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1

Aerothermal test of thermal protection systems for X-33 reusable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels developed for the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle was tested in the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. These tests were the first aerothermal tests of an X-33 TPS array and the test results will be used to validate the TPS for the X-33 flight program. Specifically, the tests evaluated the structural and thermal performance of the TPS, the effectiveness of the high temperature seals between adjacent panels and the durability of the TPS under realistic aerothermal flight conditions. The effect of varying panel-to-panel step heights, intentional damage to the seals between adjacent panels, and the use of secondary seals were also investigated during the test program. The metallic TPS developed for the windward surface of the X-33, the blanket TPS developed to protect the leeward surfaces of the X-33, and the test program in the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel are presented and discussed.

Sawyer, James Wayne; Hodge, Jefferson; Moore, Brad; Snyder, Kevin

1999-01-01

2

X-33 flight visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 1998, the NASA Space Transportation Programs Office and NASA Public Affairs jointly funded an activity under the Space Transportation Integrity Program (STIP) contract with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to develop X-33 flight visualizations. This technical and management support effort was contracted by the X-33 Program Office of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's X-33 Program Office. This paper presents the technical approach and methodology used in developing pre-flight visualizations, as well as the plans and approach for real-time flight coverage visualizations of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle.

Laue, Jay H.

1999-01-01

3

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

4

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20

5

Thermographic testing used on the X-33 space launch vehicle program by BFGoodrich Aerospace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStarTM, an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite- epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor (1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain view, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, (2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at Nasa Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and (3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

Burleigh, Douglas D.

1999-03-01

6

X-33: The operational challenge  

SciTech Connect

In a cooperative effort with industry, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop the next generation of reusable space transportation systems. Operational efficiency is the key attribute that will determine the economic viability of any reusable launch vehicle program. This factor not only controls the recurring cost per flight, but also determines the number of flights over which the program{close_quote}s fixed cost and overhead can be amortized. A single stage to orbit reusable vehicle has the obvious advantage of eliminating expendable hardware and the need for mating stages and interface verification; however, these factors alone are not sufficient to generate the order of magnitude improvement in operational efficiency necessary to justify a new launch system. To achieve these objectives, a clear understanding is needed of the factors that have allowed aircraft to demonstrate operability and reliability levels five orders of magnitude better than launch systems. This understanding must then be reflected in analytical tools which can support detailed design trades. Even with the best of analytical environments, the difficulty in developing an operationally efficient single stage to orbit vehicle should not be underestimated. New technologies and operational concepts must be creatively combined into a design that will initially involve significant development risk. The risk derives not so much from the possibility that the goals cannot be achieved, but from the recognition that any new program with a high investment in new technology is unlikely to succeed without an opportunity to mature these technologies and to correct deficiencies in the basic design. The X-33 Program represents the first comprehensive testbed developed for the investigation and demonstration of operational technologies and design features prior to final system design and deployment. (Abstract Truncated)

Hickman, R.A. [The Aerospace Corporation, 2350 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, California 92957-2957 (United States)

1996-03-01

7

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1986-08-20

8

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

9

Adaptive transformer thermal overload protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a report of the same title, prepared by Working Group K3 of the Substation Protection Subcommittee of the Power System Relaying Committee of the Power Engineering Society of the IEEE. The paper begins with background information on the causes, measurement techniques, and consequences of overheating in mineral-oil-immersed power transformers. Then techniques for adaptive transformer thermal

G. W. Swift; E. S. Zocholl; M. Bajpai; J. F. Burger; C. H. Castro; S. R. Chano; F. Cobelo; P. de Sa; E. C. Fennell; J. G. Gilbert; S. E. Grier; R. W. Haas; W. G. Hartmann; R. A. Hedding; P. Kerrigan; S. Mazumdar; D. H. Miller; P. G. Mysore; M. Nagpal; R. V. Rebbapragada; M. V. Thaden; J. T. Uchiyama; S. M. Usman; J. D. Wardlow; M. Yalla

2001-01-01

10

Multiwall Thermal Protection System Engineering Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of the metallic multiwall concept in thermal protection of hypersonic winged spacecraft is investigated. Examples of different thermal loads on the Advanced Space Transportation System upper and lower stages are given. The main requirements for relate...

H. Grallert K. Keller

1990-01-01

11

Thermal Protection Materials: Development, Characterization and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are used to protect space vehicles from the heat experienced during entry into an atmosphere. The application for these materials is very specialized as are the materials. They must have specific properties t...

S. M. Johnson

2012-01-01

12

Upgrades in thermal protection for downhole instruments  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of geophysical parameters in progressively deeper and hotter wells has prompted design changes that improve the performance of downhole instruments and their associated thermal protection systems. This report provides a brief description of the mechanical and thermal loads to which these instruments and systems are subjected. Each design change made to the passive thermal protection system is described along with its resulting improvement. An outline of work being done to scope an active thermal protection system and the preliminary qualitative results are also described. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Bennett, G.A.

1985-01-01

13

Thermal cleavage of the fmoc protection group.  

PubMed

The Fmoc protection group is among the most commonly used protection groups for the amino function. A fast method for the thermal deavage of this protection group under base-free conditions without the need for dibenzofulvene scavengers is presented. The advantages of this method include straightforward testability by means of a simple high-temperature NMR experiment, usually high yields, and good selectivity towards the BOC protection group and t-butyl ethers. PMID:21140921

Höck, Stefan; Marti, Roger; Riedl, Rainer; Simeunovice, Marina

2010-01-01

14

Computer Modeling for Individual Thermal Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this work is to use computer modeling to enhance individual thermal protection of clothing materials. This modeling can evaluate current clothing fabrics and also provide guidance for the development of improved materials. Calculations are per...

B. S. DeCristofano L. C. Hoke

1997-01-01

15

Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based ...

M. L. Blosser R. R. Chen I. H. Schmidt J. T. Dorsey C. C. Poteet R. K. Bird

2002-01-01

16

Surface Protection by Thermal Spraying.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, thermal spraying in its numerous variants has proved its worth to an increasing degree as a dependable coating technique. This is of considerable technical and economic significance, since in the utilization of metallic materials, as a ru...

H. D. Steffens K. N. Mueller H. Kayser

1971-01-01

17

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2012-10-01

18

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2011-10-01

19

A process-insensitive thermal protection circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel process-insensitive thermal protection structure has been developed. This circuit contains several sub-circuits such as band-gap reference, reference output buffer, resistance voltage divider branch, and hysteresis circuit. By using reference buffer, the precise reference voltage from band-gap reference is delivered to resistance voltage divider branch and is divided precisely. Then the threshold temperatures of this protection circuit can be set by this precise voltage, unaffected by process variation and mismatch. A hysteresis circuit is also used here to prevent thermal oscillation. This circuit is fabricated in TSMC 0.18 ?m CMOS technology, and occupies about 3 × 104 ?m2 chip area.

Lei, Zhao; Haiying, Zhang; Shuilong, Huang; Xiaosong, Wang

2011-07-01

20

Thermal protection systems for hypersonic transport vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic transport vehicles are described and evaluated. During the flight through the atmosphere moderate to high aerodynamic heating rates with corresponding high surface temperatures are generated. Therefore, a reliable light-weight but effective TPS is required, that limits the heat transfer into the central fuselage with the liquid hydrogen tank and that prevents the penetration of

G. Reich; J. Hinger; M. Huchler

1990-01-01

21

Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents

S. D. Williams; Donald M. Curry

1992-01-01

22

REVIEW OF X-33 HYPERSONIC AERODYNAMIC AND AEROTHERMODYNAMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the experimental and computational studies performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to support the optimization and benchmarking of the hypersonic aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic databases for the X-33 vehicle is presented. A synoptic of the testing, computational, and analysis capabilities at LaRC applied to these studies is given. Analy- ses of the hypersonic aerodynamic characteris- tics, control

Richard A. Thompson

2000-01-01

23

Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10⁻⁴ to 10⁻³\\/s) and

Robert Douglas Hardy; David R. Bronowski; Moo Yul Lee; John H. Hofer

2005-01-01

24

Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents an attempt to provide in a single source a complete set of thermophysical data on a large variety of materials used in spacecraft TPS analysis. The property data is divided into two categories: ablative and reusable. The ablative materials have been compiled into twelve categories that are descriptive of the material composition. An attempt was made to define the Arrhenius equation for each material although this data may not be available for some materials. In a similar manner, char data may not be available for some of the ablative materials. The reusable materials have been divided into three basic categories: thermal protection materials (such as insulators), adhesives, and structural materials.

Williams, S.D.; Curry, D.M.

1992-12-01

25

Shearographic and thermographic nondestructive evaluation of the space shuttle structure and thermal protection systems (TPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shearography and thermography have shown promising results on orbiter structure and external tank (ET) and solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal protection systems (TPS). The orbiter uses a variety of composite structure, the two most prevalent materials being aluminum and graphite-epoxy honeycomb. Both techniques have detected delaminations as small at 0.25 inches diameter in the orbiter payload bay doors graphite-epoxy honeycomb structure. Other applications include the robotic manipulator system (RMS) and the rudder speed brake structure. The ET uses spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) as the TPS and the SRB forward section uses marshall sprayable ablative as the TPS. Debonding SOFI damage to the orbiter 'belly' tile and exposes the ET to thermal loading. Voids in SOFI test panels as small as 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of not more than 10 inches of water or 0.4 pounds per square inch. Preliminary results of the X33 metallic TPS are presented. Ultrasonic testing approved for orbiter bond integrity testing, is time consuming and problematic. No current non-destructive inspection technique is approved for inspection of ET/SRB TPS or the orbiter RMS honeycomb at Kennedy Space Center. Only visual inspections are routinely performed on orbiter structure. The various successes of these two techniques make them good candidates for the aforementioned applications.

Davis, Christopher K.

1996-11-01

26

Advanced metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic thermal protection systems are a key technology that may help achieve the goal of reducing the cost of space access. A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. Multi-disciplinary background information was assembled and reviewed critically to provide a basis for development

Max Leon Blosser

2000-01-01

27

Thermal Face Protection Delays Finger Cooling and Improves Thermal Comfort during Cold Air Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When people dress for cold weather, the face often remains exposed. Facial cooling can decrease finger blood flow, reducing finger temperature (Tf). This study examined whether thermal face protection limits finger cooling and thereby improves thermal com...

C. O'Brien J. W. Castellani M. N. Sawka

2011-01-01

28

Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

2005-06-01

29

77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...application of thermal overload protection devices that...the availability of information regarding this document...application of thermal overload protection devices...ensure that the thermal overload protection devices will...function. II. Further Information DG-1264, was...

2012-02-27

30

Thermal Protection System Development, Testing and Qualification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science community currently has interest in planetary entry probe missions to improve our understanding of the atmospheres of Saturn and Venus [1,2]. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such data are critical to the understanding of not only the individual planets but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the solar system. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient [1] to provide the desired scientific data. The heating rates for the "shallow" Saturn probes and Venus are in the range of 2 - 5KW/cm2 . It is clear that new, mid-density Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission-enabling for mass efficiency [3] and also make the use of smaller vehicles possible from advancements in scientific instrumentation [4]. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet Arcjet Facility that was used to qualify Carbon Phenolic for the Galileo Probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technology and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arc jet that can be used for TPS development in test gases appropriate for the aforementioned, new planetary probe applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include a mid-density, chopped molded carbon phenolic (CMCP) material around 0.8g/cc and a densified variant of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) around 0.5g/cc. The small 5 MW arc jet facility, called the Development Arcjet Facility (DAF) and the methodology of testing TPS, both based on previous work, are discussed. Finally, the applications to Earth entry appropriate to speeds greater than lunar return (11km/s) are discussed as will facility-to-facility validation using air as a test gas. The use of other facilities for development, qualification and certification of TPS for Saturn and Venus is also discussed. [1] Atreya, S. K., et. al. Formation of Giant Planets and Their Atmospheres: Entry Probes for Saturn and Beyond; 5 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, June 25-29, Bordeaux, France. [2] Baines, K. H, et. al, Exploring Venus with Balloons: Science Objectives and Mission Architectures. 5 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, June 25-29 Bordeaux, France.

Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.

31

Thermal model of induction motor for relay protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of protecting an induction motor against the overheating of its stator winding and disadvantages of the thermal model\\u000a with a single time constant are considered. The thermal model of an induction motor that contain five active elements is formed\\u000a using the method of thermal circuits. The advisability of the application of the model in the formation of algorithms of

A. V. Bulychev; E. Yu. Erokhin; N. D. Pozdeev; O. A. Filichev

2011-01-01

32

Thermal protection system (TPS) monitoring using acoustic emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigates acoustic emission (AE) as a tool for monitoring the degradation of thermal protection systems (TPS). The AE sensors are part of an array of instrumentation on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch designed for testing advanced thermal protection aerospace materials used for hypervelocity vehicles. AE are generated by stresses within the material, propagate as elastic stress waves, and can be detected with sensitive instrumentation. Graphite (POCO DFP-2) is used to study gas-surface interaction during degradation of thermal protection materials. The plasma is produced by a RF magnetic field driven by a 30kW power supply at 3.5 MHz, which creates a noisy environment with large spikes when powered on or off. AE are waveguided from source to sensor by a liquid-cooled copper probe used to position the graphite sample in the plasma stream. Preliminary testing was used to set filters and thresholds on the AE detection system (Physical Acoustics PCI-2) to minimize the impact of considerable operating noise. Testing results show good correlation between AE data and testing environment, which dictates the physics and chemistry of the thermal breakdown of the sample. Current efforts for the project are expanding the dataset and developing statistical analysis tools. This study shows the potential of AE as a powerful tool for analysis of thermal protection material thermal degradations with the unique capability of real-time, in-situ monitoring.

Hurley, D. A.; Huston, D. R.; Fletcher, D. G.; Owens, W. P.

2011-03-01

33

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 ...for protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a) Definitions. For the...50.55a. (2) Pressurized Thermal Shock Event means an event or transient...

2013-01-01

34

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 ...for protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a) Definitions. For the...50.55a. (2) Pressurized Thermal Shock Event means an event or transient...

2009-01-01

35

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 ...for protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a) Definitions. For the...50.55a. (2) Pressurized Thermal Shock Event means an event or transient...

2010-01-01

36

Thermal Protection During Percutaneous Thermal Ablation Procedures: Interest of Carbon Dioxide Dissection and Temperature Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation of tumor is widely used, and thermal injury to collateral structures is a known complication of this technique. To avoid thermal damage to surrounding structures, several protection techniques have been reported. We report the use of a simple and effective protective technique combining carbon dioxide dissection and thermocouple: CO{sub 2} displaces the nontarget structures, and its low thermal conductivity provides excellent insulation; insertion of a thermocouple in contact with vulnerable structures achieves continuous thermal monitoring. We performed percutaneous thermal ablation of 37 tumors in 35 patients (4 laser, 10 radiofrequency, and 23 cryoablations) with protection of adjacent vulnerable structures by using CO{sub 2} dissection combined with continuous thermal monitoring with thermocouple. Tumor locations were various (19 intra-abdominal tumors including 4 livers and 9 kidneys, 18 musculoskeletal tumors including 11 spinal tumors). CO{sub 2} volume ranged from 10 ml (epidural space) to 1500 ml (abdominal). Repeated insufflations were performed if necessary, depending on the information given by the thermocouple and imaging control. Dissection with optimal thermal protection was achieved in all cases except two patients where adherences (one postoperative, one arachnoiditis) blocked proper gaseous distribution. No complication referred to this technique was noted. This safe, cost-effective, and simple method increases the safety and the success rate of percutaneous thermal ablation procedures. It also offers the potential to increase the number of tumors that can be treated via a percutaneous approach.

Buy, Xavier; Tok, Chung-Hong; Szwarc, Daniel; Bierry, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@rad6.u-strasbg.f [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

2009-05-15

37

Numerical simulation for thermal shock resistance of thermal protection materials considering different operating environments.  

PubMed

Based on the sensitivities of material properties to temperature and the complexity of service environment of thermal protection system on the spacecraft, ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTCs), which are used as thermal protection materials, cannot simply consider thermal shock resistance (TSR) of the material its own but need to take the external constraint conditions and the thermal environment into full account. With the thermal shock numerical simulation on hafnium diboride (HfB2), a detailed study of the effects of the different external constraints and thermal environments on the TSR of UHTCs had been made. The influences of different initial temperatures, constraint strengths, and temperature change rates on the TSR of UHTCs are discussed. This study can provide a more intuitively visual understanding of the evolution of the TSR of UHTCs during actual operation conditions. PMID:23983628

Li, Weiguo; Li, Dingyu; Wang, Ruzhuan; Fang, Daining

2013-08-01

38

Protecting reinforced concrete using thermal-sprayed titanium anodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally sprayed titanium-based anode has been developed for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structures. A thin, tightly adherent coating of titanium may be applied to concrete by plasma, flame, or arc spray techniques. Deposit efficiency and bond strength are high. A process also has been developed for catalyzing the titanium coating, which results in long-term operation at low anodic

J. E. Bennett; T. J. Schue; G. McGill

1995-01-01

39

Coated Columbium Thermal Protection Systems: An Assessment of Technological Readiness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated columbium alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention of mechanical properties a...

S. R. Levine S. J. Grisaffe

1973-01-01

40

Coated columbium thermal protection systems: an assessment of technological readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated niobium ; alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal ; protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention ; of mechanical properties and structural integrity of panels upon repeated reentry ; simulation. Production of- the alloy, the coating, and fullsized TPS panels

S. R. Levine; S. J. Grisaffe

1973-01-01

41

49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this part. (c) Systems that no longer require...of thermal protection systems that comply with the...test verification. Information necessary to equip tank cars with one of these systems is available in the...Administration, East Building, 1200 New Jersey...

2011-10-01

42

Technical systems in intelligent clothing with active thermal protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the practical construction of a patented intelligent article of clothing with active thermal protection, outer shell with a variable thickness, system of thermoinsulating chambers, sensors and measuring systems, microcontroller and control system, actuator system and power supply system based on hardware aspect. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on practical construction and software aspect, a measuring

Snježana Firšt Rogale; Dubravko Rogale; Zvonko Drag?evi?; Gojko Nikoli?; Milivoj Bartoš

2007-01-01

43

Detection of fastener failure in a thermal protection system panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents development methods and application results for a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for assessing the condition of mechanical fasteners in a test article representing a realistic portion of a thermal protection system. The test article is a carbon-carbon panel bolted through 15 brackets to a backing structure. Mechanical states considered include all bolts fastened to a nominal

J. Rosenstengel; Isaac Miller; M. DeSimio; Mark Derriso; Kevin Brown; W. Braisted; S. Olson

2004-01-01

44

Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Shuttle Thermal Protection System Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the mechanical properties and behavior of materials used for the thermal protection system of the space shuttle. The materials investigated include the LI-900 RSI tiles, the RTV-560 adhesive and the .4...

J. W. Sawyer D. R. Rummler

1980-01-01

45

Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strateg...

T. J. Kowal

2010-01-01

46

Thermal face protection delays finger cooling and improves thermal comfort during cold air exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people dress for cold weather, the face often remains exposed. Facial cooling can decrease finger blood flow, reducing\\u000a finger temperature (T\\u000a f). This study examined whether thermal face protection limits finger cooling and thereby improves thermal comfort and manual\\u000a dexterity during prolonged cold exposure. T\\u000a f was measured in ten volunteers dressed in cold-weather clothing as they stood for

Catherine O’Brien; John W. Castellani; Michael N. Sawka

47

Metallic thermal protection concept for aerodynamic controlled hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal protection system (TPS) application conditions in future European Space Trasporter systems are discussed. Metallic multiwall panels optionally combined with ultralight multiscreen insulations are shown to be applicable in the temperature range 200-1300 C. For higher temperatures, advanced ceramic composites are preferable, provided some basic ceramic material problems are solved. A comparison between metallic and ceramic TPS design characteristics is presented for the temperature range 200-1300 C.

Grallert, H.; Keller, K.

48

Comparative tests of models of passive and combination thermal protection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an experimental study of models of passive radiative and combination radiative-evaporative thermal protection systems are reported. In determining the optimal parameters of both systems, constraints on the maximum temperature of the protected metal structure are used. It is shown that, in the case of the combination thermal protection system, the thickness of the outer thermal insulation layer is

V. N. Anan'ev; A. P. Kuriachii

1992-01-01

49

Design, Development and Test of Shuttle/Centaur G-Prime Cryogenic Tankage Thermal Protection Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal protection systems for the shuttle/Centaur would have had to provide fail-safe thermal protection during prelaunch, launch ascent, and on-orbit operations as well as during potential abort. The thermal protection systems selected used a helium...

R. H. Knoll P. N. Macneil J. E. England

1987-01-01

50

Flight Set 360L006 Sts-34 Field Joint Protection System, Thermal Protection System, and Systems Tunnel Components, Volume 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of the thermal protection system, field joint protection system, and systems tunnel components of Flight Set 360L006, are documented, as evaluated by postflight hardware inspection. The condition of both motors was similar to previous flig...

J. P. Wilkinson

1990-01-01

51

Mathematical Models of Skin Burns Induced by Simulated Postcrash Fires as Aids in Thermal Protective Clothing Design and Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and selection of thermal protective clothing takes into account many factors, e.g., appearance, comfort, durability, cost, and thermal protective capability. To aid in determining the appropriate balance among these factors, thermal protective ...

F. S. Knox T. L. Wachtel S. C. Knapp

1978-01-01

52

X-33 Attitude Control Using the XRS-2200 Linear Aerospike Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing, under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control systems for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Test flights, while suborbital, will achieve sufficient altitudes and Mach numbers to test Single Stage To Orbit, Reusable

Charles E. Hall; Hagop V. Panossian

53

Analysis of Linear Aerospike Plume Induced X-33 Base Heating Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational analysis is conducted to study the effect of an linear aerospike engine plume on the X-33 base-heating environment during ascent flight. To properly account for the freestream-body interaction and to allow for potential plume-induced flow-se...

T. S. Wang

1998-01-01

54

The Relative Effects of Entry Parameters on Thermal Protection System Weight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shielding a spacecraft from the severe thermal environment of an atmospheric entry requires a sophisticated thermal protection system (TPS). Thermal computer program models were developed for two such TPS designs proposed for the space shuttle orbiter. Th...

P. N. Hirasaki

1971-01-01

55

Thermal protection for successively starting three phase induction motors using Particle Swarm Optimization technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a thermal protection technique is presented by applying Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to thermally protect three phase Induction Motors (IMs), that are being successively starting, from operating beyond the IM thermal limits. This approach is implemented with PSO so as to determine the number of starting and operating times versus the IM thermal capability. This leads

Noha H. El-Amary; Farid A. Ezzat; Yasser G. Mostafa; Walid A. M. Ghoneim

2012-01-01

56

Inclusion of Thermal Protection Systems in Spacecraft Thermal-Stress Analysis using Concurrent Engineering Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creating compatible thermal and structural mathematical models is complicated by the different meshing requirements of the thermal and structural disciplines. Often times, the structural model is of significantly higher fidelity requiring the thermal model to grow to an intractable size if full compatibility is to be assured. Given that the structural finite element mesh can be transformed into a thermal model, the network description remains incomplete until the appropriate thermal protection system (TPS) features are added. For entry heating studies, a high fidelity TPS mesh is required to accurately predict structural temperatures. Additionally, local pressure, temperature and heating variations further complicate the analysis. A technique for the efficient extraction of thermal protection system thickness data from CAD geometry is presented. The technique allows for application of complicated TPS cross-sections consisting of different materials and permits local pressure and heating rate variations. The resulting process has been successfully demonstrated on the X-38 crew return vehicle configuration and serves as a prototype for concurrent engineering techniques using a combination of custom and commercial software tools.

Rickman, Steven L.

2002-07-01

57

Nondestructive evaluation of thermal spray cathodic protection anodes  

SciTech Connect

The aging of thermal spray (TS) cathodic protection (CP) anodes is usually characterized by the amount of current passing through the anode-concrete interface. This charge, also called electrochemical age, can be correlated to bond strength and eventual failure of TS Zn anodes. Several non-destructive techniques were subsequently applied to aged thermal spray anodes to determine if other property measurements would correlate to electrochemical age and thus to service life. The techniques considered are the circuit resistance of impressed current anodes, the AC resistivity between the rebar and the anode, and the surface resistivity of the TS anodes. All three techniques gave a good correlation of measured property to electrochemical age. Surface resistivity can also be used to calculate the thickness of anode remaining.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Bullard, S.J.; Holcomb, G.R.; Cramer, S.D.

2000-03-01

58

Thermomechanical analysis of a damaged thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the effects of damage on the thermomechanical performance and structural integrity of thermal protection systems (TPS) has been limited. The objective of this research is to address this need by conducting experiments and finite element (FE) analysis on damaged TPS. The TPS selected for study is the High-Temperature Reusable Insulation (HRSI) tiles that are used extensively on NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. The TPS considered, which consists of a LI-900 tile, the strain isolator pad and the underlying structure, is subjected to the thermal loading and re-entry static pressure of the Access to Space reference vehicle. The damage to the TPS emulates hypervelocity-impact-type damage, which is approximated in the current research by a cylindrical hole ending with a spherical cap. Preliminary FE analysis using several simplifying assumptions, was conducted to determine the accuracy of using an approximate axisymmetric model compared to a complete three-dimensional model for both heat transfer and thermal stress analyses. Temperature results from the two models were found to be reasonable close; however, thermal stress results displayed significant differences. The sensitivity of the FE results to the various simplifying assumptions was also examined and it was concluded that for reliable results, the simplifying assumptions were not acceptable. Subsequently, an exact three-dimensional model was developed and validated by comparison with experimental data. Re-entry static pressures and temperatures were simulated using a high-temperature experimental facility that consists of a quartz radiant heater and a vacuum chamber with appropriate instrumentation. This facility was developed during the course of this dissertation. Temperatures on the top and bottom surfaces of the TPS specimen as well as strains in the underlying structure were recorded for FE model validation. The validated FE model was then combined with improved thermal loads based on the interactions of hypersonic flow past a cavity representing the damage. Effects of damage on the TPS were assessed by comparing the thermal and structural response of damaged configuration to the undamaged TPS. Damage increases the thermal loads on the TPS and significantly reduces the heat rejection capability of the surface of the tile, resulting in elevated temperatures. The higher temperatures coupled with the stress concentrations introduced by the damage cause a substantial increase in thermal stresses. For the damage sizes considered, the elevated thermal stresses alone are not likely to cause material failure. However, a modest damage size of 0.5? is capable of raising temperatures in the tile to exceed its melting point.

Ng, Wei Heok

59

Protecting reinforced concrete using thermal-sprayed titanium anodes  

SciTech Connect

A thermally sprayed titanium-based anode has been developed for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structures. A thin, tightly adherent coating of titanium may be applied to concrete by plasma, flame, or arc spray techniques. Deposit efficiency and bond strength are high. A process also has been developed for catalyzing the titanium coating, which results in long-term operation at low anodic potentials. This anode is expected to be useful especially where concrete overlays are undesirable and where long life and durability are important.

Bennett, J.E. [J.E. Bennett Consultants, Inc., Chardon, OH (United States); Schue, T.J. [Eltech Research Corp., Fairport Harbor, OH (United States); McGill, G. [Oregon Dept. of Transportation, Salem, OR (United States)

1995-11-01

60

Bioremediation of Parboiled Rice Effluent Supplemented with Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol Using Pichia pastoris X-33  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the use of Pichia pastoris X-33 as a bioremediator to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and phosphorus (P-PO4???3?), after culture in parboiled rice effluent supplemented with p.a. glycerol or a glycerol by-product of the biodiesel industry. The greatest reduction in the COD (55%), TKN (45%), and P-PO4???3? (52%) of the effluent was observed in cultures of P. pastoris X-33 supplemented with 15?g?·L?1 of biodiesel-derived glycerol. Furthermore, the overall biomass yield was 2.1?g?·L?1. These data suggest that biodiesel-derived glycerol is an efficient carbon source for the bioremediation of parboiled rice effluent and biomass production.

Gil de los Santos, Diego; Gil Turnes, Carlos; Rochedo Conceicao, Fabricio

2012-01-01

61

Exercising divers' thermal protection as a function of water temperature.  

PubMed

Physiological adjustments and passive thermal insulation are not sufficient to protect divers in the cold and warm waters experienced by sport, professional and military divers. In a previous study of resting subjects, divers were protected by actively heated/cooled water that perfused a six-zone (head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet) tube suit. Subsequently a self-contained diver thermal protection system (DTPS) was developed and used in this study to test male divers (n = 8) wearing a 6-mm foam neoprene wetsuit in water temperatures (T(W)) of 10 degrees C-39 degrees C at 4 feet in depth. The DTPS is a scuba backpack containing five thermoelectric devices that heat/cool water to 30 degrees C, six pumps that circulate the water through a six-zone tube suit via two manifolds, and an electronic controller. Skin temperatures (T(S), n = 17) and core temperature (T(C), capsule) were measured. The DTPS and each zone of the tube suit were also instrumented. Divers were tested with the DTPS operational (protected) and turned off (unprotected) for 90 minutes. In the unprotected condition, T(S) decreased and approached T(W), while T(C) trended to decrease over the exposure time. Mean T(S) as a function of T(W) was T(S) = 0.44 T(W) + 21.23 degrees C while unprotected, but T(S) = 0.19 T(W) + 27.1 degrees C when the diver was protected. The average total heating/cooling power required to protect the diver was 166 +/- 78W, 86 +/- 95W, 9 +/- 75W, 72 +/- 45W, 135 +/- 73W, 279 +/- 87W and 336 +/- 95W at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 39 degrees C water temperatures, respectively. This power requirement was nominally split 4%, 22%, 22%, 14%, 25% and 13% for head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet, respectively. While unprotected, divers T(S) and T(C) did not remain within acceptable limits in T(W) below 25 degrees C or above 30 degrees C. When using the DTPS, however, they did remain within acceptable limits, and the divers reported they were comfortable. PMID:21510272

Pendergast, David R; Mollendorf, Joseph

62

Ground Test Investigation on a Thermal Protection System Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the atmospheric reentry of a spacecraft, the dissociated flow around its Thermal Protection System (TPS) could travel from a low cat- alytic to a high catalytic surface. In this situation a peak of heat flux is experienced at the junction between the two materials. A safe vehicle design cannot preclude investigations on such a phenomenon, since the consequent heating could be harmful for the integrity of TPS. The present work finds its framework on the EXPERT (Eu- ropean eXPErimental Re-entry Testbed) project. The EXPERT vehicle TPS is composed of a C/SiC nose and a PM1000 skirt, so that a catalytic transition occurs in correspondence of their junction. Experiments on wall catalysis phenomena over Thermal Protection Materials (TPM) are performed in this project, using the von Karman Institute (VKI) induction-coupled plasma generator (Plasmatron), under operating conditions representative for real flight situation. In- frared thermography and pyrometry temperature measurements are performed in order to experimentally prove and quantify the transition.

Panerai, F.; Thoemel, J.; Chazot, O.

2009-01-01

63

Transient loads identification for a standoff metallic thermal protection system panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standoff thermal protection system (TPS) panels are critical structural components in future aerospace vehicles because they protect the vehicle from the hostile environment encountered during space launch and reentry. Consequently, the panels are exposed to a variety of loads including high temperature thermal stresses, thermal shock, acoustic pressure, and foreign object impacts. Transient impacts are especially detrimental because they can

R. J. Hundhausen; Douglas E. Adams; Mark Derriso; Paul Kukuchek; Richard Alloway

2004-01-01

64

Ballistic performance of porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/ft3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrousinsulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principles impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.; Foreman, Cory D.

2012-03-01

65

Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are also highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on one of these systems. The materials considered are 8 lb/ft^3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. A model extension to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state measurements is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Foreman, Cory

2011-06-01

66

Today's thermal imaging systems: Background and applications for civilian law enforcement and military force protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal (infrared) imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, or commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security area...

T. L. Bisbee D. A. Pritchard

1997-01-01

67

75 FR 72653 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 50 [NRC-2007-0008] RIN 3150-AI01 Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal...Regulations (10 CFR) part 50, section 61a to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized...

2010-11-26

68

75 FR 5495 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 50 RIN 3150-AI01 [NRC-2007-0008] Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal...that amends the NRC's regulations to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized...

2010-02-03

69

Induction Motor Thermal Protection: Models, State and Parameter Estimation and Laboratory Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide adequate thermal motor protection, the stator winding and rotor bar temperature should be monitored. This research presents methods to estimate these temperatures using stator and rotor thermal models, which describe the stator and rotor thermal characteristics. The stator copper loss and iron core losses are considered as the heat inputs to the stator thermal model. The rotor copper

Antenor Segundo Aliaga Zegarra

1984-01-01

70

Ocean thermal conversion (OTEC) project bottom cable protection study. Analysis and selection of protection techniques  

SciTech Connect

General guidelines and procedures for cable protection are given for the four proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant sites and cable routes, together with seafloor scenarios and protection strategies for each site. Burial of the cable below the seafloor is the recommended and best method of protecting OTEC cables from the hazards existing at all sites, namely, chafe and corrosion, hydrodynamic forces, trawler/dredge, and ship anchor. For landslides and earthquakes the only feasible method of protection, although limited, is to provide slack, in the cable, i.e. lay extra length. Trenches for burying the cable are recommended to be constructed a) by blasting through hard bottom at Hawaii for the first nautical mile (n.m.) and at Puerto Rico for the first 0.9 n.m; b)by a plowing machine at Hawaii for the next 0.5 n.m.; c) by a trenching machine at Guam for the first 0.55 n.m.; d) by a trenching /laying machine at Florida for 110 n.m.; and e) by a conventional floating dredge for 15 n.m. For the outshore segments of the cable routes it is recommenced to lay the cable on th seafloor because bottom sediments are soft enough to permit the cable to bury itself. Except for the Florida route, a normal cable laying vessel is recommended for laying the cable from plant site to landfall and for performing the protection details which are temie concrete cover over the cable at Hawaii for 0.5 n.m. and split pipe and rock anchor at Puerto Rico for 0l2 n.m.

Not Available

1981-10-01

71

Technologies for thermal protection systems applied on re-usable launcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of any future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) shall aim at a significant reduction of the payload transportation costs. One of the most expensive systems for any RLV is the thermal protection system (TPS), which protects the vehicle from the high thermal loads during re-entry. EADS ST is developing and qualifying TPS components and technologies for a wide range

Burkhard Behrens; Mark Müller

2004-01-01

72

Space Shuttle thermal protection system inspection by 3D imaging laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has developed a sensor suite to inspect the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System while the Shuttle is flying in orbit. When the Space Shuttle returns to flight, it will carry a 3D Imaging Laser Radar as part of the sensor suite to observe the Thermal Protection System and indicate any damages that may need to be repaired before return

James C. Lamoreux; James D. Siekierski; J. P. N. Carter

2004-01-01

73

Multilayer SiC for thermal protection system of space vehicles with decreased thermal conductivity through the thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tape casting combined with layer stacking, debinding and sintering proved to be a suitable technique for processing SiC-based multilayers to be used as thermal protection system for space vehicles. In this paper two methods have been evaluated in order to decrease the thermal conductivity through the thickness of the material: the insertion of layers containing a pore forming agent able

S. Biamino; A. Antonini; C. Eisenmenger-Sittner; L. Fuso; M. Pavese; P. Fino; E. Bauer; C. Badini

2010-01-01

74

Thermal Growth and Performance of Manganese Cobaltite Spinel Protection Layers on Ferritic Stainless Steel SOFC Interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To protect solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from chromium poisoning and improve metallic interconnect stability, manganese cobaltite spinel protection layers with a nominal composition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 were thermally grown on Crofer22 APU, a ferritic stainless steel. Thermal, electrical and electrochemical investigations indicated that the spinel protection layers not only significantly decreased the contact area specific resistance (ASR) between a LSF

Zhenguo Yang; Guanguang Xia; Steven P. Simner; Jeffry W. Stevenson

2005-01-01

75

Investigation for thermal stability of U(sub 3)Si(sub 2) and protection methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal stability of U(sub 3)Si(sub 2) in Ar, N(sub 2) and air, and the interaction between U(sub 3)Si(sub 2) and Al, Zr have been investigated by thermal analysis method. According to the results of thermal analysis, protection measures for various p...

Zhang Huiying Sun Jichang Sun Rongxian

1994-01-01

76

U.S. Military Use of Thermal Manikins in Protective Clothing Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. military has utilized thermal manikins in protective clothing research for nearly 60 years. Prior to their development, the evaluation of textile thermal insulation was limited to one-dimensional, guard- ring flat plates. During WW II, thermal ma...

L. A. Stroschein R. R. Gonzalez T. L. Endrusick

2002-01-01

77

New [NZP] materials for protection coatings. Tailoring of thermal expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

[NZP] (the NaZr2P3O12-Family) materials can be selected for synthesizing new thermal shock resistant ceramic coatings with a thermal expansion that can be tailored to match that of the substrate, and to possess a low thermal expansion anisotropy. The tailoring technique will involve the selection of a suitable pair of compositions which, upon being mixed to form a crystalline solution, will

E. Breval; H. A. Mckinstry; D. K. Agrawal

2000-01-01

78

Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (...

W. L. Ko L. Gong R. D. Quinn

2004-01-01

79

In-Flight Load Testing of Advanced Shuttle Thermal Protection Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Ames Research Center has conducted in-flight airload testing of some advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The two flexible TPS materials tested, felt reusable surface insulation (FRSI) and advanced flexible ...

B. M. Trujillo R. Meyer P. M. Sawko

1983-01-01

80

Cardiovascular and thermal consequences of protective clothing: a comparison of clothed and unclothed states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have undertaken a laboratory-based examination of the cardiovascular and thermal impact of wearing thermal (heat) protective clothing during fatiguing exercise in the heat. Seven males completed semi-recumbent, intermittent cycling (39.6°C, 45% relative humidity) wearing either protective clothing or shorts (control). Mean core and skin temperatures, cardiac frequency (fc), stroke volume (Q), cardiac output (), arterial pressure, forearm blood flow

Alison L Fogarty; Karen A Armstrong; Christopher J Gordon; Herbert Groeller; Brian F Woods; Jodie M Stocks; Nigel AS Taylor

2004-01-01

81

Fiber optic microsensor hydrogen leak detection system on Aerospike X-33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial and military launch vehicles are designed to use cryogenic hydrogen as the main propellant, which is very volatile, extremely flammable, and highly explosive. Current detection system uses Teflon transfer tubes at small number of vehicle location through which gas samples are drawn and stream analyzed by a mass spectrometer. A concern with this approach is the high cost of the system. Also, the current system does not provide leak location and is not in real time. This system is very complex and cumbersome for production and ground support measurement personnel. This paper describes the successful test of a multipoint fiber optic hydrogen microsensors system on the Linear Aerospike X-33 rocket engine at NASA's Stennis Flight Center. The system consisted of a reversible chemical interaction causing a change in reflective of a thin film of coated Palladium. The sensor using a passive element consisting of chemically reactive microcoatings deposited on the surface of a glass microlens, which is then bonded to an optical fiber. The system uses a multiplexing technique with a fiber optic driver-receiver consisting of a modulated LED source that is launched into the sensor, and photodiode detector that synchronously measures the reflected signal. The system incorporates a microprocessor to perform the data analysis and storage, as well as trending and set alarm function. The paper illustrates the sensor design and performance data under field deployment conditions.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Goepp, John W.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark E.

2007-10-01

82

Performance of thermal-sprayed zinc anodes treated with humectants in cathodic protection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal-sprayed Zn anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems in Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to minimize corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed Zn performs well as an ICCP anode but the voltage requirement can increase with increasing electrochemical age. It also performs well as a galvanic (GCP) anode but current output can decrease with increasing electrochemical age. Past research

Sophie J. Bullard; Covino Bernard S. Jr; Stephen D. Cramer; Gordon R. Holcomb; James H. Russell; John E. Bennett; John K. Milius; Curtis B. Cryer; Steven M. Soltesz

2001-01-01

83

Thermal spray anodes for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structures  

SciTech Connect

Differences between thermal spray Zn and catalyzed thermal spray Ti, used for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structures, are reviewed. Considerations include spray parameters, atomizing gases, spray rate, and costs, as well as physical properties, composition, and structure. Comparisons of the effect of electrochemical aging on voltage requirements, bond strength, coating resistivity, water permeability, and anode-concrete interfacial chemistry are included.

Covino, B.S. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.; Holcomb, G.R.; Collins, W.K. (Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center); McGill, G.E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation, OR (United States))

1999-01-01

84

Thermal spray anodes for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between thermal spray Zn and catalyzed thermal spray Ti, used for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structures, are reviewed. Considerations include spray parameters, atomizing gases, spray rate, and costs, as well as physical properties, composition, and structure. Comparisons of the effect of electrochemical aging on voltage requirements, bond strength, coating resistivity, water permeability, and anode-concrete interfacial chemistry

B. S. Jr. Covino; S. D. Cramer; S. J. Bullard; G. R. Holcomb; W. K. Collins; G. E. McGill

1999-01-01

85

High crossrange reentry vehicle design with trajectory and thermal protection system optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the crossrange trajectories required by prospective ESA aerospaceplanes for landings in Europe entail low angles-of-attack during the aerodynamic reentry phase, which generate high thermal loads and transients, attention is being given to fundamental questions of thermal protection system design. All relevant parameters have to be taken into account, in order to arrive at an optimum flight strategy by which

H. Kuczera; K. Keller; W. Mueller; K. Demleitner; P. Strohmeier

1989-01-01

86

Multi-scale simulations of in-depth pyrolysis of charring ablative thermal protection material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charring ablative thermal protection systems have been commonly used to protect the payload of a hypersonic or space exploration vehicle from exposure to high heat loads. The physical phenomena associated with the pyrolysis of the charring ablative material are very complex. The existing surface ablation models were built upon various assumptions, which introduce large uncertainties in the engineering design process

Gary C. Cheng; Balaji Shankar Venkatachari; Ioana Cozmuta

2011-01-01

87

Heat transfer in a multilayered thermal protection system under aerodynamic heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future generation reusable re-entry vehicles must be capable of sustaining consistent repeated aero-thermal loads without damage or deterioration. This means that such structures should be able to withstand high temperatures engendered by aero-thermal re-entry fluxes due to the establishment of a hypersonic regime over the body.Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are used to maintain a reusable launch vehicle structural temperature within

M. Ferraiuolo; O. Manca

88

Thermal design for protection of downhole electronic packages  

SciTech Connect

Design improvements made for downhole tools based on results obtained from the thermal analysis of the instrument package are described. Results include heat flux at the tool surface and temperature-time histories of each subsystem. The research stems from a need for tools that can survive the harsh environment present in geothermal wellbores. The high temperatures and pressures create stress on the tools that function in this environment. Improvements in the design of downhole tools lead to more accurate data obtained from the wellbore during experimentation. The analysis showed that the thermal potential and the conductance between electronics and its heat sink was too small and was misdirected. Significant improvements were achieved by increasing the available thermal capacity of the heat sink, the thermal potential between the heat sink and electronics, and the conductance of the heat transfer paths.

Bennett, G.A.; Sherman, G.R.

1983-01-01

89

Thermal Switch Disc for Short Circuit Protection of Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A protective device for one battery or serially arranged battery cells is disclosed and is adapted to fit between one battery and its terminal connector or between adjacent battery cells. The device incorporates a disk of positive temperature coefficient ...

E. C. Darcy B. J. Bragg

1989-01-01

90

Detection of impact damage on thermal protection systems using thin-film piezoelectric sensors for integrated structural health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) can be subjected to impact damage during flight and\\/or during ground maintenance and\\/or repair. AFRL\\/RXLP is developing a reliable and robust on-board sensing\\/monitoring capability for next generation thermal protection systems to detect and assess impact damage. This study was focused on two classes of metallic thermal protection tiles to determine threshold for impact damage and develop

Jeong K. Na; Samuel J. Kuhr; Kumar V. Jata

2008-01-01

91

Thermal instability of protected end states in a one-dimensional topological insulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the dynamical thermal effects on the protected end states of a topological insulator (TI) when it is considered as an open quantum system in interaction with a noisy environment at a certain temperature T. As a result, we find that protected end states in a TI become unstable and decay with time. Very remarkably, the interaction with the thermal environment (fermion-boson) respects chiral symmetry, which is the symmetry responsible for the protection (robustness) of the end states in this TI when it is isolated from the environment. Therefore, this mechanism makes end states unstable while preserving their protecting symmetry. Our results have immediate practical implications in recently proposed simulations of TIs using cold atoms in optical lattices. Accordingly, we have computed lifetimes of topological end states for these physical implementations that are useful to make those experiments realistic.

Viyuela, O.; Rivas, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

2012-10-01

92

[The mechanisms of the thermal protective action of atsefen].  

PubMed

The study of thermoprotective properties of acephen (300 mg, single dosage) showed an increase (compared to that of placebo) in the maximum endurable time under thermal loading in healthy volunteers: optimization of evaporative heat exchange regime; reduction of the final values of reactive anxiety and fatigue and decrease in the rate of skin temperature growth. In combination with the data of biochemical analysis of peripheral blood which demonstrated positive changes in hormone, lipid, protein, and energy metabolism as well as in vegetative regulation, the results testify to a substantial thermoprotective potential of acephen attributed to the wide range of its pharmacological activity. PMID:8704597

Badyshtov, B A; Losev, A S; Sytnik, S I; Pastushenkov, V A; Makhnycheva, A L; Kolotilinskaia, N V; Mironov, S A; Seredenin, S B

93

Design of an integral thermal protection system for future space vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal protection systems (TPS) are the features incorporated into a spacecraft's design to protect it from severe aerodynamic heating during high-speed travel through planetary atmospheres. The ablative TPS on the space capsule Apollo and ceramic tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle Orbiter were designed as add-ons to the main load-bearing structure of the vehicles. They are usually incompatible with

Satish Kumar Bapanapalli

2007-01-01

94

Thermal Protection of Induction Motors Enhanced by Interactive Electrical and Thermal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models are of interest to application engineers because they identify important electrical, thermal, and mechanical interactions in an induction motor. They provide a format for the parameters which must be obtained. The loading and terminal conditions can then be specified and the model state equations used to obtain the thermal limit curves and, what is more important, the time solution

Edmund O. Schweitzer; Antenor Aliaga-Zegarra

1984-01-01

95

PER High Interest Paper Thermal Protection of Induction Motors Enhanced by Interactive Electrical and Thermal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models are of interest to application engineers because they identify important electrical, thermal, and mechanical interactions in an induction motor. They provide a format for the parameters which must be obtained. The loading and terminal conditions can then be specified and the model state equations used to obtain the thermal limit curves and, what is more important, the time solution

Edmund O. Schweitzer; Antenor Aliaga-Zegarra

1985-01-01

96

Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

2007-04-01

97

Superconducting coil with pure copper wires for thermal protection outside cable-in-conduit conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize a low cost toroidal field (TF) superconducting coil system for tokamak fusion reactors, the design of TF superconducting coil with a copper coil in place of pure copper wires which are needed for the thermal protection within cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors is considered. This consideration is carried out under the condition that hot spot temperature of conductor

Toshinari Ando; M. Kikuchi

2003-01-01

98

Modes of Thermal Protection in Polar Bear Cubs - at Birth and upon Emergence from the Den.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At birth in late December the polar bear is small (700 g), uninsulated and helpless. It probably has a modest capacity for metabolic heat production and depends on the female and a snow den in which it is born for thermal protection. The microclimate of a...

A. S. Blix J. W. Lentfer

1978-01-01

99

MICROCONTROLLER BASED THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR PROTECTION RELAY WITH OPERATOR SELECTABLE THERMAL IT CURVE FEATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Microcontroller based three phase induction motor protection relay. The scheme employs the Hall effect current transducers for sensing motor line currents, and an ‘Auto ranging ’ feature, in order to acquire motor line currents accurately from no load to blocked rotor current. The flexibility of ‘Operator selectable thermal current versus time (I-T) curves feature’ is incorporated

K. PANDURANGAVITTAL; D. B. FAKRUDDIN; I. RAGHAVENDRA RAO; K. PARTHASARATHY

1998-01-01

100

Evaluation of Thermal Stress Induced by Helicopter Aircrew Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Protective Ensemble.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The A/P22P-9(V) Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Protective Assembly for helicopter aircrews has been evaluated for the additional thermal stress it imparts to users in a hot environment. The standard aircrew life support system for helicopters, b...

J. W. Kaufman K. Y. Dejneka S. Morrissey A. Bittner

1988-01-01

101

Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repelle...

D. W. Fuerstenau R. Ravikumar

1997-01-01

102

Structural Tests on a Tile/Strain Isolation Pad Thermal Protection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aluminum skin of the space shuttle is covered by a thermal protection system (TPS) consisting of a low density ceramic tile bonded to a matted-felt material called strain insulation pad (SIP). The structural characteristics of the TPS were studied exp...

J. G. Williams

1980-01-01

103

Thermal sprayed titanium anode for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable operation of cobalt catalyzed thermal sprayed titanium anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of bridge reinforcing steel was maintained in accelerated tests for a period equivalent to 23 years service at Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) bridge CP conditions with no evidence that operation would degrade with further aging. The cobalt catalyst dispersed into the concrete near the anodeconcrete

S. D. Cramer; B. S. Covino; G. R. Holcomb; S. J. Bullard; W. K. Collins; R. D. Govier; R. D. Wilson; H. M. Laylor

1999-01-01

104

Thermomechanical response of metal foam sandwich panels for structural thermal protection systems in hypersonic vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandwich panels with metal foam cores are proposed for load-bearing structural components in actively cooled thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles. Prototype acreage metal foam sandwich panels (MFSP's) are constructed and analyzed with the central goal of characterizing the thermomechanical response of the system. MFSP's are subjected to uniform temperature fields and equibiaxial loading in a novel experimental load frame.

Joseph F. Rakow

2005-01-01

105

Thermal Protection Afforded by Two Anti-Exposure Coveralls When Worn in Cold Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) was contracted by U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters to evaluate the thermal protection afforded by two prototype aircrew anti exposure coveralls when worn in cold water. The coveralls were developed by t...

N. A. Pimental B. A. Avellini

1988-01-01

106

Room Temperature Shear Properties of the Strain Isolator Pad for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the shear properties of the strain isolator pad (SIP) material used in the thermal protection system of the space shuttle. Tests were conducted on both the .23 cm and .41 cm thick SIP material in the v...

J. W. Sawyer W. A. Waters

1981-01-01

107

Thermal preconditioning protects rat cardiac muscle cells from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doxorubicin (DOX=adriamycine), an effective chemotherapeutic agents for cancers, has severe cardiotoxicity. In the paresent study, we examined the protective effect of thermal preconditioning (TP) against apoptosis of rat cardiac muscle cells induced by DOX. Treatment with DOX (10 ?M) for 24 hrs resulted in apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells, which was evaluated by examining “DNA ladder” formation and TUNEL staining.

Hiroshi Ito; Takashi Shimojo; Hiroyuki Fujisaki; Mimi Tamamori; Shigeru Ishiyama; Susumu Adachi; Shinji Abe; Fumiaki Marumo; Michiaki Hiroe

1999-01-01

108

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

109

Thermal Growth and Performance of Manganese Cobaltite Spinel Protection Layers on Ferritic Stainless Steel SOFC Interconnects  

SciTech Connect

To protect solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from chromium poisoning and improve metallic interconnect stability, manganese cobaltite spinel protection layers with a nominal composition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 were thermally grown on Crofer22 APU, a ferritic stainless steel. Thermal, electrical and electrochemical investigations indicated that the spinel protection layers not only significantly decreased the contact area specific resistance (ASR) between a LSF cathode and the stainless steel interconnect, but also inhibited the sub-scale growth on the stainless steel by acting as a barrier to the inward diffusion of oxygen. A long-term thermal cycling test demonstrated excellent structural and thermomechanical stability of these spinel protection layers, which also acted as a barrier to outward chromium cation diffusion to the interconnect surface. The reduction in the contact ASR and prevention of Cr migration achieved by application of the spinel protection layers on ferritic stainless steel resulted in improved stability and electrochemical performance of SOFCs.

Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Simner, Steven P.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2005-08-01

110

Performance of thermal-sprayed zinc anodes treated with humectants in cathodic protection systems  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed Zn anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems in Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to minimize corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed Zn performs well as an ICCP anode but the voltage requirement can increase with increasing electrochemical age. It also performs well as a galvanic (GCP) anode but current output can decrease with increasing electrochemical age. Past research has shown that increasing moisture at the Zn anode-concrete interface improves the operation of the thermal-sprayed Zn anode. Humectants, hygroscopic materials that are applied to the surface of the Zn-anode, can increase the moisture at the zinc-concrete interface, thereby improving the performance and extending the anode service life. Results are given for humectant-treated (LiBr and LiNO3) thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in the laboratory electrochemical aging studies and in field studies on the Yaquina Bay Bridge, Oregon, USA.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bennett, John E. (JE Bennett Consulting Inc.); Milius, John K. (Corrosion Restoration Tech.); Cryer, Curtis B. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation); Soltesz, Steven M. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

2001-01-01

111

Integrated Sensing and Material Damage Identification in Metallic and Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems Using Vibration and Wave Propagation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global thermal and impact material damage mechanisms in metallic and ceramic thermal protection systems are detected, located, and quantified using four complementary methods for sensing and data interrogation. First, spatial-temporal beamforming algorithms are used to process active elastic waves measured from remote sensor arrays in two different equilibrium positions of a gamma Ti-Al sheet to localize simulated thermal damage. Damage

S. Sundararaman; J. White; H. Jiang; D. Adams; K. Jata

2006-01-01

112

Chemically modified thermal-spray zinc anodes for galvanic cathodic protection  

SciTech Connect

Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were applied to new and previously aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes to improve the performance of galvanic cathodic protection systems. Anodes on steel-reinforced concrete were treated with aqueous solutions of the humectants lithium nitrate (LiNO{sub 3}) and lithium bromide (LiBr). LiBr was the most beneficial humectant, increasing the average galvanic current density of new thermal-sprayed Zn anodes by as much as a factor of six.

Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Holcomb, G.R.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

1999-12-01

113

Acoustic Characterization and Impact Sensing for Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems (TPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to understand acoustic wave propagation characteristics in a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) wrapped tile thermal protection system (CMC+ Foam+ RTV+ SIP+ RTV+ Al) and ceramic foam. Sound velocities were measured in three orthogonal directions on the above material. The attenuation coefficients were also determined for a uncoated ceramic foam. Commercially available standard acoustic emission transducers, piezo-wafers and polymer based PVDF (polyvinylidiene fluoride) film were employed in the experiments to acquire the acoustic data. The performance characteristics of these sensors will be discussed in light of impact detection. Variation in the wave propagation characteristics along different directions and the role of processing in causing anisotropic acoustic properties in thermal protection systems will be discussed.

Kuhr, S. J.; Reibel, R.; Sathish, S.; Jata, K. V.

2006-03-01

114

Chemically modified thermal-spray zinc anodes for galvanic cathodic protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were applied to new and previously aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes to improve the performance of galvanic cathodic protection systems. Anodes on steel-reinforced concrete were treated with aqueous solutions of the humectants lithium nitrate (LiNOâ) and lithium bromide (LiBr). LiBr was the most beneficial humectant, increasing the average galvanic current density of new

B. S. Jr. Covino; S. J. Bullard; G. R. Holcomb; J. H. Russell; S. D. Cramer; J. E. Bennett; H. M. Laylor

1999-01-01

115

Thermal sprayed titanium anode for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable operation of cobalt catalyzed thermal sprayed titanium anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of bridge reinforcing steel\\u000a was maintained in accelerated tests for a period equivalent to 23 years service at Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon\\u000a DOT) bridge CP conditions with no evidence that operation would degrade with further aging. The cobalt catalyst dispersed\\u000a into the concrete near the anodeconcrete

S. D. Cramer; B. S. Covino Jr; G. R. Holcomb; S. J. Bullard; W. K. Collins; R. D. Govier; R. D. Wilson; H. M. Laylor

1999-01-01

116

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil)

Sophie J. Bullard; Covino Bernard S. Jr; Stephen D. Cramer; Galen E. McGill

1996-01-01

117

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-01-01

118

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-01-01

119

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation

Dennis H. LeMieux

2002-01-01

120

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal

Dennis H. LeMieux

2004-01-01

121

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-01-01

122

Continuous health monitoring of the thermal protection system for future spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal protection system (TPS) represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. Any damage to the TPS leaves the space vehicle vulnerable and could result in the loss of human life as what happened in the Columbia accident. Aboard the current Space Shuttle no system exists to notify the astronauts or ground control if the thermal protection system has been damaged. The goal of this project is to add self-diagnostic capability to future spacecraft through the use of a fiber-optic network embedded in the TPS. This system of sensors would allow for the detection of region fracture, optical temperature measurement at different depths within the region, communication with neighboring regions, and detection of communication loss. The hardware that would be added to each region consists of a radiation-hardened microcontroller, fiber-optic sensors and power. Each region would have the ability of reporting its own damage as well as reporting a loss of communication with any of its neighboring regions. Such a network would provide continuous health monitoring of the TPS in real-time. The developed intelligent region technologies are readily adaptable to ablative thermal protective systems.

Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit; Hyers, Robert W.

2006-04-01

123

The role of template-primer in protection of reverse transcriptase from thermal inactivation  

PubMed Central

We compared the thermal stabilities of wild-type recombinant avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase (RT) with those of mutants of the recombinant enzymes lacking RNase H activity. They differed in resistance to thermal inactivation at elevated temperatures in the presence of an RNA/DNA template-primer. RNase H-minus RTs retained the ability to efficiently synthesize cDNA at much higher temperatures. We show that the structure of the template-primer has a critical bearing on protection of RT from thermal inactivation. RT RNase H activity rapidly alters the structure of the template-primer to forms less tightly bound by RT and thus less able to protect the enzyme at elevated temperatures. We also found that when comparing wild-type or mutant AMV RT with the respective M-MLV RT, the avian enzymes retained more DNA synthetic activity at elevated temperatures than murine RTs. Enzyme, template-primer interaction again played the most significant role in producing these differences. AMV RT binds much tighter to template- primer and has a much greater tendency to remain bound during cDNA synthesis than M-MLV RT and therefore is better protected from heat inactivation.

Gerard, Gary F.; Potter, R. Jason; Smith, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Kim; Dhariwal, Gulshan; Lee, Jun; Chatterjee, Deb. K.

2002-01-01

124

Induction Motor Thermal Protection: Models, State and Parameter Estimation and Laboratory Verification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide adequate thermal motor protection, the stator winding and rotor bar temperature should be monitored. This research presents methods to estimate these temperatures using stator and rotor thermal models, which describe the stator and rotor thermal characteristics. The stator copper loss and iron core losses are considered as the heat inputs to the stator thermal model. The rotor copper loss is that heat input to the rotor thermal model. Effects of terminal voltage unbalance and slip are considered in the computation of the rotor heat input. When the motor is equipped with temperature sensors, Kalman filter techniques are used to optimally process these data to estimate the stator winding temperature. The extended Kalman filter was used to estimate the RTD thermal time constant. Accurate results were obtained when the temperature estimation methods were evaluated using a 7.5 HP induction motor. The computational complexity of these methods is such that the algorithms can be implemented in real time using present microprocessor technology.

Aliaga Zegarra, Antenor Segundo

125

A modernized high-pressure heater protection system for nuclear and thermal power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience gained from operation of high-pressure heaters and their protection systems serving to exclude ingress of water into the turbine is analyzed. A formula for determining the time for which the high-pressure heater shell steam space is filled when a rupture of tubes in it occurs is analyzed, and conclusions regarding the high-pressure heater design most advisable from this point of view are drawn. A typical structure of protection from increase of water level in the shell of high-pressure heaters used in domestically produced turbines for thermal and nuclear power stations is described, and examples illustrating this structure are given. Shortcomings of components used in the existing protection systems that may lead to an accident at the power station are considered. A modernized protection system intended to exclude the above-mentioned shortcomings was developed at the NPO Central Boiler-Turbine Institute and ZioMAR Engineering Company, and the design solutions used in this system are described. A mathematical model of the protection system's main elements (the admission and check valves) has been developed with participation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and a numerical investigation of these elements is carried out. The design version of surge tanks developed by specialists of the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute for excluding false operation of the high-pressure heater protection system is proposed.

Svyatkin, F. A.; Trifonov, N. N.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Tren'kin, V. B.; Koltunov, V. A.; Borovkov, A. I.; Klyavin, O. I.

2013-09-01

126

Protection of alodine coatings from thermal aging by removable polymer coatings.  

SciTech Connect

Removable polymer coatings were evaluated as a means to suppress dehydration of Alodine chromate conversion coatings during thermal aging and thereby retain the corrosion protection afforded by Alodine. Two types of polymer coatings were applied to Alodine-treated panels of aluminum alloys 7075-T73 and 6061-T6 that were subsequently aged for 15 to 50 hours at temperatures between 135 F to 200 F. The corrosion resistance of the thermally aged panels was evaluated, after stripping the polymer coatings, by exposure to a standard salt-fog corrosion test and the extent of pitting of the polymer-coated and untreated panels compared. Removable polymer coatings mitigated the loss of corrosion resistance due to thermal aging experienced by the untreated alloys. An epoxide coating was more effective than a fluorosilicone coating as a dehydration barrier.

Wagstaff, Brett R. (.); Bradshaw, Robert W.; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr. (.,; .)

2006-12-01

127

Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing.  

PubMed

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to clothing and equipment designed to protect individuals from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards. The materials used to provide this protection may exacerbate thermal strain by limiting heat and water vapor transfer. Any new PPE must therefore be evaluated to ensure that it poses no greater thermal strain than the current standard for the same level of hazard protection. This review describes how such evaluations are typically conducted. Comprehensive evaluation of PPE begins with a biophysical assessment of materials using a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal characteristics (thermal resistance and water vapor permeability). These characteristics are then evaluated on a thermal manikin wearing the PPE, since thermal properties may change once the materials have been constructed into a garment. These data may be used in biomedical models to predict thermal strain under a variety of environmental and work conditions. When the biophysical data indicate that the evaporative resistance (ratio of permeability to insulation) is significantly better than the current standard, the PPE is evaluated through human testing in controlled laboratory conditions appropriate for the conditions under which the PPE would be used if fielded. Data from each phase of PPE evaluation are used in predictive models to determine user guidelines, such as maximal work time, work/rest cycles, and fluid intake requirements. By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards. PMID:21936698

O'Brien, Catherine; Blanchard, Laurie A; Cadarette, Bruce S; Endrusick, Thomas L; Xu, Xiaojiang; Berglund, Larry G; Sawka, Michael N; Hoyt, Reed W

2011-10-01

128

Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications  

SciTech Connect

Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950/sup 0/C (1562 to 1742/sup 0/F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required.

Li, C.C.

1980-03-01

129

MMOD testing of C-SiC based Rigid External Insulation of the CRV Thermal Protection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

is to provide protection to the vehicle during the reentry, it also has to resist Micro Meteoroids and Orbital Debris (MMOD) aggression during the required 3 years in orbit stay of the CRV. composite panels that are fixed to the metallic airframe. An innovative approach for the thermal protection is to use a Rigid External Insulation composed of a C-SiC

Hervé Copéret; Philippe Soyris; Marc Lacoste

2002-01-01

130

Thermal sprayed titanium anode for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable operation of cobalt catalyzed thermal sprayed titanium anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of bridge reinforcing steel was maintained in accelerated tests for a period equivalent to 23 years service at Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) bridge CP conditions with no evidence that operation would degrade with further aging. The cobalt catalyst dispersed into the concrete near the anodeconcrete interface with electrochemical aging to produce a more diffuse anode reaction zone. The titanium anode had a porous heterogeneous structure composed of ?-titanium containing interstitial oxygen and nitrogen, and a fee phase thought to be Ti(O,N). Splat cooling rates were 10 to 150 K/s, and microstructures were produced by equilibrium processes at the splat solidification front. Nitrogen gas atomization during thermal spraying produced a coating with more uniform composition, less cracking, and lower resistivity than using air atomization.

Cramer, S. D.; Covino, B. S.; Holcomb, G. R.; Bullard, S. J.; Collins, W. K.; Govier, R. D.; Wilson, R. D.; Laylor, H. M.

1999-03-01

131

Corrosion protection of Mg/Al alloys by thermal sprayed aluminium coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protective features of thermal sprayed Al-coatings applied on AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium/aluminium alloys were evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The changes in the morphology and corrosion behaviour of the Al-coatings induced by a cold-pressing post-treatment were also examined. The specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The as-sprayed Al-coatings revealed a high degree of porosity and poor corrosion protection, which resulted in galvanic acceleration of the corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment produced more compact Al-coatings with better bonding at the substrate/coating interface and higher corrosion resistance regardless of the nature of the magnesium alloy.

Pardo, A.; Casajús, P.; Mohedano, M.; Coy, A. E.; Viejo, F.; Torres, B.; Matykina, E.

2009-05-01

132

A Fast Proceduere for Optimizing Thermal Protection Systems of Re-Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present work is to introduce a fast procedure to optimize thermal protection systems for re-entry vehicles subjected to high thermal loads. A simplified one-dimensional optimization process, performed in order to find the optimum design variables (lengths, sections etc.), is the first step of the proposed design procedure. Simultaneously, the most suitable materials able to sustain high temperatures and meeting the weight requirements are selected and positioned within the design layout. In this stage of the design procedure, simplified (generalized plane strain) FEM models are used when boundary and geometrical conditions allow the reduction of the degrees of freedom. Those simplified local FEM models can be useful because they are time-saving and very simple to build; they are essentially one dimensional and can be used for optimization processes in order to determine the optimum configuration with regard to weight, temperature and stresses. A triple-layer and a double-layer body, subjected to the same aero-thermal loads, have been optimized to minimize the overall weight. Full two and three-dimensional analyses are performed in order to validate those simplified models. Thermal-structural analyses and optimizations are executed by adopting the Ansys FEM code.

Ferraiuolo, M.; Riccio, A.; Tescione, D.; Gigliotti, M.

133

The optimum levels of the thermal protection of residential buildings under climatic conditions of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports the results of determining the optimum values of the resistance of building envelopes to heat transfer for both existing and newly constructed buildings for regions of Russia with different climatic conditions. An analysis for the sensitivity of obtained optimum solutions to changes in external factors has been made. The potential of energy saving in both the existing housing stock and in newly constructed buildings due to the improvement of thermal protection performance of buildings to the optimum level has been determined.

Filippov, S. P.; Dil'man, M. D.; Ionov, M. S.

2013-11-01

134

Characterization of a thermostable ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus Z5, and its functional expression in Pichia pastoris X33  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the increased demand of energy has strongly stimulated the research on the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into reducing sugars for the subsequent production, and ?-glucosidases have been the focus because of their important roles in a variety fundamental biological processes and the synthesis of useful ?-glucosides. Although the ?-glucosidases of different sources have been investigated, the amount of ?-glucosidases are insufficient for effective conversion of cellulose. The goal of this work was to search for new resources of ?-glucosidases, which was thermostable and with high catalytic efficiency. Results In this study, a thermostable native ?-glucosidase (nBgl3), which is secreted by the lignocellulose-decomposing fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Z5, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Internal sequences of nBgl3 were obtained by LC-MS/MS, and its encoding gene, bgl3, was cloned based on the peptide sequences obtained from the LC-MS/MS results. bgl3 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2622 bp and encodes a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 91.47 kDa; amino acid sequence analysis of the deduced protein indicated that nBgl3 is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. A recombinant ?-glucosidase (rBgl3) was obtained by the functional expression of bgl3 in Pichia pastoris X33. Several biochemical properties of purified nBgl3 and rBgl3 were determined - both enzymes showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 60°C, and they were stable for a pH range of 4-7 and a temperature range of 50 to 70°C. Of the substrates tested, nBgl3 and rBgl3 displayed the highest activity toward 4-Nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), with specific activities of 103.5 ± 7.1 and 101.7 ± 5.2 U mg-1, respectively. However, these enzymes were inactive toward carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and xylan. Conclusions An native ?-glucosidase nBgl3 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the crude extract of A. fumigatus Z5. The gene bgl3 was cloned based on the internal sequences of nBgl3 obtained from the LC-MS/MS results, and the gene bgl3 was expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results of various biochemical properties of two enzymes including specific activity, pH stability, thermostability, and kinetic properties (Km and Vmax) indicated that they had no significant differences.

2012-01-01

135

Investigation of the thermal behavior of 2-1/2 ton cylinder protective overpack  

SciTech Connect

UF/sub 6/ cylinders containing reactor grade enriched uranium are transported in protective overpacks. Recently, the design of the 2-1/2 ton UF/sub 6/ cylinder overpack was modified to insure the safety of the cylinder inside the overpack. Modifications include a continuous stainless liner from the outer surface to the inner surface of the overpack and step joints between the upper and lower halves of the overpack. The effects of a continuous stainless steel liner and moisture in the insulation layer of a UF/sub 6/ cylinder protective overpack were investigated with a numerical code. Results were compared with limited available field data. The purpose of comparing the numerical results with field data is to insure the validity of the numerical analysis and the physical properties used in the analysis. The study indicates that the continuous stainless steel liner did not influence the heat transfer rate much from the outer surface of the overpack to the 30B cylinder inside. The effect of step joints was not modeled due to the difficulty of quantifying the leakage rate through the gap. With a continuous stainless steel liner from the outside of the overpack to the inside, the overpack satisfies the thermal design criteria of protecting the cylinder inside for a minimum of 30 minutes when the overpack is exposed to a fire. The effect of moisture inside the insulation layer in the overpack is to reduce the energy to the cylinder with its high thermal capacity. The high pressure steam generated from the moisture will be relieved externally through the vent holes on the outer surface of the overpack. Although these holes are sealed after the overpack is dried, the plug sealing the holes will melt when the overpack is exposed to a fire. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Park, S.H.

1988-01-01

136

Development of metallic thermal protection systems for the reusable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reusable Thermal Protection System (TPS) that is not only lightweight, but durable, operable and cost effective is one of the technologies required by the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to achieve the goal of drastically reducing the cost of delivering payload to orbit. Metallic TPS is one of the systems being developed to meet this challenge. Current efforts involve improving the superalloy honeycomb TPS concept, which consists of a foil-gage metallic box encapsulating a low density fibrous insulation, and evaluating it for RLV requirements. The superalloy honeycomb TPS concept is mechanically attached to the vehicle structure. Improvements include more efficient internal insulation, a simpler, lighter weight configuration, and a quick-release fastener system for easier installation and removal. Evaluation includes thermal and structural analysis, fabrication and testing of both coupons and TPS panels under conditions simulating RLV environments. Coupons of metallic honeycomb sandwich, representative of the outer TPS surface, were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, and rain erosion testing as well as subsequent arcjet exposure. Arrays of TPS panels have been subjected to radiant heating in a thermal/vacuum facility, aerodynamic heating in an arcjet facility and acoustic loading.

Blosser, Max L.

1997-01-01

137

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2004-10-01

138

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-04-01

139

An assessment of the impact of transition on advanced winged entry vehicle thermal protection system mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the impact of turbulent heating on thermal protection system (TPS) mass for advanced winged entry vehicles. Four basic systems are considered: insulative, metallic hot structures, metallic standoff, and hybrid systems. TPS sizings are performed using entry trajectories tailored specifically to the characteristics of each TPS concept under consideration. Comparisons are made between systems previously sized under the assumption of all laminar heating and those sized using a baseline estimate of transition and turbulent heating. The relative effect of different transition criteria on TPS mass requirements is also examined. Also investigated are entry trajectories tailored to alleviate turbulent heating. Results indicate the significant impact of turbulent heating on TPS mass and demonstrate the importance of both accurate transition criteria and entry trajectory tailoring.

Wurster, K. E.

1981-06-01

140

Research and development of thermal protection system of HOPE re-entry vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the objectives and the current status of Research and Development of Thermal Protection System (TPS) for H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE). Now, conceptual study of HOPE is in progress. In this phase, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has chosen three TPS concepts as the candidates for HOPE TPS, i.e. titanium multiwall (Ti/MW) TPS, carbon-carbon (C/C) TPS, and ceramic tile TPS. The objectives of the conceptual study are trade-off study of those TPS concepts, development and evaluation of materials, and formulation of the development and verification programs. The objectives of the conceptual study of HOPE TPS are outlined, and the current status of design study and hardware developments is described.

Sato, Yoichi; Morino, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki

141

Application experience of gas-thermal aluminum coatings to protect the pipes for underground construction and repair of heat networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questions of sacrificial protection for pipes of underground heat networks with aluminum against the external corrosion are considered. The description of pilot production of pipes with a plasma aluminum coating and the deposition of a sacrificial gas-plasma aluminum coating on weld joints of pipelines and the zone of their thermal influence during assemblage is presented. Examples of repairing the segments of distribution heat networks by the pipes with the tread protection are presented.

Kolpakov, A. S.

2013-11-01

142

Increasing refiner production by using motor thermal capacity for protection and control  

SciTech Connect

Industrial motors are typically controlled and operated by closely monitoring the stator winding temperatures and limiting the phase currents within the motor manufacturer`s full-load ampacity rating. A different approach to motor operation and control was implemented at the Blue Ridge Lumber medium density fiberboard (MDF) plant at Whitecourt, Alta., Canada. The capacity control of the refiner is based on using the remaining thermal capacity of the motor as the primary control parameter. In this installation, a 4,000-hp totally enclosed water air cooled (TEWAC) squirrel-cage induction motor is continuously operating above the manufacturer`s rated full-load current, but is being controlled by maintaining thermal capacity at 50%. Temporary current loadings well above this are permitted for up to several minutes to accommodate variations in the wood feed stock to the refiner. This was implemented by installing a modern motor protection relay, communication with a programmable logic controller (PLC) system, and the development of operator interface displays to provide plant operators with the necessary information to monitor the motor parameters. Factors which needed to be considered were the electrical power system limitations, the motor cooling effectiveness, and mechanical limitations imposed by the refiner shaft design.

Grainger, L.G. [Grainger Electrical Research Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); McDonald, M.C. [Alberta Energy Co., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1997-05-01

143

GRP78 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) provides cytoplasm protection against thermal and Pb2+ stress.  

PubMed

Glucose regulated protein (GRP) located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was a member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family. The protective mechanism adapted to ER stimuli was closely related to GRP. GRP78, known as BiP, was one of central regulator responded to stress in ER. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) GRP78 (CiGRP78) was up-regulated in almost tissues, especially in liver, under heat shock (34 °C), cold stress (4 °C) or lead nitrate (0.25 mmol/L) stress. In order to understand the function of CiGRP78 in cellular protection, CiGRP78 ORF cDNA was inserted into the plasmid of pET-32a(+) or pEGFP-C1 respectively, then the recombinant plasmids were transformed or transfected into Escherichia coli cells, mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0) or grass carp kidney cells (CIK). In the cells, CiGRP78 was over-expressed following thermal, cold or Pb(2+) stress. Results showed that CiGRP78 not only contributed to protecting prokaryotic cells against thermal or cold extremes, but also played the same role in SP2/0 and CIK cells. After treatment with heat stress at 42 °C for 1 h, although the viability of the cells declined a lot, CIK cells with pEGFP-C1/CiGRP78 exhibited a higher survival rate (28%) than wild-type cells (7%) or cells with only pEGFP-C1 (5.1%). When the time lag extended to 2.5 h, the survival rates were 19%, 5.7%, 4.8% respectively. In addition, CiGRP78 would also provide a transient cytoplasm protection against Pb(2+) stress in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment with lead nitrate at concentration of 10 ?mol/L for 12 h, 24 h or 36 h, the survival rates of cells with pEGFP-C1 or wild-type cells were 46.7% or 46.7% (12 h), 25% or 22% (24 h), 10% or 11% (36 h) respectively. When the cells were treated with lead nitrate at the concentration of 25 ?mol/L, the survival rates of cells with pEGFP-C1 or wild-type cells were 45.5% or 30% (12 h), 16.7% or 25% (24 h), 6.5% or 8% (36 h), respectively. CiGRP78 provided a distinct protection in CIK cells at the low concentration for 24 h. The survival rates of CIK cells with pEGFP-C1/CiGRP78 treated with lead nitrate at concentration of 10 ?mol/L or 25 ?mol/L were 65.9% or 58.8% respectively. When the cells were treated with lead nitrate at concentration of 50 ?mol/L for 24 h, the survival rate of the CIK cells was only about 30%. If the process-time was extended to 36 h, CiGRP78 could not provide any cytoplasm protection for CIK cells. PMID:23274159

Zhu, Yujiao; Fan, Qidi; Mao, Huiling; Liu, Yong; Hu, Chengyu

2012-12-27

144

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

1996-01-01

145

Structural health monitoring technology for bolted carbon-carbon thermal protection panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research in this dissertation is motivated by the need for reliable inspection technologies for the detection of bolt loosening in Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels on Space Operation Vehicles (SOV) using minimal human intervention. A concept demonstrator of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system was developed to autonomously detect the degradation of the mechanical integrity of the standoff C-C TPS panels. This system assesses the torque levels of the loosened bolts in the C-C TPS panel, as well as identifies the location of those bolts accordingly. During the course of building the proposed SHM prototype, efforts have been focused primarily on developing a trustworthy diagnostic scheme and a responsive sensor suite. Based on the microcontact conditions and damping phenomena of ultrasonic waves across the bolted joints, an Attenuation-based Diagnostic Method was proposed to assess the fastener integrity by observing the attenuation patterns of the resultant sensor signals. Parametric model studies and prototype testing validated the theoretical explanation of the attenuation-based method. Once the diagnostic scheme was determined, the implementation of a sensor suite was the next step. A new PZT-embedded sensor washer was developed to enhance remote sensing capability and achieve sufficient sensitivity by guiding diagnostic waves primarily through the inspection areas. The sensor-embedded washers replace the existing washers to constitute the sensor network, as well as to avoid jeopardizing the integrity of the original fastener components. After sensor design evolution and appropriate algorithm development, verification tests were conducted using a shaker and a full-scale oven, which simulated the acoustic and thermal environments during the re-entry process, respectively. The test results revealed that the proposed system successfully identifies the loss of the preload for the bolted joints that were loosened. The sensors were also found to be durable under the cyclic mechanical and thermal loads without major failures.

Yang, Jinkyu

2005-12-01

146

Ceramic Thermal Protection Materials - How Far Can We Go? (Part II)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A space vehicle re-entering the earth's atmosphere is exposed to severe environmental conditions. In particular, certain surface areas of the vehicle such as the stagnation point area or exposed control surfaces have to withstand extraordinary thermal and oxidative loads. These loads that have to be taken by a thermal protection system (TPS) are driven mainly by the geometry of the vehicle, its mass and its re-entry path. As a consequence, small vehicles like the X-38 demonstrator of a re-usable crew return vehicle (CRV) need TPS components capable of withstanding temperatures of 1800°C accompanied by severe aerodynamic and chemical loads. Currently, the only promising materials having the potential of re-usability in such an environment are Si-based ceramics and related derivatives such as C-C/SiC. These materials have an extended oxidation regime leading to the formation of an oxidation-inhibiting SiO2-layer. Nevertheless, a number of parameters may turn this so-called passive oxidation mode into a different oxidation mode which can be characterized by the release of gaseous SiO. This is the so-called active oxidation mode which induces massive degradation of the material. Based on a long-term experimental and theoretical investigation performed on the constituents of SiC and its most important derivatives and oxidation products, a mechanism was proposed describing the relevant parameters which govern the transition from passive to active oxidation of SiC in a re-entry type environment. The crucial reaction process related to this transition was found to be the interaction of SiO and SiO2 with atomic and molecular oxygen, i.e. In a previous publication this mechanism was derived by a thorough study of a large number of related elementary reaction steps and the analysis of experimental findings [1]. In the course of the investigation, however, many other results have been obtained which could not be published within the frame of the above publication. Therefore, this publication will disclose further results of the investigation including The results of the investigation are considered to enhance the fundamental understanding of the oxidation characteristics of Si-containing ceramics such as SiC or C-C/SiC under re-entry flight conditions. Beyond that, they are thought to be of crucial impact when deriving the useful life-time as well as the operational limits of Si-based ceramic TPS for RLV's. [1]Hilfer G., "Ceramic Thermal Protection Materials - How Far Can We Go ? New Aspects on the Oxidation Behavior During

Hilfer, G.

2002-01-01

147

Design of an integral thermal protection system for future space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal protection systems (TPS) are the features incorporated into a spacecraft's design to protect it from severe aerodynamic heating during high-speed travel through planetary atmospheres. The ablative TPS on the space capsule Apollo and ceramic tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle Orbiter were designed as add-ons to the main load-bearing structure of the vehicles. They are usually incompatible with the structure due to mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion and as a result the robustness of the external surface of the spacecraft is compromised. This could potentially lead to catastrophic consequences because the TPS forms the external surface of the vehicle and is subjected to numerous other loads like aerodynamic pressure loads, small object high-speed impacts and handling damages during maintenance. In order to make the spacecraft external surface robust, an Integral Thermal Protection System (ITPS) concept has been proposed in this research in which the load-bearing structure and the TPS are combined into one single structure. The design of an ITPS is a formidable task because the requirement of a load-bearing structure and a TPS are often contradictory to one another. The design process has been formulated as an optimization problem with mass per unit area of the ITPS as the objective function and the various functions of the ITPS were formulated as constraints. This is a multidisciplinary design optimization problem involving heat transfer and structural analysis fields. The constraints were expressed as response surface approximations obtained from a large number of finite element analyses, which were carried out with combinations of design variables obtained from an optimized Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. A MATLABRTM code has been developed to carry out these FE analyses automatically in conjunction with ABAQUSRTM . Corrugated-core structures were designed for ITPS applications with loads and boundary conditions similar to that of a Space Shuttle-like vehicle. Temperature, buckling, deflection and stress constraints were considered for the design process. An optimized mass ranging between 3.5--5 lb/ft2 was achieved by the design. This is considerably heavier when compared to conventional TPS designs. However, the ITPS can withstand substantially large mechanical loads when compared to the conventional TPS. Truss-core geometries used for ITPS design in this research were found to be unsuitable as they could not withstand large thermal gradients frequently encountered in ITPS applications. The corrugated-core design was used for further studying the influence of the various input parameters on the final design weight of the ITPS. It was observed that boundary conditions not only significantly influence the ITPS design but also have a major impact on the effect of various input parameters. It was found that even a small amount of heat loss from bottom face sheet leads to significant reduction in ITPS weight. Aluminum and Beryllium are the most suitable materials for bottom face sheet with Beryllium having considerable advantages in terms of heat capacity, stiffness and density. Although ceramic matrix composites have many superior properties when compared to metal alloys (Titanium alloys and Inconel), their low tensile strength presents difficulties in ITPS applications.

Bapanapalli, Satish Kumar

148

Thermomechanical response of metal foam sandwich panels for structural thermal protection systems in hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandwich panels with metal foam cores are proposed for load-bearing structural components in actively cooled thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles. Prototype acreage metal foam sandwich panels (MFSP's) are constructed and analyzed with the central goal of characterizing the thermomechanical response of the system. MFSP's are subjected to uniform temperature fields and equibiaxial loading in a novel experimental load frame. The load frame exploits the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion and allows for thermostructural experimentation without the endemic conflict of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. Back-to-back strain gages and distributed thermocouples capture the in-plane response of the panels, including buckling and elastic-plastic post-buckling. The out-of-plane response is captured via moire interferometry, which provides a visualization of evolving mode shapes throughout the post-buckling regime. The experimental results agree with an analytical prediction for critical temperatures in sandwich panels based on a Rayleigh-Ritz minimization of the energy functional for a Reissner-Mindlin plate. In addition, a three-dimensional finite element model of the non-linear thermomechanical response of the panel-frame experimental system is developed and the results are shown to agree well with the experimentally identified response of MFSP's. Central to analytical and numerical characterization of MFSP's is an understanding of the response of metal foam under shear loading. The shear response of metal foam is captured experimentally, providing density-dependent relationships for material stiffness, strength, and energy absorption. Speckle photography is employed to identify microstructural size effects in the distribution of strain throughout metal foam under shear loading. In addition, a micromechanical model is established for the density-dependent shear modulus of metal foam, which allows for the coupling of cell-level imperfections with unit cell response. Through experiments, MFSP's are subjected to dynamic through-the-thickness thermal gradients, constrained deformation, and active cooling. In capturing the response of the cooled and uncooled panels, control and actuation of thermostructural deformation in actively cooled MFSP's is demonstrated. The finite element model of the panel-frame system is extended to the actively cooled experiments and is shown to agree well with the experimental results.

Rakow, Joseph F.

149

Zirconium diboride based coatings for thermal protection of re entry vehicles: Effect of MoSi 2 addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of improving the performances of new generation re-entry vehicles as well as reducing the mission costs is closely connected to the development of new thermal protection systems: innovative heat shield materials, able to withstand higher temperature during the lift re-entry manoeuvre, would permit to improve reusability and easiness of maintenance as well as to increase the manoeuvrability and

Mario Tului; Stefano Lionetti; Giovanni Pulci; Francesco Marra; Jacopo Tirillò; Teodoro Valente

2010-01-01

150

Study of trigger instabilities in smart power technology ESD protection devices using a laser interferometric thermal mapping technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trigger dynamics during a single ESD event and pulse-to-pulse variations in the trigger location are studied in ESD protection devices of a smart power technology. NPN bipolar transistors with and without a lateral shift in the collector buried layer are investigated. The homogeneity of the current flow along the device width is studied by means of a laser interferometric thermal

D. Pogany; C. Furbock; M. Litzenberger; G. Groos; K. Esmark; P. Kamvar; H. Gossner; M. Stecher; E. Gornik

2001-01-01

151

Coating Layer and Corrosion Protection Characteristics in Sea Water with Various Thermal Spray Coating Materials for STS304  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the optimal method of application and the anticorrosive abilities of Zn, Al, and Zn + 15%Al spray coatings in protecting stainless steel 304 (STS304) in sea water. If a defect such as porosity or an oxide layer, causes STS304 to be exposed to sea water, and the thermal spray coating material will act as the cathode and anode, respectively. The Tafel experiments revealed that Al-coated specimens among applied coating methods had the lowest corrosion current densities. As the corrosion potential decreases with increasing corrosion current density, we estimated the characteristics and lifetime of the protective thermal spray coating layer in the galvanic cell formed by the thermal spray coating layer and STS304.

Kim, Seong-Jong; Woo, Yong-Bin

152

An Active Stator Temperature Estimation Technique for Thermal Protection of Inverter-Fed Induction Motors With Considerations of Impaired Cooling Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal protection is one of the most important aspects of any motor control system. This paper proposes a stator winding temperature estimation method for the thermal protection of inverter-fed electric motors. By modifying the space vector pulsewidth modulation in an open-loop motor drive, a dc voltage can be intermittently injected into the motor. The stator temperature can be estimated by

Pinjia Zhang; Bin Lu; Thomas G. Habetler

2010-01-01

153

An active stator temperature estimation technique for thermal protection of inverter-fed induction motors with considerations of impaired cooling detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal protection is one of the most important aspects of any motor control system. This paper proposes a stator winding temperature estimation method for the thermal protection of inverter-fed electric motors. By modifying the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) in an open-loop motor drive, a dc voltage can be intermittently injected into the motor. The stator temperature can be

Pinjia Zhang; Bin Lu; Thomas G. Habetler

2009-01-01

154

Expression in Pichia pastoris X33 of His-tagged lipase from a novel strain of Rhizopus oryzae and its mutant Asn 134 His: purification and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence corresponding to the mature lipase of Rhizopus oryzae WPG (ROLw) was subcloned in the pPIC9K expression vector, with a strong AOX1 promoter, to construct a recombinant lipase protein containing six histidine residues at the N-terminal. The His-tagged lipase\\u000a was expressed in Pichia Pastoris X33 and purified to homogeneity by a simple, one-step purification protocol using immobilized metal affinity

Riadh Ben Salah; Ali Gargouri; Robert Verger; Youssef Gargouri; Hafedh Mejdoub

2009-01-01

155

Study on corrosion protection of organic coatings using electrochemical techniques: Thermal property characterization, film thickness investigation, and coating performance evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an initial effort to establish a rapid, accurate, and comprehensive testing protocol for performance evaluation and lifetime prediction of corrosion protective coatings, the effects of coating thermal characteristics, coating application parameters, and coating formulation variations on corrosion protection have been explored. The study has been accomplished primarily through modern electrochemical techniques, such as Electrochemical Noise Methods (ENM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), with the aid of traditional thermal analysis, surface characterization, and appearance inspection. The employed electrochemical techniques have exhibited usefulness as powerful testing tools that have provided valuable results in good agreement with field observations and other measures by traditional methods. Thermal property characterization on fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings has shown that coating electrical resistances decreased as temperature rose with a distinct thermal transition point corresponding to glass transition temperature (Tg) of the immersed coatings. The change in coating capacitance with temperature revealed the irreversible process of water ingress and the effects of electrolyte plasticization in the coating films. Film thickness investigation on marine coating systems has demonstrated that film thickness has significant influences on coating corrosion protection. Better performance is expected for a coating system with thicker film thickness as well as with more coating layers when applied at a constant film thickness. The results indicate that there was a possible critical minimum film thickness above which coating protective performance was greatly enhanced and that there was also a maximum limiting film thickness above which increasing film thickness made little contribution to corrosion protection. Coating performance evaluation on aircraft coating systems has offered accurate performance ranking and reasonable lifetime prediction for high-quality, anticorrosive coatings. The mechanisms of corrosion protection by several coating systems with various types of polymers and pigment volume concentrations (PVC) have been discovered. Future work will consider a broader selection of materials, different test conditions, and a greater variety of characterization techniques. More sophisticated data analysis methods also need to be developed.

Li, Junping

2002-08-01

156

THERMAL INSTABILITY OF ?F508 CFTR CHANNEL FUNCTION: PROTECTION BY SINGLE SUPPRESSOR MUTATIONS AND INHIBITING CHANNEL ACTIVITY  

PubMed Central

Deletion of Phe508 from CFTR results in a temperature-sensitive folding defect that impairs protein maturation and chloride channel function. Both of these adverse effects, however, can be mitigated to varying extents by second-site, suppressor mutations. To better understand the impact of second-site mutations on channel function, we compared the thermal sensitivity of CFTR channels in Xenopus oocytes. CFTR-mediated conductance of oocytes expressing wt or ?F508 CFTR was stable at 22°C and increased at 28°C; a temperature permissive for ?F508 CFTR expression in mammalian cells. At 37°C, however, CFTR-mediated conductance was further enhanced, whereas that due to ?F508 CFTR channels decreased rapidly towards background, a phenomenon referred to here as “thermal inactivation.” Thermal inactivation of ?F508 was mitigated by each of five suppressor mutations, I539T, R553M, G550E, R555K and R1070W; but each exerted unique effects on the severity of, and recovery from, thermal inactivation. Another mutation, K1250A, known to increase open probability (Po) of ?F508 CFTR channels, exacerbated thermal inactivation. Application of potentiators known to increase Po of ?F508 CFTR channels at room temperature failed to protect channels from inactivation at 37°C and one, PG-01, actually exacerbated thermal inactivation. Unstimulated ?F508CFTR channels or those inhibited by CFTRinh-172, were partially protected from thermal inactivation, suggesting a possible inverse relationship between thermal stability and gating transitions. Thermal stability of channel function and temperature-sensitive maturation of the mutant protein appear to reflect related, but distinct facets of the ?F508 CFTR conformational defect, both of which must be addressed by effective therapeutic modalities.

Liu, Xuehong; O'Donnell, Nicolette; Landstrom, Allison; Skach, William R.; Dawson, David C.

2012-01-01

157

The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planted roofs contribute positively to the improvement of the thermal performance of a building. They block solar radiation, and reduce daily temperature variations and thermal ranges between winter and summer. In this paper, a calculation has been done, using a stationary method, in order to determine the thermal behaviour of the planted roof and the way it influences the thermal

Ekaterini Eumorfopoulou; Dimitris Aravantinos

1998-01-01

158

Silicate-Based Thermal Spray Coatings for Environmental Protection of Silicon Carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental barrier coatings are a key technology for implementing ceramics in high-temperature, high-moisture environments. One such ceramic, silicon carbide, is a material that can be used in gas turbines. However, silicon carbide oxidizes into silicon dioxide with exposure to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor and would normally provide protection for the silicon carbide. However, silicon dioxide volatilizes in a gas turbine environment, which leads to the degradation of its mechanical properties, making it unfit for use in a gas turbine. Materials like yttria-monosilicate and barium-strontium doped aluminosilicate (BSAS) both have good environmental coating properties. However, sintered yttria-monosilicate does not bond well to silicon carbide, and thermally sprayed BSAS transforms very slowly from a metastable hexacelsian phase to the desired celsian phase that is necessary for it to bond well to silicon carbide. Coatings of these materials have been produced by plasma spray with some additional work using HVOF. Phase identification has been done by x-ray diffraction, and microstructural analysis has been done using scanning electron microscopy.

Sagiv, Ari Isaac

159

Backscatter x-ray development for space vehicle thermal protection systems  

SciTech Connect

The Backscatter X-Ray (BSX) imaging technique is used for various single sided inspection purposes. Previously developed BSX techniques for spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) have been used for detecting defects in Space Shuttle External Tank foam insulation. The developed BSX hardware and techniques are currently being enhanced to advance Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods for future space vehicle applications. Various Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials were inspected using the enhanced BSX imaging techniques, investigating the capability of the method to detect voids and other discontinuities at various locations within each material. Calibration standards were developed for the TPS materials in order to characterize and develop enhanced BSX inspection capabilities. The ability of the BSX technique to detect both manufactured and natural defects was also studied and compared to through-transmission x-ray techniques. The energy of the x-ray, source to object distance, angle of x-ray, focal spot size and x-ray detector configurations were parameters playing a significant role in the sensitivity of the BSX technique to image various materials and defects. The image processing of the results also showed significant increase in the sensitivity of the technique. The experimental results showed BSX to be a viable inspection technique for space vehicle TPS systems.

Bartha, Bence B.; Hope, Dale; Vona, Paul; Born, Martin; Corak, Tony [USA NDE, United Space Alliance, Cape Canaveral, FL 32920 (United States)

2011-06-23

160

Thermal Aggregation of Recombinant Protective Antigen: Aggregate Morphology and Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

The thermal aggregation of the biopharmaceutical protein recombinant protective antigen (rPA) has been explored, and the associated kinetics and thermodynamic parameters have been extracted using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopies (ESEMs) and ultraviolet light scattering spectroscopy (UV-LSS). Visual observations and turbidity measurements provided an overall picture of the aggregation process, suggesting a two-step mechanism. Microscopy was used to examine the structure of aggregates, revealing an open morphology formed by the clustering of the microscopic aggregate particles. UV-LSS was used and developed to elucidate the growth rate of these particles, which formed in the first stage of the aggregation process. Their growth rate is observed to be high initially, before falling to converge on a final size that correlates with the ESEM data. The results suggest that the particle growth rate is limited by rPA monomer concentration, and by obtaining data over a range of incubation temperatures, an approach was developed to model the aggregation kinetics and extract the rate constants and the temperature dependence of aggregation. In doing so, we quantified the susceptibility of rPA aggregation under different temperature and environmental conditions and moreover demonstrated a novel use of UV spectrometry to monitor the particle aggregation quantitatively, in situ, in a nondestructive and time-resolved manner.

Belton, Daniel J.; Miller, Aline F.

2013-01-01

161

Thermal aggregation of recombinant protective antigen: aggregate morphology and growth rate.  

PubMed

The thermal aggregation of the biopharmaceutical protein recombinant protective antigen (rPA) has been explored, and the associated kinetics and thermodynamic parameters have been extracted using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopies (ESEMs) and ultraviolet light scattering spectroscopy (UV-LSS). Visual observations and turbidity measurements provided an overall picture of the aggregation process, suggesting a two-step mechanism. Microscopy was used to examine the structure of aggregates, revealing an open morphology formed by the clustering of the microscopic aggregate particles. UV-LSS was used and developed to elucidate the growth rate of these particles, which formed in the first stage of the aggregation process. Their growth rate is observed to be high initially, before falling to converge on a final size that correlates with the ESEM data. The results suggest that the particle growth rate is limited by rPA monomer concentration, and by obtaining data over a range of incubation temperatures, an approach was developed to model the aggregation kinetics and extract the rate constants and the temperature dependence of aggregation. In doing so, we quantified the susceptibility of rPA aggregation under different temperature and environmental conditions and moreover demonstrated a novel use of UV spectrometry to monitor the particle aggregation quantitatively, in situ, in a nondestructive and time-resolved manner. PMID:23476645

Belton, Daniel J; Miller, Aline F

2013-02-13

162

Detection of bolt loosening in C C composite thermal protection panels: II. Experimental verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this paper is motivated by the need for reliable inspection technology for the detection of bolt loosening in carbon-carbon (C-C) thermal protection system (TPS) panels using minimal human intervention. Based on the diagnostic scheme proposed in part I of the study, a new PZT (lead zirconate titanate)-embedded sensor washer was developed to constitute the sensor network. The sensor suite was included in the C-C TPS prototype without jeopardizing the integrity of the original fastening components. The sensor-embedded washer enhances the remote sensing capability and achieves sufficient sensitivity by guiding the diagnostic waves to propagate primarily through the inspection areas. After evolution of the sensor design and appropriate algorithm development, the verification tests were conducted using a shaker which simulated the acoustic environments during the re-entry process. The test results revealed that the proposed system successfully identified the loss of the preload for the bolted joints under loosening and gave the correct diagnostic results. The sensors were found to be durable under cyclic mechanical loads without major failures, and the diagnostic scheme was capable of locating a loosened bracket as well as discriminating major failure modes 1 and 2: panel and bracket loosening in the bracket.

Yang, Jinkyu; Chang, Fu-Kuo

2006-04-01

163

Thermal responses and physiological strain in men wearing impermeable and semipermeable protective clothing in the cold.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of long term cold exposure on thermal responses and physical performance in men while wearing nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protective clothing. Six healthy men performed 60 min work/60 min rest cycles during 8 hours at an ambient temperature of -10 degrees C. Work was performed by stepping on a 20 cm high bench 15 times.min-1. Subjects were tested while wearing two different types of NBC clothing: impermeable rubber suit (IP) or semipermeable charcoal impregnated suit (SP) with cold weather underwear layers, as well as rubber gloves, boots and a full-face mask. During the tests oxygen consumption (VO2), rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures and sweat production were measured. Rectal and skin temperatures and body heat content followed the work/rest cycles in both types of NBC clothing. T(re) averaged 37.1 +/- 0.04 and 37.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C for IP and SP (NS), respectively. On average, mean skin temperature (Tsk) was 28.6 +/- 0.2 and 29.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C for IP and SP (p < 0.01), respectively. Finger skin temperature decreased rapidly to below 10 degrees C in both ensembles during the rest periods. During work the finger rewarming rate was 0.49 +/- 0.06 and 0.70 +/- 0.02 degree C.min-1 for IP and SP (p < 0.01), respectively. Decrease in body heat storage (S) during cold exposure was smaller in SP than in IP and S was restored to the level of -0.6 +/- 0.3 and -3.0 +/- 0.6 kJ.kg-1 in SP and IP (p < 0.01), respectively, during the work. Work load, according to VO2 measurements, was 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 1.3 +/- 0.11.min-1 for IP and SP (p < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, during rest VO2 was 30% (p < 0.001) higher in IP than in SP. In conclusion, both types of NBC protective clothing could be used for long periods in cold conditions at a moderate work load without marked whole body heat debt or heat load. However, peripheral parts of the body experienced a rapid and severe cooling during the rest periods. The semipermeable suit enabled higher body heat storage and faster rewarming of extremities during work than the impermeable suit. PMID:9118932

Rissanen, S; Rintamäki, H

1997-02-01

164

75 FR 10410 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2007-0008] RIN 3150-AI01 Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection...NRC's regulations to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for protection...as follows: Sec. 50.61a Alternate fracture toughness requirements for...

2010-03-08

165

Detection of impact damage on thermal protection systems using thin-film piezoelectric sensors for integrated structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) can be subjected to impact damage during flight and/or during ground maintenance and/or repair. AFRL/RXLP is developing a reliable and robust on-board sensing/monitoring capability for next generation thermal protection systems to detect and assess impact damage. This study was focused on two classes of metallic thermal protection tiles to determine threshold for impact damage and develop sensing capability of the impacts. Sensors made of PVDF piezoelectric film were employed and tested to evaluate the detectability of impact signals and assess the onset or threshold of impact damage. Testing was performed over a range of impact energy levels, where the sensors were adhered to the back of the specimens. The PVDF signal levels were analyzed and compared to assess damage, where digital microscopy, visual inspection, and white light interferometry were used for damage verification. Based on the impact test results, an assessment of the impact damage thresholds for each type of metallic TPS system was made.

Na, Jeong K.; Kuhr, Samuel J.; Jata, Kumar V.

2008-05-01

166

Today`s thermal imaging systems: Background and applications for civilian law enforcement and military force protection  

SciTech Connect

Thermal (infrared) imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, or commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. In the past, thermal imagers required cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost and maintenance requirements restricted their use. However, recent developments in reliable, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater accessibility and practicality for military as well as civilian security and force protection applications. This paper discusses recent advances in thermal imaging technology including uncooled and cryo-cooled. Applications of Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) systems are also discussed, including integration with a high-speed pan/tilt mount and remote control, video frame storage and recall, low-cost vehicle-mounted systems, and hand-held devices. Other facility installation topics will be discussed, such as site layout, assessment ranges, imager positioning, fields-of-view, sensor and alarm reporting systems, and communications links.

Bisbee, T.L.; Pritchard, D.A.

1997-10-01

167

Prediction and Verification of Creep Behavior in Metallic Materials and Components, for the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System. Volume 1, Phase 1: Cyclic Materials Creep Predictions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyclic creep response was investigated and design methods applicable to thermal protection system structures were developed. The steady-state (constant temperature and load) and cyclic creep response characteristics of four alloys were studied. Steady-sta...

J. W. Davis B. A. Cramer

1974-01-01

168

Integrated Sensing and Material Damage Identification in Metallic and Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems Using Vibration and Wave Propagation Data  

SciTech Connect

Global thermal and impact material damage mechanisms in metallic and ceramic thermal protection systems are detected, located, and quantified using four complementary methods for sensing and data interrogation. First, spatial-temporal beamforming algorithms are used to process active elastic waves measured from remote sensor arrays in two different equilibrium positions of a gamma Ti-Al sheet to localize simulated thermal damage. Damage is located even when it is behind the sensor array and on the edge of the panel; results are shown to be dependent on the equilibrium position considered. Second, an active virtual force method is implemented in a honeycomb Al-Al sandwich panel instrumented with a distributed piezo sensor and actuator array to identify impact and thermal damage using frequency response inversion. Damage is quantified and is similarly diagnosed regardless of the excitation location. Third, passive acoustic transmission measurements through a homogeneous baffled Al panel subject to launch-type sound pressure variations are used to detect and locate material damage. The frequency range with highest transmission is shown to be optimal for damage detection. Fourth, thermal damage in a wrapped ceramic tile with a mock strain isolation pad is identified using active propagating waves. Remote actuation and sensing on the bulkhead and the tile backside are shown to be sufficient for detection even when variability is present in the data.

Sundararaman, S.; White, J.; Jiang, H.; Adams, D. [Purdue University, Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-2031 (United States); Jata, K. [AFRL/MLL, NDE Branch, 2230 Tenth St., Wright Patterson AFB, OH, 45433 (United States)

2006-03-06

169

Biological control of great brome ( Bromus diandrus ) in durum wheat ( Triticum durum ): specificity, physiological traits and impact on plant growth and root architecture of the fluorescent pseudomonad strain X33d  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizobacterial strain X33d was previously shown to suppress the growth of the weed great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth.). The aim of this work was to identify X33d, characterize its physiological activities, assess its specificity on different\\u000a non-target crops, and its impact on the growth and the root architecture of great brome and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown alone

Dorsaf Mejri; Elisa Gamalero; Riccardo Tombolini; Chiara Musso; Nadia Massa; Graziella Berta; Thouraya Souissi

2010-01-01

170

Evaluation of thick organic coatings degradation in seawater using cathodic protection and thermally accelerated tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic coatings are often associated with cathodic protection to fight against the corrosion of metallic structures when immersed in seawater. However, cathodic protection leads to the generation of a strong alkalinity at the metal\\/coating interface, which causes the degradation of the coating. It is then necessary to develop a reliable method to evaluate the compatibility between organic coatings and the

S. Touzain; Q. Le Thu; G. Bonnet

2005-01-01

171

Trehalose Has a Protective Effect on Human Brain-Type Creatine Kinase During Thermal Denaturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of trehalose on thermal inactivation and aggregation of human brain-type creatine kinase (hBBCK)\\u000a in this study. In the presence of 1.0 M trehalose, the midpoint temperature of thermal inactivation (T\\u000a m) of hBBCK increased by 4.6 °C, and the activation energy (E\\u000a a) for thermal inactivation increased from 29.7 to 41.1 kJ mol?1. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra also showed an increase

Jiang-Liu Yang; Hang Mu; Zhi-Rong Lü; Shang-Jun Yin; Yue-Xiu Si; Sheng-Mei Zhou; Fang Zhang; Wei-Jiang Hu; Fan-Guo Meng; Hai-Meng Zhou; Zi-Ping Zhang; Guo-Ying Qian

172

MMOD testing of C-SiC based Rigid External Insulation of the CRV Thermal Protection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

is to provide protection to the vehicle during the reentry, it also has to resist Micro Meteoroids and Orbital Debris (MMOD) aggression during the required 3 years in orbit stay of the CRV. composite panels that are fixed to the metallic airframe. An innovative approach for the thermal protection is to use a Rigid External Insulation composed of a C-SiC panel, an internal light insulation, attachment system and seal directly fixed on the metallic airframe. includes firstly a preliminary TPS design based on CRV specifications, then a comparison of the proposed REI design with the current tile. impacts, generic test articles have been designed and manufactured then exposed to MMOD testing. design of the TPS, the manufacturing of the test items, MMOD testing and results.

Copéret, Hervé; Soyris, Philippe; Lacoste, Marc

2002-01-01

173

Improvements in Thermal Protection Sizing Capabilities for TCAT: Conceptual Design for Advanced Space Transportation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT), originally developed for the Space Systems Design Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is a conceptual design tool capable of integrating aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle des...

J. R. Olds S. J. Izon

2002-01-01

174

SO(2) protects the amino nitrogen metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under thermal stress.  

PubMed

Thermal stress conditions during alcoholic fermentation modify yeasts' plasma membrane since they become more hyperfluid, which results in a loss of bilayer integrity. In this study, the influence of elevated temperatures on nitrogen metabolism of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was studied, as well as the effect of different concentrations of SO(2) on nitrogen metabolism under thermal stress conditions. The results obtained revealed that amino nitrogen consumption was lower in the fermentation sample subjected to thermal stress than in the control, and differences in amino acid consumption preferences were also detected, especially at the beginning of the fermentation. Under thermal stress conditions, among the three doses of SO(2) studied (0, 35, 70?mg?l(-1) SO(2) ), the highest dose was observed to favour amino acid utilization during the fermentative process, whereas sugar consumption presented higher rates at medium doses. PMID:22452834

Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Barriuso-Esteban, Blanca; Nieto-Rojo, Rodrigo; Aristizábal-López, Nerea

2012-03-27

175

Protection of Foam Plastic Thermal Insulation in Low Sloped Roofing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foam plastic thermal insulations have substantially replaced traditional insulations in low sloped roofing systems in North America. Foam plastic thermal insulations used in low sloped roofs are low density (typically 16–48 kg\\/m3) materials with low permeability to air and water vapour. In many roofs these materials have been directly substituted for traditional (wood and glass fibre) insulations without due attention

Robert J. Booth; Clinton Derushie; Karen Liu

2002-01-01

176

Radiative properties of thermally protective materials based on phenolic asbestos-plastics  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate the optical and radiative properties of thermal insulation coatings based on asbestos-capron, asbestos-formaldehyde, and phenolformaldehyde resin composites and the effects of light and temperature on these properties under the action of visible radiation, laser radiation, and a plasma flow. Thermal degradation of the materials, including combustion, is comparatively assessed and correlated with changes in their emissivity and radiativity.

Slobodkin, L.S.; Flyaks, M.Ya.

1988-01-01

177

Duplex Al-based thermal spray coatings for corrosion protection in high temperature refinery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of thermal spray coatings has been effective in preventing corrosion of steel and iron products. It has been used in a wide range of applications spreading from the petroleum to the food industry. In this work, the performance and effectiveness of a two-layered aluminum-based thermal spray coating applied to an ASTM A387 G11 steel was evaluated. The coating

Adriana da Cunha Rocha; Fernando Rizzo; Chaoliu Zeng; Marcelo Piza Paes

2004-01-01

178

Ocean Thermal Conversion (OTEC) Project Bottom Cable Protection Study: Environmental Characteristics and Hazards Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seafloor cable protection criteria and technology as applied to the four proposed OTEC plant sites and cable routes at Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam and Florida were examined. Study of environmental characteristics for each site covered: (A) natural factors o...

C. Chern W. Tudor

1981-01-01

179

Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

2013-04-01

180

Synthesis of polymer-protected graphene by solvent-assisted thermal reduction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyvinylpyrrolidone-protected (PVP-protected) graphene was synthesized by refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in dimethylformamide (DMF), using PVP as the dispersant. The structure and stability of this composite (DMF-rGO) were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results confirm the presence of a single sheet of DMF-rGO

Yujie Zhang; Wenbing Hu; Bo Li; Cheng Peng; Chunhai Fan; Qing Huang

2011-01-01

181

Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

Schreiber, Roger B. (Penn Twp., PA); Fero, Arnold H. (New Kensington, PA); Sejvar, James (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01

182

Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

1997-12-16

183

Use of a scanning thermal microscope to examine corrosion protective coatings in exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the capabilities for control of coatings properties at the nanoscale advance, characterization of these properties at these same length scales is needed. One set of organic coatings properties that is very important to understand and control at these length scales are the thermomechanical properties of the coatings. A new hybrid instrument, a scanning thermal microscope was used to examine

Lingyun He; Gordon P. Bierwagen; Dennis E. Tallman

2003-01-01

184

Ablation Characteristics of Thermal Protective Materials Based on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic based on a phenolformaldehyde resin and a carbon cloth is investigated. Based on results of thermogravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis process is analyzed and physical and mathematical models for the process are proposed. It is shown that an increase in temperature leads to ablation of both the phenolformaldehyde resin and the carbon

V. V. Nesmelov; V. D. Gol'din; G. F. Kostin

2003-01-01

185

Performance evaluation of green roof and shading for thermal protection of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a mathematical model for evaluating cooling potential of green roof and solar thermal shading in buildings. A control volume approach based on finite difference methods is used to analyze the components of green roof, viz. green canopy, soil and support layer. Further, these individual decoupled models are integrated using Newton's iterative algorithm until the convergence for

Rakesh Kumar; S. C. Kaushik

2005-01-01

186

Ocean thermal conversion (OTEC) project bottom cable protection study: environmental characteristics and hazards analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seafloor cable-protection criteria and technology as applied to the four proposed OTEC plant sites and cable routes at Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam and Florida were examined. Study of environmental characteristics for each site covered: (A) natural factors of location, tide and currents, wind and wave, bottom soil type and seafloor movement; and (B) man-made factors such as ship traffic, fishing

C. Chern; W. Tudor

1981-01-01

187

Protective effect of povidone iodine ointment against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli.  

PubMed

Mustard gas (sulfur mustard, HD) is a powerful vesicant employed as a chemical weapon. The present study demonstrates the effect of povidone iodine (PI) ointment against skin toxicity caused by HD. Gross and histopathological examinations showed that application of PI 20 min or less following exposure to the vesicant resulted in marked skin protection. The shorter, interval between exposure and treatment, the better was the protection achieved. Povidone iodine was also effective against other mustards, such as carboxybutylchloroethyl sulfide (CBCS) and mechlorethamine. The fact that PI protected the skin against agents that cannot be oxidized, such as iodoacetic acid, divinylsulfone and cantharidine, indicated that the antidotal effect of PI was unrelated to oxidation of the nitrogen and sulfur atoms of the mustards. Furthermore, NMR spectroscopy of CBCS treated with iodine did not show oxidation of the sulfur atom. Clinical experience with patients after accidential heat burns (mostly of grade I) has shown that topical application of PI ointment immediately after the stimulus significantly reduced, and often prevented, skin lesions. Apart from being a safe and widely used disinfectant, PI ointment is recommended as an efficient protective agent against skin toxicity caused by hazardous chemicals and by heat stimuli. PMID:11428633

Wormser, U; Brodsky, B; Green, B S; Arad-Yellin, R; Nyska, A

2000-12-01

188

Protection of Carbon Steel against Hot Corrosion Using Thermal Spray Si and Cr-Base Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fe75Si thermal spray coating was applied on the surface of a plain carbon steel baffle plate. Beneath this coating, a Ni20Cr\\u000a coating was applied to give better adherence to the silicon coating. The baffle was\\u000a installed in the high-temperature, fireside, corrosion zone of a steam generator. At the same time, an uncoated\\u000a 304 stainless steel baffle was installed nearby

J. Porcayo-Calderon; J. G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez; L. Martinez

1998-01-01

189

Protection of carbon steel against hot corrosion using thermal spray Si and Cr-base coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fe75Si thermal spray coating was applied on the surface of a plain carbon steel baffle plate. Beneath this coating, a Ni20Cr\\u000a coating was applied to give better adherence to the silicon coating. The baffle was installed in the high-temperature, fireside,\\u000a corrosion zone of a steam generator. At the same time, an uncoated 304 stainless steel baffle was installed nearby

J. Porcayo-Calderon; J. G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez; L. Martinez

1998-01-01

190

Synthesis of polymer-protected graphene by solvent-assisted thermal reduction process.  

PubMed

Polyvinylpyrrolidone-protected (PVP-protected) graphene was synthesized by refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in dimethylformamide (DMF), using PVP as the dispersant. The structure and stability of this composite (DMF-rGO) were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results confirm the presence of a single sheet of DMF-rGO with PVP of 42%. This kind of chemically reduced GO has a greater solubility in water and also is more biocompatible than rGO reduced by hydrazine hydrate. This method is simple, environmentally friendly and the composite has potential applications in biology and polymer nanocomposites. PMID:21795771

Zhang, Yujie; Hu, Wenbing; Li, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing

2011-07-28

191

Surface modifications and surface-protective coatings analyzed by means of thermal waves (invited) (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth profiles of the thermophysical properties of alloy systems, for example, shape memory alloys (NiTi), steel, and tool steel, can vary considerably due to rolling, surface machining, heat treatment, mechanical wear, and erosion. The same is true for coated tool steel samples, which show variations of the effective thermal depth profiles due to the effects of substrate preparation and deposition of the coatings, for example, plasma-etching, arc erosion, nitriding, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), sputter deposition, and plasma spraying. In this work we present a large variety of measured effective thermal depth profiles. In a first step, we identify the effects of coating deposition and substrate preparation on the measured depth profiles. In a second step, we identify and try to quantify the effects of mechanical wear and erosion of both coated and uncoated surface. To this finality, the signals, which have been measured with the help of IR radiometry as a function of the modulation frequency, have been calibrated with reference signals measured for homogeneous samples of glassy carbon. The normalized amplitudes and phases have been approximated using layer models, mainly the two- and three-layer model with an opaque first layer, with respect to both the visible and the IR spectrum. Additionally, the signals measured for different coatings have been normalized against each other. By this latter calibration procedure, even smaller details and differences of coating deposition and substrate preparation can be identified, as well as the effects of wear and surface erosion. The virgin coated samples normally can well be described by the two-layer model, and the thermal transport parameters of the coatings as a whole can be determined quantitatively with rather good reliability (Ref. 1). The deviations from the two-layer model, which can be related to details of the deposition process, for example, to gradient layers or bond layers, are described by thermal diffusion times, which are orders of magnitude below the thermal diffusion time of the coating as a whole, so that they are negligible in the numerical simulation of heating or cooling processes. In many cases, however, the quantitative description based on layer models with only a small number of adjustable parameters is not possible, since the discrepancies between the reality of measurement and such a model are too large. This is the case for: (i) combined arc erosion and plasma nitriding of surfaces, which shows roughness effects with two different characteristic lengths (Ref. 2); (ii) CVD coatings, which show effects of preferred growth of some grains; (iii) strongly eroded coatings of cutting tools; and (iv) NiTi surfaces after rolling, surface machining, surface polishing, etc., where mechanical treatment can produce layer systems of the effective thermal properties with both reduced and increased effusivity values (Ref. 3).

Bein, B. K.; Fotsing, J. L. N.; Gibkes, J.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.; Dietzel, D.; Pelzl, J.

2003-01-01

192

Protection of carbon steel against hot corrosion using thermal spray Si- and Cr-base coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fe75Si thermal spray coating was applied on the surface of a plain carbon steel baffle plate. Beneath this coating, a Ni20Cr coating was applied to give better adherence to the silicon coating. The baffle was installed in the high-temperature, fireside, corrosion zone of a steam generator. At the same time, an uncoated 304 stainless steel baffle was installed nearby for comparison. For 13 months the boiler burned heavy fuel oil with high contents of vanadium. The samples were studied employing scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques. After that, it was possible to inspect the structural state of the components, and it was found that the stainless steel baffle plates were destroyed almost completely by corrosion, whereas the carbon steel coated baffle plate did not suffer a significant attack, showing that the performance of the thermal spray coating was outstanding and that the coating was not attacked by vanadium salts of the molten slag.

Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. G.; Martinez, L.

1998-02-01

193

Simoun: Un Nouveau Moyen d'Essais pour le Developpement des Protections Thermiques d'Hermes (Simoun: New Test Methods for Development Work on the Hermes Thermal Protection Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SIMOUN test apparatus is described. It is designed for testing the thermal protection systems developed for the Hermes Manned Space Plane. It develops a flow of extremely hot air by means of a plasma generator. The potential uses and various configura...

P. Charpentier R. Leroux

1990-01-01

194

Expression of Glycogen Phosphorylase Isoforms in Cultured Muscle from Patients with McArdle's Disease Carrying the p.R771PfsX33 PYGM Mutation  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the PYGM gene encoding skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase (GP) cause a metabolic disorder known as McArdle's disease. Previous studies in muscle biopsies and cultured muscle cells from McArdle patients have shown that PYGM mutations abolish GP activity in skeletal muscle, but that the enzyme activity reappears when muscle cells are in culture. The identification of the GP isoenzyme that accounts for this activity remains controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we present two related patients harbouring a novel PYGM mutation, p.R771PfsX33. In the patients' skeletal muscle biopsies, PYGM mRNA levels were ?60% lower than those observed in two matched healthy controls; biochemical analysis of a patient muscle biopsy resulted in undetectable GP protein and GP activity. A strong reduction of the PYGM mRNA was observed in cultured muscle cells from patients and controls, as compared to the levels observed in muscle tissue. In cultured cells, PYGM mRNA levels were negligible regardless of the differentiation stage. After a 12 day period of differentiation similar expression of the brain and liver isoforms were observed at the mRNA level in cells from patients and controls. Total GP activity (measured with AMP) was not different either; however, the active GP activity and immunoreactive GP protein levels were lower in patients' cell cultures. GP immunoreactivity was mainly due to brain and liver GP but muscle GP seemed to be responsible for the differences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that in both patients' and controls' cell cultures, unlike in skeletal muscle tissue, most of the protein and GP activities result from the expression of brain GP and liver GP genes, although there is still some activity resulting from the expression of the muscle GP gene. More research is necessary to clarify the differential mechanisms of metabolic adaptations that McArdle cultures undergo in vitro.

Garcia-Consuegra, Ines; Rubio, Juan C.; Orozco, Anna; Arenas, Joaquin; Martin, Miguel A.; Lucia, Alejandro; Gomez-Foix, Anna M.; Marti, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L.

2010-01-01

195

Fundamental ultrasonic wave propagation studies in a model thermal protection system (porous tiles bonded to aluminum bulkhead)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model thermal protection system (TPS) was designed by bonding ceramic porous tiles to 2.2 and 3.5 mm thick 2124-T351 aluminum alloy plates. One of the goals of the present work was to investigate the potential of detecting simulated defects using guided waves. Simulated defects consisted of cracks, voids and delaminations at the tile-substrate interface. Cracks and voids were introduced into the porous tiles during the fabrication of the TPS. Delamination was created by cutting the gluing tape between the tile and the aluminum substrate. Guided wave propagation studies were conducted using the pitch-catch approach, while changing the angle of strike and the frequency of the transducer excitation to generate the appropriate guided wave mode. The receiver was placed at a distance so that only the guided waves were received during the immersion experiment. The delamination defect could be conclusively detected, however the presence of the imperfect bond between the tiles and the substrate interfered with the detection of the simulated cracks and voids in the porous tiles.

Kundu, Tribikram; Reibel, Richard; Jata, Kumar V.

2006-04-01

196

Isomeric sugar effects on thermal phase transition of aqueous PNIPA solutions, probed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; insights to protein protection by sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

To illuminate the impacts of sugar concentration and stereochemistry on protein protection we used attenuated-total-reflectance\\u000a Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to study the effects of four aldohexoses on poly-N-isopropylacrylamide\\u000a (PNIPA) phase transition. Protein stability in aqueous solutions is essential in numerous fields, predominantly biotechnology\\u000a and food science. Saccharides protect proteins against thermal denaturation, but the mechanisms are still debatable. We therefore\\u000a studied

Avi Shpigelman; Yaron Paz; Ory Ramon; Yoav D. Livney

2011-01-01

197

Effect of the mass fraction of a binder in a thermal protective coating on the heat and mass exchange with a high-enthalpy gas flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of two modifications of a thermal protective coating based on phenolformaldehyde resin and carbon fabric with\\u000a various portions of the components were studied experimentally. The results are used for mathematical simulation of the ablation\\u000a of the materials during thermochemical degradation in a high-enthalpy gas flow. It is shown that a decrease in the mass fraction\\u000a of the polymer

V. I. Zinchenko; V. V. Nesmelov; A. S. Yakimov; G. F. Kostin

1998-01-01

198

Thermal protection afforded by two anti-exposure coveralls when worn in cold water. Final technical report, December 1987July 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) was contracted by U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters to evaluate the thermal protection afforded by two prototype aircrew anti exposure coveralls when worn in cold water. The coveralls were developed by two different manufacturers to meet U.S. Coast Guard specification G-OAV-3-1401\\/A of 15 July 1986. The coveralls were evaluated on seven male subjects

N. A. Pimental; B. A. Avellini

1988-01-01

199

Exertional thermal strain, protective clothing and auxiliary cooling in dry heat: evidence for physiological but not cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Individuals exposed to extreme heat may experience reduced physiological and cognitive performance, even during very light work. This can have disastrous effects on the operational capability of aircrew, but such impairment could be prevented by auxiliary cooling devices. This hypothesis was tested under very hot-dry conditions, in which eight males performed 2 h of low-intensity exercise (~30 W) in three trials, whilst wearing biological and chemical protective clothing: temperate (control: 20°C, 30% relative humidity) and two hot-dry trials (48°C, 20% relative humidity), one without (experimental) and one with liquid cooling (water at 15°C). Physiological strain and six cognitive functions were evaluated (MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery), and participants drank to sustain hydration state. Maximal core temperatures averaged 37.0°C (±0.1) in the control trial, and were significantly elevated in the experimental trial (38.9°C ± 0.3; P < 0.05). Similarly, heart rates peaked at 92 beats min(-1) (±7) and 133 beats min(-1) (±4; P < 0.05), respectively. Liquid cooling reduced maximal core temperatures (37.3°C ± 0.1; P < 0.05) and heart rates 87 beats min(-1) (±3; P < 0.05) in the heat, such that neither now differed significantly from the control trial (P > 0.05). However, despite inducing profound hyperthermia and volitional fatigue, no cognitive degradation was evident in the heat (P > 0.05). Since extensive dehydration was prevented, it appears that thermal strain in the absence of dehydration may have minimal impact upon cognitive function, at least as evaluated within this experiment. PMID:22328005

Caldwell, Joanne N; Patterson, Mark J; Taylor, Nigel A S

2012-02-12

200

Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners  

SciTech Connect

Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

Regina, J.R.

2002-02-08

201

NOTE: Determination of eye safety filter protection factors associated with retinal thermal hazard and blue light photochemical hazard for intense pulsed light sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment is provided of protection factors afforded for retinal thermal hazard and blue light photochemical hazard for a range of filters used with intense pulsed light sources (IPLs). A characteristic IPL spectrum based on black body radiation at 5000 K with a low cut filter at 515 nm was identified as suitable for such estimations. Specific filters assessed included types with idealized transmission properties and also a range of types whose transmission characteristics were measured by means of a Bentham DMc150 spectroradiometer. Predicted behaviour based on these spectra is outlined which describes both the effectiveness of protection and the level of luminous transmittance afforded. The analysis showed it was possible to describe a figure of merit for a particular filter material relating the degree of protection provided and corresponding value of luminous transmittance. This consideration is important for providing users of IPL equipment with safety eyewear with adequate level of visual transmittance.

McG Clarkson, D.

2006-02-01

202

Thermal analyser and micro FT-IR/DSC system used to determine the protective ability of microencapsulated squid oil.  

PubMed

Squid oil was microencapsulated by spray drying method. Gelatin, sodium caseinate, maltodextrin were contained in spray drying formulation with or without lecithin and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel). The thermal stability of the unencapsulated and encapsulated squid oils was determined by pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopic photometer with DSC system and themogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that the above analytical apparatus is an easy and reliable method to investigate the samples and that the microcapsule prepared by spray-dried formulation with lecithin as an emulsifier and Avicel as a stabilizer exhibits more stable thermal stability and longer shelf-life. PMID:7629659

Lin, S Y; Hwang, L S; Lin, C C

203

High-level expression of biologically active glycoprotein hormones in Pichia pastoris strains--selection of strain GS115, and not X-33, for the production of biologically active N-glycosylated 15N-labeled phCG  

PubMed Central

The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used for the production of recombinant glycoproteins. With the aim to generate biologically active 15N-labeled glycohormones for conformational studies focused on the unravelling of the NMR structures in solution, the P. pastoris strains GS115 and X-33 were explored for the expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (phCG) and human follicle-stimulating hormone (phFSH). In agreement with recent investigations on the N-glycosylation of phCG, produced in P. pastoris GS115, using ammonia/glycerol-methanol as nitrogen/carbon sources, the N-glycosylation pattern of phCG, synthesized using NH4Cl/glucose–glycerol–methanol, comprised neutral and charged, phosphorylated high-mannose-type N-glycans (Man8–15GlcNAc2). However, the changed culturing protocol led to much higher amounts of glycoprotein material, which is of importance for an economical realistic approach of the aimed NMR research. In the context of these studies, attention was also paid to the site specific N-glycosylation in phCG produced in P. pastoris GS115. In contrast to the rather simple N-glycosylation pattern of phCG expressed in the GS115 strain, phCG and phFSH expressed in the X-33 strain revealed, besides neutral high-mannose-type N-glycans, also high concentrations of neutral hypermannose-type N-glycans (Manup-to-30GlcNAc2). The latter finding made the X-33 strain not very suitable for generating 15N-labeled material. Therefore, 15N-phCG was expressed in the GS115 strain using the new optimized protocol. The 15N-enrichment was evaluated by 15N-HSQC NMR spectroscopy and GLC-EI/MS. Circular dichroism studies indicated that 15N-phCG/GS115 had the same folding as urinary hCG. Furthermore, 15N-phCG/GS115 was found to be similar to the unlabeled protein in every respect as judged by radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assays, and in vitro bioassays.

Blanchard, Veronique; Gadkari, Rupali A.; George, Albert V. E.; Roy, Satarupa; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Leeflang, Bas R.; Dighe, Rajan R.; Boelens, Rolf

2008-01-01

204

Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being initiated to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituents` size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. During the last quarter, model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder cermet composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technique. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a nickel matrix with an average size of alumina particles of 12 micrometers. The increase in volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to an increase in hardness of these composites from 85 to 180 HV{sub 1000}. The experimental procedure and preliminary microstructural characterization of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are presented in this progress report along with plans for the research in coming year. 3 figs.

Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1996-05-01

205

Thermal tolerance of contractile function in oxidative skeletal muscle: no protection by antioxidants and reduced tolerance with eicosanoid enzyme inhibition  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms for the loss of muscle contractile function in hyperthermia are poorly understood. This study identified the critical temperature, resulting in a loss of contractile function in isolated diaphragm (thermal tolerance), and then tested the hypotheses 1) that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to the loss of contractile function at this temperature, and 2) eicosanoid metabolism plays an important role in preservation of contractile function in hyperthermia. Contractile function and passive force were measured in rat diaphragm bundles during and after 30 min of exposure to 40, 41, 42 or 43°C. Between 40 and 42°C, there were no effects of hyperthermia, but at 43°C, a significant loss of active force and an increase in passive force were observed. Inhibition of ROS with the antioxidants, Tiron or Trolox, did not inhibit the loss of contractile force at 43°C. Furthermore, treatment with dithiothreitol, a thiol (-SH) reducing agent, did not reverse the effects of hyperthermia. A variety of global lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors further depressed force during 43°C and caused a significant loss of thermal tolerance at 42°C. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors also caused a loss of thermal tolerance at 42°C. Blockage of phospholipase with phospholipase A2 inhibitors, bromoenol lactone or arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone failed to significantly prevent the loss of force at 43°C. Overall, these data suggest that ROS do not play an apparent role in the loss of contractile function during severe hyperthermia in diaphragm. However, functional LOX and COX enzyme activities appear to be necessary for maintaining normal force production in hyperthermia.

Oliver, S. Ryan; Wright, Valerie P.; Parinandi, Narasimham; Clanton, Thomas L.

2008-01-01

206

Biophysical characterisation of thermal-induced precipitates of recombinant anthrax protective antigen: evidence for kinetically trapped unfolding domains in solid-state.  

PubMed

Insoluble aggregation or precipitation is one of the most common degradation pathways observed for biotherapeutics; despite this, the structural mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly understood due to difficulties associated with biophysical characterisation of protein particulates. To address this knowledge gap, we developed a solid-state circular dichroism (CD) technique, which allows in situ measurements of the secondary and tertiary structural changes associated with the formation of visible therapeutic protein aggregates. We demonstrate how solid-state CD, in conjunction with other biophysical and computational methods can aid in gaining valuable insights into the mechanisms and pathways of thermal-induced precipitation of Bacillus anthracis recombinant protective antigen (rPA), the primary immunogen of anthrax subunit vaccine. Using these methods, we show the domains d3 and d4 are the most labile of the four structurally distinct domains of rPA and play the critical role in nucleating the cascade of unfolding and aggregation. During the assembly process, the domains d1 and d2 become kinetically trapped within the insoluble aggregate and reveal previously intractable distinct tertiary structural elements of the rPA native structure. These findings reveal a uniquely detailed insight into the role of rPA domains on protein stability and provide a mechanistic framework for thermal-induced unfolding and precipitation. It also shows that solid-state CD provides a novel approach in characterising protein precipitation that may facilitate rational improvements to the stability of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22683695

Ganesan, Ashok; Watkinson, Allan; Moore, Barry D

2012-06-07

207

Thermal protection of H13 steel by growth of (TiAl)N films by PAPVD pulsed arc technique  

SciTech Connect

(TiAl)N Films were grown on H13 steel by a plasma assisted repetitive pulsed arc discharge. To grow the coatings, a TiAl sintered cathode was used, 50% Ti-50% Al. The deposition system consists of a reaction chamber with two electrodes placed face to face. A pulsed power supply, which allows for control of parameters like time active arc, time between arcs, arc energy, and others, is used to generate the discharge. Thermal changes were carried out on H13 steel before and after growing the (TiAl)N films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to study the coatings, observing the H13 steel and (TiAl)N oxidation temperature. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the surface chemical composition of the films and morphological details of the samples.

Jimenez, H.; Devia, D.M.; Benavides, V. [Laboratorio de fisica del plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales.AA 127 (Colombia); Devia, A. [Laboratorio de fisica del plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales.AA 127 (Colombia)], E-mail: adevia@une.net.co; Arango, Y.C.; Arango, P.J. [Laboratorio de fisica del plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales.AA 127 (Colombia); Velez, J.M. [Facultad de Minas Medellin, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin (Colombia)

2008-08-15

208

How clean is clean enough? Maintaining thermal protective clothing under field conditions in the oil and gas sector.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to develop practical care procedures to help maintain the protective quality of flame resistant workwear laundered by workers in the field. Based on observed field conditions, experiments were conducted that simulated domestic laundry procedures. The first experiment involved two flame resistant (FR) fabrics, contaminated or not contaminated with oil. Independent variables also included detergent type and laundry pre-treatment. Other laundry parameters were controlled. Results indicated that it is easier to maintain the FR performance of the FR-treated blend than it is for the aramid fabric. It is hypothesized that energy generated by initial ignition of oil on the specimens triggers the FR mechanism of the treatment, which in turn inhibits further combustion. A second experiment using larger specimens and a domestic washing machine also supported the hypothesized mechanism. PMID:15377409

Crown, Elizabeth M; Feng, Aifen; Xu, Xia

2004-01-01

209

Down-selection and optimization of thermal-sprayed coatings for aluminum mould tool protection and upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article details the down-selection procedure for thermally sprayed coatings for aluminum injection mould tooling. A down-selection metric was used to rank a wide range of coatings. A range of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) and atmospheric plasma spray (APS) systems was used to identify the optimal coating-process-system combinations. Three coatings were identified as suitable for further study; two CrC NiCr materials and one Fe Ni Cr alloy. No APS-deposited coatings were suitable for the intended application due to poor substrate adhesion (SA) and very high surface roughness (SR). The DJ2700 deposited coating properties were inferior to the coatings deposited using other HVOF systems and thus a Taguchi L18 five parameter, three-level optimization was used to optimize SA of CRC-1 and FE-1. Significant mean increases in bond strength were achieved (147±30% for FE-1 [58±4 MPa] and 12±1% for CRC-1 [67±5 MPa]). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the coating bond strengths were primarily dependent on powder flow rate and propane gas flow rate, and also secondarily dependent on spray distance. The optimal deposition parameters identified were: (CRC-1/FE-1) O2 264/264 standard liters per minute (SLPM); C3H8 62/73 SLPM; air 332/311 SLPM; feed rate 30/28 g/min; and spray distance 150/206 mm.

Gibbons, Gregory John; Hansell, Robert George

2006-09-01

210

Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas  

SciTech Connect

In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G. [and others

1995-09-01

211

Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC.

Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

212

30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with...sprays automatically actuated by rises in temperature to prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer...

2013-07-01

213

Overcurrent protection function for SPD disconnectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal protection function (thermal disconnector) is usually built into voltage clamping-type surge protective devices (SPDs) such as metal oxide varistors (MOVs) for electric power. In addition, if excess voltage or degradation of an SPD causes a large fault current flow, an overcurrent protection function (current disconnector) is used. Thermal disconnectors and current disconnectors are collectively known as SPD disconnectors.

Atsushi Sato; Nobuyuki Morii; Hidataka Sato

2011-01-01

214

Comparison of rehydration regimens for rehabilitation of firefighters performing heavy exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Fire suppression activities results in cardiovascular stress, hyperthermia, and hypohydration. Fireground rehabilitation (rehab) is recommended to blunt the deleterious effects of these conditions. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that three rehydration fluids provided after exercise in thermal protective clothing (TPC) would produce different heart rate or core temperature responses during a second bout of exercise in TPC. Methods: On three occasions, 18 euhydrated firefighters (16 males, 2 females) wearing TPC completed a standardized, 50-minute bout of upper and lower body exercise in a hot room that mimicked the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rehabilitation guidelines of “two cylinders before rehab” (20 min work, 10 min recovery, 20 min work). After an initial bout of exercise, subjects were randomly assigned water, sport drink, or an intravenous (IV) infusion of normal saline equal to the amount of body mass lost during exercise. After rehydration, the subject performed a second bout of exercise. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, and exercise duration were compared with a two-way ANOVA. Results: Subjects were firefighters aged 28.2±11.3 years with a VO2peak of 37.4±3.4 ml/kg/min. 527±302 mL of fluid were provided during the rehabilitation period. No subject could complete either the pre- or post-rehydration 50-minute bout of exercise. Mean (SD) time to exhaustion (min) was longer (p<0.001) in bout 1 (25.9±12.9 min. water, 28.0±14.1 min. sport drink, 27.4±13.8 min. IV) compared to bout 2 (15.6±9.6 min. water, 14.7±8.6 min. sport drink, 15.7±8.0 min. IV) for all groups but did not differ by intervention. All subjects approached age predicted maximum heart rate at the end of bout 1 (180±11 bpm) and bout 2 (176±13 bpm). Core temperature rose 1.1±0.7°C during bout 1 and 0.5±0.4°C during bout 2. Core temperature, heart rate, and exercise time during bout 2 did not differ between rehydration fluids. Conclusions: Performance during a second bout of exercise in TPC did not differ when firefighters were rehydrated with water, sport drink, or IV normal saline when full rehydration is provided. Of concern was the inability of all subjects to complete two consecutive periods of heavy exercise in TPC suggesting the NFPA “two cylinders before rehab” guideline may not be appropriate in continuous heavy work scenarios.

Hostler, David; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Reis, Steven E; Kong, Pui Wah; Morley, Julia; Gallagher, Michael; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

215

Eye Protective Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological effect of infrared radiation on the retina of the eye is discussed. Experimental data are presented on filter systems recommended for eye protective goggles which will reduce the level of high intensity thermal radiation. The filter systems...

W. B. Plum J. B. Crilly

1964-01-01

216

Thermal protection system development, testing, and qualification for atmospheric probes and sample return missions. Examples for Saturn, Titan and Stardust-type sample return  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science community has continued to be interested in planetary entry probes, aerocapture, and sample return missions to improve our understanding of the Solar System. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such missions are critical to the understanding not only of the individual planets, but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the Solar System. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient to provide the desired data on its atmospheric composition. An aerocapture mission would enable delivery of a satellite to provide insight into how gravitational forces cause dynamic changes in Saturn’s ring structure that are akin to the evolution of protoplanetary accretion disks. Heating rates for the “shallow” Saturn probes, Saturn aerocapture, and sample Earth return missions with higher re-entry speeds (13-15 km/s) from Mars, Venus, comets, and asteroids are in the range of 1-6 KW/cm2. New, mid-density thermal protection system (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission enabling for mass efficiency and also for use on smaller vehicles enabled by advancements in scientific instrumentation. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet arcjet facility that was used to qualify carbon phenolic for the Galileo probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technologies and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arcjet that can be used for TPS development, in test gases appropriate for future planetary probe and aerocapture applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include new versions of the Apollo Avcoat material and a densified variant of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). Application of these and other TPS materials and the use of other facilities for development and qualification of TPS for Saturn, Titan, and Sample Return missions of the Stardust class with entry speeds from 6.0 to 28.6 km/s are discussed.

Venkatapathy, E.; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.; Arnold, J. O.; Wright, M. J.; Allen, G. A.

2009-07-01

217

30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ground fault. The thermal protection must operate at either 50...power center. The thermal protection must not be dependent upon...a current transformer and overcurrent relay. (5) High-voltage...instantaneous ground-fault protection set at not more than...

2013-07-01

218

Maximising rotor thermal capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not only is there no uniformity in the method adopted for generator rotor overcurrent protection, but the AVR control algorithms do not directly assess the rotor's temperature. Often, after rotor overcurrent protection has functioned following a sharp increase of excitation current, 90% of the rotor's thermal capacity is still unused. A computationally reliable and fast method has been devised for

W. R. Lachs

2001-01-01

219

Thermal stress treatment does not affect the stability and protective capacity of goat milk derived E2-marker vaccine formulation against CSFV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical swine fever virus produces a huge mortality in infected herds during recurrent outbreaks, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas. In this scenario, it is common that cold-chain related issues affect the efficacy of virus attenuated-derived vaccines, which are frequently used in eradication programs. In the present work, the stability and protective capacity of a recombinant vaccine preparation, based on

Maritza Barrera; Oliberto Sanchez; Yanet Prieto; Sara Castell; Paula Naranjo; Maria P. Rodriguez; Omar Farnós; Ana Aguilera; María Frias; Osvaldo Fonseca; José M. Figueredo; Felix Aguero; Raquel Montesino; Jorge R. Toledo

2009-01-01

220

Orion Spacecraft MMOD Protection Design and Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first-principals, semi-empirical ballistic performance model has been developed for porous ceramics. Lightweight thermal protection systems protect the crew and vehicle of orbital and exo-orbital missions from the intense heat of atmospheric reentry. To...

B. A. Davis C. D. Foreman E. Christiansen J. E. Miller W. E. Bohl

2011-01-01

221

Influence of sol-gel SiO2\\/TiO2 protective coatings on the optical and thermal properties of nickel-phosphorus selective surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sol-gel coating was applied to an electroless acid-etched Ni-P spectrally selective surface in order to investigate its influence on the optical and thermal properties of the selective surface. The sol-gel process is a low-temperature preparation of glasses, which is of interest considering the lack of resistance of selective surfaces at the high temperatures generally needed to prepare glasses by

Marie Papini

1991-01-01

222

Protective Role of Trehalose on Thermal Stability of Lactase in Relation to its Glass and Crystal Forming Properties and Effect of Delaying Crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal inactivation of ?-galactosidase was investigated in dried matrices of poly(vinyl)pyrrolidone (PVP), maltodextrin and trehalose. Significant lactase inactivation was observed in the polymeric matrices kept well below their glass transition temperature (Tg). The stability of the enzyme in the anhydrous glassy matrices of maltodextrin and PVPs heated at 70 °C was directly related to their Tg; i.e. systems with higher

Mar??a Florencia Mazzobre; Maria del Pilar Buera; Jorge Chirife

1997-01-01

223

Naturally existing CD11c lowCD45RB high dendritic cells protect mice from acute severe inflammatory response induced by thermal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a good understanding of the process that initiates and promotes host inflammation induced by acute injury, little is known about the host immune cells responsible for the inhibition of inflammatory response to thermal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of naturally existing CD11clowCD45RBhigh dendritic cells (CD11clowCD45RBhigh DCs) on acute severe inflammatory response and

Qing-yang Liu; Yong-ming Yao; Shu-wen Zhang; Yong-hong Yan; Xu Wu

2010-01-01

224

Technology evaluation report: SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) program demonstration test. The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the US EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) combustion research facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System was performed under the SITE program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the rotary-kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. The system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a coal tar waste (KO87). Comparative performance with

L. Waterland; J. W. Lee

1989-01-01

225

Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1997-08-31

226

Thermal and free carrier concentration mapping during ESD event in smart Power ESD protection devices using an improved laser interferometric technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution of temperature and free-carrier concentration during high-current stress is studied in smart power electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection devices using a backside laser interferometric technique. The method is based on detecting changes in the refractive index of silicon due to thermo-optical and plasma-optical effects. We use a modified version of a heterodyne interferometer, where the reference beam is reflected

C. Fürböck; K. Esmark; M. Litzenberger; D. Pogany; G. Groos; R. Zelsacher; M. Stecher; E. Gornik

2000-01-01

227

Justification in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the concept of Justification has increasingly come to the fore of the minds of legislators, users of radioactive materials and radiation protection specialists alike. Perhaps the most well known manifestation of this was the lengthy debate, ending in judicial review, about the Justification for the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield and, more

David Owen

1999-01-01

228

Technology evaluation report: SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) program demonstration test. The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the US EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) combustion research facility  

SciTech Connect

A series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System was performed under the SITE program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the rotary-kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. The system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a coal tar waste (KO87). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was also tested. Compliance with the incinerator performance standards of 99.99% principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7% O2 was measured for all tests. The Pyretron system was capable of in-compliance performance at double the mixed waste feedrate and at a 60% increase in batch waste charge mass than possible with conventional incineration. Scrubber blowdown and kiln ash contained no detectable levels of any of the POHCs chosen.

Waterland, L.; Lee, J.W.

1989-04-01

229

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Ultra-thin ?-SiNx protective overcoats for hard disks and read/write heads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports that amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx) overcoats were deposited at room temperature by microwave ECR plasma enhanced unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The 2 nm a-SiNx overcoat has better anti-corrosion properties than that of reference a-CNx overcoats (2-4.5 nm). The superior anti-corrosion performance is attributed to its stoichiometric bond structure, where 94.8% Si atoms form Si-N asymmetric stretching vibration bonds. The N/Si ratio is 1.33 as in the stoichiometry of Si3N4 and corresponds to the highest hardness of 25.0 GPa. The surface is atomically smooth with RMS < 0.2 nm. The ultra-thin ?-SiNx overcoats are promising for hard disks and read/write heads protective coatings.

Ding, Wan-Yu; Xu, Jun; Lu, Wen-Qi; Deng, Xin-Lu; Dong, Chuang

2009-04-01

230

40 CFR 265.370 - Other thermal treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other thermal treatment. 265.370 Section 265.370 Protection...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.370 Other thermal treatment. The regulations in this...

2010-07-01

231

40 CFR 265.370 - Other thermal treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Other thermal treatment. 265.370 Section 265.370 Protection...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.370 Other thermal treatment. The regulations in this...

2009-07-01

232

14 CFR 25.856 - Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. 25.856 Section...Fire Protection § 25.856 Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. (a) Thermal/acoustic insulation material installed in...

2009-01-01

233

14 CFR 25.856 - Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. 25.856 Section...Fire Protection § 25.856 Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. (a) Thermal/acoustic insulation material installed in...

2010-01-01

234

Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

1997-11-01

235

Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environment. Semi-annual report, August 14, 1996--January 14, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The cermet composites will be produced using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition. Model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cermet coatings with varying alumina fractions were produced. During this period, powder processed and electrodeposited composites were tested in the erosion simulator (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} erodent, 40 m/s velocity, 90{degree} impact angle) and their relative erosion resistances were determined. It was found that electrodeposited Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites containing small Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (1{mu}m)s showed better erosion resistance than powder processed composites with large Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (12{mu}m). Also, an increase in volume fraction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in powder processed alloys led to decreased erosion resistance. For both powder processed and electrodeposited Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites, addition of hard Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles did not improve erosion resistance compared with pure Ni.

Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1997-02-01

236

Protection by Thermal and Chemical Activation with Cerium Salts of the Alloy AA2017 in Aqueous Solutions of NaCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of anticorrosive treatments for aluminum alloys that can be employed as "green" alternatives to those based on Cr(VI) are currently under development. This article reports a study of the morphological and anticorrosive characteristics of surface layers formed on the Al-Cu alloy AA2017 by immersion treatment in baths of cerium salt, accelerated by increased temperature and the employment of hydrogen peroxide. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) studies of the samples treated have demonstrated the existence of a heterogeneous layer formed by a film of aluminum oxide/hydroxide on the matrix, and a series of dispersed islands of cerium over the cathodic intermetallics. The protective efficacy has been evaluated using electrochemical techniques, linear polarizations (LP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and salt spray tests. The results obtained indicate that the layer provided good resistance to corrosion in media with chlorides, and the method gives a considerable reduction of the time required for the immersion treatments.

Bethencourt, Manuel; Botana, Francisco Javier; Cano, María José; González-Rovira, Leandro; Marcos, Mariano; Sánchez-Amaya, José María

2012-01-01

237

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under several entry accident scenarios. Results of the analysis showed that, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging from 20 to 65 km, depending on the scenario, thus releasing the core materials. The graphitic based core materials will

Leonard W. Connell; Donald L. Potter; C. Channy Wong; Marc W. Kniskern

1992-01-01

238

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under three accidental entry scenarios. Depending on the scenario, results of the analysis showed that, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging 25 to 73 km.; subsequent release of the core materials occurs. The graphitic based core materials

D. L. Potter; L. W. Connell; C. Channy Wong; M. W. Kniskern

1992-01-01

239

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under three accidental entry scenarios. Depending on the scenario, results of the analysis showed, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging from 25 to 73 km. Subsequent release of the core materials occurs. The graphitic based core materials

Donald L. Potter; Leonard W. Connell; C. C. Wong; Marc W. Kniskern

1993-01-01

240

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under three accidental entry scenarios. Depending on the scenario, results of the analysis showed, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging from 25 to 73 km. Subsequent release of the core materials occurs. The graphitic based core materials will undergo partial ablation, with the percent mass loss depending on the geometry of the fuel elements. A carbon-phenolic thermal protection system was sized to prevent pressure vessel aerothermal failure. It was found to increase the mass of the NTR by approximately 15 percent.

Potter, Donald L.; Connell, Leonard W.; Wong, C. C.; Kniskern, Marc W.

1993-01-01

241

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under three accidental entry scenarios. Depending on the scenario, results of the analysis showed that, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging 25 to 73 km. subsequent release the core materials occurs. The graphitic based core materials will undergo partial ablation, with the percent mass loss depending on the geometry of the fuel elements. A carbon-phenolic thermal protection system was sized to prevent pressure vessel aerothermal failure. It was found to increase the mass of the NTR by approximately 15 percent.

Potter, D.L.; Connell, L.W.; Wong, C. Channy; Kniskern, M.W.

1992-01-01

242

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under several entry accident scenarios. Results of the analysis showed that, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging from 20 to 65 km, depending on the scenario, thus releasing the core materials. The graphitic based core materials will undergo only partial ablation, with the percent mass loss depending on the geometry of the fuel form. A thermal protection system was sized to prevent pressure vessel aerothermal failure and was found to increase the mass of the NTR by approximately 15 percent.

Connell, Leonard W.; Potter, Donald L.; Wong, C. Channy; Kniskern, Marc W.

1992-01-01

243

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under three accidental entry scenarios. Depending on the scenario, results of the analysis showed that, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging 25 to 73 km. subsequent release the core materials occurs. The graphitic based core materials will undergo partial ablation, with the percent mass loss depending on the geometry of the fuel elements. A carbon-phenolic thermal protection system was sized to prevent pressure vessel aerothermal failure. It was found to increase the mass of the NTR by approximately 15 percent.

Potter, D.L.; Connell, L.W.; Wong, C. Channy; Kniskern, M.W.

1992-11-01

244

Nuclear thermal rocket entry heating and thermal response preliminary analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This preliminary study analyzes the atmospheric entry of a solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine under three accidental entry scenarios. Depending on the scenario, results of the analysis showed that, without external thermal protection, an aluminum pressure vessel will fail at altitudes ranging 25 to 73 km.; subsequent release of the core materials occurs. The graphitic based core materials will undergo partial ablation, with the percent mass loss depending on the geometry of the fuel elements. A carbon-phenolic thermal protection system was sized to prevent pressure vessel aerothermal failure. It was found to increase the mass of the NTR by approximately 15 percent.

Potter, D. L.; Connell, L. W.; Wong, C. Channy; Kniskern, M. W.

1992-11-01

245

Insider protection  

SciTech Connect

The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

Waddoups, I.G.

1993-07-01

246

X-33 Combustion-Wave Ignition System Tested.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with Rocketdyne, the Boeing Company, tested a novel rocket engine ignition system, called the combustion-wave ignition system, in its Research Combustion Laboratory. This ignition system greatly simplifies ig...

L. C. Liou

1999-01-01

247

X-33 Computational Aeroheating Predictions and Comparisons with Experimental Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an overview ofthe hypersonic aeroheating CFD research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)in support of this TPS development activity. In this research, laminar and turbulent aeroheatingpredictions were generated at wind-tunnel test conditions for the XD33 vehicle using both afinite-volume, Navier-Stokes solver, and a coupled inviscid-solver\\/boundary-layer-codeengineering method. Computations were performed for angles-of-attack of 20?, 30?, and

Brian R. Hollis; H. Harris; Scott A. Berry; Stephen J. Alter; Thomas J. Horvath

2001-01-01

248

The control system for the X-33 linear aerospike engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear aerospike engine is being developed for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) applications. The primary advantages of a linear aerospike engine over a conventional bell nozzle engine include altitude compensation, which provides enhanced performance, and lower vehicle weight resulting from the integration of the engine into the vehicle structure. A feature of this integration is the ability to provide thrust vector control

J. E. Jackson; E. Espenschied; J. Klop

1998-01-01

249

Trade-Offs in Overload Protection for Low Voltage Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Running overcurrent protection for motors rated 600 V or less is available in a variety of devices. Thermal overload relays, thermal protectors, magnetic and solid-state overload relays, multifunction solid-state motor protectors, and even short-circuit protective devices selected according to certain rules of the National Electrical Code (NEC) can provide varying degrees of protection. Selection of the running overcurrent protective device

Kenneth L. Paape; Michael J. Manthe

1982-01-01

250

Thermal testing in support of the TRUPACT development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal testing has been performed as part of development activities in support of the design of the TRUPACT (TRansUranic PACkage Transporter). The TRUPACT contains polyurethane foam in the walls and door to provide both impact and thermal protection. The environmental tests series to assess thermal protection have included radiant heating tests, small unit fire tests, and full-scale fire tests on

J. M. Diggs; H. R. Yoshimura; W. L. Uncapher

1983-01-01

251

Protecting fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program has recently completed a study of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at conventional hydroelectric projects. The report, Environmental Mitigation at Hydroelectric Projects, Volume II. Benefits and Costs of Fish Passage and Protection (Volume II), provides information describing both historical and current mitigation efforts in the United States. The study used 16

J. Francfort; B. Rinehart

1994-01-01

252

(Radiation protection)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler attended the Seventh Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Sydney, Australia, April 11--15, 1988. This conference consisted of a comprehensive technical program with oral and poster presentations in all areas of radiation protection including several topics which were of special interest to the traveler; e.g., neutron dosimetry, personnel dosimetry and instrumentation, radiobiology, and radiation accidents.

Swaja

1988-01-01

253

Thermal Sensing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In thermal sensing devices, such as for calorimetry, a support layer or central layer can have a thermometer element or other thermal sensor on one side and a thermally conductive structure or component on the other. The thermally conductive structure can...

D. De Bruyker F. E. Torres M. V. Wolkin R. H. Bruce

2005-01-01

254

Copy Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the recent shut down of the peer-to-peer file sharing utility Audiogalaxy, copy protection of all kinds of data is a very hot topic. Distribution of music, movies, and software is running rampant, and many believe the solution lies in better copy protection.To learn the basics of copy protection, visit Link Data Security (1). This company specializes in secure products that reduce piracy, and this article explains the characteristics of good protection. The DVD Copy Control Association (2) manages the Content Scramble System (CSS), which prevents illegal duplication of DVD movies. Many documents about CSS and other projects are available on their Web site. One of the most high-profile fighters against piracy is the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) (3). The RIAA home page asserts the rules of music on the Internet and stresses the importance of obeying copyright restrictions. The other side of the argument is presented on this site (4). These activists state that recent changes to copyright laws have deprived citizens of basic rights, and they present their proposed Consumer Technology Bill of Rights, along with plenty of other information. Released on April 25, 2002, a report by the Senate examines the progress of content protection (5). The three original goals of content protection are outlined, and the status of various efforts to achieve them is discussed. Another report by the Broadcast Protection Discussion Group (6) summarizes its findings about "preventing unauthorized redistribution of unencrypted digital terrestrial broadcast television." A recent article in Wired News (7) looks at how a state-of-the-art copy protection technology was broken with a remarkably easy approach. The views of a Netscape co-founder offers a bleak forecast of copy protection in this article (8), but also implies that it might not be as big a problem as many people think.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

255

Armored garment for protecting  

SciTech Connect

A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, II, Jack F. (Albuquerque, NM); Whinery, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brazfield, Richard (Albuquerque, NM); Lawrie, Catherine (Tijeras, NM); Lawrie, David (Tijeras, NM); Preece, Dale S. (Watkins, CO)

2009-08-11

256

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Cellulomonas sp.: physicochemical properties and binding of substrates determined by ligand-dependent enhancement of enzyme intrinsic fluorescence, and by protective effects of ligands on thermal inactivation of the enzyme.  

PubMed

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Cellulomonas sp., homotrimeric in the crystalline state, is also a trimer in solution. Other features of the enzyme are typical for "low molecular mass" PNPs, except for its unusual stability at pH 11. Purine bases, alpha-D-ribose-1-phosphate (R1P) and phosphate enhance the intrinsic fluorescence of Cellulomonas PNP, and hence form binary complexes and induce conformational changes of the protein that alter the microenvironment of tryptophan residue(s). The effect due to guanine (Gua) binding is much higher than those caused by other ligands, suggesting that the enzyme preferentially binds a fluorescent, most probably rare tautomeric anionic form of Gua, further shown by comparison of emission properties of the PNP/Gua complex with that of Gua anion and its N-methyl derivatives. Guanosine (Guo) and inosine (Ino) at 100 microM concentration show little and no effect, respectively, on enzyme intrinsic fluorescence, but their protective effect against thermal inactivation of the enzyme points to their forming weak binary complexes with PNP. Binding of Gua, hypoxanthine (Hx) and R1P to the trimeric enzyme is described by one dissociation constant, K(d)=0.46 microM for Gua, 3.0 microM for Hx, and 60 microM for R1P. The binding stoichiometry for Gua (and probably Hx) is three ligand molecules per enzyme trimer. Effects of phosphate on the enzyme intrinsic fluorescence are due not only to binding, but also to an increase in ionic strength, as shown by titration with KCl. When corrected for effects of ionic strength, titration data with phosphate are most consistent with one dissociation constant, K(d)=270 microM, but existence of a very weak binding site with K(d)>50 mM could not be unequivocally ruled out. Binding of Gua to the PNP/phosphate binary complex is weaker (K(d)=1.7 microM) than to the free enzyme (K(d)=0.46 microM), suggesting that phosphate helps release the purine base in the catalytic process of phosphorolysis. The results indicate that nonlinear kinetic plots of initial velocity, typical for PNPs, including Cellulomonas PNP, are not, as generally assumed, due to cooperative interaction between monomers forming the trimer, but to a more complex kinetic mechanism than hitherto considered. PMID:12044910

Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Tebbe, Jan; Koellner, Gertraud; Shugar, David

2002-06-01

257

Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

Grupen, Claus

258

Thermal engine  

SciTech Connect

A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

1984-01-03

259

Noise Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

1980-01-01

260

Radiation protection.  

PubMed

One of radiologic technologists' most important professional obligations is protecting patients, other members of the health care team, the public and themselves from as much radiation-related harm as possible while also maximizing the screening, diagnostic and therapeutic potential of ionizing radiation. This article reviews the different types of radiation dose and how radiation affects the body. Patient shielding, personnel dosimeters and area monitors are discussed, along with beam collimation and filtration. The author also describes protocols to protect pregnant patients and pregnant technologists. PMID:17519374

Brusin, Joyce Helena

261

Protecting Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

Coyle, Karen

2001-01-01

262

Plant Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant protection involves the proper selection, placement and es- tablishment of a plant in a favorable environment that will maintain its health, thus minimizing the need for chemical control of pests and diseases. The concept is as applicable to the backyard gardener as it is to the commercial grower. Selection is the key to successful establishment and plant longevity. Aside

KENNETH SHAW

263

(Radiation protection)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Seventh Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Sydney, Australia, April 11--15, 1988. This conference consisted of a comprehensive technical program with oral and poster presentations in all areas of radiation protection including several topics which were of special interest to the traveler; e.g., neutron dosimetry, personnel dosimetry and instrumentation, radiobiology, and radiation accidents. Besides attending technical sessions, the traveler presented a paper on results and implications of neutron personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies conducted since 1974 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During the meeting, the traveler discussed possible future collaborative research efforts with scientists from several countries and obtained commitments for an ORNL-coordinated radiation protection conference planned for November of 1988. Through the conference attendance and discussions with dosimetry researchers, the traveler gained information concerning directions and philosophies in radiation protection and dosimetry and made preliminary plans for future cooperative efforts which will be directly related to Department of Energy (DOE) programs.

Swaja, R.E.

1988-05-06

264

Microgrid Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode where the microgrid is interfaced to the main power system by a fast semiconductor switch called static switch, (SS). It is essential to protect a microgrid in both the grid-connected and the islanded modes of operation against all types of faults. The major issue arises

H. Nikkhajoei; R. H. Lasseter

2007-01-01

265

Effect of harmonic pollution on low voltage overcurrent protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current harmonics can produce undesired effect on protection devices, the most common being nuisance tripping on instantaneous overcurrent protections. This paper focuses on the effects of harmonics on overcurrent protection devices, describing the structure and behaviour of circuit breakers fitted with thermal-magnetic trip units and with electronic trip units. Situations in which undesired effects are more likely to occur, as

Antonio Fidigatti; Enrico Ragaini

2010-01-01

266

Thermal Characterization of TPS Tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermal Protection System (TPS) used on space shuttles protects the metallic structure from the large amounts of heat created during travel through the atmosphere, both on takeoff and reentry. The shuttle experiences high thermo-acoustic loading and impact damage from micro-meteorites, which can cause disbonds, delaminations, chips, cracks, and other defects to the TPS system. To enhance durability and damage tolerance, new TPS tiles with an added protective ceramic-matrix-composite layer are being developed. This paper explores the use of pulsed thermography as a quick, diverse, non-destructive technique, to characterize the TPS system. The pulsed thermography images obtained are presented and analyzed.

Kacmar, C. J.; Lacivita, K. J.; Jata, K. V.; Sathish, S.

2006-03-01

267

Eye Protection  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5

Pashby, Tom

1986-01-01

268

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MULTIPURPOSE THERMAL SPRAYING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many components and structures require protection against corrosion, oxidization, excessive heat and wear. This is achieved by applying various types of coatings on the component base material, hence providing the necessary protection and improving performance of aircraft systems. For example, the application of the thermal barrier coatings (TBC), in the last decade, on the aircraft turbine blades, vanes and combustors

Igor A. Gorlach; Daniela Ghelase; Nelson Mandela

269

Designing Physical Protection Technology for Insider Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to furth...

A. A. Trujillo I. G. Waddoups

1986-01-01

270

Force protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with rapid, continuous inspection of vehicles entering military facilities or compounds, searching for high explosives, or the rapid survey of facilities if it is found that security has been breached. The author reviews methods which are in use now, including: x-rays; x-ray tomography; thermal or fast neutrons; quadrupole resonance; trace detection; electron capture; chemiluminesence; ion mobility spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; antibodies; and layered, synergistic approaches. He then discusses the limitations of these methods and proposes new approaches which are a combination of old techniques such as weighing vehicles with technological advances in some present methods.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-12-31

271

Thermal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1976 literature on thermal effects was reviewed under the following categories: reviews; power plant studies; producers; consumer reproduction, development, morphology, distribution, thermal tolerance, growth, feeding, activity, oxygen metabolism, temperature and other stresses; decomposers; diseases and parasites and beneficial uses. Many of the studies are summarized in tabular form.

C. C. Coutant; S. S. Talmadge

1977-01-01

272

Thermal Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I read this book with great interest since so many standard and good textbooks already exist within statistical and thermal physics that I expected to find an answer to the main question: why should one more book be published and for whom? This branch of knowledge (particularly, the physics at thermal equilibrium which constitutes the main part of this book)

R Kutner

2000-01-01

273

Holographic thermalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the transition of a quantum field system toward the state of thermal equilibrium based on the holographic description using the duality between the quantum field system in the d-dimensional Minkowski space and the gravity theory in the (d+ 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In this construction, the thermalization in the d-dimensional space is described in the holographic language as the formation of a black hole in the (d+ 1)-dimensional space. We use a holographic model of thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma describing the black hole formation by the Vaidya metric. We show that evaporation of the black hole, also modeled by the Vaidya metric, leads to an interesting effect in the d-dimensional space: thermalization occurs only at small distances and is impossible in the infrared region. In the considered model, the thermal behavior at small distances is possible only during a certain time, after which the dethermalization process begins.

Arefeva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.

2013-02-01

274

Thermal Properties and Thermal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter provides a summary of the fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the heat capacity C P, thermal conductivity kappa, and thermal expansion coefficient alpha L of materials. The C P, kappa, and alpha of various classes of materials, namely, semiconductors, polymers, and glasses, are reviewed, and various typical characteristics are summarized. A key concept in crystalline solids

Safa Kasap; Dan Tonchev

2007-01-01

275

Biological Plant Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective plant protection calls for a judicious use of pesticides, herbicides and other agronomic measures. Biological plant protection has introduced new dimensions and concepts in plant protection. To develop rational biological plant protection measur...

V. A. Shapa

1985-01-01

276

A new thermal model for EV induction machine drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new thermal model that can be used for design, protection, efficiency maximization, and speed estimation of an electric vehicle machine drive. The model can predict the winding temperature even in transient conditions. The proposed thermal model of the machine is represented by an equivalent electric circuit. Then the thermal equations are derived and used for temperature

B. Asaii; B. Moghtaderi; S. Sathiakumar; D. F. Gosden

1996-01-01

277

Designing physical protection technology for insider protection  

SciTech Connect

Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to further minimize the existence of an insider or the consequences of an insider-perpetrated incident. Integration of insider protection techniques into existing administrative and operational procedures has resulted in economic and operational impacts. Future increases in insider protection may result in even greater impacts, so the industry must proceed wisely as new approaches are developed. The design of physical protection technology for insider protection is further discussed in this paper.

Trujillo, A.A.; Waddoups, I.G. Waddoups, I.G.

1986-01-01

278

Resistance after firing protected electric match  

DOEpatents

An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

Montoya, Arsenio P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1981-11-10

279

Anodes for Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumable anodes were evaluated in the laboratory for use in cathodic protection systems for steel reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments and in areas where de-icing salts are employed. The anode materials include Zn-hydrogel and thermal-sprayed Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In. These anodes were evaluated for service in both galvanic (GCP) and impressed current (ICCP) cathodic protection systems. ICCP anodes were

Sophie Bullard; C. B. Cryer; Gordon Holcomb; Stephen Cramer; H. M. Laylor; James Russell; Bernard Covino

2000-01-01

280

Application of Nanofiber Technology to Nonwoven Thermal Insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofiber technology (fiber diameter less than 1 micrometer) is under development for future Army lightweight protective clothing systems. Nanofiber applications for ballistic and chemical\\/biological protection are being actively investigated, but the thermal properties of nanofibers and their potential protection against cold environments are relatively unknown. Previous studies have shown that radiative heat transfer in fibrous battings is minimized at fiber

Phillip W. Gibson; Calvin Lee; Frank Ko; Darrell Reneker

281

Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical progress report, August 14, 1996--January 14, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. In the first six months of this project, bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The results of microstructural characterization of these alloys were presented in the first semiannual report. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. An increase in the volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to a significant increase in hardness of these composites.

Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1997-02-01

282

Thermal Properties and Thermal Analysis:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chapter provides a summary of the fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the heat capacity C P, thermal conductivity ?, and thermal expansion coefficient ? L of materials. The C P, ?, and ? of various classes of materials, namely, semiconductors, polymers, and glasses, are reviewed, and various typical characteristics are summarized. A key concept in crystalline solids is the Debye theory of the heat capacity, which has been widely used for many decades for calculating the C P of crystals. The thermal properties are interrelated through Grüneisen's theorem. Various useful empirical rules for calculating C P and ? have been used, some of which are summarized. Conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a powerful and convenient thermal analysis technique that allows various important physical and chemical transformations, such as the glass transition, crystallization, oxidation, melting etc. to be studied. DSC can also be used to obtain information on the kinetics of the transformations, and some of these thermal analysis techniques are summarized. Temperature-modulated DSC, TMDSC, is a relatively recent innovation in which the sample temperature is ramped slowly and, at the same time, sinusoidally modulated. TMDSC has a number of distinct advantages compared with the conventional DSC since it measures the complex heat capacity. For example, the glass-transition temperature T g measured by TMDSC has almost no dependence on the thermal history, and corresponds to an almost step life change in C P. The new Tzero DSC has an additional thermocouple to calibrate better for thermal lags inherent in the DSC measurement, and allows more accurate thermal analysis.

Kasap, Safa; Tonchev, Dan

283

On the protection of "protected areas"  

PubMed Central

Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km2 of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions—the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa—once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure—that is, whether effective laws also protect them—is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore “paper parks.” Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption.

Joppa, Lucas N.; Loarie, Scott R.; Pimm, Stuart L.

2008-01-01

284

Mechanical and Thermal Transport Properties of Suspension Thermal-Sprayed Alumina-Zirconia Composite Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-laminates and nanocomposites of Al2O3 and ZrO2 can potentially exhibit higher hardness and fracture toughness and lower thermal conductivity than alumina or zirconia alone.\\u000a The potential of these improvements for abrasion protection and thermal barrier coatings is generating considerable interest\\u000a in developing techniques for producing these functional coatings with optimized microstructures. Al2O3-ZrO2 composite coatings were deposited by suspension thermal spraying

Jörg Oberste Berghaus; Jean-Gabriel Legoux; Christian Moreau; Fariba Tarasi; Tomas Chráska

2008-01-01

285

Determining Localized Anode Condition to Maintain Effective Corrosion Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal sprayed zinc anodes used for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete deteriorate over time. Two different technologies, ultrasound and electrical circuit resistance combined with water permeability, were investigated in the la...

B. Brooks H. Jansen J. Meuli J. Westall M. Koretsky V. Nguyen

2010-01-01

286

Summary of Research on Heat Resistant Fabrics for Protective Clothing,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on heat resistant protective fabrics was reviewed. Particular attention has been given to the measurement of the thermal properties of flame and heat resistant materials, resulting in the development of many different methods for measuring fabric...

E. P. Brewster R. L. Barker

1981-01-01

287

Perspectives in Microclimate Cooling Involving Protective Clothing in Hot Environments,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of microclimate cooling systems in alleviating the thermal burden imposed upon soldiers by the wearing of chemical protective clothing under varying environmental conditions has been examined in a series of studies conducted by the U.S. ...

K. L. Speckman A. E. Allan M. N. Sawka A. J. Young S. R. Muza

1987-01-01

288

Thermal methods  

SciTech Connect

This tutorial outlines basic thermal methods, their extremely wide range of application, and the ways in which they are affected by experimental conditions. Numerous exercises included are designed to bridge the gap between theory and practice, and self-assessment questions and interpretive exercises using real, raw laboratory data provide students with a practical, overall grasp of the subject which can then be followed up with more detailed readings suggested in the bibliography. By the end of this tutorial, students will know how to set up, calibrate, and operate a thermobalance calorimeter (for DSC) or analyser (for DTA); select optimum operating conditions for obtaining thermal data by TG/DSC/DTA; prepare a variety of samples for thermal analysis; and many other basic techniques. The ''open learning'' approach allows students to work on their own at their own pace.

Dodd, J.W.; Tonge, K.H.; Currell, B.R.

1987-01-01

289

The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

Lee, Hansang; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-11-01

290

Thermal ablation.  

PubMed

Image-guided tumor ablation refers to a group of treatment modalities that have emerged during the past 2 decades as important tools in the treatment of a wide range of tumors throughout the body. Although most widely recognized in the treatment of hepatic and renal malignancies, the role of thermal ablation has expanded to include lesions of the lung, breast, prostate, bone, as well as other organs and its clinical applications continue to increase. In the following article, we discuss the major thermal ablation modalities, their respective strengths and weaknesses, potential complications and how to avoid them, as well as possible future applications. PMID:21338838

Webb, Heather; Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis

2011-04-01

291

Protective coatings and sealants for solar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aging study was completed which evaluated a number of polymeric materials for potential use as (1) protective coatings for back surfaces of mirrors and (2) solar heliostat edge seals. These investigations were conducted in an artificial weathering chamber that accelerated thermal cycling. The primary mirror failure mode was observed to be silver corrosion resulting from moisture exposure. To increase

K. B. Wischmann; N. H. Gonzales

1980-01-01

292

Thermal plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many thermal plasma processes have been developed for industrial applications, the wide acceptance as a manufacturing technology is prevented due to economical and competitive reasons, and\\/or reproducibility and reliability aspects. This paper is devoted to an assessment of the present knowledge in the following topics: (1) plasma torch and performance of blown arc (dc or ac), transferred arc and

P. Fauchais; A. Vardelle

1997-01-01

293

Insider Physical Protection Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to furth...

A. A. Trujillo I. G. Waddoups

1987-01-01

294

COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

295

Luminescence-Based Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coating Health and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines...

J. I. Eldridge

2013-01-01

296

Localization-protected quantum order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed quantum systems with quenched randomness exhibit many-body localized regimes wherein they do not equilibrate, even though prepared with macroscopic amounts of energy above their ground states. We show that such localized systems can order, in that individual many-body eigenstates can break symmetries or display topological order in the infinite-volume limit. Indeed, isolated localized quantum systems can order even at energy densities where the corresponding thermally equilibrated system is disordered, i.e., localization protects order. In addition, localized systems can move between ordered and disordered localized phases via nonthermodynamic transitions in the properties of the many-body eigenstates. We give evidence that such transitions may proceed via localized critical points. We note that localization provides protection against decoherence that may allow experimental manipulation of macroscopic quantum states. We also identify a “spectral transition” involving a sharp change in the spectral statistics of the many-body Hamiltonian.

Huse, David A.; Nandkishore, Rahul; Oganesyan, Vadim; Pal, Arijeet; Sondhi, S. L.

2013-07-01

297

Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996  

SciTech Connect

Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1996-08-01

298

Electronically enhanced low voltage motor protection and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

By examining the true operating characteristics of motors, a motor protection system is designed that closely models the effects of motor currents on the winding and housing temperatures. Experimentally determined parameters allow this model to track thermal performance, even when the motor is sitting still after tripping. This protection and control system, using the power of a microcomputer, can provide

S. F. Farag; R. G. Bartheld; W. E. May

1993-01-01

299

[Russian intra vehicular space suit and cold protection].  

PubMed

During space flights, astronauts use equipment allowing protection against many environmental factors. During tests realised in Russia, space suit efficiency was evaluated particularly concerning cold protection capacity in cold water (3 degrees C) and in cold air (-30 degrees C). Obtained results prove that this equipment allows to prevent hypothermia in cold water and ensure thermal comfort in cold air. PMID:11541088

Lejeune, D; Beaumont, M; Marotte, H; Loncle, M

1997-01-01

300

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without

1997-01-01

301

29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915...Equipment (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The...chemical burns, thermal burns, harmful temperature extremes, and sharp objects....

2013-07-01

302

Integrating thermal storage and life safety systems  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the city of Los Angeles responded to growing concerns over fire safety in tall buildings by mandating that all buildings over 75 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection systems, and all buildings over 150 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection storage tanks (Los Angeles 1988). Approximately 380 buildings in the Los Angeles area are affected. This paper reports on integrating thermal storage and life safety systems. This presents an opportunity for HVAC engineers to consider the combination of thermal storage and fire water storage systems. This exciting possibility also helps address two obstacles that affect each system: first-cost and available tank location space. Thermal storage often yields an attractive payback on its own merits. Combining sprinklers with thermal storage permits the life safety system to be part of a system that enhances cash flow.

Gallagher, M. (Southern California Air Conditioning Distributors, City of Industry, CA (US))

1991-05-01

303

Thermal cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal cell having as the fusible electrolyte a mixture of lithium, sodium, and potassium fluorides with a melting point not greater than 600°C. The eutectic mixture (46.5 mole percent LiF, 11.5 mole percent NaF, and 42.0 mole percent KF) melting at 454°C is preferred. Any chemically compatible anode-cathode combination is used, e.g. a magnesium or lithium-magnesium-aluminum alloy anode and

Nielsen

1969-01-01

304

Thermal Resistance Properties of Paratrooper Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combat free fall paratroopers’ (CFF) protective clothing, comprising of non-woven insulating material, inherently flame retardant Nomex fabric and cotton fabric combinations are studied under simulated conditions of conduction and sweat using Thermolobo-II technique. The results show that Non—woven insulating materials exhibit high thermal resistance in dry contact method under moderate wind velocity, whereas the thermal resistance values measured under wet

R. Indu Shekar; T. M. Kotresh; M. S. Subbulakshmi; S. N. Vijayalakshmi; A. S. Krishna Prasad

2009-01-01

305

Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Liquid Indium-Tin Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-conductivity and thermal-diffusivity coefficients of indium-tin alloys have been determined using the laser flash method over the temperature range from the liquidus line to 1173 K. Measurements were performed using the setup LFA-427 of NETZSCH company in an argon protective atmosphere, and cells were produced from molybdenum. The equations for temperature dependences of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of In-Sn alloys have been obtained. The results of measurements were compared with data available in the literature.

Stankus, S. V.; Savchenko, I. V.; Agazhanov, A. Sh.

2012-05-01

306

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

307

Thermally stabilized heliostat  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

1983-01-01

308

Thermally stabilized heliostat  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

Anderson, A.J.

1983-02-15

309

Protect motors with solid-state overloads  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic motor starters that rely on bimetal or melting alloy overload protection do not provide the flexibility of solid-state overload technology. The point is best illustrated by the number of different overload relay trip curves that describe tripping time as a function of motor current. Solid-state overloads have a trip curve for a cold start with three-phase current, and a family of trip curves for three-phase conditions where the overload and motor are already warm. An overload relay can also be described by its single-phase trip-time curves for cold and warm initial states. All thermal overloads have single phase trip curves that are similar in shape to their three-phase curves. Slower response to phase loss for motor loads less than locked rotor is inherent in thermal overload relay design. The paper describes the power source problem; single-phase problems; thermal overloads versus solid state; and thermal NEMA overload.

Forsell, K.A. (Furnas Electric Co., Batavia, IL (United States))

1993-03-01

310

Loft fire protection  

SciTech Connect

Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession.

White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.

1980-01-01

311

Electrochemical Aging of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc Anodes on Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used in impressed current cathodic protection systems for some of Oregon's coastal reinforced concrete bridges. Electrochemical aging of zinc anodes results in physical and chemical changes at the zinc-concrete interface. C...

G. R. Holcomb S. J. Bullard B. S. Covino S. D. Cramer C. B. Cryer G. E. McGill

2004-01-01

312

Thermal Properties Evaluation of UF sub 6 Cylinder Overpack Insulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phenolic foam is incorporated into the design and construction of UF sub 6 cylinder shipping containers known as overpacks. The overpack provides mechanical and thermal protection to UF sub 6 product cylinders during transport. The phenolic foam is util...

J. L. Frazier

1988-01-01

313

Thermal Properties Evaluation of UF sub 6 Cylinder Overpack Insulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phenolic foam is incorporated into the design and construction of UF sub 6 cylinder shipping containers known as overpacks. The overpack provides mechanical and thermal protection to UF sub 6 product cylinders during transport. The phenolic foam is util...

J. L. Frazier

1985-01-01

314

Engineering and Design. Thermal Spraying: New Construction and Maintenance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual provides guidance on thermal spray coating systems to engineering, operations, maintenance, and construction personnel and other individuals responsible for the protection of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) civil works structures. This ma...

1999-01-01

315

Thermal considerations for overpack designs in drum packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the overpacks in drum packages, both in terms of thickness and materials of construction, greatly impact the ability of the package to accommodate heat source contents. The optimum overpack thermal protection needed is that which results in ...

S. Hensel R. J. Gromada

1997-01-01

316

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... I share personal protective equipment with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective ... protect the wearer from serious injuries or illnesses. Q. How does personal protective equipment help prevent the ...

317

NEW MATERIALS FOR ANTICORROSIVE PROTECTION OF METALLIC BASKETS OF ROTATORY AIR PREHEATER FROM ENERGETICAL INSTALLATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular bodies situated in the heat exchange cold area of the rotatory air preheaters from energetic installations are strongly affected by sulphuric corrosion. The protection can be made using film forming coatings, performant with thermal and anticorrosive resistance, flexibility, thermal shock resistance, adhesion and erosion resistance, thermal conductivity not to significantly modify the heat transfer process, rotatory air preheaters

BANTAS Adrian; CIOROIANU Lelian; CIOROIANU Gabriel

318

Failure Causes of a Polymer Resettable Circuit Protection Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a circuit protection device, failure or abnormal behavior of polymer positive-temperature-coefficient resettable devices can cause damage to circuits. Identification of failure modes and determination of failure causes are necessary to improve the reliability of resettable circuit protection devices and understand their limitations. In this study, a series of experiments was conducted to identify the failure modes of polymer positive-temperature- coefficient resettable circuit protection devices. The causes of failures of a polymer positive-temperature-coefficient resettable circuit protection device were determined by failure analyses, including analysis of the increase in surface temperature using an infrared camera, interconnection analysis using cross-sectioning and environmental scanning electron microscopy, analysis of the microstructures of carbon-black-filled polymer composite, thermal property analysis of the polymer composite, and coefficient of thermal expansion analysis of different parts of the resettable circuit protection device.

Cheng, Shunfeng; Tom, Kwok; Pecht, Michael

2012-09-01

319

Graphene: Atomically thin protective coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the properties of graphene as a cathodic coating to protect copper substrates from oxidation and further corrosion. High-quality and large area graphene films are grown on copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Samples were thermally oxidized in an oxygen-rich environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of a Graphene/copper and bare copper samples reveals the absence of oxidized copper at the graphene/copper interface indicating that the graphene monolayer protects the underlying copper. We also determine the protective properties of graphene in aqueous media using electrochemical characterization techniques. First, we use Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to show that graphene coated substrates lower frequencies (1Hz) exhibit impedance values 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to bare Cu substrates. Cyclic voltammetry also shows that a monolayer of graphene significantly reduces the oxygen reduction, thus exhibiting little charge transfer at the solid-liquid interface. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to estimate that the corrosion rate exhibited by Graphene/Cu is ˜7 times lower than that of bare Cu substrates.

Prasai, Dhiraj; Bolotin, Kirill; Tuberquia, Juan; Harl, Robert; Jennings, Kane

2011-03-01

320

Thermal spray deposition and evaluation of low-Z coatings  

SciTech Connect

Thermally sprayed low-Z coatings of B{sub 4}C on Al substrates were investigated as candidate materials for first-wall reactor protective surfaces. Comparisons were made to thermally sprayed coatings of B, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and composites. Graded bond layers were applied to mitigate coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch. Microstructures, thermal diffusivity before and after thermal shock loading, steel ball impact resistance, CO{sub 2} pellet cleaning and erosion tolerance, phase content, stoichiometry by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and relative tensile strengths were measured.

Seals, R.D.; Swindeman, C.J.; White, R.L.

1996-09-01

321

Component repair using HVOF thermal spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technique has been widely adopted in many industries due to its flexibility and cost effectiveness. It is normally used to apply coatings to components to protect against wear, heat and\\/or corrosion, but also has potential to build up worn components. The main objective of this study was to optimise the HVOF spraying technique

J. C Tan; L Looney; M. S. J Hashmi

1999-01-01

322

THERMAL DESORPTION OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently funded a study which addresses the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons using low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD). he proposed paper will summarize some of the results of that study. TTD has become a maj...

323

Thermal properties evaluation of UFâ cylinder overpack insulation. [phenolic foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenolic foam is incorporated into the design and construction of UFâ cylinder shipping containers known as overpacks. The overpack provides mechanical and thermal protection to UFâ product cylinders during transport. The phenolic foam is utilized for thermal insulation. An important criterion in overpack design is to limit temperature excursions of the product cylinder below the triple point of UFâ,

Frazier

1988-01-01

324

Thermal properties evaluation of UFâ cylinder overpack insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenolic foam is incorporated into the design and construction of UFâ cylinder shipping containers known as overpacks. The overpack provides mechanical and thermal protection to UFâ product cylinders during transport. The phenolic foam is utilized for thermal insulation. An important criterion in overpack design is to limit temperature excursions of the product cylinder below the triple point of UFâ,

Frazier

1985-01-01

325

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas-Turbine Engine Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of different types of coatings are used to protect a variety of structural engineering materials from corrosion, wear, and erosion, and to provide lubrication and thermal insulation. Of all these, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have the most complex structure and must operate in the most demanding high-temperature environment of aircraft and industrial gas-turbine engines. TBCs, which comprise metal and

Nitin P. Padture; Maurice Gell; Eric H. Jordan

2002-01-01

326

DEVELOPMENT OF THE THERMAL SPRAYING PROCESS FOR SURFACE COATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commonly used methods of anticorrosion protection of large metal structures are painting and metal spraying. Painting is considerably cheaper than metal spraying, but the latter gives structures protection up to 20 years and reduces maintenance costs substantially. Metal spraying is typically achieved by spraying of molten zinc, aluminium or their alloys using thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame

Igor A. Gorlach; Daniela Ghelase; Nelson Mandela

327

PROTECTION AGAINST FALLOUT RADIOACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical textile materials cannot give significant protection from ; gamma radiation but can prevent fallout particles from contaminating the skin. ; Heat protection can be provided by fire-resistant light-colored textiles. (auth);

Massey

1958-01-01

328

Critical infrastructure protection.  

PubMed

Current government policies for protecting the nation's critical infrastructure are described in this article which focuses on hospital disaster planning and incident management and the significant role of Security in infrastructure protection PMID:22970630

Deitz, Kim M

2012-01-01

329

Protecting Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)|

Kresses, Mamie

2001-01-01

330

Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-14

331

Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 46  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-14

332

Protecting Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

Kresses, Mamie

2001-01-01

333

Swimmer Protective Helmet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a swimmer protective helmet designed to protect the cranium of a swimmer from impacts with hard or sharp surfaces, thereby preventing lacerations and concussions of the skull or other physical disablement arising from being...

D. G. Robertson

1975-01-01

334

Skin protection for hairdressers.  

PubMed

The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued. PMID:17312363

Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

2007-01-01

335

Magnetic Effects of DC Signal Injection on Induction Motors for Thermal Evaluation of Stator Windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active thermal protection techniques have been pro- posed for the thermal protection of induction motors. By injecting dc signals, the dc model of the induction motors can be used to estimate the stator winding resistance and, thus, the average stator winding temperature. The injected dc signals may lead to unbalanced magnetic saturation, which may degrade a motor's performance and may

Pinjia Zhang; Yi Du; Thomas G. Habetler; Bin Lu

2011-01-01

336

The function of vinylene carbonate as a thermal additive to electrolyte in lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of vinylene carbonate (VC) as a thermal additive to electrolytes in lithium ion batteries is studied in two aspects: the protection of liquid electrolyte species and the thermal stability of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed from VC on graphite electrodes at elevated temperatures. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra indicate that VC can not protect LiPF6 salt

Hsiang-Hwan Lee; Yung-Yun Wang; Chi-Chao Wan; Mo-Hua Yang; Hung-Chun Wu; Deng-Tswen Shieh

2005-01-01

337

Thermal stability of TiN thin films investigated by DTG\\/DTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper demonstrates the scope of the differential thermal analysis coupled with the thermal gravimetry as an express method for estimation of thin film protecting ability and oxidation kinetics. Oxidation of an iron foil protected by the PVD titanium nitride thin film coating was investigated as well as non-isothermal oxidation of PVD thin films of TiN (two types of the

Irina G Polyakova; Thomas Hübert

2001-01-01

338

Mondrian memory protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mondrian memory protection (MMP) is a fine-grained protection scheme that allows multiple protection domains to flexibly share memory and export protected services. In contrast to earlier page-based systems, MMP allows arbitrary permissions control at the granularity of individual words. We use a compressed permissions table to reduce space overheads and employ two levels of permissions caching to reduce run-time overheads.

Emmett Witchel; Josh Cates; Krste Asanovi?

2002-01-01

339

40 CFR 74.48 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-process sources. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-process sources. [Reserved] 74.48 Section 74.48 Protection...Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energyâprocess sources....

2013-07-01

340

Careers in Environmental Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by 1980.'" In a…

Millard, Reed

341

Protect Those Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build prototypes for protective eyewear. They choose different activities or sports that require protective eyewear and design a device for that particular use. Students learn about the many ways in which the eyes can be damaged and how engineers incorporate different features and materials into eyewear designs to best protect the eyes.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

342

Protecting genetic privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the arguments for and against new rules to protect genetic privacy. We explain why genetic information is different to other sensitive medical information, why researchers and biotechnology companies have opposed new rules to protect genetic privacy (and favour anti-discrimination laws instead), and discuss what can be done to protect privacy in relation to genetic-sequence information and to

Patricia A. Roche; George J. Annas

2001-01-01

343

Corium protection assembly  

DOEpatents

A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

1994-01-01

344

Door edge protection device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A door edge protection device for a motor vehicle door which comprises a door edge protection member guided movably with respect to the door at at least two points lying one behind the other in a longitudinal direction of the door. The door edge protection member is driven via an eccentric lever mounted rotatably in the door.

Lichter; Martin (Erftstadt, DE); Benderoth; Thomas (Gummersbach, DE); Lopes dos Santos; Armando (Cologne, DE)

2012-11-06

345

Thermal Analysis Methods for an Earth Entry Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal analysis of a vehicle designed to return samples from another planet, such as the Earth Entry vehicle for the Mars Sample Return mission, presents several unique challenges. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) must contain Martian material samples after they have been collected and protect them from the high heating rates of entry into the Earth's atmosphere. This requirement necessitates inclusion of detailed thermal analysis early in the design of the vehicle. This paper will describe the challenges and solutions for a preliminary thermal analysis of an Earth Entry Vehicle. The aeroheating on the vehicle during entry would be the main driver for the thermal behavior, and is a complex function of time, spatial position on the vehicle, vehicle temperature, and trajectory parameters. Thus, the thermal analysis must be closely tied to the aeroheating analysis in order to make accurate predictions. Also, the thermal analysis must account for the material response of the ablative thermal protection system (TPS). For the exo-atmospheric portion of the mission, the thermal analysis must include the orbital radiation fluxes on the surfaces. The thermal behavior must also be used to predict the structural response of the vehicle (the thermal stress and strains) and whether they remain within the capability of the materials. Thus, the thermal analysis requires ties to the three-dimensional geometry, the aeroheating analysis, the material response analysis, the orbital analysis, and the structural analysis. The goal of this paper is to describe to what degree that has been achieved.

Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; Lindell, Michael C.

2002-07-01

346

Tolerance rings [motor-overload protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers are constantly facing the challenges of packing more and more functionality into ever-smaller spaces while improving power and performance. Mechanical overload protection for drive-train systems has long been desirable but, in the past, has required bulky and expensive slip-clutch mechanisms. Tolerance rings have traditionally been used to compensate for machining tolerances or differential thermal expansion effects, but developments in

J. W. Smith

2002-01-01

347

Protecting your geomembrane from protective layers  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a new landfill requires that painstaking measures are taken to ensure that a leak-free liner is installed. Engineers commonly impose stringent formal quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plans, require 100% third-party inspection, and fret over destructive tests of seam samples. But all this effort may be for naught if the liner is damaged as it is covered with gravel or protective soil. An irony of the industry is that the placement of a layer of protective soil or gravel often damages the liner it was intended to protect. Such damage can easily remain undetected. There are, however, measures that can be taken to prevent damage or detect damage before the landfill is put into service. The layer of soil or gravel commonly used to protect landfill liners can also wind up damaging them. Electronic leak location can help detect unseen leaks caused by this damage.

Darilek, P.; Darilek, G. [Leak Location Services, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Menzel, R.; Johnson, A. [Dow Environmental, Inc., Freeport, TX (United States)

1995-07-01

348

Designing physical protection technology for insider protection  

SciTech Connect

Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to further minimize the existence of an insider or the consequences of an insider-perpetrated incident. Integration of insider protection techniques into existing administrative and operational procedures has resulted in economic and operational impacts. Future increases in insider protection may result in even greater impacts, so we must proceed wisely as new approaches are developed. Increased emphasis on background investigations, security clearances, human reliability programs, security awareness activities, and the development of technology to address the insider threat are evidence of continuing concern in this area. Experience ranging from operational test and evaluation of developmental equipment to conceptual designs for new facilities has led to the development of general principles and conclusions for mitigating the insider threat while minimizing adverse impacts on site operations. Important principles include real-time monitoring of personnel and material and requiring that the physical protection and material control and accounting systems to be much more coordinated and integrated than in the past.

Trujillo, A.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

1986-01-01

349

Thermal NDE Method for Thermal Spray Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a feasibility demonstration of a thermal scanning NDE system for thermal spray coatings. Non-bonds were detected between several types of coatings and their substrates. Aluminum anti-skid coatings having very rough surfaces were inclu...

D. R. Green M. D. Schmeller R. A. Sulit

1982-01-01

350

Spacecraft Thermal Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidance for the assessment and control of spacecraft temperatures is provided with emphasis on unmanned spacecraft in the space environment. The heat balance, elements of thermal design, and thermal control are discussed along with thermal testing, desig...

1973-01-01

351

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01

352

Cogeneration improves thermal EOR efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the successful completion and operation of a cogeneration plant is a prime example of the multi-faceted use of cogeneration. Through high-efficiency operation, significant energy is saved by combining the two process of steam and electrical production. The 225-megawatt (mw) cogeneration plant provides 1,215 million lb/hr of steam for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) at the Midway-Sunset oil field in south-central California. Overall pollutant emissions as well as total electric and steam production costs have been reduced. The area's biological resources also have been protected.

Western, E.R. (Oryx Energy Co., Fellows, CA (US)); Nass, D.W. (Chas. T. Main Inc., Pasadena, CA (US))

1990-10-01

353

Using Field Data to Estimate the Realized Thermal Niche of Aquatic Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field-derived thermal niche of aquatic vertebrates is potentially useful in determining whether resource management plans are adequate to protect sensitive vertebrates. Our objective was to use field data to estimate the thermal niches of 16 species of aquatic vertebrates and to compare these values among five geographic regions in Oregon. Thermal niche values varied among regions; for example, the

David D. Huff; Shannon L. Hubler; Aaron N. Borisenko

2005-01-01

354

The interaction of thermal radiation and water mist in fire suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water mist is a highly effective fire-protection agent. In addition to the direct interaction of evaporating droplets with a flame to cause weakening or extinction, the mist serves to scatter and absorb thermal radiation. The central objective of this paper is to characterize the interaction of the water mist with thermal radiation. The droplet cloud can absorb thermal radiation, especially

Wenhua Yang; Terry Parker; H. D. Ladouceur; Robert J. Kee

2004-01-01

355

Cathodic Protection System Inspection 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If the cathodic protection system is periodically inspected and maintained to provide continuous protection the condition of the protected structure can be inferred from the cathodic protection system records without the need for physical inspection of th...

J. Jenkins

1994-01-01

356

Thermal Fluctuation Spectroscopy of DNA Thermal Denaturation  

PubMed Central

We have developed the technique of thermal fluctuation spectroscopy to measure the thermal fluctuations in a system. This technique is particularly useful to study the denaturation dynamics of biomolecules like DNA. Here we present a study of the thermal fluctuations during the thermal denaturation (or melting) of double-stranded DNA. We find that the thermal denaturation of heteropolymeric DNA is accompanied by large, non-Gaussian thermal fluctuations. The thermal fluctuations show a two-peak structure as a function of temperature. Calculations of enthalpy exchanged show that the first peak comes from the denaturation of AT rich regions and the second peak from denaturation of GC rich regions. The large fluctuations are almost absent in homopolymeric DNA. We suggest that bubble formation and cooperative opening and closing dynamics of basepairs causes the additional fluctuation at the first peak and a large cooperative transition from a partially molten DNA to a completely denatured state causes the additional fluctuation at the second peak.

Nagapriya, K.S.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.

2010-01-01

357

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH...the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards...

2013-07-01

358

Topological protection of Majorana qubits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stability of the topological quantum computation proposals involving Majorana fermions against thermal fluctuations. We use a minimal realistic model of a spinless px+ipy superconductor and consider the effect of excited midgap states localized in the vortex core as well as of transitions above the bulk superconducting gap on the quasiparticle braiding, interferometry-based qubit readout schemes, and quantum coherence of the topological qubits. We find that thermal occupation of the midgap states does not affect adiabatic braiding operations but leads to a reduction in the visibility of the interferometry measurements. We also consider quantum decoherence of topological qubits at finite temperatures and calculate their decay rate which is associated with the change of the fermion parity and, as such, is exponentially suppressed at temperatures well below the bulk excitation gap. Our conclusion is that the Majorana-based topological quantum computing schemes are indeed protected by virtue of the quantum nonlocality of the stored information and the presence of the bulk superconducting gap.

Cheng, Meng; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.

2012-04-01

359

Protective carbon layer for chemical corrosion of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were studied as an alternative material to be used as protective layer on steel, because of their chemical inertness, wear resistance, thermal stability, thermal conductivity. The films were deposited on stainless steel, plain steel and silicon wafers by a RF magnetron sputtering system at 0.6 Pa and RF power of 150 W, at room temperature. A

R. D. Mansano; M. Massi; A. P. Mousinho; L. S. Zambom; L. G. Neto

2003-01-01

360

Contamination protective coatings: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailored protective coatings have the potential for tremendous technical and affordability benefits to ground, air and space systems because of their ability to reduce surface contamination, minimize icing, reduce friction, and to reduce corrosion for a wide variety of applications and missions. The thermal and radiation environment of space systems also pose unique challenges to protective coatings because of the space environment's large temperature variations, the plasma environment and solar UV and Xrays. Contamination may accumulate on sensors inhibiting accurate and timely data acquisition and their efficiency can be seriously affected by contamination buildup. For polymeric materials, not all properties are affected to the same degree by radiation but are often localized at a specific molecular bond. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic coating approaches may be important to address specific design requirements. Hydrophilic materials are composed of polar molecules and have been used to defog glass and enable oil spots to be swept away with water. Hydrophobic molecules tend to be nonpolar and thus prefer other neutral molecules and nonpolar solvents. Hydrophobic molecules often cluster and are difficult to wet with liquids. This paper presents an overview of various types of contamination that adheres to critical air and space surfaces and potential coatings phenomenology that may be used to eliminate contamination.

Pirich, Ronald

2013-09-01

361

Emergency Protection from Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

Cristy, G.A.

2001-11-13

362

Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

Montoya, A.P.

1980-03-20

363

Solid particle erosion of thermal spray and physical vapour deposition thermal barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used to protect hot path components of gas turbines from hot combustion gases. For a number of decades, in the case of aero engines TBCs are usually deposited by electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD). EB-PVD coatings have a columnar microstructure that guarantees high strain compliance and better solid particle erosion than PS TBCs. The

F. Cernuschi; L. Lorenzoni; S. Capelli; C. Guardamagna; M. Karger; R. Vaßen; K. von Niessen; N. Markocsan; J. Menuey; Carlo Giolli

2011-01-01

364

Generator backup overcurrent protection  

SciTech Connect

A concern that the characteristics and correct application of the generator backup relay are misunderstood is addressed in this report to the Power Systems Protection Committee. It is inherently a secure device, and rarely has the opportunity to operate in its intended capacity. So the question was asked, ''Do generator backup overcurrent relays really protect anything.'' In response a description of the function and operating characteristics of the backup relays, a discussion of generator fault current behavior, examples of relay settings for a typical application, and methods and criteria for determining that the relay both protects the generator and operates selectively with other protective devices are included.

Baker, D.S.

1982-11-01

365

Your Planetary Protection Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief article about John Rummel, NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. It explains the purpose of planetary protection (to prevent contamination of Earth by alien life forms and of space by Earth's life forms), gives some historical background about NASA's planetary protection policies, and gives examples of recent protocols for sterilization of spacecraft. There are links to the Planetary Protection Office website, the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Bodies, and updated policy guidelines.

Koerner, Brendan I.; Slate

366

49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be verified by analyzing the fire effects on the entire surface...analysis must consider the fire effects on and heat flux...procedures outlined in âTemperatures, Pressures, and Liquid Levels of Tank Cars Engulfed in Fires,â...

2012-10-01

367

Determining Thermal Capacitance for Protected Area Network Design in Palau.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the latter half of 1998, Palau experienced unprecedented bleaching that resulted in significant mortality and the loss of significant proportions of one of the few remaining pristine coral reefs in the world. Prior to 1998 and since 1998, little to...

A. E. Strong B. A. Parker C. McLean C. M. Eakin C. R. Steinberg L. F. Arzayus M. L. Heron S. F. Heron W. J. Skirving

2010-01-01

368

Thermal protection for a self-sensing piezoelectric control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric materials exhibit high electromechanical coupling that allows them to both generate an electrical signal when strained and, conversely, to produce a strain under an applied electric field. This coupling has led to the use of these materials for a variety of sensing and actuation purposes. One unique application of these materials is their use as self-sensing actuators where both

Garnett E. Simmers Jr.; Henry A. Sodano; Daniel J. Inman

2007-01-01

369

Polyimide Foam for Thermal Insulation and Fire Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the preparation of polyimide foams by the reaction of polyisocyanates and polyfunctional aromatic acid derivatives, flame retardant foamed products of improved cell quality, friability, and resiliency are abtained by conducting the reaction in the pres...

R. W. Rosser

1971-01-01

370

Spacecraft thermal modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal modeling of spacecraft requires approaches which can handle dominant radiative heat transfers and many special thermal control components. Present network-type thermal analyzers allow simulation, especially for components with rectangular geometries, but at the expense of considerable awkwardness and much error-prone manual input. The user interfaces for pre- and postprocessing for these analyzers are also very deficient. Finite element thermal

J. H. Chin; T. D. Panczak; L. Fried

1992-01-01

371

THERMAL ENVIRONMENT AND LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|RESEARCH ON THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN SCHOOLS IS SUMMARIZED AND THE STATUS OF "THERMAL ENVIRONMENT AND LEARNING" RESEARCH COMPLETED AND/OR UNDERWAY IN THE IOWA CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION IS REPORTED. RESULTS ARE--(1) CHILDREN DID LEARN BETTER UNDER MODEL THERMAL CONDITIONS, (2) TEACHERS MUST BECOME MORE AWARE OF THERMAL CONDITIONS,…

LANE, W.R.

372

Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan serves as an aid to management and staff to implement new environmental programs in a timely manner.

Brekke, D.D.

1994-01-01

373

Protecting the Crown Jewels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Park Service seeks to set the standard for environmental protection in the federally-owned lands which it administers. Often pollution from sources outside park boundaries creates adverse impacts within the parks. Innovative approaches and cooperative efforts are then required to protect the parks. (RE)

Andrus, Cecil

1979-01-01

374

ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling

Judson Hedgehock

2001-01-01

375

Generator Backup Overcurrent Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concern that the characteristics and correct application of the generator backup relay are misunderstood is addressed in this report to the Power Systems Protection Committee. It is inherently a secure device, and rarely has the opportunity to operate in its intended capacity. So the question was asked, ``Do generator backup overcurrent relays really protect anything?'' In response a description

David S. Baker

1982-01-01

376

Numerical Directional Overcurrent Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the development of algorithms and digital signal processing technique for directional overcurrent protection applicable to both phase faults and earth faults. The algorithm for overcurrent protection is complemented with a new digital signal processing which provides a reliable scheme for fault direction determination. The scheme is based on the use of symmetrical-phase-sequence components of voltages and currents

T. T. Nguyen

377

Protection and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several aspects of school safety and protection are presented for school administrators and architects. Among those topics discussed are--(1) life safety, (2) vandalism controlled through proper design, (3) personal protective devices, and (4) fire alarm systems. Another critical factor in providing a complete school safety program is proper…

American School Board Journal, 1964

1964-01-01

378

Tomboy as Protective Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomboy in contemporary U.S. culture is a complex identity, providing meaning to many girls and women. In this article, we argue tomboy as a gendered social identity also provides temporary “protections” to girls and women in three main ways. First, tomboy identity can excuse masculine-typed behavior in girls and women and, in doing so, protect women from presumptions about

Traci Craig; Jessica LaCroix

2011-01-01

379

Subsea wellhead protective enclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus for protecting subsea wellheads and christmas trees from damage by anchors, fishing nets, trawl boards, and other towed devices. The apparatus includes an annular, rigid protective enclosure with inner and outer walls that define a hollow annular chamber, and a plurality of bag-like containers spaced around and attached to the enclosure's outer wall. The annular chamber is

Thorne

1980-01-01

380

Advanced Worker Protection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-...

J. C. Hedgecock

2005-01-01

381

Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Intelligent Munitions Systems (IMS). The APTIS is anticipated to operate as an intelligent node in a wireless network of multifunctional nodes that work together to serve in a wide range of applications of homeland security, as well as serve the Army in tasks of improved situational awareness (SA) in defense and offensive operations, and as a sensor node in tactical Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR). The novel ViperViewTM high-resolution panoramic thermal imager is the heart of the APTIS system. It features an aberration-corrected omnidirectional imager with small optics designed to match the resolution of a 640x480 pixels IR camera with improved image quality for longer range target detection, classification, and tracking. The same approach is applicable to panoramic cameras working in the visible spectral range. Other components of the ATPIS system include network communications, advanced power management, and wakeup capability. Recent developments include image processing, optical design being expanded into the visible spectral range, and wireless communications design. This paper describes the development status of the APTIS system.

Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

2006-06-01

382

Insider physical protection technology  

SciTech Connect

Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to further minimize the existence of an insider or the consequences of an insider-perpetrated incident. Integration of insider protection techniques into existing administrative and operational procedures has resulted in economic and operational impacts. Future increases in insider protection may result in even greater impacts, so we must proceed wisely as new approaches are developed. Experience ranging from operational test and evaluation of developmental equipment to conceptual designs for new facilities has led to the development of general principles and conclusions for mitigating the insider threat while minimizing adverse impacts on site operations. These general principles and the technology used and/or developed to implement the principles will be discussed.

Trujillo, A.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

1987-01-01

383

Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY'97.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat...

M. L. Allan

1997-01-01

384

46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...piping system components: Protection from movement. Where thermal movement and movements of the cargo tank and the hull structure...Offsets; (b) Loops; (c) Bends; (d) Mechanical expansion joints including: (1) Bellows; (2) Slip...

2012-10-01

385

46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...piping system components: Protection from movement. Where thermal movement and movements of the cargo tank and the hull structure...Offsets; (b) Loops; (c) Bends; (d) Mechanical expansion joints including: (1) Bellows; (2) Slip...

2011-10-01

386

46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from movement. Where thermal movement and movements of the cargo tank and the hull structure may cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo tanks must be protected from movement by:...

2010-10-01

387

46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from movement. Where thermal movement and movements of the cargo tank and the hull structure may cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo tanks must be protected from movement by:...

2009-10-01

388

Thermal limits for industrial workers  

PubMed Central

Bell, C. R., and Watts, A. J. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 259-264. Thermal limits for industrial workers. The literature on relationships between man's comfort, efficiency, and physical well-being and the nature of his thermal working environment is diverse and highly specific. Industrial practice requires more general `concensus' data on which to base reasonable recommendations for the establishment of thermal environmental limits. A series of three such limits is proposed which provide protection of the workers' comfort, efficiency, and physiological safety. For sedentary workers it is suggested that in summer an upper limit of 21·8°C C.E.T. is advisable if not less than 80% of workers are to be free from discomfort. Against a similar criterion in winter a lower limit of 15·5°C C.E.T. is proposed. An extrapolation of data from laboratory to industrial work-places provides a suggested limit for efficiency at skilled tasks at 26·7°C C.E.T. Finally, a limit of environmental severity based upon an absence of severe physiological distress in 95% of exposed workers is proposed which varies with the age and physical fitness of the workers and the physical demands of the work they are called upon to perform. Images

Bell, C. R.; Watts, A. J.

1971-01-01

389

Intermittent cathodic protection for steel reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems on Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to prevent chloride-induced corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed zinc performs well as an ICCP anode but the service life of the zinc anode is directly related to the average current density used to operate the systems. After a ICCP system is turned off, the rebar in the concrete remains passive and protected for a period of time. Intermittent operation of CP systems is possible when continuous corrosion rate monitoring is used to identify conditions when the CP system needs to be turned on to reestablish protection conditions for the rebar. This approach applies CP protection only when needed and reflects the fact that external protection may not be needed for a range of environmental conditions. In doing so, intermittent CP would lower the average current necessary to protect rebar, increase the anode service life, and reduce the lifetime costs for protecting reinforced concrete bridges.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Soltesz, S.M. (ODOT)

2002-01-01

390

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01

391

Tactical force protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for enhanced tactical force protection capabilities is evidenced from our recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan and occurs wherever U.S. Forces maintain a forward presence in a potentially hostile environment. Levels of force protection proficiency vary widely from combat units whose mission is to close with and destroy the enemy to combat support/combat service support units performing maintenance and logistics functions. We must provide force protection capabilities that are not only good enough to get the job done, but affordable for the entire force. Addressing the force protection challenge requires an investment in research and development to deliver affordable, scalable, modular and sustainable force protection equipment. This can be accomplished through an evolutionary acquisition strategy of capability upgrades in the near, mid and far-terms that leverage the Army's investments in unmanned ground sensors (UGS), unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) and surveillance radar and imaging technology. This approach addresses the field's immediate tactical force protection requirements, while working towards full integration with the Future Combat System. Futuristic Tactical Force Protection will consist of a fully integrated system of systems architecture that will include UGVs, UGS and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that are networked with the Future Force.

Stockel, Eugene; Moneyhun, Jon C.

2004-09-01

392

Radiation protection in space.  

PubMed

Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

393

Coordinating overcurrent protection devices  

SciTech Connect

Distribution, substation, and plant engineers can benefit from using an overcurrent protection program in commercial, industrial, and utility applications to aid in clearing temporary faults and isolating permanent faults. In the time it normally takes to check one coordination scheme manually, dozens of alternatives can be evaluated using a graphics-oriented program, because the engineer receives immediate feedback for quick decision-making. It is well known that accurately coordinating overcurrent protection devices can minimize or prevent equipment damage, and electrical power service to customers can be greatly improved. In addition to assisting experienced engineers, an overcurrent protection program is an excellent training tool for new engineers.

St. John, M.; Borgnino, A.

1996-07-01

394

Fire protection design criteria  

SciTech Connect

This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

NONE

1997-03-01

395

Humectant Use in the Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of humectants to improve the thermal-sprayed zinc anode performance during the cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete is examined. A humectant is a hygroscopic material. It is applied onto the surface of the zinc anode to keep the concrete-anode interface moist and a good conductor. The thermodynamics of humectants are discussed. Laboratory results are presented on the effects

Gordon R. Holcomb; Sophie Bullard; James H. Russell; Jack Bennett; Stephen Cramer; Bernard Covino

2000-01-01

396

Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.  

PubMed

In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity. PMID:19755446

Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

2009-06-01

397

Thermal Energy Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general scope of study on thermal energy storage development includes: (1) survey and review possible concepts for storing thermal energy; (2) evaluate the potentials of the surveyed concepts for practical applications in the low and high temperature ...

P. G. Grodzka E. A. Picklesimer

1978-01-01

398

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar...

1985-01-01

399

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1988-01-01

400

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1995-01-01

401

CEQATR Thermal Test Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thermal test overview of the Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Test Requirement (CEQATR) is presented. The contents include: (1) CEQATR Thermal Test Overview; (2) CxP Environments; (3) CEQATR Table 1.2-1; (4) Levels of Assembly; (...

A. R. Balusek

2009-01-01

402

Radiation Protection in Canada  

PubMed Central

The current status of radiation protection in Canada has been summarized in the present paper, the first of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Somatic and hereditary effects of radiation exposure are briefly discussed as a basis for an understanding of the radiation protection standards which have been developed at national and international levels. The rapid increase in use of radioactive materials and x-ray apparatus in medicine, industry and research, and the extensive atmosphere testing of nuclear weapons have led to the development of comprehensive radiation protection activities in Canada, especially in the Department of National Health and Welfare. Well-established lines of communication and liaison exist among the various agencies responsible for these activities. ImagesFig. 1

Bird, P. M.

1964-01-01

403

Childrens Health Protection Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Immunodeficiency:  Inability to produce a normal complement of antibodies or immunologically sensitized T cells, especially in response to specific antigens.   From Childrens Health Protection Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (organic food)

2012-05-09

404

Protect Your Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... by the minute. Both excess and deficiency of body fat can lead to infertility. To protect your chances of conceiving, maintain a healthy weight through proper nutrition and exercise. For more information ...

405

Cathodic Bridge Deck Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five systems of cathodic protection were installed on the US87 Missouri-Pacific Railroad overpass in Big Spring, Texas. The design and construction of the systems are summarized in this report. The Federal Highway Administration sponsored the demonstratio...

L. Smith

1990-01-01

406

Protect Yourself: Respirators  

MedlinePLUS

... worn whenever you are working in a hazardous atmosphere. The appropriate respirator will depend on the contaminant(s) ... must not be used to protect from hazardous atmospheres. However, they may be useful in providing comfort ...

407

Ballistic Resistant Protective Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a standards document; it establishes minimum performance requirements and methods of test for ballistic resistant protective materials. This standard supersedes NILECJ-STD-0103.00, Portable Ballistic Shields, dated May 1974, by expanding the appli...

N. J. Calvano

1981-01-01

408

Tomboy as protective identity.  

PubMed

The tomboy in contemporary U.S. culture is a complex identity, providing meaning to many girls and women. In this article, we argue tomboy as a gendered social identity also provides temporary "protections" to girls and women in three main ways. First, tomboy identity can excuse masculine-typed behavior in girls and women and, in doing so, protect women from presumptions about sexual reputation and sexual orientation. Second, tomboy identities can provide some protection for lesbian girls and women who prefer to not divulge their sexual orientation. And, third, tomboy identity can gain women limited privilege to spaces for which masculinity is an unspoken requirement. The temporary nature of the protections provided to tomboys undermines the ability of tomboys to truly transcend the binary gender system. PMID:21973066

Craig, Traci; Lacroix, Jessica

2011-01-01

409

Protect Yourself from Plague  

MedlinePLUS

... Borne Diseases | Bacterial Diseases Branch Protect yourself from plague What is plague? Plague occurs naturally in the western United States, ... humans and their pets. How do people get plague? • Bites of infected fleas • Touching or skinning infected ...

410

Pager Phones: Circuit Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wires leading to or from underground facilities can develop hazardous voltages because of lightning exposure. The locations of many mine portals are particularly susceptible to lightning effects. The application of protective devices to limit this potenti...

1975-01-01

411

Military Whistleblower Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Directive reissues DoD Directive 7050.6 dated September 3, 1992, to updated policy and responsibilities for military whistleblower protection under Section 1034 of Title 10, USC; include complaints of sexual harassment or unlawful discrimination as '...

D. Gibson

1995-01-01

412

Wired for Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how growing acceptance of security measures such as access-control cards, video surveillance, and biometric devices is allowing colleges to protect students and their belongings more effectively. (EV)|

Kennedy, Mike

2002-01-01

413

Environmental Protection Agency: Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created this site to inform the general public about their role in wetland preservation and restoration. At the top of their page, visitors can read the "What they are" area to get some basic definitions, look over some fact sheets, and learn about the recent history of wetlands in the United States. Also on the homepage are sections such as "Why Protect Wetlands?", "How are Wetlands Protected?", and "What You Can Do To Protect our Vital Resource". These sections are meant for general audiences, and they might be used in classroom settings as a way to illuminate the role of the EPA and some of the broader concerns surrounding different natural environments. The right-hand side of the homepage features "In the News" items about recent regulatory changes, interagency agreements, and public hearings and comment periods. Finally, on the left-hand side of the page contains thematic sections like "Monitoring and Assessment", "Restoration", and "Education".

414

Cyber Infrastructure Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is intended to address important issues in the security and protection of information systems and network infrastructure. This includes the strategic implications of the potential failure of our critical network and information systems infrastru...

J. L. Jordan T. Saadawi

2011-01-01

415

Health protection well inventory  

SciTech Connect

This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

Janssen, J. [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Plant][Exploration Software, Athens, GA (United States)

1989-03-01

416

Protect Your Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains how to create a wetlands awareness program and how to protect wetlands through the regulatory process. In addition, it explains the federal programs designed to protect wetlands and how to procure state and local protection for wetlands. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

417

A design perspective on thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article addresses the challenges for maximizing the benefit of thermal barrier coatings for turbine engine applications. The perspective is from the viewpoint of a customer, a turbine airfoil designer who is continuously challenged to increase the turbine inlet temperature capability for new products while maintaining cooling flow levels or even reducing them. This is a fundamental requirement for achieving increased engine thrust levels. Developing advanced material systems for the turbine flowpath airfoils, such as high-temperature nickel-base superalloys or thermal barrier coatings to insulate the metal airfoils from the hot flowpath environment, is one approach to solve this challenge. The second approach is to increase the cooling performance of the turbine airfoil, which enables increased flowpath temperatures and reduced cooling flow levels. Thermal barrier coatings have been employed in jet engine applications for almost 30 years. The initial application was on augmentor liners to provide thermal protection during afterburner operation. However, the production use of thermal barrier coatings in the turbine section has only occurred in the past 15 years. The application was limited to stationary parts and only recently incorporated on the rotating turbine blades. This lack of endorsement of thermal barrier coatings resulted from the poor initial duratbility of these coatings in high heat flux environments. Significant improvements have been made to enhance spallation resistance and erosion resistance, which has resulted in increased reliability of these coatings in turbine applications.

Soechting, F. O.

1999-12-01

418

Transformer protection then and now  

SciTech Connect

Primary overcurrent devices usually cannot provide full-range through-fault protection and complete system selectivity. The protection engineer must consider the complete system protection or selectivity requirements, accepting the compromises necessary to achieve these contradictory goals. 6 figures.

Dutton, J.C.; McCann, F.J.; Smith, R.L. Jr.

1980-01-01

419

Advanced worker protection system  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

420

Lithium battery thermal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature

Daniel H Doughty; Paul C Butler; Rudolph G Jungst; E. Peter Roth

2002-01-01

421

Thermal-Wave Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thermal features of and beneath the surface of a sample can be detected and imaged with a thermal-wave microscope. Various methodologies for the excitation and detection of thermal waves are discussed, and several applications, primarily in microelectronics, are presented. (Author)

Rosencwaig, Allan

1982-01-01

422

Cryogenic thermal diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space based cryogenic thermal management systems for advanced infrared sensor platforms are a critical failure mode to the spacecraft missions they are supporting. Recent advances in cryocooler technologies have increased the achievable cooling capacities and decreased the operating temperatures of these systems, but there is still a fundamental need for redundancy in these systems. Cryogenic thermal diodes act as thermal

Brandon R. Paulsen; J. C. Batty; John Agren

2000-01-01

423

Tunable thermal links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the thermal conductance K of individual multiwall carbon nanotubes can be controllably and reversibly adjusted by sliding the outer shells of the tube with respect to the inner core in a telescopinglike manner. K shows an exponential dependence on the telescoping distance. Tunable nanoscale thermal links have immediate implications for nano- to macroscale thermal management, biosystems, and phononic information processing.

Chang, C. W.; Okawa, D.; Garcia, H.; Yuzvinsky, T. D.; Majumdar, A.; Zettl, A.

2007-05-01

424

Building thermal monitoring methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any method for monitoring building thermal energy has three key steps: model selection, building testing, and model analyses. first a thermal model of the building must be chosen that accounts for all major thermal processes and that adequately answers the questions motivating the monitoring project. Once a model is chosen, a test is designed and executed to determine from data

Burch

1986-01-01

425

Thermally-Related Safety Issues Associated with Thermal Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal ...

R. A. Guidotti

2006-01-01

426

Electric heating apparatus for providing freeze protection for fluid-control devices at well sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric heating apparatus for providing freeze protection for a fluid-control device, such as a gas regulator, at a well site includes a flexible electric heating pad adapted to be wrapped around the control device to be freeze-protected and a two part thermally insulated housing adapted to be placed about the heating pad and control device when the apparatus is

Ball

1985-01-01

427

Spinel domes with integrated electromagnetic interference protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium aluminate spinel is a durable electro-optical material with high visible through mid-IR transmission. Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T) reports on their efforts to integrate electromagnetic interference protection into spinel domes through the use of metallic grids. TA and T is developing an approach to embed noble metal EMI grids in spinel domes by encapsulating the grid with a germanate glass that has matching refractive index and coefficient of thermal expansion to spinel. Achievements to date and an outlook on this method as a viable manufacturing route are presented.

Heil, Todd; Slavik, Greg; Smith, Alex; Kutsch, Jeffrey; Renomeron, Lynda; Vesnovsky, Igor; LaRoche, Al; Fehrenbacher, Larry; Somers, Mark; McLellan, Joseph; Mayers, Brian

2013-06-01

428

Thermal contrast detected with a thermal detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the thermal contrast detected in a wavelength interval with a thermal detector consists of two terms. The first term agrees with the previously published results. The second term represents the contribution of the temperature-dependent emissivity. Neglecting this term results in approximately 20% error for traditional room temperature applications. For the case of remote crop-monitoring, the contribution of the emissivity changes to the detected thermal contrast is even more important: the infection of the vegetation results in the modification of its emissivity, its temperature and its change of emissivity with temperature.

Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Marija Strojnik

1999-04-01

429

Thermal control in graphene nanoribbons: thermal valve, thermal switch and thermal amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermal transport in graphene nanoribbons by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is reported that the three-terminal graphene nanoribbons can perform some functions of thermal devices such as thermal valve, thermal switch and thermal amplifier. Electronic devices have transformed almost all aspects of our lives. It has not escaped our attention that the graphene nanoribbons we have presented here may have similar surprising applications in devices that allow the flow of heat to be controlled in a short future.

Zhong, Wei-Rong; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Hu, Bambi

2012-07-01

430

Thermal control in graphene nanoribbons: thermal valve, thermal switch and thermal amplifier.  

PubMed

We study the thermal transport in graphene nanoribbons by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is reported that the three-terminal graphene nanoribbons can perform some functions of thermal devices such as thermal valve, thermal switch and thermal amplifier. Electronic devices have transformed almost all aspects of our lives. It has not escaped our attention that the graphene nanoribbons we have presented here may have similar surprising applications in devices that allow the flow of heat to be controlled in a short future. PMID:22763929

Zhong, Wei-Rong; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Hu, Bambi

2012-07-04

431

Thermal characterization of thermally-shunted heterojunction bipolar transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) are potentially useful in a number of microwave applications, but they are severely limited by a current distribution instability caused by electrothermal interaction and the use of a low thermal conductivity substrate. A novel thermal management technique called “thermal shunting” has been developed to reduce thermal resistance and junction temperature non-uniformity. Thermal resistance measurements for thermally-shunted

J. Sewell; L. L. Liou; D. Barlage; J. Barrette; C. Bozada; R. Dettmer; R. Fitch; T. Jenkins; R. Lee; M. Mack; G. Trombley; P. Watson

1996-01-01

432

Breaker failure protection — Standalone or integrated with zone protection relays?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses merits, advantages, and disadvantages of integrating breaker failure (BF) protection with zone protection relays (ZPRs). In this context, the paper considers cost savings, security and dependability, simplicity, the danger of human errors when testing bus configurations, overall relaying philosophy, and reliability of applied protection devices. Several ways of integrating BF protection are proposed, allowing different tradeoffs between

Bogdan Kasztenny; Michael J. Thompson

2011-01-01

433

Overcurrent Protection Within the Motor Branch Circuit at Low Fault Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum ratings of devices acceptable for the overcurrent protection of the components within the motor branch circuit are defined in the National Electrical Code.[1] Motor starters with thermal relays usually provide this protection at the normal operating overcurrents, while fuses or time-limit circuit breakers provide protection at overcurrents above the permissible operating values. The time-current characteristics of the components

Robert E. Walters

1967-01-01

434

Rack protection monitor  

DOEpatents

A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

Orr, Stanley G. (Wheaton, IL)

2000-01-01

435

Physics for Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: * The atom as an energy system * An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics * Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials * Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose * Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding * Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products * Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays * Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums * Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures

Martin, James E.

2000-06-01

436

State of the Art and Future Trends in the Development of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are the most effective means of protecting structural components from damage caused by excessive temperature and corrosive/erosive environments. The applications for TBCs range from gas turbines and power generators t...

J. Singh P. C. Patnaik X. Huang

2006-01-01

437

Sintering and Fracture Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. There is a need to characterize the fundamental sintering and ...

D. Zhu S. R. Choi R. A. Miller

2004-01-01

438

Corrosion Resistant, Structurally Reinforced, Thermal Spray Coatings for In Situ Repair of Load Bearing Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is developing and laying the groundwork for in-situ reclamation of corroded components in load bearing infrastructures (e.g., bridges) imparting robust corrosion protection using high-velocity thermal spray. This novel approach may provide in...

S. Sampath T. Nakamura

2012-01-01

439

Analysis and Thermal-Design Improvements of Downhole Tools for Use in Hot-Dry Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design improvements made for downhole thermal protection of systems based on results obtained from the analysis of the electronics, heat sink, and dewar packaged in a steel tubular body are described. Results include heat flux at the tool surface, tempera...

G. A. Bennett G. R. Sherman

1983-01-01

440

Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, KH?0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when KH=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and KH=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1) all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2) every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

Levin, Michael

2013-04-01

441

Pitfalls of embolic protection.  

PubMed

Some degree of distal embolization likely occurs during all transcatheter interventional procedures. The clinical sequela is defined by the sensitivity of the target organ to segmental ischemia and the burden of embolic load. The spectrum of clinical consequences varies from the extremes of stroke and no-reflow phenomena in the carotid and coronaries, respectively, to silent renal insult following renal stenting. The clinical sequela of stroke and myocardial infarction in these most sensitive end-organ distributions led to the birth of embolic protection science. Over the past 2 decades embolic protection has matured and we now have a menu of devices to consider based on our specific patient clinical and anatomic needs. The goal of this narrative is to provide an update on protection device science and, more importantly, a very practical informal guide to the currently available technologies with emphasis on the pitfalls common to specific device families. PMID:21550513

Bates, Mark C; Campbell, John E

2011-06-01

442

Basics of Surge Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Surge Protection. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: surge protection technology, surge protection products, a final exam, a glossary and a 44 page study guide.

2008-11-24

443

Pesticide personal protective clothing.  

PubMed

A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of fabrics. Clothing evaluation studies have shown that protective clothing and coveralls of various materials and designs were effective in reducing exposure. Results of some of these studies suggested that the farmer's typical work clothing was more effective than fabric penetration results suggested. This apparent conflict is not surprising, given the methods used in both types of research. The field studies use pads placed in various areas under the clothing. This method assumes that exposure is uniform over entire body regions. But fluorescent tracer research has shown that this is not a valid assumption (DeJonge et al. 1985; Fenske 1988). Also, the way in which the pads are attached may make a difference, although no research has examined this issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1771275

Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

1991-01-01

444

Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. This report focuses on the following: notification of environmental occurrences; general planning and reporting; special programs and plans; environmental monitoring program; and quality assurance and data verification.

Brekke, D.D.

1995-11-01

445

Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created to protect and enhance the environment for the future. Users can learn about the EPA's monitoring of the air, water, and soil. Using the interactive maps, visitors can learn about river water quality and air quality. The expansive website features EPA's many research projects in topics such as cleaner production, climate change, and socio-economics. Special interest groups and the general public can find technical information and documents. The Waste link provides numerous materials on waste types, waste prevention, and seminars.

446

Photochromic ultraviolet protective shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage to the eye can result from unexpectedly low levels of light, particularly at the shorter wavelengths. UV emitting lasers such as Excimer (248 nm, 308 nm, 351 nm) and HeCd lasers (325 nm, 354 nm) are increasingly used in various applications including: medical, research (spectroscopy), stereolithography and semiconductor industries. Therefore, protection against harmful UV light is needed, but more importantly, development of a material that will react to detect the presence of UV light while completely protecting the wearer, is of great interest. Such materials have been developed with the use of lightweight clear plastics such as acrylics by incorporation of UV reactive photochromic compounds into a polymeric matrix.

Goudjil, Kamal

2000-10-01

447

Borax Lake, a thermal lake confined within a biomorphic mound, Pueblo Valley, Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations among geothermal system dynamics, evolution of an 8-m thick biomorphic mound, and requirements to protect critical habitat of Gila boraxobius, a fish protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, were explored at Borax Lake, a shallow thermal lake in the tectonically active northwestern Basin-and-Range Province. Neutral pH, thermal water at ~105°C discharges within a carrot-shaped vent at a

Michael L. Cummings; Sean D. Wilson; Anna M. St. John

2010-01-01

448

Protective coatings and sealants for solar applications  

SciTech Connect

An aging study has been completed which evaluated a number of polymeric materials for potential use as (1) protective coatings for back surfaces of mirrors and (2) solar heliostat edge seals. These investigations were conducted in an artificial weathering chamber that accelerated thermal cycling. The primary mirror failure mode was observed to be silver corrosion resulting from moisture exposure. To increase mirror longevity in current heliostat designs, intimate bonding at all the composite interfaces is essential to minimize moisture pathways to the silvered surface. If any voids or delaminations are present, mirror degradation will eventually occur. Delaminations can also occur as the result of mechanical stresses brought about by mismatches in the various materials coefficients of thermal expansion. If good bonding cannot be achieved or mechanical stresses avoided, then improved moisture barriers must be designed to assure mirror longevity. With good adhesion, a KRATON rubber was found to exhibit superior back surface mirror protection (12 months in environmental chamber with no corrosion). An ultraviolet stabilized butyl rubber appeared to be the best edge seal. All heliostats edge sealed with silicones showed silver corrosion which indicated either poor bonding or moisture permeation.

Wischmann, K. B.; Gonzales, M. H.

1980-09-01

449

Catalytic thermal barrier coatings  

DOEpatents

A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2009-06-02

450

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

1984-05-01

451

Thermal model calculations of enclosures for millimeter wavelength radio telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter wavelength radio telescopes require a high surface and pointing precision, which in steerable open-air telescopes is obtained by a stiff or homologous construction and elaborate thermal control. The perturbing thermal loads and wind loads can also be reduced by protecting the telescope by a radome or astrodome, as applied on several operating telescopes. However, for the new generation telescopes of 30-m to 50-m diameter the radome or astrodome is very large and costly, and it is a priori not certain to which extent the internal thermal climate must be controlled, for instance, by forced air-conditioned ventilation, to obtain a telescope of good radio performance. We present data from the Onsala and Haystack radomes to illustrate agreement between measurements and thermal model calculations, and we use similar calculations to investigate the thermal behavior of a very large astrodome and radome. The accuracy of the calculations is sufficient for design and operational purposes.

Greve, A.; MacLeod, G.

452

Protecting Against Vandalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways to make school washrooms more vandal resistant and cost effective through the use of durability and use-and-abuse criteria. Explores washroom accessory and toilet-partition selection and discusses additional vandal-prone concerns such as mirror and dispenser protection. (GR)

Gettelman, Alan

1998-01-01

453

Evaluating train protection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper arose from the work carried out for the Cullen\\/Uff Joint Inquiry into Train Protection Systems. It is concerned with the problem of evaluating the benefits of safety enhancements in order to avoid rare, but catastrophic accidents, and the role of Operations Research in the process. The problems include both input values and representation of outcomes. A key input

Geoff Riddington; Matthias Beck; J. Cowie

2006-01-01

454

Watershed Protection Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Groundwater:  The water found below the surface of the land and contained in the pore spaces of saturated geologic media (sand, gravel). Groundwater is the source of water found in wells and springs.   From Watershed Protection Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing groundwater

2013-07-09

455

Coordinating overcurrent protection devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution, substation, and plant engineers can benefit from using an overcurrent protection program in commercial, industrial, and utility applications to aid in clearing temporary faults and isolating permanent faults. In the time it normally takes to check one coordination scheme manually, dozens of alternatives can be evaluated using a graphics-oriented program, because the engineer receives immediate feedback for quick decision-making.

M. St. John; A. Borgnino

1996-01-01

456

An Overcurrent Protection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overcurrent protection system adaptable for use with power controllers of the single or multi-phase ac, or dc types includes a load current sensing element in combination with an overcurrent sensing/inverse time delay circuit, a power switch and a crow...

W. W. Billings J. T. Mitchell R. E. Leubrecht

1981-01-01

457

Coastal water protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navy's marine environmental quality program is described. The program provides important techniques and scientific data to aid regulatory agencies in establishing standards for environmental protection. It consists of 3 mutually interactive elements: field survey development, data bank development, and microcosm experience, and is aimed at the most cost-effective methods for minimizing pollution effects on marine life. The microcosm facilities

M. Hura; E. C. Evans; F. G. Wood

1976-01-01

458

Critique of protective measurements  

SciTech Connect

The recently proposed idea of {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Hari Dass, N.D. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Madras 600113 (India); Qureshi, T. [Material Science Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

1999-04-01

459

Marine Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.

2011-11-09

460

Fish passage and protection  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of reprints on fish passage and protection topics from: American Fisheries Society; American Society of Civil Engineers; Harza Engineering Company; Hydro Review Magazine; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Independent Energy Magazine; National Hydropower Association; Northwest Hydroelectric Association; United States Army Corps of Engineers; United States Committee on large dams; and the United States Department of the Interior.

Rinehart, B.N.

1993-11-01

461

Child Protection Parents Speak: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is a secondary data analysis that examines what child protection service (CPS) providers can learn from the experiences of the service users in regards to service delivery. Using Grounded Theory research method, this study analyses the experiences of 44 parents who have used or were currently using CPS in Ontario. The findings suggest that respect is that vital

Winnie Lo

2007-01-01

462

Supervising Child Protective Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Child Protective Service (CPS) unit, as part of the public social service agency, is the key agency in each community's child abuse and neglect response system. There are certain basic functions that supervisors must perform in any setting. All of the...

J. R. Ballew M. K. Salus S. Winett

1979-01-01

463

The Protective Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective link is a device recently developed for internal mounting in transformer of a wide variety of types and ratings. Its most common application, however, is in distribution transformers where it serves to disconnect the transformer in case of internal fault. Its action in arc extinction depends on a number of factors including a novel arrangement of the lower

J. K. Hodnette; M. G. Leonard

1941-01-01

464

Personal Protective Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To have an effective safety program one manager must be responsible for its coordination First-line supervisors must be convinced of the hazard and must be held accountable for their employees use of personal protective equipment A safety program for new ...

1998-01-01

465

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... toxic or irritating chemicals. In addition, use sunscreen to protect against the sun's harmful rays. Inspection • Is appropriate PPE available ... The National Safety Council makes no guarantee as to and assumes no responsibility for the correctness, sufficiency or completeness of such information or ...

466

Global protected area impacts  

PubMed Central

Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use ‘matching’ (or ‘apples to apples’) for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation.

Joppa, Lucas N.; Pfaff, Alexander

2011-01-01

467

Protections for Transgender Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article discusses protections for transgender employee rights and how many transgender employees routinely face demotions, unfavorable conditions of employment, and even discriminatory terminations--due not to job-related problems but to employers' discomfort with and animus against transgender people. The Author points out that although courts historically have found transgender people excluded from coverage under certain laws, developing case law supports

Jennifer Levi

2003-01-01

468

Integrated Plant Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Written by a team of authors from the member-countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (CMEA), this book for the first time generalizes the achievements of science and advanced practices in integrated plant protection. Special attention has been pa...

I. N. Fadeev K. V. Novozhilov

1987-01-01

469

Protecting your domain.  

PubMed

Trademarks and their sibling service marks are some of the most valuable assets of contemporary health care organizations. Patients and health care providers throughout the world recognize the name Mayo Clinic. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies, particularly with respect to "off-patent" drugs, zealously protect drug names. PMID:11828575

Eagle, Tim E

470

Environmental Protection Agency: Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created this site to inform the general public about their role in wetland preservation and restoration. At the top of their page, visitors can click on the "What are Wetlands?" area to get some basic definitions, look over some fact sheets, and learn about the recent history of wetlands in the United States. Also on the homepage are sections such as "Why Protect Wetlands?", "How are Wetlands Protected?", and "What You Can Do To Protect our Vital Resource". These sections are meant for general audiences, and they might be used in classroom settings as a way to illuminate the role of the EPA and some of the broader concerns surrounding different natural environments. The right-hand side of the homepage features "In the News" items about recent regulatory changes, interagency agreements, and public hearings and comment periods. Finally, on the left-hand side of the page contains thematic sections like "Monitoring and Assessment", "Restoration", and "Education".

2009-07-06

471

Protecting against Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features an assistant professor of technology who shares his story of near disaster and offers advice for others about protecting their data. The author presents steps that can be taken to prevent unexpected events from destroying data. The author strongly recommends using backup files as a way of securing computer files and data.…

Howell, Kevin R.

2006-01-01

472

Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about their skin and the importance of protecting it. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.ccitonline.org/ceo/content.cfm?content_id=96.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

473

The Responsibility to Protect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for

Matt Deutscher

2005-01-01

474

Data Protection — Safe Harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restrictions imposed by data protection legislation on the transfer of data outside the European Economic Area (EEA), and particularly to the USA, have been the subject of much comment. A recently introduced ‘Safe Harbor’ arrangement between the EU and the USA is not the panacea that many hoped for, as it currently does not apply to US banking and

Gillian Bull

2001-01-01

475

Thermal Interface Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasing electronic device performance has historically been accompanied by increasing power and increasing on-chip power\\u000a density both of which present a cooling challenge. Thermal Interface Material (TIM) plays a key role in reducing the package\\u000a thermal resistance and the thermal resistance between the electronic device and the external cooling components. This chapter\\u000a reviews the progress made in the TIM development

Ravi Prasher; Chia-Pin Chiu

476

Advances in Thermal Conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review discusses recent advances in materials engineering to control thermal conductivity. We begin by presenting theories of heat conduction for general material classes, focusing on common approximations and trends. Next, we discuss characterization techniques for measuring thermal conductivity and the underlying transport properties. Advanced materials at the frontiers of thermal transport, such as rattlers, complex unit cells, nanowires, and nanocomposites, are treated in depth using experimental data and theoretical predictions. The review closes by highlighting several promising areas for further development.

Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Dames, Chris

2012-08-01

477

Conventional Thermal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermal desalination processes account for about 50% of the entire desalination market. The remaining market share is dominated\\u000a by the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The main thermal desalination processes include multi-stage flash desalination (MSF),\\u000a multiple-effect distillation (MED), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Other thermal desalination processes, e.g., solar\\u000a stills, humidification dehumidification, freezing, etc., are only found on a pilot or

Hisham Ettouney

478

Solar thermal energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research and development conducted within the US Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program is described. The goal of the program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options. Research areas emphasized include central receivers, distributed receiveres, and solar thermal materials. Brief descriptions are provided of the contractor's activities at the Sandia National Laboratories, Solar Energy Research Institute, and the San Francisco and Albuquerque DOE operations offices. A list of the FY 1984 publications is included.

1985-05-01

479

Protection of HTS magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses protection issues for HTS magnet. For protection, the HTS magnet must rely on an active technique. Closed-form expressions of the matrix metal operating current density based on overheating and internal voltage criteria for protection, under very simplifying assumptions, are presented. Perhaps the most important conclusions of these criteria are that: (1) HTS (and LTS) magnets must be wound with composite conductor having a significant portion of its overall cross section occupied by normal metal generally of high electrical conductivity and (2) HTS windings must possess “high” NZP velocities to make the resistive zone occupy as large a fraction of the winding volume as possible. The paper also derives an analytical expression, under another set of simplifying assumptions, to determine the minimum resistive voltage level, dictated by the maximum hot-spot temperature set at 150 K, required to initiate an active protection process. Remarkably, this minimum detection voltage is nearly independent of the matrix metal current density, Iop/Am. For a set of operating parameters used in a numerical example, a computed minimum detection voltage, at Iop/Am = 5 × 104 A/cm2, is ˜30 mV, which, considering it must be discerned in the presence of extraneous voltage signals likely to be present in real world operating conditions, would be non-trivial. To satisfy the overheating criterion at a level of Iop/Am, which keeps the winding overall current density “viable” and at the same time to raise the minimum detection resistive voltage, the winding volume occupied by the resistive state must be expanded. The paper concludes with discussion of challenging new areas of research for protection of HTS magnets.

Iwasa, Yukikazu

2005-10-01

480

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOEpatents

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

1994-01-01

481

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOEpatents

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20

482

Protective orders: questions and conundrums.  

PubMed

Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners. PMID:16785286

Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

2006-07-01

483

Experimental Measurement and Prediction of Thermal Resistance in Paratrooper Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combat free fall (CFF) paratrooper’s protective clothing comprising of nonwoven fabric, combinations of inherently flame retardant Nomex ® fabric, and cotton fabric are studied under simulated conditions (wind velocity) of conduction using Thermolabo-II technique. Theoretical predictions of thermal resistance using mathematical modeling have also been carried out by taking into consideration important parameters that affect the functional performance. The results

R. Indu Shekar; T. M. Kotresh; M. S. Subbulakshmi; S. N. Vijayalakshmi; Asis Patanaik; Rajesh D. Anandjiwala

2011-01-01

484

Induction motors thermal monitoring by means of rotor resistance identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotor and stator temperature are of concern in both short-term machine protection and in longer term condition monitoring for large induction machines. Especially, when operating with overload cycles, it is necessary to monitor rotor bars and stator winding temperatures to make sure that the temperature remains below prescribed limits. The purpose of this paper is to present a thermal monitoring

R. Beguenane; M. E. H. Benbouzid

1999-01-01

485

Induction motors thermal monitoring by means of rotor resistance identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotor and stator temperature is of concern in both short-term machine protection and in longer-term condition monitoring for large induction machines. Especially when operating with overload cycles, it is necessary to monitor rotor bars and stator winding temperatures to make sure that the temperature remains below prescribed limits. The purpose of this paper is to present a thermal monitoring technique,

Rachid Beguenane; Mohamed El Hachemi Benbouzid

1997-01-01

486

Thermal Analysis Methods for an Earth Entry Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal analysis of a vehicle designed to return samples from another planet, such as the Earth Entry vehicle for the Mars Sample Return mission, presents several unique challenges. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) must contain Martian material samples after they have been collected and protect them from the high heating rates of entry into the Earth's atmosphere. This requirement necessitates

Ruth M. Amundsen; John A. Dec; Michael C. Lindell

2002-01-01

487

Analysis of an active high-temperature thermal insulation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active thermal insulation system consisting of a semitransparent porous medium with gas injection is considered for protecting a structure from intense radiation flux (about 5 MW\\/sq m). The dependence of the thermophysical properties on temperature and dissociation are taken into account. Air, hydrogen, and dissociating ammonia are considered as representative gases. The effects of dissociating and nondissociating gases on

S. Maruyama; T. Aihara; R. Viskanta

1990-01-01

488

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF WOOD TO IMPROVE DECAY AND THERMAL RESISTANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood reacted with phosphoramides produced in situ by reacting phosphorus pentoxide with amines resisted fungal and thermal degradation. Moisture sorption study at 90% relative humidity for 4 weeks showed that wood reacted with phosphoramides absorbed moisture similar to or higher than untreated wood. This indicated that the decay protection of the modified wood was not based on hydrophobicity but was

Hong-lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

489

Ablative thermal management structural material on the hypersonic vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypersonic vehicle is designed to fly at high Mach number in the earth's atmosphere that will result in higher aerodynamic heating loads on specific areas of the vehicle. A thermal protection system is required for these areas that may exceed the operating temperature limit of structural materials. This paper delineates the application of ablative material as the passive type

H. Shortland; C. Tsai

1995-01-01

490

POTENTIAL NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES FOR INTENSIVELY MANAGED CATTLE DURING THERMAL STRESS 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stress can impact negatively on performance of intensively managed livestock in the southern United States and other subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Three funda- mental management practices, physical protection, genetic development and nutritional manage- ment schemes, have been proposed to alleviate partially the extent and severity of thermal stress. Focus of this paper is on i) interrelationships

D. K. Beede; R. J. Collier

491

Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of Texas Human Thermal Model Predictions During Cold Water Immersion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Human Thermal Model (referred to below as the Model) has been used to simulate the effects of thermal stresses on individuals under a variety of conditions. As part of a US Navy effort to develop integrated protection garments, the Model has bee...

B. S. Shender J. W. Kaufman

1993-01-01

492

Thermal and lifetime behavior of innovative insulation systems for rotating machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innovative insulating tape for rotating machines shows advantages concerning the electrical and mechanical strength as well as its thickness and thermal conductivity. In this paper the new developed mica tapes should be tested with respect to the thermal behaviour of the end corona protection and voltage endurance of various types of used mica paper. For this reason a test

C. Sumereder; M. Muhr; F. Senn; W. Grubelink; P. Marek

2008-01-01