ratio by the world average value for the branching fraction B(D0 -> K- pi+ pi+ pi-) gives a branching fraction B(D0 -> K+ pi- pi+ pi-) = (2.61 +- 0.06 +0.09 -0.08) x 10-4.

Belle Collaboration; E. White; A. J. Schwartz; I. Adachi; H. Aihara; D. M. Asner; V. Aulchenko; T. Aushev; A. M. Bakich; A. Bala; V. Bhardwaj; B. Bhuyan; G. Bonvicini; A. Bozek; M. Bra?ko; J. Brodzicka; T. E. Browder; V. Chekelian; A. Chen; P. Chen; B. G. Cheon; K. Chilikin; R. Chistov; I. -S. Cho; K. Cho; V. Chobanova; Y. Choi; D. Cinabro; J. Dingfelder; Z. Doležal; Z. Drásal; D. Dutta; S. Eidelman; D. Epifanov; S. Esen; H. Farhat; J. E. Fast; M. Feindt; T. Ferber; A. Frey; V. Gaur; N. Gabyshev; S. Ganguly; R. Gillard; Y. M. Goh; B. Golob; T. Hara; K. Hayasaka; H. Hayashii; Y. Hoshi; W. -S. Hou; Y. B. Hsiung; H. J. Hyun; T. Iijima; A. Ishikawa; R. Itoh; Y. Iwasaki; T. Iwashita; I. Jaegle; T. Julius; D. H. Kah; J. H. Kang; E. Kato; C. Kiesling; D. Y. Kim; H. O. Kim; J. B. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Kim; Y. J. Kim; K. Kinoshita; J. Klucar; B. R. Ko; P. Kodyš; S. Korpar; P. Križan; P. Krokovny; B. Kronenbitter; T. Kuhr; T. Kumita; A. Kuzmin; Y. -J. Kwon; J. S. Lange; S. -H. Lee; J. Li; Y. Li; L. Li Gioi; J. Libby; C. Liu; Y. Liu; D. Liventsev; P. Lukin; D. Matvienko; H. Miyata; R. Mizuk; G. B. Mohanty; A. Moll; R. Mussa; E. Nakano; M. Nakao; Z. Natkaniec; M. Nayak; E. Nedelkovska; C. Ng; N. K. Nisar; S. Nishida; O. Nitoh; S. Ogawa; S. Okuno; C. Oswald; P. Pakhlov; G. Pakhlova; H. Park; H. K. Park; R. Pestotnik; M. Petri?; L. E. Piilonen; M. Ritter; M. Röhrken; A. Rostomyan; S. Ryu; H. Sahoo; T. Saito; Y. Sakai; S. Sandilya; L. Santelj; T. Sanuki; Y. Sato; V. Savinov; O. Schneider; G. Schnell; C. Schwanda; D. Semmler; K. Senyo; O. Seon; M. E. Sevior; M. Shapkin; T. -A. Shibata; J. -G. Shiu; B. Shwartz; A. Sibidanov; Y. -S. Sohn; A. Sokolov; E. Solovieva; S. Stani?; M. Stari?; M. Steder; T. Sumiyoshi; U. Tamponi; G. Tatishvili; Y. Teramoto; M. Uchida; S. Uehara; Y. Unno; S. Uno; S. E. Vahsen; C. Van Hulse; G. Varner; V. Vorobyev; M. N. Wagner; C. H. Wang; M. -Z. Wang; P. Wang; Y. Watanabe; K. M. Williams; E. Won; Y. Yamashita; S. Yashchenko; Y. Yusa; Z. P. Zhang; V. Zhilich; V. Zhulanov; A. Zupanc

2013-07-23

110

Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities as a function of stiffness of the source term and the grid spacing.

Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjoegreen, B.

2012-01-01

111

The ethics of self-sacrifice: what's wrong with suicide bombing?  

PubMed

What's wrong with suicide bombing? The tactic has been used by the Tamil Tigers, by the Japanese kamikaze, by al-Qaeda, by Palestinian militants against Israel, by Iraqi defenders loyal to Saddam Hussein against the U.S. invasion, and by others; it is typically understood by these groups as martyrdom rather than suicide. Scientific theories of suicide--biological, psychological, and sociological--do not contribute to an understanding. Nor is the claim that it is amoral, the product of psychopathology or mental illness, adequate. The central moral core of the issue of suicide bombing rests, rather, on the violation of a tacit assumption of equality in combat: "they" have a weapon "we" don't. PMID:16006394

Battin, Margaret P

2004-01-01

112

'Religious fanaticism' and wrongful confinement in Victorian England: the affair of Louisa Nottidge.  

PubMed

Louisa Nottidge was kidnapped and committed to a private asylum in 1846 by her family because she had joined a millenarian sect of which they disapproved. After eighteen months the Commissioners in Lunacy were pressurised into ordering her release. Subsequently, she successfully sued her brother and brother-in-law for wrongful imprisonment. The judge's criticisms of the medical profession led to an acrimonious public debate about the nature of mental illness and its treatment, a debate that involved some of the leading 'mad doctors' of the day including Dr. John Conolly. The complex history of this case, frequently referred to in recent scholarly work, but never discussed in detail, is examined together with its implications for our understanding of Victorian psychiatry, and its attitude to mental illnesses involving religious matters. PMID:11613445

Schwieso, J J

1996-08-01

113

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: AVOIDING WRONG TURNS, ROACH MOTELS, AND BOX CANYONS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. In this paper, we provide one example each of our judgments on what constitutes a box canyon, a roach motel, and a wrong turn: ? Wrong Turn: The Reliable Replacement Warhead ? Roach Motel: SRAM T vs the B61 ? A Possible Box Canyon: A Low-Yield Version of the W76 SLBM Warhead Recognizing that new nuclear missions or weapons are not demanded by current circumstances ? a development path that yields future capabilities similar to those of today, which are adequate if not always ideal, and a broader national-security strategy that supports nonproliferation and arms control by reducing the role for, and numbers, of nuclear weapons ? we briefly consider alternate, less desirable futures, and their possible effect on the complex problem of regional deterrence. In this regard, we discuss the issues posed by, and possible responses to, three example regional deterrence challenges: in-country defensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary; reassurance of U.S. allies with limited strategic depth threatened by an emergent nuclear power; and extraterritorial, non-strategic offensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary in support of limited military objectives against a U.S. ally.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-11

114

KoG132009 G. Glaeser, K.H. Schott: Geometric Considerations About Seemingly Wrong Tilt of Crescent Moon Original scientific paper  

E-print Network

of Crescent Moon Original scientific paper Accepted 20. 12. 2009 Georg Glaeser, Karlheinz Schott Geometric Considerations About Seemingly Wrong Tilt of Crescent Moon Geometric Considerations About Seemingly Wrong Tilt of Crescent Moon ABSTRACT The following phenomenon is well-known and again and again appears as an unanswered

Stachel, Hellmuth

115

THE BEST DEFENSE IS A GOOD OFFENSE: USING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROACTIVELY TO MINIMIZE THE THREAT OF LITIGATION FROM WRONGFUL TERMINATION CASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

When it comes to employment-related litigation, human resource (HR) professionals are a business organization's first line of defense. Lawsuits by employees alleging wrongful termination, harassment or discrimination constitute a significant threat to a business. Although many employees are at-will meaning that they can be terminated at any time for any reason, exceptions exist which create the basis for wrongful termination

Richard O. Parry

116

Errors Detection by 5- to 8-Year-Olds Listening to a Wrong French Sequence of Number Words: Music before Lyrics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children, ages 5 to 8 years (n=71), were required to listen and detect errors out of a partly wrong sequence of tape-recorded French number words from 1 to 100. Children (from several schools near Montpellier, France) were from preschool, grade 1, and grade 2. Results show that wrong syntactic rules were better detected than omissions, whereas…

Gauderat-Bagault, Laurence; Lehalle, Henri

117

'Talking your way out of it', 'rigging' and 'conjuring': what science teachers do when practicals go wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary and secondary teachers of science were interviewed and asked to recall their actions and procedures when practicals ‘went wrong’. Three broad categories of response were found. Examples of each category are provided and analysed in terms of the norms, counter?norms and values used by teachers of science and compared with the norms, counter?norms and values in science research. Primary

Mick Nott; Robin Smith

1995-01-01

118

Student Non-Completion of an Undergraduate Degree: Wrong Program Selection or Part of a Career Plan?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institution wide comparisons of students who leave university before completing their degree and students who complete their studies, have identified "wrong course selection" and a lack of vocational focus as common reasons for non-completion. It is not fully understood, though, whether these trends are constant across different disciplines and…

O'Keefe, M.; Laven, G.; Burgess, T.

2011-01-01

119

MATH 16 A-LECTURE. SEPTEMBER 4, 2008. PROFESSOR: WELCOME BACK. HELLO. SO I DON'T KNOW WHAT'S WRONG  

E-print Network

ARITHMETIC. REMEMBER I WAS TELLING YOU COMPUTERS LIE? HAS ANYTHING REALLY BAD GONE WRONG, ONE DAY IN 1990S FORMULA. LET'S WRITE THAT DOWN AGAIN. (ON BOARD). OKAY. WE GOT THAT FAR LAST TIME. AND I DREW PICTURES'S THE SAME PROBLEM. SO LET'S JUST ASK WHY. WHERE IS IS THIS POLYNOMIAL ZERO. HOW COULD THIS POLYNOMIAL

California at Berkeley, University of

120

What Went Wrong: A Taxonomy of Video Game Bugs Chris Lewis, Jim Whitehead, Noah Wardrip-Fruin  

E-print Network

What Went Wrong: A Taxonomy of Video Game Bugs Chris Lewis, Jim Whitehead, Noah Wardrip,ejw,nwf}@soe.ucsc.edu ABSTRACT Video games are complex, emergent systems that are diffi- cult to design and test. This difficulty Engineering]: Testing and Debug- ging; K.8.0 [Personal Computing]: General Keywords video game, failure, fault

Whitehead, James

121

How Non-Diagnostic Listening Led to a Rapid “Recovery” from Paranoid Schizophrenia: What is Wrong with Psychiatry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental interview with a young woman diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia led to her rapid recovery. This incident and questions raised about psychiatric practices suggest that something is seriously wrong with psychiatry. It lacks insight into its own behavior, invalidates constructive criticism, avoids the kind of selfexamination it urges on “patients,” shows little interest in accounts of successes with “schizophrenic”

Al Siebert

2000-01-01

122

25/03/2011 22:31139 Co-authors Can't Be Wrong--And That's The Problem : Evolution for Everyone Page 1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php  

E-print Network

1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Now on Science for Everyone Page 2 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Search://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php Links EvoS The Evolution Institute Binghamton Neighborhood

Gardner, Andy

123

The Perception Gap: Recognizing and managing the risks that arise when we get risk wrong.  

PubMed

Many in the academic, science, and business communities are frustrated at how people perceive and respond to risk, lamenting that the lay public is sometimes more afraid of some threats than the evidence warrants, and less afraid of some dangers than the evidence warns. This is often ascribed to the alarmist way the news media cover risk-related subjects. That criticism is simplistic and unproductive, and ignores or dismisses the large body of research that finds that the perception of risk is not, and can never be, perfectly rational. Risk perception among members of the public, the media, and members of the academic, scientific, and business communities, is ultimately subjective. The gap between our fears and the evidence is not simply the product of alarmist media reporting. This 'Perception Gap' poses significant risks in and of itself, influencing the choices we make as individuals and as a society. The roots of the Perception Gap must be understood if we are to recognize the dangers that can arise when we sometimes get risk wrong, and in order that we may more wisely manage those risks as actively as we manage toxicological or food or other risks with which we are more familiar. PMID:22381258

Ropeik, David

2012-05-01

124

Would you like to know what is wrong with you? On telling the truth to patients with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—To discover what dementia sufferers feel is wrong with them; what they have been told and by whom, and what they wish to know about their illness.Background—Ethical guidelines regarding telling truth appear to be equivocal. Declarations of cognitively intact subjects, attitudes of family members and current psychiatric practice all vary, but no previous research has been published concerning what patients

Marek Marzanski

2000-01-01

125

5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?  

... CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS...FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS...Responsibility to Notify Employees § 839.301...was in the wrong retirement plan? (a) If you are an employee, your...

2014-01-01

126

5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS...FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS...Responsibility to Notify Employees § 839.301...was in the wrong retirement plan? (a) If you are an employee, your...

2013-01-01

127

5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS...FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS...Responsibility to Notify Employees § 839.301...was in the wrong retirement plan? (a) If you are an employee, your...

2010-01-01

128

5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS...FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS...Responsibility to Notify Employees § 839.301...was in the wrong retirement plan? (a) If you are an employee, your...

2012-01-01

129

5 CFR 839.301 - What should I do if I am not sure whether I am or was in the wrong retirement plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS...FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS...Responsibility to Notify Employees § 839.301...was in the wrong retirement plan? (a) If you are an employee, your...

2011-01-01

130

What's wrong with executive compensation? A roundtable moderated by Charles Elson.  

PubMed

The value that many superpaid CEO superstars supposedly created has largely disappeared, and the likelihood that it will be recovered anytime soon seems remote. On top of that, a good number of top executives treated their companies like ATMs, awarding themselves millions of dollars in corporate perks. It's hard to dispute the idea that executives were corrupted by the sums of money dangled in front of them. What's wrong with executive compensation, and what can we do about it? HBR and the University of Delaware's Center for Corporate Governance convened a round-table of compensation experts last October on the university's campus in Newark, Delaware. The 12 panelists, from CEOs to investors, from the professionals who advise them to a chief justice who rules on their disputes, provided an extraordinary diversity of viewpoints. The panelist began by debating ways to align the interests of the senior executives with the long-term interests of the company-weighing the relative benefits of stock options versus stock grants, for instance. But the discussion expanded to cover broader questions of corporate governance and company values. "The main reason compensation increases every year is that most boards want their CEO to be in the top half of the CEO peer group," said Ed Woolard,Jr., a former CEO of DuPont. And compensation lawyer Joe Bachelder pointed out the danger of structuring pay in such a way that it dampens risk taking among executives. It was a lively and wide-ranging discussion of one business's most pressing issues. PMID:12545924

Roiter, Eric; Clapman, Peter; Heard, Jamie; Bachelder, Joe; England, John; Lau, Greg; Woolard, Edgar S; Meyer, Pearl; Hall, Brian; Barnette, Hank; Batts, Warren; Veasey, E Norman

2003-01-01

131

Knowing Right From Wrong In Mental Arithmetic Judgments: Calibration Of Confidence Predicts The Development Of Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right—and when they are wrong—lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the “calibration” of mental arithmetic judgments—that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25+50?=?75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic “fluency” is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance. PMID:24988539

Rinne, Luke F.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

2014-01-01

132

CAMPUS LIFE CAMPUS LIFE  

E-print Network

~24] [31] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2014. 2] [21] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 2014. 3 March SUNCAMPUS LIFE GUIDE BOOK CAMPUS LIFE GUIDE BOOK 2014 w w w . d g i s t . a c . k r #12;4 _ 6 _ 8

133

The Life of Liberty Project - Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the The Life of Liberty Project , this page is part of a larger effort to educate students on the values and lifestyles of the 1700s as compared to today. This page will demonstrate how education was and now is... What was good then? What is good today? Does today\\'s method really provide a life education or something else? Have you ever wondered what school was like in 1700? Keep wondering, because nobody knows, right? Wrong. There are quite a few different systems of education that existed before our current system that is in the brick and mortar around the country. Let\\'s take a brief tour of the history ...

Liberty

2005-11-23

134

Life Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part activity, learners compare and contrast a variety of life cycles to better understand different organisms and how they develop. Learners arrange and label photos of their family members to explore the human life cycle. Then learners research plant and animal life cycles, develop an illustrated "life story" of an assigned species, and share their findings with the group.

Baltimore, The M.

2012-06-26

135

East meets West: Cross-cultural perspective in end-of-life decision making from Indian and German viewpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture creates the context within which individuals experience life and comprehend moral meaning of illness, suffering and\\u000a death. The ways the patient, family and the physician communicate and make decisions in the end-of-life care are profoundly\\u000a influenced by culture. What is considered as right or wrong in the healthcare setting may depend on the socio-cultural context.\\u000a The present article is

Subrata Chattopadhyay; Alfred Simon

2008-01-01

136

What Did Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Get Right and What Did They Get Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this critical assessment of the Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Report was to provoke discussion and improvements in future developments of quality of life research undertaken by official statistical agencies. I would like to thank Jochen Jesinghaus and Andrea Saltelli for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of the paper.

Michalos, Alex C.

2011-01-01

137

Life Science EthicsLife Science Ethics Dr. Kristen Hessler  

E-print Network

· plus · Ethical claims · equals · Ethical conclusion #12;Ethical Argument ­ Example · Human cloning of adults. · Therefore, human cloning is morally wrong. Conclusion Premises #12;Evaluating Ethical Arguments · Human cloning produces exact physical replicas of adults. · It is ethically wrong to produce exact

Song, Joe

138

Measurement of the Wrong-Sign Decays D0-->K+pi-pi0 and D0-->K+pi-pi+pi-, and Search for CP Violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 281fb-1 of data from the Belle experiment recorded at or near the Upsilon(4S) resonance, we have measured the rates of the ``wrong-sign'' decays D0-->K+pi-pi0 and D0-->K+pi-pi+pi- relative to those of the Cabibbo-favored decays D0-->K-pi+pi0 and D0-->K-pi+pi+pi-. These wrong-sign decays proceed via a doubly Cabibbo-suppressed amplitude or via D0- Dmacr 0 mixing; the latter has not yet been observed. We

X. C. Tian; Y. Ban; K. Abe; H. Aihara; K. Arinstein; Y. Asano; V. Aulchenko; T. Aushev; A. M. Bakich; S. Banerjee; E. Barberio; M. Barbero; A. Bay; I. Bedny; U. Bitenc; I. Bizjak; S. Blyth; A. Bondar; A. Bozek; M. Bracko; J. Brodzicka; T. E. Browder; P. Chang; Y. Chao; A. Chen; K.-F. Chen; W. T. Chen; B. G. Cheon; R. Chistov; S.-K. Choi; Y. Choi; A. Chuvikov; J. Dalseno; M. Danilov; M. Dash; L. Y. Dong; A. Drutskoy; S. Eidelman; Y. Enari; F. Fang; S. Fratina; N. Gabyshev; T. Gershon; G. Gokhroo; B. Golob; A. Gorisek; J. Haba; T. Hokuue; K. Hayasaka; H. Hayashii; M. Hazumi; Y. Hoshi; S. Hou; W.-S. Hou; T. Iijima; K. Ikado; A. Imoto; K. Inami; A. Ishikawa; R. Itoh; Y. Iwasaki; J. H. Kang; J. S. Kang; P. Kapusta; N. Katayama; H. Kawai; T. Kawasaki; H. R. Khan; H. Kichimi; S. K. Kim; S. M. Kim; K. Kinoshita; S. Korpar; P. Krizan; P. Krokovny; R. Kulasiri; C. C. Kuo; A. Kuzmin; Y.-J. Kwon; G. Leder; S. E. Lee; T. Lesiak; J. Li; S.-W. Lin; D. Liventsev; F. Mandl; T. Matsumoto; A. Matyja; W. Mitaroff; K. Miyabayashi; H. Miyake; H. Miyata; Y. Miyazaki; R. Mizuk; G. R. Moloney; T. Mori; T. Nagamine; Y. Nagasaka; E. Nakano; H. Nakazawa; S. Nishida; O. Nitoh; S. Ogawa; T. Ohshima; T. Okabe; S. Okuno; S. L. Olsen; Y. Onuki; H. Ozaki; H. Palka; C. W. Park; R. Pestotnik; L. E. Piilonen; Y. Sakai; N. Sato; N. Satoyama; K. Sayeed; T. Schietinger; O. Schneider; C. Schwanda; A. J. Schwartz; M. E. Sevior; H. Shibuya; B. Shwartz; V. Sidorov; J. B. Singh; A. Somov; N. Soni; S. Stanic; M. Staric; T. Sumiyoshi; S. Suzuki; F. Takasaki; K. Tamai; N. Tamura; M. Tanaka; G. N. Taylor; Y. Teramoto; T. Tsukamoto; S. Uehara; T. Uglov; K. Ueno; S. Uno; P. Urquijo; G. Varner; K. E. Varvell; S. Villa; C. C. Wang; M.-Z. Wang; Q. L. Xie; B. D. Yabsley; A. Yamaguchi; Y. Yamashita; M. Yamauchi; J. Ying; Y. Yuan; C. C. Zhang; L. M. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang

2005-01-01

139

Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students extend their knowledge of matter and energy cycles in organisms to engineering life cycle assessment of products. They learn about product life cycle assessment and the flow of energy through the cycle, comparing it to the flow of nutrients and energy in the life cycles of organisms.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

140

LIFE Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text photo essays presently available at the LIFE Magazine site are excellent examples of American photo journalism, a genre forged by LIFE Magazine, one of the oldest American photo journalism print publications. Cover photos from the magazine going back to the 1930's are incorporated into many of the other features at the main LIFE site.

141

Wrongs, preferences, and the selection of children: a critique of Rebecca Bennett's argument against the principle of procreative beneficence.  

PubMed

Rebecca Bennett, in a recent paper dismissing Julian Savulescu's principle of procreative beneficence, advances both a negative and a positive thesis. The negative thesis holds that the principle's theoretical foundation - the notion of impersonal harm or non-person-affecting wrong - is indefensible. Therefore, there can be no obligations of the sort that the principle asserts. The positive thesis, on the other hand, attempts to plug an explanatory gap that arises once the principle has been rejected. That is, it holds that the intuitions of those who adhere to the principle are not genuine moral intuitions, but instead simply give voice to mere (non-moral) preferences. This paper, while agreeing that Savulescu's principle does not express a genuine moral obligation, takes issue with both of Bennett's theses. It is suggested that the argument for the negative thesis is either weak or question-begging, while there is insufficient reason to suppose the positive thesis true. PMID:21320140

Herissone-Kelly, Peter

2012-10-01

142

Beta-Test Data On An Assessment Of Textbook Problem Solving Ability: An Argument For Right/Wrong Grading?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an assessment of students' ability to solve standard textbook style problems and are currently engaged in the validation and revision process. The assessment covers the topics of force and motion, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy at a level consistent with most calculus-based, introductory physics courses. This tool is discussed in more detail in an accompanying paper by Marx and Cummings. [1] Here we present preliminary beta-test data collected at four schools during the 2009/2010 academic year. Data include both pre- and post-instruction results for introductory physics courses as well as results for physics majors in later years. In addition, we present evidence that right/wrong grading may well be a perfectly acceptable grading procedure for a course-level assessment of this type.

Cummings, Karen; Marx, Jeffrey D.

2010-10-01

143

Embryonic life and human life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as

M C Shea

1985-01-01

144

Olympic medals or long life: what's the bottom line?  

PubMed

On a per capita basis, Australia spent more than seven times as much on its Sydney Olympic team as did Canada, to win four times as many medals. Compared with Australia, Canada spent an additional amount per capita (standardised to the purchasing power parity rate at year 2000) of US dollars 1605 per life-year gained on healthcare in 2000. Neither country is "right" or "wrong" in making these funding choices, but they highlight the need for more explicit discussion about what is being spent, what is obtained for the given expenditure and what society actually values. PMID:14723588

Mitton, Craig R; Davies, H Dele; Donaldson, Cam R

2004-01-19

145

DNA evidence: Wrong answers or wrong questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the controversy over DNA evidence is due to the way in which forensic scientific evidence has classically been presented. The orthodox approach is to consider whether two samples match according to a predetermined criterion. If they do, the fact of match is reported along with an estimate of the frequency of the characteristics. This method fails to address

Bernard Robertson; G. A. Vignaux

1995-01-01

146

Domestic Violence in Men's and Women's Magazines: Women Are Guilty of Choosing the Wrong Men, Men Are Not Guilty of Hitting Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men's and women's magazine discourse on domestic violence characterizes women as guilty of choosing the wrong men but does not hold men responsible for hitting women. Using qualitative narrative analysis on 10 leading titles over 10 years, I find an ongoing tolerance for and celebration of domestic violence in men's magazines and an enduring expectation in women's that women bear

Pamela Hill Nettleton

2011-01-01

147

Defining `Life'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no broadly accepted definition of `life.' Suggested definitions face problems, often in the form of robust counter-examples. Here we use insights from philosophical investigations into language to argue that defining `life' currently poses a dilemma analogous to that faced by those hoping to define `water' before the existence of molecular theory. In the absence of an analogous theory of the nature of living systems, interminable controversy over the definition of life is inescapable.

Cleland, Carol E.; Chyba, Christopher F.

2002-08-01

148

Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

Chris Langton

1987-01-01

149

Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.  

PubMed

This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

Macdermott, Alexandra J

2012-09-01

150

The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?  

PubMed Central

Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized ‘external’ environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate ‘internal’ biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means. PMID:22915021

Wells, Jonathan C. K.

2012-01-01

151

Tell me what's wrong with me: a discourse analysis approach to the concept of patient autonomy.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Patient autonomy has gradually replaced physician paternalism as an ethical ideal. However, in a medical context, the principle of individual autonomy has different meanings. More knowledge is needed about what is and should be an appropriate understanding of the concept of patient autonomy in clinical practice. AIM: To challenge the traditional concept of patient autonomy by applying a discourse analysis to the issue. METHOD: A qualitative case study approach with material from one consultation. The discourse is interpreted according to pragmatic and text-linguistic principles and provides the basis of a theoretical discussion of different concepts of patient autonomy. RESULTS: The consultation transcript illustrates how the patient's wishes can be respected in real life. The patient, her husband and the doctor are all involved in the discourse dynamics, governed by the subject matter, namely her mental illness. CONCLUSION: We suggest a dynamic and dialogue-based conception of autonomy as adequate for clinical purposes. These perspectives, based on mutual understanding, take communication between patient and doctor as their starting point. According to this approach, autonomy requires a genuine dialogue, an interpersonal mode of being which we choose to call "authentic interaction". PMID:9873980

Nessa, J; Malterud, K

1998-01-01

152

Life sciences  

SciTech Connect

This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

Day, L. (ed.)

1991-04-01

153

Writing life.  

PubMed

SUMMARY In her 1994 essay "Writing Life," Beth Brant discusses the role of writing in her life, the circumstances that surrounded her writing and editing endeavours, and her relationships with loved ones. Issues of racism, homophobia, and class oppression are explored through writing. PMID:24802680

Brant, B

2000-01-01

154

Writing Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her 1994 essay “Writing Life,” Beth Brant discusses the role of writing in her life, the circumstances that surrounded her writing and editing endeavours, and her relationships with loved ones. Issues of racism, homophobia, and class oppression are explored through writing.

Beth Brant

2000-01-01

155

Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

156

Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A preK-4th grade level observational exercise for the classroom focusing on life stages of insects, as well as metamorphosis. Students are provided mealworms to rear, and are asked to observe several other insects to identify their life stages.

0002-11-30

157

Thermosynthetic Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two categories of life are currently recognized—chemosynthetic and photosynthetic—indicating their principal free energy resource as either chemicals or electromagnetic radiation. Building on recent developments in thermodynamics, we posit a third category of life— thermosynthetic life (TL)—which relies on environmental heat rather than traditional free energy sources. Since thermal energy is more abundant than chemicals or light in many settings, thermosynthesis offers compelling evolutionary possibilities for new life forms. Based on variants of standard cellular machinery, a physical model is proposed for the conversion of thermal energy into biochemical work. Conditions favorable to thermosynthetic life and prospects for its discovery are assessed. Terrestrially, deep-subsurface unicellular anaerobic superthermophiles are deduced to be likely TL candidates.

Sheehan, D. P.

2007-12-01

158

Defining Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

Benner, Steven A.

2010-12-01

159

Nurturing Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the requirements of life. Learners will explore what living things need to survive and thrive by creating and caring for a garden plot (outdoors where appropriate) or a container garden (indoors) at the program facility. The garden will be used to beautify the facility with plant life with many planting and landscaping options provided. Children will consider the requirements of living things, compare the surface conditions on Mars to those found on Earth, view images/video of a NASA Astrobiology Institute "garden" where astrobiologists are studying life under extreme conditions, and consider the similarities and differences in the type of life that would be possible on Mars as compared to their garden on Earth. It also includes specific tips for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 3 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

160

Defining Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030. PMID:21162682

2010-01-01

161

Extraterrestrial Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

Klein, M. J.

1993-01-01

162

Radiograms Obtained during Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion Can Mislead Surgeons into Performing Surgery at the Wrong Level  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman who suffered from C5 nerve palsy because of a C4-5 disc herniation was referred to our hospital. We conducted anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) at the C4-5 level. An intraoperative radiogram obtained after exposure of the vertebrae showed that the level at which we were going to perform surgery was exactly at the C4-5 level. After bone grafting and temporary plating, another radiogram was obtained to verify the correct placement of the plate and screws, and it appeared to show that the plate bridged the C5 and C6 vertebrae at the incorrect level. The surgeon was astonished and was about to begin decompression of the upper level. However, carefully double-checking the level with a C-arm image intensifier before additional decompression verified that the surgery was conducted correctly at C4-5. Cautiously double-checking the level of surgery with a C-arm image intensifier is recommended when intraoperative radiograms suggest surgery at the wrong level. PMID:25386376

Koda, Masao; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Murakami, Masazumi

2014-01-01

163

From Sakata model to Goldberg-Ne'eman quarks and Nambu QCD phenomenology and "right" and "wrong" experiments.  

SciTech Connect

The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A 'good' experiment on {bar p}p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A 'bad' experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the of the {Xi} and {Omega}{sup -}. More 'good' experiments revealed the existence and mass of the {Xi}* and the {Omega}{sup -} and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the 'tenfold way'. Further 'good experiments' revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the {phi} {yields} {rho} {pi} decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the {Delta}{sup ++} and {Omega}{sup -} contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book 'Lie Groups for Pedestrians' used the Sakata model with the name 'sakaton' for the {Lambda} triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's.

Lipkin, H. J.; High Energy Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Science; Tel Aviv Univ /

2007-01-01

164

Life's Limit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental limits to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh conditions of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.

Mancinelli, Rocco; Magazine, Astrobiology

165

Effects of Correct and Wrong Answers on ERPs Recorded under Conditions of the Continuous Performance Test in ADHD\\/Normal Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of event-related potentials (ERPs) regarding correct and wrong answers under conditions of the continuous performance\\u000a test (CPT) were measured in 50 adult subjects characterized by different levels of sustained attention with the absence\\/presence\\u000a of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). For ERP extraction, the average for each group of signals, which were\\u000a time-locked to the onset of stimuli, was calculated; two

F. Ghassemi; M. H. Moradi; M. Tehrani-Doost; V. Abootalebi

2010-01-01

166

Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For decades, many of the nation's life science classrooms have been anything but lively. Biology has been criticized for being content heavy, overloaded with vocabulary, and tested by rote. Six to seven hundred pages of text, presented to teenagers with limited abilities to reason, constituted what in most cases was the only required science in high schools. By contrast, the classroom of a life science teacher who is moving toward the Standards provides an exciting environment for inquiry and a core of content that is smaller but in greater depth than in the past. Topics are covered in more detail, coursework is integrated, and both teachers and students feel challenged. This free selection includes an inquiry-based, life science lesson and the Table of Contents.

2004-01-01

167

The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: What went wrong and what lessons are universal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a short summary of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, this paper discusses “what went wrong” by illustrating the problems of the specific layers of defense-in-depth (basic strategy for assuring nuclear safety) and “what lessons are universal.” Breaches in the multiple layers of defense were particularly significant in respective protection (a) against natural disasters (first layer of defense) as well as (b) against severe conditions, specifically in this case, a complete loss of AC/DC power and isolation from the primary heat sink (fourth layer of defense). Confusion in crisis management by the government and insufficient implementation of offsite emergency plans revealed problems in the fifth layer of defense. By taking into consideration managerial and safety culture that might have relevance to this accident, in the author's view, universal lessons are as follows: Resilience: the need to enhance organizational capabilities to respond, monitor, anticipate, and learn in changing conditions, especially to prepare for the unexpected. This includes increasing distance to cliff edge by knowing where it exists and how to increase safety margin. Responsibility: the operator is primarily responsible for safety, and the government is responsible for protecting public health and environment. For both, their right decisions are supported by competence, knowledge, and an understanding of the technology, as well as humble attitudes toward the limitations of what we know and what we can learn from others. Social license to operate: the need to avoid, as much as possible regardless of its probability of occurrence, the reasonably anticipated environmental impact (such as land contamination), as well as to build public confidence/trust and a renewed liability scheme.

Omoto, Akira

2013-12-01

168

Life Changers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camp counselors who are "life changers" nurture relationships within which others can grow and explore. They challenge children to reinvent the boundaries of what they expect of themselves. Such people have common characteristics that include love, humor, forgiveness, honesty, humility, encouragement, generosity, and integrity. The greatest tool…

Boffey, D. Barnes; Overtree, Christopher E.

2002-01-01

169

Life sciences.  

PubMed

Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan. PMID:14696586

Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

2003-12-01

170

1 -Sequence Polydispersed, wrong  

E-print Network

described is inserted d) Bacterial strain used for storage and propagation (commercial producer, genotype, and/ or affinity binding: analyzed on Coomasie and/or Western blot) #12;Protein quality Basic

Lebendiker, Mario

171

Wrong Answers Welcome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the inadvertently harmful effects of questioning and brain-storming but goes on to argue that these techniques can enhance pupil autonomy and motivation if properly used when such intentions are made clear. Includes some classroom management suggestions to facilitate the constructivist teaching approach and counteract the prevalence of…

Selley, Nick

2000-01-01

172

When rites are wrong.  

PubMed

140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). The African Women's Clinic at University College London Hospitals NHS Trust is one of eight UK centres providing care and support for women experiencing problems as a result of FGM. FGM is most commonly performed in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. FGM is illegal in the UK. FGM can cause recurrent urinary tract infection, painful sexual intercourse and menstruation, and difficulties with childbirth. A ten-minute procedure under local anaesthetic can help with micturition and menstruation. Reversing FGM during pregnancy is best done at 20 weeks. PMID:16262171

Wallis, Lynne

173

Right Place, Wrong Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story can be used to teach that results must be checked against known facts to see if they're reasonable. It is designed as a follow up to "The Fall of the Ruler." This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

174

Dead Right, Dead Wrong  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will research and evaluate information about global warming, identify decision-making criteria for action or lack of action, and decide what level of certainty is sufficient to take action. They should debate the issue of when we know enough to act, based on the results of their research. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

175

What's wrong with pain?  

E-print Network

are quickly confronted with difficult questions. This thesis, through an examination of a particular feature of moral language and a description of recent research on pain, provides an analysis of how pain fits into ethical theory. It is argued...

Shriver, Adam Joseph

2006-10-30

176

What's Wrong with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I present a moral account of the legal notion of deceptive advertising. I argue that no harmful consequences to the consumer need follow from a deceptive advertisement as such, and I suggest instead that one should focus on the consequences of permitting the practise of deceptive advertising on society as a whole. After a brief account of

Daniel Attas

1999-01-01

177

Is Something Wrong Here?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes how Western society fears and resists growing old, and points out that educators, along with the rest of society, have little to do with the elderly. Challenges literacy educators to include the elderly and foster connections between the new and the old, and the young and the old. Suggests reading the Foxfire books for inspiration. (SR)

Kazemek, Francis E.

2000-01-01

178

All models are wrong.  

PubMed

As the field of phylogeography has continued to move in the model-based direction, researchers continue struggling to construct useful models for inference. These models must be both simple enough to be tractable yet contain enough of the complexity of the natural world to make meaningful inference. Beyond constructing such models for inference, researchers explore model space and test competing models with the data on hand, with the goal of improving the understanding of the natural world and the processes underlying natural biological communities. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has increased in recent popularity as a tool for evaluating alternative historical demographic models given population genetic samples. As a thorough demonstration, Pelletier & Carstens (2014) use ABC to test 143 phylogeographic submodels given geographically widespread genetic samples from the salamander species Plethodon idahoensis (Carstens et al. 2014) and, in so doing, demonstrate how the results of the ABC model choice procedure are dependent on the model set one chooses to evaluate. PMID:24931159

Hickerson, Michael J

2014-06-01

179

Reproductive rights and wrongs.  

PubMed

Notions of racial superiority created population control policies. White men defined overpopulation as the root of development problems (e.g., from poverty to political instability) in developing countries and decided to solve it themselves. This notion was accepted without resistance. Governments decided to persuade or coerce women to have fewer children instead of improving living conditions. Since no basic health care system existed in these countries, decision makers delivered Western contraceptive technologies. Hormonal contraceptives and IUDs were heavily promoted, but inadequate back-up services to treat side effects or monitor use existed. Barrier methods, which prevent sexually transmitted diseases, were not promoted. Pregnancy prevention was more important than safety. Women had no control over their own fertility. Views of Margaret Sanger, a pioneer of the birth control movement, formed the foundation for more aggressive laws based on eugenics. The American Birth Control League advocated racial progress and sterilization. Large organizations initiated contraceptive research. Later public institutions took over contraceptive research that focused on female methods because the field was dominated by males. Developing countries depend on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rulings to develop their own guidelines on contraceptives. The pharmaceutical industry weakens FDA'S resolve. It considers developing countries to be a huge expanding market. The Western attitude that family planning is much safer than childbearing punishes the poor for their poverty and disregards long-term risks to women. Providers do not always inform women about risks of contraceptives. The sterilization program in India was based on restricted choice, coercion, targets, and incentives. Success stories include Cuba, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Kerala State in India. Expansion of basic health care and improvement of the general condition of people's lives are needed. PMID:12345777

Solomon, R

1994-06-01

180

LIFE, Life Investigation For Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of NASA outer planet life search targets and unique in its current active jets. As with comets, this enables a low-cost flyby sample return mission like STARDUST. Samples from Enceladus will expand our in-depth knowledge of \\

Peter Tsou; I. Kanic; C. Sotin; L. Spilker; T. Spilker; N. Strange

2009-01-01

181

Life and fl What is Life?  

E-print Network

Life and fl #12;What is Life? And will you know it when you see it? #12;Properties of Life* *as we to the Environment ·Adapts and Evolves #12;Definitions of Life ·Thermodynamic: Produces order. Temporarily overcomes ·You can not get out of the game. #12;Entropy Does life, by creating order, violate the second law

Walter, Frederick M.

182

Prehistoric Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from Museum Victoria in Australia presents an overview of fossils and what they tell us about prehistoric life. Museum Victoria developed this site in response to frequently asked questions and public interest in paleontology, resulting in a well-presented and easy-to-understand introduction to the topic. Five main sections cover invertebrate fossils, dinosaurs, Ice Age mammals, fossils found in Victoria, and a general explanation of fossils and fossilization. Although a bit text heavy with limited illustrations (but nonetheless engaging), this Web site should appeal to anyone with even a passing interest in paleontology.

2002-01-01

183

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven tools can ... build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's ...

184

Management of life-threatening trauma.  

PubMed

The response to major traumatic injury is a clinical challenge for even a well-trained hospital team. Efficient, effective treatment must be initiated as life-threatening problems are identified, often without the benefit of a definitive diagnosis. Therapy focuses on maximizing oxygen delivery and oxygen utilization in a hypermetabolic patient by improving gas exchange and blood flow. An algorithmic approach to patient care during a fast-paced, high-stress resuscitation is known to optimize this therapy and to improve outcome. Even with their proven benefit in facilitating patient care, algorithms have inherent limitations that require attention and common sense on the part of the attending clinician. It is true that "trauma can take you anywhere" and even a minor injury, especially if improperly managed, can lead to life-threatening complications and death. No algorithm can include all of trauma and all the possible sequelae without being too difficult for practical application. The algorithms cannot include basic common sense, which, right or wrong, is assumed to be a part of each doctor's decision-making skills. The algorithms are inherently in series, whereas emergency patient care requires the management of complex problems in parallel. The clinician is required to understand the priorities outlined in the algorithms, to have the skill to identify life-threatening problems, to use the appropriate protocol, and to move forward or backward in the protocol when the patient's condition demands a change of focus and priority. The algorithms enhance but are not a substitute for up-to-date medical knowledge, familiarity with anatomy, good clinical skills, and experience. Finally, although these algorithms are based on years of clinical experience, they have not been tested with the appropriate prospective clinical studies needed to generate veterinary outcome statistics. Future modifications in algorithm protocol will be based on such studies. PMID:7879354

Kovacic, J P

1994-11-01

185

Propranolol and the Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Is it Wrong to Erase the “Sting” of Bad Memories?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute of Mental Health (Bethesda, MD) reports that approximately 5.2 million Americans experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) each year. PTSD can be severely debilitating and diminish quality of life for patients and those who care for them. Studies have indicated that propranolol, a beta-blocker, reduces consolidation of emotional memory. When administered immediately after a psychic trauma, it is

Michael Henry; Jennifer R. Fishman; Stuart J. Youngner

2007-01-01

186

Automatic localization of vertebral levels in x-ray fluoroscopy using 3D-2D registration: a tool to reduce wrong-site surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (wrong-level surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to the lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. The conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and visualization system (referred to as LevelCheck), for decision support in spine surgery by automatically labeling vertebral levels in fluoroscopy using a GPU-accelerated, intensity-based 3D-2D (namely CT-to-fluoroscopy) registration. A gradient information (GI) similarity metric and a CMA-ES optimizer were chosen due to their robustness and inherent suitability for parallelization. Simulation studies involved ten patient CT datasets from which 50?000 simulated fluoroscopic images were generated from C-arm poses selected to approximate the C-arm operator and positioning variability. Physical experiments used an anthropomorphic chest phantom imaged under real fluoroscopy. The registration accuracy was evaluated as the mean projection distance (mPD) between the estimated and true center of vertebral levels. Trials were defined as successful if the estimated position was within the projection of the vertebral body (namely mPD <5 mm). Simulation studies showed a success rate of 99.998% (1 failure in 50?000 trials) and computation time of 4.7 s on a midrange GPU. Analysis of failure modes identified cases of false local optima in the search space arising from longitudinal periodicity in vertebral structures. Physical experiments demonstrated the robustness of the algorithm against quantum noise and x-ray scatter. The ability to automatically localize target anatomy in fluoroscopy in near-real-time could be valuable in reducing the occurrence of wrong-site surgery while helping to reduce radiation exposure. The method is applicable beyond the specific case of vertebral labeling, since any structure defined in pre-operative (or intra-operative) CT or cone-beam CT can be automatically registered to the fluoroscopic scene.

Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2012-09-01

187

How Many Times Can You Be Wrong and Still Be Right? T. H. Morgan, Evolution, Chromosomes and the Origins of Modern Genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science textbooks and classes mostly emphasize what are considered by today's standards the "right" or "correct" interpretations of particular phenomena or processes. When "incorrect" ideas of the past are mentioned at all, it is simply to point out their errors, with little attention as to why the ideas were put forward in the first place, or ever gained a following. A strong case can be made, however, for presenting contrasting or even what are considered today "wrong" hypotheses as a way of not only emphasizing the dynamic nature of science (which is punctuated throughout by controversies and contrasting views), but also as a way of helping students better understand the details and workings of contemporary views. This article will illustrate these claims by examining the work of embryologist-turned-geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan in the early decades of the twentieth century.

Allen, Garland E.

2013-12-01

188

A Doctor's First, and Last, Responsibility is to Care Comment on "Denial of Treatment to Obese Patients--the Wrong Policy on Personal Responsibility for Health"  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic raises important and complex issues for clinicians and policy-makers, such as what clinical and public health measures will be most effective and most ethically-sound. While Nir Eyal’s analysis of these issues is very helpful and while he correctly concludes that “conditioning the very aid that patients need in order to become healthier on success in becoming healthier” is wrong, further discussions of these issues must include unequivocal support for safeguarding the fundamental moral basis of the doctor-patient relationship. Regardless of any patients’ failures to demonstrate effective responsibility for their own health, each patient needs and deserves a physician whose caring is never in doubt. Policy-makers need to ensure that our health systems always make this a top priority. PMID:24596876

Forrow, Lachlan

2013-01-01

189

Game as life --- life as game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Game As Life --- Life As Game (GALLAG), ubiquitous computing and personally-tailored game scenarios integrate activities across the virtual and physical domains to further extend emerging avant-garde \\

Winslow Burleson; Collin Ruffenach; Camilla Nørgaard Jensen; Uday Kumar Bandaru; Kasia Muldner

2009-01-01

190

Compliance with a time-out procedure intended to prevent wrong surgery in hospitals: results of a national patient safety programme in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Objective To prevent wrong surgery, the WHO ‘Safe Surgery Checklist’ was introduced in 2008. The checklist comprises a time-out procedure (TOP): the final step before the start of the surgical procedure where the patient, surgical procedure and side/site are reviewed by the surgical team. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which hospitals carry out the TOP before anaesthesia in the operating room, whether compliance has changed over time, and to determine factors that are associated with compliance. Design Evaluation study involving observations. Setting Operating rooms of 2 academic, 4 teaching and 12 general Dutch hospitals. Participants A random selection was made from all adult patients scheduled for elective surgery on the day of the observation, preferably involving different surgeons and different procedures. Results Mean compliance with the TOP was 71.3%. Large differences between hospitals were observed. No linear trend was found in compliance during the study period. Compliance at general and teaching hospitals was higher than at academic hospitals. Compliance decreased with the age of the patient, general surgery showed lower compliance in comparison with other specialties and compliance was higher when the team was focused on the TOP. Conclusions Large differences in compliance with the TOP were observed between participating hospitals which can be attributed at least in part to the type of hospital, surgical specialty and patient characteristics. Hospitals do not comply consistently with national guidelines to prevent wrong surgery and further implementation as well as further research into non-compliance is needed. PMID:24993761

van Schoten, Steffie M; Kop, Veerle; de Blok, Carolien; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter P; Wagner, Cordula

2014-01-01

191

Is the Good Life the Easy Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Participants rated the desirability and moral goodness of a life as a function of the happiness, meaning, and effort experienced. Happiness and meaning were solid predictors of the good life, replicating King and Napa (1998). Study 1 (N = 381) included wealth as an additional factor. Results…

Scollon, Christie Napa; King, Laura A.

2004-01-01

192

Selling Your Life Insurance  

MedlinePLUS

... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 208 Selling Your Life Insurance WHY DO PEOPLE SELL THEIR LIFE INSURANCE ... POLICY? THE BOTTOM LINE NOTE: The sale of life insurance policies is possible in U.S. but we ...

193

Treatment for Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Late Effects: Spoiled for Choice or Looking in the Wrong Direction?  

PubMed Central

Due to the radiosensitivity of the lung, toxic endpoints, in the form of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, are relatively frequent outcomes following radiation treatment of thoracic neoplasms. Because of the potential lethal nature of these normal tissue reactions, they not only lead to quality-of-life issues in survivors, but also are deemed dose-limiting and thereby compromise treatment. The mitigation and treatment of lung normal tissue late effects has therefore been the goal of many investigations; however, the complexity of both the organ itself and its response to injury has resulted in little success. Nonetheless, current technology allows us to propose likely targets that are either currently being researched or should be considered in future studies. PMID:20583979

Williams, Jacqueline P.; Johnston, Carl J.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.

2010-01-01

194

ABQJOURNAL NORTH/OPINION: Obama Focusing on Wrong Energyhttp://www.abqjournal.com/cgi-bin/print_it.pl?page=/north/opinion/... 1 of 3 2/25/10 3:54 PM  

E-print Network

and photovoltaics, it is easy to store the produced energy. The cost of concentrated solar power from the few those with scientific and economic merit. Here's why President Obama's list is wrong: · Nuclear power. The real cost is unknown, due to the Price-Anderson Act, which puts the burden of insuring nuclear power

195

Propranolol and the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder: is it wrong to erase the "sting" of bad memories?  

PubMed

The National Institute of Mental Health (Bethesda, MD) reports that approximately 5.2 million Americans experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) each year. PTSD can be severely debilitating and diminish quality of life for patients and those who care for them. Studies have indicated that propranolol, a beta-blocker, reduces consolidation of emotional memory. When administered immediately after a psychic trauma, it is efficacious as a prophylactic for PTSD. Use of such memory-altering drugs raises important ethical concerns, including some futuristic dystopias put forth by the President's Council on Bioethics. We think that adequate informed consent should facilitate ethical research using propranolol and, if it proves efficacious, routine treatment. Clinical evidence from studies should certainly continue to evaluate realistic concerns about possible ill effects of diminishing memory. If memory-attenuating drugs prove effective, we believe that the most immediate social concern is the over-medicalization of bad memories, and its subsequent exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17849331

Henry, Michael; Fishman, Jennifer R; Youngner, Stuart J

2007-09-01

196

Life in the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes adress the question: "Are we alone or are there millions of advanced life forms in the universe?" by examining life on Earth, the origin of life on Earth, the possiblity that life exists in our solar system or elsewhere.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

197

2009 2010 Student Life  

E-print Network

GREEK LIFE Brochure 2009 ­ 2010 Student Life #12;2 Table of Contents · Carnegie Mellon University considering. An option that will change your life forever. "Going Greek" is more than simply joining an after-school club. Fraternities and sororities are about creating life-long friendships rich with heritage and bound

Andrews, Peter B.

198

The Errors of Individualistic Public Health Interventions: Denial of Treatment to Obese Persons Comment on "Denial of Treatment to Obese Patients-the Wrong Policy on Personal Responsibility for Health".  

PubMed

I agree entirely with Nir Eyal's perspective that denying treatment to obese patients is morally wrong. However, the reasons for this belief differ in some ways from Eyal's analysis. In this commentary, I will try to explain the similarities and differences in our perspectives. My primary claim is that the denial of treatment to obese patients is wrong principally because (i) it eschews a whole-population approach to the problem of poor nutrition and is therefore likely to be ineffective; (ii) it is likely to expand obesity-related health inequities; and (iii) it is likely to intensify stigma against already-marginalized social groups. I shall consider each in turn, and explore the extent to which Eyal would be likely to agree with my claims. PMID:24596875

Goldberg, Daniel S

2013-09-01

199

Site and still life  

E-print Network

This thesis uses the still life as a medium for investigating architecture and the city . An analogy is established between what the thesis defines as still life and an urban composition (a site in East Cambridge). Through ...

Willey, Guy Phillip

1993-01-01

200

It's a Frog's Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats.

Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

2003-09-01

201

Tips for Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

202

Facts for Life  

MedlinePLUS

Facts for Life saves lives! Each year, around 9 million children die from preventable and treatable illnesses before reaching their fifth ... post them on this site! Share facts for life far and wide to help ensure children's and ...

203

Donate Life America  

MedlinePLUS

... Brockington for the Donate Life Float in 2015 Rose Parade 2014 Annual Update Released 2014 Donor Designation Report Card Released 2015 Donate Life Rose Parade Float Design Unveiled Contribute Make a Gift ...

204

HIV Life Cycle  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV life cycle. What is the connection between HIV medicines and the HIV life cycle? Without treatment, HIV infection gradually destroys ... the risk of HIV drug resistance . What is HIV drug resistance? Drug resistance is when HIV is ...

205

Searching for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of six activities encourages students to think about the characteristics of life and the possibility of looking for life on Mars. The first three activities from Destination: Mars establish the criteria for recognizing life. The other activities use the criteria for more advanced investigations. These activities are part of an astrobiology guide called the "Fingerprints of Life" which contains background information for students, worksheets, extension activities, suggested assessments, and alignment to standards.

206

The Pleasant Life, the Engaged Life, and the Meaningful Life: What about the Balanced Life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martin Seligman, in his very popular book Authentic Happiness (Seligman 2002), argued that authentic happiness is derived from three major sets of experiences in life, namely experiencing pleasantness\\u000a regularly (the pleasant life), experiencing a high level of engagement in satisfying activities (the engaged life), and experiencing\\u000a a sense of connectedness to a greater whole (the meaningful life). In this paper,

M. Joseph Sirgy; Jiyun Wu

2009-01-01

207

Planets and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrobiology involves the study of the origin and history of life on Earth, planets and moons where life may have arisen, and the search for extraterrestrial life. It combines the sciences of biology, chemistry, palaeontology, geology, planetary physics and astronomy. This textbook brings together world experts in each of these disciplines to provide the most comprehensive coverage of the field

Woodruff T. Sullivan III; John Baross

2001-01-01

208

Student Life and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of the student life/activities specialty in higher education student affairs, including mission, functions, organization and staffing, major challenges and issues, and career pathways for student life administrators. Also describes the author's personal career path in student life administration. (EV)

Javinar, Jan Minoru

2000-01-01

209

Life Among the Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

MOSAIC, 1977

1977-01-01

210

Life on Jupiter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of life on Jupiter are discussed from the point view of life as we know it. That is, we assume that any life on Jupiter would not involve new principles foreign to us. Proteins would be a constituent as would fats and the other building blocks of living organisms on Earth. This leads us to a set of

W. F. Libby

1974-01-01

211

Life in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical conditions of Space are most inhospitable and the higher forms of life probably could exist extraterrestrially only on Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn in our Solar System, and the chances there are poor in light of present knowledge. Thus intelligent life probably exists only on the Earth. Although indigenous intelligent extraterrestrial life seems to be improbable it is by

W. F. Libby

1968-01-01

212

Life in Extreme Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astrobiology Web publishes this list of links about life in extreme environments. Subjects include general information, genomic resources, thermophilic life, endolithic organisms, bacteria in amber, dry (xerophytic) organisms, radiation tolerance, deep and dark dwelling organisms, life at varied pressures, halophilic organisms, research agencies, the domain Archaea, deep ocean thermal vents, and recommended books. The site features an internal search engine.

2010-02-04

213

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

Bates, Jan P.

2005-01-01

214

Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

Chambliss, Joe

2004-01-01

215

SORORITY LIFE COMMUNITY STANDARDS  

E-print Network

& FRATERNITY SORORITY LIFE COMMUNITY STANDARDS & GREEK JUDICIAL BOARD HANDBOOK 2013 OFFICE OF RESIDENTIAL PROGRAMS FRATERNITY & SORORITY LIFE AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT www.columbiagreeks.info #12;Greek Judicial Board Handbook 2 I. COMMUNITY STANDARDS Fraternity & Sorority Life is one of the most rewarding

Hone, James

216

The Life Story Schema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current work on autobiographical memory does not take the term autobiographical seriously enough. Doing so requires taking not just single events, but the whole life and its coherence, into account: Only memories that are linked to self through their emotional or motivational significance over one's life are truly autobiographical. We introduce a new construct, the life story schema, a skeletal

Susan Bluck; Tilmann Habermas

2000-01-01

217

Life in Icy Places  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the field of astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, and ice as a preservative for evidence of life. Learners will consider the relationship between ice and life as they investigate the conditions required for life to exist and sustain itself. They will study the impact of freezing on microbes and life processes and will learn about extremophiles, organisms that live in extreme conditions. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 8 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

218

“I Can't Find Anything Wrong: It Must Be a Pulmonary Embolism”: Diagnosing Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in Primary Care, a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Before using any prediction rule oriented towards pulmonary embolism (PE), family physicians (FPs) should have some suspicion of this diagnosis. The diagnostic reasoning process leading to the suspicion of PE is not well described in primary care. Objective to explore the diagnostic reasoning of FPs when pulmonary embolism is suspected. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 28 FPs. The regional hospital supplied data of all their cases of pulmonary embolism from June to November 2011. The patient's FP was identified where he/she had been the physician who had sent the patient to the emergency unit. The first consecutive 14 FPs who agreed to participate made up the first group. A second group was chosen using a purposeful sampling method. The topic guide focused on the circumstances leading to the suspicion of PE. A thematic analysis was performed, by three researchers, using a grounded theory coding paradigm. Results In the FPs' experience, the suspicion of pulmonary embolism arose out of four considerations: the absence of indicative clinical signs for diagnoses other than PE, a sudden change in the condition of the patient, a gut feeling that something was seriously wrong and an earlier failure to diagnose PE. The FPs interviewed did not use rules in their diagnostic process. Conclusion This study illustrated the diagnostic role of gut feelings in the specific context of suspected pulmonary embolism in primary care. The FPs used the sense of alarm as a tool to prevent the diagnostic error of missing a PE. The diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings has yet to be evaluated. PMID:24840333

Barais, Marie; Morio, Nathalie; Cuzon Breton, Amélie; Barraine, Pierre; Calvez, Amélie; Stolper, Erik; Van Royen, Paul; Liétard, Claire

2014-01-01

219

Superintendent Shortage: The Wrong Problem and Wrong Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges assumptions regarding insufficient supply of superintendents and conclusions about underlying causes of this condition. Argues that the longstanding practice of overproducing administrators and then allowing employers to determine competence is not indicative of a true profession. Recommends the strengthening of preparation and…

Kowalski, Theodore J.

2003-01-01

220

Life on Jupiter. [terrestrial type life possibilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibilities of life on Jupiter are discussed from the point view of life as known on earth. That is, it is assumed that any life on Jupiter would not involve new principles foreign to us. Proteins would be a constituent as would fats and the other building blocks of living organisms on earth. This leads to a set of limiting parameters, such as pressure. Studies in the laboratory have shown that proteins and other essential molecules are denatured by pressures of 4000 atm and higher. Thus, life cannot be expected to exist in the great depths of the Jovian atmosphere. It could exist only at depths of several hundred kilometers in the atmosphere. Since no solid surface could possibly exist at such altitudes, any organisms present must be small enough to be buoyed up by the turbulent atmospheric currents or must fly or both. Such possibilities, however, seem to be real. The necessary nutrients to preserve life and foster growth could be furnished by the Miller-Urey type reactions of ionizing radiation on the reducing atmosphere undoubtedly present.

Libby, W. F.

1974-01-01

221

Guardians at the gate: patent protection of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies through product life cycle management--Part 3.  

PubMed

Product life cycle management, which necessarily utilizes a multi-disciplinary approach, is an essential tool for companies that develop or market therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Too little attention to such a plan, or use of the wrong resources, could substantially curtail a product's life span. The most difficult part of the therapeutic antibody business is the development of high-quality, safe and effective products. Great care should thus be taken to ensure that products with these characteristics are positioned in a marketplace that is competition-free for as long as possible. In an era of mAbs with billion dollar markets, the loss of even a single day of sales could cost companies millions of dollars in lost revenue. PMID:20068401

McCabe, Kevin W; Calvo, Paul A

2009-01-01

222

Searching for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity designed to develop a working definition of life. Learners will conduct a simple experiment, looking for signs of life in three different "soil" samples. The experiment introduces children to the difficulty that scientists face in defining life. By observing the soil samples, participants try to determine if any contain signs of life and work to identify, refine, and create a set of characteristics that may be used to identify living versus nonliving things. The activity concludes with the development of a group definition of life. This group definition will be referred to in subsequent activities. It also includes specific tips within each activity for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 1 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

223

Wrong...But Right Enough  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates his experience in a recent trip to Sweden. He was assigned to supervise a research student who is preparing a very interesting PhD about the role of the many different kinds of knowledge that have relevance to people in technology. His latest tutorial paper included a fascinating account of some examples of…

Kimbell, Richard

2011-01-01

224

What's Wrong with Women's Studies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A former women's studies professor is critical of the field's current direction and its perceived intolerance of criticism. "Games" played by feminists are cited, including their use of language, rejection of any masculinism, reduction of all issues to gender alone, denial of biological reality, and fostering a politics of identity. A broader…

Patai, Daphne

1995-01-01

225

Nuna5: What went wrong?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuon Solar Team and their famous car the Nuna had a great tradition of winning the World Solar Challenge in Australia. Four times in a row the car was faster than all the other solar cars. This year, however, it was different. Some headlines claimed we lost first place, others said we won second. Because of all the hard

R. Van Dongen

2010-01-01

226

What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

Morrison, Adrian R.

1992-01-01

227

Wrong Turn on School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the run-up to the 2000 presidential election, candidate George W. Bush and his advisors made a strategic decision to appropriate educational rhetoric generally associated with Democrats and the left. This decision helped Bush present himself as "different kind of Republican" and a "compassionate conservative" and to dramatically narrow the…

Hess, Frederick M.; Petrilli, Michael J.

2009-01-01

228

What's wrong with risk matrices?  

PubMed

Risk matrices-tables mapping "frequency" and "severity" ratings to corresponding risk priority levels-are popular in applications as diverse as terrorism risk analysis, highway construction project management, office building risk analysis, climate change risk management, and enterprise risk management (ERM). National and international standards (e.g., Military Standard 882C and AS/NZS 4360:1999) have stimulated adoption of risk matrices by many organizations and risk consultants. However, little research rigorously validates their performance in actually improving risk management decisions. This article examines some mathematical properties of risk matrices and shows that they have the following limitations. (a) Poor Resolution. Typical risk matrices can correctly and unambiguously compare only a small fraction (e.g., less than 10%) of randomly selected pairs of hazards. They can assign identical ratings to quantitatively very different risks ("range compression"). (b) Errors. Risk matrices can mistakenly assign higher qualitative ratings to quantitatively smaller risks. For risks with negatively correlated frequencies and severities, they can be "worse than useless," leading to worse-than-random decisions. (c) Suboptimal Resource Allocation. Effective allocation of resources to risk-reducing countermeasures cannot be based on the categories provided by risk matrices. (d) Ambiguous Inputs and Outputs. Categorizations of severity cannot be made objectively for uncertain consequences. Inputs to risk matrices (e.g., frequency and severity categorizations) and resulting outputs (i.e., risk ratings) require subjective interpretation, and different users may obtain opposite ratings of the same quantitative risks. These limitations suggest that risk matrices should be used with caution, and only with careful explanations of embedded judgments. PMID:18419665

Cox, Louis Anthony

2008-04-01

229

What's Wrong with College Algebra?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most college algebra courses are offered in the spirit of preparing the students to move on toward calculus. In reality, only a vanishingly small fraction of the million students a year who take these courses ever get to calculus. This article builds a strong case for the need to change the focus in college algebra to one that better meets the…

Gordon, Sheldon P.

2008-01-01

230

What's Wrong with This Picture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses possible health hazards associated with video display terminals (VDT). Highlights include electromagnetic fields (EMF); research on EMF and VDT; VDT emission guidelines in Sweden; conflicting interests; low emission monitors; spatial solutions; financial considerations; and a sidebar that includes questions and answers on EMF. (seven…

Eakin, Emily

1994-01-01

231

What's Wrong with Privatising Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Full privatisation of schools would involve states abstaining from providing, funding or regulating schools. I argue that full privatisation would, in most circumstances, worsen social injustice in schooling. I respond to James Tooley's critique of my own arguments for funding and regulation and markets. I argue that even his principle of…

Brighouse, Harry

2004-01-01

232

What's Wrong With My Plant?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A useful resource for amateur horticulturists from the University of Minnesota Extension Service, Yard and Garden Clinic. The focus here is on commonly used perennials, grasses, shrubs, and trees in the home garden and the inevitable problems one must face while gardening in a northern climate. Based on visual observations of symptoms, the navigation is easy, and the solutions equally understandable. This site is a useful stop if you want basic advice. It also provides links to other related Web resources useful to northern gardeners.

2008-07-15

233

Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the life cycle of plants? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice Plants , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the Plant Life Cycle Video and fill out the Plant Life Cycle Organizer . ...

Johnson, Miss

2011-04-07

234

Life and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information about every aspect of life on earth. There is a section on cells that gives details about the physical make-up of cells, like how prokaryotic cells have no nucleus or organelles enclosed within membranes. There is a detailed explanation about genetics, and how certain characteristics of humans come from our parents and passed on to us. The vast diversity of life and different classifications of life are given to better understand the world around us. The image achieve gives you images of all types of different life on plant earth.

2004-04-07

235

Limitations of terrestrial life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Questions of the suitability of other planets in the solar system for terrestrial organisms are discussed. It is found that life forms similar to terrestrial organisms but modified to fit the prevailing conditions could exist on Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Of these, only in the case of Jupiter is there any evidence that life would have been able to evolve. Life on Jupiter would be restricted to the clouds. It is pointed out that life may have developed on other celestial bodies in forms which are quite dissimilar to terrestrial organisms with regard to their biochemistry.

Molton, P.

1973-01-01

236

WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

237

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.  

PubMed

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dalvin, Sussie T; Bron, James E; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

238

The Life of Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

Pearce, Cathie

2010-01-01

239

It's a Frog's Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

2003-01-01

240

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-print Network

& Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory www.clca.columbia.edu www.pv.bnl.gov #12;2 The Life Cycle of PVThe Life Cycle Modules Zero emissions under normal conditions (testing in thermal cycles of ­80 C to +80 C) No leaching

241

Europa: life elsewhere?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Jet Propulsion Lab. scientists and engineers are spearheading far-reaching research efforts to prove beyond all doubt that life exists, or once existed, elsewhere than on Earth. In their most promising initiative, they hope to land a probe on the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, considered a likely site for extraterrestrial life, within the next 15 years. As planned

D. Price

1998-01-01

242

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology involves the study of the origin and history of life on Earth, planets and moons where life may have arisen, and the search for extraterrestrial life. It combines the sciences of biology, chemistry, palaeontology, geology, planetary physics and astronomy. This textbook brings together world experts in each of these disciplines to provide the most comprehensive coverage of the field currently available. Topics cover the origin and evolution of life on Earth, the geological, physical and chemical conditions in which life might arise and the detection of extraterrestrial life on other planets and moons. The book also covers the history of our ideas on extraterrestrial life and the origin of life, as well as the ethical, philosophical and educational issues raised by astrobiology. Written to be accessible to students from diverse backgrounds, this text will be welcomed by advanced undergraduates and graduates who are taking astrobiology courses.• Compiled by world experts in their disciplines to create a truly comprehensive book • Accessible to students from a wide range of backgrounds • A welcome addition to this rapidly-growing field

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2001-12-01

243

Does Mars Have Life?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOVA article presents an interview with NASA planetary scientist Christopher McKay concerning the possibility that life has existed on Mars. The interview covers all the requirements for life, and whether they were met on Mars in the past. The discussion is accessible for general audiences.

2008-06-06

244

Is Life Unique?  

PubMed Central

Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

Abel, David L.

2011-01-01

245

Thermodynamic Function of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts

K. Michaelian

2009-01-01

246

Transformer insulation life assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents novel techniques for life assessment of the insulation of the generator stepup units in power plants. Load and ambient temperatures are two important factors that influence the life of insulation in transformers. Hourly load and ambient temperatures obtained through condition monitoring are used to assess the operating profile of the equipment. Modeling techniques for estimating load factors

Kshira T. Muthanna; Abhinanda Sarkar; Kaushik Das; Kurt Waldner

2006-01-01

247

Empowering Students for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

Henderson, Nancy

2009-01-01

248

Daily Life with Glaucoma  

MedlinePLUS

Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your friend's name: Your ... can be useful and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit ...

249

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2007-09-01

250

Exploratorium: Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to complement the redesigned Traits of Life exhibit at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, this fine site allows visitors to view a photo gallery of the new exhibit, investigate some provocative online exhibits, and explore a host of links that are germane to the nature of biology. The exhibits constitute the core of the material available at the site, and are divided into four thematic areas, including "The Stuff of Life," "Life Needs Energy," "Making More Life," and "Change Over Time." "The Stuff of Life" is quite fascinating, as it profiles cells with a flair for the interactive. Users can learn about the workings of a cell through the "Cell Explorer" exhibit, read an interview with David Goodsell (a molecular biologist), and view a poster that describes how proteins make muscles work. The other three areas of online exhibits are similarly arranged and provide a host of educational materials that can be used as teaching aids or as compelling intellectual diversions.

251

Origin of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Lal, Ashwini Kumar

2008-10-01

252

Life in Extreme Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the solar system has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the last few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harboring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modeling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we critically examine what it means to be an extremophile, the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology, and especially the search for life in the cosmos.

Rothschild, Lynn; Bram, James A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

253

Origin of Life  

E-print Network

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA World, Iron-sulphur World, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Ashwini Kumar Lal

2009-07-21

254

Life on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These events are known as extinctions or ice ages. The crust of a planet of the Earth group is formed at the outer edge of the body. The planets after asteroid belt like Jupiter or Saturn probably form their “crusts” in the centre of the body. Due to we may see internal kitchen of element forming in detail. This processes lead to the organic life, which we may detect at the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto. But their satellites look like earth planet group - with outer crust. Huygens considered that God's wisdom and providence is clearest in the creation of life, and Earth holds no privileged position in the heavens that life must be universal. “Huygens” helps find life on Titan

Potashko, Oleksandr

255

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

256

BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY  

E-print Network

or dismemberment, Anthem Life will pay the amount of insurance specified in the loss Schedule of Indemnities is due to an illness Terminally ill is defined as being diagnosed with a life expectancy of six months- 42 - BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY Maximum Benefits The amount of life

257

An application of the theory of life's lesions to the study of the menopausal transition.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to shed light on the experiential and contextual sources influencing menopausal manifestations, or discomforts. To do so, I propose the concept of life's lesions, suggesting that women's experiences of physiological changes occurring during the menopausal transition may be heightened by specific aspects of their lives embedded in society and culture. The concept of life's lesions advances the notion that the lived experience tends to order a person's life and shape a person's experience of his or her body, including during menopause. Indisputably, menopausal discomforts will be due to inexorable biological changes that take place when a woman reaches a certain age, but they will also be promoted by external factors that prevail in a given society, such as economic scarcity, malnutrition and public health deficits, environmental or political upheavals, civil wars, forced migration, and racism, especially in developing nations; most important, they will be furthered by irresolvable contradictions, irreconcilable incongruities, and moral indignations in their lives that lead to anger and anguish. Rooted in the notion of life's lesions is the fundamental assumption that human beings the world over exist in a moral and ideological universe, that they engage in moral evaluations by distinguishing between right and wrong in the social environment. All these factors become part of their physiology and amplify the experience of bodily changes. By pointing to the moral domain and the existence of irresolvable conundrums in human life, which could also be felt as moral affronts and injustice, the concept of life's lesions introduces an important new dimension to our understanding of the extrasomatic causality of discomforts that may occur during the menopausal transition. Although the concept of life's lesions must be studied qualitatively, requiring us to attend to the cultural and experiential characteristics of women during the menopausal transition, the article proposes several ways of applying this concept to the study of menopause that will also generate new hypotheses, which could then be tested using quantitative methodologies. PMID:17303964

Finkler, Kaja

2007-01-01

258

Defining Life or Bringing Biology to Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called ‘omics’ revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough—but also encompassing enough—terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

2010-04-01

259

Early Life Conditions and Later Life Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although the idea that early life conditions shape mortality is not new, there has been a resurgence of studies on the topic\\u000a in the last two decades. In our review of this work, we weigh the evidence for the major causal mechanisms, i.e., biological\\u000a imprint and pathway processes, thought to underlie the associations between childhood conditions and adult mortality. We

Jennifer Karas Montez; Mark D. Hayward

260

Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

261

Chirality and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chirality, meaning handedness, pervades much of modern science, from the physics of elementary particles to the chemistry of life. The amino acids and sugars from which the central molecules of life—proteins and nucleic acids—are constructed exhibit homochirality, which is expected to be a key biosignature in astrobiology. This article provides a brief review of molecular chirality and its significance for the detection of extant or extinct life on other worlds. Fundamental symmetry aspects are emphasized since these bring intrinsic physical properties of the universe to bear on the problem of the origin and role of homochirality in the living world.

Barron, Laurence D.

2008-03-01

262

Chirality and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chirality, meaning handedness, pervades much of modern science, from the physics of elementary particles to the chemistry of life. The amino acids and sugars from which the central molecules of life—proteins and nucleic acids—are constructed exhibit homochirality, which is expected to be a key biosignature in astrobiology. This article provides a brief review of molecular chirality and its significance for the detection of extant or extinct life on other worlds. Fundamental symmetry aspects are emphasized since these bring intrinsic physical properties of the universe to bear on the problem of the origin and role of homochirality in the living world.

Barron, Laurence D.

263

Exobiology, Jupiter and life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experiments in an environmental chamber have shown that not even hardy terrestrial bacteria can survive on the Martian surface. The planet Jupiter is now considered by many to be the most likely place to find nonterrestrial life. Atmospheric simulation experiments for Jupiter that have been performed involve spark or semicorona discharges in mixtures of methane and ammonia at room temperature and a pressure lower than atmospheric. Terrestrial microorganisms have been shown capable of surviving 24 hr under a range of possible Jovian atmospheric conditions. The final mode of approach to the question of Jovian life concerns theoretical studies on the sort of chemical systems from which life could be generated.

Molton, P. M.

1972-01-01

264

Cathode Life Test Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cathode Life Test Facility (CLTF) has been in operation for ten years and has tested ten different cathode types for a total of approximately 2.0 million hours of life test data. As part of the defense management review (DMR) process, Rome Laboratory (RL) has eliminated internal research efforts pertaining to cathode life testing. Based on this directive, the CLTF was moved to the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Crane, Indiana. This report summarizes the process of moving the CLTF from RL to the NSWC.

Jardieu, Ronald J.

1994-10-01

265

e-life  

E-print Network

tx H 2 O | pg. 10 A new environmental education program, ?e-Life,? that combines an interactive Web site and television news spots, premiered last fall as the latest tool to help North Texans learn more about their environmental quality of life... of Governments (NCTCOG). e-Life is co-sponsored by EPA, Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB), NCTCOG and KTVT-TV CBS 11. The environmental program focuses on the nine watersheds in the Upper Trinity River Basin with its network of lakes...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

266

Potential alternate life biochemistries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

Konesky, Gregory

2013-09-01

267

Life Sciences Computational Biology 51  

E-print Network

Life Sciences #12;Computational Biology 51 4 Life Sciences Research in Life Sciences at Jacobs current guest scientists (in to- tal more than 200 scientists as of the end of 2008). In 2007/2008 Life at the molecular level played a central role in all disciplines of modern Life Sciences on campus. Our research

Henkel, Werner

268

Fresh Water Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

Kestler, Carol Susan

1991-01-01

269

Frog life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The life cycle of a frog includes the egg stage, tadpole stage, froglet stage, and adult frog stage. Tadpoles live in water and use gills to breathe. They develop lungs as they mature into frogs and live on land.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

270

Extending mine life  

SciTech Connect

Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining.

Not Available

1984-06-01

271

Metaphysics and Patenting Life  

E-print Network

bare majority of the Supreme Court divined that the intent of Parliament was to exclude "higher life forms" from patentability. The Supreme Court variously justified its decision on the basis of "commonly understood" distinctions of "higher" and "lower...

Torrance, Andrew W.

2007-01-01

272

Life on Mars Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When NASA researchers from the Johnson Space Center and Stanford University announced they had found combined evidence in 1996 "that strongly suggests primitive life may have existed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago," scientists buzzed with excitement at the possibility of life on Mars. Two weeks ago, the discovery of rock-eating microbes one mile beneath the ocean floor (published in the August 14, 1998 issue of Science) seemed to make that possibility more likely. But last week, new evidence based on geochemical models was discovered that indicates that, while basic geological conditions on Mars may meet life's minimal requirements, the biological potential of the red planet seems unlikely. The nine resources listed provide background information, specifics, and commentary on the hunt for Life on Mars.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

273

Life on moduli space?  

E-print Network

While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space -- i.e., in low energy effective theories with 1. exact supersymmetry and 2. some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2009-08-06

274

Life Stories: Personal Portraits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers glimpses into the landscapes of people's lives. Discusses Edith Bruck's "Who Loves You Like This,""Life Stories: Profiles from 'The New Yorker'," and Hugh Sidey's "Portraits of the Presidents: Power and Personality in the Oval Office." (SG)

Moore, John Noell, Ed.

2001-01-01

275

Life of a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

276

Every sign of life  

E-print Network

Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

2003-01-01

277

Life Beneath the Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site discusses life in Columbia River Plateau basalts near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and how it is related to microbial clean up of human wastes. This site also includes a links to the continued article.

Lab, Berkeley

278

Thermodynamic Function of Life  

E-print Network

Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...

Michaelian, K

2009-01-01

279

Life on moduli space?  

SciTech Connect

While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

Hsu, Stephen D. H. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2009-10-15

280

Life Has A History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides students with an introduction to the history of life and how it resulted in today's biodiversity. There are three tiers of difficulty available for different grade levels. During this tour students learn about geologic time, fossils, ancestral relationships, cladograms, variation, natural selection, and extinction. Students learn that life has been around for a very long time and is the result of evolution. They learn that fossils provide evidence of past life, that much of past life is now extinct, and that evolutionary relationships of organisms can be illustrated as cladograms. Using the Galapagos finches as an example, students learn the importance of variation and natural selection in evolution, as well as the biodiversity we see on Earth today. The teacher's section provides all necessary information for implementing this module, including lesson plans, handouts, and assessment ideas.

Waggoner, Ben; Speer, Brian; Scotchmoor, Judith

281

Living a Fast Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research applied a mid-level evolutionary theory that has been successfully employed across numerous animal species—life\\u000a history theory—in an attempt to understand the Dark Triad personality trait cluster (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism).\\u000a In Study 1 (N?=?246), a measure of life history strategy was correlated with psychopathy, but unexpectedly with neither Machiavellianism\\u000a nor narcissism. Study 2 (N?=?321) replicated this overall

Peter K. Jonason; Bryan L. Koenig; Jeremy Tost

2010-01-01

282

Ocean Life for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a variety of photos and text to teach students about life in the oceans. Various animals discussed include fish, sharks, dolphins, octopus, starfish, eels, lobster and jellyfish. Students choose an animal to look at, view some facts about that animal, and then answer questions based on the information given. The objective is for young elementary students to be able to distinguish amoung types of ocean life and what makes them unique.

283

Local River Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify rivers in their local area and compile information about aquatic life in or near these habitats. Through research in various books or other sources, the students will learn more about the various animal and plant species living in riparian areas. The compiled information can be assembled into a class book, combining both text and drawings related to aquatic life.

2004-01-01

284

Ethics and extraterrestrial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study of other planets and moons in the Solar System has revealed the presence of environments that may be conducive to\\u000a life. The discovery of sulphate- bearing rocks on Mars,201 and the suggestion that they were formed in bodies of standing water,has invigorated the debate on the subject of the past,or\\u000a even present,existence of life on Mars. In parallel,the

Charles Cockell

285

Life in the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2nd Graders will have the opportunity to learn more about life underneath the ocean. This goes great with 2nd Grade Science Standards 1 and 3! INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in the ocean? What would you do all day? What would you eat? What would you have to avoid so that you wouldn't get eaten? There are many different types of life that live in the ocean. ...

Bennett, Miss

2010-03-26

286

Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the life cycle of plants such as growth of plants and reproduction of plants. KWL chart First, I want you to fill out out a KWL chart. I want you to fill in what you already know about the life cycle of plants. Keep your KWL chart throughout the lesson to fill it back in when you find out more on plants. Movie Next, I want you ...

Carly, Ms.

2011-11-02

287

Quantum Game of Life  

E-print Network

We introduce a quantum version of the Game of Life and we use it to study the emergence of complexity in a quantum world. We show that the quantum evolution displays signatures of complex behaviour similar to the classical one, however a regime exists, where the quantum Game of Life creates more complexity, in terms of diversity, with respect to the corresponding classical reversible one.

D. Bleh; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

2010-10-22

288

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

289

Residence Life Housing & Conference Services  

E-print Network

submissions according to required timelines. Assist with Residence Life Staff selection. Attend all preResidence Life Housing & Conference Services Community Advisor (CA) Position Description Reporting with three Residence Life Key Performance Indicators (KPI's); Community Engagement, Personal Growth

Thompson, Michael

290

Life without water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anhydrobiosis, or life without water is commonly demonstrated by a number of plants and animals. These organisms have the capacity to loose all body water, remain dry for various periods, and then be revived by rehydration. While in the anhydrobiotic state, these organisms become highly resistant to several environmental stresses such as extremely low temperatures, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and high vacuum. Since water is commonly thought to be essential for life, survival of anhydrobiotic organisms with an almost total loss of water is examined. A search of literature reveal that many anhydrobiotic organisms make large quantities of trehalose or other carbohydrates. Laboratory experiments have shown that trehalose is able to stabilize and preserve microsomes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and artificial liposomes. It was demonstrated that trehalose and other disaccharides can interact directly with phosopipid headgroups and maintain membranes in their native configuration by replacing water in the headgroup region. Recent studies show that trehalose is an effective stabilizer of proteins during drying and that it does so by direct interaction with groups on the protein. If life that is able to withstand environmental extremes has ever developed on Mars, it is expected that such life would have developed some protective compounds which can stabilize macromolecular structure in the absence of water and at cold temperatures. On Earth, that role appears to be filled by carbohydrates that can stabilize both membrane and protein stuctures during freezing and drying. By analog with terrestrial systems, such life forms might develop resistance either during some reproductive stage or at any time during adult existence. If the resistant form is a developmental stage, the life cycle of the organism must be completed with a reasonable time period relative to time when environmental conditions are favorable. This would suggest that simple organisms with a short life cycle might be most sucessful.

Crowe, Lois M.; Crowe, John H.

1989-01-01

291

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

292

Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

Medley, Morris L.

1980-01-01

293

LIFE ON EARTH: ORIGIN When did life begin on Earth?  

E-print Network

LIFE ON EARTH: ORIGIN #12;When did life begin on Earth? · Have to study fossils · Geological record early life ­ Stromatolites ­ preserved remains of microbial activities ­ Microfossils - preserved of microbial colonies as far back as 3.5 bya · If used photosynthesis --> more primitive life must have existed

Shirley, Yancy

294

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC)  

E-print Network

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC) experiment on ExoMars 7th Appleton Space, Cranfield University #12;How to detect evidence of Life in on Mars? Photo: Karl Johaentges #12;ESA's ExoMars rover (CGI version 2010) Life Marker Chip Flight Model design (early 2010) Lateral flow immunoassay (e

295

Life Sciences Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Life Sciences Education journal started publishing peer-reviewed articles in spring 2002 on life science education at the K-12, undergraduate, and graduate levels. The journal takes a broad view of the life sciences, and they frequently feature pieces on math, chemistry, neurosciences, genetics, and other fields. The articles are written by professionals engaged in teaching biology teaching in a variety of educational environments, and first-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the "Most-Read Articles" area. Here they will find pieces such as "Rubrics: Tools for Making Learning Goals and Evaluation Criteria Explicit for Both Teachers and Learners" and "Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tools". Visitors can also search for articles in the archive and also look at the "Most-Cited Articles" section. Finally, users can also sign up to receive updates about new additions to the journal.

2011-12-14

296

What Can Life Tolerate?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about organisms living under extreme conditions on Earth serving as analogs for extraterrestrial life. Learners will play a card game to create a set by matching an extremophile, an extreme habitat on Earth, and an extraterrestrial habitat that may be similar to an Earth habitat. They will assemble a crew of extremophiles and target them to specific locations on a planet or moon. The activity concludes with a debate on the ethics of sending Earth life to other worlds. Includes background reading for teachers, student activity guide, reflection questions, and blackline masters. This is activity 4 in the educators guide, Astrobiology in your Classroom: Life on Earth..and Elsewhere?

297

Stress and life history.  

PubMed

In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories. PMID:24845673

Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

2014-05-19

298

Life in the Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

2003-01-01

299

Advanced life support study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

1991-01-01

300

Habitats of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

301

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

302

Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

Barta, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

303

Make a Life to Save a Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this “clicker case,” students learn about meiosis through the real-life story of a couple who used pre-implantation genetic screening to select an embryo that was a genetic match for an older sibling with leukemia, and thus able to provide a source of bone marrow cells. The case caused a stir in the medical ethics community.  Before this, parents had only used pre-implantation genetic screening to select for a baby that would be free from a genetic disorder. Instead, this child was conceived as a treatment for his older sister.  The case was developed for use in an introductory biology course.  It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.5MB) shown in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions the students respond to using clickers. It could be adpated for use without these technologies.

Brickman, Peggy

2009-01-01

304

Women in public life.  

PubMed

The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th world conference on women for 1995. PMID:12317888

1992-01-01

305

Autonomy: Life and Being  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

Williams, Mary-Anne

306

Muslim Life in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new pamphlet from the State Department offers a basic introduction to some aspects of Muslim-American life. The front page takes care to emphasize the diversity among Muslim-Americans, and the links from this front page further amplify these differences. The site features a number of Photo Galleries, including Faces of Islam, Family Life, and Mosques and Prayers, among others. Users will also find related articles, a page of demographic facts, a bibliography with selected readings, links to Internet resources and nongovernmental organizations, along with other resources.

2001-01-01

307

Spacelab Life Sciences-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

1995-01-01

308

Life in a Nutshell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-faceted game (on pages 25-35), learners recreate what happens to creatures in the Brazilian rain forest as they grow from egg to adultâespecially those that use fallen, empty Brazil nut pods as a home during some part of their life cycle. These creatures include damsel flies, mosquitoes, toads and poison frogs. The object for players is to make it around the game board, grow faster than the competition, and leave the nutshell nursery before the neighbors eat them. Learners graph the results of all games played. This activity makes a fun connection between life science and math.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

309

Life of A Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

Watterson, Miss.

2010-04-30

310

The planets and life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

Young, R. S.

1971-01-01

311

Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

Soffen, G. A.

1981-01-01

312

Geography of European Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

2011-01-01

313

Life in the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays, pieces of art, theatrical performance and CD-Roms. The best of these will be presented worldwide during the "Life in the Universe" webcast live from CERN on November 10th at 7 pm CET (18 UT). The webcast - during which the "Super Prizes" for the two best works will be announced - will also feature interviews, video clips and animations on the latest scientific findings on the subject of extraterrestrial life. The webcast is truly an around-the-world event that will actively engage even geographically distant audiences. During the webcast, anyone on the planet can send questions via e-mail to the real experts with live connections in European laboratories who will answer live during the broadcast. Tuning in is easy too. All people have to do is enter http://www.lifeinuniverse.org into their browser and they will get full instructions on how to connect up. The home base of "Life in the Universe" - http://www.lifeinuniverse.org - is a vibrant web space where details of the programme can be found. It has a wealth of information and links to the national websites, where all entries will be posted. Is there other life in the Universe? We do not know - but the search is on and you'll know much more about it by just following the webcast! "Life in the Universe" webpage at ESO More information and related links may also be found on the dedicated "Life in the Universe"-webpage at the ESO Outreach website.

2001-10-01

314

The Life of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

Greene, Logan

2011-04-06

315

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

316

Make Learning for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Learning for Life--a New Framework for Adult Skills," a thought-provoking report from the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), manages to be both passionate and well argued. Resulting, in part, from a series of policy seminars during 2006, it makes an interesting contribution to current debates. Simone Delorenzi advocates the articulation…

Watters, Kate

2007-01-01

317

More Life Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to supplement already existing life skills instructional materials, this manual consists of 30 lessons to help students develop general, transferrrable skills in four areas--attending behaviors, cognition, self-management, and critical thinking. The following topics are among those covered in the lessons: eye contact, body posture,…

Hearn, Joan

318

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

Program, The W.

319

Advanced Cardiac Life Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

320

Second Life as Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In terms of exploring the status of Second Life (SL) usage in libraries, it would be useful to not only look at how and why the virtual world is being used but also how SL compares to successfully implemented innovations of the past. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of previously accepted innovations with those of SL will help…

Guder, Christopher

2009-01-01

321

Life after the Principalship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-eight percent of people who are approaching retirement age report that they intend to work full time or part time after retirement, mostly because they want to. With today's life span stretching to 80 years and beyond, turning 60 is no longer an end-stage event. Instead, it is the beginning of a new developmental phase. This article…

Schmidt, Laurel

2009-01-01

322

GE Healthcare Life Sciences  

E-print Network

GE Healthcare Life Sciences imagination at work magination at work Protein Sample Preparation Handbook #12;Handbooks from GE Healthcare GST Gene Fusion System Handbook 18-1157-58 Affinity Chromatography and Chromatofocusing Principles and Methods 11-0004-21 Cell Separation Media Methodology

Lebendiker, Mario

323

GE Healthcare Life Sciences  

E-print Network

GE Healthcare Life Sciences Instructions 28-9958-80 AC Core beads CaptoTM Core 700 Capto Core 700 and scale up #12;2 28-9958-80 AC Table of contents 1 BioProcessTM Media 1 BioProcessTM Media BioProcess media are developed and supported for production scale

Lebendiker, Mario

324

Life History and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

Tierney, William G.

2013-01-01

325

Bringing Psychology to Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a set of exercises called Bringing Psychology to Life (BPL), which is designed to engage introductory psychology students in learning course and textbook content by having them develop psychological explanations for events in their lives. Maintains that BPL is an excellent icebreaker for graduate teaching assistants and a vehicle for…

McAdam, Dale

1987-01-01

326

Chemical Origins of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

Fox, J. Lawrence

1972-01-01

327

The encyclopedia of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative biology, crossing the digital divide, has begun a still largely unheralded revolution: the exploration and analysis of biodiversity at a vastly accelerated pace. Its momentum will return systematics from its long sojourn at the margin and back into the mainstream of science. Its principal achievement will be a single-portal electronic encyclopedia of life.

Edward O. Wilson

2003-01-01

328

After the Regulated Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that ordinary people have lacked the background, ability, and will to make prudent lifestyle decisions, Sargent and other human services professionals pursued visions of the rational, regulated life. That so many professions have entertained the same visions is not a mere coincidence. A human capital model, with its assumptions and implicit rules, unites these professions and their delivery systems.

Hal A. Lawson

1993-01-01

329

Empowerment for Later Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph purports that American society limits the behavior of older individuals based on the arbitrary criterion of chronological age and proposes the concept of empowerment--gaining a sense of personal power or control over over's life--as the antidote for older persons who face devalued status as they age and the for the accompanying drop…

Myers, Jane E.

330

Life in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as

Lynn J. Rothschild; Rocco L. Mancinelli

2001-01-01

331

Learning Changes through Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since learning processes are regarded as social processes, age influences them because age affects the way the individual is involved in social processes. Children are involved in exploring the world, youth in identity construction; adults pursue life goals and older adults seek depth and harmony. (JOW)

Illeris, Knud

2003-01-01

332

Life on Europa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of \\

B. S. Shylaja

1997-01-01

333

The Business of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

Dunski, Jonathan F.

1997-01-01

334

Biological Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

1997-01-01

335

My father's life.  

PubMed Central

Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies. Images p638-a p639-a PMID:7641162

Porth, R

1995-01-01

336

Life on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sudents learn about the physical properties of the Moon. They compare these to the properties of the Earth to determine how life would be different for people living on the Moon. Using their understanding of these differences, they think about what types of products engineers would need to design for humans to live comfortably on the Moon.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

337

STUDY CENTER LIFE OFFICE  

E-print Network

HOUSING & STUDENT LIFE OFFICE PORTER/KRESGE DINING HALL D143 STUDENT ACTIVITIES OFFICE CLASSROOMS 241 COLLEGE TO FAMILY STUDENT HOUSING TO COLLEGE EIGHT PORTER PROVOST'S RESIDENCE COLLEGE OFFICE REV. 7 IN FEET 0 30 60 PORTER COLLEGE Student mailroom #12;

Wilmers, Chris

338

Elastomer shelf life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shelf life of elastomeric products used in the Nuclear Industry is typically based on military standards (MIL-HDBK-695C (1) or MIL- STD-1523A (2)). Recently, data became available on naturally aged O-rings that were over 30 years old. An evaluation of this data is presented to demonstrate the conservatism of current guidelines.

B. M. Boyum; J. E. Rhoads

1989-01-01

339

Web Of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation game where students represent plants and animals living in a forest habitat. Sitting in a circle, they connect themselves using string to represent the ways they depend on each other. As they make connections, the string forms a web of life. They will also learn what occurs when an invasive species enters their environment.

Resources, Wisconsin D.

2012-05-12

340

Learning from Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is currently widespread interest in exploring the opportunities to develop learning that can be delivered in three-dimensional multiuser virtual environments (3-D MUVEs). In this paper, I argue for the need to conduct research into the emerging cultures of use in 3-D MUVEs, focussing on the example of Second Life. Drawing on social and…

Bell, David

2009-01-01

341

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

342

Learning for Life Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

Varmecky, Jane Hyde

2012-01-01

343

Thermodynamic Function of Life  

E-print Network

Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

K. Michaelian

2009-06-30

344

Ethnicity in American Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is comprised of three articles. (1) Ethnicity in American Life: The Historical Perspective, by John Hope Franklin, recounts the trends in the last three centuries. It is contended that ethnicity has extended and continues to extend beyond race; that at times it meant language, customs, religion, and national origin, but that it has…

Franklin, John Hope; And Others

345

Life in the Galaxy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origin of life on the basis of information about cosmic evolution, stellar alchemy, atmospheric histories, and rise and fall of civilizations. Indicates that man's contact with other civilizations in our galaxy may be made possible through studies of interstellar communication. (CC)

Oliver, B. M.

1973-01-01

346

Black Smokers: Life Forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

History, The A.

347

Ostracism in Everyday Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ostracism is a negative interpersonal experience that has been studied primarily in laboratory settings in which people have been ostracized by strangers and the motives for being ostracized have been ambiguous. This study extended this research by investigating ostracism as it occurs in daily life, focusing on people's reflective reactions to being ostracized in their daily lives and on the

John B. Nezlek; Eric D. Wesselmann; Ladd Wheeler; Kipling D. Williams

2012-01-01

348

Life Shocks and Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit an exogenous health shock—the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the causal effect of a life shock on homelessness. Using survey data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study that have been augmented with information from hospital medical records, we find that the health shock increases the likelihood of homelessness three years later,

Marah A. Curtis; Hope Corman; Kelly Noonan; Nancy Reichman

2011-01-01

349

Learning for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People working in the field of education know well the positive effects adult and community learning can have on mental health and wellbeing. Participating in adult and community learning can help to widen social networks and improve life and employment chances; it makes for better general health; and can strengthen the learner's self-confidence,…

Robotham, Dan

2011-01-01

350

Languages for Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategy of the Department for Education and Skills'(DfES) 2002 strategy document, "Languages for All: Languages for Life" called for improving the quality of language teaching and learning; enhancing qualifications and credit recognition arrangements; and increasing demand for language learning. This principle was to extends to adult…

Watters, Kate

2007-01-01

351

Game of Life Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. Ejs Game of Life model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_GameOfLife.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-15

352

Education and Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of national policies for education and employment is the major concern of this report of a joint working party of officials from member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Focus is on the objectives of public policies for education and working life and on how they can be attained in…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

353

Starting dialysis at eGFR >5?ml/min per1.73?m(2): are we barking up the wrong tree?  

PubMed

Although the goal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for chronic dialysis initiation is currently above 5?ml/min per 1.73?m(2), there is no convincing evidence that patients will benefit from this approach. With close follow-up of advanced chronic kidney disease patients, aiming to start dialysis at an estimated GFR (eGFR) less than 5?ml/min per 1.73?m(2) may result in the avoidance of potentially unnecessary end-of-life dialysis and could result in significant dialysis-free time for a large segment of the world's future dialysis population. PMID:25265950

Rosansky, Steven J; Durkin, Martin W

2014-10-01

354

The values of life.  

PubMed

In Life's Dominion Dworkin aims at defusing the controversy about abortion and euthanasia by redefining its terms. Basically it is not a dispute about the right to life, but about its value. Liberals should grant that human life has not only a personal, but also an intrinsic value; conservatives should accept the principle of toleration which requires to let people decide for themselves about matters of intrinsic value. Dworkin fails, however, to distinguish between two kinds of personal value: (1) the value of something to a person, when he actually or dispositionally desires it, or finds it pleasant; and (2) the value of something to a person, when it's objectively contributes to his well-being, as defined by reference to his personal point of view, whether or not he ever perceives it as so contributing. He also fails to distinguish between two meanings of the concept of 'intrinsic value': (3) ultimate, i.e. non-instrumental personal value of kind (2); (4) the impersonal value of something which is not good-for-anybody, but simply good, i.e. not a constituent of someone's well-being. Dworkin argues that the human fetus from conception onwards has a value, that it is not a personal value of kind (1), and therefore must be an intrinsic value. But the value of the life of the fetus is not a personal value of kind (2) either and therefore not an intrinsic value of kind (3): it is normally a constituent of the well-being of the pregnant woman, but that doesn't constitute its value, and it is not good 'for' the fetus itself in the relevant sense, because it doesn't have a personal point of view. If, however, the fetus' life is allowed to have an intrinsic value of kind (4), the conservative cannot be refuted by appeal to the principle of toleration, for this only concerns intrinsic value of kind (3). The liberal, indeed, should recognize that the fetus' life has a value, but it is neither a personal value (1) or (2), nor an impersonal value (4), but rather a relational value which gradually develops from some point substantially later than conception. PMID:11656609

Den Hartogh, Govert

1997-01-01

355

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

356

Surrogate end points of quality of life assessment: have we really found what we are looking for?  

PubMed Central

Outcome research is a new interesting field in medical research. Some years ago, a document of the American Society of Clinical Oncology distinguished the outcomes of a treatment into patient-outcomes (overall survival and quality of life) and cancer-outcomes (response rate), giving higher priority to patient outcomes. This document is one of the best structured instruments to evaluate and classify the outcomes in clinical oncology. Nevertheless, although overall survival and quality of life represent the main patient outcomes in clinical oncology, in the last years many researchers tried to overcome these recommendations, creating new surrogate end points to assess overall survival and quality of life. Surrogate end points can be useful tools when they are used to achieve preliminary data that anticipate the evaluation of the final outcome, but the use of surrogate end points instead of the main outcomes is quite dangerous, as it can provide wrong answers to clinical questions. The use (or abuse) of surrogate end points of quality of life has recently favoured some questionable decisions of the main regulator organs, such as the approval by the Food and Drugs Administration of the use of gemcitabine in advanced chemotherapy-naive pancreatic cancer, or mitoxantrone in the palliative treatment of hormone-resistant pancreatic cancer, based on the improvement in clinical benefit (a non-validated instrument to evaluate the outcome of palliative chemotherapy) besides a minimal and questionable overall survival, or pain control (evaluated with a non-validated instrument). A correct use of surrogate end points of quality of life within and not instead of quality of life assessment should be the engagement of our further efforts in quality of life research. PMID:14636426

Tassinari, Davide

2003-01-01

357

Through Life Costing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an innovation is launched in such a market, reliable information about the life cost of the novel product is naturally lacking. This has proven to be a key obstacle to venture capital funded cleantech companies with innovations that are conceptually proven and that deliver significant improvements to conventional alternatives, but that lack enough reference installations to provide reliable data on life costs. One way out of this dilemma that is increasingly discussed among practitioners is servitization, i.e., the notion that the owner of the innovation should be an agency that is specialised in using and maintaining the product, letting the end customer become a buyer of the product's service (such as heat) rather than the product itself.

Newnes, Linda; Mileham, A. R.; Cheung, W. M.; Goh, Y. M.

358

Life on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life on Earth is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about life, kingdoms, heterotrophs, autotrophs, animals, fungi, plantae, monera, and evolution. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

359

Census of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three years into the most extensive biological inventory ever attempted, scientists working on the Census of Marine Life (CoML) have already found over 200,000 marine species -- just a fraction of what they expect to find at the end of this 10-year project. The CoML Web site "is designed to provide quick and easy access the all elements of the CoML and basic information about each element;" including field project overviews and reports, timely news articles, and other resources. Readers will also find the recently released "Baseline Report of the Census of Marine Life 2003" and a draft plan outlining the next 7 years. The site also includes fantastic photos of newly described species, QuickTime movies from the field, and other cool features.

360

It's My Life: Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's My Life, a PBS Kids Web-based educational series, offers 9-12 year olds a kid-friendly way to explore and share the issues in their lives. Depression is just one of many subjects addressed in It's My Life. Topics covered in this Web site include defining depression, recognizing the symptoms, understanding the causes, getting treatment, how to help a friend or parent who may be suffering from depression, and more. In addition to articles on these topics, the Web site provides interactive activities -- such as a quiz and a chat room -- that help kids further their understanding of the disease and reach out for help if needed. Offline activities include a printable journal page, a recommended reading list, and discussion questions that kids can take to a parent or friend.

2002-01-01

361

Bioenergetics and Life's Origins  

PubMed Central

Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

2010-01-01

362

Earth before life  

PubMed Central

Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. Conclusions The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Yuri Wolf, Peter Gogarten, and Christoph Adami. PMID:24405803

2014-01-01

363

Life Changing Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Broadcasting Company recently aired Life Changing Science, "a four-part series examining innovations that have transformed our lives." This companion Web site offers fantastic interactive features to go along with each of the four radio broadcasts. Three of the four interactive "labs" focused on the life sciences. They include Virtual Open Heart Surgery, in which users can conduct a highly simplified version of the real procedure; In Vitro Fertilization, which offers an excellent overview of the IVF cycle; and Food Preservation, in which users can test how well they know their kitchen microbes. These interactive features are truly cool, although American readers must contend with the metric units used in Food Preservation. The site also includes audio of the original radio programs, which aired in June 2003.

364

NASA's Exploration for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration for Life is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about kingdoms of life, environments on Earth and Mars, landforms, and the Mars Surveyor Program. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

365

Coating life prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation combines both experimental studies and numerical modeling to predict coating life in an oxidizing environment. The experimental work provides both input to and verification of two numerical models. The coatings being examined are an aluminide coating on Udimet 700 (U-700), a low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS) Ni-18Co-17Cr-24Al-0.2Y overlay coating also on U- 700, and bulk deposits of the LPPS NiCoCrAlY coating.

Nesbitt, James A.; Gedwill, Michael A.

1985-01-01

366

Structural life assessment methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This unique, practical reference covers the full spectrum of fracture mechanics methodologies currently used in industry, with illustrations showing how to apply them. Includes practical assessment of fracture strength ad safe-life of metallic structures. Places strong emphasis on problem-solving aspects of stress analysis, with a balanced approach between theory and industrial practice. Covers all aspects of fatigue-crack growth, including fundamental

1998-01-01

367

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

368

Life Stress and Transitions in the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The traditional life cycle of human beings include infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Transitions exist within\\u000a each of the life cycles and such transitions produce stress. Life has many stressful life events that mark the movement from\\u000a one condition or cycle to another, and they produce substantial challenges in the lives of human beings. The purpose of this\\u000a volume is

Thomas W. Miller

369

Dying and multiplying life.  

PubMed

It was only after James P. Lovette's death, in 2006, that I discovered that the twenty-four-year-old colleague and friend with whom I had spent so many afternoons debating issues in organ transplantation had been the first successful child heart transplantee in the world and one of the longest-living survivors of a second transplant. During the years we met, he never even hinted at the fact that three different hearts had beaten in his chest. The revelation that his life had been an almost uninterrupted chain of medical challenges suddenly made me appreciate his quirkiness in a whole new light. Organ transplantation crudely exemplifies a traditional moral dilemma between means and ends: in order to save a life, someone else has to die. Bioethicists involved in this field have the role of identifying the ethical issues surrounding organ donation and helping others to argue in an intelligible and convincing way. In my view, bioethicists have the obligation to foster a discussion as open and transparent as possible on these matters. Still, I sometimes fear that I may be helping to cause unnecessary harms to potential recipients who are desperately waiting for a vital organ. Scholars would be chillingly cold if their quest for truth systematically came at the cost of lives lost. Every life can be meaningful and provide meaning to many others. This is true even with organ recipients, who often have short lives full of considerable suffering. PMID:25231665

Rodríguez-Arias, David

2014-09-01

370

Child life services.  

PubMed

Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

2014-05-01

371

Welding for life  

SciTech Connect

State of the Art Welding Techniques are being utilized to extend the life of major steam turbine components, as well as other traditional types of repairs. The development of a temper bead welding technique has allowed Houston Lighting and Power (HL and P) to perform innovative weld repairs. Nozzle vanes are weld repaired without removing the nozzle blocks from the case; repair life has also been doubled. A new two wire Gas Tungsten ARC Welding (GTAW) machine has produced high deposition rates while maintaining excellent mechanical properties. This results in faster turn-around time and with an improved weld repair. Development of a weld wire specification has also been instrumental in achieving additional component life by increasing the resistance to fatigue, especially in the heat affected zone. All these factors work together to enhance the weld repairs. Tensile strengths of 140,000 PSI with good ductility have been achieved. This paper will discuss their experiences with several repairs and recap the results of some studies and tests performed during the technique development stages. Major repairs include; weld repair of cases, nozzle blocks, nozzle boxes, stationary blade repair, forced draft fan shaft buildup, weld repair of turbine shrouds, blades, tennons and journals.

Stiebler, T.J.; Nugent, R.M.; Wilson, R.P. [Houston Lighting and Power Co., Houston, TX (United States). EDC Central Repair Shop

1994-12-31

372

Harnessing our very life.  

PubMed

The Aristotelian ideas of nature (physis) and technology (techné) are taken as a starting point for understanding what it would mean for technology to be truly living. Heidegger's critique of the conflation of scientific and technological thinking in the current era is accepted as demonstrating that humanity does not have a deep enough appreciation of the nature of life to harness its essence safely. Could the vision of harnessing life be realized, which we strongly doubt, living technology would give selected humans transforming powers that could be expected to exacerbate, rather than solve, current global problems. The source of human purposefulness, and hence of both technology and ethics, is identified in nature's emergent capability to instantiate informational representations in material forms. Ethics that are properly grounded in an appreciation of intrinsic value, especially that of life, demand that proposals to give humanity the capabilities of living technology address the social, political, economic, and environmental problems inherent in its development and potential deployment. Before any development is embarked on, steps must be taken to avoid living technology, whatever the term eventually designates, becoming available for destructive or antisocial purposes such as those that might devastate humanity or irrevocably damage the natural world. PMID:23889745

Wills, Peter R; Williams, David L F; Trussell, Denys; Mann, L R B

2013-01-01

373

Lecture 23: History of Metazoan Life Early metazoan life  

E-print Network

Lecture 23: History of Metazoan Life · Early metazoan life ­ Fossils · Metazoan macroevolution ­ Endosymbiont hypothesis Multicellular life: origins · Metazoans · Earliest fossils: ­ Ediacaran: 565 mya ­ Sponges, jellyfish, comb jellies ­ Radial or no symmetry ­ Diploblasts: ecto- and endoderm Metazoan

374

All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

2000

375

Life forms: A keyword entry  

E-print Network

We deliver a "keyword" account of the term life form as it has been used in natural philosophy and biology over the last two hundred years, beginning with its appearance in German as Lebensform. We argue that life form ...

Helmreich, Stefan

376

Extremophiles Microbial Life Under Extreme  

E-print Network

1 23 Extremophiles Microbial Life Under Extreme Conditions ISSN 1431-0651 Volume 16 Number 3 Extremophiles (2012) 16:553-566 DOI 10.1007/s00792-012-0454-z Life at the hyperarid margin: novel bacterial

377

"Control Your Diabetes. For Life."  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo. ...

378

Spacelab Life Sciences Research Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes some of the life sciences research that was conducted on Spacelab missions. Dr. Larry Young, Director of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, provides an overview of the Life Sciences Spacelabs.

Sulzman, Frank; Young, Laurence R.; Seddon, Rhea; Ross, Muriel; Baldwin, Kenneth; Frey, Mary Anne; Hughes, Rod

2000-01-01

379

Life After a Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart ... improves your chances for a better quality of life after a heart attack. Medical Followup After a ...

380

Tree of Life Workshop Report  

NSF Publications Database

... Evolution of Development meets Tree Of Life What are the most exciting questions in the Evolution of ... Singer Evolution of Development meets Tree of Life What happens when the Evolution of Developmental ...

381

Business and life in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life support systems in the machine called the Space Shuttle is discussed and later about life support systems in a little cocoon that is far smaller than the shuttle; the more common term is a space suit.

Allen, Joseph

1990-01-01

382

Life's Little Essential: Liquid Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Without liquid water, terrestrial life could not exist. All living organisms on Earth depend on water and its unique chemical and physical properties. In the search for life beyond Earth, scientists have focused their efforts on looking for signs of liquid water. This essay discusses the properties of liquid water that are conducive to life, pointing out that the biochemical reactions that sustain life need a fluid in order to operate, and that water is probably the best solvent in the universe.

2011-04-15

383

Early Life Exposures and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

384

Life on Earth and Elsewhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SolStation contains a chronology of life on Earth beginning with the origin of our Solar System about 4.6 billion years ago. Descriptions of the important stages in the development of carbon-based life are provided along with many photographs and links. The planetary impact of life on Earth and the possibility of life on Mars are also presented.

2010-04-29

385

Reproduction & life I. Reproductive cycles  

E-print Network

1 Reproduction & life histories I. Reproductive cycles II. Modes of Fertilization III. Asexual;2 OOGENESIS in amphibians Oogonia are self-renewing stem cells that persist for the life of the frog Can of oocytes in the frog. During the first 3 years of life, three cohorts of oocytes are produced. The drawings

Dever, Jennifer A.

386

Reproduction & life I. Reproductive cycles  

E-print Network

Reproduction & life histories I. Reproductive cycles II. Reproduction in Amphibians III. Reproduction in Reptiles IV. Parental care V. Life Histories #12;I. Reproductive cycles A. Environmental In amphibians: Oogonia are self-renewing stem cells that persist for the life of the frog l Can generate a new

Dever, Jennifer A.

387

Reproduction & life I. Reproductive cycles  

E-print Network

1 Reproduction & life histories I. Reproductive cycles II. Modes of Fertilization III. Asexual that persist for the life of the frog Can generate a new cohort of oocytes each year Ova energetically more is encased w/shell Growth of oocytes in the frog. During the first 3 years of life, three cohorts of oocytes

Dever, Jennifer A.

388

The beginning of human life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning of human life is seen differently by different individuals, groups, cultures, and religions. Embryonic and fetal life are a continuum, within which are time sequences and points—birth of a newborn, viability, neuromaturation, implantation, and conception—that may be declared as the beginning of human life. For each of these there are ethical and legal implications and considerations. Abortion laws

Fritz K. Beller; Gail P. Zlatnik

1995-01-01

389

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

390

End of Life: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

2012-01-01

391

What Makes a Life Good?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Samples of college students (N=104) and community adults (N=264) were shown a career survey ostensibly completed by a person rating his or her occupation. After reading the survey, participants judged the desirability and moral goodness of the respondent's life, as a function of the amount of happiness, meaning in life, and

Laura A. King; Christie N. SCOLLON

1998-01-01

392

LIFE SCIENCES & MISSOURI'S ECONOMIC FUTURE  

E-print Network

LIFE SCIENCES & MISSOURI'S ECONOMIC FUTURE: AN OPPORTUNITY TO BUILD "ONE MISSOURI" PREPARED FOR laws and result in civil and/or criminal penalties. #12;Final Report Life Sciences & Missouri Center in the life sciences, with world-class research stature translated into wealth creation and well

Noble, James S.

393

Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

2003-01-01

394

Actinides and Life's Origins.  

PubMed

There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus release, and possible abiotic production of sugars, amino acids, activated phosphorus, prototypical organometallic enzymes, and oligomer catalysts at a single putative beach site. PMID:18163867

Adam, Zachary

2007-12-01

395

Triumph of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

2011-11-14

396

My Study Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some young scholars may ask the question: "What time do I need to be at general chemistry?" or "When does my review group meet?" Keeping track of such matters is a snap with My Study Life, a free online planner. Visitors can color-code each activity for easy visual recognition and insert various tasks that might be due on any given day. Unlike more conventional calendars, this one integrates classes, tasks, and exams to give students and teachers a full picture of what remains to be done. This program is available for Chrome, Windows 8, Windows Phone, and Android, and will soon be available for iOS.

2013-06-19

397

Drilling for Weird Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Featuring an interview with NASA scientist Carol Stoker, the article describes Rio Tinto, a river in Spain with highly acidic water the color or red wine, and explains why scientists are looking to the subsurface pyrite deposits near this river's edge for signs of microbial life. Stoker describes the field site and discusses some of the research team's early results. This is the first of a four-part interview series. The resource includes images from Rio Tinto and the Mars project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology

398

Life raft stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

399

Life's Really Big Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains videos and articles about the snowball Earth theory and its relation to the Cambrian explosion; the search for extrasolar planets and extraterrestrial life; simulations and experiments on robot evolution; the Lucy fossil discovery; and how the human hand and the ability for language and for self-reflection developed and contributed to the uniqueness of our species. There is a synopsis for each video; the five videos total approximately an hour in length. Other materials include an educational activity and a dinosaur game that gives a perspective to the long history of Earth.

400

Life as a Hiltern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mather Policy Intern Program, conducted through the Society of Physics Students, is an innovative internship encouraging physics students to get involved in science policy. Funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts and the American Institute of Physics, Mather Interns spend a summer at the Capitol, working as congressional interns for a representative or committee. As the first female student inducted into the Mather Policy Intern program, the author presents Life as a Hilltern, detailing her summer working with Representative Rush Holt, the only physicist currently serving in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Lemon, Courtney

2012-02-01

401

What is Life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. The classical physicist's approach to the subject; 2. The hereditary mechanism; 3. Mutations; 4. The quantum-mechanical evidence; 5. Delbruck's model discussed and tested; 6. Order, disorder and entropy; 7. Is life based on the laws of physics?; Epilogue: on determinism and free will; Mind and Matter: 1. The physical basis of consciousness; 2. The future of understanding; 3. The principle of objectivation; 4. The arithmetical paradox: the oneness of mind; 5. Science and religion; 6. The mystery of the sensual qualities; Autobiographical sketches (translated from the German by Schrödinger's granddaughter Verena).

Schrodinger, Erwin; Penrose, Foreword by Roger

2012-03-01

402

Life Products of Stars  

E-print Network

We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.

Aldo M. Serenelli; Masataka Fukugita

2006-06-27

403

Track My Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where does all the time go? It's a good question, and Track My Life can help you learn more about how and where your time is spent. The application runs in the background of a user's phone and tracks how much time they spend in any given location. At the end of each day, users can look at a full report to see a breakdown of the places they were and how long they spent in each location. This version is compatible with iPhone, Windows Phone, and Android.

2012-01-01

404

Astrophysics of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

2005-01-01

405

Astrophysics of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

2011-03-01

406

Surfing Second Life: What Does Second Life Have to Do with Real-Life Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second Life's unstructured atmosphere and wide-open spaces where student creativity can grow and flourish are two of the reasons Pepperdine University Professor Bill Moseley integrated the program into his curriculum. In this article, the author discusses how Second Life works and its challenges. Second Life is often described as a 3-D version of…

Oishi, Lindsay

2007-01-01

407

Views on child life specialist training.  

E-print Network

??The present study examined course work requirements, academic degrees, application to child life internship sites, difficulty attaining child life practica and internships, child life practica… (more)

Gerber, Gwendolyn

2012-01-01

408

Zebra mussel life history  

SciTech Connect

The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

Ackerman, J.D. [Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-06-01

409

Lifing of Engine Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

2005-01-01

410

Evolution of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

411

Life without Volcanic Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a news article by NASA Astrobiology Institute featuring Deborah Kelly from the University of Washington. She talks about the navigational challenges of reaching this newly discovered hydrothermal field called "The Lost City", and describes why it's potentially such an important and exciting find. Kelly says that it is a completely different type of hydrothermal system not requiring volcanic heat, and that it has implications for examining early Earth questions and hydrothermal systems on other planets. The find opens the possibility that a much larger portion of the seafloor may host hydrothermal vents (and microbial life) than was previously thought. The site contains descriptions of some of the unique topographical features of the field, and the thermal chemistry that drives the formation of this type of feature.

2010-02-23

412

Game of Life Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

413

Their Circular Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather provocative website (which requires Macromedia Flash Player) explores various urban environments around Italy and draws visitors into the life of a "typical" day in the different lives of these seemingly ordinary places. The website was created by Lorenzo Fonda and David Terenzi and features original music and a rather welcoming user interface for exploring the different environments. The interface for each of the five urban places allows users to drag a small triangle around a circle, and essentially move through a series of images (and related sounds recorded on site) that take place during a single day. The places featured on the site include the train station in Modena, the Campo San Barnaba in Venezia, and three additional locales. Overall, this site offers a fascinating way of looking at and experiencing different urban environments and a potential template for future online projects.

414

[Pediatric basic life support].  

PubMed

The new international consensus and guidelines were published by American Heart Association in October 2010. These guidelines include many important changes in pediatric basic life support(BLS) based on many evidences. Especially in children, asphyxial cardiac arrest has been more common than cardiac arrest and only one third to one half victims can receive bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR). According to new guidelines, "CAB" (Chest compressions/Circulation, Airway, and Breathing/ventilation) is recommended instead of "ABC" sequence. In addition, pediatric chain of survival is revised and the section of "Look, Listen, Feel" is deleted. These changes are recommended in order to simplify training with the hope that more pediatric victims will consequently receive bystander CPR. PMID:21591413

Morita, Kouji

2011-04-01

415

Life in the Cambrian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Cambrian fossil record, which indicates a distinct development from simple organisms to organisms comparable in morphology and organization to present-day animals. The development is documented by faunal assemblages represented by the Ediacara fauna, the first complex trace fossils, the earliest shelly faunas, and the onset of the typical Cambrian macrofaunas. This rapid evolution took place in an interval of less than 25 million years and the evolution from the first hard-part animals to the presence of most of the present-day phyla was restricted to an interval of probably less than 10 million years. Multicellular life evolved at an incredible speed and for this reason this part of organismal evolution is termed the Cambrian Explosion, or Evolutions Big Bang. The site describes each group of fossils and also the locations where the faunal assemblages were found.

416

Fossil life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three major problems beset paleontologists searching for morphological evidence of life on early Earth: selecting a prospective site; finding biogenic structures; and distinguishing biogenic from abiogenic structures. The same problems arise on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with the techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including hot springs, are more prospective than lake deposits. If, on the other hand, the search is for chemical evidence, the strategy can be very different, and lake deposits are attractive targets. Lakes and springs frequenly occur in close proximity, and therefore a strategy that combines the two would seem to maximize the chance of success. The strategy for a search for stromatolite on Mars is discussed.

Walter, M. R.

1989-01-01

417

Structural life assessment methods  

SciTech Connect

This unique, practical reference covers the full spectrum of fracture mechanics methodologies currently used in industry, with illustrations showing how to apply them. Includes practical assessment of fracture strength ad safe-life of metallic structures. Places strong emphasis on problem-solving aspects of stress analysis, with a balanced approach between theory and industrial practice. Covers all aspects of fatigue-crack growth, including fundamental and metallurgical aspects, their analysis and state-of-the-art methods of representation. Also covers solutions for linear-elastic and elastic/plastic crack-tip stresses and new parameters for characterizing creep/fatigue-crack growth. Written for engineers involved in the design or analysis of structural parts and students in aeronautical, civil, mechanical or metallurgical and materials engineering.

Liu, A.F.

1998-12-31

418

Life Shocks and Homelessness  

PubMed Central

We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

419

Life shocks and homelessness.  

PubMed

We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

2013-12-01

420

Life 2014, 4, 131-141; doi:10.3390/life4020131 lifeISSN 2075-1729  

E-print Network

Life 2014, 4, 131-141; doi:10.3390/life4020131 lifeISSN 2075-1729 www.mdpi.com/journal/life Hypothesis RNA Catalysis, Thermodynamics and the Origin of Life William G. Scott 1, *, Abraham Szöke 2 , Josh, and definitively explains why RNA, rather OPEN ACCESS #12;Life 2014, 4 132 than DNA, must have been the original

Scott, William

421

Preparing for the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking ... will face it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how ...

422

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2013-10-01

423

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2011-10-01

424

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2010-10-01

425

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2012-10-01

426

The Role of Bundle Sheath Extensions and Life Form in Stomatal Responses to Leaf Water Status1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure with currently little-understood functions. To test the hypothesis that BSEs reduce the hydraulic resistance from the bundle sheath to the epidermis (rbe) and thereby accelerate hydropassive stomatal movements, we compared stomatal responses with reduced humidity and leaf excision among 20 species with heterobaric or homobaric leaves and herbaceous or woody life forms. We hypothesized that low rbe due to the presence of BSEs would increase the rate of stomatal opening (V) during transient wrong-way responses, but more so during wrong-way responses to excision (Ve) than humidity (Vh), thus increasing the ratio of Ve to Vh. We predicted the same trends for herbaceous relative to woody species given greater hydraulic resistance in woody species. We found that Ve, Vh, and their ratio were 2.3 to 4.4 times greater in heterobaric than homobaric leaves and 2.0 to 3.1 times greater in herbaceous than woody species. To assess possible causes for these differences, we simulated these experiments in a dynamic compartment/resistance model, which predicted larger Ve and Ve/Vh in leaves with smaller rbe. These results support the hypothesis that BSEs reduce rbe. Comparison of our data and simulations suggested that rbe is approximately 4 to 16 times larger in homobaric than heterobaric leaves. Our study provides new evidence that variations in the distribution of hydraulic resistance within the leaf and plant are central to understanding dynamic stomatal responses to water status and their ecological correlates and that BSEs play several key roles in the functional ecology of heterobaric leaves. PMID:21459977

Buckley, Thomas N.; Sack, Lawren; Gilbert, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

427

Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. §6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life.

Gayon, Jean

2010-04-01

428

Origins and Evolution of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiations on DNA J. Cadet and T. Douki; 24. Molecular adaptations to life at high salt: lessons from Haloarcula marismortui G. Zaccai; Part VII. Traces of Life and Biosignatures: 25. Early life: nature, distribution and evolution F. Westall; 26. Early eukaryotes in precambrian oceans E. Javaux; 27. Biomineralisation mechanisms K. Benzerara and J. Miot; 28. Limits of life and biosphere: lesson from detection of microorganisms in deep sea and deep subsurface in the Earth K. Takai; Part VIII. Life Elsewhere?: 29. Titan and the Cassini-Huygens mission J. Lunine and F. Raulin; 30. The role of terrestrial analogue environments in astrobiology R. Léveillé; Index.

Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

2011-01-01

429

Life's chirality from prebiotic environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key open question in the study of life is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: almost every life-form on Earth has exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. Will the same handedness be preferred if life is found elsewhere? We review some of the pertinent literature and discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events. In one scenario, autocatalytic prebiotic reactions undergo stochastic fluctuations due to environmental disturbances, in a mechanism reminiscent of evolutionary punctuated equilibrium: short-lived destructive events may lead to long-term enantiomeric excess. In another, chiral-selective polymerization reaction rates influenced by environmental effects lead to substantial chiral excess even in the absence of autocatalysis. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has implications to the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic (chirally neutral) on average.

Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

2012-10-01

430

NOVA: How Did Life Begin?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interview from NOVA explores the "recipe of life", a combination of specific elements that interacted to form life on Earth. It features Andrew Knoll, a Harvard professor of biology, who answers questions about early life forms and how life evolved from fundamental chemical building blocks involving a handful of elements. Editor's Note This article provides insight into the chemistry of life and explores life from a framework of "planetary processes". The presentation is engaging and clear enough for secondary students to understand. See Related Materials for a link to an interactive version of the famous 1953 Miller-Urey experiment, in which biochemistry students combined methane, water vapor, hydrogen, and ammonia....then introduced an electric charge. The result: amino acids (the building blocks of protein) were created.

2011-08-22

431

Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for a description of every life sciences experiment performed in space (during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Shuttle, and NASA-Mir programs)? Students, educators, and space enthusiasts will appreciate this recent contribution from NASA, offering detailed descriptions, information and data on space flight experiments, space life sciences, and NASA missions. The 'Overview of Life Sciences Missions and Research' section offers general information and images, with links to the searchable database, 'Master Catalog,' and to an internal glossary of terms. Data may be downloaded from the Master Catalog. The 'Digital Image Library' is a searchable database of images from life sciences experiments and missions. A set of space life science links can be found in the 'Related Resources' section. For the younger learners, follow links to the 'Just for Kids' companion site, where users will find activities about space flight and space life sciences.

432

Life in a ligand sphere.  

PubMed Central

The most fundamental divide in biology is that between heterotrophic and autotrophic ways of life. Two of the leading proponents of a heterotrophic origin of life ("hetero-origin") in a prebiotic broth, C. de Duve and S. L. Miller, have criticized my theory of a pyrite-pulled chemo-autotrophic origin of life ("auto-origin") [De Duve, C. & Miller, S. L. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 10014-10017]. This criticism is now answered. PMID:8183902

Wachtershauser, G

1994-01-01

433

The search for alien life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life on our own planet, expanding the habitable range of salinity, pressure, temperature, and radiation of our world. Given the relatively recent discoveries about life on Earth, how then can we expect to look for alien life that may use completely different sets of molecules for structure and activity? Astrobiology has taken on the challenge of developing the intellectual basis, target identification, instrument capabilities, and operational procedures for the search for life elsewhere. The research aims to develop general principles of how life maintains itself, how life interacts with its environment, and how the signatures of life may be preserved and recognized. The approach has been to move from the laboratory, to the environment, to robotic exploration of planetary analogs. To date, generic evidence for life can be perceived through life's creation and utilization of disequilibria, multiple uses of a relatively few sets of molecules, a preference for chiral compounds, and a predilection for lighter isotopes. It is through application of life detection instrumentation in environmental extremes that we hope to develop a catalogue of generic biosignatures, robust instrumentation capable of revealing the unexpected, and effective exploration strategies for robotic platforms in the search for signs of life. In 2009, Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars may be the first beneficiaries of this approach.

Meyer, M.

434

Searching for Life on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of activities encourages students to think about the characteristics of life and about the possibility of looking for life on Mars. Activities include: drawing Martian creatures, based on science fiction as well as the students' current knowledge of Mars; developing a chart to help define important features of a living organism; and designing a plant or animal life form that might survive on Mars.

435

Photovoltaics: Life-cycle analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy

V. M. Fthenakis; H. C. Kim

2011-01-01

436

Life on Mars Mars Terraformed Artist's  

E-print Network

Life on Mars Mars Terraformed ­ Artist's Conception: Wikimedia Commons #12;Life on Mars Does Mars have the building blocks for life? If not, did Mars ever have them? Was there ever life on Mars or even the potential for life? Is there any indication that life exists on Mars today? Could we turn

Shirley, Yancy

437

Life Sciences Undergraduate Programme: Life Sciences Minor The Minor in Life Sciences is designed for non-Life Sciences majors to receive significant  

E-print Network

Life Sciences Undergraduate Programme: Life Sciences Minor The Minor in Life Sciences is designed for non-Life Sciences majors to receive significant training in selected Life Sciences topics. Students of this Minor will receive a good grounding in their choice of topics in Life Sciences as well as an insight

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

438

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

439

Water and Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars appears to be cold dry and dead world. However there is good evidence that early in its history it had liquid water, more active volcanism, and a thicker atmosphere. Mars had this earth-like environment over three and a half billion years ago, during the same time that life appeared on Earth. The main question in the exploration of Mars then is the search for a independent origin of life on that planet. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils. Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.

McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

440

Halophilic life on Mars ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: The search for extraterrestrial life has been declared as a goal for the 21th century by several space agencies. Potential candidates are microorganisms on or in the surface of moons and planets, such as Mars. Extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are of astrobiological interest since viable strains have been isolated from million years old salt deposits (1) and halite has been found in Martian meteorites and in surface pools. Therefore, haloarchaeal responses to simulated and real space conditions were explored. Immuno assays for a potential Life Marker Chip experiment were developed with antisera against the universal enzyme ATP synthase. Methods: The focus of these studies was on the application of fluorescent probes since they provide strong signals, and detection devices are suitable for miniaturization. Viability of haloarchaeal strains (Halococcus dombrowskii and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1) was probed with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit and the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the DNA, following exposure to simulated and real space conditions (UV irradiation from 200 - 400 nm; 18 months exposure on the International Space Station [ISS] within the ADAPT experiment by Dr. P. Rettberg), were detected with fluorescent Alexa-Fluor-488-coupled antibodies. Immuno assays with antisera against the A-ATPase subunits from Halorubrum saccharovorum were carried out with the highly sensitive Immun-Star ™ WesternC ™ chemiluminescent kit (Bio-Rad). Results: Using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit, the D37 (dose of 37% survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii and Hbt. salinarum NRC-1, following exposure to UV (200-400 nm) was about 400 kJ/m2, when cells were embedded in halite and about 1 kJ/m2, when cells were in liquid cultures. Fluorescent staining indicated a slightly higher cellular activity than that which was derived from the determination of colony forming units. Assessment of viability with the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit gave strong signals with Hcc. dombrowskii and the control microorganism E. coli; as expected, the uncoupler CCCP diminished the membrane potential. Reaction times were generally longer with Hcc. dombrowskii than with E. coli. Hcc. dombrowskii from the ISS experiment showed > 80% viable cells when judged with the LIVE/DEAD kit. CPD formation was detectable in about 3-5 % of the total cells. It is not yet known if growing cells of Hcc. dombrowskii were recovered from the ISS. ATPase subunits were detected in crude membrane preparations, in whole haloarchaeal and bacterial cells, and even in spores (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus), suggesting the usefulness of the ATP synthase as a molecular target for life detection. Conclusions: Fluorescent dyes provide strong signals, which are suitable for remote detection and are compatible with high ionic strength. The advantages of staining with fluorescent dyes are rapid results on membrane intactness, membrane potential, and the presence of certain biomolecules. But more data are needed for a better correlation to cellular viability. (1) Stan-Lotter H, Pfaffenhuemer M, Legat A, Busse H-J, Radax C, Gruber C (2002) Halococcus dombrowskii sp. nov., an archaeal isolate from a Permian alpine salt deposit. Int System Evol Microbiol 52, 1807-1814.

Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Holzinger, Anita; Polacsek, Tatjana K.; Legat, Andrea; Grösbacher, Michael; Weigl, Andreas

2010-05-01

441

Off-Campus Life Graphic Designer Off-Campus Life  

E-print Network

Off-Campus Life Graphic Designer Off-Campus Life LSC West Job Title: Student Intern Pay Rate: $10; possible training over Winter Break Graphic Designer Position Description: The Graphic Designer for communicating with other staff on a regular basis to determine office design needs and receive feedback. Graphic

Stephens, Graeme L.

442

Nanotechnology for Life Sciences Vol. 4: Nanodevices for Life Sciences  

E-print Network

Nanotechnology for Life Sciences Vol. 4: Nanodevices for Life Sciences Protein-based nanotechnology such as semiconductors into functional materials.11,12 Another example of protein based nanotechnology is the push in nanotechnology18,19 and on applications of kinesin motors in microscale transport.4 Finally, there is a paralle

Hancock, William O.

443

Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

Tierney, William G.

2010-01-01

444

Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen

1996-01-01

445

Russian Life magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Russian Information Services, the publisher of "Russian Life" magazine, has established a Web site for the 40-year-old magazine of Russian culture, history, travel and business. The magazine's site offers samples of cover stories and departments: Practical Traveler, Survival Russian, Travel Journal, and Russian Cuisine. Within two weeks the site will add an events database which users can add information to and/or use to search for Russia-related events in their area or sphere of interest. Also, the editors have compiled a collection of Top Ten Russian Web Site Picks. Full-text searching by keyword is available, which also encompasses an on-line catalog -- Access Russia & Central Europe -- which contains over 200 books, maps and products relating to travel and doing business in the region. The site resides on the Friends & Partners server at the University of Tennessee, a site for persons with an interest in travel to or business in Russia. http://www.friends-partners.org/rispubs/

446

GFP: Lighting Up Life.  

PubMed

The great American baseball player Yogi Berra once said: "You can observe a lot by watching." Unfortunately, before the early 1990s observations in the biological sciences were usually done on dead specimens that were specially prepared and permeabilized to allow entry of reagents to stain cell components. These methods allowed a glimpse of what cells were doing, but they gave a necessarily static view of life, just snapshots in time. GFP and other fluorescent proteins revolutionized the biological sciences because these proteins allowed scientists to look at the inner workings of living cells. GFP can be used to tell where genes are turned on, where proteins are located within tissues, and how cell activities change over time. Once a cell can be seen, it can be studied and manipulated. The story of the discovery and development of GFP also provides a very nice example of how scientific progress is often made: through accidental discoveries, the willingness to ignore previous assumptions and take chances, and the combined efforts of many people. The story of GFP also shows the importance of basic research on non-traditional organisms. PMID:25262736

Chalfie, Martin

2014-01-01

447

Chirality and life.  

PubMed

The crucial role of homochirality and chiral homogeneity in the self-replication of contemporary biopolymers is emphasized, and the experimentally demonstrated advantages of these chirality attributes in simpler polymeric systems are summarized. The implausibility of life without chirality and hence of a biogenic scenario for the origin of chiral molecules is stressed, and chance and determinate abiotic mechanisms for the origin of chirality are reviewed briefly in the context of their potential viability on the primitive Earth. It is concluded that all such mechanisms would be nonviable, and that the turbulent prebiotic environment would require an ongoing extraterrestrial source for the accumulation of chiral molecules on the primitive Earth. A scenario is described wherein the circularly polarized ultraviolet synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernovae engenders asymmetric photolysis of the racemic constituents in the organic mantles on interstellar dust grains, whereupon these chiral constituents are transported repetitively to the primitive Earth by direct accretion of the interstellar dust or through impacts of comets and asteroids. PMID:11536669

Bonner, W A

1995-06-01

448

Self Righting Life Raft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Givens Buoy Raft was designed and manufactured for inventor Jim Givens of Givens Marine Survival Co. Inc., by RPR Industries, Inc. The Raft consists of a canopied topside and an underwater hemispheric ballast chamber. It has a heavy ballast stabilization system, adopted from NASA technology, which negates the capsizing problem. A "flapper valve" admits large amounts of water to the hemisphere chamber providing ballast to keep the center of gravity constant; stabilization system compensates for changes in wave angle and weight shifting of raft occupants. Mr. Givens has an exclusive patent license for use of the NASA technology. Produced in various sizes, capacities range from six to 20 persons. Raft is housed in a canister, available in several configurations. A pull on a line triggers the automatic inflation process, which takes 12 seconds. The raft has been credited with saving 230 lives in the last five years. It has found wide acceptance with operators of fishing boats, pleasure craft and other vessels. The Coast Guard is purchasing the rafts for use on its rescue helicopters and the Navy has a development program to adapt the system. The Coast Guard last year announced a proposed amendment of its regulations that would require large ballast chambers on inflatable life rafts.

1982-01-01

449

Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

Kaur, Preeti

2011-01-01

450

LifeMatters Services Overview  

E-print Network

-800-634-6433 mylifematters.com #12;Today · Overview of LifeMatters services ­Support services ­Work/life and healthy living services ­Pet sitting ­Apartment locators ­Relocation center #12;Healthy Living Services Promoting health

Saldin, Dilano

451

Second Thoughts about Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

Bugeja, Micheal J.

2007-01-01

452

Second Thoughts about Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

Bugeja, Michael J.

2008-01-01

453

A "Second Life" for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about the 3D virtual world known as Second Life and its potential as a learning platform. In the last few years, many colleges, universities, and libraries have established resources in what has become the preeminent multiuser virtual environment. Today, more than 100 Second Life "regions" are used for educational…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

454

USEFUL STUDENT RESOURCE Student Life  

E-print Network

College Council? How can I get involved or volunteer? What are the student clubs of New College? Academic the student community or clubs on Campus? Where can I see the dates for campus holiday closures and more Life What can I do to prepare for my new academic life? Where can I find out about academic workshops

455

Roots: The Life Space Pioneers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with troubled…

James, Adrienne Brant

2008-01-01

456

Wittgenstein on Meaning and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a paper about the way language meshes with life. It focuses on Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, and compares it with\\u000a Leo Tolstoy and Saint Augustine’s confessions. My aim is to better understand in this way what it means to have meaning in\\u000a language, as well as meaning in life.

David Kishik

2008-01-01

457

Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels  

EPA Science Inventory

A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

458

Wild Beasts of Still Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

Lott, Debra

2007-01-01

459

Life in the solar system.  

PubMed

Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or near hydrothermal vents. A large fraction of prebiotic organic molecules might have been brought by extraterrestrial-meteoritic and cometary dust grains decelerated by the atmosphere. Any celestial body harboring permanent liquid water may therefore accumulate the ingredients that generated life on the primitive Earth. The possibility that life might have evolved on early Mars when water existed on the surface marks it as a prime candidate in a search for bacterial life beyond the Earth. Europa has an icy carapace. However, cryovolcanic flows at the surface point to a possible water subsurface region which might harbor a basic life form. The atmosphere and surface components of Titan are also of interest to exobiology for insight into a hydrocarbon-rich chemically evolving world. One-handed complex molecules and preferential isotopic fractionation of carbon, common to all terrestrial life forms, can be used as basic indicators when searching for life beyond the Earth. PMID:11543327

Brack, A

1999-01-01

460

Life in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or

A. Brack

1999-01-01

461

Later-Life Family Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the important role that family members often play in the lives of older adults, formal assessment methods tailored to later-life families remain rare. In this article, we first provide a rationale for family assessment at this stage of life. We then describe a range of issues for researchers and clinicians to consider when assessing older families. Finally, we briefly

Elizabeth A. Mulligan; Brian D. Carpenter

2010-01-01

462

What Makes a Life Good?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Samples of college students (N = 104) and community adults (N = 264) were shown a career survey ostensibly completed by a person rating his or her occupation. After reading the survey, participants judged the desirability and moral goodness of the respondent's life, as a function of the amount of happiness,

Laura A. King; Christie K. Napa

1998-01-01

463

Life Stress and Academic Burnout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life

Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

2014-01-01

464

Is There Life in Space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation, students will explore the question: Can there be life outside of Earth? Students will use planet hunting models to discover how scientists find new planets and perform simulated spectroscopic measurements to determine if the chemical requirements for life are present.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-12

465

The Life Narrative at Midlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a remarkably prescient chapter, Bertram Cohler (1982) reimagined the problems and the potentialities of psychological development across the life course as a distinctively human challenge in life narration. This chapter situates Cohler's original vision within the intellectual and scientific matrix of the late 1970s, wherein psychologists…

McAdams, Dan P.

2014-01-01

466

Residence Life Housing & Conference Services  

E-print Network

Residence Life Housing & Conference Services Community Advisor (CA) Position Description Reporting on the Community Development Model and satisfy all requirements as established by the RLMT, including and assist in the development and delivery of orientation activities as assigned by the Residence Life

Thompson, Michael

467

Kinesthetic Life Cycle of Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a kinesthetic approach to learning about the life cycle of stars. Using a simplified two-layer model for stellar structure, learners recreate kinesthetically the birth, life, and death of low- and high-mass stars. Examples of how this activity has been used in several settings outside school time provide additional resources for extending student learning about this topic.

Erika L. Reinfeld; Mark A. Hartman

2008-01-01

468

Evolution of Rotifer Life Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

When compared to most other multicellular animals, rotifers are all relatively small, short-lived and fast-reproducing organisms. However among and within different rotifer species there is a large variation in life history patterns. This review accounts for such variation in rotifers, with a strong focus on monogonont rotifers. As the life cycle of monogonont rotifers involves both asexual and sexual reproduction,

Claus-Peter Stelzer

2005-01-01

469

The Ethics of Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive — our expectation of further life — and the other negative — the loss

Robin Small

2002-01-01

470

Life Cycle of a Pencil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

Reeske, Mike

2000-01-01

471

Life Style Assessment: So What!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

Aubry, William E.

472

Ecology: accumulating threats to life  

SciTech Connect

The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

Peterson, R.W.

1980-04-01

473

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure 32 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth, at 65 and 75 years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2013, ...

474

The evolution of complex life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

Billingham, J.

1985-01-01

475

Extraterrestrial life in the universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that life exists elsewhere in the universe, even in our own planetary system, has intrigued scientists, philosophers, and theologians for centuries. The spaceflight programs of NASA have provided much new information about our planetary neighbors and have put to rest some speculations about the existence of life on those planets or their satellites. However, there are still undetermined questions about the possibility of some form of life existing in the far distant past in our planetary system. Beyond our planetary system, the astronomical quest for scientific clues about life continues, largely via the radio telescope. Thus far there is no conclusive evidence. Here, some of the recent findings about our planetary neighbors are reviewed and the question about life elsewhere in the universe is addressed.

Graham, Robert W.

1990-01-01

476

What makes a life good?  

PubMed

Two studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Samples of college students (N = 104) and community adults (N = 264) were shown a career survey ostensibly completed by a person rating his or her occupation. After reading the survey, participants judged the desirability and moral goodness of the respondent's life, as a function of the amount of happiness, meaning in life, and wealth experienced. Results revealed significant effects of happiness and meaning on ratings of desirability and moral goodness. In the college sample, individuals high on all 3 independent variables were judged as likely to go to heaven. In the adult sample, wealth was also related to higher desirability. Results suggest a general perception that meaning in life and happiness are essential to the folk concept of the good life, whereas money is relatively unimportant. PMID:9686456

King, L A; Napa, C K

1998-07-01

477

Charting Ingredients for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrum Charts Light from a Faraway Galaxy

This graph, or spectrum, charts light from a faraway galaxy located 10 billion light years from Earth. It tracks mid-infrared light from an extremely luminous galaxy when the universe was only 1/4 of its current age.

Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They reveal the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that make up a galaxy and contribute to its light.

Spitzer's infrared spectrometer identified characteristic fingerprints of complex organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, illustrated in the artist's concept in the inset. These large molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are considered among the building blocks of life.

Scientists determined it took 10 billion years for photons from this galaxy to reach Spitzer's infrared eyes. These complex carbon and hydrogen molecules are from a young galaxy which is undergoing intense star formation, at the time the universe was only 3.5 billion years old.

These distant galaxies with enormous amounts of gas being converted into young stars are some of the most luminous objects in the sky. Enshrouded by dust, they are only faint, inconspicuous little dots in optical images. They are as bright as 10 trillion suns put together and 10 times brighter than starburst galaxies seen in our local universe.

This prompts a fascinating question as to what physical process is driving such enormous energy production in these galaxies when the universe is so young.

These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in August and September 2004.

2005-01-01

478

Energy: It is life  

SciTech Connect

The relationships that seem to exist between energy and man are presented in this paper. Habitually, social coefficients are connected to the gross domestic product; some parameters with correlations are: birth rate, infant mortality rate, death rate, literacy, etc. Along with energy these define the optimal energy consumption per capita; the author presents the correlation between these parameters and energy consumed per capita. There exists a high correlation between energy consumption per capita and gross domestic product per capita. The set of parameters considered are correlated with similar values relative to these two parameters. Using data collected on a group of the different countries of the world, a table of 165 countries and 22 variables has been drawn up. From the [Country x variable] matrix, a correlation table is calculated and a factorial analysis is applied to this matrix. The first factorial plan comprises 57% of the information contained in this table. Results from this first factorial plan are presented. These parameters are analyzed: influence of a country's latitude on its inhabitants' consumption; relationship between consumed energy and gross domestic product; women's fertility rate; birth rate per 1000 population; sex ratio; life expectancy at birth; rate of literacy; death rate; population growth rate. Finally, it is difficult to define precise criteria for: an optimal distribution of population according to age, but with a power consumed of above 300 W per capita, the population becomes younger; the birth rate per 1000 population; the total fertility rate per woman; the population growth rate. The authors determine that optimal energy is approximately between 200 W and 677 W inclusive.

Arques, P.

1998-07-01

479

Life Cycle of Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

1999-01-01

480

The LIFE Picture Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this is a commercial site with pictures and images for sale, users can nonetheless view and appreciate one of "the most extraordinary collections of pictures in the world" at The Picture Collection from Time, Inc. An initial free registration is required, and after that users need only log on to gain access to over 22 million images, including illustrations, prints, and photographs. Archival materials from many popular magazines are available here, including images from Time, Life, Sports Illustrated, People, and Entertainment Weekly, as well as material from the recently acquired Mansell Collection. "Mansell photographs date from the beginnings of the medium in the 1840s through World War II [and] depict a vast range of scenics, important news events, and historical personalities, with a special emphasis on art and architecture. In addition, the new Mansell Collection includes extraordinary holdings of engraved illustrations, lithographs, and drawings predating the advent of photographic imaging." In addition to a key word search function, The Picture Collection offers a special searching and licensing program that lets you search for and store materials in "Lightboxes" of your own creation for later use; these are similar to folders that one might use in a conventional software setting. The program also calculates licensing fees for images based on what type of usage is intended (newspaper, magazine, Website, etc.). Research help is available for those users who would like someone else to do the searching, with one half-hour of free research offered initially. After that, a fee of 85 dollars an hour is charged; some or all of this fee may be waived if one or more images are licensed. An excellent help section rounds out this site and makes perusing this amazing (if somewhat overwhelming) collection even more pleasurable.

481

Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards. PMID:24006402

Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

2013-01-01

482

The essence of life purpose.  

PubMed

Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings. PMID:19300082

Hodges, Pamela J

2009-01-01

483

Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH  

E-print Network

complexity #12;Plate Tectonics · Likely operating for last ~3.2 billion years #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE;#12;Plate Tectonics #12;Plate Tectonics #12;Plate Tectonics #12;Plate Tectonics #12;Extinction History #12

Shirley, Yancy

484

A year in the life of eLife  

PubMed Central

Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year. PMID:24137550

Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M

2013-01-01

485

The Home Life of Sir David Brewster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The birthplace; 2. The child; 3. The companions; 4. The student; 5. Settling in life; 6. Notes of life from 1810 to 1814; 7. Notes of life from 1814 to 1824; 8. Miss Edgeworth - Junius; 9. Notes of life from 1824 to 1830; 10. Notes of life from 1830 to 1836; 11. Notes of life from 1836 to 1844; 12. Notes of life from 1844 to 1850; 13. Notes of life from 1850 to 1851; 14. Notes of life from 1852 to 1853; 15. Notes of life from 1854 to 1855; 16. Notes of life from 1855 to 1860; 17. Characteristics; 18. Religious history; 19. Notes of life from 1860 to 1864; 20. Notes of life from 1864 to 1867; 21. The end; Appendix.

Gordon, Margaret Maria

2010-06-01

486

Lubricant effects on bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1986-01-01

487

Life on Titan: Theorem of existance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic

O. Potashko

2004-01-01

488

Residence Life Housing & Conference Services  

E-print Network

concerns. Living Learning Community (Healthy Active Living, Women in Leadership, Global PerspectivesResidence Life Housing & Conference Services Community Advisor (CA) ­ Living Learning Community & Sustainability) A Community Advisor in a Living Learning Community (LLC) will: · Support the experience

Thompson, Michael

489

A Rooted Net of Life  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

Williams, David

490

Lunar Base Life Support Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids, nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a lass of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.

Jones, Harry W.

2009-01-01

491

Towards Bioregenerative Life Support Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for bioregenerative technologies in order to support life in the closed space environments is essential, mainly because the servicing/resupply and associated mass launch capabilities are limited for economical reasons. Therefore, rooting from an ...

F. Brechignac

1990-01-01

492

Half-life of Radiocarbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFTER full discussion of the new determinations1-3 of the half-life of carbon-14, the Fifth Radiocarbon Dating Conference, meeting at Cambridge (see p. 943 of this issue of Nature), adopted the following resolution:

H. Godwin

1962-01-01

493

What Is a Life Cycle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just as living things go through a series of developmental stages from birth to death, products must also complete a life cycle--from design to disposal. However, the cycle does not stop with the end of life. In nature, living things die and serve as energy for animals, plants, and bacteria. Likewise, used products can be recycled into new products, or simply discarded as waste. In both cases, matter and energy are conserved. Unit One introduces these concepts using the Life Cycle of a Pencil poster. Through class discussion, you'll extend the ideas on thisvisual depiction to other common classroom items to emphasizethat all products have origins and fates--a life cycle. This free selection includes an Introduction and Table of Contents.

Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley W.

2001-01-01

494

Where to Look for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine environment cards that describe planets and moons in terms of their temperature and atmosphere and the availability of water, energy, and nutrients. They then select the best candidates to search for life.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-08-28

495

Is There Life on Mars?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a conflict scenario for a case study on whether there is evidence of past life on Mars. Includes details about the use of this case study in developing an interdisciplinary approach to scientific ethics. (DDR)

Allen, Bruce C.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

1998-01-01

496

Recognition Policy-1 SORORITY LIFE  

E-print Network

Recognition Policy- 1 & FRATERNITY SORORITY LIFE RECOGNITION POLICY 2013 #12;Recognition Policy- 2 RECOGNITION POLICY FOR FRATERNITIES AND SORORITIES COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY DEFINITION Recognition to be granted or rescinded. For the purpose of this recognition policy, the terms "fraternity" and "sorority

Hone, James

497

UNIVERSITY OF MAINE STUDENT LIFE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF MAINE STUDENT LIFE CAMPUS RECREATION RELEASE AND ASSUMPTION OF RISK *** PLEASE PRINT:______________________________________________________), of : (________________________________________________________________________), Street Address City State Zip (Email: ______________________________________), (Phone force and effect. I declare that I completely understand and have fully informed myself of the terms

Thomas, Andrew

498

Extremophiles Microbial Life Under Extreme  

E-print Network

1 23 Extremophiles Microbial Life Under Extreme Conditions ISSN 1431-0651 Volume 15 Number 4 Extremophiles (2011) 15:473-485 DOI 10.1007/s00792-011-0378- z Bacterial diversity in five Icelandic geothermal

Benning, Liane G.

499

End-of-Life Decisions  

MedlinePLUS

... circumstances. End-of-Life Decisions What is an advance directive? “Advance directive” is a general term that describes ... use of medical treatments. Why bother with an advance directive if I want my family to make the ...

500

Humor and creative life styles.  

PubMed

This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883

Richman, J

2001-01-01