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1

Wrongful life and birth.  

PubMed

The main scope of the article is the bioethical and legal issues of wrongful birth and wrongful life with reference to doctors' medical liability. Nowadays, prenatal tests tend to substitute the eugenic practice of Spartan inspection to raise a strong and healthy child. Should the doctor misinform the parents that the child is healthy and the parents do not exercise the right to abort the pregnancy, the doctor can be held liable and claims on wrongful life or birth are raised against him. "Wrongful life" is an oxymoron itself since "life" which has an intrinsic value and sanctity is attributed a negative aspect and is regarded as damage. Courts around the world have awarded parents compensation on that legal ground. In the Perruche affair (2000), where the mother was wrongly diagnosed and gave birth to Nicholas, who had serious neurological problems, the court conferred the right on the child itself, causing an uproar in France. The decision was criticized for encouraging eugenics and diminishing the value of handicapped people. The different approaches to the above issues by different courts around the world (US, EU) with reference to (bio) ethical concerns are going to be examined. We will try to give an answer on whether it is possible for courts to support on legal and bioethical grounds that a child with disabilities should not have been born as a result of the doctor's negligent conduct. In such cases, the limits of normality and the value of life are challenged PMID:22908740

Evgenia, Smyrnaki

2012-03-01

2

Harriton, Waller And Australian negligence law: is there a place for wrongful life?  

PubMed

Following the decision by the Supreme Court of New South Wales in Harriton and Waller, the controversial action for wrongful life has been thrown back into the public spotlight. This article examines the legal and public policy dilemmas arising from a wrongful life claim in light of the Court of Appeal's reasons for its decision in the jointly heard cases of Harriton (by her tutor) v Stephens; Waller (by his tutor) v James; Waller (by his tutor) v Hoolahan (2004) 59 NSWLR 694 and analyses whether there is a sound doctrinal basis for recognising the claim within the Australian tort system. It will be argued that each of the legal elements comprising the claim fall squarely within the traditional tort framework and that public policy considerations favouring recognition of the claim outweigh those raised against it. PMID:16506726

Kapterian, Gisele

2006-02-01

3

Looking for life in all the wrong places - research on cryptoendoliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article highlights the professional careers of two pioneer microbiologists, Imre Friedmann and his wife Roseli Ocampo-Friedmann. A personal interview with Friedmann gives readers a first hand account of the novel thoughts and discoveries of cryptoendolithic bacteria, or bacteria living within rock. For the past 50 years these two scientists have searched for microbial and algal life among the rocks and sediments of ancient water bodies in deserts, arid polar environments, and other places on earth once thought to be void of all life.

Will-Discover Hively

4

Experiencing Wrongful and Unlawful Conviction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how those wrongfully convicted and punished experience life after exoneration. Using data from intensive individual, in-person interviews with 55 exonerees, we measure both the short- and long-term psychological effects associated with wrongful conviction. The results of this research demonstrate that a substantial portion of…

Wildeman, Jennifer; Costelloe, Michael; Schehr, Robert

2011-01-01

5

What's wrong with quality-of-life measures? A philosophical reflection and insights from neuroimaging.  

PubMed

The authors propose a reflection on quality of life (QoL) measures in medicine following the work of G. Canguilhem on health and disease and the latest results from neuroimaging. The use of QoL measures implies that the tension between the two competing visions of health (i.e., normative and descriptive) needs to be overcome. A profound cultural change is needed if we want clinicians, researchers and decision makers to suspend their prevailing scientific ideologies about disease and examine the content of the patient's experience. Another issue that concerns the direction of future QoL is that until now, the available measurements and recent work were ambiguous, trying to find a commonly acceptable, intermediate position halfway between these normative and descriptive visions. It may be time to discard the medical normative vision and instead assume a radically humanistic approach to medicine by providing purely descriptive measures based on the values and emotions of patients. PMID:25269567

Boyer, Laurent; Baumstarck, Karine; Guedj, Eric; Auquier, Pascal

2014-12-01

6

Torts as Public Wrongs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article is a rejoinder to the civil recourse theorist's claim that tort law will be better served by retreating to the philosopher's prefecture of private wrongs. A subsidiary goal of this Article is to refute John Goldberg's claim that my sociologically-inspired theory of torts as public wrongs serves the interests of tort reformers rather than American consumers. In a

Michael L. Rustad

2012-01-01

7

Why Is Cheating Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since cheating is obviously wrong, arguments against it (it provides an unfair advantage, it hinders learning) need only be mentioned in passing. But the argument of unfair advantage absurdly takes education to be essentially a race of all against all; moreover, it ignores that many cases of unfair (dis)advantages are widely accepted. On the other…

Bouville, Mathieu

2010-01-01

8

1 -Sequence Polydispersed, wrong  

E-print Network

1 -Sequence Insoluble Polydispersed, wrong mass, proteolysis: go back to 1, 2 or 3 or optimize Soluble 6 - Scale-up 5 4 6 #12;Sequence: a) Gene ID from a known database (PubMed tools, etc.) b) Domain-membrane sequence, cellular localization, specific protease sites, etc. ) d) Fusion tags e) Protease sites for tag

Lebendiker, Mario

9

Laue: right or wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1912, Laue spots were discovered in x-ray scattering ‘photograms’ of crystals, which were amongst the most consequential experimental findings of the 20th century. Inter alia, spots established the x-ray waves and crystal lattice; plus, for the first time ever, revealed atoms as real physical objects. Laue, a protégé of Planck and a wave-optics expert, had theoretically predicted these spots, and promptly won the Physics Nobel Prize for 1914. The prize did not come easy: executing his experimentum cruces, over the judgments of Sommerfeld and Wien, required force of will and a certain amount of diplomacy. Besides, his explanation for missing spots and x-ray diffraction were proven wrong by Moseley, Darwin and the two Braggs. Traditionally, Laue’s three-dimensional diffraction model is reconciled with Bragg’s reflection formula by Ewald’s construction using reciprocal lattice space. Laue had overlooked that his fundamental equations violate Euclidean length invariance. This article shows that implementation of invariance consolidates Laue’s system of three (multi-parameter) equations into a single formula containing one integer, one angle and two distances; plus validating Bragg’s conjecture of reflection. This new derivation demonstrates that the mechanism of Laue spots is akin to the anti reflection coating the colour-plays in soap bubbles and oil slicks—reflection and interference not diffraction. Yet, Laue stimulated countless breakthroughs: Nobel Prizes and scientific innovations, with an enduring legacy of inspiration a century later.

Datta, Timir

2015-03-01

10

Looking at it wrong.  

PubMed

Two articles in this issue of the Hastings Center Report push the boundaries of bioethics, but in radically different directions. The lead article offers a new understanding of clinical translation-the process, that is, of generating clinical tools from the theoretical understanding of disease developed in the laboratory. The topic is important because, as Kimmelman and London point out, clinical translation is widely held to be in trouble. In general, the feeling is that there's been lots of basic science on disease mechanisms over the last twenty years or so, but there's only a trickle of good new medications in the "drug pipeline." Kimmelman and London's claim, crudely put, is that we're looking at it wrong. In a second article, John Hardwig, author of one of the Report's more frequently mentioned articles, "Is There a Duty to Die?," continues in somewhat that same surprising and maybe even contrarian vein by asking, in effect, whether there can ever be a duty to have an abortion. PMID:25739771

Kaebnick, Gregory E

2015-03-01

11

What's wrong with strategy?  

PubMed

Why is it that successful strategies are rarely developed as a result of formal planning processes? What is wrong with the way most companies go about developing strategy? Andrew Campbell and Marcus Alexander take a common sense look at why the planning frameworks managers use so often yield disappointing results. Companies often fail to distinguish between purpose (what an organization exists to do) and constraints (what an organization must do in order to survive), the authors say. Many executives mistakenly believe, for example, that satisfying stakeholders is an objective that drives thinking about strategy. In fact, it's a constraint, not an objective. Companies that don't win the loyalty of stakeholders will go out of business. Strategy is not about plans but about insights, the authors add. Strategy development is the process of discovering and understanding insights and should not be confused with planning, which is about turning insights into action. Furthermore, because executives develop most of their insights while actually doing the real work of running a business, it is important for companies not to separate strategy development from implementation. Is there a better way? The answer is not new planning processes or more effort. Instead, managers must understand two fundamental points: the benefit of having a well-articulated, stable purpose and the importance of discovering, understanding, documenting, and exploiting insights about how to create value. PMID:10174797

Campbell, A; Alexander, M

1997-01-01

12

Five Things Right, Five Wrong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a brief description of a young librarians' first six months in the profession. The article lists five things the librarian knows he has done wrong, and five things he knows he has done right.

Morley, Gabriel

2005-01-01

13

‘You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you’: gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life  

PubMed Central

This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

2014-01-01

14

Why Abortion is Seriously Wrong: Two Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this essay is to compare the substantial identity argument for the wrongness of abortion to the future of value\\u000a argument for its wrongness. Both arguments take for granted the standard moral judgment that it is wrong intentionally to\\u000a end the lives of innocent post-natal children and adults.

Donald Marquis

15

What if physics is wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics, an experiment-based science, seems to be the most appropriate subject in how to explain the inner workings of the world. We respect physics because it is based on facts that are perceived by our observations. However, what if we are not seeing the entire truth we seek? What if our observations are founded on sandy foundations? As humans, we desire to know what the truth is. Rene Descartes, a mathematician, philosopher, and physicist asked this question: what is the absolute truth in our universe? I want to solve the same puzzle. Many people believe that physics will reveal the truth of our universe. But, what if physics is wrong?

Tu, Zhoudunming

2011-11-01

16

"Managing" demand: the wrong paradigm.  

PubMed

The "Managing" of demand practiced by managed care organizations has had some success in controlling health care expenditures, but only at great cost in terms of irate consumers, physicians, employers, media, lawyers and legislators. The spate of "HMO Bashing" can be attributed to the use of the wrong paradigm for dealing with consumer, i.e., management. Initiatives intended to avoid, replace and reform demand should use a marketing paradigm, emphasizing the delivering of value to customers. This article provides examples of the wide range of value-adding benefits that well-designed and implemented demand improvement efforts can have for the wide range of customers affected. PMID:10175725

MacStravic, S

1997-01-01

17

Righting wrongs and reforming rights.  

PubMed

Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

Ivey, Laurie C

2014-03-01

18

The Wrong Trigonometry N J Wildberger  

E-print Network

The Wrong Trigonometry N J Wildberger School of Maths UNSW Sydney Australia 2052 December 14, 2005 1 What's wrong with trigonometry? Trigonometry begins with the study of triangles. A triangle has three side lengths, three vertex angles, and an area. Classical trigonometry studies these seven

Wildberger, Norman

19

How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

2011-01-01

20

The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong  

PubMed Central

For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

Chance, Paul

2007-01-01

21

WRONG QUESTIONS, NO ANSWERS JASON ROSENHOUSE  

E-print Network

questions are three in number: Is it wrong to mix science and religion, or is such mixing inescapable in this light, what could it possibly mean to mix science and religion? If the world's religious traditions science and religion: As with the supposed "scientific finding" that humans have no unique moral

Rosenhouse, Jason D.

22

Classrooms as Safe Places To Be Wrong.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contends that classrooms should be safe places for students and their teachers to be wrong, suggesting that this concept should provide the mainspring for educational reform in Hong Kong and in other places in the world. It notes that education in Hong Kong is harsh and has a tendency to label students; for the majority of students,…

Sankey, Derek

23

What is wrong with absolute individual fitness?  

E-print Network

What is wrong with absolute individual fitness? David Sloan Wilson Departments of Biology is that fit- ness is a relative concept. It does not matter how well an organism survives and reproduces, only arguments are framed in terms of absolute individual fitness. The absolute fitness criterion (AFC) can

Wilson, David. S.

24

Grief and involvement in wrongful death litigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of grief work, symbolic interaction theory, and family systems theory are used to gain theoretical perspective on the impact on a family of involvement in wrongful death litigation. Involvement in litigation may speed up, slow down, or alter an individual litigant's grieving, and any of these effects may alienate the litigant from nonlitigant kin. The completion of litigation,

Paul C. Rosenblatt

1983-01-01

25

Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? Xiaojin Zhu  

E-print Network

Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? Xiaojin Zhu Department of Computer Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison October 2010 (University of Wisconsin) Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? 1 / 33 #12;Iris Learns "Cow" (University of Wisconsin) Is Machine Learning the Wrong Name? 2 / 33 #12;Iris Learns "Cow

Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

26

What Is Wrong With This Picture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This drawing depicts people taking care of their home and car in ways that damage the environment, especially our water. Clicking on areas of the picture produces explanations of what people are doing wrong and how we can better protect the environment. Mistakes include dumping motor oil down a storm drain, leaving oil and antifreeze to leak out of a car, using fertilizer and pesticides improperly, sprinkling the sidewalk, throwing away grass clippings and leaves, littering, and eroding stream banks by removing plants and trees.

27

What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?  

PubMed Central

The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

Horden, Peregrine

2011-01-01

28

Wrongful death claims. Harriton v Stephens. [2002] NSWSC 461. Edwards v Blomeley. [2002] NSWSC 460. Waller v James [2002] NSWSC 462.  

PubMed

Studdert J in all three cases went to great length to summarise the global judicial position of "wrongful life" claims. He did not, however, examine in great length how or whether "wrongful life" claims or "wrongful birth" claims are reconcilable with tort and common law principles. Although the cases identify the difficulty in assessing and quantifying damages, they do not directly address the strict legal principles which apply in the assessment of damages. The main conclusion of the three judgments was that no duty of care is owed to the plaintiff in these circumstances and, even if a duty could be established, the impossibility of quantifying damages and public policy considerations warrant the rejection of such a claim: "thus conscience does make cowards of us all." The significance of the decisions cannot be understand. The decisions deny recognition of "wrongful life" claims in circumstances where a disabled person has incurred injuries en ventre sa mere (in the mother's womb) as a result of infections contracted by a plaintiff's mother or genetic material passed on by a plaintiff's parents. Some countries have now legislated for the abolition of "wrongful life and birth" suits. In January 2002 the French legislature passed a Bill overturning the "wrongful life" decision of the Cour de Cassation in Perruche (17 November 2000). As the issue now falls for ultimate determination by the French Senate, the French pro-life movement continues to lobby for the prohibition of "wrongful birth" suits as well. Furthermore, eight States in the United States have prohibited either one or both actions and the State of Michigan prohibited both actions in 2001. It is likely that all three cases will be appealed. The appeal in Harriton will re-examine the viability of a "wrongful life" claim in Australia whereas the cases of Edwards and Waller still need to determine the "wrongful birth" claims brought by the plaintiffs' parents. It is likely that the latter two cases will not be determined until the High Court has considered the Queensland "wrongful birth" case of Melchior v Cattanach, expected to be late in 2002. PMID:12497731

Devereux, John

2002-11-01

29

Writing wrongs: on narratives of moral distress.  

PubMed

The perception that one is being forced to do wrong, or being prevented from doing the right thing, is often described in the most brutal terms, as a situation that feels like participating in the torture of another human being. The emotional force of the experience of moral distress, and the perception that one is powerless to do anything to change the situation producing moral distress, can make it hard to look at these experiences critically, and to imagine a different reality. Writing about the experience of moral distress is a way to look critically at this experience. This commentary discusses how these narratives explore moral distress in relation to the formation of professional identity, as a "dirty" experience, as a potential consequence of unrelieved moral uncertainty, in the care of "difficult" patients, and as a response to systemic problems. PMID:24407085

Berlinger, Nancy

2013-01-01

30

How Many Solar Neutrino Experiments Are Wrong?  

E-print Network

Ten recently-published solar models give $\\7be$ neutrino fluxes that lie within a range of $\\pm 10$\\% of the average value, a convergence that is independent of uncertainties in the measured laboratory rate of the $\\7be(p,\\gamma)\\8b$ reaction. If nothing happens to solar neutrinos after they are created ({\\it a la} standard electroweak theory) and the operating solar neutrino experiments are correct, then the $\\7be$ solar neutrino flux must be less than 50\\% of the solar model value. At least three of the four existing solar neutrino experiments must be wrong {\\it if}: (1) standard electroweak theory is correct, and (2) the true $\\7be$ neutrino flux lies within the range predicted by standard solar models.

John N. Bahcall

1994-07-15

31

Wrongful Conviction: Perceptions of Criminal Justice Professionals Regarding the Frequency of Wrongful Conviction and the Extent of System Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a sample of 798 Ohio criminal justice professionals (police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges), the authors examine respondents' perceptions regarding the frequency of system errors (i.e., professional error and misconduct suggested by previous research to be associated with wrongful conviction), and wrongful felony conviction.…

Ramsey, Robert J.; Frank, James

2007-01-01

32

Why are MD simulated protein folding times wrong? Dmitry Nerukh  

E-print Network

Why are MD simulated protein folding times wrong? Dmitry Nerukh Unilever Centre for Molecular.ac.uk The question of significant deviations of protein folding times simulated using molecular dynamics from

Nerukh, Dmitry

33

Locating the wrongness in ultra-violent video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremely high level of simulated violence in certain recent video games has made some people uneasy. There is a concern\\u000a that something is wrong with these violent games, but, since the violence is virtual rather than real, it is difficult to\\u000a specify the nature of the wrongness. Since there is no proven causal connection between video-game violence and real

David I. Waddington

2007-01-01

34

Wrong site surgery! How can we stop it?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: “Primum non nocere” (first do no harm): Hippocrates (c. 460 BC-377 BC). Wrong site surgery is the fourth commonest sentinel event after patient suicide, operative and post-operative complications, and medication errors. Misinterpretation of the clinic letters or radiology reports is the commonest reason for the wrong site being marked before surgery. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 50 cases each of operations carried out on the kidney, ureter, and the testis. The side mentioned on clinic letters, the consent form, and radiology reports lists were also studied. The results were analyzed in detail to determine where the potential pitfalls were likely to arise. Results: A total of 803 clinic letters from 150 cases were reviewed. The side of disease was not documented in 8.71% and five patients had the wrong side mentioned in one of their clinic letters. In the radiology reports, the side was not mentioned in three cases and it was reported wrongly in two patients. No wrong side was ever consented for and no wrong side surgery was performed. Conclusion: The side of surgery was not always indicated in clinic letter, theatre list, or the consent form despite the procedure being carried on a bilateral organ. As misinterpretation is a major cause of wrong side surgery, it is prudent that the side is mentioned every time in every clinic letter, consent form, and on the theatre list. The WHO surgical safety checklist has already been very effective in minimizing the wrong site surgery in the National Health Service. PMID:24669124

Hanchanale, Vishwanath; Rao, Amrith Raj; Motiwala, H.; Karim, O. M. A

2014-01-01

35

I Was Once a Fetus: That Is Why Abortion Is Wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a I am going to argue that abortion is wrong in the same circumstances in which it is wrong to kill an adult. To argue further\\u000a that abortion is always wrong would require showing that it is always wrong to kill an adult or that the circumstances in\\u000a which it is not wrong—say, capital punishment—never befall a fetus. Such an argument

Alexander R. Pruss

36

Receiving Right/Wrong Feedback: Consequences for Learning  

PubMed Central

Prior work suggests that receiving feedback that one's response was correct or incorrect (right/wrong feedback) does not help learners, as compared to not receiving any feedback at all (Pashler, Cepeda, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2005). In three experiments, we examined the generality of this conclusion. Right/wrong feedback did not aid error correction, regardless of whether subjects learned facts embedded in prose (Exp. 1) or translations of foreign vocabulary (Exp. 2). While right/wrong feedback did not improve the overall retention of correct answers (Exps. 1 and 2), it facilitated retention of low-confidence correct answers (Exp. 3). Reviewing the original materials was very useful to learners, but this benefit was similar after receiving either right/wrong feedback or no feedback (Exp. 1 and 2). Overall, right/wrong feedback conveys some information to the learner, but is not nearly as useful as being told the correct answer or having the chance to review the to-be-learned materials. PMID:20408043

Fazio, Lisa K.; Huelser, Barbie J.; Johnson, Aaron; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

37

Ammonia--when something smells wrong.  

PubMed

Ammonia is a common household and industrial chemical. In the medical literature and the electronic press there are many descriptions of accidental spills of anhydrous ammonia, but apart from the Chechen war, there is no evidence of its intentional use by a terrorist to date. When considering its characteristics, ammonia tankers may pose an imminent threat for a civilian population nearby. This short review attempts to highlight the main health issues and basic principles of medical management after exposure to ammonia. Ammonia can directly cause damage due to its irritating as well as alkaline properties. The management of toxic exposure to ammonia is largely supportive and there is no specific antidote. Emergency medical response on site includes rapid evacuation, life-saving procedures and decontamination if necessary and if possible. Major clinical manifestations include respiratory symptoms, such as hypoxia, bronchospasm and pulmonary edema, as well as hypovolemia and burns to the skin and eyes. The immediate medical management consists of life-saving procedures and supportive care, while broad-range antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids may have a role in preventing late onset complications. PMID:18751637

Makarovsky, Igor; Markel, Gal; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

2008-07-01

38

MONIST; APRIL 01, 2001 WHAT IS WRONG WITH BAYES NETS?[*  

E-print Network

MONIST; APRIL 01, 2001 WHAT IS WRONG WITH BAYES NETS?[*] By Nancy Cartwright London School of Economics and University of California, San Diego 1. The basic question: Can we get to causality via Bayes decades using Bayes nets supposes that probability is a very sure guide to causality. I think not, and I

Fitelson, Branden

39

When word recognition goes wrong: Acquired dyslexia: brain damage (strokes).  

E-print Network

1 Dyslexia When word recognition goes wrong: Acquired dyslexia: brain damage (strokes). ­ Surface dyslexia: can't read irregular words (yacht). ­ Phonological dyslexia: can't read nonwords (nust). ­ Deep dyslexia: semantic errors (orchestra = symphony) Developmental dyslexia: this is most common and poorly

O'Reilly, Randall C.

40

When Rewards Go Wrong: A Tale of Five Motivational Misdirects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are…

Steel, Piers; MacDonnell, Rhiannon

2012-01-01

41

On warming, Williams is 'just plain wrong' Durham Herald Sun  

E-print Network

-Sun, Williams devoted a third of his piece to a subject I know something about -- global warming -- and there I found that his points were both superficial and just plain wrong. Williams cites some global warming fuels burned in the late 20th century. Stossel's and Williams' implication is that global warming

42

Teaching Earth Dynamics: What's Wrong with Plate Tectonics Theory?  

E-print Network

Textbooks frequently extol plate tectonics theory without questioning what might be wrong with the theory or without discussing a competitive theory. How can students be taught to challenge popular ideas when they are only presented a one-sided view? In just a few pages, I describe more than a century of geodynamic ideas. I review what is wrong with plate tectonics theory and with Earth expansion theory, and describe my new Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics Theory, which unifies the two previous dominant theories in a self- consistent manner. Along the way, I disclose details of what real science is all about, details all too often absent in textbooks and classroom discussions. In these few pages, I only touch on highlights and just part the curtain a bit so that teachers might glimpse ways to bring to their students some of the richness and excitement of discovery that becomes evident when one begins to question prevailing, currently popular perceptions of our world.

Herndon, J M

2005-01-01

43

Why Was Kelvin's Estimate of the Earth's Age Wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry's work, of a graph of ln y versus t when y is an exponential function of t. This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin's (William Thomson's) estimate of the Earth's age was wrong not because he did not account for radioactivity, as is commonly believed,4 but because he used the wrong model for Earth's heat loss. We feel this idea is worth spreading. To this end (following England et al.), we examine two questions, the first about the radioactivity part and the second about Perry's alternate model for Earth's heat loss.

Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

2014-05-01

44

Moral value transfer from regulatory fit: what feels right is right and what feels wrong is wrong.  

PubMed

People experience regulatory fit (E. T. Higgins, 2000) when the strategic manner of their goal pursuit suits their regulatory orientation, and this regulatory fit feels right. Fit violation feels wrong. Four studies tested the proposal that experiences of fit can transfer to moral evaluations. The authors examined transfer of feeling wrong from fit violation by having participants in a promotion or prevention focus recall transgressions of commission or omission (Studies 1 and 2). Both studies found that when the type of transgression was a fit violation, participants expressed more guilt. Studies 3 and 4 examined transfer of feeling right from regulatory fit. Participants evaluated conflict resolutions (Study 3) and public policies (Study 4) as more right when the means pursued had fit. PMID:12635912

Camacho, Christopher J; Higgins, E Tory; Luger, Lindsay

2003-03-01

45

http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2008/01/02/the_wrong_choice_for_massachusetts/ The wrong choice for Massachusetts  

E-print Network

http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2008/01/02/the_wrong_choice_for_massachusetts/ The wrong choice for Massachusetts By James Hansen January 2, 2008 THE EARTH is close to passing climate, sentencing humanity and other creatures to struggle on an increasingly desolate planet. Massachusetts

Hansen, James E.

46

Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. PMID:25277313

Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

2014-09-30

47

The causal cognition of wrong doing: incest, intentionality, and morality  

PubMed Central

The paper concerns the role of intentionality in reasoning about wrong doing. Anthropologists have claimed that, in certain non-Western societies, people ignore whether an act of wrong doing is committed intentionally or accidentally. To examine this proposition, we look at the case of Madagascar. We start by analyzing how Malagasy people respond to incest, and we find that in this case they do not seem to take intentionality into account: catastrophic consequences follow even if those who commit incest are not aware that they are related as kin; punishment befalls on innocent people; and the whole community is responsible for repairing the damage. However, by looking at how people reason about other types of wrong doing, we show that the role of intentionality is well understood, and that in fact this is so even in the case of incest. We therefore argue that, when people contemplate incest and its consequences, they simultaneously consider two quite different issues: the issue of intentionality and blame, and the much more troubling and dumbfounding issue of what society would be like if incest were to be permitted. This entails such a fundamental attack on kinship and on the very basis of society that issues of intentionality and blame become irrelevant. Using the insights we derive from this Malagasy case study, we re-examine the results of Haidt’s psychological experiment on moral dumbfoundedness, which uses a story about incest between siblings as one of its test scenarios. We suggest that the dumbfoundedness that was documented among North American students may be explained by the same kind of complexity that we found in Madagascar. In light of this, we discuss the methodological limitations of experimental protocols, which are unable to grasp multiple levels of response. We also note the limitations of anthropological methods and the benefits of closer cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:25741304

Astuti, Rita; Bloch, Maurice

2015-01-01

48

The causal cognition of wrong doing: incest, intentionality, and morality.  

PubMed

The paper concerns the role of intentionality in reasoning about wrong doing. Anthropologists have claimed that, in certain non-Western societies, people ignore whether an act of wrong doing is committed intentionally or accidentally. To examine this proposition, we look at the case of Madagascar. We start by analyzing how Malagasy people respond to incest, and we find that in this case they do not seem to take intentionality into account: catastrophic consequences follow even if those who commit incest are not aware that they are related as kin; punishment befalls on innocent people; and the whole community is responsible for repairing the damage. However, by looking at how people reason about other types of wrong doing, we show that the role of intentionality is well understood, and that in fact this is so even in the case of incest. We therefore argue that, when people contemplate incest and its consequences, they simultaneously consider two quite different issues: the issue of intentionality and blame, and the much more troubling and dumbfounding issue of what society would be like if incest were to be permitted. This entails such a fundamental attack on kinship and on the very basis of society that issues of intentionality and blame become irrelevant. Using the insights we derive from this Malagasy case study, we re-examine the results of Haidt's psychological experiment on moral dumbfoundedness, which uses a story about incest between siblings as one of its test scenarios. We suggest that the dumbfoundedness that was documented among North American students may be explained by the same kind of complexity that we found in Madagascar. In light of this, we discuss the methodological limitations of experimental protocols, which are unable to grasp multiple levels of response. We also note the limitations of anthropological methods and the benefits of closer cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:25741304

Astuti, Rita; Bloch, Maurice

2015-01-01

49

Analysis of single particle trajectories: when things go wrong  

E-print Network

To recover the long-time behavior and the statistics of molecular trajectories from the large number (tens of thousands) of their short fragments, obtained by super-resolution methods at the single molecule level, data analysis based on a stochastic model of their non-equilibrium motion is required. Recently, we characterized the local biophysical properties underlying receptor motion based on coarse-grained long-range interactions, corresponding to attracting potential wells of large sizes. The purpose of this letter is to discuss optimal estimators and show what happens when thing goes wrong.

Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

2015-01-01

50

Analysis of single particle trajectories: when things go wrong  

E-print Network

To recover the long-time behavior and the statistics of molecular trajectories from the large number (tens of thousands) of their short fragments, obtained by super-resolution methods at the single molecule level, data analysis based on a stochastic model of their non-equilibrium motion is required. Recently, we characterized the local biophysical properties underlying receptor motion based on coarse-grained long-range interactions, corresponding to attracting potential wells of large sizes. The purpose of this letter is to discuss optimal estimators and show what happens when thing goes wrong.

D. Holcman; N. Hoze; Z. Schuss

2015-02-01

51

The harmful, nontherapeutic use of animals in research is morally wrong.  

PubMed

It is argued that using animals in research is morally wrong when the research is nontherapeutic and harmful to the animals. This article discusses methods of moral reasoning and discusses how arguments on this and other bioethical issues might be defended and critiqued. A basic method of moral argument analysis is presented and used to show that common objections to the view that "animal research is morally wrong" fail: ie, common arguments for the view that "animal research is morally permissible" are demonstrably unsound or in need of defense. It is argued that the best explanations why harmful, nontherapeutic research on human beings is wrong, ie, what it is about humans that makes such experimentation wrong, apply to many animals as well. Thus, harmful and nontherapeutic animal experimentation is wrong for reasons similar to the reasons that harmful and nontherapeutic human experimentation is wrong. PMID:21952174

Nobis, Nathan

2011-10-01

52

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity Is Absolutely Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest frauds perpetuated on mankind is the Special Theory Relativity. Relativity is like the Leaning Tower of Pisa, which has perfect structure, but the foundation is sitting on a swamp. The basis of relativity is the velocity of light but "c" does not give a true description of light. The missing factor is frequency. There are several characteristics of a photon and two of these are: that it travels at the speed of light in any moving frame and it has a frequency. This paper describes a proof of Einstein's error by applying a frequency to the velocity of light and then deriving a red shift equation, which is exactly the same for low velocities as the standard equation and close to Einstein's erroneous equation for high velocities. There is a 5to.9 the velocity of light. But like I said I believe relativity is wrong and it takes a simple experiment to prove who is correct. The modified equation of light is then applied to the basis of special relativity, showing where relativity is absolutely wrong.

Theofilos, George

2000-11-01

53

What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

Paul, Diane B.

2012-11-01

54

Surgically inverting an incidentally detected Meckel's diverticulum – Wrong method  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Intusussception leading to intestinal obstruction is a known complication of Meckel's diverticulum. Inverting of Meckel's acts as a lead point for intussusception. Causes of inversion are many but surgical inversion leading to intusussception is extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We hereby report a case of a 14 year adolescent boy operated previously for open appendicetomy presenting to us with intestinal obstruction who on exploration was found to have an surgically inverted Meckel's diverticulum acting as a lead point for ileo-colic intusussception. DISCUSSION To the best of our knowledge, surgically inverting any Meckel's diverticulum is never a treatment option even when the diverticulum is incidentally detected. Diverticulectomy or segmental resection is the procedure of choice for Meckel's diverticulum. CONCLUSION Meckel's divereticulum should never be inverted surgically. Not only it is a wrong method but also increases the risk of complications. PMID:25560057

Shah, Ketul; Khiria, Lakhsman; Desai, Premal; Vora, Hasmukh; Bhavsar, Mehendra

2014-01-01

55

Something went wrong on the way to the courthouse.  

PubMed

Almost without exception, law professors dismissed the possibility that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) might be unconstitutional - but something went wrong on the way to the courthouse. What explains the epic failure of law professors to accurately predict how Article 3 judges would approach the case? This essay identifies three distinct but complementary factors that might help explain the observed failure. First, instead of conducting a neutral assessment of the actual probabilities, law professors engaged in motivated reasoning, based on their preexisting political and policy preferences. Second, the psychology of constitutional law professors led them to massively overstate the probability of success and suppress any misgivings or cautious hedging. Third, once it became clear that the PPACA was in serious jeopardy, our nation's law professors decided to pursue politics by other means, and organized the academic equivalent of a vigilance committee. PMID:23262776

Hyman, David A

2013-04-01

56

Oh No! I Got the Wrong Sign! What Should I Do?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Getting a "wrong" sign in empirical work is a common phenomenon. Remarkably, econometrics textbooks provide very little information to practitioners on how this problem can arise. The author exposits a long list of ways in which a wrong sign can occur and how it might be corrected.

Kennedy, Peter E.

2005-01-01

57

The myth of harmless wrongs in moral cognition: Automatic dyadic completion from sin to suffering.  

PubMed

When something is wrong, someone is harmed. This hypothesis derives from the theory of dyadic morality, which suggests a moral cognitive template of wrongdoing agent and suffering patient (i.e., victim). This dyadic template means that victimless wrongs (e.g., masturbation) are psychologically incomplete, compelling the mind to perceive victims even when they are objectively absent. Five studies reveal that dyadic completion occurs automatically and implicitly: Ostensibly harmless wrongs are perceived to have victims (Study 1), activate concepts of harm (Studies 2 and 3), and increase perceptions of suffering (Studies 4 and 5). These results suggest that perceiving harm in immorality is intuitive and does not require effortful rationalization. This interpretation argues against both standard interpretations of moral dumbfounding and domain-specific theories of morality that assume the psychological existence of harmless wrongs. Dyadic completion also suggests that moral dilemmas in which wrongness (deontology) and harm (utilitarianism) conflict are unrepresentative of typical moral cognition. PMID:24635184

Gray, Kurt; Schein, Chelsea; Ward, Adrian F

2014-08-01

58

Voluntary euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the right to do wrong.  

PubMed

It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite the moral wrongness of the procedures in light of the main argument for a moral right to do wrong found in recent philosophical literature. I maintain that the argument does not provide adequate support for such a right to VE and PAS. PMID:23338120

Varelius, Jukka

2013-09-01

59

C O M M E N T A R I E S When Emotion Goes Wrong: Realizing the  

E-print Network

Prac 10: 227­232, 2003] In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle argued that emotions are adaptive when, are expressed in the wrong way, arise at the wrong time, or are the wrong duration. This analysis led Aristotle emotion remains as important to clinical scientists and practitioners today as it was when Aristotle wrote

Gross, James J.

60

Search for wrong sign D/sup 0/ decays with the HRS detector  

SciTech Connect

Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300pb/sup -1/ obtained at PEP with the HRS detector we have searched for the wrong sign decay of D/sup 0/ mesons in the decays D* ..-->.. D/sup 0/..pi... We obtain a 90% confidence level limit of 4.0% on the ratio of the wrong sign to the right sign decay rate in the K..pi.. mode. This is the best model independent limit on mixing currently available and constrains the nature of the wrong sign signal recently reported by the MARK III group. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Barringer, P.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J.M.; Bylsma, B.G.; Chapman, J.; Cork, B.; DeBonte, R.

1986-01-01

61

How Far Away are Gravitational Lens Caustics? Wrong Question  

E-print Network

It has been a persistent question at least for a decade where the gravitational lens caustics are in the radial direction: whether in front of the lensing mass, behind the lensing mass, or on the plane normal to the line of sight that passes through the lensing mass, the radiation source, or the observer. It is a wrong question. And, the truth angers certain referees who somehow possess the ability to write lengthy rubbish referee reports and delay certain papers indefinitely. General relativity is a metric theory, particularly of Riemannian geometry, which is characterized by the existence of an inner product -- or, the invariance of the proper time. According to Einstein field equations, a compact mass defines a spherical geometry around it and focuses photons from a distant source to an observer with the source and observer as the two focal points. When the mass is spherically symmetric, the two dimensional lens equation that relates the angular positions of a source and its images defines a point caustic at the angular position of the lensing mass. The third (radial) position of the point caustic is not defined. For an arbitrary mass, the caustic extends into a web of piecewise smooth curves punctuated by cusps and again its notion exists only within the context of the lens equation. We point out a few errors in a couple of papers, published in the Astrophysical Journal, which may be influential.

Sun Hong Rhie

2005-07-31

62

Moving to a Healthier Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game presents you with several different choices you can make in the course of your everyday life to increase your level of physical activity and be healthier. In each situation, all the choices presented are healthy choices - there are no wrong answers. Situations presented include school, home, weekend, work, screen time, and vacation. At the end of the game, you are shown a rating of how good your choices are on a 5-star scale.

OMSI

2007-01-01

63

Cancer Care in the United States: What's Right, What's Wrong? - September 16, 1999  

Cancer.gov

CANCER CARE IN THE UNITED STATES: WHAT'S RIGHT, WHAT'S WRONG? ENSURING THE QUALITY OF CANCER CARE Robert Hiatt, M.D., Ph.D., Deputy Director of the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences National Cancer Institute National Institutes

64

Wrong-way behavior of packed-bed reactors; Influence of reactant adsorption on support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that wrong-way behavior refers to a large transient temperature increase caused by a sudden reduction in the feed temperature or increase in the feed rate to a packed-bed reactor operating at an intermediate or high level of conversion. This dynamic temperature rise may be affected by reactant adsorption on the inert catalyst support. The wrong-way behavior usually

A. Ilin; Dan Luss

1992-01-01

65

How to stay stuck in the wrong career.  

PubMed

Everyone knows a story about a talented business person who has lost his passion for work, or a person who ditched a 20-year career to pursue something completely different and is the happier for it. "Am I doing what is right for me, or should I change direction?" is one of the most pressing questions for today's midcareer professional. A true change of direction is hard to swing. Many academics and career counselors contend that the problem lies in basic human behavior: We fear change and don't want to make sacrifices. But author Herminia Ibarra suggests another explanation. People most often fail, she says, because they take the wrong approach to finding new careers. Indeed, the conventional wisdom on how to change careers is a prescription for how to stay put. Most of us have heard that the key to a successful career change is figuring out what we want to do next, then acting on that knowledge. But change actually happens the other way around. Doing comes first, knowing second, because changing careers means redefining our working identity--our sense of self in our professional roles, what we convey about ourselves to others and, ultimately, how we live our working lives. Who we are and what we do are tightly connected, the result of years of action. And to change that connection, we must first resort to action--exactly what the conventional wisdom cautions us against. Many successful career changers use a test-and-learn model of change, putting their possible identities into practice and then working and crafting them until the identities are sufficiently grounded in experience to guide more decisive steps. To make a break with the past, we must venture into the unknown. PMID:12510536

Ibarra, Herminia

2002-12-01

66

Falling Bodies: the Obvious,the Subtle, and the Wrong  

E-print Network

An important scientific debate took place regarding falling bodies hundreds of years ago, and it still warrants introspection. Galileo argued that in a vacuum all bodies fall at the same rate relative to the earth, independent of their mass. Aristotle seemed to consider all media to be viscous, and argued that heavier bodies fall faster. Aristotle was challenged by Philoponus, who argued that light and heavy weights fall about equally fast in air, eleven hundred years before Galileo. As we shall see, the problem is more subtle than meets the eye -- even in a frictionless medium. Philoponus and Galileo are right part of the time, and Aristotle is partly right some of the time. In fact they are all wrong the rest of the time, with the lightest body falling fastest when two bodies fall toward the earth. In principle the results of a free fall experiment depend on whether falling masses originate on earth, are extraterrestrial, are sequential or concurrent, or are simultaneous for coincident or separated bodies, etc. When single falling bodies originate from the earth, all bodies (light and heavy) fall at the same rate relative to the earth in agreement with Galileo's view. Einstein's General Relativity (EGR), in which gravity is due to space-time curvature, was motivated by the Galilean notion that free-fall is independent of the mass and properties of a falling body, and is just due to the properties of the milieu it finds itself in. Quantum mechanics is found to violate the Equivalence Principle of EGR.

Mario Rabinowitz

2009-03-28

67

Hannah Arendt's Fame Rests on the Wrong Foundation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A street is named after her. Back-to-back conferences celebrate her. New books champion her. Hannah Arendt has joined the small world of philosophical heroes. During her life, she received honorary degrees from Princeton, Smith, and other colleges and universities. Denmark awarded her its Sonning Prize for "commendable work that benefits European…

Jacoby, Russell

2006-01-01

68

A Few of My Favorite Things: Nothing Wrong with "Stuff"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column is focused on a simple theme: the idiosyncratic furnishings, equipment, and stuff that the author would have in any center where young children are going to spend a good chunk of their childhood. Here, the author presents the "good stuff" he doesn't want to do without which can also promote success in school and life. Furthermore he…

Greenman, Jim

2007-01-01

69

Wrong sign and symmetric limits and non-decoupling in 2HDMs  

E-print Network

We analyse the possibility that, in two Higgs doublet models, one or more of the Higgs couplings to fermions or to gauge bosons change sign, relative to the respective Higgs Standard Model couplings. Possible sign changes in the coupling of a neutral scalar to charged ones are also discussed. These \\textit{wrong signs} can have important physical consequences, manifesting themselves in Higgs production via gluon fusion or Higgs decay into two gluons or into two photons. We consider all possible wrong sign scenarios, and also the \\textit{symmetric limit}, in all possible Yukawa implementations of the two Higgs doublet model, in two different possibilities: the observed Higgs boson is the lightest CP-even scalar, or the heaviest one. We also analyse thoroughly the impact of the currently available LHC data on such scenarios. With all 8 TeV data analysed, all wrong sign scenarios are allowed in all Yukawa types, even at the 1$\\sigma$ level. However, we will show that B-physics constraints are crucial in excluding the possibility of wrong sign scenarios in the case where $\\tan \\beta$ is below 1. We will also discuss the future prospects for probing the wrong sign scenarios at the next LHC run. Finally we will present a scenario where the alignment limit could be excluded due to non-decoupling in the case where the heavy CP-even Higgs is the one discovered at the LHC.

P. M. Ferreira; Renato Guedes; Marco O. P. Sampaio; Rui Santos

2014-09-23

70

Life Before Earth  

E-print Network

An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no intelligent life in our universe prior to the origin of Earth, thus Earth could not have been deliberately seeded with life by intelligent aliens; Earth was seeded by panspermia; experimental replication of the origin of life from scratch may have to emulate many cumulative rare events; and the Drake equation for guesstimating the number of civilizations in the universe is likely wrong, as intelligent life has just begun appearing in our universe. Evolution of advanced organisms has accelerated via development of additional information-processing systems: epigenetic memory, primitive mind, multicellular brain, language, books, computers, and Internet. As a result the doubling time of complexity has reached ca. 20 years. Finally, we discuss the issue of the predicted technological singularity and give a biosemiotics perspective on the increase of complexity.

Alexei A. Sharov; Richard Gordon

2013-03-28

71

Autism is uncommon in 22q: the how and why of wrong diagnoses  

E-print Network

Autism is uncommon in 22q: the how and why of wrong diagnoses Kathleen Angkustsiri, Khyati Disclosures · Co-investigator on clinical trials in autism and fragile X syndrome ­Novartis ­Roche ­Seaside Pharmaceuticals ­Forest Laboratories #12;22q and Autism Spectrum Disorders · Autism Spectrum Disorders

Nguyen, Danh

72

The Wrong Trousers? Beyond the Design Fallacy: Social Learning and the User  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology studies and the user-oriented 'wing' of computer science have largely shared a 'heroic', albeit critical, vision of computer system design: that designers inscribe particular views of the user, user activities and priorities into the artefact, but these are often 'the wrong values', based on an inadequate or misleading view of the user and their requirements. Ethnographic studies of users

James Stewart; Robin Williams

73

Moving Past "Right" or "Wrong" toward a Continuum of Young Children's Semantic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development is a critical goal for early childhood education. However, it is difficult for researchers and teachers to determine whether this goal is being met, given the limitations of current assessment tools. These tools tend to view word knowledge dichotomously--as right or wrong. A clear sense of children's depth of semantic…

Christ, Tanya

2011-01-01

74

Dent–Wrong disease and other rare causes of the Fanconi syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dent–Wrong disease, an X-linked recessive disorder of the proximal tubules, presents with hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, low-molecular-weight proteinuria, rickets and/or osteomalacia. Dent and Friedman initially characterized the disorder in 1964 following studies of two patients with rickets who presented with hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia, proteinuria and aminoaciduria. Since then, extensive investigation identified two genetic mutations (CLCN5 and OCRL1) to be associated with Dent–Wrong disease. Clinical features supported by laboratory findings consistent with proximal tubule dysfunction help diagnose Dent–Wrong disease. Genetic analysis supports the diagnosis; however, these two genes can be normal in a small subset of patients. The differential diagnosis includes other forms of the Fanconi syndrome, which can be hereditary or acquired (e.g. those related to exposure to exogenous substances). Treatment is supportive with special attention to the prevention of nephrolithiasis and treatment of hypercalciuria. We review the rare forms of Fanconi syndrome with special attention to Dent–Wrong disease.

Solano, Alejandro; Lew, Susie Q; Ing, Todd S.

2014-01-01

75

What is Wrong with this Word? Dyseggxia: a Game for Children with Dyslexia  

E-print Network

What is Wrong with this Word? Dyseggxia: a Game for Children with Dyslexia Luz Rello Clara Bayarri Dyseggxia, a game application with word exer- cises for children with dyslexia. We design the content are (i) designing exercises by using the analysis of errors written by people with dyslexia and (i

76

"Why Girls Go Wrong": Advising Female Teen Readers in the Early Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces historical uses of the phrase "why girls go wrong" to provide a context for analysis of Progressive Era reading guidance for girls and then turns to actual girls' responses to reading. The historic context depicts the milieu in which young women and the advisors who sought to guide them lived and read as a time of intense…

Pierce, Jennifer Burek

2007-01-01

77

What's wrong with a little sex? J. R. PECK & D. WAXMAN  

E-print Network

, when heterozygote advantage is in force, members of species in which sex is rare will tend to produceWhat's wrong with a little sex? J. R. PECK & D. WAXMAN Centre for the Study of Evolution and School relevant theoretical studies also suggest that most of the bene®ts of sex accrue if only a small proportion

Waxman, David

78

Legends of Hurricane Katrina: The Right to Be Wrong, Survivor-to-Survivor Storytelling, and Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, media-borne legends overwhelmingly portrayed poor New Orleanians as criminals; the reports carried the force of truth in discouraging rescues and conferring upon their tellers the right to be wrong. In contrast, survivors’ narratives assigned guilt to government elites, depicted fellow survivors as heroes, and met rejection from the media. Thus emerged a pattern of

Carl Lindahl

2012-01-01

79

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

80

A Century of Evolution: Ernst Mayr (19042005) Mayr's view of Darwin: was Darwin wrong  

E-print Network

read or hear that Charles Darwin successfully convinced the world about evolution and natural selectionA Century of Evolution: Ernst Mayr (1904­2005) Mayr's view of Darwin: was Darwin wrong about the 1940s, Ernst Mayr has been one of the people who argued for this point of view, claiming that Darwin

Mallet, James

81

Misplaced marketing : Why television is the “wrong” environment for public service advertising campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notes that research has shown that advertising efforts to promote social causes rarely reach meaningful levels of effectiveness. Points out that while the media provide the right emotional climate for advertising messages that encourage consumption, it follows that the media provide the wrong environment for messages that discourage consumption or other behaviors. Concludes that money spent might best be redirected

Joyce M. Wolburg

2001-01-01

82

Mobil Oil Corp. v. Higginbotham—Confusion Returns to Maritime Wrongful Death Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1967, a helicopter carrying three passengers and a pilot returning from an offshore drilling platform crashed into the Gulf of Mexico beyond Louisiana's territorial waters, killing all aboard. The families of the decedents instituted a wrongful death suit in admiralty, seeking recovery under general maritime law, the Death on the High Seas Act (DOHSA), and the Jones Act. The

Howard Hall

1979-01-01

83

Issue: July 2010 Einstein, Right or Wrong...But Forever Relevant  

E-print Network

a century ago by Albert Einstein, physicist extraordinaire. Brownian Motion In thinking about BrownianIssue: July 2010 Einstein, Right or Wrong...But Forever Relevant by Jessica Tanenbaum Brownian Motion Enter Einstein Why Einstein Should Stick to Theoretical Physics Just a Light Pinch: Optical

Raizen, Mark G.

84

The Good, the Bad, the Difficult, and the Easy: Something Wrong with Information Retrieval Evaluation?  

E-print Network

Easy and difficult questions Figure: Ever feel like this? As lecturers, when we try to assess a student is wrong rather strong positive evaluation if the answer is correct Good and bad students When we have an idea of student's preparation (e.g., because of a previous written exam, or a term project, or after

Mizzaro, Stefano

85

Children Do Not Follow the Rule "Ignorance Means Getting It Wrong"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments tested whether 4- and 5-year-olds follow the rule "ignorance means you get it wrong." Following this rule should lead children to infer that a character who is ignorant about some situation will also have a false belief about it. This rule should sometimes lead children into error because ignorance does not imply false belief. In…

Friedman, Ori; Petrashek, Adam R.

2009-01-01

86

Effects of "Right" and "Wrong" as a Function of Recalling Either the Response or the Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the outcomes "right" and "wrong" upon subsequent correct responding in paired-associate learning have recently been interpreted as a function of subject's memory of previous responses and their outcomes. Tests that interpretation in two experiments of recall procedures. (Editor/RK)

d'Ydewalle, Gery; Buchwald, Alexander M.

1976-01-01

87

Electricity Transmission Pricing: How much does it cost to get it wrong?  

E-print Network

PWP-058 Electricity Transmission Pricing: How much does it cost to get it wrong? Richard Green Channing Way Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;Electricity Transmission optimal prices for electricity transmission. These are rarely applied in practice. This paper develops

California at Berkeley. University of

88

What's Wrong with Day Care: Freeing Parents To Raise Their Own Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal and state tax laws and most private programs give funding to all parents who put their children in day care but give nothing to parents who cut back on their work hours to care for their own children. Challenging the conventional wisdom about child care, this book argues that Americans have wrongly embraced day care and devalued work that…

Siegel, Charles

89

Indication-based prescribing prevents wrong-patient medication errors in computerized provider order entry (CPOE)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether indication-based computer order entry alerts intercept wrong-patient medication errors. Materials and methods At an academic medical center serving inpatients and outpatients, we developed and implemented a clinical decision support system to prompt clinicians for indications when certain medications were ordered without an appropriately coded indication on the problem list. Among all the alerts that fired, we identified every instance when a medication order was started but not completed and, within a fixed time interval, the same prescriber placed an order for the same medication for a different patient. We closely reviewed each of these instances to determine whether they were likely to have been intercepted errors. Results Over a 6-year period 127?320 alerts fired, which resulted in 32 intercepted wrong-patient errors, an interception rate of 0.25 per 1000 alerts. Neither the location of the prescriber nor the type of prescriber affected the interception rate. No intercepted errors were for patients with the same last name, but in 59% of the intercepted errors the prescriber had both patients’ charts open when the first order was initiated. Discussion Indication alerts linked to the problem list have previously been shown to improve problem list completion. This analysis demonstrates another benefit, the interception of wrong-patient medication errors. Conclusions Indication-based alerts yielded a wrong-patient medication error interception rate of 0.25 per 1000 alerts. These alerts could be implemented independently or in combination with other strategies to decrease wrong-patient medication errors. PMID:23396543

Galanter, William; Falck, Suzanne; Burns, Matthew; Laragh, Marci; Lambert, Bruce L

2013-01-01

90

The Personal Past as Inspiration: Authors Honor Their Life Experiences in Their Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ernest Hemingway was wrong. It is not necessary to leave home and go out and experience "Life" in capital letters to have "stuff" about which to write. The daughter of a kindergarten teacher, Louisa May Alcott wrote a book about her family life which became one of the most popular children's classics, "Little Women." All people are storytellers.…

Baghban, Marcia

91

Preventing wrong tooth extraction: experience in development and implementation of an outpatient safety checklist.  

PubMed

Extraction of the wrong tooth or teeth is a serious and avoidable clinical error causing harm to the patient. All NHS Trusts in England are required to use a surgical safety checklist in operating theatres to prevent incorrect site surgery and ensure safe management of patients. However, the majority of patients have dental extractions and other oral surgical procedures undertaken on an outpatient basis and these patients are also at risk of having an incorrect site surgical procedure such as a wrong tooth extraction. We describe our experience in developing, introducing and refining a surgical safety checklist for outpatient oral surgery along with the key strategic actions needed to ensure effective cultural change and optimum patient safety in the outpatient setting. PMID:25303583

Saksena, A; Pemberton, M N; Shaw, A; Dickson, S; Ashley, M P

2014-10-01

92

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01

93

The rights and wrongs of intentional exposure research: contextualising the Guatemala STD inoculation study.  

PubMed

In its recent review of the US Public Health Service Sexually Transmitted Disease Inoculation Study, conducted in Guatemala from 1946 to 1948, the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues identified a number of egregious ethical violations, but failed to adequately address issues associated with the intentional exposure research design in particular. As a result, a common public misconception that the study was wrong because researchers purposefully infected their subjects has been left standing. In fact, human subjects have been exposed to disease pathogens for experimental purposes for centuries, and this study design remains an important scientific tool today. It shares key features with other types of widely accepted research on human subjects and can be conducted ethically, provided certain safeguards are implemented. That these safeguards were not implemented in Guatemala is what made that study wrong, rather than the fact of intentional exposure itself. To preserve public trust in the clinical research enterprise, this conclusion ought to be stated explicitly and emphasised. PMID:22431557

Lynch, Holly Fernandez

2012-08-01

94

The incorporation of wrong bases by DNA polymerase I following gamma-irradiation of DNA-like templates.  

PubMed

The synthesis of polydeoxyribose polymers by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I has been investigated with control and gamma-irradiated DNA-like polymer templates containing only two bases. The results show that irradiation of a poly(dA) strand leads to the incorporation of dG, whereas irradiation of poly(dC) and poly(dG) strands both lead to the incorporation of dA. Irradiation of poly(dT) does not lead to the incorporation of any wrong base. The wrong bases are incorporated into the complementary strand of the newly synthesised DNA. PMID:11400434

Saffhill, R

1974-04-27

95

Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for two representative stiff detonation wave problems.

Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjogreen, B.

2011-01-01

96

Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities as a function of stiffness of the source term and the grid spacing.

Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjoegreen, B.

2012-01-01

97

Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

Brooker, Peter

2004-05-01

98

UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way  

SciTech Connect

Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

Stout, F.W. Jr. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31

99

'Religious fanaticism' and wrongful confinement in Victorian England: the affair of Louisa Nottidge.  

PubMed

Louisa Nottidge was kidnapped and committed to a private asylum in 1846 by her family because she had joined a millenarian sect of which they disapproved. After eighteen months the Commissioners in Lunacy were pressurised into ordering her release. Subsequently, she successfully sued her brother and brother-in-law for wrongful imprisonment. The judge's criticisms of the medical profession led to an acrimonious public debate about the nature of mental illness and its treatment, a debate that involved some of the leading 'mad doctors' of the day including Dr. John Conolly. The complex history of this case, frequently referred to in recent scholarly work, but never discussed in detail, is examined together with its implications for our understanding of Victorian psychiatry, and its attitude to mental illnesses involving religious matters. PMID:11613445

Schwieso, J J

1996-08-01

100

Compte rendu de De Waal, Frans (1996). Good natured: The origins of right and wrong in humans and other animals. London, Harvard University Press.  

E-print Network

Compte rendu de De Waal, Frans (1996). Good natured: The origins of right and wrong in humans and other animals. London, Harvard University Press. Good Natured. The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans bon et mauvais. Selon de Waal la moralité humaine a été acquise au cours de l'évolution et, en suivant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Landing on the Wrong Note: The Price We Paid for "Brown." 2004 DeWitt Wallace-"Reader's Digest" Distinguished Lecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of the title of this lecture is taken from Ajay Heble's (2000) book "Landing on the Wrong Note: Jazz, Dissonance, and Critical Practice." The author chose this musical image to convey the problem of good intentions gone awry. No musician plans to play the wrong note. The plaintiffs, litigators, Supreme Court Justices, and civil…

Ladson-Billings, Gloria

2004-01-01

102

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: AVOIDING WRONG TURNS, ROACH MOTELS, AND BOX CANYONS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. In this paper, we provide one example each of our judgments on what constitutes a box canyon, a roach motel, and a wrong turn: ? Wrong Turn: The Reliable Replacement Warhead ? Roach Motel: SRAM T vs the B61 ? A Possible Box Canyon: A Low-Yield Version of the W76 SLBM Warhead Recognizing that new nuclear missions or weapons are not demanded by current circumstances ? a development path that yields future capabilities similar to those of today, which are adequate if not always ideal, and a broader national-security strategy that supports nonproliferation and arms control by reducing the role for, and numbers, of nuclear weapons ? we briefly consider alternate, less desirable futures, and their possible effect on the complex problem of regional deterrence. In this regard, we discuss the issues posed by, and possible responses to, three example regional deterrence challenges: in-country defensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary; reassurance of U.S. allies with limited strategic depth threatened by an emergent nuclear power; and extraterritorial, non-strategic offensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary in support of limited military objectives against a U.S. ally.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-11

103

Dystopian Schools: Recovering Dewey's Radical Aesthetics in an Age of Utopia-Gone-Wrong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we first suggest that contemporary school policies and practices represent a utopia-gone-wrong. In striving for an unattainable educational utopia--that is, all students will be proficient in math and reading by 2014--current polices and their resulting practices have brought a classic dystopian turn--the dehumanization of…

Heybach, Jessica A.; Sheffield, Eric C.

2014-01-01

104

What's wrong with the field of bio-neutron scattering? 1) Not enough professional science and not enough professional scientists  

E-print Network

What's wrong with the field of bio-neutron scattering? 1) Not enough professional science a paper in this field. Anybody can do it! The most detailed analysis of bio-neutron scattering data up independent moment analysis of the neutron scattering spectrum. Up to today nobody, not even MD people, picked

Doster, Wolfgang

105

Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.  

PubMed

In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future. PMID:25319456

Smith, Pete

2014-10-16

106

What Went Wrong: A Taxonomy of Video Game Bugs Chris Lewis, Jim Whitehead, Noah Wardrip-Fruin  

E-print Network

What Went Wrong: A Taxonomy of Video Game Bugs Chris Lewis, Jim Whitehead, Noah Wardrip,ejw,nwf}@soe.ucsc.edu ABSTRACT Video games are complex, emergent systems that are diffi- cult to design and test. This difficulty Engineering]: Testing and Debug- ging; K.8.0 [Personal Computing]: General Keywords video game, failure, fault

Whitehead, James

107

Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…

Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

2004-01-01

108

THE WRONG, THE GOOD, AND THE BETTER BOOK REVIEW OF BOHM AND PEAT: SCIENCE, ORDER, AND CREATIVITY  

E-print Network

THE WRONG, THE GOOD, AND THE BETTER BOOK REVIEW OF BOHM AND PEAT: SCIENCE, ORDER, AND CREATIVITY to think that we do not. Reading the book by Bohm and Peat one is almost assured that we do not. I do part an encyclopedia of failures of science and society to be good. Bohm and Peat wish instead to lead

Dürr, Detlef

109

Life's Still Lifes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de Bruijn diagram describing those decompositions of the neighborhoods of a one dimensional cellular automaton which conform to predetermined requirements of periodicity and translational symmetry shows how to construct extended configurations satisfying the same requirements. Similar diagrams, formed by stages, describe higher dimensional automata, although they become more laborious to compute with increasing neighborhood size. The procedure is illustrated by computing some still lifes for Conway's game of Life, a widely known two dimensional cellular automaton. This paper is written in September 10, 1988.

McIntosh, Harold V.

110

[Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) and justice tests in the Republic of China in the context of western knowledge].  

PubMed

Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) has become the important criterion and authority of the criminal justice tests in the proceedings of case and judicatory judgment, since it was issued royally and officially in the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Xi yuan lu and its traditional tests was subjected to strong criticism after the introduction of modern science. Especially since the May 4(th) New Culture Movement, not only the theory in the Xi yuan lu had been met with incredulity and condemned sharply through western chemical tests by the intelligentsia, but also the traditional methods of justice tests based on the book was fully criticized. Though the Xi yuan lu has fallen down from the altar, the traditional methods in the book still were used in practice in China during 1930s--1940s because the scientific system of forensic medicine was not established yet. Xi yuan lu, though fallen yet not defeated, reveals its deep-rooted life. The modern fate of the Xi yuan lu was not only the direct result of different historical conversation in the different periods of modern time, but also a true picture of modern China. PMID:25579214

Long, Wei

2014-09-01

111

27Student Life Student Life  

E-print Network

26 III Student LIfe #12;27Student Life Student Life The student conduct. The University over the years has adopted rules and regulations coveringacademicmattersandstudentdeportment. But if students conduct themselves honorably at all times, they will have little trouble

Dresden, Gregory

112

Applying fault tree analysis to the prevention of wrong-site surgery.  

PubMed

Wrong-site surgery (WSS) is a rare event that occurs to hundreds of patients each year. Despite national implementation of the Universal Protocol over the past decade, development of effective interventions remains a challenge. We performed a systematic review of the literature reporting root causes of WSS and used the results to perform a fault tree analysis to assess the reliability of the system in preventing WSS and identifying high-priority targets for interventions aimed at reducing WSS. Process components where a single error could result in WSS were labeled with OR gates; process aspects reinforced by verification were labeled with AND gates. The overall redundancy of the system was evaluated based on prevalence of AND gates and OR gates. In total, 37 studies described risk factors for WSS. The fault tree contains 35 faults, most of which fall into five main categories. Despite the Universal Protocol mandating patient verification, surgical site signing, and a brief time-out, a large proportion of the process relies on human transcription and verification. Fault tree analysis provides a standardized perspective of errors or faults within the system of surgical scheduling and site confirmation. It can be adapted by institutions or specialties to lead to more targeted interventions to increase redundancy and reliability within the preoperative process. PMID:25277361

Abecassis, Zachary A; McElroy, Lisa M; Patel, Ronak M; Khorzad, Rebeca; Carroll, Charles; Mehrotra, Sanjay

2015-01-01

113

Life Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part activity, learners compare and contrast a variety of life cycles to better understand different organisms and how they develop. Learners arrange and label photos of their family members to explore the human life cycle. Then learners research plant and animal life cycles, develop an illustrated "life story" of an assigned species, and share their findings with the group.

2012-06-26

114

The Two-Wrongs model explains perception-action dissociations for illusions driven by distortions of the egocentric reference frame  

PubMed Central

Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of illusion on perception and action, with perception generally reported to be susceptible to illusions, while actions are seemingly immune. These findings have been interpreted to support Milner and Goodale's Two Visual Systems model, which proposes the existence of separate visual processing streams for perception and action. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that this type of behavioral dissociation will occur for any illusion that is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame, without requiring the existence of separate perception and action systems that are differently affected by the illusion. In this scenario, movements aimed at illusory targets will be accurate if they are guided within the same distorted reference frame used for target encoding, since the error of motor guidance will cancel with the error of encoding (hence, for actions, two wrongs do make a right). We further test this Two-Wrongs model by examining two illusions for which the hypothesis makes very different predictions: the rod-and-frame illusion (which affects perception but not actions) and the simultaneous-tilt illusion (which affects perception and actions equally). We demonstrate that the rod-and-frame illusion is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame suitable for the cancellation of errors predicted by the Two-Wrongs model. In contrast, the simultaneous-tilt illusion is caused by local interactions between stimulus elements within an undistorted reference frame, precluding the cancellation of errors associated with the Two-Wrongs model such that the illusion is reflected in both perception and actions. These results provide evidence for a class of illusions that lead to dissociations of perception and action through distortions of the observer's spatial reference frame, rather than through the actions of functionally separate visual processing streams.

Dassonville, Paul; Reed, Scott A.

2015-01-01

115

The Life of Liberty Project - Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the The Life of Liberty Project , this page is part of a larger effort to educate students on the values and lifestyles of the 1700s as compared to today. This page will demonstrate how education was and now is... What was good then? What is good today? Does today\\'s method really provide a life education or something else? Have you ever wondered what school was like in 1700? Keep wondering, because nobody knows, right? Wrong. There are quite a few different systems of education that existed before our current system that is in the brick and mortar around the country. Let\\'s take a brief tour of the history ...

Dr. Liberty

2005-11-23

116

Observations on use of wrong agent in an anesthesia agent vaporizer.  

PubMed

The creation of agent mixtures from the addition of the wrong agent to a vaporizer might pose a risk to the patient. Patient injury would be more likely if the anesthesia gas monitor displayed erroneous concentration values. Conventional inhalation agent monitors do not necessarily distinguish anesthetic agents. Some modern monitors have that ability but its clinical significance has not been determined. We wanted to simulate such an erroneous mixture in a laboratory setup. Six comparisons were made. Isoflurane, Enflurane, and Halothane vaporizers were first filled with the correct agent. They were run at 5 liters/minute fresh oxygen flow at a vaporizer dial setting of 5% until it reached the "refill" line. Then, one of two incorrect agents was added to the "full" line. Thereafter, the vaporizer continued at the same flow and the same dial setting until it was exhausted. Vaporizer output was recorded or calculated by using three methods of measurement: mass spectrometry, conventional infrared analysis (at 3.3 micrometer wave length), and piezoelectric crystal analysis. Additional calculations were used to estimate measurements that could not be made because of lack of available equipment. In a Halothane vaporizer: Enflurane added--not a significant problem; Isoflurane added--not a significant problem. In an Isoflurane vaporizer: Halothane added--not a significant problem; Enflurane added--not a significant problem. In an Enflurane vaporizer: Isoflurane added--not a significant problem; Halothane added--the sum of the delivered Halothane MAC and the delivered Enflurane MAC was twice the expected Enflurane MAC output from vaporizer, with conventional agent monitor reading which showed decreasing agent concentration. Patient injury could be more likely in this last case. In this last case and in all cases, piezoelectric crystal monitoring correctly displayed the sum of the two agent concentrations in volumes percent. Automatic agent identification can identify erroneous agents. PMID:12578063

Block, F E; Schulte, G T

1999-01-01

117

Knowing Right From Wrong In Mental Arithmetic Judgments: Calibration Of Confidence Predicts The Development Of Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right—and when they are wrong—lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the “calibration” of mental arithmetic judgments—that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25+50?=?75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic “fluency” is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance. PMID:24988539

Rinne, Luke F.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.

2014-01-01

118

Interventions to reduce wrong blood in tube errors in transfusion: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review addresses the issue of wrong blood in tube (WBIT). The objective was to identify interventions that have been implemented and the effectiveness of these interventions to reduce WBIT incidence in red blood cell transfusion. Eligible articles were identified through a comprehensive search of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, BNID, and the Transfusion Evidence Library to April 2013. Initial search criteria were wide including primary intervention or observational studies, case reports, expert opinion, and guidelines. There was no restriction by study type, language, or status. Publications before 1995, reviews or reports of a secondary nature, studies of sampling errors outwith transfusion, and articles involving animals were excluded. The primary outcome was a reduction in errors. Study characteristics, outcomes measured, and methodological quality were extracted by 2 authors independently. The principal method of analysis was descriptive. A total of 12,703 references were initially identified. Preliminary secondary screening by 2 reviewers reduced articles for detailed screening to 128 articles. Eleven articles were eventually identified as eligible, resulting in 9 independent studies being included in the review. The overall finding was that all the identified interventions reduced WBIT incidence. Five studies measured the effect of a single intervention, for example, changes to blood sample labeling, weekly feedback, handwritten transfusion requests, and an electronic transfusion system. Four studies reported multiple interventions including education, second check of ID at sampling, and confirmatory sampling. It was not clear which intervention was the most effective. Sustainability of the effectiveness of interventions was also unclear. Targeted interventions, either single or multiple, can lead to a reduction in WBIT; but the sustainability of effectiveness is uncertain. Data on the pre- and postimplementation of interventions need to be collected in future trials to demonstrate effectiveness, and comparative studies are needed of different interventions. PMID:24075096

Cottrell, Susan; Watson, Douglas; Eyre, Toby A; Brunskill, Susan J; Dorée, Carolyn; Murphy, Michael F

2013-10-01

119

Everyday Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Stress and Diabetes for Families Explore: Everyday Life Dating Teenagers have competing needs, including the need to ... Parents & Kids Everyday Life Away from Home Babysitter Dating Driving Food & Fun Managing Stress and Diabetes Planes ...

120

Embryonic life and human life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as

M C Shea

1985-01-01

121

Life Science EthicsLife Science Ethics Dr. Kristen Hessler  

E-print Network

· plus · Ethical claims · equals · Ethical conclusion #12;Ethical Argument ­ Example · Human cloning of adults. · Therefore, human cloning is morally wrong. Conclusion Premises #12;Evaluating Ethical Arguments · Human cloning produces exact physical replicas of adults. · It is ethically wrong to produce exact

Song, Joe

122

What Did Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Get Right and What Did They Get Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this critical assessment of the Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Report was to provoke discussion and improvements in future developments of quality of life research undertaken by official statistical agencies. I would like to thank Jochen Jesinghaus and Andrea Saltelli for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of the paper.

Michalos, Alex C.

2011-01-01

123

Prove Them Wrong: Be There for Secondary Students with an Emotional or Behavioral Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with an emotional or behavioral disability (EBD) are sometimes judged and feared based on their label before teachers even meet them. These students are different than other students that walk into a classroom, but they should never be feared. They have had more "loops" in their roller coaster ride of adolescent life than the average…

Solar, Ernest

2011-01-01

124

Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

Chris Langton

1987-01-01

125

Life University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life University offers professional degrees in chiropractic, and undergraduate and graduate degrees in health related fields. Information is provided about the college, the chiropractic profession and research.

1997-01-01

126

Defining ‘Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no broadly accepted definition of ‘life.’ Suggested definitions face problems, often in theform of robust counter-examples. Here we use insights fromphilosophical investigations into language to argue thatdefining `life' currently poses a dilemma analogous to thatfaced by those hoping to define `water' before the existenceof molecular theory. In the absence of an analogous theoryof the nature of living systems,

Carol E. Cleland; Christopher F. Chyba

2002-01-01

127

Life sciences  

SciTech Connect

This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

Day, L. (ed.)

1991-04-01

128

Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A preK-4th grade level observational exercise for the classroom focusing on life stages of insects, as well as metamorphosis. Students are provided mealworms to rear, and are asked to observe several other insects to identify their life stages.

0000-00-00

129

Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.  

PubMed

This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

Macdermott, Alexandra J

2012-09-01

130

Nurturing Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the requirements of life. Learners will explore what living things need to survive and thrive by creating and caring for a garden plot (outdoors where appropriate) or a container garden (indoors) at the program facility. The garden will be used to beautify the facility with plant life with many planting and landscaping options provided. Children will consider the requirements of living things, compare the surface conditions on Mars to those found on Earth, view images/video of a NASA Astrobiology Institute "garden" where astrobiologists are studying life under extreme conditions, and consider the similarities and differences in the type of life that would be possible on Mars as compared to their garden on Earth. It also includes specific tips for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 3 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

131

Student Life 407 Student Life  

E-print Network

Student Life 407 Student Life The University of North Carolina at Charlotte provides a comfortable and enjoyable environment for students that is conducive to studying. The services, facilities, and programs of the University promote individual student development and foster a community which promotes the involvement

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

132

374 STUDENT LIFE Student Life  

E-print Network

374 STUDENT LIFE Student Life The University of North Carolina at Charlotte provides a comfortable and enjoyable environment for students that is conducive to studying. The services, facilities, and programs of the University promote individual student development and foster a community which promotes the involvement

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

133

Defining Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030. PMID:21162682

2010-01-01

134

Discover Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The nonprofit organization Discover Life has combined forces with the National Park Service to conduct an "All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory" -- a comprehensive inventory of all life forms in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The 800-square-mile national park lies within the states of North Carolina and Tennessee and encompasses some of the richest biodiversity in the Temperate Zone. The Discover Life homepage provides background information on this ambitious initiative, including an internal search engine (for accessing additional resources on the Park's taxa and experts involved with the project), links to educational resources, status of the inventory, and much more.

135

This has been a difficult month with too many problems all coming together and rather a lot of sickness just to make life interesting. All the kids and I have spent 5 to 10 days each down  

E-print Network

of sickness just to make life interesting. All the kids and I have spent 5 to 10 days each down with a nasty. Obstetric wise things have been interesting ­ I returned from my week off sick to three eclamptics wrong all at the same time! It started with the - 80 freezer - I came in one morning to see it a -9

Bushman, Frederic

136

Extraterrestrial Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

Klein, M. J.

1993-01-01

137

Life's Limit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental limits to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh conditions of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.

Rocco Mancinelli

138

ABQJOURNAL NORTH/OPINION: Obama Focusing on Wrong Energyhttp://www.abqjournal.com/cgi-bin/print_it.pl?page=/north/opinion/... 1 of 3 2/25/10 3:54 PM  

E-print Network

ABQJOURNAL NORTH/OPINION: Obama Focusing on Wrong Energyhttp://www.abqjournal, 2010 Obama Focusing on Wrong Energy By J. Doyne Farmer In his State of the Union speech, President Obama wisely stated that we should stimulate the economy by investing in clean energy technologies

139

Self-Correction of Wrong Answers as an Alternative to the Arbitrary Setting of Observed-Score Standards in Competency Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A solution is offered to problems associated with the inequality in the manipulability of probabilities of classification errors of masters versus nonmasters, based on competency test results. Eschewing the typical arbitrary establishment of observed-score standards below 100 percent, the solution incorporates a self-correction of wrong answers.…

Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

1990-01-01

140

Domestic Violence in Men's and Women's Magazines: Women Are Guilty of Choosing the Wrong Men, Men Are Not Guilty of Hitting Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men's and women's magazine discourse on domestic violence characterizes women as guilty of choosing the wrong men but does not hold men responsible for hitting women. Using qualitative narrative analysis on 10 leading titles over 10 years, I find an ongoing tolerance for and celebration of domestic violence in men's magazines and an enduring expectation in women's that women bear

Pamela Hill Nettleton

2011-01-01

141

The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?  

PubMed Central

Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized ‘external’ environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate ‘internal’ biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means. PMID:22915021

Wells, Jonathan C. K.

2012-01-01

142

What Went Wrong (and Right) in my Research for Undergraduates Program this Summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Experience for Undergraduates Site on Sustainable Land and Water Resources (NSF GEO-055346) is a complicated affair (like many REUs) with research teams on site on two different Native American reservations (the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, and the Flathead Indian Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Montana), mentors from 2 universities and 2 reservations, and diverse participants from across the country. Students are diverse in ethnicity, academic majors, institution type, age, and life situation, with many nontraditional students as participants. While this all adds up to an interesting and exciting program, it is not without challenges. Herein the program directors discuss some of the particular challenges faced this summer, feedback the outside evaluation specialist received from participants and mentors, and ways the program's mentor team might respond in the future. This discussion will include a look at how systemic changes to an REU can lead to positive change, including a review of the recruiting and application process, communication between and among mentors and participants, the team structure of the REU, and supports in place to lead to participant success. Also included will be a discussion of how the relationship between the Native American reservations and the academic institutions was developed and how we continue to evolve based on annual feedback from all participants.

Dalbotten, D. M.; Geraghty Ward, E. M.; Berthelote, A. R.; Ito, E.; Myrbo, A.; Drake, C.; Howes, T.; Woods, P.

2013-12-01

143

[Long-term realistically life-threatening disease].  

PubMed

In this paper the authors discuss a legal code description of a wrongly included (as a result of a legislative error) "long-term really life-threatening disease" (dlugotrwala choroba realnie zagrazajaca zyciu) in the Criminal Code. This category of disease impossible to apply in practice since its terms "long-term" and "realistically life-threatening" are mutually exclusive--is nonetheless applicable to crimes committed from Sept. 1, 1998 to Dec. 8, 2003. In effect this causes a change in the qualification of certain acts in Art. 156 of the Criminal Code, to include those in Art. 157, Paragraph 1, and in some cases, even extending to acts named in Art. 157, Paragraph 2 of the Criminal Code. PMID:15782782

Berent, Jaros?aw; Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Markuszewski, Leszek; Szram, Stefan

2004-01-01

144

Star Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can follow the life cycle of a star, beginning with its formation from matter exploded outward by the Big Bang, followed by its expansion into a red giant as nuclear "fuel" is consumed, and ending with its "death" in a supernova, after which it becomes a neutron star or black hole.

145

Lake Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1993-01-01

146

"The right answer for the wrong reason" revisited: validation of a spatially-explicit soil erosion model (RillGrow)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One finding from the GCTE evaluation of soil erosion models (Jetten et al., 1999) is that the models tested were, in general, weak regarding the spatial aspects of erosion. A perfectly adequate simulation of runoff and soil loss at the catchment outlet could be produced even if the model did a poor job of identifying the location of erosion hotspots within that catchment. Spatially, the models could give "the right answer for the wrong reason". As well as casting doubt on the validity of process representations within such a model, this kind of result is clearly unacceptable when using it to plan or evaluate soil conservation measures within the catchment. With this as a background, the RillGrow series of soil erosion models were developed. These represent an eroding hillslope area as a self-organizing system (e.g. Favis-Mortlock, 1998; Favis-Mortlock et al., 2000). Microtopography is considered to determine the spatial pattern of overland flow and hence of surface lowering; such lowering modifies the path of subsequent flow. This simple iterative relationship generates rill networks emergently, i.e. as a collective whole-system response to many local interactions. The approach removes a requirement of many erosion models: the need to ‘pre-specify' rill characteristics even for an unrilled surface. However, computational constraints currently confine RillGrow to simulation of small, plot-sized, areas. Even on such small areas however, model validation is not straightforward. In a series of validation studies, DEMs of the microtopography of real soil surfaces (from both laboratory flumes and hillslope plots) were used as inputs to the RillGrow model. Model-simulated rill networks were then compared with those which developed on the real soil surfaces. Other model outputs (e.g. hydrographs and sedigraphs at the outlet; water depths and velocities at points on the surface) were similarly compared. While conceptually simple, problems with this approach include: * The difficulty of objectively comparing two rilled soil surfaces. Real and modelled surfaces might appear very similar, but if planwise rill locations differ by even a few mm, then correlation-based measures indicate a poor result. The converse can also be true. * Flow velocity within rills can vary widely over short distances. However velocity values obtained using e.g. dye tracers have had this small-scale variation smoothed away. How should such values be compared with point-based simulated flow velocity values? Such ambiguities once again open the possibility of obtaining "the right answer for the wrong reason". Thus this paper highlights these and other issues which can arise when validating a spatially-explicit soil erosion model such as RillGrow.

Favis-Mortlock, David

2010-05-01

147

School of Life Sciences 1 Life Sciences  

E-print Network

School of Life Sciences · 1 School of Life Sciences Undergraduate Brochure Biological Sciences Biochemistry Biomedical Science Medical Microbiology and Virology #12;School of Life Sciences · 3 Welcome to the School of Life Sciences The School of Life Sciences provides excellent teaching, delivered by world

Davies, Christopher

148

Statistical mechanics of the genetic code: a glimpse of early life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relics of early life, preceding even the last universal common ancestor of all life on Earth, are present in the structure of the modern day canonical genetic code --- the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause the wrong proteins to be translated, thus killing the organism? I show how a unique and optimal genetic code can emerge over evolutionary time from digital life simulations, but only if horizontal gene transfer was a much stronger characteristic of early life than it is now. These results suggest a natural scenario in which evolution exhibits three distinct dynamical regimes, differentiated respectively by the way in which information flow, genetic novelty and complexity emerge. Possible observational signatures of these predictions are discussed.

Goldenfeld, Nigel

2012-02-01

149

From Sakata Model to Goldberg-Ne'eman Quarks and Nambu QCD Phenomenology and "Right" and "Wrong" experiments  

E-print Network

The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A "good" experiment on $\\bar p p$ annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A "bad" experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the of the $\\Xi^*$ and $\\Omega^-$. More "good" experiments revealed the existence and mass of the $\\Xi^*$ and the $\\Omega^-$ and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the "tenfold way". Further "good experiments" revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the $\\phi \\to \\rho \\pi$ decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the $\\Delta^{++}$ and $\\Omega^-$ contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book "Lie Groups for Pedestrians" used the Sakata model with the name "sakaton" for the $pn\\Lambda$ triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's.

Harry J. Lipkin

2007-01-31

150

Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.  

PubMed

In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion. PMID:21597083

Nobis, Nathan

2011-06-01

151

Prehistoric Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from Museum Victoria in Australia presents an overview of fossils and what they tell us about prehistoric life. Museum Victoria developed this site in response to frequently asked questions and public interest in paleontology, resulting in a well-presented and easy-to-understand introduction to the topic. Five main sections cover invertebrate fossils, dinosaurs, Ice Age mammals, fossils found in Victoria, and a general explanation of fossils and fossilization. Although a bit text heavy with limited illustrations (but nonetheless engaging), this Web site should appeal to anyone with even a passing interest in paleontology.

2002-01-01

152

A buckling region in locust hindlegs contains resilin and absorbs energy when jumping or kicking goes wrong.  

PubMed

If a hindleg of a locust slips during jumping, or misses its target during kicking, energy generated by the two extensor tibiae muscles is no longer expended in raising the body or striking a target. How, then, is the energy in a jump (4100-4800 ?J) or kick (1700 ?J) dissipated? A specialised buckling region found in the proximal hind-tibia where the bending moment is high, but not present in the other legs, buckled and allowed the distal part of the tibia to extend. In jumps when a hindleg slipped, it bent by a mean of 23±14 deg at a velocity of 13.4±9.5 deg ms(-1); in kicks that failed to contact a target it bent by 32±16 deg at a velocity of 32.9±9.5 deg ms(-1). It also buckled 8.5±4.0 deg at a rate of 0.063±0.005 deg ms(-1) when the tibia was prevented from flexing fully about the femur in preparation for both these movements. By experimentally buckling this region through 40 deg at velocities of 0.001-0.65 deg ms(-1), we showed that one hindleg could store about 870 ?J on bending, of which 210 ?J was dissipated back to the leg on release. A band of blue fluorescence was revealed at the buckling region under UV illumination that had the two key signatures of the elastic protein resilin. A group of campaniform sensilla 300 ?m proximal to the buckling region responded to imposed buckling movements. The features of the buckling region show that it can act as a shock absorber as proposed previously when jumping and kicking movements go wrong. PMID:22399660

Bayley, T G; Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

2012-04-01

153

The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: What went wrong and what lessons are universal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a short summary of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, this paper discusses “what went wrong” by illustrating the problems of the specific layers of defense-in-depth (basic strategy for assuring nuclear safety) and “what lessons are universal.” Breaches in the multiple layers of defense were particularly significant in respective protection (a) against natural disasters (first layer of defense) as well as (b) against severe conditions, specifically in this case, a complete loss of AC/DC power and isolation from the primary heat sink (fourth layer of defense). Confusion in crisis management by the government and insufficient implementation of offsite emergency plans revealed problems in the fifth layer of defense. By taking into consideration managerial and safety culture that might have relevance to this accident, in the author's view, universal lessons are as follows: Resilience: the need to enhance organizational capabilities to respond, monitor, anticipate, and learn in changing conditions, especially to prepare for the unexpected. This includes increasing distance to cliff edge by knowing where it exists and how to increase safety margin. Responsibility: the operator is primarily responsible for safety, and the government is responsible for protecting public health and environment. For both, their right decisions are supported by competence, knowledge, and an understanding of the technology, as well as humble attitudes toward the limitations of what we know and what we can learn from others. Social license to operate: the need to avoid, as much as possible regardless of its probability of occurrence, the reasonably anticipated environmental impact (such as land contamination), as well as to build public confidence/trust and a renewed liability scheme.

Omoto, Akira

2013-12-01

154

Family Life Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual life stages happen within the context of family life. This article describes Betty Carter's and Monica McGoldrick's Family Life Cycle stages as a context for Eric Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Daniel Levinson's Stages of a Man's Life, and Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The author juxtaposes the tasks of each family life stage with the individual life

M. A. Armour

1995-01-01

155

Right Place, Wrong Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Songbirds tend to breed at the same time their primary prey is most abundant. Climate warming appears to be disrupting this match, causing reproductive failures in some species. Scientists have detected the consequences of warming for birds primarily thro

Juanita Constible

2008-10-01

156

What's wrong with pain?  

E-print Network

are quickly confronted with difficult questions. This thesis, through an examination of a particular feature of moral language and a description of recent research on pain, provides an analysis of how pain fits into ethical theory. It is argued...

Shriver, Adam Joseph

2006-10-30

157

Substitution: right or wrong?  

PubMed Central

Drug economy has always been and will continue to be important for hospitals. Substitution, as an aid to economy, requires reappraisal in the light of our developing knowledge of formulation and resultant bio-availability. The continued unqualified use of generic names in teaching and prescribing requires re-examination as a part of the problem and this highlights the need for better communication between medicine and pharmacy. PMID:4471371

Barfield, J. C.

1974-01-01

158

The Wrong Whipping Boy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The press and the public criticize schools for all our youngster's ills but are overlooking parental responsibilities. Instead of pushing for vouchers and other potentially damaging "quick fixes," parents should insist that homework is done, that teachers are respected and obeyed, and that school is attended daily, while accepting some blame for…

Fox, Jim

1993-01-01

159

Reproductive rights and wrongs.  

PubMed

Notions of racial superiority created population control policies. White men defined overpopulation as the root of development problems (e.g., from poverty to political instability) in developing countries and decided to solve it themselves. This notion was accepted without resistance. Governments decided to persuade or coerce women to have fewer children instead of improving living conditions. Since no basic health care system existed in these countries, decision makers delivered Western contraceptive technologies. Hormonal contraceptives and IUDs were heavily promoted, but inadequate back-up services to treat side effects or monitor use existed. Barrier methods, which prevent sexually transmitted diseases, were not promoted. Pregnancy prevention was more important than safety. Women had no control over their own fertility. Views of Margaret Sanger, a pioneer of the birth control movement, formed the foundation for more aggressive laws based on eugenics. The American Birth Control League advocated racial progress and sterilization. Large organizations initiated contraceptive research. Later public institutions took over contraceptive research that focused on female methods because the field was dominated by males. Developing countries depend on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rulings to develop their own guidelines on contraceptives. The pharmaceutical industry weakens FDA'S resolve. It considers developing countries to be a huge expanding market. The Western attitude that family planning is much safer than childbearing punishes the poor for their poverty and disregards long-term risks to women. Providers do not always inform women about risks of contraceptives. The sterilization program in India was based on restricted choice, coercion, targets, and incentives. Success stories include Cuba, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Kerala State in India. Expansion of basic health care and improvement of the general condition of people's lives are needed. PMID:12345777

Solomon, R

1994-06-01

160

Dead Right, Dead Wrong  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will research and evaluate information about global warming, identify decision-making criteria for action or lack of action, and decide what level of certainty is sufficient to take action. They should debate the issue of when we know enough to act, based on the results of their research. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

2012-08-03

161

All models are wrong.  

PubMed

As the field of phylogeography has continued to move in the model-based direction, researchers continue struggling to construct useful models for inference. These models must be both simple enough to be tractable yet contain enough of the complexity of the natural world to make meaningful inference. Beyond constructing such models for inference, researchers explore model space and test competing models with the data on hand, with the goal of improving the understanding of the natural world and the processes underlying natural biological communities. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has increased in recent popularity as a tool for evaluating alternative historical demographic models given population genetic samples. As a thorough demonstration, Pelletier & Carstens (2014) use ABC to test 143 phylogeographic submodels given geographically widespread genetic samples from the salamander species Plethodon idahoensis (Carstens et al. 2014) and, in so doing, demonstrate how the results of the ABC model choice procedure are dependent on the model set one chooses to evaluate. PMID:24931159

Hickerson, Michael J

2014-06-01

162

Life's Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

Morris, Simon Conway

2004-11-01

163

Life's Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

Morris, Simon Conway

2003-09-01

164

The rights and wrongs of blood-brain barrier permeability studies: a walk through 100 years of history  

PubMed Central

Careful examination of relevant literature shows that many of the most cherished concepts of the blood-brain barrier are incorrect. These include an almost mythological belief in its immaturity that is unfortunately often equated with absence or at least leakiness in the embryo and fetus. The original concept of a blood-brain barrier is often attributed to Ehrlich; however, he did not accept that permeability of cerebral vessels was different from other organs. Goldmann is often credited with the first experiments showing dye (trypan blue) exclusion from the brain when injected systemically, but not when injected directly into it. Rarely cited are earlier experiments of Bouffard and of Franke who showed methylene blue and trypan red stained all tissues except the brain. The term “blood-brain barrier” “Blut-Hirnschranke” is often attributed to Lewandowsky, but it does not appear in his papers. The first person to use this term seems to be Stern in the early 1920s. Studies in embryos by Stern and colleagues, Weed and Wislocki showed results similar to those in adult animals. These were well-conducted experiments made a century ago, thus the persistence of a belief in barrier immaturity is puzzling. As discussed in this review, evidence for this belief, is of poor experimental quality, often misinterpreted and often not properly cited. The functional state of blood-brain barrier mechanisms in the fetus is an important biological phenomenon with implications for normal brain development. It is also important for clinicians to have proper evidence on which to advise pregnant women who may need to take medications for serious medical conditions. Beliefs in immaturity of the blood-brain barrier have held the field back for decades. Their history illustrates the importance of taking account of all the evidence and assessing its quality, rather than selecting papers that supports a preconceived notion or intuitive belief. This review attempts to right the wrongs. Based on careful translation of original papers, some published a century ago, as well as providing discussion of studies claiming to show barrier immaturity, we hope that readers will have evidence on which to base their own conclusions. PMID:25565938

Saunders, Norman R.; Dreifuss, Jean-Jacques; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Johansson, Pia A.; Habgood, Mark D.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Bauer, Hans-Christian

2014-01-01

165

Can the surgical checklist reduce the risk of wrong site surgery in orthopaedics? - can the checklist help? Supporting evidence from analysis of a national patient incident reporting system  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical procedures are now very common, with estimates ranging from 4% of the general population having an operation per annum in economically-developing countries; this rising to 8% in economically-developed countries. Whilst these surgical procedures typically result in considerable improvements to health outcomes, it is increasingly appreciated that surgery is a high risk industry. Tools developed in the aviation industry are beginning to be used to minimise the risk of errors in surgery. One such tool is the World Health Organization's (WHO) surgery checklist. The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) manages the largest database of patient safety incidents (PSIs) in the world, already having received over three million reports of episodes of care that could or did result in iatrogenic harm. The aim of this study was to estimate how many incidents of wrong site surgery in orthopaedics that have been reported to the NPSA could have been prevented by the WHO surgical checklist. Methods The National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS) database was searched between 1st January 2008- 31st December 2008 to identify all incidents classified as wrong site surgery in orthopaedics. These incidents were broken down into the different types of wrong site surgery. A Likert-scale from 1-5 was used to assess the preventability of these cases if the checklist was used. Results 133/316 (42%) incidents satisfied the inclusion criteria. A large proportion of cases, 183/316 were misclassified. Furthermore, there were fewer cases of actual harm [9% (12/133)] versus 'near-misses' [121/133 (91%)]. Subsequent analysis revealed a smaller proportion of 'near-misses' being prevented by the checklist than the proportion of incidents that resulted in actual harm; 18/121 [14.9% (95% CI 8.5 - 21.2%)] versus 10/12 [83.3% (95%CI 62.2 - 104.4%)] respectively. Summatively, the checklist could have been prevented 28/133 [21.1% (95%CI 14.1 - 28.0%)] patient safety incidents. Discussion Orthopaedic surgery is a high volume specialty with major technical complexity in terms of equipment demands and staff training and familiarity. There is therefore an increased propensity for errors to occur. Wrong-site surgery still occurs in this specialty and is a potentially devastating situation for both the patient and surgeon. Despite the limitations of inclusion and reporting bias, our study highlights the need to match technical precision with patient safety. Tools such as the WHO surgical checklist can help us to achieve this. PMID:21501466

2011-01-01

166

Selling Your Life Insurance  

MedlinePLUS

... a Language: Fact Sheet 208 Selling Your Life Insurance WHY DO PEOPLE SELL THEIR LIFE INSURANCE POLICIES? ... THE BOTTOM LINE NOTE: The sale of life insurance policies is possible in U.S. but we don' ...

167

Technological Forms of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

E THINK so naturally in terms of the notion of 'forms of life', that it is difficult to obtain any distance on the notion. Ludwig Wittgen- stein made the concept of 'forms of life' rather common currency across a range of scholarly disciplines. Indeed, in academic talk and everyday talk we speak incessantly of life and forms of life. We

Scott Lash

2001-01-01

168

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-print Network

1 Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis Vasilis Fthenakis Center of Life Cycle Analysis Earth Brookhaven National Laboratory www.clca.columbia.edu www.pv.bnl.gov #12;2 The Life Cycle of PVThe Life Cycle (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters

169

A life-long learning vector quantization approach for interactive learning of multiple categories.  

PubMed

We present a new method capable of learning multiple categories in an interactive and life-long learning fashion to approach the "stability-plasticity dilemma". The problem of incremental learning of multiple categories is still largely unsolved. This is especially true for the domain of cognitive robotics, requiring real-time and interactive learning. To achieve the life-long learning ability for a cognitive system, we propose a new learning vector quantization approach combined with a category-specific feature selection method to allow several metrical "views" on the representation space of each individual vector quantization node. These category-specific features are incrementally collected during the learning process, so that a balance between the correction of wrong representations and the stability of acquired knowledge is achieved. We demonstrate our approach for a difficult visual categorization task, where the learning is applied for several complex-shaped objects rotated in depth. PMID:22227300

Kirstein, Stephan; Wersing, Heiko; Gross, Horst-Michael; Körner, Edgar

2012-04-01

170

Health care professionals’ comprehension of the legal status of end-of-life practices in Quebec  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine health care professionals’ understanding of the current legal status of different end-of-life practices and their future legal status if medical aid in dying were legalized, and to identify factors associated with misunderstanding surrounding the current legal status. Design Cross-sectional survey using 6 clinical scenarios developed from a validated European questionnaire and from a validated classification of end-of-life practices. Setting Quebec. Participants Health care professionals (physicians and nurses). Main outcome measures Perceptions of the current legal status of the given scenarios and whether or not the practices would be authorized in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized. Results Among the respondents (n = 271, response rate 88.0%), more than 98% knew that the administration or prescription of lethal medication was currently illegal. However, 45.8% wrongly thought that it was not permitted to withdraw a potentially life-prolonging treatment at the patient’s request, and this misconception was more common among nurses and professionals who had received their diplomas longer ago. Only 39.5% believed that, in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized, the use of lethal medication would be permitted at the patient’s request, and 34.6% believed they would be able to give such medication to an incompetent patient upon a relative’s request. Conclusion Health care professionals knew which medical practices were illegal, but some wrongly believed that current permitted practices were not legal. There were various interpretations of what would or would not be allowed if medical aid in dying were legalized. Education on the clinical implications of end-of-life practice legislation should be promoted.

Marcoux, Isabelle; Boivin, Antoine; Arsenault, Claude; Toupin, Mélanie; Youssef, Joseph

2015-01-01

171

Substantial life extension and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are emerging biotechnologies that promise to substantially enhance human lifespan. CRMs like resveratrol, metformin and rapamycin have been extensively tested in animals and have undergone clinical trials in humans, with positive indications for extended lifespan. This raises important questions for individuals and society: Is it really better to have a longer life? Would life-extending biotechnologies contribute

Christopher Wareham

2012-01-01

172

How Many Times Can You Be Wrong and Still Be Right? T. H. Morgan, Evolution, Chromosomes and the Origins of Modern Genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science textbooks and classes mostly emphasize what are considered by today's standards the "right" or "correct" interpretations of particular phenomena or processes. When "incorrect" ideas of the past are mentioned at all, it is simply to point out their errors, with little attention as to why the ideas were put forward in the first place, or ever gained a following. A strong case can be made, however, for presenting contrasting or even what are considered today "wrong" hypotheses as a way of not only emphasizing the dynamic nature of science (which is punctuated throughout by controversies and contrasting views), but also as a way of helping students better understand the details and workings of contemporary views. This article will illustrate these claims by examining the work of embryologist-turned-geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan in the early decades of the twentieth century.

Allen, Garland E.

2015-01-01

173

Multiple origins of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

1983-01-01

174

Compliance with a time-out procedure intended to prevent wrong surgery in hospitals: results of a national patient safety programme in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Objective To prevent wrong surgery, the WHO ‘Safe Surgery Checklist’ was introduced in 2008. The checklist comprises a time-out procedure (TOP): the final step before the start of the surgical procedure where the patient, surgical procedure and side/site are reviewed by the surgical team. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which hospitals carry out the TOP before anaesthesia in the operating room, whether compliance has changed over time, and to determine factors that are associated with compliance. Design Evaluation study involving observations. Setting Operating rooms of 2 academic, 4 teaching and 12 general Dutch hospitals. Participants A random selection was made from all adult patients scheduled for elective surgery on the day of the observation, preferably involving different surgeons and different procedures. Results Mean compliance with the TOP was 71.3%. Large differences between hospitals were observed. No linear trend was found in compliance during the study period. Compliance at general and teaching hospitals was higher than at academic hospitals. Compliance decreased with the age of the patient, general surgery showed lower compliance in comparison with other specialties and compliance was higher when the team was focused on the TOP. Conclusions Large differences in compliance with the TOP were observed between participating hospitals which can be attributed at least in part to the type of hospital, surgical specialty and patient characteristics. Hospitals do not comply consistently with national guidelines to prevent wrong surgery and further implementation as well as further research into non-compliance is needed. PMID:24993761

van Schoten, Steffie M; Kop, Veerle; de Blok, Carolien; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter P; Wagner, Cordula

2014-01-01

175

5/25/12 4:27 PMFreakonomics: What Went Wrong? American Scientist Page 1 of 3http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/id.14344,y.0,no.,content.true,page.1,css.print/issue.aspx  

E-print Network

5/25/12 4:27 PMFreakonomics: What Went Wrong? » American Scientist Page 1 of 3http the abnormally high ratio of boy-to-girl births in Asian countries to a preference for sons, which manifests's tenure as editor: [Oster] measured the incidence of hepatitis B in the populations of China, India

Gelman, Andrew

176

Why the "widespread agreement" is wrong: contesting the non-harm arguments for the prohibition of full commercial surrogacy.  

PubMed

Entering a commercial surrogacy agreement is an offence in almost all Australian jurisdictions. A 2009 Consultation Paper produced by the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General suggested that there was "widespread agreement" that commercial surrogacy should remain prohibited. The arguments most commonly raised against legalising commercial surrogacy are not harm-based; that is, they do not purport to show that any party involved is tangibly, objectively and non-consensually worse off as a result of the transaction. This would be very difficult to show. Rather, the arguments against commercial surrogacy tend to focus on non-harm considerations, including principally concerns about the commodification of life and exploitation. This article argues that there are no sound non-harm reasons for banning one form of commercial surrogacy namely full commercial surrogacy. PMID:19998597

Gaffney, Peter

2009-10-01

177

Managing Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

178

It's a Frog's Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats.

Audrey L. Coffey

2003-09-01

179

Life in Alternate Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lecture provides information about life in extreme environments from the perspective of an undergraduate geology class. It explores current conditions for life, the origins of life, and contemporary harsh environments- particularly the ocean floor. A few extremophiles are introduced: thermophiles, psychrophiles, acidophiles, alkaliphiles, and halophiles. The possibility of life on other planets is examined by highlighting Mars, Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Io, Jovian planets, comets, and meteorites. Images and links to related websites and publications are included.

Norma Murray

180

Searching for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of six activities encourages students to think about the characteristics of life and the possibility of looking for life on Mars. The first three activities from Destination: Mars establish the criteria for recognizing life. The other activities use the criteria for more advanced investigations. These activities are part of an astrobiology guide called the "Fingerprints of Life" which contains background information for students, worksheets, extension activities, suggested assessments, and alignment to standards.

2012-08-03

181

BOOK REVIEW: Carl Sagan: A Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a quite remarkable book. If you want a quick and sketchy evening's read about your favourite popular scientist then this is not for you! On the other hand, if you want a detailed, fascinating and exhaustively researched story about a very special person, then read it. The author has produced a painstaking picture of Sagan. The main text consists of 430 pages of stories, anecdotes, quotations etc, which lead us through the complex life of a very complex man. This is backed up with a further 70 pages of detailed references followed by a 19 page bibliography. We learn about Sagan from his early days, when he was a somewhat precocious schoolboy, right up to his final days when he was in poor health yet still turning out books at a great rate. Like many people, I knew of him but not very much about him before I read this book. He was a man of giant energy who attempted to combine the life of a working research scientist with that of a great popularizer as well as extending his tentacles into various aspects of (scientific) government policy. Even in his early days his one aim in life seemed to be that of furthering his own career by getting to know as many well-known scientists as possible. He had fingers in many pies - academic, something mysterious and military related, book writing, popular science on TV etc, etc. He was particularly concerned with the space programme, especially the planetary probes and the Voyager vehicles which took messages from Earth to outer space. We get the impression from the book that he was especially obsessed with extraterrestrial life and was desperate to confirm its existence. He was instrumental in keeping the SETI programme going even though it eventually had to go private. We learn that he was not a good family man and work usually took precedence over domestic issues. As a result his private life seems to have been as complicated as his professional life. He was a man whose mind went in several directions at once and he was criticized at times for not following through his ideas. Perhaps he saw himself as the ideas man and preferred to leave the details to somebody else. Sometimes his ideas were wildly wrong, which is, perhaps, not surprising when working at the frontiers of science. One thing that surprised me was a suggestion by the author that his book The Dragons of Eden was `obviously written under the inspiration of marijuana'! It is easy and very tempting to criticize someone like Sagan after reading this book, which catalogues his many faults along with his many strengths. However, very few of us could attempt to accomplish even a tenth of what he accomplished in his lifetime. He had a health problem all through his life but nonetheless overcame all his personal and interpersonal problems to become the man that we all know, someone who made science, and especially astronomy, live for vast numbers of ordinary people. He aroused critical passions in many but, as Keay says, `In my years of research, I met not one person - not one - who knew Sagan closely and who strongly disliked him'. The book is an excellent read and gives a fascinating picture not only of the man but of science politics in the USA at the time.

Jakeways, Robin

2000-01-01

182

Catalysing mirror life.  

PubMed

Origin of life: Although current life is homochiral (with D nucleic acids), little is known about how homochirality emerged or even if it was a necessary step. The isolation of cross-chiral nucleic acid ligases demonstrate that an early heterochiral life could have been possible. PMID:25739380

Renders, Marleen; Pinheiro, Vitor B

2015-04-13

183

Engaging with Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores an ancient world view rediscovered through modern science: the world is essentially cooperative and systems-seeking; relationships are a requirement for existence; life is a great experimenter; the processes of life are redundant and messy but ultimately self-organizing; and life supports uniqueness and is unpredictable. Relates these…

Wheatley, Margaret J.

1997-01-01

184

Life without Carbon?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon is the centerpiece of all life on Earth and one of the most abundant elements in the Solar System and Sun-like stars. Yet alien biochemistries and one's choice of a definition of life offer possibility for other forms of life.

Cuntz, Manfred; Williams, Peter E.

2006-05-01

185

Chinese Student Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Places life of university students in China in context of Tiananmen Square and Cultural Revolution, with implications of serving them as students in the United States. Presents basic facts of student life in China. Although the emphasis is on college life, some attention is paid to earlier student experiences as well. (Author/NB)

Braswell, James; Boone, Jerry N.

1991-01-01

186

Cosmology and Life  

E-print Network

I examine some recent findings in cosmology and their potential implications for the emergence of life in the universe. In particular, I discuss the requirements for carbon-based life, anthropic considerations with respect to the nature of dark energy, the possibility of time-varying constants of nature, and the question of the rarity of intelligent life.

Mario Livio

2003-01-30

187

Life in Icy Places  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the field of astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, and ice as a preservative for evidence of life. Learners will consider the relationship between ice and life as they investigate the conditions required for life to exist and sustain itself. They will study the impact of freezing on microbes and life processes and will learn about extremophiles, organisms that live in extreme conditions. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 8 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

2012-08-03

188

Definition of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition of life is a long-standing debate with no general scientific consensus to be expected any time soon. The underlying problem is that living systems use compounds that are abundant in the surrounding environment and processes that are not intrinsically different from reactions that occur abiologically. There does not appear to exist a single characteristic property that is both intrinsic and unique to life. Rather we have to argue that life meets certain standards, or that it qualifies by the collective presence of a certain set of characteristics. The threshold for meeting this standard sounds arbitrary, and may well be arbitrary in the sense that life presumably arose through a long sequence of "emergent events", each at a greater level of molecular complexity and order (Hazen 2002). If that notion is correct, any rigid distinction between life and non-life is a matter of subjective judgment. While our everyday experience with life on Earth makes the distinction between the living and non-living for the most part unambiguous, a consideration of life on other worlds, where conditions may be different, and/or where life may have evolved from its inorganic precedents to a lesser degree, requires us to formulate a more formal and objective definition for life. Before doing so, we will first address the limitations of commonplace assumptions about what constitutes life.

Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

189

What Is Life? What Was Life? What Will Life Be?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our laboratory is exploring self-assembly processes and polymerization reactions of organic compounds in natural geothermal environments and related laboratory simulations. Although the physical environment that fostered primitive cellular life is still largely unconstrained, we can be reasonably confident that liquid water was required, together with a source of organic compounds and energy to drive polymerization reactions. There must also have been a process by which the compounds were sufficiently concentrated to undergo physical and chemical interactions. In earlier work we observed that macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins are readily encapsulated in membranous boundaries during wet-dry cycles such as those that would occur at the edges of geothermal springs or tide pools. The resulting structures are referred to as protocells, in that they exhibit certain properties of living cells and are models of the kinds of encapsulated macromolecular systems that would have led toward the first forms of cellular life. However, the assembly of protocells is markedly inhibited by conditions associated with extreme environments: High temperature, high salt concentrations, and low pH ranges. From a biophysical perspective, it follows that the most plausible planetary environment for the origin of cellular life would be an aqueous phase at moderate temperature ranges and low ionic strength, having a pH value near neutrality and divalent cations at submillimolar concentrations. This suggestion is in marked contrast to the view that life most likely began in a geothermal or marine environment, perhaps even the extreme environment of a hydrothermal vent. A more plausible site for the origin of cellular life would be fresh water pools maintained by rain falling on volcanic land masses resembling present-day Hawaii and Iceland. After the first cellular life was able to establish itself in a relatively benign environment, it would rapidly begin to adapt through Darwinian selection to more rigorous environments, including the extreme temperatures, salt concentrations and pH ranges that we now associate with the limits of life on the Earth.

Deamer, D.

190

Social identity and stroke: 'they don't make me feel like, there's something wrong with me'.  

PubMed

Over 85% of the people survive stroke; and of those, over 80% are discharged to the community. However, the majority do not recover completely. Loss of identity is a commonly reported experience after stroke. Studies focus on the individual survivors' use of their own cognitive resources to adapt to change, rather than examining the effects of social interactions on stroke survivors' identities. Social relationships are the foundation upon which survivors rebuild skills to engage with the world, yet little is known about the ways in which families, friends and neighbours provide a context for the recreation of a sense of self and activities after stroke. This article draws on situational analysis grounded theory analysis of in-depth individual interviews with nine middle-aged survivors of stroke. In situational analysis, the original grounded theory methods proposed by Glaser and Strauss are used; however, the situational context, and how environments and relationships influence actions, is explicitly analysed. Our objective was to understand the ways in which family, social, and community resources might enhance stroke survivors' participation in personally meaningful activities over the long term. The qualitative accounts of these survivors reveal how social support helped them maintain or more importantly regain a position in society. Following any life-changing event, people's sense of self is fluid. A relevant social position entitles stroke survivors to become actively involved in setting their own goals and maintaining a positive identity. However, as these participants attested, stroke impaired their social position and resources to reject an imposed social position. It was difficult for these survivors to construct a valued social identity without the support of other people. Future studies should explore the consequences of social interactions with others and how social attitudes about stroke disability affects individual's activity options, professional practice, and ultimately development of a positive poststroke identity. PMID:23121474

Anderson, Sharon; Whitfield, Kyle

2013-12-01

191

Life Before Earth  

E-print Network

An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no...

Sharov, Alexei A

2013-01-01

192

Butterfly Life Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY??? Subject: Science, Grade level:3rd and 4th Grade. Objective# 5-Describing life cycles of various animals to include incomplete and complete metamorphosis. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and ...

Katie

2009-10-22

193

Ingredients for Life: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth provides a comfortable and temperate environment for a wide variety of living organisms. However, in the past few decades, scientists have discovered unusual life forms thriving in areas where the majority of living things on Earth could never survive, such as near deep sea vents, in dry deserts, or on frozen ice sheets. This video segment explores life forms that survive in extreme conditions on Earth, the importance of liquid water to life, and the possibilities of life elsewhere in the solar system. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

194

Auguste Comte's Blunder: An Account of the First Century of Stellar Spectroscopy and How It Took One Hundred Years to Prove That Comte was Wrong!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. I will give a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. After introducing the main players, I will concentrate mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-20th century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. My talk will emphasize these close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics. In addition laboratory physics was also an essential precursor, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early 19th century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

Hearnshaw, John B.

2010-01-01

195

Auguste Comte's blunder: an account of the first century of stellar spectroscopy and how it took one hundred years to prove that Comte was wrong!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. This paper gives a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. This paper concentrates mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-twentieth century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. The close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics will be emphasized. In addition laboratory physics, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths, was also an essential precursor to quantitative data on the chemical composition of stars. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early nineteenth century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

Hearnshaw, John

2010-07-01

196

Life sciences report 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here are the major research efforts of the NASA Life Sciences Division during the past year. Topics covered include remote health care delivery in space, space biomedical research, gravitational biology, biospherics (studying planet Earth), the NASA Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), exobiology, flight programs, international cooperation, and education programs.

1987-01-01

197

Life in the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2003-01-01

198

Your Lot in Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an educational game where students are assigned a hypothetical "lot" representing a life event that centers on a developmental issue. The lot serves as the topic for empirical research and investigations into community agencies. Student research focuses on implications for individual development and the quality of family life. (MJP)

Hamill, Sharon Boland; Hale, Catherine

1996-01-01

199

Search for Life Signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once again, it is a pleasure to bring you a selection of papers from our series on Searching for Life Signatures. In this special issue, a small selection of papers are presented, from two symposia on the search for life beyond of our own biosphere.

Elliott, John R.

2014-12-01

200

Ecotourism as Life Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical consumption has been identified by many sociologists as an important nexus through which people make sense of and attempt to act upon the contemporary world. As a form of ‘life politics’ it involves action at the level of everyday life that connects to a wider social agenda, be it environmentalism, development or human rights. This paper argues that ecotourism

Jim Butcher

2008-01-01

201

Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

2009-01-01

202

Thermostable Shelf Life Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

2008-01-01

203

Living life as inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I explain what I mean by living life as inquiry, showing how I apply notions of inquiry as method to many areas of my professional and personal activities and how research ideas are generated and tested throughout my life space. The paper has twin tracks which reflect the interwoven processes I am describing and advocating. One is

Judi Marshall

1999-01-01

204

Is Life Unique?  

PubMed Central

Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

Abel, David L.

2011-01-01

205

The Life of Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

Pearce, Cathie

2010-01-01

206

Composing a Research Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article about her early career development and the experiences that shaped her life as a scholar and researcher, the author describes the work lives of university-based teacher educators and what it means to compose a research life in this field. This article draws on the author's 30 years as a university-based teacher educator. In it, she…

Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

2012-01-01

207

Empowering Students for Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

Henderson, Nancy

2009-01-01

208

Is life unique?  

PubMed

Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity-heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature's orderliness-cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

Abel, David L

2011-01-01

209

Longevity and life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in life expectancy at all ages during the last two centuries is in need of a quantitative model capable of resuming the whole process under a single concept and simple mathematics. The basic hypothesis was that through improved hygiene, medicine, and life-style, the stumbling blocks to the full expression of longevity were progressively removed. The mathematics of learning

Cesare Marchetti

1997-01-01

210

The life instinct.  

PubMed

In psychoanalytic writing an oversimplified interpretation of Freud's concept of the life and death instincts sometimes colours the presentation. Roughly, there is an implication that the life instinct is 'good' and the death instinct 'bad'. Freud however is clear that: "Neither of these instincts is any less essential than the other; the phenomena of life arise from the concurrent or mutually opposing action of both"(1933b, p. 209). In this paper I look in detail at the characteristics of the life instinct as conceptualized by Freud, and draw on Bion's work 'on linking' to elaborate Freud's view that binding is the life instinct's key characteristic. I suggest that there are pathological forms of both the life and death instinct if defused (separated off) from the other, and I explore a pathological variation of the life instinct in which binding is without the negation, rest, limit or end provided by the 'opposing action' of the death instinct. I consider an instance of the kind that any analyst might meet clinically, in which an inhibited patient experiences severe anxiety that life-giving connections threaten to proliferate indiscriminately and to an overwhelming intensity and size. PMID:20955245

Abel-Hirsch, Nicola

2010-10-01

211

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages  

PubMed Central

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

212

Life on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These events are known as extinctions or ice ages. The crust of a planet of the Earth group is formed at the outer edge of the body. The planets after asteroid belt like Jupiter or Saturn probably form their “crusts” in the centre of the body. Due to we may see internal kitchen of element forming in detail. This processes lead to the organic life, which we may detect at the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto. But their satellites look like earth planet group - with outer crust. Huygens considered that God's wisdom and providence is clearest in the creation of life, and Earth holds no privileged position in the heavens that life must be universal. “Huygens” helps find life on Titan

Potashko, Oleksandr

213

Origin of Life  

E-print Network

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA World, Iron-sulphur World, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Ashwini Kumar Lal

2012-01-16

214

LifeLab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LifeLab is a Mac application for exploring John Conway's Game of Life and other cellular automata. CAs were first studied in the mid-1950s by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann. The subject became much more widely known in 1970 when Life was described by Martin Gardner in his Scientific American column. Life is played on an arbitrary-sized grid of square cells. Each cell has two states: "dead" or "alive". The state of every cell changes from one "generation" to the next according to the states of its 8 nearest neighbors: a dead cell becomes alive (a "birth") if it has exactly 3 live neighbors; a live cell dies out if it has less than 2 or more than 3 live neighbors. The "game" of Life simply involves starting off with a pattern of live cells and watching it evolve.

Andrew Trevorrow

215

Origin of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Lal, Ashwini Kumar

2008-10-01

216

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

217

Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life  

E-print Network

-state phase space systems thatCannot (?) pre-state phase space systems that include life?include life? HowAgents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life Thumbing its Nose atThumbing its NoseMassey University #12;Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife QuestionsQuestions Philosophy and Life - what is it

Hawick, Ken

218

The Impact of Life Role Salience on Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationships among life role salience, role strain, coping efficacy, and life satisfaction for adults (N = 125) who combine multiple life roles. Causal modeling procedures were used to test hypotheses based on D. E. Super's (1980, 1990) life-span, life-space theory and the social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D.…

Perrone, Kristin M.; Civiletto, Christine L.

2004-01-01

219

Medicine's Life Inside the Body  

MedlinePLUS

... A Medicine's Life Inside the Body Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body ... Work Computation Aids Drug Discovery This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

220

Census of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census of Marine Life is an initiative to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life in the oceans in the past, present, and future. Materials available at the census site include news articles, press releases, and other media resources such as images and video. There is an overview of the project, information on partners and sponsors, and searchable databases of publications and participants. The educational materials page features illustrated articles on marine life discoveries, the use of research techniques and technology, and links to education and outreach programs of related organizations.

221

Does Life Resist Asynchrony?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoubtedly, Conway's Game of Life — or simply Life — is one of the most amazing inventions in the field of cellular automata. Forty years after its discovery, the model still fascinates researchers as if it were an inexhaustible source of puzzles. One of the most intriguing questions is to determine what makes this rule so particular among the quasi-infinite set of rules one can search. In this chapter we analyse how the Game of Life is affected by the presence of two structural pertubations: a change in the synchrony of the updates and a modification of the links between the cells.

Fatès, Nazim

222

Life in Egypt!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between life in the United States and life in Egypt? Use this fact chart to record your findings! Where is Egypt? Sightseeing in Egypt Use this time to record your findings in the "places" section of your fact chart and complete any other section you can with the information you have learned! Facts about Egypt Language (with audio) A Day in the Life Use this time to record your findings in the "people" section of your fact chart and complete ...

Ms. Pendleton

2011-04-07

223

What is Life?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the definition of life. Learners will compare real and fake or live and dead objects and brainstorm ideas about what life is; refine the definition by playing 20 Questions to identify an object or organism; and test the definition by comparing "mystery" samples. Includes background reading for teachers, student activity guide, reflection questions, and blackline masters. This is activity 1 of 5 and sets the stage for subsequent activities in this educator resource guide - Astrobiology in your Classroom: Life on Earth..and Elsewhere?

2012-08-03

224

“I Can't Find Anything Wrong: It Must Be a Pulmonary Embolism”: Diagnosing Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in Primary Care, a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Before using any prediction rule oriented towards pulmonary embolism (PE), family physicians (FPs) should have some suspicion of this diagnosis. The diagnostic reasoning process leading to the suspicion of PE is not well described in primary care. Objective to explore the diagnostic reasoning of FPs when pulmonary embolism is suspected. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 28 FPs. The regional hospital supplied data of all their cases of pulmonary embolism from June to November 2011. The patient's FP was identified where he/she had been the physician who had sent the patient to the emergency unit. The first consecutive 14 FPs who agreed to participate made up the first group. A second group was chosen using a purposeful sampling method. The topic guide focused on the circumstances leading to the suspicion of PE. A thematic analysis was performed, by three researchers, using a grounded theory coding paradigm. Results In the FPs' experience, the suspicion of pulmonary embolism arose out of four considerations: the absence of indicative clinical signs for diagnoses other than PE, a sudden change in the condition of the patient, a gut feeling that something was seriously wrong and an earlier failure to diagnose PE. The FPs interviewed did not use rules in their diagnostic process. Conclusion This study illustrated the diagnostic role of gut feelings in the specific context of suspected pulmonary embolism in primary care. The FPs used the sense of alarm as a tool to prevent the diagnostic error of missing a PE. The diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings has yet to be evaluated. PMID:24840333

Barais, Marie; Morio, Nathalie; Cuzon Breton, Amélie; Barraine, Pierre; Calvez, Amélie; Stolper, Erik; Van Royen, Paul; Liétard, Claire

2014-01-01

225

BIOVISION, the World Life Sciences Forum "From Life Sciences to Sciences for Life"  

E-print Network

BIOVISION, the World Life Sciences Forum "From Life Sciences to Sciences for Life" BIOVISION. The next edition of the BIOVISION World Life Sciences Forum will be held March 24-26, 2013 in Lyon, France selected European life sciences companies and private and public-industrial and financial investors. More

van Tiggelen, Bart

226

Life Has A History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides students with an introduction to the history of life and how it resulted in today's biodiversity. There are three tiers of difficulty available for different grade levels. During this tour students learn about geologic time, fossils, ancestral relationships, cladograms, variation, natural selection, and extinction. Students learn that life has been around for a very long time and is the result of evolution. They learn that fossils provide evidence of past life, that much of past life is now extinct, and that evolutionary relationships of organisms can be illustrated as cladograms. Using the Galapagos finches as an example, students learn the importance of variation and natural selection in evolution, as well as the biodiversity we see on Earth today. The teacher's section provides all necessary information for implementing this module, including lesson plans, handouts, and assessment ideas.

Ben Waggoner

227

Frog life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The life cycle of a frog includes the egg stage, tadpole stage, froglet stage, and adult frog stage. Tadpoles live in water and use gills to breathe. They develop lungs as they mature into frogs and live on land.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

228

Life on Mars Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When NASA researchers from the Johnson Space Center and Stanford University announced they had found combined evidence in 1996 "that strongly suggests primitive life may have existed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago," scientists buzzed with excitement at the possibility of life on Mars. Two weeks ago, the discovery of rock-eating microbes one mile beneath the ocean floor (published in the August 14, 1998 issue of Science) seemed to make that possibility more likely. But last week, new evidence based on geochemical models was discovered that indicates that, while basic geological conditions on Mars may meet life's minimal requirements, the biological potential of the red planet seems unlikely. The nine resources listed provide background information, specifics, and commentary on the hunt for Life on Mars.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

229

Life on moduli space?  

SciTech Connect

While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

Hsu, Stephen D. H. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2009-10-15

230

Every sign of life  

E-print Network

Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

2003-01-01

231

Life Beneath the Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site discusses life in Columbia River Plateau basalts near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and how it is related to microbial clean up of human wastes. This site also includes a links to the continued article.

Berkeley Lab

232

End of Life Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

233

Bringing Literature to Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how an English lesson can be made interesting by relating yesterday's literature to today's life experiences. Offers a sample of lessons integrating English literature into the language arts curriculum. (JOW)

Avery, Chip; Avery, Beth

1996-01-01

234

The Gift of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mother of a young child with a life-threatening respiratory disorder recounts her personal growth in learning lessons of acceptance, the value of each moment, the courage to change, and love. (DB)

Miller, Lori G.

1990-01-01

235

Life of a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

2007-08-09

236

Life on moduli space?  

E-print Network

While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space -- i.e., in low energy effective theories with 1. exact supersymmetry and 2. some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2009-10-15

237

Life in Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some differences in the lives of the colonists and the way we live today? 1. Use Notes sheet (your teacher will give this to you) 2. As you research record facts about life in early America. Watch: Early America Video. What are some things that the boy learned about colonist life? Look at the following: Farming, What are some tools that the early farmers used? What are some crops that ...

Ms. Nickles

2010-11-04

238

Quantum Game of Life  

E-print Network

We introduce a quantum version of the Game of Life and we use it to study the emergence of complexity in a quantum world. We show that the quantum evolution displays signatures of complex behaviour similar to the classical one, however a regime exists, where the quantum Game of Life creates more complexity, in terms of diversity, with respect to the corresponding classical reversible one.

D. Bleh; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

2012-01-23

239

Local River Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify rivers in their local area and compile information about aquatic life in or near these habitats. Through research in various books or other sources, the students will learn more about the various animal and plant species living in riparian areas. The compiled information can be assembled into a class book, combining both text and drawings related to aquatic life.

2004-01-01

240

Life Vest Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the engineering behind life vests or personal flotation devices and the challenges met by these devices. Learners work in teams to design and build a flotation device out of everyday materials that can keep an unopened can of soup or vegetables afloat in a bucket of water or sink for a minute. They design their life vest, build and test it, evaluate their designs and those of other learners, and share observations with the group.

IEEE

2014-01-28

241

Ocean Life for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a variety of photos and text to teach students about life in the oceans. Various animals discussed include fish, sharks, dolphins, octopus, starfish, eels, lobster and jellyfish. Students choose an animal to look at, view some facts about that animal, and then answer questions based on the information given. The objective is for young elementary students to be able to distinguish amoung types of ocean life and what makes them unique.

242

Life in the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2nd Graders will have the opportunity to learn more about life underneath the ocean. This goes great with 2nd Grade Science Standards 1 and 3! INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in the ocean? What would you do all day? What would you eat? What would you have to avoid so that you wouldn't get eaten? There are many different types of life that live in the ocean. ...

Miss Bennett

2010-03-26

243

Life Cycle of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this lesson, students analyze characteristics that indicate human life cycles, then apply these principles to various NASA images of stars to synthesize patterns of stellar life cycles. This lesson contains expected outcomes for students, materials, background information, follow-up questions, and assessment procedures.

George Tuthill

244

Mosquito Life Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a plastic emergence chamber (or use purchased "mini mosquito breeder") to observe and analyze the mosquito life cycle. Learners record daily observations for 8-14 days by counting the number of larvae, pupae, and adults present in the chamber. This resource includes background information about the mosquito life cycle and mosquitoes as disease vectors plus a link to a mosquito reference manual.

2013-07-30

245

BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY  

E-print Network

- 42 - BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY Maximum Benefits The amount of life insurance benefit for active Employees is calculated on your annual base salary (ask your Human Resources and receives a lower salary during the time of the sabbatical, the life insurance benefit will be calculated

246

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

247

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC)  

E-print Network

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC) experiment on ExoMars 7th Appleton Space Chip (LMC) · Key other features ­ Drill (to ~ 2m depth) ­ Analytical drawer (ALD) ALD #12;Life Marker, Cranfield University #12;How to detect evidence of Life in on Mars? Photo: Karl Johaentges #12;ESA's Exo

248

Life without water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anhydrobiosis, or life without water is commonly demonstrated by a number of plants and animals. These organisms have the capacity to loose all body water, remain dry for various periods, and then be revived by rehydration. While in the anhydrobiotic state, these organisms become highly resistant to several environmental stresses such as extremely low temperatures, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and high vacuum. Since water is commonly thought to be essential for life, survival of anhydrobiotic organisms with an almost total loss of water is examined. A search of literature reveal that many anhydrobiotic organisms make large quantities of trehalose or other carbohydrates. Laboratory experiments have shown that trehalose is able to stabilize and preserve microsomes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and artificial liposomes. It was demonstrated that trehalose and other disaccharides can interact directly with phosopipid headgroups and maintain membranes in their native configuration by replacing water in the headgroup region. Recent studies show that trehalose is an effective stabilizer of proteins during drying and that it does so by direct interaction with groups on the protein. If life that is able to withstand environmental extremes has ever developed on Mars, it is expected that such life would have developed some protective compounds which can stabilize macromolecular structure in the absence of water and at cold temperatures. On Earth, that role appears to be filled by carbohydrates that can stabilize both membrane and protein stuctures during freezing and drying. By analog with terrestrial systems, such life forms might develop resistance either during some reproductive stage or at any time during adult existence. If the resistant form is a developmental stage, the life cycle of the organism must be completed with a reasonable time period relative to time when environmental conditions are favorable. This would suggest that simple organisms with a short life cycle might be most sucessful.

Crowe, Lois M.; Crowe, John H.

1989-01-01

249

Life sciences recruitment objectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995). Subsequent NRA's will be released on a rotating two year cycle.

Keefe, J. Richard

1992-01-01

250

Were the wrong cells studied?  

PubMed

Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) studying the effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in vitro is not correct. Peripheral lymphocytes in general (Th1, Th2) do not have an Ah-receptor. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN's) are more logical to use. PMID:25447456

Koppe, Janna; Ten Tusscher, Gavin W

2015-01-22

251

What's Wrong With My Plant?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A useful resource for amateur horticulturists from the University of Minnesota Extension Service, Yard and Garden Clinic. The focus here is on commonly used perennials, grasses, shrubs, and trees in the home garden and the inevitable problems one must face while gardening in a northern climate. Based on visual observations of symptoms, the navigation is easy, and the solutions equally understandable. This site is a useful stop if you want basic advice. It also provides links to other related Web resources useful to northern gardeners.

252

What's Wrong with This Picture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses possible health hazards associated with video display terminals (VDT). Highlights include electromagnetic fields (EMF); research on EMF and VDT; VDT emission guidelines in Sweden; conflicting interests; low emission monitors; spatial solutions; financial considerations; and a sidebar that includes questions and answers on EMF. (seven…

Eakin, Emily

1994-01-01

253

Utilizing Right and Wrong Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this professional development video excerpted from Getting Results, a community college instructor explains how he reviews a test with his students by having his students work in groups to discuss answers. The instructor explains that while tests can reveal to him what hasn't been grasped, this group review helps his students reflect on the rationale behind each answer. In addition, the tests help him discover whether goals are met, whether there are other benefits to the lesson, and whether he was successful in teaching the lesson. Once he has discovered the answers to these questions, he can decide whether to adjust the course design.The video runs 3:40 and is accompanied by a background essay and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

254

What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

Morrison, Adrian R.

1992-01-01

255

Overpopulation: Where Malthus Went Wrong.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the theories of 18th-century social scientist Thomas Malthus regarding population and his predictions of massive worldwide famine. Maintains that countries with a tradition of private property rights can sustain a dense population and food supply. Examines the relationship between low birth rate and economic prosperity. (MJP)

Morton, John S.; Shaw, Jane S.; Stroup, Richard L.

1997-01-01

256

Potty Training Gone Terribly Wrong  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Historians discussing the causes of Japanese imperialism usually mention things like resource scarcity or the pathologies of modernization. In 1942, however, Western explanations of Japan's international ...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-05-31

257

Wrong...But Right Enough  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates his experience in a recent trip to Sweden. He was assigned to supervise a research student who is preparing a very interesting PhD about the role of the many different kinds of knowledge that have relevance to people in technology. His latest tutorial paper included a fascinating account of some examples of…

Kimbell, Richard

2011-01-01

258

Am I Doing Anything Wrong?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolutely not! Let me be more specific. Am I doing anything I do not want to do with my career? I don't think so. Am I satisfied? My initial career goal was to teach at a small four-year university and do research with undergraduate students. But I am more than satisfied with what I am doing now, and I am enjoying my job. It is true that many new and talented Ph.D.'s are currently looking for careers at two-year colleges instead of universities. Many people expect this trend will be even greater in the future. Surveys also show that younger people (20-30's) care a great deal about both family and career. Thus, a teaching job at a two-year college is ideal for them. It was quite a surprise to find that many of my friends, who are very talented in research, are now teaching at two-year colleges.

Chang, Eun-Woo

1998-04-01

259

What's Wrong with "Aesthetic Education"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers definitions of "aesthetic," especially that offered by Woodrow Wilson in his essay on Adam Smith. Her major contention is that too much of aesthetic and other education is not very aesthetic, for it does not excite both senses and intellect nor develop the ability to generalize. (Author/SJL)

Luca-Marshall, Judith B.

1980-01-01

260

Geography of European Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

2011-01-01

261

Stress and life history.  

PubMed

In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories. PMID:24845673

Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

2014-05-19

262

Advanced life support study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

1991-01-01

263

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

264

Life in the Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

2003-01-01

265

Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

Barta, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

266

Life Sciences Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Life Sciences Education journal started publishing peer-reviewed articles in spring 2002 on life science education at the K-12, undergraduate, and graduate levels. The journal takes a broad view of the life sciences, and they frequently feature pieces on math, chemistry, neurosciences, genetics, and other fields. The articles are written by professionals engaged in teaching biology teaching in a variety of educational environments, and first-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the "Most-Read Articles" area. Here they will find pieces such as "Rubrics: Tools for Making Learning Goals and Evaluation Criteria Explicit for Both Teachers and Learners" and "Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tools". Visitors can also search for articles in the archive and also look at the "Most-Cited Articles" section. Finally, users can also sign up to receive updates about new additions to the journal.

267

Life sciences accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

1985-01-01

268

Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the Tree of Life cladogram. The site begins with a brief explanation of cladograms and how the Tree of Life shows the relationship of all living things on Earth. A cladogram of fruit is used to demonstrate on a small scale how scientists use this tool to understand how things are similar and different. A portion of the Tree of Life cladogram is included, showing true bacteria, arthropods, mammals, and 11 other important groups of species. Students can mouse over the branching points to see what the subsets have in common. The site also includes a pie chart view that compares the relative size of the most important groups of species. Students can click on each group to learn its characteristics, known species, size range, and other important details.

269

Autonomy: Life and Being  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

Williams, Mary-Anne

270

Make a Life to Save a Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this “clicker case,” students learn about meiosis through the real-life story of a couple who used pre-implantation genetic screening to select an embryo that was a genetic match for an older sibling with leukemia, and thus able to provide a source of bone marrow cells. The case caused a stir in the medical ethics community.  Before this, parents had only used pre-implantation genetic screening to select for a baby that would be free from a genetic disorder. Instead, this child was conceived as a treatment for his older sister.  The case was developed for use in an introductory biology course.  It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.5MB) shown in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions the students respond to using clickers. It could be adpated for use without these technologies.

Peggy Brickman

2009-01-01

271

Life of A Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

Miss. Watterson

2010-04-30

272

The Medication Life  

PubMed Central

The therapist conducting psychodynamic psychotherapy often recommends medication for the patient, but the medication is frequently treated as separate from the therapy and not worth exploring. By not inviting the patient's and our own feelings about medication into the treatment dialogue, we may solicit the development of split transference, the loss of important unconscious material, and noncompliance. Much like a patient's dream life, the medication life is rich in detail that may be fruitfully used to gain information about the patient's experience, strengthen the alliance, and improve treatment outcome. PMID:11696647

Powell, Alicia D.

2001-01-01

273

Italian Life Under Fascism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Special Collections within the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Memorial Library presents Italian Life Under Fascism, a virtual exhibition exploring the nature of Italian fascism in the early twentieth century. Digital reproductions of original documents provide insight into "the character and range of Fascist propaganda and the special cult of the Duce that it fostered." The site covers an array of topics related to the political, educational, social, and racial policies of Italian Fascism. Included are sections devoted to family life, youth organizations, Italian colonialism, the role of women in the regime, the anti-fascist resistance, and the rise and fall of Fascism in Italy.

274

Life in a Nutshell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-faceted game (on pages 25-35), learners recreate what happens to creatures in the Brazilian rain forest as they grow from egg to adult—especially those that use fallen, empty Brazil nut pods as a home during some part of their life cycle. These creatures include damsel flies, mosquitoes, toads and poison frogs. The object for players is to make it around the game board, grow faster than the competition, and leave the nutshell nursery before the neighbors eat them. Learners graph the results of all games played. This activity makes a fun connection between life science and math.

University of Nebraska State Museum

2001-01-01

275

Muslim Life in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new pamphlet from the State Department offers a basic introduction to some aspects of Muslim-American life. The front page takes care to emphasize the diversity among Muslim-Americans, and the links from this front page further amplify these differences. The site features a number of Photo Galleries, including Faces of Islam, Family Life, and Mosques and Prayers, among others. Users will also find related articles, a page of demographic facts, a bibliography with selected readings, links to Internet resources and nongovernmental organizations, along with other resources.

276

Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

277

Consistent results on ‘Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The findings presented by Bennett and Bourzutschky that the cellular automaton “Game of Life” is not self-organized critical - which was earlier suggested by Bak et al. - have been questioned, most recently by Alstrøm and Leão. The reason for this is that the two groups used systems with different boundary conditions and measured different properties. We measure the same properties as Bak et al., and find that the power law seen for smaller lattices disappears for larger lattices. The conclusion is that the “Game of Life” is subcritical, but with a rather long length scale.

Hemmingsson, Jan

1995-01-01

278

Bioregenerative life support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioregenerative life support systems utilize plant growth for food, water, and atmosphere revitalization. Simulation studies of a simplified model are presented that suggest survivability in the face of partial plant growth chamber failure. Simulation studies demonstrate the potential for a bioregenerative life support system on an extended mission. In addition to robustness and survivability in terms of the food supply, the plant growth chamber produces exactly the right amount of oxygen for the crew's metabolic needs. The amount of water taken up by the plants during food production is balanced by the crew's metabolic water production.

Taylor, Bill

1990-01-01

279

Exploring Life's Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The question of how life first emerged lies at the heart of one of today's most contentious scientific debates. Biochemist, Janet Iwasa utilizes scientific animation to bring a new visualization to the origins of life. After being awarded a NSF Discovery Corps fellowship, Iwasa teamed with the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Museum of Science to create this multimedia display of lifeâ??s origins. This online exhibit provides an animated timeline of lifeâ??s evolution. The website also illustrates the formation of protocells and the complexities of the RNA world.

Janet Iwasa (NSF; )

2008-09-26

280

Spacelab Life Sciences-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

1995-01-01

281

Smacked by the Invisible Hand: The Wrong Debate at the Wrong Time with the Wrong People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past three decades, educators have faced an increasing variety of reform proposals that can best be contextualized as efforts to commodify and privatize public education. While supporters of market-based reforms attempt to place these proposals within education theory, they are in reality firmly entrenched in neoliberal economic theory.…

Laitsch, Daniel

2013-01-01

282

The Life of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

Logan Greene

2011-04-06

283

Reflexive Planning for Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informed by Giddens’ (1991) concept of reflexive life planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of reflexive planning for later life. We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and self-protection. Drawing on qualitative, life-history data from

Margaret A. Denton; Candace L. Kemp; Susan French; Amiram Gafni; Anju Joshi; Carolyn J. Rosenthal; Sharon Davies

2004-01-01

284

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

285

Life in the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays, pieces of art, theatrical performance and CD-Roms. The best of these will be presented worldwide during the "Life in the Universe" webcast live from CERN on November 10th at 7 pm CET (18 UT). The webcast - during which the "Super Prizes" for the two best works will be announced - will also feature interviews, video clips and animations on the latest scientific findings on the subject of extraterrestrial life. The webcast is truly an around-the-world event that will actively engage even geographically distant audiences. During the webcast, anyone on the planet can send questions via e-mail to the real experts with live connections in European laboratories who will answer live during the broadcast. Tuning in is easy too. All people have to do is enter http://www.lifeinuniverse.org into their browser and they will get full instructions on how to connect up. The home base of "Life in the Universe" - http://www.lifeinuniverse.org - is a vibrant web space where details of the programme can be found. It has a wealth of information and links to the national websites, where all entries will be posted. Is there other life in the Universe? We do not know - but the search is on and you'll know much more about it by just following the webcast! "Life in the Universe" webpage at ESO More information and related links may also be found on the dedicated "Life in the Universe"-webpage at the ESO Outreach website.

2001-10-01

286

25/03/2011 22:31139 Co-authors Can't Be Wrong--And That's The Problem : Evolution for Everyone Page 1 of 10http://scienceblogs.com/evolution/2011/03/139_co-authors_cant_be_wrong--.php  

E-print Network

Blogs: Maximum meltdown Last 24 Hrs Life Science Physical Science Environment Humanities Education Politics Medicine Brain & Behavior Technology Information Science Jobs Latest Posts Archives About RSS Contact

Gardner, Andy

287

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students? understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

288

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

289

TECHNOLOGY AND JEWISH LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology continues to have a strong and specific impact on Jewish life. It has caused major social changes in various areas, such as the suburbanization of Jews, women's increased learning, and the possibility of participating in worldwide community activities. From a socio-halakhic viewpoint, technology influences Jews' choice of residence, has socialized and politicized kashrut certification, and has changed modes of

Manfred Gerstenfeld; Avraham Wyler

2006-01-01

290

Water and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Anderson begins with a brief description of NASA discoveries related to Mars, Mercury and water. He then explains why water is required for life. He finally uses a simulation to show you why water acts as a wonderful solvent and provides a medium for metabolism.

Paul Anderson

2013-03-12

291

Life Cycles of Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a brief introduction, the page is divided into Places to go, People to see, Things to do, Teacher resources and a Bibliography. Each division has several links. For example the Places to go division has links to frog, ant, coral reef, and American bald eagle life cycles.

2010-01-01

292

Ocean Life Web List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list contains 35 web sites with resources that complement the museum's Hall of Ocean Life exhibit. The sites are broken into four categories: General, Conservation, Activities and Curriculum, and Ocean Folklore. A recommended grade level is listed for many of the sites.

293

LifeMEETSscience Neuroscience  

E-print Network

LifeMEETSscience Neuroscience Multidisciplinary faculty who provide great preparation for jobs Proven committment to student success Generous stipend plus tuition and health benefits The Neuroscience my graduate training is that I learned about all areas of neuroscience. I have found this breadth

Thomas, David D.

294

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

WNET

2010-11-05

295

PERSPECTIVEPERSPECTIVE last for life  

E-print Network

from the Milwaukee high school. ByBrianMattmiller 6 Turning a red fire engine`green' The Bucky1 PERSPECTIVEPERSPECTIVE Gifts that last for life GIFT REPORT 2011 Building the Bucky Wagon programs 22 Alumni of other schools and colleges at UW-Madison 23 Friends of the College of Engineering 24

Wang, Xudong

296

Thermodynamic Origin of Life  

E-print Network

Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere, and thus facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as a catalyst for the absorption and dissipation of sunlight at the surface of shallow seas. The resulting heat is then efficiently harvested by other irreversible processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the intense ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are remarkably rapid in transforming this light into heat in the presence of liquid water. From this perspective, the origin and evolution of life, inseparable from water and the water cycle, can be understood as resulting from the natural thermodynamic imperative of increasing the entropy production of the Earth in its interaction with its solar environment. A mechanism is proposed for the reproduction of RNA and DNA without the need for enzymes, promoted instead through UV light dissipation and the ambient conditions of prebiotic Earth.

K. Michaelian

2010-09-08

297

Ingredients for Life: Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon is the basis of all organic molecules. It is also one of the most abundant elements in the universe. This video segment illustrates the special characteristics of carbon that make it an essential ingredient for life. The segment is one minute thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

298

Life in the Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on what life is like in the three major regions of the ocean: (1) the sunlit surface waters; (2) the dim mid-waters; and (3) the dark ocean depths. Five activities and three pages of ocean organisms for copying are included. (Author/RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

299

Yawning throughout life.  

PubMed

Yawning is a behavior that begins in the first stages of life. It has not only been observed in infants and in newborns, but also in fetuses of 12-14 weeks' gestational age. Yawning frequency changes over the life span. In preterm infants, the number of yawns decreases between 31 and 40 weeks' postconceptional age, mainly during the day. In this period of life, yawning is an isolated behavior rarely occurring in bursts, and its frequency is quite low with respect to adults. The incidence of yawning seems to increase when children attend elementary school, whereas this is reduced in the elderly. Aged people yawn less than younger ones, mainly during morning and mid-afternoon. In adults, the time course of yawning is associated with the time course of sleepiness, except upon awakening when the high frequency of yawns is not associated with high sleepiness. In adults, yawning frequency increases in the early morning and in the late evening, whereas at the earliest stages of development (fetuses and preterm infants) yawning does not show diurnal variations. Yawning seems to be involved in the modulation of arousal process across the whole life span. In preterm infants, yawning is often followed by motor activation and it is more common during waking than sleep; in adults, yawning occurs mainly at sleep onset and upon awakening. PMID:20357459

Giganti, F; Salzarulo, P

2010-01-01

300

A Window into Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Window underscores the concept of life as an emergent property of highly coordinated physical and biochemical processes. Opening upon a single carbon-12 atom within a human DNA duplex, Window moves at a brisk trot through successively greater levels of scale and biological organization, ultimately arriving at an individual person--defining in one sense the meaning of being human.

Kenneth Eward (Independent; )

2008-09-26

301

Lungfish and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed light…

Flannery, Maura C.

1997-01-01

302

Languages for Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategy of the Department for Education and Skills'(DfES) 2002 strategy document, "Languages for All: Languages for Life" called for improving the quality of language teaching and learning; enhancing qualifications and credit recognition arrangements; and increasing demand for language learning. This principle was to extends to adult…

Watters, Kate

2007-01-01

303

Ionizing radiation and life.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. PMID:21774684

Dartnell, Lewis R

2011-01-01

304

Second Life, Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article this author wrote about avatar harassment and assault in Second Life (SL) inspired a considerable response after it was published. Perhaps the most notable reply was from Linden Lab, the company that created the virtual-reality world. In his initial essay ("The Chronicle of Higher Education," September 14, 2007; "The Education Digest,"…

Bugeja, Michael J.

2008-01-01

305

Life History and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

Tierney, William G.

2013-01-01

306

Life Sciences Shared Resources  

E-print Network

Life Sciences Shared Resources Cancer.Dartmouth.eduMarch 2012 201202-19201202-19 #12;SHARED RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT TEAM: Mark Israel, MD Director, Norris Cotton Cancer Center Bob Gerlach, MPA Associate Director, Norris Cotton Cancer Center CraigTomlinson, PhD Associate Director for Shared Resources

Myers, Lawrence C.

307

Ocean Life Book List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 50 books on ocean life, with titles for both children and adults. A short description is given for each book, along with author name, publisher, and publication date. The list is divided into two sections: one for teachers with general listings and curriculum and one for students.

308

More Life Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to supplement already existing life skills instructional materials, this manual consists of 30 lessons to help students develop general, transferrrable skills in four areas--attending behaviors, cognition, self-management, and critical thinking. The following topics are among those covered in the lessons: eye contact, body posture,…

Hearn, Joan

309

Zebra Mussel Life History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large part to a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion

Josef Daniel Ackerman

310

Life Cycles of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

311

MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Malaysian Family Life Surveys (MFLS) comprise a pair of surveys with partially overlapping samples, designed by RAND and administered in Peninsular Malaysia in 1976-77 (MFLS-1) and 1988-89 (MFLS-2). Each survey collected detailed current and retrospective information on famil...

312

Web Of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation game where students represent plants and animals living in a forest habitat. Sitting in a circle, they connect themselves using string to represent the ways they depend on each other. As they make connections, the string forms a web of life. They will also learn what occurs when an invasive species enters their environment.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

2012-05-12

313

Ingredients for Life: Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon is the basis of all organic molecules. It is also one of the most abundant elements in the universe. This video segment illustrates the special characteristics of carbon that make it an essential ingredient for life. The segment is one minute thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2011-07-22

314

Leon Trotsky: My Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Trotsky Internet Archive, part of the Marx/Engels Internet Archive (discussed in the March 21, 1997 Scout Report), has added an electronic transcription by David Walters of Trotsky's 1930 autobiography. All 45 chapters of My Life can be viewed individually. Future plans include a zipped file of the entire book, both in text and in HTML format, to facilitate downloading.

315

Investigations Into Life Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory manual, containing 44 exercises, is intended to be used as part of an audio-tutorial approach to laboratory work in a life-science course for student nurses. Exercises include basic techniques of miscroscopy, microbiology, electrophysiology, routine biochemical analyses of blood and urine, and microscopic examination of prepared…

Mentzer, Dean Samuel

316

Life Mode Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise provides a standardized format that can be used to describe the life mode and its characteristics for most any organism or group of organisms. This format is used (reinforced) in many other exercises as the context for comparing and contrasting clades within and among systematic groups. The classification also provides a context for discussing patterns and trends in evolution and ecology.

Steve Hageman

317

The Business of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

Dunski, Jonathan F.

1997-01-01

318

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

Schwartz, Sunny

2005-01-01

319

Second Life as Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In terms of exploring the status of Second Life (SL) usage in libraries, it would be useful to not only look at how and why the virtual world is being used but also how SL compares to successfully implemented innovations of the past. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of previously accepted innovations with those of SL will help…

Guder, Christopher

2009-01-01

320

Microbial Life - Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital library of educational resources is dedicated to the diversity, ecology, and evolution of the microbial world. It provides an extensive collection of information and learning activities for educators and students, including a Microbial Life in Extreme Environments module featuring Astrobiology.

321

Beyond RPV Design Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of standard surveillance programs for monitoring the design life of reactor pressure vessels (up to 40 years of operation) has been analyzed. In view of the improved test methods and embrittlement evaluation procedures, the necessity has been shown of introducing modifications in the present surveillance programs aiming at a more precise reactor pressure vessel integrity evaluation facing a

A. Ballesteros; G. Garcia; L. Bogede; J. Bros

2004-01-01

322

Life in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as

Lynn J. Rothschild; Rocco L. Mancinelli

2001-01-01

323

Learning from Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is currently widespread interest in exploring the opportunities to develop learning that can be delivered in three-dimensional multiuser virtual environments (3-D MUVEs). In this paper, I argue for the need to conduct research into the emerging cultures of use in 3-D MUVEs, focussing on the example of Second Life. Drawing on social and…

Bell, David

2009-01-01

324

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

325

Black Smokers: Life Forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

The American Museum of Natural History

326

Life in the Galaxy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origin of life on the basis of information about cosmic evolution, stellar alchemy, atmospheric histories, and rise and fall of civilizations. Indicates that man's contact with other civilizations in our galaxy may be made possible through studies of interstellar communication. (CC)

Oliver, B. M.

1973-01-01

327

Learning for Life Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

Varmecky, Jane Hyde

2012-01-01

328

Ethnicity in American Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is comprised of three articles. (1) Ethnicity in American Life: The Historical Perspective, by John Hope Franklin, recounts the trends in the last three centuries. It is contended that ethnicity has extended and continues to extend beyond race; that at times it meant language, customs, religion, and national origin, but that it has…

Franklin, John Hope; And Others

329

LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

330

Home and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa History. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is homes and family life in Iowa history. Selections address what has been important to Iowa's families over time and what homes were like before…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1996-01-01

331

Graphic Life Map.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a prewriting activity for personal memoir or autobiographical writing. Grade 6-8 students brainstorm for important memories, create graphics or symbols for their most important memories, and construct a life map on tag board or construction paper, connecting drawings and captions of high and low points with a highway. During four 50-minute…

Schulze, Patricia

332

Freedom Road: Colonial Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

Auerbach, Barbara

2010-01-01

333

Life on Europa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of \\

B. S. Shylaja

1997-01-01

334

Life on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sudents learn about the physical properties of the Moon. They compare these to the properties of the Earth to determine how life would be different for people living on the Moon. Using their understanding of these differences, they think about what types of products engineers would need to design for humans to live comfortably on the Moon.

2014-09-18

335

Exploring for Martian Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial life appears to have arisen very quickly during late accretion, sometime between approximately 3.5 and 4.2 Ga. During this same time, liquid water appears to have been abundant at the surface of Mars and it is quite plausable that life originated there as well. We now believe that the last common ancestor of terrestrial life was a sulfur-metabolizing microbe that lived at high temperatures. Rooting of the RNA tree in thermophily probably reflects high temperature "bottle-necking" of the biosphere by giant impacts during late accretion, sometime after life had originated. If high temperature bottle-necking is a general property of early biosphere development, Martian life may have also developed in close association with hydrothermal systems. Several independent lines of evidence suggest that hydrothermal processes have played an important role during the geological history of Mars. Because hydrothermal deposits on Earth are known to capture and retain abundant microbial fossil information, they are considered prime targets in the search for an ancient Martian biosphere. An important step in planning for future landed missions to Mars is the selection of priority targets for high resolution orbital mapping. Geotectonic terranes on Mars that provide a present focus for ongoing site selection studies include channels located along the margins of impact crater melt sheets, or on the slopes of ancient Martian volcanoes, chaotic and fretted terranes where shallow subsurface heat sources are thought to have interacted with ground ice, and the floors of calderas and rifted basins. Orbital missions in 1996, 1998 and 2001 will provide opportunities for high resolution geological mapping at key sites in such terranes, as a basis for selecting targets for future landed missions for exopaleontology.

Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

336

Life Sciences Accomplishments 1994  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division (LBSAD) serves the Nation's life sciences community by managing all aspects of U.S. space-related life sciences research and technology development. The activities of the Division are integral components of the Nation's overall biological sciences and biomedical research efforts. However, NASA's life sciences activities are unique, in that space flight affords the opportunity to study and characterize basic biological mechanisms in ways not possible on Earth. By utilizing access to space as a research tool, NASA advances fundamental knowledge of the way in which weightlessness, radiation, and other aspects of the space-flight environment interact with biological processes. This knowledge is applied to procedures and technologies that enable humans to live and work in and explore space and contributes to the health and well-being of people on Earth. The activities of the Division are guided by the following three goals: Goal 1) Use microgravity and other unique aspects of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. Goal 2) Develop the scientific and technological foundations for supporting exploration by enabling productive human presence in space for extended periods. Goal 3) Apply our unique mission personnel, facilities, and technology to improve education, the quality of life on Earth, and U.S. competitiveness. The Division pursues these goals with integrated ground and flight programs involving the participation of NASA field centers, industry, and universities, as well as interactions with other national agencies and NASA's international partners. The published work of Division-sponsored researchers is a record of completed research in pursuit of these goals. During 1993, the LBSAD instituted significant changes in its experiment solicitation and peer review processes. For the first time, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released requesting proposals for ground-based and flight research for all programs. Areas of particular interest to NASA were defined Proposals due April 29, 1994, will be peer reviewed - externally for scientific merit. This annual NRA process is now the mechanism for recruiting both extramural and intramural investigations. As an overview of LBSAD activities in 1993, this accomplishments document covers each of the major organizational components of the Division and the accomplishments of each. The second section is a review of the Space Life Sciences Research programs Space Biology, Space Physiology and Countermeasures, Radiation Health, Environmental Health, Space Human Factors, Advanced Life Support, and Global Monitoring and Disease Prediction, The third section, Research in Space Flight, describes the substantial contributions of the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission to life sciences research and the significant contributions of the other missions flown in 1993, along with plans for future missions. The Division has greatly expanded and given high priority to its Education and Outreach Programs, which are presented in the fourth section. The fifth and final section, Partners for Space, shows the Divisions Cooperative efforts with other national and international agencies to achieve common goals, along with the accomplishments of joint research and analysis programs.

Burnell, Mary Lou (Editor)

1993-01-01

337

Life Driven by Damaged Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although life is destined to be approximately described as aself-referential form, the self-reference is invalidated and life avoids a contradiction. Since life does not include any contradiction, it reveals a unity as a whole. Since life is not a self-circulation, it implements diversity and evolvability. Here we show life as invalidated self-reference by constructing a model cell driven by damaged damage. Since life is always close to destruction, it exhibits both of the amoebic motion and the intelligent Physarum-like behavior.

Gunji, Y.-P.; Shirakawa, T.; Niizato, T.; Haruna, T.; Balaz, I.

338

Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.  

PubMed

Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists. PMID:25369429

Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

2014-11-01

339

Starship Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet would have cost similar to that of the Apollo program. Cost is reduced if a small crew travels slowly and lands with minimal equipment. We can go to the stars!

Jones, Harry W.

2009-01-01

340

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

341

All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

2000

342

BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY  

E-print Network

- 35 - BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY Maximum Benefits The amount of life insurance benefit for active Employees is calculated on your annual base salary (ask your Human Resources of tax dependent status. ` Eligible Dependent children age 14 days to six months are insured for $200

343

Life Course Organization, Perceived Quality Life, and Occupational Attainment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data from Project TALENT are used to study how people's adult lives are patterned and how these patterns are related to their occupational achievement and perceived quality of life. Career is defined as a sequence of roles and associated activities that a person enacts within a particular life domain. The pattern of a person's life

Abeles, Ronald P.; Steel, Lauri

344

Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH  

E-print Network

Evolution of Life on Earth #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Earth ~4.5 billion years ago A bad day .... #12;Old (Archean) Rocks #12;4.4 Billion year old Zircon Earth was temperate and had water 4.4 billion years ago! #12;#12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Making Organic Molecules : Miller & Urey Famous

Shirley, Yancy

345

This Emotional Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

346

Through Life Costing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an innovation is launched in such a market, reliable information about the life cost of the novel product is naturally lacking. This has proven to be a key obstacle to venture capital funded cleantech companies with innovations that are conceptually proven and that deliver significant improvements to conventional alternatives, but that lack enough reference installations to provide reliable data on life costs. One way out of this dilemma that is increasingly discussed among practitioners is servitization, i.e., the notion that the owner of the innovation should be an agency that is specialised in using and maintaining the product, letting the end customer become a buyer of the product's service (such as heat) rather than the product itself.

Newnes, Linda; Mileham, A. R.; Cheung, W. M.; Goh, Y. M.

347

Bioenergetics and Life's Origins  

PubMed Central

Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

2010-01-01

348

Asynchronous game of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the 8-state asynchronous equivalence of the well-known game of life (GL). Our cellular automaton, called asynchronous game of life, simulates exactly the behavior of the GL, such as universal computation and self-organization, no matter whether the update of cells is simultaneous or independent according to some updating scheme, like a step-driven or time-driven method [see BioSystems 51 (1999) 123]. We employ the updating scheme of Blok and Bergersen [Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999) 3876] such that at every time step each cell has a certain probability to be updated, and investigate the statistical properties of our model through power spectral analyses.

Lee, Jia; Adachi, Susumu; Peper, Ferdinand; Morita, Kenichi

2004-07-01

349

The medicalization of life  

PubMed Central

Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

Illich, Ivan

1975-01-01

350

Tissues of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Science Museum of Minnesota offers a fun and interactive way to learn about the structure and function of the body's tissues. While some activities provided are designed to complement an on-site visit to the Tissues of Life exhibit, the Web site also includes many stand-alone Web-based features. For example, with Explore Body Tissues, students can take a look at cross-sections of actual human bodies, browse through a gallery of scar photos (and perhaps add a photo of their own!), explore parts of the human body at 30X actual size, or play a game while learning about the different cells involved in wound healing. Tissues of Life does not include Web-based lesson plans, but this engaging Web site would be a great addition to related classroom activities for a range of grade levels.

351

Life Changing Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Broadcasting Company recently aired Life Changing Science, "a four-part series examining innovations that have transformed our lives." This companion Web site offers fantastic interactive features to go along with each of the four radio broadcasts. Three of the four interactive "labs" focused on the life sciences. They include Virtual Open Heart Surgery, in which users can conduct a highly simplified version of the real procedure; In Vitro Fertilization, which offers an excellent overview of the IVF cycle; and Food Preservation, in which users can test how well they know their kitchen microbes. These interactive features are truly cool, although American readers must contend with the metric units used in Food Preservation. The site also includes audio of the original radio programs, which aired in June 2003.

352

It's My Life: Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's My Life, a PBS Kids Web-based educational series, offers 9-12 year olds a kid-friendly way to explore and share the issues in their lives. Depression is just one of many subjects addressed in It's My Life. Topics covered in this Web site include defining depression, recognizing the symptoms, understanding the causes, getting treatment, how to help a friend or parent who may be suffering from depression, and more. In addition to articles on these topics, the Web site provides interactive activities -- such as a quiz and a chat room -- that help kids further their understanding of the disease and reach out for help if needed. Offline activities include a printable journal page, a recommended reading list, and discussion questions that kids can take to a parent or friend.

2002-01-01

353

Species' Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) provides these colorful pages summarizing different stages of several species's life cycles. Focusing on the interconnected and fragile nature of existence, this site features a half dozen species: Karner Blue Butterfly, Dwarf Wedgemussel, Chinook Salmon, Indiana Bat, Grizzly Bear, and Mauna Kea Silversword. This could serve as a fine supplement for introductory courses on basic ecology, population biology, conservation biology, or wildlife management.

354

Life's expanding realm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geologic sediments from the Nullagine Range in Australia are used to illustrate the early existence of microbial communities in the oceans. These communities survived in oxygen-free environments. Some microbes, particularly cyanobacteria, developed the ability to synthesize energy from light, which led to the evolution of creatures with oxygen-dependent metabolism. Only recently has geologic evidence been discovered that supports the theory that animals developed only when there was enough oxygen in the atmosphere to support higher forms of life.

Knoll, A.

1994-01-01

355

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

356

Literary Life Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the careers of 11 leading twentieth-century American poets. Using the frequency with which poems are reprinted in anthologies as a measure of their importance, quantitative analysis reveals that among these poets there were two distinctly different life cycles: one group produced their most important work early in their careers—in their 20s and 30s; whereas the other group

David W Galenson

2005-01-01

357

e-life  

E-print Network

is intended to increase awareness about local environmental issues and individual, voluntary measures that the public can take to protect our North Central Texas watershed resources,? said Project Coordinator Leslie Rauscher of the North Central Texas Council... of Governments (NCTCOG). e-Life is co-sponsored by EPA, Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB), NCTCOG and KTVT-TV CBS 11. The environmental program focuses on the nine watersheds in the Upper Trinity River Basin with its network of lakes...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

358

The right to life  

PubMed Central

For much of human history the idea of a right to life has not seemed self-evident. The credibility of the idea appears to depend on a particular kind of intuition concerning the nature of the world. In this paper, the kind of intuition involved is related to the idea of a covenant, illustrated by that of marriage. The paper concludes by suggesting that talk about responsibilities may be more fruitful than talk about rights. PMID:7277408

Boyd, Kenneth M

1981-01-01

359

Life Science Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Life Science Dictionary is a feature of BioTech (discussed in the January 12, 1996 Scout Report), a "hybrid biology/chemistry educational resource and research tool" located at Indiana University at Bloomington. This searchable database currently contains more than 8200 terms in biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, cell biology, and genetics. Also included are "some terms relating to ecology, limnology, pharmacology, toxicology and medicine." Users may search by keyword, word fragment, or phrase. Typical returns are concise but informative.

1998-01-01

360

End of life care.  

PubMed

End of life care is challenging, rewarding and a privileged experience, irrespective of where death occurs - in a hospital, care home, hospice, prison or at home. The CPD article was a reminder that death is a deeply personal and social experience, and one where individuals must be afforded dignity and respect. People who are dying should be referred to as individuals or persons, and not as patients. PMID:25758520

Gallacher, Rose

2015-03-11

361

This American Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On their Web site, the staff of the radio show "This American Life" describes their innovative and popular show in these words: "Its mission is to document everyday life in this country. We sometimes think of it as a documentary show for people who normally hate documentaries. A public radio show for people who don't necessarily care for public radio." Hosted by Ira Glass since its inception in 1995, the show has run the gamut of compelling and fascinating topics, ranging from summer camp to gun control in the United States. On their Web site, listeners can listen to over 150 previous episodes, learn about contributors to the program, and read about how to submit story ideas and internship opportunities. Educators may also want to take a look at the For Educators section, which offers some perspectives on how This American Life may be used in the classroom. Finally, visitors can also view a list of the staff's favorite shows, including a rather memorable tribute to Frank Sinatra that features Gay Talese reading some of his own reporting on Sinatra from the 1960s.

362

Laying down one's life for oneself.  

PubMed

Roman Catholicism has long opposed suicide. Although Scripture neither condones nor condemns suicide explicitly, cases in the Bible that are purported to be suicides fall into several different categories, and the Roman Catholic tradition can show why some of these should be considered morally wrong and some should not. While Christian martyrdom is praised, it is not correct to argue that this Christian outlook invites suicide, or that it recommends physician-assisted suicide for altruistic motives. Church Tradition, from its earliest days, has clearly distinguished martyrdom from suicide. The principles of double effect and cooperation, mainstays in Roman Catholic moral theology, enable one to see the moral difference between martyrdom and suicide, and to appreciate why physician-assisted suicide is wrong for both patient and physician. PMID:11657106

Stempsey, William E

1998-08-01

363

Spacelab Life Sciences Research Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes some of the life sciences research that was conducted on Spacelab missions. Dr. Larry Young, Director of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, provides an overview of the Life Sciences Spacelabs.

Sulzman, Frank; Young, Laurence R.; Seddon, Rhea; Ross, Muriel; Baldwin, Kenneth; Frey, Mary Anne; Hughes, Rod

2000-01-01

364

"Control Your Diabetes. For Life."  

MedlinePLUS

... Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll- ...

365

The Life of Roger Langdon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface H. Clifton Lambert; 1. 'Why was I born?'; 2. Childhood's days; 3. Starting in life; 4. My secret departure; 5. Life in Jersey; 6. Return and marriage; 7. Scientific achievements; 8. Closing years; Appendices.

Langdon, Roger; Langdon, Ellen

2010-11-01

366

Life forms: A keyword entry  

E-print Network

We deliver a "keyword" account of the term life form as it has been used in natural philosophy and biology over the last two hundred years, beginning with its appearance in German as Lebensform. We argue that life form ...

Helmreich, Stefan

367

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... data Deaths and mortality How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure ...

368

Business and life in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life support systems in the machine called the Space Shuttle is discussed and later about life support systems in a little cocoon that is far smaller than the shuttle; the more common term is a space suit.

Allen, Joseph

1990-01-01

369

Religious orientation and life aspirations.  

PubMed

The effects of religiosity on well-being appear to depend on religious orientation, with intrinsic orientation being related to positive outcomes and extrinsic orientation being related to neutral or negative outcomes. It is not clear, however, why intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity has the relationships they do. Self-determination theory may provide a useful framework of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations that may help to answer this question. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity would be related to intrinsic and extrinsic life aspirations. We hypothesized that intrinsic religiosity would be positively related to intrinsic life aspirations and negatively related with extrinsic life aspirations, and that extrinsic religiosity would be positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and negatively related to intrinsic aspirations, and that life aspirations would partially mediate the relationships between religious orientation and outcome. To study these hypotheses, a random national sample (total number of 425, average age of 52, 59 % female) completed the measures of religious orientation, life aspirations, affect, and life satisfaction. It was found that intrinsic religiosity was positively related to positive affect, life satisfaction, and intrinsic life aspirations and was negatively related to negative affect and extrinsic life aspirations. Extrinsic religiosity was positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and was not related to the intrinsic life aspirations. When both religious orientation and life aspiration variables were included together in the model predicting outcome, both remained significant indicating that religious orientation and life aspirations are independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, although religious orientation and life aspirations are significantly related to each other and to outcome, life aspirations did not mediate the effects of religious orientation. Therefore, self-determination theory does not appear to completely account for the effects of religious orientation. PMID:24474550

Steffen, Patrick R; Clayton, Spencer; Swinyard, William

2015-04-01

370

Life's Little Essential: Liquid Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Without liquid water, terrestrial life could not exist. All living organisms on Earth depend on water and its unique chemical and physical properties. In the search for life beyond Earth, scientists have focused their efforts on looking for signs of liquid water. This essay discusses the properties of liquid water that are conducive to life, pointing out that the biochemical reactions that sustain life need a fluid in order to operate, and that water is probably the best solvent in the universe.

371

A Constructivist Look at Life Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews the literature related to life roles and describes a variety of techniques that can be used from a constructivist career counseling perspective. Seven counseling techniques are included: life space map, life line, life-space genogram, life roles circles, life roles assessment, life role analysis, and goal map. Framed from the…

Brott, Pamelia E.

2005-01-01

372

The beginning of human life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning of human life is seen differently by different individuals, groups, cultures, and religions. Embryonic and fetal life are a continuum, within which are time sequences and points—birth of a newborn, viability, neuromaturation, implantation, and conception—that may be declared as the beginning of human life. For each of these there are ethical and legal implications and considerations. Abortion laws

Fritz K. Beller; Gail P. Zlatnik

1995-01-01

373

Social capital in Second Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Second Life is a user-created online virtual world, which is a place where people with shared interests can meet and be together and share information. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Second Life communities foster and nurture social capital, whether social capital within Second Life is related to social capital outside the virtual world, whether

Isto Huvila; Kim Holmberg; Stefan Ek; Gunilla Widén-Wulff

2010-01-01

374

Life Sciences Computational Biology 51  

E-print Network

Life Sciences #12;Computational Biology 51 4 Life Sciences Research in Life Sciences at Jacobs Sciences at Jacobs clus- tered in six major areas: Cellular and Molecu- lar Biology (Protein Trafficking and Regulation); Computational Biology (Modeling of Biologi- cal Processes); Molecular Biophysics (Membrane

Henkel, Werner

375

To Collaborative LIfe Sciences Building  

E-print Network

To Collaborative LIfe Sciences Building To Professional Development Center Collaborative Life Sciences Building SW MEADE SW PORTER SW M OODY I-5 To Main Campus To South Waterfront I-405 Collaborative Life Sciences Building 0650 SW Meade St. Academic & Student Recreation Center (ASRC) C8 Art Building

376

In Brief: Ocean life census  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Census of Marine Life, an international effort to assess the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life, issued a report on 23 September summarizing the decade­long project that the organization calls ``the most comprehensive inventory of known marine life ever compiled.'' The census has involved more than 2700 scientists and 670 participating institutions from more than 80 nations and

Randy Showstack

2010-01-01

377

A Black Hole Life Preserver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman

2003-01-01

378

LIFE SCIENCES & MISSOURI'S ECONOMIC FUTURE  

E-print Network

LIFE SCIENCES & MISSOURI'S ECONOMIC FUTURE: AN OPPORTUNITY TO BUILD "ONE MISSOURI" PREPARED FOR laws and result in civil and/or criminal penalties. #12;Final Report Life Sciences & Missouri Center in the life sciences, with world-class research stature translated into wealth creation and well

Noble, James S.

379

The Satisfaction With Life Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does niot tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including

Ed Diener; ROBERT A. EMMONS; Randy Larsen; Sharon Griffin

1985-01-01

380

Educators Get a "Second Life"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For educators who think real life does not offer enough opportunities to practice their profession, there is Second Life, an Internet-based virtual environment that counts thousands of educators among its enthusiasts. Second Life bears a passing resemblance to an online game, with users represented by digitally drawn characters, called avatars,…

Trotter, Andrew

2008-01-01

381

End of Life: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

2012-01-01

382

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

383

Life on Europa?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of "cities of Moon", "colonies of Mars" and so on. However, the sophisticated tools of the modern era quickly put a full stop to these developments revealing that the other planets are not hospitable, and infact hostile for a life form like ours to exist there. That explains why in the last few decades the efforts shifted to observing the satellites of large planets. The anxiety grew with the knowledge of their atmospheric structure, chemical composition and volcanic activity. Detection of water, albeit frozen, was a welcome surprise. The flyby of Voyager and Pioneer provided ample evidence for the presence of water, one of the most important ingredients for the germination of the seed of life. The detection of the fossil of a microorganism on a stone believed to have fallen from Mars, boosted the scientists zeal to pursue the research, although the date for life on Mars (more than 3 billion years ago) is not very convincing. Last year, many scientists, from different branches like astrophysics, geology, oceanography, biology and astrogeology discussed the possibilities of life elsewhere in the universe. The focal point was not Mars, but Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Their studies based on Voyager images supported the possibility of liquid water beneath the frozen sheets of ice. However, heat is also an essential parameter. Europa, being at a distance five times the sun-earth separation can have only 1/25th the warmth of the earth. Then, where does it get the necessary warmth from? There are other important sources of heat in many of these satellites that lie concealed from our view. They are the volcanoes. If present, can these keep the water warm below the ice sheets? The unmanned Galileo spacecraft has sent close up views of Europa indicating the existence of a dynamic ocean in which ice blocks seem to be drifting apart. The blocks, resembling the icebergs on the earth, are 3 to 6 kms wide and could be almost 2 kms thick. They appear to have been formed about a million years ago. Beneath these ice blocks, perhaps lies an ocean almost 100 kms deep. These numbers imply that the quantity of water is nearly three times that on the earth. The water is also rich in salts. Can it hold life, atleast the cousins of the earthly bacteria found in the volcanic underwater terrains? Why not? That is the opinion. How do we see these bacteria? There is a proposal to send a 1.5 meter long, 15 cms diameter probe called Cryobot, which can penetrate the ice and reach the water. The experience from the exercises performed over the last couple of years with the tethered satellites will come in handy now. Well, we have a site on earth fresh water lake Vostok on the Antarctica, where the probe can be tested. May the probe peruse the bacteria!

Shylaja, B. S.

1997-06-01

384

Surfing Second Life: What Does Second Life Have to Do with Real-Life Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second Life's unstructured atmosphere and wide-open spaces where student creativity can grow and flourish are two of the reasons Pepperdine University Professor Bill Moseley integrated the program into his curriculum. In this article, the author discusses how Second Life works and its challenges. Second Life is often described as a 3-D version of…

Oishi, Lindsay

2007-01-01

385

Actinides and Life's Origins.  

PubMed

There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus release, and possible abiotic production of sugars, amino acids, activated phosphorus, prototypical organometallic enzymes, and oligomer catalysts at a single putative beach site. PMID:18163867

Adam, Zachary

2007-12-01

386

Actinides and Life's Origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus release, and possible abiotic production of sugars, amino acids, activated phosphorus, prototypical organometallic enzymes, and oligomer catalysts at a single putative beach site.

Adam, Zachary

2007-12-01

387

[Dyspepsia and life style].  

PubMed

Information on eating habits, life situation and perceived stress was collected from 100 patients who consulted general practitioner because of dyspeptic complaints. This information was compared with information from a control group with no dyspeptic symptoms. The patients reported a higher degree of stress in connection with occupation and family, and more economic worries, than the control group. Patients with ulcus also tended to have a higher consumption of tobacco. There were no significant differences in eating habits or alcohol consumption between the groups. PMID:8470072

Mediås, I B; Rutle, O

1993-03-20

388

My Study Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some young scholars may ask the question: "What time do I need to be at general chemistry?" or "When does my review group meet?" Keeping track of such matters is a snap with My Study Life, a free online planner. Visitors can color-code each activity for easy visual recognition and insert various tasks that might be due on any given day. Unlike more conventional calendars, this one integrates classes, tasks, and exams to give students and teachers a full picture of what remains to be done. This program is available for Chrome, Windows 8, Windows Phone, and Android, and will soon be available for iOS.

2013-06-19

389

Track My Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where does all the time go? It's a good question, and Track My Life can help you learn more about how and where your time is spent. The application runs in the background of a user's phone and tracks how much time they spend in any given location. At the end of each day, users can look at a full report to see a breakdown of the places they were and how long they spent in each location. This version is compatible with iPhone, Windows Phone, and Android.

2012-01-01

390

Life Products of Stars  

E-print Network

We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.

Aldo M. Serenelli; Masataka Fukugita

2006-06-27

391

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video-enhanced lesson, students will explore Florida’s springs using video segments from the NATURE film “Springs Eternal: Florida’s Fountain of Youth” and related activities and discussions. Students will learn about how the springs are formed and will explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students will also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs. At the end of the lesson, students will conduct research and give a presentation about one species that lives in and/or around the springs.

2010-01-01

392

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

393

Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator  

DOE Data Explorer

This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

Sullivan, John

394

End of life care.  

PubMed

The Healthcare Innovation Exchange (HELIX) Centre, at www.helixcentre.com , has released apps on the iTunes ( tinyurl.com/nzt2xd5 ) and Google Play ( tinyurl.com/n2safby ) stores to provide end of life care guidance to nurses, doctors and carers working on the front line. The apps are in response to work that the HELIX Centre has undertaken for the NHS Leadership Alliance for the Care of Dying People (LACDP), which wrote the new guidelines to replace the Liverpool Care Pathway. The app is based around the five LACDP priorities for care and includes a short training quiz. PMID:25428322

2014-11-27

395

Drilling for Weird Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Featuring an interview with NASA scientist Carol Stoker, the article describes Rio Tinto, a river in Spain with highly acidic water the color or red wine, and explains why scientists are looking to the subsurface pyrite deposits near this river's edge for signs of microbial life. Stoker describes the field site and discusses some of the research team's early results. This is the first of a four-part interview series. The resource includes images from Rio Tinto and the Mars project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Henry Bortman

396

Life raft stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

397

The formation of life  

E-print Network

The formation of life is an automatic stage in the consolidation of rocky or "terrestrial" planets. The organic (=carbonaceous) matter, light elements, gases, and water must "float" toward the surface and the heavier metals must sink toward the center. Random processes in the molecular soup that fills microfractures in unmelted crust eventually produce self-replicating microtubules. In an appendix I suggest that some primordial crust remains because there is not enough consolidation energy to melt the whole planet. Energy is lost when iron planetesimals first partially melt and then coalesce to form the molten iron planetary core. Stony planetesimals accrete onto the surface of an already consolidated core.

Robert L. Kurucz

2000-11-10

398

The chemical life(1).  

PubMed

You write this narrative autoethnography to open up a conversation about our chemical lives. You go through your day with chemical mindfulness, questioning taken-for-granted ideas about natural and artificial, healthy and unhealthy, dependency and addiction, trying to understand the chemical messages we consume through the experiences of everyday life. You reflect on how messages about chemicals influence and structure our lives and why some chemicals are celebrated and some are condemned. Using a second-person narrative voice, you show how the personal is relational and the chemical is cultural. You write because you seek a connection, a chemical bond. PMID:24905820

Hodges, Nathan

2015-06-01

399

Some facts of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of the time evolution of the Game of Life. We recognize three different time regimes of which the most interesting one is the long time glider regime, which has properties typical of a critical state. We introduce mean field approximations able to give some insights on the time evolution of the density of the density of living cells. Extended simulations are reported which deal with the evolution of the density, damage spreading and the measurements of a finite size exponent. A simple dynamical model explains some aspects of the asymptotic glider regime. We study also the dependence of the asymptotic density on the initial density both analytically and numerically.

Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl; Ruffo, Stefano

1991-02-01

400

Life Before Oxygen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About three billion years ago, single-celled underwater bacteria similar to modern cyanobacteria consumed carbon dioxide as they photosynthesized, releasing oxygen in the process. In this way, an atmosphere full of volcanic carbon dioxide gradually changed into an oxygen-rich atmosphere in which animal life could survive, except for some primitive organisms, who retreated to oxygen-poor environments. This video segment shows researchers as they search for these organisms, which are now considered tiny time capsules from the time before there was oxygen on Earth. The segment is one minute thirty-nine seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

401

Triumph of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

402

Life's Really Big Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains videos and articles about the snowball Earth theory and its relation to the Cambrian explosion; the search for extrasolar planets and extraterrestrial life; simulations and experiments on robot evolution; the Lucy fossil discovery; and how the human hand and the ability for language and for self-reflection developed and contributed to the uniqueness of our species. There is a synopsis for each video; the five videos total approximately an hour in length. Other materials include an educational activity and a dinosaur game that gives a perspective to the long history of Earth.

403

Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator  

SciTech Connect

This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-11

404

Learning for life.  

PubMed

UNICEF's position on education availability in Africa is posited, and both recent initiatives taken on its own and those conducted through collaborative efforts with other international agencies are described. UNICEF supports the notion of learning for life, with education being accessible to all of Africa's children. Learning should be relevant and responsive to the needs of individuals and communities, helpful for surviving and developing in a dynamic environment, and emphasize their roles in the community, the nation, the work force, and the household. UNICEF supports low cost, community-based early child care and education programs, with a view to maintaining flexible approaches depending upon the types of education which may be required in different contexts. Presently, UNICEF's work in Africa centers upon communicating practical child survival and maternal health information to children, families, opinion leaders, and communicators. Collaborative efforts by UNICEF, WHO, and UNESCO include publishing a new book entitles "Facts for Life," and implementing an action-oriented school health curriculum for primary schools in 5 countries. "Health-into-Mathematics" is another UNICEF publication integrating the 2 fields for children. women in development, the importance of primary education, and the use of radio in education are also addressed. In the face of economic crisis and destabilization, education services must be protected. An initiative to promote renewed national and international commitment to basic education for all, a World Conference on Education for All-Meeting Basic Learning Needs," is noted. PMID:12283695

Fisher, N

1989-07-01

405

Lifing of Engine Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

2005-01-01

406

Zebra mussel life history  

SciTech Connect

The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

Ackerman, J.D. [Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-06-01

407

Life 2014, 4, 131-141; doi:10.3390/life4020131 lifeISSN 2075-1729  

E-print Network

Life 2014, 4, 131-141; doi:10.3390/life4020131 lifeISSN 2075-1729 www.mdpi.com/journal/life Hypothesis RNA Catalysis, Thermodynamics and the Origin of Life William G. Scott 1, *, Abraham Szöke 2 , Josh, and definitively explains why RNA, rather OPEN ACCESS #12;Life 2014, 4 132 than DNA, must have been the original

Scott, William

408

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2013-10-01

409

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2014-10-01

410

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2011-10-01

411

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2010-10-01

412

46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An...

2012-10-01

413

Preparing for the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking ... will face it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how ...

414

Life on other worlds : the twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of illustrations; List of tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Life in the solar system; 3. Solar systems beyond; 4. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 5. The UFO controversy and the extraterrestrial hypothesis; 6. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 7. SETI: the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; 8. The meaning of life; 9. Summary and conclusion: the biological universe; Select bibliographical essay; Index.

Dick, Steven J.

1998-12-01

415

The value of life and the value of life extension.  

PubMed

Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics. PMID:16803974

Horrobin, Steven

2006-05-01

416

Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. §6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life.

Gayon, Jean

2010-04-01

417

Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.  

PubMed

The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions: individual self-maintenance and the open-ended evolution of a collection of similar entities. The other category refuse to include reproduction and evolution, and take a sort of psychic view of the living. Section 6 examines the relationship between the question of the definition of life and that of the origins of life. There is a close parallel between the general conceptions of the origins of life and the definitions of life. PMID:20162362

Gayon, Jean

2010-04-01

418

Life Sciences Undergraduate Programme: Life Sciences Minor The Minor in Life Sciences is designed for non-Life Sciences majors to receive significant  

E-print Network

Life Sciences Undergraduate Programme: Life Sciences Minor The Minor in Life Sciences is designed for non-Life Sciences majors to receive significant training in selected Life Sciences topics. Students of this Minor will receive a good grounding in their choice of topics in Life Sciences as well as an insight

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

419

LIFE Photo Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone can type in a simple image search into Google, but this new initiative sponsored by both LIFE and Google takes these searches to a whole new (and rather interesting) level. Working together, the two businesses brought together several million images from the 1750s to the present day. Many of the images have never been seen before, and it's quite a bit of fun just to look around their offerings. On the site's homepage, visitors can browse photos by decade, or by a set of basic categories that include "People", "Places", "Events", and "Sports". These categories include everything from Jacqueline Kennedy to the Winter Olympics. If visitors like certain shots, they also have the option to purchase various prints from the site. It's also a bit fun to type in any number of phrases to see what they offer, such as "medicine ball", "lacrosse", or "Robert Maynard Hutchins".

420

The Origin of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In modern organisms, there is a division of labor between two kinds of molecule: DNA, which stores and transmits genetic information, and proteins, which do all the work. They are connected by the genetic code, whereby DNA specifies what kinds of proteins can be made. This process of translation is well understood, but it is far too complicated to have arisen by chance in the primitive oceans. This video lecture explores how this apparent paradox can be resolved. The video explains: the importance of heredity to the definition of life; how nucleotides pair and transfer information; how tRNA is used to transfer a message to enzymes; and how evolution consists of several major changes in the way information is stored, transmitted, and used. The video is 1 hour in length.

421

Their Circular Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather provocative website (which requires Macromedia Flash Player) explores various urban environments around Italy and draws visitors into the life of a "typical" day in the different lives of these seemingly ordinary places. The website was created by Lorenzo Fonda and David Terenzi and features original music and a rather welcoming user interface for exploring the different environments. The interface for each of the five urban places allows users to drag a small triangle around a circle, and essentially move through a series of images (and related sounds recorded on site) that take place during a single day. The places featured on the site include the train station in Modena, the Campo San Barnaba in Venezia, and three additional locales. Overall, this site offers a fascinating way of looking at and experiencing different urban environments and a potential template for future online projects.

422

Life in the Cambrian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Cambrian fossil record, which indicates a distinct development from simple organisms to organisms comparable in morphology and organization to present-day animals. The development is documented by faunal assemblages represented by the Ediacara fauna, the first complex trace fossils, the earliest shelly faunas, and the onset of the typical Cambrian macrofaunas. This rapid evolution took place in an interval of less than 25 million years and the evolution from the first hard-part animals to the presence of most of the present-day phyla was restricted to an interval of probably less than 10 million years. Multicellular life evolved at an incredible speed and for this reason this part of organismal evolution is termed the Cambrian Explosion, or Evolutions Big Bang. The site describes each group of fossils and also the locations where the faunal assemblages were found.

423

Life Shocks and Homelessness  

PubMed Central

We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

424

Game of Life Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

425

POV: Steam of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many hallmarks of Finnish life is the world of the sauna and its informal rituals. It is a place for men to explore their feelings, emotions, and their hopes and dreams. It is also the subject of this fascinating film presented as part of the POV series on PBS. Created by filmmakers Joonas Bergh'll and Mika Hotakainen, this 60-minute film looks into this rather fascinating aspect of Finnish culture. Visitors can watch the entire program here, and there are a host of additional features that round out the site. On the left-hand side, visitors will find additional photo galleries, a background essay, and a helpful "Are You Pronouncing Sauna Correctly?" primer. In the "Take Action" area, visitors can learn how to plan an event around this film and download a discussion guide. Teachers shouldn't miss the "For Educators" area, which includes a lesson plan and a reading list.

426

Life after Introductory Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning astronomy is a popular class for undergraduates, and a fair percentage of these students would take another nontechnical class in this field if one were available. What other courses exist for students to take after introductory astronomy? At NMSU we offer three classes that enroll large numbers of juniors/seniors who are nonscience majors. These classes are (1) Into the Final Frontier: the Human Exploration of Space, (2) The Search for Life in the Universe, (3) and Revolutionary Ideas in Science. Curricula for these classes, teaching strategies, and course materials will be provided in this poster presentation for those wishing to offer similar classes at their institutions. Some of th work presented in this poster was support by the NSF and NASA

McNamara, B.; Hameed, S.

2000-12-01

427

Evolution of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

428

Life on the Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Expeditions Web site takes an in-depth look at life on one of the world's largest barrier reefs. The site begins with a brief explanation of the expedition and what its participants were looking to find. Dive the Reef is an interactive feature that allows students to learn what separates a lagoon from a reef from a shelf. Meet the Scientists has brief biographies of the 14 team members who participated in the expedition. At the Museum is an article that discusses the selection of the barrier reef system of Andros Island as well as the AMNH's long history of Bahamian research. The Reef from Space explains how NASA's computer-enhanced pictures from space contributed to the expedition's findings. The site also includes 12 dispatches written during the expedition, which can be found in the Today from the Bahamas section.

429

Life without Volcanic Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a news article by NASA Astrobiology Institute featuring Deborah Kelly from the University of Washington. She talks about the navigational challenges of reaching this newly discovered hydrothermal field called "The Lost City", and describes why it's potentially such an important and exciting find. Kelly says that it is a completely different type of hydrothermal system not requiring volcanic heat, and that it has implications for examining early Earth questions and hydrothermal systems on other planets. The find opens the possibility that a much larger portion of the seafloor may host hydrothermal vents (and microbial life) than was previously thought. The site contains descriptions of some of the unique topographical features of the field, and the thermal chemistry that drives the formation of this type of feature.

430

Suicide in late life.  

PubMed

Late-life suicide is a persistent threat and a reality from which no one emerges unscathed. Family members and significant others feel guilty and inconsequential. Assisted living residence staff is demoralized. The residents feel frightened and confused. Although constituting only 13% of the population in the United States, older adults accounted for 18% of suicide deaths in the later 1990s. There is at present a national strategy for suicide prevention among youth under 19 years and adults aged 65 years and older. The assisted living community that fosters independence and self-determination can be, simultaneously, an environment in which the warning signs of suicidal ideation and self-destruction can be missed. This article discusses risk factors of suicide, the association of depression with suicide, basic screening tools, and supportive actions. PMID:18555157

Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

2008-01-01

431

Life shocks and homelessness.  

PubMed

We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

2013-12-01

432

Utah's Cambrian Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was going on in Utah 500 million years ago? Quite a bit, and this website provides an excellent overview of the diverse Cambrian life that flourished in an ancient sea that covered what is now the Beehive State. Interestingly enough, the website was created by the division of invertebrate paleontology at the University of Kansas Natural History Museum, and it includes images of a wide array of fossilized materials from this period of geological history. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors will find four primary sections, including "Localities and Geology" and "Online Fossil Exhibits and Collections". The "Localities and Geology" area is a good place to start as it gives an overview (complete with aerial photographs and maps) of the Cambrian period in Utah. The "Online Fossil Exhibits and Collections" area features fossil representative images from groups like mollusks, algae, jellyfish, and lobopods.

433

Fossil life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three major problems beset paleontologists searching for morphological evidence of life on early Earth: selecting a prospective site; finding biogenic structures; and distinguishing biogenic from abiogenic structures. The same problems arise on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with the techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including hot springs, are more prospective than lake deposits. If, on the other hand, the search is for chemical evidence, the strategy can be very different, and lake deposits are attractive targets. Lakes and springs frequenly occur in close proximity, and therefore a strategy that combines the two would seem to maximize the chance of success. The strategy for a search for stromatolite on Mars is discussed.

Walter, M. R.

1989-01-01

434

Coiled tubing working life prediction  

SciTech Connect

Failure of coiled tubing, due to the repeated bending and plastic deformation of coiled tubing on and off the reel and gooseneck, is of great concern in coiled tubing operations. This paper discusses the coiled tubing working life based on one of the coiled tubing life models published in the literature, and compares the results with other models. Certain agreements are found among these models. A group of curves is presented to illustrate the coiled tubing working life affected by coiled tubing size and wall thickness, internal pressure, yield strength, reel diameter, gooseneck radius, operation condition (corrosion) and butt-welded connection (stress concentration). The results show that coiled tubing life can be greatly increased by increasing CT wall thickness and CT strength, while the coiled tubing working life decreases under high internal pressure, corrosion, and butt-weld conditions. These curves can be easily used in estimating coiled tubing life for the field use.

Wu, J.

1995-12-31

435

Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for a description of every life sciences experiment performed in space (during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Shuttle, and NASA-Mir programs)? Students, educators, and space enthusiasts will appreciate this recent contribution from NASA, offering detailed descriptions, information and data on space flight experiments, space life sciences, and NASA missions. The 'Overview of Life Sciences Missions and Research' section offers general information and images, with links to the searchable database, 'Master Catalog,' and to an internal glossary of terms. Data may be downloaded from the Master Catalog. The 'Digital Image Library' is a searchable database of images from life sciences experiments and missions. A set of space life science links can be found in the 'Related Resources' section. For the younger learners, follow links to the 'Just for Kids' companion site, where users will find activities about space flight and space life sciences.

436

A Black Hole Life Preserver  

E-print Network

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman

2003-08-19

437

IYA2009 in Second Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Media Group is working to create an IYA2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA2009 freebie avatar clothing will be placed

A. Gauthier; P. L. Gay

2008-01-01

438

IYA 2009 in Second Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Media Group is working to create an IYA 2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA 2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA 2009 freebie avatar clothing

Adrienne J. Gauthier; P. L. Gay

2008-01-01

439

The search for alien life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life on our own planet, expanding the habitable range of salinity, pressure, temperature, and radiation of our world. Given the relatively recent discoveries about life on Earth, how then can we expect to look for alien life that may use completely different sets of molecules for structure and activity? Astrobiology has taken on the challenge of developing the intellectual basis, target identification, instrument capabilities, and operational procedures for the search for life elsewhere. The research aims to develop general principles of how life maintains itself, how life interacts with its environment, and how the signatures of life may be preserved and recognized. The approach has been to move from the laboratory, to the environment, to robotic exploration of planetary analogs. To date, generic evidence for life can be perceived through life's creation and utilization of disequilibria, multiple uses of a relatively few sets of molecules, a preference for chiral compounds, and a predilection for lighter isotopes. It is through application of life detection instrumentation in environmental extremes that we hope to develop a catalogue of generic biosignatures, robust instrumentation capable of revealing the unexpected, and effective exploration strategies for robotic platforms in the search for signs of life. In 2009, Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars may be the first beneficiaries of this approach.

Meyer, M.

440

Searching for Life on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the search for life on Mars. Learners will participate in three activities. In the first activity (Imaginary Martians) learners will compare a fictional organism with what they know about life on Mars today. In the second activity (Looking for Life), learners will define important features of a living organism and use them to analyze three different soil samples. In the third activity (Mars Critters), learners will design a plant or animal life form that might survive on Mars. This is lesson 6 of 24 in a collection, titled Mars Activities.

2012-08-03

441

Water and Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars appears to be cold dry and dead world. However there is good evidence that early in its history it had liquid water, more active volcanism, and a thicker atmosphere. Mars had this earth-like environment over three and a half billion years ago, during the same time that life appeared on Earth. The main question in the exploration of Mars then is the search for a independent origin of life on that planet. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils. Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.

McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

442

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

443

Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

Tierney, William G.

2010-01-01

444

Hippie Life Style: An Extension of Previous Life Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature cited suggests that the hippie life style is an extension of life styles of vagabonds, hermits, or ascetics. This style is gaining popularity and helping professionals must recognize that ususally it is the small radical groups who are first to articulate ideas later common to more people. (Author)

Penner, Wes

1971-01-01

445

Experience and Life History. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Life History Project at Denmark's Roskilde University is a 5-year research project that was initiated in 1998 to examine learning and participation in adult and continuing education from a life history perspective. The project was designed to build on a broad range of qualitative interview studies and case studies into learning processes. The…

Salling Olesen, Henning

446

444 STUDENT LIFE, RESOURCES, AND SERVICES Student Life,  

E-print Network

444 STUDENT LIFE, RESOURCES, AND SERVICES Student Life, Resources, and Services The University of North Carolina at Charlotte provides a comfortable and enjoyable environment for students that is conducive to learning. The services, facilities, and programs of the University promote individual student

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

447

418 STUDENT LIFE, RESOURCES, AND SERVICES Student Life,  

E-print Network

418 STUDENT LIFE, RESOURCES, AND SERVICES Student Life, Resources, and Services The University of North Carolina at Charlotte provides a comfortable and enjoyable environment for students that is conducive to studying. The services, facilities, and programs of the University promote individual student

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

448

Nanotechnology for Life Sciences Vol. 4: Nanodevices for Life Sciences  

E-print Network

Nanotechnology for Life Sciences Vol. 4: Nanodevices for Life Sciences Protein-based nanotechnology such as semiconductors into functional materials.11,12 Another example of protein based nanotechnology is the push in nanotechnology18,19 and on applications of kinesin motors in microscale transport.4 Finally, there is a paralle

Hancock, William O.

449

Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen

1996-01-01

450

The Role of Bundle Sheath Extensions and Life Form in Stomatal Responses to Leaf Water Status1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure with currently little-understood functions. To test the hypothesis that BSEs reduce the hydraulic resistance from the bundle sheath to the epidermis (rbe) and thereby accelerate hydropassive stomatal movements, we compared stomatal responses with reduced humidity and leaf excision among 20 species with heterobaric or homobaric leaves and herbaceous or woody life forms. We hypothesized that low rbe due to the presence of BSEs would increase the rate of stomatal opening (V) during transient wrong-way responses, but more so during wrong-way responses to excision (Ve) than humidity (Vh), thus increasing the ratio of Ve to Vh. We predicted the same trends for herbaceous relative to woody species given greater hydraulic resistance in woody species. We found that Ve, Vh, and their ratio were 2.3 to 4.4 times greater in heterobaric than homobaric leaves and 2.0 to 3.1 times greater in herbaceous than woody species. To assess possible causes for these differences, we simulated these experiments in a dynamic compartment/resistance model, which predicted larger Ve and Ve/Vh in leaves with smaller rbe. These results support the hypothesis that BSEs reduce rbe. Comparison of our data and simulations suggested that rbe is approximately 4 to 16 times larger in homobaric than heterobaric leaves. Our study provides new evidence that variations in the distribution of hydraulic resistance within the leaf and plant are central to understanding dynamic stomatal responses to water status and their ecological correlates and that BSEs play several key roles in the functional ecology of heterobaric leaves. PMID:21459977

Buckley, Thomas N.; Sack, Lawren; Gilbert, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

451

Halophilic life on Mars ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: The search for extraterrestrial life has been declared as a goal for the 21th century by several space agencies. Potential candidates are microorganisms on or in the surface of moons and planets, such as Mars. Extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are of astrobiological interest since viable strains have been isolated from million years old salt deposits (1) and halite has been found in Martian meteorites and in surface pools. Therefore, haloarchaeal responses to simulated and real space conditions were explored. Immuno assays for a potential Life Marker Chip experiment were developed with antisera against the universal enzyme ATP synthase. Methods: The focus of these studies was on the application of fluorescent probes since they provide strong signals, and detection devices are suitable for miniaturization. Viability of haloarchaeal strains (Halococcus dombrowskii and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1) was probed with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit and the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the DNA, following exposure to simulated and real space conditions (UV irradiation from 200 - 400 nm; 18 months exposure on the International Space Station [ISS] within the ADAPT experiment by Dr. P. Rettberg), were detected with fluorescent Alexa-Fluor-488-coupled antibodies. Immuno assays with antisera against the A-ATPase subunits from Halorubrum saccharovorum were carried out with the highly sensitive Immun-Star ™ WesternC ™ chemiluminescent kit (Bio-Rad). Results: Using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit, the D37 (dose of 37% survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii and Hbt. salinarum NRC-1, following exposure to UV (200-400 nm) was about 400 kJ/m2, when cells were embedded in halite and about 1 kJ/m2, when cells were in liquid cultures. Fluorescent staining indicated a slightly higher cellular activity than that which was derived from the determination of colony forming units. Assessment of viability with the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit gave strong signals with Hcc. dombrowskii and the control microorganism E. coli; as expected, the uncoupler CCCP diminished the membrane potential. Reaction times were generally longer with Hcc. dombrowskii than with E. coli. Hcc. dombrowskii from the ISS experiment showed > 80% viable cells when judged with the LIVE/DEAD kit. CPD formation was detectable in about 3-5 % of the total cells. It is not yet known if growing cells of Hcc. dombrowskii were recovered from the ISS. ATPase subunits were detected in crude membrane preparations, in whole haloarchaeal and bacterial cells, and even in spores (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus), suggesting the usefulness of the ATP synthase as a molecular target for life detection. Conclusions: Fluorescent dyes provide strong signals, which are suitable for remote detection and are compatible with high ionic strength. The advantages of staining with fluorescent dyes are rapid results on membrane intactness, membrane potential, and the presence of certain biomolecules. But more data are needed for a better correlation to cellular viability. (1) Stan-Lotter H, Pfaffenhuemer M, Legat A, Busse H-J, Radax C, Gruber C (2002) Halococcus dombrowskii sp. nov., an archaeal isolate from a Permian alpine salt deposit. Int System Evol Microbiol 52, 1807-1814.

Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Holzinger, Anita; Polacsek, Tatjana K.; Legat, Andrea; Grösbacher, Michael; Weigl, Andreas

2010-05-01

452

How Did Life Emerge Here?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA describes the emergence of life on the islands of Hawai?i from a barren volcanic platform under the ocean waves to the rich explosion of life that covers the many climate zones of the islands today.

2005-12-17

453

Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels  

EPA Science Inventory

A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

454

Coral bleaching threatens oceans, life  

Microsoft Academic Search

People around the world depend on the resources provided by the ocean to support life. But global-scale damage to the coral reefs, a large and integral part of the ocean environment that supports a variety of sea life, is a frightening prospect that may unfold in the coming years. Recently, a phenomenon called coral bleaching has raised concerns about the

R. S. Montgomery; A. E. Strong

1994-01-01

455

Custom Orthotics Changed My Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narrator relates his life's downward spiral and miraculous rebound from severe foot problems using animated bullet points, images, charts, and graphs. "Custom Orthotics Changed My Life" is a work of presentation fiction, or slideshow fiction, in the form of a video with an original soundtrack. The music was composed by David Kettler, a…

Holeton, Richard

2010-01-01

456

The Meaning of Academic Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address reports the findings of a survey of higher education colleagues on the degree of happiness associated with personal definitions of "meaning of life" and "purpose in life." Using a unique sliding scale, the survey draws items from the Oxford Happiness Project among other sources and began with all ASHE members (N = 1,904) with a final…

Hagedorn, Linda Serra

2012-01-01

457

Securing Shareable Life-logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharing life-log information in a social community has many advantages, both for the user and society. But sharing any type of personal information is a threat to privacy. In particular, life-log information requires higher security considerations since it may contains very sensitive information about the user such as biological information, location, communication logs, etc. In this paper, first we discuss

Reza Rawassizadeh; A Min Tjoa

2010-01-01

458

[Andreas Vesalius--the life].  

PubMed

The details of Vesalius' life can be found in Charles O'Malley, Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, 1514-1564, (University of California Press, 1964) and in Stephen N Joffe, Andreas Vesalius: The Making, The Madman, and the Myth, (Persona Publishing, 2009). This session reviews the circumstances of his last voyage and his death and other aspects of his life. PMID:25181776

De Caro, Raffaele; Goddeeris, Theodoor; Plessas, Pavlos; Biebrouck, Maurits; Steeno, Omer

2014-01-01

459

The Life Narrative at Midlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a remarkably prescient chapter, Bertram Cohler (1982) reimagined the problems and the potentialities of psychological development across the life course as a distinctively human challenge in life narration. This chapter situates Cohler's original vision within the intellectual and scientific matrix of the late 1970s, wherein psychologists…

McAdams, Dan P.

2014-01-01

460

Purpose in Life Among Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic variability in perceived purpose in life was measured in a group of 100 alcohol dependent males. The sample was composed of Caucasian (38%), Hispanic (37%), and American Indian (25%) hospitalized alcoholics. Analysis of variance tests revealed significant differences on the Purpose in Life (PIL) instrument [F (2,97) = 6.47, p = .002], Follow-up tests indicated that American Indians endorsed

Janice M. Brown; Francesca G. Ashcroft; William R. Miller

1998-01-01

461

About Various Definitions of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old question of a definition of minimal life is taken up again at the aim of providing a forum for an updated discussion. Briefly discussed are the reasons why such an attempt has previously encountered scepticism, and why such an attempt should be renewed at this stage of the inquiry on the origin of life. Then some of the

Pier Luigi Luisi

1998-01-01

462

Life sciences and Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

1990-01-01

463

Is There Life in Space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation, students will explore the question: Can there be life outside of Earth? Students will use planet hunting models to discover how scientists find new planets and perform simulated spectroscopic measurements to determine if the chemical requirements for life are present.

2012-07-19

464

Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

Kaur, Preeti

2011-01-01

465

Roots: The Life Space Pioneers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with troubled…

James, Adrienne Brant

2008-01-01

466

The search for alien life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life

M. Meyer

2004-01-01

467

Life Stress and Academic Burnout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life

Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

2014-01-01

468

The Quality of Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the concept "quality of working life," why interest in this has increased, and why guidance counselors and students should understand it. Quality of working life means more than job satisfaction or flexible working hours. It helps guidance teachers understand attitudes and expectations of students embarking on their first job. (Author/BEF)

Burke, Ronald J.

1979-01-01

469

Evolution of Rotifer Life Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

When compared to most other multicellular animals, rotifers are all relatively small, short-lived and fast-reproducing organisms. However among and within different rotifer species there is a large variation in life history patterns. This review accounts for such variation in rotifers, with a strong focus on monogonont rotifers. As the life cycle of monogonont rotifers involves both asexual and sexual reproduction,

Claus-Peter Stelzer

2005-01-01

470

Instant messaging in teen life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instant Messaging (IM) is being widely adopted by teenagers. In a study of 16 teenage IM users, we explore IM as an emerging feature of teen life, focusing our questions on its support of interpersonal communication and its role and salience in everyday life. We qualitatively describe the teens' IM use interpersonally, as well as its place in the domestic

Rebecca E. Grinter; Leysia Palen

2002-01-01

471

Residence Life Missouri Hall 1100  

E-print Network

Residence Life Missouri Hall 1100 100 E Normal Ave. (660)785-4227 http://reslife.truman.edu Don to contact the Office of Residence Life 785-4227 immediately to set up your housing and arrange and it is beneficial to remove those items early that you no longer need. The Residence Hall Association wants to know

Gering, Jon C.

472

THE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE  

E-print Network

have changed over the years, many of our alumni don't know who we are or what we are doing. This newTHE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE ALUMNI MAGAZINE SPRING 2011 FAMILY CONNECTIONS CO-PLAY: THE LATEST VIDEO UNIQUE PROJECT FAMILY CONNECTIONS BYU SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE ALUMNI MAGAZINE SPRING 2011 #12;1 BYU SCHOOL

Martinez, Tony R.

473

Recognizing depression in late life.  

PubMed

Depression presents differently in older adults than in younger adults and frequently occurs with many chronic illnesses in later life, though it is not a normal part of aging. The astute practitioner will screen for depression in this population and appropriately treat to improve chronic illness management and quality of life in older adults. PMID:25574901

Edlund, Barbara J; Lauerer, Joy; Drayton, Shannon J

2015-02-15

474

Russian Life magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Russian Information Services, the publisher of "Russian Life" magazine, has established a Web site for the 40-year-old magazine of Russian culture, history, travel and business. The magazine's site offers samples of cover stories and departments: Practical Traveler, Survival Russian, Travel Journal, and Russian Cuisine. Within two weeks the site will add an events database which users can add information to and/or use to search for Russia-related events in their area or sphere of interest. Also, the editors have compiled a collection of Top Ten Russian Web Site Picks. Full-text searching by keyword is available, which also encompasses an on-line catalog -- Access Russia & Central Europe -- which contains over 200 books, maps and products relating to travel and doing business in the region. The site resides on the Friends & Partners server at the University of Tennessee, a site for persons with an interest in travel to or business in Russia. http://www.friends-partners.org/rispubs/

475

Self Righting Life Raft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Givens Buoy Raft was designed and manufactured for inventor Jim Givens of Givens Marine Survival Co. Inc., by RPR Industries, Inc. The Raft consists of a canopied topside and an underwater hemispheric ballast chamber. It has a heavy ballast stabilization system, adopted from NASA technology, which negates the capsizing problem. A "flapper valve" admits large amounts of water to the hemisphere chamber providing ballast to keep the center of gravity constant; stabilization system compensates for changes in wave angle and weight shifting of raft occupants. Mr. Givens has an exclusive patent license for use of the NASA technology. Produced in various sizes, capacities range from six to 20 persons. Raft is housed in a canister, available in several configurations. A pull on a line triggers the automatic inflation process, which takes 12 seconds. The raft has been credited with saving 230 lives in the last five years. It has found wide acceptance with operators of fishing boats, pleasure craft and other vessels. The Coast Guard is purchasing the rafts for use on its rescue helicopters and the Navy has a development program to adapt the system. The Coast Guard last year announced a proposed amendment of its regulations that would require large ballast chambers on inflatable life rafts.

1982-01-01

476

Photonics for life.  

PubMed

Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics. PMID:21642029

Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

2011-01-01

477

[Quality of life and transplantation].  

PubMed

With the recent development of surgical techniques and other treatments of transplanted patients the increase in survival is not anymore the unique objective of the intervention. Nowadays, increase in quality of life is a very important aim. The instruments that assess quality of life can be multi/unidimensional, specific/nonspecific. One of the most important instruments to evaluate quality of life in all kinds of patients is the MOS-SF36, validated to Portuguese population. According to most published studies, there is an improvement in quality of life dimensions after transplantation. In some prospective studies it is shown that quality of life after transplantation is determined by some pre-transplantation factors such as medical factors (severity of illness) and psychiatric factors (personality, depression, coping strategies). PMID:21627885

Telles-Correia, Diogo; Barbosa, António; Mega, Inês

2010-01-01

478

Life: past, present and future.  

PubMed Central

Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth. PMID:10670014

Nealson, K H; Conrad, P G

1999-01-01

479

Life: past, present and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth.

Nealson, K. H.; Conrad, P. G.

1999-01-01

480

Charting Ingredients for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrum Charts Light from a Faraway Galaxy

This graph, or spectrum, charts light from a faraway galaxy located 10 billion light years from Earth. It tracks mid-infrared light from an extremely luminous galaxy when the universe was only 1/4 of its current age.

Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They reveal the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that make up a galaxy and contribute to its light.

Spitzer's infrared spectrometer identified characteristic fingerprints of complex organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, illustrated in the artist's concept in the inset. These large molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are considered among the building blocks of life.

Scientists determined it took 10 billion years for photons from this galaxy to reach Spitzer's infrared eyes. These complex carbon and hydrogen molecules are from a young galaxy which is undergoing intense star formation, at the time the universe was only 3.5 billion years old.

These distant galaxies with enormous amounts of gas being converted into young stars are some of the most luminous objects in the sky. Enshrouded by dust, they are only faint, inconspicuous little dots in optical images. They are as bright as 10 trillion suns put together and 10 times brighter than starburst galaxies seen in our local universe.

This prompts a fascinating question as to what physical process is driving such enormous energy production in these galaxies when the universe is so young.

These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in August and September 2004.

2005-01-01

481

The LIFE Picture Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this is a commercial site with pictures and images for sale, users can nonetheless view and appreciate one of "the most extraordinary collections of pictures in the world" at The Picture Collection from Time, Inc. An initial free registration is required, and after that users need only log on to gain access to over 22 million images, including illustrations, prints, and photographs. Archival materials from many popular magazines are available here, including images from Time, Life, Sports Illustrated, People, and Entertainment Weekly, as well as material from the recently acquired Mansell Collection. "Mansell photographs date from the beginnings of the medium in the 1840s through World War II [and] depict a vast range of scenics, important news events, and historical personalities, with a special emphasis on art and architecture. In addition, the new Mansell Collection includes extraordinary holdings of engraved illustrations, lithographs, and drawings predating the advent of photographic imaging." In addition to a key word search function, The Picture Collection offers a special searching and licensing program that lets you search for and store materials in "Lightboxes" of your own creation for later use; these are similar to folders that one might use in a conventional software setting. The program also calculates licensing fees for images based on what type of usage is intended (newspaper, magazine, Website, etc.). Research help is available for those users who would like someone else to do the searching, with one half-hour of free research offered initially. After that, a fee of 85 dollars an hour is charged; some or all of this fee may be waived if one or more images are licensed. An excellent help section rounds out this site and makes perusing this amazing (if somewhat overwhelming) collection even more pleasurable.

482

Life on Titan: Theorem of existance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic

O. Potashko

2004-01-01

483

Stress in the life course: a life history approach.  

PubMed

This article examines the relationship between stress and distress in the life course, emphasizing the time elapsed between the event and measurement of psychological distress. Stressors are conceptualized as either distal or proximal based on how recently they occurred. Distal stressors are further classified as status changes or undesirable life changes. Using a life history calendar approach, we examine stressors occurring over a 15-year-period. We explore whether distal stressors affect current depressive symptomatology above and beyond the effect of more recent stressors and how these stressors vary in frequency and affect over 3 empirically defined age groups. While some events decrease in frequency over age, others occur consistently across age groups. Most important, distal stressors significantly impact current depressive symptomatology, independent of proximal stressors. Types of distal stressors affecting depression vary over age, indicating that the stage of life at which a stressor occurs is a significant determinant of the stressor's effect on depression. PMID:10165981

Ensel, W M; Peek, M K; Lin, N; Lai, G

1996-08-01

484

Life masks and death masks.  

PubMed

The death of a relative or anyone in a small, tightly knit community with closely shared cultural and religious values has great social impact. As part of the grieving process, people wish to preserve the memory of a loved one or a community leader. Life masks and death masks have been used as art forms to mark life passages, offering permanent reminders of family and continuity with the past. This article discusses the history and technique of life and death masks and their role in 19th-century American culture. PMID:1288261

Meschutt, D; Taff, M L; Boglioli, L R

1992-12-01

485

Trends in space life support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable progress has been made in recent years on development of candidate physico-chemical components for use in regenerative life support systems (LSS) for future extended-duration-mission spacecraft; these life support systems provide air revitalization including carbon dioxide reduction, water reclamation, and limited waste management. For still longer duration manned space flights, such as a permanently inhabited space station, it is generally recognized that development of biological life support systems capable of generating food and regenerating wastes will be essential to reduce logistics costs.

Skoog, A. Ingemar; Brouillet, Alfred O.

486

Lubricant effects on bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1986-01-01

487

Life as a cosmic imperative?  

PubMed

The origin of life on Earth may be divided into two stages separated by the first appearance of replicable molecules, most probably of RNA. The first stage depended exclusively on chemistry. The second stage likewise involved chemistry, but with the additional participation of selection, a necessary concomitant of inevitable replication accidents. Consideration of these two processes suggests that the origin of life may have been close to obligatory under the physical-chemical conditions that prevailed at the site of its birth. Thus, an extrasolar planet in which those conditions were replicated appears as a probable site for the appearance of extra-terrestrial life. PMID:21220285

de Duve, Christian

2011-02-13

488

It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?  

PubMed

"It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The warranty of the future child's physical integrity and health, an integral and inseparable part of the contract, should form the basis of the child's cause of action. PMID:18354869

Perry, Ronen

2007-11-01

489

Winslow Homer: "The Life Line."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a color print of Winslow Homer's oil painting, "The Life Line," the goal of this senior high school art lesson is to have students debate the importance of dramatic effect in a work of art. (JDH)

Brigham, Diane

1986-01-01

490

Last Days of Life (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

491

Life After a Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry ...

492

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

493

A Rooted Net of Life  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

Williams, David

494

Lunar Base Life Support Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids, nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a lass of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.

Jones, Harry W.

2009-01-01

495

Physics Today Livermore ends LIFE  

E-print Network

to sup- port efforts to reduce dendrite forma- tion and extend the life of the anode, says Jerome Fineman. Twenty-two of the awardees, who were recipients of ARPA­E grants totaling $95 million, have attracted

496

Life in Tropical Rain Forests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the diversity of rain forest life, the adaptations of rain forest plants and animals, and ways these organisms interact. Includes activities on canopy critters with a copyable sheet, rain forest revue, design a plant, and jungle sleuths. (RT)

NatureScope, 1989

1989-01-01

497

Kids and Teachers Love LIFE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Electric Project LIFE Program is described as incorporating motivational learning principles that make it attractive to hearing impaired students, other handicapped students and non-handicapped students alike. (GW)

Pfau, Glenn S.

1975-01-01

498

QUALITY of LIFE 2009 Report  

E-print Network

of Business, Economic Development & Tourism #12;2 QUALITY OF LIFE IN HAWAI`I The QOL framework Development & Tourism (DBEDT). Three decades later, in 2005, the University of Hawai`i Center on the Family

499

Life as a planetary phenomenon.  

PubMed

The success of recent spacecraft from the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. has given us a wealth of new data about the planets in our solar system. We can now develop a much better rationale for the reasons that abundant life is only found on our planet. Mars, smaller and more distant from the Sun, may nevertheless hold clues to the early development of Earth's atmosphere. The origin of life on Mars early in that planet's history cannot be ruled out. Titan offers a contemporary example of extremely primitive conditions, where chemical reactions resembling those that preceded the development of life on Earth may be occurring today. Venus and Jupiter illustrate the need for a planet to be the right size and the right distance from the sun if chemical evolution leading to the origin of life is to occur. PMID:11539610

Owen, T

1985-01-01

500

Supplemental Life Insurance Benefit Highlights  

E-print Network

it comes down to it, contemplating some pretty unpleasant things is hard to do. But whenSupplemental Life income. 1 Death Rates by Age, Sex and Race: 1970 to 1997, U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract