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1

F-15B in flight with X-33 Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) on Flight Test Fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight photo of the NASA F-15B used in tests of the X-33 Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials. Flying at subsonic speeds, the F-15B tests measured the air loads on the proposed X-33 protective materials. In contrast, shock loads testing investigated the local impact of the supersonic shock wave itself on the TPS materials. Similar tests had been done in 1985 for the space shuttle tiles, using an F-104 aircraft.

1998-01-01

2

Transient Analysis of Thermal Protection System for X-33 Aircraft using MSC/NASTRAN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator vehicle for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The thermal protection system (TPS) for the X-33 is composed of complex layers of materials to protect internal components, while withstanding severe external temperatures induced by aerodynamic heating during high speed flight. It also serves as the vehicle aeroshell in some regions using a stand-off design. MSC/NASTRAN thermal analysis capability was used to predict transient temperature distribution (within the TPS) throughout a mission, from launch through the cool-off period after landing. In this paper, a typical analysis model, representing a point on the vehicle where the liquid oxygen tank is closest to the outer mold line, is described. The maximum temperature difference between the outer mold line and the internal surface of the liquid oxygen tank can exceed 1500 F. One dimensional thermal models are used to select the materials and determine the thickness of each layer for minimum weight while insuring that all materials remain within the allowable temperature range. The purpose of working with three dimensional (3D) comprehensive models using MSC/NASTRAN is to assess the 3D radiation effects and the thermal conduction heat shorts of the support fixtures.

Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, M. K.; Bowles, J.; Tam, T.; Chu, D.; Chainyk, M.; Green, Michael J. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

3

Closeup of F-15B Flight Test Fixture (FTF) with X-33 Thermal Protection Systems (TPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A close up of the Flight Test Fixture II, mounted on the underside of the F-15B Aerodynamic Flight Facility aircraft. The Thermal Protection System (TPS)samples, which included metallic Inconel tiles, soft Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation tiles, and sealing materials, were attached to the forward-left side position of the test fixture. In-flight video from the aircraft's on-board video system, as well as chase aircraft photos and video footage, documented the condition of the TPS during flights. Surface pressures over the TPS was measured by thermocouples contained in instrumentation 'islands,' to document shear and shock loads.

1998-01-01

4

Thermal Management Design for the X-33 Lifting Body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 Advantage Technology Demonstrator offers a rare and exciting opportunity in Thermal Protection System development. The experimental program incorporates the latest design innovation in re-useable, low life cycle cost, and highly dependable Thermal Protection materials and constructions into both ground based and flight test vehicle validations. The unique attributes of the X-33 demonstrator for design application validation for the full scale Reusable Launch Vehicle, (RLV), are represented by both the configuration of the stand-off aeroshell, and the extreme exposures of sub-orbital hypersonic re-entry simulation. There are several challenges of producing a sub-orbital prototype demonstrator of Single Stage to Orbit/Reusable Launch Vehicle (SSTO/RLV) operations. An aggressive schedule with budgetary constraints precludes the opportunity for an extensive verification and qualification program of vehicle flight hardware. However, taking advantage of off the shelf components with proven technologies reduces some of the requirements for additional testing. The effects of scale on thermal heating rates must also be taken into account during trajectory design and analysis. Described in this document are the unique Thermal Protection System (TPS) design opportunities that are available with the lifting body configuration of the X-33. The two principal objectives for the TPS are to shield the primary airframe structure from excessive thermal loads and to provide an aerodynamic mold line surface. With the relatively benign aeroheating capability of the lifting body, an integrated stand-off aeroshell design with minimal weight and reduced procurement and operational costs is allowed. This paper summarizes the design objectives of the X-33 TPS, the flight test requirements driven configuration, and design benefits. Comparisons are made of the X-33 flight profiles and Space Shuttle Orbiter, and lifting body Reusable Launch Vehicle aerothermal environments. The X-33 TPS is based on a design to cost configuration concept. Only RLV critical technologies are verified to conform to cost and schedule restrictions. The one-off prototype vehicle configuration has evolved to minimize the tooling costs by reducing the number of unique components. Low cost approaches such as a composite/blanket leeward aeroshell and the use of Shuttle technology are implemented where applicable. The success of the X-33 will overcome the ballistic re-entry TPS mindset. The X-33 TPS is tailored to an aircraft type mission while maintaining sufficient operational margins. The flight test program for the X-33 will demonstrate that TPS for the RLV is not simply a surface insulation but rather an integrated aeroshell system.

Bouslog, S.; Mammano, J.; Strauss, B.

1998-01-01

5

X-33 artist concept - 1999  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's conception of the half scale X-33 demonstrator flying over the southwestern desert. The vehicle was a wedge-shaped lifting body, with two vertical fins and a pair of stub wings. On the fins are the Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works logo, which was the prime contractor. At the rear is the aerospike engine, an experimental design that lacked the nozzles of conventional rockets. The X-33 tested several other new technologies, including composite structures and a metallic thermal protection system. It was hoped that these advances would lead eventually to an operational single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called the VentureStar. However, due to technical problems with the composite liquid hydrogen tank, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1999-01-01

6

Cyclic Cryogenic Thermal-Mechanical Testing of an X-33/RLV Liquid Oxygen Tank Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important step in developing a cost-effective, reusable, launch vehicle is the development of durable, lightweight, insulated, cryogenic propellant tanks. Current cryogenic tanks are expendable so most of the existing technology is not directly applicable to future launch vehicles. As part of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, an experimental apparatus developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for evaluating the effects of combined, cyclic, thermal and mechanical loading on cryogenic tank concepts was used to evaluate cryogenic propellant tank concepts for Lockheed-Martin Michoud Space Systems. An aluminum-lithium (Al 2195) liquid oxygen tank concept, insulated with SS-1171 and PDL-1034 cryogenic insulation, is tested under simulated mission conditions, and the results of those tests are reported. The tests consists of twenty-five simulated Launch/Abort missions and twenty-five simulated flight missions with temperatures ranging from -320 F to 350 F and a maximum mechanical load of 71,300 lb. in tension.

Rivers, H. Kevin

1999-01-01

7

X-33 Simulation Lab and Staff Engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-33 program engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, monitor a flight simulation of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator as a 'flight' unfolds. The simulation provided flight trajectory data while flight control laws were being designed and developed. It also provided information which assisted X-33 developer Lockheed Martin in aerodynamic design of the vehicle. The X-33 program was a government/industry effort to design, build and fly a half-scale prototype that was to demonstrate in flight the new technologies needed for Lockheed Martin's proposed full-scale VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was intended to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was intended to dramatically increase reliability and lower costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to reach altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to be launched from a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

8

X-33 Simulation Flown by Steve Ishmael  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steve Ishmael flies a simulation of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This simulation was used to provide flight trajectory data while flight control laws were being designed and developed, as well as to provide aerodynamic design information to X-33 developer Lockheed Martin. The X-33 program was a government/industry effort to design, build and fly a half-scale prototype that was to have demonstrated in flight the new technologies needed for the proposed Lockheed Martin full-scale VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

9

X-33 flight visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 1998, the NASA Space Transportation Programs Office and NASA Public Affairs jointly funded an activity under the Space Transportation Integrity Program (STIP) contract with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to develop X-33 flight visualizations. This technical and management support effort was contracted by the X-33 Program Office of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's X-33 Program Office. This paper presents the technical approach and methodology used in developing pre-flight visualizations, as well as the plans and approach for real-time flight coverage visualizations of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle.

Laue, Jay H.

1999-01-01

10

Design, Development,and Testing of Umbillical System Mechanisms for the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is an un-piloted, vertical take-off, horizontal landing spacecraft. The purpose of the X-33 program is to demonstrate technologies that will dramatically lower the cost of access to space. The rocket-powered X-33 will reach an altitude of up to 100 km and speeds between Mach 13 and 15. Fifteen flight tests are planned, beginning in 2000. Some of the key technologies demonstrated will be the linear aerospike engine, improved thermal protection systems, composite fuel tanks and reduced operational timelines. The X-33 vehicle umbilical connections provide monitoring, power, cooling, purge, and fueling capability during horizontal processing and vertical launch operations. Two "rise-ofF' umbilicals for the X-33 have been developed, tested, and installed. The X-33 umbilical systems mechanisms incorporate several unique design features to simplify horizontal operations and provide reliable disconnect during launch.

Littlefield, Alan C.; Melton, Gregory S.

1999-01-01

11

X-33 Flight Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

Laue, Jay H.

1998-01-01

12

X-33 RLV Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technician Cristal Kellam of NASA Langley Research Center's Operational Support Division checks a composite model underwent testing at the 22-Inch Mach 20 Helium Tunnel as part of Phase II of her X-33 RLV development program.

1996-01-01

13

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model support system and instumentation cabling of the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

14

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of the high pressure nitrogen system used for the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

15

X-33 Development History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of dealing with various types of proprietary documents, whether from the Lockheed Martin, the Skunk Works, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, and other corporations extant or extinct, remains unresolved. The computerized archive finding aid has over 100 records at present. These records consist of X-33 photographs, press releases, media clippings, and the small number of X-33 project records collected to date.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1997-01-01

16

The X-33 Program Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the X-33 program update, including details on program objectives and plans, the X-33 configuration, technologies used, and X-33 assembly and test status.

Dill, Charlie

2000-01-01

17

Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition for X-33 Phase 2 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status review of the experimental and computational work performed to support the X-33 program in the area of hypersonic boundary-layer transition is presented. Global transition fronts are visualized using thermographic phosphor measurements. Results are used to derive transition correlations for "smooth body" and discrete roughness data and a computational tool is developed to predict transition onset for X-33 using these results. The X-33 thermal protection system appears to be conservatively designed for transition effects based on these studies. Additional study is needed to address concerns related to surface waviness. A discussion of future test plans is included.

Thompson, Richard A.; Hamilton, Harris H., II; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Nowak, Robert J.

1998-01-01

18

X-33 by Lockheed Martin above Earth - Computer Graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the NASA/Lockheed Martin X-33 technology demonstrator for a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) in orbit over the Earth. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California., expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to have improved U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting time delay and cost increase, the X-33 was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

19

X-33 Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to Clause 17 of the Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. Contract award was announced on July 2, 1996 and the first milestone was hand delivered to NASA MSFC on July 17, 1996. The first year has been one of growth and progress as all team members staffed up and embarked on the technical adventure of the 20th century... the ultimate goal . . a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Reuseable Launch Vehicle (RLV).

1997-01-01

20

X-33 Turbulent Aeroheating Measurements and Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements and predictions of the X-33 turbulent aeroheating environment have been performed for Mach 6, perfect-gas air conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to compare turbulent aeroheating predictions from two Navier-Stokes codes, LAURA and GASP, with each other and with experimental data in which turbulent flow was produced through either natural transition or forced transition using roughness elements. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at free stream Reynolds numbers of 0.72 x 10(exp 7)/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)/m (2.2 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)/ft) on 0.254 m (10.0-in.) X-33 models at alpha = 40 deg with smooth surfaces, smooth surfaces with discrete trips, and surfaces with simulated bowed thermal protection system panels. Turbulent flow was produced by the discrete trips and bowed panels for all but the lowest Reynolds number, while turbulent flow on the smooth model was produced only at the highest Reynolds number. Turbulent aeroheating levels on each of the three model types were measured using global phosphor thermography and agreed to within the experimental accuracy (+/= 15%) of the test technique. Computations were performed at the wind tunnel free stream conditions using both codes. Turbulent aeroheating levels predicted using the LAURA code were generally 5%-10% lower than those from GASP, although both sets of predictions fell within the experimental accuracy of the wind tunnel data.

Hollis, Brian R.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

2002-01-01

21

Aerothermal Test of Metallic TPS for X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An array of metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels including the seals developed for the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle is being tested in the Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. These tests are the first aerothermal tests of an X-33 TPS array and will be used to validate the TPS for the X-33 flight program. Specifically, the tests will be used to evaluate the structural and thermal performance of the TPS, the effectiveness of the high temperature seals between adjacent tiles and the durability of the TPS under realistic aerothermal flight conditions. The effect of varying step heights, damage to the seals between adjacent panels, and the use of secondary seals will also be investigated during the test program. The metallic TPS developed for the windward surface of the X-33 and the test program in the Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel is presented and discussed.

Sawyer, James Wayne; Hodge, Jefferson; Moore, Brad

1998-01-01

22

The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

Barret, Chris

1999-01-01

23

Artist concept of X-33 and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the NASA/Lockheed Martin X-33 technology demonstrator alongside the Venturestar, a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The X-33, a half-scale prototype for the Venturestar, is scheduled to be flight tested in 1999. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, plays a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program is a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program is to enable signifigant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. NASA Headquarter's Office of Space Access and Technology is overseeing the RLV program, which is being managed by the RLV Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, located in Huntsville, Alabama. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to dramatically increase reliability and lower costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program had hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

24

X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of...

J. Vinson

1998-01-01

25

X-33 Proposal by McDonnell Douglas - Computer Graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the McDonnell Douglas X-33 proposal for a technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). McDonnell Douglas submitted a vertical landing configuration design which used liquid oxygen/hydrogen bell engines. NASA considered design submissions from Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, and McDonnell Douglas. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight research Center, Edwards, California, expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to have improved U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

26

X-33 Experimental Aeroheating at Mach 6 Using Phosphor Thermography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature and demonstrate essential, cost effective technologies for next generation launch systems. The X-33 flight vehicle presently being developed by Lockheed Martin is an experimental Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) demonstrator that seeks to validate critical technologies and insure applicability to a full scale RLV. As with the design of any hypersonic vehicle, the aeroheating environment is an important issue and one of the key technologies being demonstrated on X-33 is an advanced metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS). As part of the development of this TPS system, the X-33 aeroheating environment is being defined through conceptual analysis, ground based testing, and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aeroheating wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the ground based testing activities. Global surface heat transfer images, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013 scale (10-in.) ceramic models of the proposed X-33 configuration in Mach 6 air. The test parametrics include angles of attack from -5 to 40 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 1x106 to 8x106/ft, and body flap deflections of 0, 10, and 20 deg. Experimental and computational results indicate the presence of shock/shock interactions that produced localized heating on the deflected flaps and boundary layer transition on the canted fins. Comparisons of the experimental data to laminar and turbulent predictions were performed. Laminar windward heating data from the wind tunnel was extrapolated to flight surface temperatures and generally compared to within 50 deg F of flight prediction along the centerline. When coupled with the phosphor technique, this rapid extrapolation method would serve as an invaluable TPS design tool.

Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Liechty, Derek S.; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Merski, N. Ronald

1999-01-01

27

X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. A successful X-33 flight test program will validate the aerospike nozzle concept, a key technical feature of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar(trademark) reusable launch vehicle. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of high chamber pressure bell engines, in part because of perceived technical risk. The aerospike engine (discussed below) has several performance advantages over conventional bell engines. However, these performance advantages are difficult to validate by ground test. The space shuttle, a multibillion dollar program intended to provide all of NASA's future space lift could not afford the gamble of choosing a potentially superior though unproven aerospike engine over a conventional bell engine. The X-33 demonstrator provides an opportunity to prove the aerospike's performance advantage in flight before commiting to an operational vehicle.

Vinson, John

1998-01-01

28

Generation of an Aerothermal Data Base for the X33 Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 experimental program is a cooperative program between industry and NASA, managed by Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works to develop an experimental vehicle to demonstrate new technologies for a single-stage-to-orbit, fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV). One of the new technologies to be demonstrated is an advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) being designed by BF Goodrich (formerly Rohr, Inc.) with support from NASA. The calculation of an aerothermal database is crucial to identifying the critical design environment data for the TPS. The NASA Ames X-33 team has generated such a database using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses, engineering analysis methods and various programs to compare and interpolate the results from the CFD and the engineering analyses. This database, along with a program used to query the database, is used extensively by several X-33 team members to help them in designing the X-33. This paper will describe the methods used to generate this database, the program used to query the database, and will show some of the aerothermal analysis results for the X-33 aircraft.

Roberts, Cathy; Huynh, Loc

1998-01-01

29

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

30

Thermal Protection Materials Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main portion of this contract year was spent on the development of materials for high temperature applications. In particular, thermal protection materials were constantly tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high-temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to hostile environmental effects. The analytical laboratory at the Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB), NASA-Ames played an integral part in the process of materials development of high temperature aerospace applications. The materials development focused mainly on the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of specimens from the various research programs.

Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael

1998-01-01

31

The success of the X-33 depends on its technology-an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the X-33, and therefore the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program, is highly dependent on the maturity of the components and subsystems selected and the ability to verify their performance, cost, and operability goals. The success of the technology that will be developed to support these components and subsystems will be critical to developing an operationally efficient X-33 that is traceable to a full-scale RLV system. This paper will delineate the key objectives of each technology demonstration area and provide an assessment of its ability to meet the X-33/RLV requirements. It is our intent to focus on these key technology areas to achieve the ambitious but achievable goals of the RLV and X-33 programs. Based on our assessment of the X-33 and RLV systems, we have focused on the performance verification and validation of the linear aerospike engine. This engine, first developed in the mid-1960s, shows promise in achieving the RLV objectives. Equally critical to the engine selection is the development of cryogenic composite tanks and the associated health management system required to meet the operability goals. We are also developing a highly reusable form of thermal protection system based on years of hypersonic research and Space Shuttle experience. To meet the mass fraction goals, reduction in engine component weights will also be developed. Due to the high degree of operability required, we will investigate the use of real-time integrated system health management and propulsion systems diagnostics, and mature the use of electromechanical actuators for highly reusable systems. The rapid turn-around requirements will require an adaptive guidance, navigation, and control algorithm toolset, which is well underway. We envision our X-33 and RLV to use mature, low-risk technologies that will allow truly low-cost access to space (Lockheed Martin Internal Document, 1995).

Bunting, Jackie O.; Sasso, Steven E.

1996-03-01

32

X33 Transient Liftoff Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful design of a launch vehicle requires the careful characterization of the various loads the structure will experience over its lifetime. Many of the most demanding load environments occur during the launch/ascent phase of a mission, typically defined as the point of engine start through engine cut off. One of the critical events during the launch phase is the liftoff event. This event imparts high loads on the vehicle due to transient events such as thrust build-up and vehicle release. This paper describes the theory and procedures used to calculate structural loads due to the liftoff event for the Lockheed-Martin X33 technology demonstrator vehicle. These procedures were developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and verified previously on other advanced launch system concepts and the Space Shuttle system.

Peck, Jeff; Brunty, Joseph

2000-01-01

33

Protections Thermiques Aerocoat (Aerocoat Thermal Protections).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerocoat (French trademark) thermal protections allow very efficient thermal barriers to be made using small thicknesses. The operating principle of these insulating materials used for space vehicles is described. The mechanical, physical, and chemical ch...

G. Metivaud

1991-01-01

34

Orbiter thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major material and design challenges associated with the orbiter thermal protection system (TPS), the various TPS materials that are used, the different design approaches associated with each of the materials, and the performance during the flight test program are described. The first five flights of the Orbiter Columbia and the initial flight of the Orbiter Challenger provided the data necessary to verify the TPS thermal performance, structural integrity, and reusability. The flight performance characteristics of each TPS material are discussed, based on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation data. Flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements for the orbiter TPS are met and that the overall performance is outstanding.

Dotts, R. L.; Curry, D. M.; Tillian, D. J.

1985-01-01

35

Experimental X-33 In-Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pictured here is an artist's concept of the experimental X-33 in-flight. The X-33 program was designed to pave the way to a full-scale commercially developed, reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The program that will put the U.S. on a path toward safe, affordable, reliable access to space by providing the latest technology was ready for space flight. The X-33 is the flagship technology demonstrator for technologies that will dramatically lower the cost of access to space. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

36

Thermal Protection and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

Greene, Effie E.

2013-01-01

37

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1986-08-20

38

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

39

Thermal Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

Johnson, Sylvia M.

2011-01-01

40

X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wedge-shaped X-33 was a sub-scale technology demonstration prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Through demonstration flights and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin (builder of the X-33 Venture Star) to decide by the year 2000 whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. This program would dramatically increase reliability and lower the costs of putting a payload into space. This would in turn create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the worldwide launch marketplace. NASA would be a customer, not the operator in the commercial RLV. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

41

X-33 Leading the Way to VentureStar(Trademark) in this Decade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33, reusable space plane technology demonstrator is on course to begin the flights of the X-33 by the end of 2002 that will serve as a basis for industry and government decisions that could lead to VentureStar(Trademark). Lockheed Martin has placed the VentureStar(Trademark) LLC in it's Space Company and is now competing in an industry wide effort that will permit NASA to select a Second Generation RLV source by 2005. This move provides the focus for firm business planning needed to enable the decision by the time X-33 flies in mid 2002 and possibly with upgraded technologies a year or so later. Since the IAF 50th Congress in Amsterdam, most of the major hardware elements of X-33 have been through their assembly and test. The flight liquid oxygen tank was the first major element to complete final assembly. Aerospike Engine qualification testing has progressed successfully through its test objectives and the two flight engines are in preparation to be delivered to the Assembly Facility in Palmdale. All Thermal Protection System (TPS) metallic panels have completed qualification testing and have been delivered to Palmdale and all remaining TPS elements have been assembled and are ready for delivery. Flight Software and Avionics have been delivered and are in integration testing. In November 1999, the first graphite composite liquid hydrogen tank experienced a debond between the tank inner skin and the honeycomb core in testing. This tank had completed its third successful cryogenic and loads testing at MSFC. Replacement liquid hydrogen tanks have completed design and are in fabrication. The resulting delay from this change of design for the liquid hydrogen tank will be approximately two years.

Austin, Robert E.; Rising, Jerry J.

2000-01-01

42

[X-33 Launch and Landing Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sverdrup is responsible for the design, construction and activation of the X-33 Flight Operations Center at Edwards Air Force Base and for providing assistance in activating the X-33 Landing Sites. The past year has seen the completion of the construction of the X-33 Flight Operations Center. Construction was completed in December of 1998, with systems checkout and testing continuing into early 1999. Integration of the site with LMCMS and other partner-supplied systems began in December and will continue through rollout of the X-33 vehicle. The construction of the X-33 Launch Complex has been performed within the Edwards AFB and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) systems with no substantial interference to either parties. A high level of cooperation exists between Sverdrup, Edwards AFB, and the Air Force Research Laboratory in the areas of access, training, security, and operations. There have been no conflicts between programs that have not been accommodated. Development of the landing sites is progressing with many of the modifications necessary underway. GSE commitments are in place. The personnel training program developed by Sverdrup for persons entering the launch site construction areas, was modified by Lockheed for use in training and access control to the Center during flight operations to maximize safety and minimize intrusion upon the environment. Close cooperation between Sverdrup, the construction workers, and the environmental biologist permitted construction to proceed in a timely fashion without harm to the wildlife, in particular, the Desert Tortoise. Although the entire X-33 site encompasses approximately 50 acres including a new access road, only the areas directly impacted by the construction were cleared to minimize the impact on the environment. A total of about 30 acres was actually disturbed.

1999-01-01

43

Testing the Preliminary X-33 Navigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) must meet the demanding requirements of landing autonomously on a narrow landing strip following a flight that reaches an altitude of up to 200,000 feet and a speed in excess of Mach 9 with significant in-flight energy bleed-off maneuvers. To execute this flight regimen a highly reliable avionics system has been designed that includes three LN-100G Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS) units as the primary navigation system for the X-33. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) tested an INS/GPS system in real-time simulations to determine the ability of this navigation suite to meet the in flight and autonomous landing requirements of the X-33 RLV. A total of sixty-one open loop tests were performed to characterize the navigation accuracy of the LN-100G. Twenty-seven closed-loop tests were also performed to evaluate the performance of the X-33 Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) algorithms with the real navigation hardware. These closed-loop tests were also designed to expose any integration or operational issues with the real-time X-33 vehicle simulation. Dynamic road tests of the INS/GPS were conducted by Litton to assess the performance of differential and nondifferential INS/GPS hybrid navigation solutions. The results of the simulations and road testing demonstrate that this novel solution is capable of meeting the demanding requirements of take-off, in-flight navigation, and autonomous landing of the X-33 RLV. This paper describes the test environment developed to stimulate the LN-100G and discusses the results of this test effort. This paper also presents recommendations for a navigation system suitable to an operational RLV system.

Lomas, James J.; Mitchell, Daniel W.; Freestone, Todd M.; Lee, Charles; Lessman, Craig; Foster, Lee D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

44

Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

Beck, Robin A. S.

2013-01-01

45

The Effect of Metallic TPS Panel Bowing on the Surface Heating of the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system of the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle consists of metallic honeycomb sandwich panels. Thermal gradients experienced during the descent phase of the trajectory result in a different rate of thermal expansion between the inner and outer face sheets of the metallic panels. This causes the panels to bow outward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is larger than that of the inner face sheet and inward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is less than that of he inner face sheet. This results in a quilted-type body surface. Using computational fluid dynamic analysis, this study will determine the effect the metallic TPS panel bowing has on the surface heating.

Palmer, Grant; Kontinos, Dean; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

46

X-33 Landing - Computer generated graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 46-second clip has the X-33 aircraft on final approach to Michael AAF in Utah, then with its landing gear down, it flares for touchdown and brakes to a halt. This graphic like the three before it shows an early configuration without vertical stabilizers, which have since been added.

1996-01-01

47

[X-33 Research By NASA Centers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of overviews of each NASA Center's contribution to the program during the period 1 Apr. 1998 - 31 Mar. 1999.

1999-01-01

48

The X-33 range Operations Control Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the capabilities and features of the X-33 Range Operations Center at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. All the unprocessed data will be collected and transmitted over fiber optic lines to the Lockheed Operations Control Center for real-time flight monitoring of the X-33 vehicle. By using the existing capabilities of the Western Aeronautical Test Range, the Range Operations Center will provide the ability to monitor all down-range tracking sites for the Extended Test Range systems. In addition to radar tracking and aircraft telemetry data, the Telemetry and Radar Acquisition and Processing System is being enhanced to acquire vehicle command data, differential Global Positioning System corrections and telemetry receiver signal level status. The Telemetry and Radar Acquisition Processing System provides the flexibility to satisfy all X-33 data processing requirements quickly and efficiently. Additionally, the Telemetry and Radar Acquisition Processing System will run a real-time link margin analysis program. The results of this model will be compared in real-time with actual flight data. The hardware and software concepts presented in this paper describe a method of merging all types of data into a common database for real-time display in the Range Operations Center in support of the X-33 program. All types of data will be processed for real-time analysis and display of the range system status to ensure public safety.

Shy, Karla S.; Norman, Cynthia L.

1998-01-01

49

Lightweight Thermal-Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hexagonal honeycomb panels secured by Y-shaped plates form lightweight, easily-maintained thermal-protection system. Honeycomb outer panel and fastener materials are selected to match local heating rates. Typical materials include composites, titanium, superalloys, and refractory metals. Advantages include complete symmetry of components--there are no left- or right-hand parts and no asymmetry in thermal expansion.

Macconochie, I. O.; Lawson, A. G.; Whiteman, T. C.; Brien, E. P.

1983-01-01

50

X-33/RLV Program Aerospike Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Substantial progress was made during the past year in support of the X-33/RLV program. X-33 activity was directed towards completing the remaining design work and building hardware to support test activities. RLV work focused on the nozzle ramp and powerpack technology tasks and on supporting vehicle configuration studies. On X-33, the design activity was completed to the detail level and the remainder of the drawings were released. Component fabrication and engine assembly activity was initiated, and the first two powerpacks and the GSE and STE needed to support powerpack testing were completed. Components fabrication is on track to support the first engine assembly schedule. Testing activity included powerpack testing and component development tests consisting of thrust cell single cell testing, CWI system spider testing, and EMA valve flow and vibration testing. Work performed for RLV was divided between engine system and technology development tasks. Engine system activity focused on developing the engine system configuration and supporting vehicle configuration studies. Also, engine requirements were developed, and engine performance analyses were conducted. In addition, processes were developed for implementing reliability, mass properties, and cost controls during design. Technology development efforts were divided between powerpack and nozzle ramp technology tasks. Powerpack technology activities were directed towards the development of a prototype powerpack and a ceramic turbine technology demonstrator (CTTD) test article which will allow testing of ceramic turbines and a close-coupled gas generator design. Nozzle technology efforts were focused on the selection of a composite nozzle supplier and on the fabrication and test of composite nozzle coupons.

1999-01-01

51

Flutter Analysis of the X-33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flutter analysis performed in support of the X33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is described. Analysis was conducted over a range of flow regimes using several different analysis codes. The finite element and aerodynamic models used in the analysis have undergone several years of development and refinement resulting in a high degree of model detail. The flutter analysis focuses on the area of three critical points within the vehicle's design trajectory at which full sets of external loads have previously been developed. A comparison between several different aerodynamic models is also made for the selected trajectory points.

Fowler, Samuel B.

2000-01-01

52

VentureStar(trademark) Reaping the Benefits of the X-33 Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major X-33 flight hardware has been delivered, and assembly of the vehicle is well underway in anticipation of its flight test program commencing in the summer of 1999. Attention has now turned to the operational VentureStar(trademark), the first single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle. Activities are grouped under two broad categories: (1) vehicle development and (2) market/business planning, each of which is discussed. The mission concept is presented for direct payload delivery to the International Space Station and to low Earth orbit, as well as payload delivery with an upper stage to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and other high energy orbits. System requirements include flight segment and ground segment. Vehicle system sizing and design status is provided including the application of X-33 traceability and lessons learned. Technology applications to the VentureStar(trademark) are described including the structure, propellant tanks, thermal protection system, aerodynamics, subsystems, payload bay and propulsion. Developing a market driven low cost launch services system for the 21 st Century requires traditional and non-traditional ways of being able to forecast the evolution of the potential market. The challenge is balancing both the technical and financial assumptions of the market. This involves the need to provide a capability to meet market segments that in some cases are very speculative, while at the same time providing the financial community with a credible revenue stream.

Sumrall, J.; Lane, C.

1998-01-01

53

The X-33/VentureStar Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VentureStar reusable launch vehicle is discussed in this viewgraph presentation. The objectives of the VentureStar program are reviewed: (1) expendables cost too much, (2) commercial space market is growing (3) meets NASA's goals, (4) Users want fast ground turnaround, (5) users want quick access to space, (6) the offline payload processing saves time, (7) low cost access to space will enable new markets. Flight tests of the X-33, which was designed to test the technology and is pictured in several slides, built credibility for VentureStar. One slide shows the dimensions, weight, length, LEO payload capacity, and the propulsion, in comparison for the X-33, the VentureStar, the Space Shuttle, the Proton D-1e, and the Ariane V. Yet other slides outline the vehicle's features, the plan for the operation of the vehicle, from the runway, to the pad, to orbit. The planned containerized payload operation will allow for a 7 day turnaround for the system, which will allow for the planned 40 flights per year.

Laube, J.

1998-01-01

54

Shell tile thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reusable, externally applied thermal protection system for use on aerospace vehicles subject to high thermal and mechanical stresses utilizes a shell tile structure which effectively separates its primary functions as an insulator and load absorber. The tile consists of structurally strong upper and lower metallic shells manufactured from materials meeting the thermal and structural requirements incident to tile placement on the spacecraft. A lightweight, high temperature package of insulation is utilized in the upper shell while a lightweight, low temperature insulation is utilized in the lower shell. Assembly of the tile which is facilitated by a self-locking mechanism, may occur subsequent to installation of the lower shell on the spacecraft structural skin.

Macconochie, I. O.; Lawson, A. G.; Kelly, H. N. (inventors)

1984-01-01

55

System Identification of X-33 Neural Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern flight control research has improved spacecraft survivability as its goal. To this end we need to have a failure detection system on board. In case the spacecraft is performing imperfectly, reconfiguration of control is needed. For that purpose we need to have parameter identification of spacecraft dynamics. Parameter identification of a system is called system identification. We treat the system as a black box which receives some inputs that lead to some outputs. The question is: what kind of parameters for a particular black box can correlate the observed inputs and outputs? Can these parameters help us to predict the outputs for a new given set of inputs? This is the basic problem of system identification. The X33 was supposed to have the onboard capability of evaluating the current performance and if needed to take the corrective measures to adapt to desired performance. The X33 is comprised of both rocket and aircraft vehicle design characteristics and requires, in general, analytical methods for evaluating its flight performance. Its flight consists of four phases: ascent, transition, entry and TAEM (Terminal Area Energy Management). It spends about 200 seconds in ascent phase, reaching an altitude of about 180,000 feet and a speed of about 10 to 15 Mach. During the transition phase which lasts only about 30 seconds, its altitude may increase to about 190,000 feet but its speed is reduced to about 9 Mach. At the beginning of this phase, the Main Engine is Cut Off (MECO) and the control is reconfigured with the help of aerosurfaces (four elevons, two flaps and two rudders) and reaction control system (RCS). The entry phase brings down the altitude of X33 to about 90,000 feet and its speed to about Mach 3. It spends about 250 seconds in this phase. Main engine is still cut off and the vehicle is controlled by complex maneuvers of aerosurfaces. The last phase TAEM lasts for about 450 seconds and the altitude and speed, both are reduced to zero. The present attempt, as a start, focuses only on the entry phase. Since the main engine remains cut off in this phase, there is no thrust acting on the system. This considerably simplifies the equations of motion. We introduce another simplification by assuming the system to be linear after some non-linearities are removed analytically from our consideration. Under these assumptions, the problem could be solved by Classical Statistics by employing the least sum of squares approach. Instead we chose to use the Neural Network method. This method has many advantages. It is modern, more efficient, can be adapted to work even when the assumptions are diluted. In fact, Neural Networks try to model the human brain and are capable of pattern recognition.

Aggarwal, Shiv

2003-01-01

56

Artist's Concept of an X-33 Launch Complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artist's interpretation of a future launch complex for third generation propulsion reusable launch vehicles such as the X-33. The X-33 is a sub-scale technology demonstrator prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), with a vertical take off / horizontal landing (lifting body) concept, which was manufactured and named as the Venture Star by Lockheed Martin. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

57

Thermal protection system ablation sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

58

Thermal protection system and related methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

59

Current Technology for Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems.

Scotti, Stephen J. (compiler)

1992-01-01

60

Support to X-33/Resusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The X-33 Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Peer Review Team (PRT) was formed to assess the integrated X-33 vehicle GN&C system in order to identify any areas of disproportionate risk for initial flight. The eventual scope of the PRT assessment enco...

2000-01-01

61

Apollo experience report: Thermal protection subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo command module was the first manned spacecraft to be designed to enter the atmosphere of the earth at lunar-return velocity, and the design of the thermal protection subsystem for the resulting entry environment presented a major technological challenge. Brief descriptions of the Apollo command module thermal design requirements and thermal protection configuration, and some highlights of the ground and flight testing used for design verification of the system are presented. Some of the significant events that occurred and decisions that were made during the program concerning the thermal protection subsystem are discussed.

Pavlosky, J. E.; St.leger, L. G.

1974-01-01

62

Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

1997-01-01

63

X-33, Stepping Stone ot Low Cost Access to Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the Access to Space Study, which was conducted in 1993 through the Office of Space Systems Development, an advanced technology Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) was selected for demonstration. The X-33 was advanced as an demonstration project, to build and test a 53-percent scale prototype of an operational RLV, it would also demonstrate new technologies which would be required to assure the operation of the new RLV. This presentation reviews the progress of the X-33 development and supporting sites. The X-33 design has been completed and fabrication and assembly is progressing well. The X-33 launch site has been completed. The first LH2 tank and engine is in testing. This will lead to the full scale development of VentureStar(tm).

Naftel, J. Chris

2000-01-01

64

Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based ...

M. L. Blosser R. R. Chen I. H. Schmidt J. T. Dorsey C. C. Poteet R. K. Bird

2002-01-01

65

Shell-Tile Thermal-Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Durable shell-tile thermal-protection system consists of interlocking upper and lower hard caps, incorporating appropriate stiffeners and enclosing lightweight fibrous insulation. New shell tile more durable than reusable surface insulation (RSI) currently used on Space Shuttle orbiter.

Macconochie, I. O.; Lowson, A. G.; Kelly, H. N.

1983-01-01

66

Computer Modeling for Individual Thermal Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this work is to use computer modeling to enhance individual thermal protection of clothing materials. This modeling can evaluate current clothing fabrics and also provide guidance for the development of improved materials. Calculations are per...

B. S. DeCristofano L. C. Hoke

1997-01-01

67

Well logging evaporative thermal protection system  

SciTech Connect

An evaporative thermal protection system for use in hostile environment well logging applications, the system including a downhole thermal protection cartridge disposed within a well logging sonde or tool to keep a payload such as sensors and support electronics cool, the cartridge carrying either an active evaporative system for refrigeration or a passive evaporative system, both exhausting to the surface through an armored flexible fluidic communication mechanical cable.

Lamers, M.D.; Martelli, V.P.

1981-02-03

68

Large thermal protection system panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

69

X-33 Combustion-Wave Ignition System Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with Rocketdyne, the Boeing Company, tested a novel rocket engine ignition system, called the combustion-wave ignition system, in its Research Combustion Laboratory. This ignition system greatly simplifies ignition in rocket engines that have a large number of combustors. The particular system tested was designed and fabricated by Rocketdyne for the national experimental spacecraft, X-33, which uses Rocketdyne s aerospike rocket engines. The goal of the tests was to verify the system design and define its operational characteristics. Results will contribute to the eventual successful flight of X-33. Furthermore, the combustion-wave ignition system, after it is better understood and refined on the basis of the test results and, later, flight-proven onboard X-33, could become an important candidate engine ignition system for our Nation s next-generation reusable launch vehicle.

Liou, Larry C.

1999-01-01

70

Thermal response of integral multicomponent composite thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral-multicomponent thermal-protection materials are discussed in terms of their thermal response to an arc-jet airstream. In-depth temperature measurements are compared with predictions from a one-dimensional, finite-difference code using calculated thermal conductivity values derived from an engineering model. The effect of composition, as well as the optical properties of the bonding material between components, on thermal response is discussed. The performance of these integral-multicomponent composite materials is compared with baseline Space Shuttle insulation.

Stewart, D. A.; Leiser, D. B.; Smith, M.; Kolodziej, P.

1985-01-01

71

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2013-10-01

72

Improved Thermal-Switch Disks Protect Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved thermal-switch disks help protect electrical batteries against high currents like those due to short circuits or high demands for power in circuits supplied by batteries. Protects batteries against excessive temperatures. Centered by insulating fiberglass washer. Contains conductive polymer that undergoes abrupt increase in electrical resistance when excessive current raises its temperature above specific point. After cooling, polymer reverts to low resistance. Disks reusable.

Darcy, Eric; Bragg, Bobby

1990-01-01

73

The SHEFEX II Thermal Protection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SHEFEX II payload tip is ready for flight. Within a period of three years, the experiment has been designed, laid out, parts have been manufactured, mounted and instrumented for the upcoming flight in autumn 2011. The present paper gives an overview over the thermal protection system (TPS) of the SHEFEX II vehicle including the TPS-material, the overall TPS-setup, and detailed informations on the faceted thermal protection including the gap seal, the sharp leading edge, the transpiration-cooling experiment AKTIV, and the aerodynamic control surfaces, i.e. canards.

Bhrk, H.; Els?er, H.; Weihs, H.

2011-08-01

74

Reusable thermal protection system development: A prospective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in passive reusable thermal protection system materials is described. Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, which was the first reusable vehicle, is discussed. The thermal protection materials and given concepts and some of the shuttle development and manufacturing problems are described. Evolution of a family of grid and flexible ceramic external insulation materials from the initial shuttle concept in the early 1970's to the present time is described. The important properties and their evolution are documented. Application of these materials to vehicles currently being developed and plans for research to meet the space programs future needs are summarized.

Goldstein, Howard

1992-01-01

75

X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Demonstrator, Spaceport and Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 was a suborbital reusable spaceplane demonstrator, in development from 1996 to early 2001. The intent of the demonstrator was to lower the risk of building and operating a full-scale reusable vehicle fleet. Reusable spaceplanes offered the potential to lower the cost of access to space by an order of magnitude, compared with conventional expendable launch vehicles. Although a cryogenic tank failure during testing ultimately led to the end of the effort, the X-33 team celebrated many successes during the development. This paper summarizes some of the accomplishments and milestones of this X-vehicle program, from the perspective of an engineer who was a member of the team throughout the development. X-33 Program accomplishments include rapid, flight hardware design, subsystem testing and fabrication, aerospike engine development and testing, Flight Operations Center and Operations Control Center ground systems design and construction, rapid Environmental Impact Statement NEPA process approval, Range development and flight plan approval for test flights, and full-scale system concept design and refinement. Lessons from the X-33 Program may have potential application to new RLV and other aerospace systems being developed a decade later.

Letchworth, Gary F.

2011-01-01

76

X-33 Program, Proving Single Stage to Orbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The X-33, NASA's flagship for reusable space plane technology demonstration, is on course to permit a crucial decision for the nation by the end of this decade. Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, NASA's partner in this effort, has led a dedicated and talented i...

R. E. Austin J. J. Rising

1998-01-01

77

Toughened Thermal Blanket for MMOD Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal blankets are used extensively on spacecraft to provide passive thermal control of spacecraft hardware from thermal extremes encountered in space. Toughened thermal blankets have been developed that greatly improve protection from hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. These blankets can be outfitted if so desired with a reliable means to determine the location, depth and extent of MMOD impact damage by incorporating an impact sensitive piezoelectric film. Improved MMOD protection of thermal blankets was obtained by adding selective materials at various locations within the thermal blanket. As given in Figure 1, three types of materials were added to the thermal blanket to enhance its MMOD performance: (1) disrupter layers, near the outside of the blanket to improve breakup of the projectile, (2) standoff layers, in the middle of the blanket to provide an area or gap that the broken-up projectile can expand, and (3) stopper layers, near the back of the blanket where the projectile debris is captured and stopped. The best suited materials for these different layers vary. Density and thickness is important for the disrupter layer (higher densities generally result in better projectile breakup), whereas a highstrength to weight ratio is useful for the stopper layer, to improve the slowing and capture of debris particles.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

2014-01-01

78

Thermal protection system flight repair kit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

1979-01-01

79

Thermal Protection Materials for Reentry Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal protection materials and systems (IRS) are used to protect spacecraft during reentry into Earth's atmosphere or entry into planetary atmospheres. As such, these materials are subject to severe environments with high heat fluxes and rapid heating. Catalytic effects can increase the temperatures substantially. These materials are also subject to impact damage from micrometeorites or other debris during ascent, orbit, and descent, and thus must be able to withstand damage and to function following damage. Thermal protection materials and coatings used in reusable launch vehicles will be reviewed, including the needs and directions for new materials to enable new missions that require faster turnaround and much greater reusability. The role of ablative materials for use in high heat flux environments, especially for non-reusable applications and upcoming planetary missions, will be discussed. New thermal protection system materials may enable the use of sharp nose caps and leading edges on future reusable space transportation vehicles. Vehicles employing this new technology would have significant increases in maneuverability and out-of-orbit cross range compared to current vehicles, leading to increased mission safety in the event of the need to abort during ascent or from orbit. Ultrahigh temperature ceramics, a family of materials based on HfB2 and ZrB2 with SiC, will be discussed. The development, mechanical and thermal properties, and uses of these materials will be reviewed.

Johnson, Sylvia M.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Gusman, Mike; Loehman, Ron; Kotula, Paul; Ellerby, Donald; Arnold, James; Wercinski, Paul; Reuthers, James; Kontinos, Dean

2001-01-01

80

Real-Time Simulation of the X-33 Aerospace Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the development and performance of the X-33 Aerospike Engine RealTime Model. This model was developed for the purposes of control law development, six degree-of-freedom trajectory analysis, vehicle system integration testing, and hardware-in-the loop controller verification. The Real-Time Model uses time-step marching solution of non-linear differential equations representing the physical processes involved in the operation of a liquid propellant rocket engine, albeit in a simplified form. These processes include heat transfer, fluid dynamics, combustion, and turbomachine performance. Two engine models are typically employed in order to accurately model maneuvering and the powerpack-out condition where the power section of one engine is used to supply propellants to both engines if one engine malfunctions. The X-33 Real-Time Model is compared to actual hot fire test data and is been found to be in good agreement.

Aguilar, Robert

1999-01-01

81

The Control System for the X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The linear aerospike engine is being developed for single-stage -to-orbit (SSTO) applications. The primary advantages of a linear aerospike engine over a conventional bell nozzle engine include altitude compensation, which provides enhanced performance, and lower vehicle weight resulting from the integration of the engine into the vehicle structure. A feature of this integration is the ability to provide thrust vector control (TVC) by differential throttling of the engine combustion elements, rather than the more conventional approach of gimballing the entire engine. An analysis of the X-33 flight trajectories has shown that it is necessary to provide +/- 15% roll, pitch and yaw TVC authority with an optional capability of +/- 30% pitch at select times during the mission. The TVC performance requirements for X-33 engine became a major driver in the design of the engine control system. The thrust level of the X-33 engine as well as the amount of TVC are managed by a control system which consists of electronic, instrumentation, propellant valves, electro-mechanical actuators, spark igniters, and harnesses. The engine control system is responsible for the thrust control, mixture ratio control, thrust vector control, engine health monitoring, and communication to the vehicle during all operational modes of the engine (checkout, pre-start, start, main-stage, shutdown and post shutdown). The methodology for thrust vector control, the health monitoring approach which includes failure detection, isolation, and response, and the basic control system design are the topic of this paper. As an additional point of interest a brief description of the X-33 engine system will be included in this paper.

Jackson, Jerry E.; Espenschied, Erich; Klop, Jeffrey

1998-01-01

82

X-33 Environmental Impact Statement: A Fast Track Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to prepare an appropriate level environmental analysis for its major projects. Development of the X-33 Technology Demonstrator and its associated flight test program required an environmental impact statement (EIS) under the NEPA. The EIS process is consists of four parts: the "Notice of Intent" to prepare an EIS and scoping; the draft EIS which is distributed for review and comment; the final ETS; and the "Record of Decision." Completion of this process normally takes from 2 - 3 years, depending on the complexity of the proposed action. Many of the agency's newest fast track, technology demonstration programs require NEPA documentation, but cannot sustain the lengthy time requirement between program concept development to implementation. Marshall Space Flight Center, in cooperation with Kennedy Space Center, accomplished the NEPA process for the X-33 Program in 13 months from Notice of Intent to Record of Decision. In addition, the environmental team implemented an extensive public involvement process, conducting a total of 23 public meetings for scoping and draft EIS comment along with numerous informal meetings with public officials, civic organizations, and Native American Indians. This paper will discuss the fast track approach used to successfully accomplish the NEPA process for X-33 on time.

McCaleb, Rebecca C.; Holland, Donna L.

1998-01-01

83

Reconfigurable Control Design for the Full X-33 Flight Envelope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reconfigurable control law for the full X-33 flight envelope has been designed to accommodate a failed control surface and redistribute the control effort among the remaining working surfaces to retain satisfactory stability and performance. An offline nonlinear constrained optimization approach has been used for the X-33 reconfigurable control design method. Using a nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom simulation, three example failures are evaluated: ascent with a left body flap jammed at maximum deflection; entry with a right inboard elevon jammed at maximum deflection; and landing with a left rudder jammed at maximum deflection. Failure detection and identification are accomplished in the actuator controller. Failure response comparisons between the nominal control mixer and the reconfigurable control subsystem (mixer) show the benefits of reconfiguration. Single aerosurface jamming failures are considered. The cases evaluated are representative of the study conducted to prove the adequate and safe performance of the reconfigurable control mixer throughout the full flight envelope. The X-33 flight control system incorporates reconfigurable flight control in the existing baseline system.

Cotting, M. Christopher; Burken, John J.

2001-01-01

84

Deterministic Reconfigurable Control Design for the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the event of a control surface failure, the purpose of a reconfigurable control system is to redistribute the control effort among the remaining working surfaces such that satisfactory stability and performance are retained. Four reconfigurable control design methods were investigated for the X-33 vehicle: Redistributed Pseudo-Inverse, General Constrained Optimization, Automated Failure Dependent Gain Schedule, and an Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization. The Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization approach was chosen for implementation on the X-33. Two example failures are shown, a right outboard elevon jam at 25 deg. at a Mach 3 entry condition, and a left rudder jam at 30 degrees. Note however, that reconfigurable control laws have been designed for the entire flight envelope. Comparisons between responses with the nominal controller and reconfigurable controllers show the benefits of reconfiguration. Single jam aerosurface failures were considered, and failure detection and identification is considered accomplished in the actuator controller. The X-33 flight control system will incorporate reconfigurable flight control in the baseline system.

Wagner, Elaine A.; Burken, John J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wohletz, Jerry M.

1998-01-01

85

Advanced materials for thermal protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition\\/infiltration (CVD\\/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical,

Sangvavann Heng; Andrew J. Sherman

1996-01-01

86

Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10⁻⁴ to 10⁻³\\/s) and

Robert Douglas Hardy; David R. Bronowski; Moo Yul Lee; John H. Hofer

2005-01-01

87

Thermal Protection Materials: Development, Characterization and Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are used to protect space vehicles from the heat experienced during entry into an atmosphere. The application for these materials is very specialized as are the materials. They must have specific properties to withstand conditions during specific entries. There is no one-size-fits-all TPS as the conditions experienced by a material are very dependent upon the atmosphere, the entry speed, the size and shape of the vehicle, and the location on the vehicle. However, all TPS must be reliable and efficient to ensure mission safety, that is to protect the vehicle while ensuring that payload is maximized. Types of TPS will be reviewed in relation to types of missions and applications. Both reusable and ablative materials will be discussed. Approaches to characterizing and evaluating these materials will be presented. The role of heritage versus new materials will be described.

Johnson, Silvia M.

2012-01-01

88

X-33 Metal Model Testing In Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The countrys next generation of space transportation, a reusable launch vehicle (RLV), continues to undergo wind tunnel testing at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. All four photos are a metal model of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle (about 15 inches long by 15 inches wide) being tested for Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) at NASA Langley Research Center. Tests are being conducted by members of the Aerothermodynamics Branch. According to Kelly Murphy of Langleys Aerothermodynamics Branch, the aluminum and stainless steel model of the X-33 underwent aerodynamic testing in the tunnel. *The subsonic tests were conducted at the speed of Mach .25,* she said. *Force and moment testing and measurement in this tunnel lasted about one week.* Future testing of the metal model is scheduled for Langleys 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, from the end of March to mid-April 1997, and the Unitary Wind Tunnel, from mid-April to the beginning of May. Other tunnel testing for X-33 models are scheduled from the present through June in the hypersonic tunnels, and the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel from about mid-June to mid-July. Since 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. has been the lead center for coordinating the Agencys X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, an industry-led effort, which NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin has declared the agency's highest priority new program. The RLV Technology Program is a partnership among NASA, the United States Air Force and private industry to develop world leadership in low-cost space transportation. The goal of the program is to develop technologies and new operational concepts that can radically reduce the cost of access to space. The RLV program also hopes to speed the commercialization of space and improve U.S. economic competitiveness by making access to space as routine and reliable as today's airline industry, while reducing costs and enhancing safety and reliability. The RLV program combines ground and flight demonstrations. The use of experimental flight vehicles like the X-33, to be developed by Lockheed Martin Corp., Palmdale, Calif. will help verify full-up systems performance in a realistic environment.

1997-01-01

89

X-33 Metal Model Testing In Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The countrys next generation of space transportation, a reusable launch vehicle (RLV), continues to undergo wind tunnel testing at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. All four photos are a metal model of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle (about 15 inches long by 15 inches wide) being tested for Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) at NASA Langley Research Center. Tests are being conducted by members of the Aerothermodynamics Branch. According to Kelly Murphy of Langleys Aerothermodynamics Branch, the aluminum and stainless steel model of the X-33 underwent aerodynamic testing in the tunnel. *The subsonic tests were conducted at the speed of Mach 25,* she said. *Force and moment testing and measurement in this tunnel lasted about one week.* Future testing of the metal model is scheduled for Langleys 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, from the end of March to mid-April 1997, and the Unitary Wind Tunnel, from mid-April to the beginning of May. Other tunnel testing for X-33 models are scheduled from the present through June in the hypersonic tunnels, and the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel from about mid-June to mid-July. Since 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. has been the lead center for coordinating the Agencys X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, an industry-led effort, which NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin has declared the agency's highest priority new program. The RLV Technology Program is a partnership among NASA, the United States Air Force and private industry to develop world leadership in low-cost space transportation. The goal of the program is to develop technologies and new operational concepts that can radically reduce the cost of access to space. The RLV program also hopes to speed the commercialization of space and improve U.S. economic competitiveness by making access to space as routine and reliable as today's airline industry, while reducing costs and enhancing safety and reliability. The RLV program combines ground and flight demonstrations. The use of experimental flight vehicles like the X-33, to be developed by Lockheed Martin Corp., Palmdale, Calif. will help verify full-up systems performance in a realistic environment.

1997-01-01

90

The X-33 Program, Proving Single Stage to Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33, NASA's flagship for reusable space plane technology demonstration, is on course to permit a crucial decision for the nation by the end of this decade. Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, NASA's partner in this effort, has led a dedicated and talented industry and government team that have met and solved numerous challenges within the first 26 months. This program began by accepting the mandate that included two unprecedented and highly challenging goals: 1) demonstrate single stage to orbit technologies in flight and ground demonstration in less than 42 months and 2) demonstrate a new government and industry management relationship working together with industry in the lead.

Austin, Robert E.; Rising, Jerry J.

1998-01-01

91

Estimates Of The Orbiter RSI Thermal Protection System Thermal Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Orbiter post-flight inspection, structure temperatures are recorded at selected positions on the windward, leeward, starboard and port surfaces. Statistical analysis of this flight data and a non-dimensional load interference (NDLI) method are used to estimate the thermal reliability at positions were reusable surface insulation (RSI) is installed. In this analysis, structure temperatures that exceed the design limit define the critical failure mode. At thirty-three positions the RSI thermal reliability is greater than 0.999999 for the missions studied. This is not the overall system level reliability of the thermal protection system installed on an Orbiter. The results from two Orbiters, OV-102 and OV-105, are in good agreement. The original RSI designs on the OV-102 Orbital Maneuvering System pods, which had low reliability, were significantly improved on OV-105. The NDLI method was also used to estimate thermal reliability from an assessment of TPS uncertainties that was completed shortly before the first Orbiter flight. Results fiom the flight data analysis and the pre-flight assessment agree at several positions near each other. The NDLI method is also effective for optimizing RSI designs to provide uniform thermal reliability on the acreage surface of reusable launch vehicles.

Kolodziej, P.; Rasky, D. J.

2002-01-01

92

X-33 Rev-F Turbulent Aeroheating Results From Test 6817 in NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and Comparisons With Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements and predictions of the X-33 turbulent aeroheating environment have been performed at Mach 6, perfect-gas air conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to compare measured turbulent aeroheating levels on smooth models, models with discrete trips, and models with arrays of bowed panels (which simulate bowed thermal protections system tiles) with each other and with predictions from two Navier-Stokes codes, LAURA and GASP. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at free stream Reynolds numbers based on length of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) to 6.1 x 10(exp 6) on 0.0132 scale X-33 models at a = 40-deg. Turbulent flow was produced by the discrete trips and by the bowed panels at ill but the lowest Reynolds number, but turbulent flow on the smooth model was produced only at the highest Reynolds number. Turbulent aeroheating levels on each of the three model types were measured using global phosphor thermography and were found to agree to within .he estimated uncertainty (plus or minus 15%) of the experiment. Computations were performed at the wind tunnel free stream conditions using both codes. Turbulent aeroheating levels predicted using the LAURA code were generally 5%-10% lower than those from GASP, although both sets of predictions fell within the experimental accuracy of the wind tunnel data.

Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.

2003-01-01

93

Reusable Metallic Thermal Protection Systems Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) are being developed to help meet the ambitious goals of future reusable launch vehicles. Recent metallic TPS development efforts at NASA Langley Research Center are described. Foil-gage metallic honeycomb coupons, representative of the outer surface of metallic TPS were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, rain erosion, and subsequent arcjet exposure. TPS panels were subjected to thermal vacuum, acoustic, and hot gas flow testing. Results of the coupon and panel tests are presented. Experimental and analytical tools are being developed to characterize and improve internal insulations. Masses of metallic TPS and advanced ceramic tile and blanket TPS concepts are compared for a wide range of parameters.

Blosser, Max L.; Martin, Carl J.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Poteet, Carl C.

1998-01-01

94

Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Protection System (TPS), introduced by NASA, continues to incorporate many of the advances in materials over the past two decades. A comprehensive, single-volume summary of the TPS, including system design rationales, key design features, and broad descriptions of the subsystems of TPS (E.g., reusable surface insulation, leading edge structural, and penetration subsystems) is provided. Details of all elements of TPS development and application are covered (materials properties, manufacturing, modeling, testing, installation, and inspection). Disclosures and inventions are listed and potential commercial application of TPS-related technology is discussed.

Cleland, John; Iannetti, Francesco

1989-01-01

95

Advanced materials for thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2?sec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2?sec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

1996-03-01

96

X-33/RLV System Health Management/ Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce operations cost, the RLV must include the following elements: highly reliable, robust subsystems designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure and incorporating expedited decision making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) RLV System used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM deals with the vehicle component- Vehicle Health Management (VHM), the ground processing associated with the fleet (GVHM) and the Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The objective is to provide an automated collection and paperless health decision, maintenance and logistics system. Many critical technologies are necessary to make the SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable and cost effective. Sanders is leading the design, development and integration of the SHM system for RLV and X-33 SHM (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for RLV SHM. This paper will also discuss other applications of these technologies.

Garbos, Raymond J.; Mouyos, William

1998-01-01

97

Thermal Vacuum Facility for Testing Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal vacuum facility for testing launch vehicle thermal protection systems by subjecting them to transient thermal conditions simulating re-entry aerodynamic heating is described. Re-entry heating is simulated by controlling the test specimen surface temperature and the environmental pressure in the chamber. Design requirements for simulating re-entry conditions are briefly described. A description of the thermal vacuum facility, the quartz lamp array and the control system is provided. The facility was evaluated by subjecting an 18 by 36 in. Inconel honeycomb panel to a typical re-entry pressure and surface temperature profile. For most of the test duration, the average difference between the measured and desired pressures was 1.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 7.4%, while the average difference between measured and desired temperatures was 7.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 6.5%. The temperature non-uniformity across the panel was 12% during the initial heating phase (t less than 500 sec.), and less than 2% during the remainder of the test.

Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Sikora, Joseph G.

2002-01-01

98

Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents an attempt to provide in a single source a complete set of thermophysical data on a large variety of materials used in spacecraft TPS analysis. The property data is divided into two categories: ablative and reusable. The ablative materials have been compiled into twelve categories that are descriptive of the material composition. An attempt was made to define the Arrhenius equation for each material although this data may not be available for some materials. In a similar manner, char data may not be available for some of the ablative materials. The reusable materials have been divided into three basic categories: thermal protection materials (such as insulators), adhesives, and structural materials.

Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.

1992-01-01

99

Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

2002-01-01

100

Support to X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Primary activities of Lee & Associates for the referenced Purchase Order has been in direct support of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program. An independent review to evaluate the X-33 liquid hydrogen fuel tank failure, which recently occurred after-test of the starboard tank has been provided. The purpose of the Investigation team was to assess the tank design modifications, provide an assessment of the testing approach used by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in determining the flight worthiness of the tank, assessing the structural integrity, and determining the cause of the failure of the tank. The approach taken to satisfy the objectives has been for Lee & Associates to provide the expertise of Mr. Frank Key and Mr. Wayne Burton who have relevant experience from past programs and a strong background of experience in the fields critical to the success of the program. Mr. Key and Mr. Burton participated in the NASA established Failure Investigation Review Team to review the development and process data and to identify any design, testing or manufacturing weaknesses and potential problem areas. This approach worked well in satisfying the objectives and providing the Review Team with valuable information including the development of a Fault Tree. The detailed inputs were made orally in real time in the Review Team daily meetings. The results of the investigation were presented to the MSFC Center Director by the team on February 15, 2000. Attached are four charts taken from that presentation which includes 1) An executive summary, 2) The most probable cause, 3) Technology assessment, and 4) Technology Recommendations for Cryogenic tanks.

2000-01-01

101

X-33/RLV System Health Management/Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal

1998-01-01

102

Thermal protection using very high temperature ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the paper is to expose the reader to a technology that may solve some of the toughest materials problems facing thermal protection for use in aerospace. Supermaterials has created a system capable of producing unique material properties. Over 10 years and many man-hours have been invested in the development of this technology. Applications range from the food industry to the rigors of outer space. The flexibility of the system allows for customization not found in many other processes and at a reasonable cost. The ranges of materials and alloys that can be created are endless. Many cases with unique characteristics have been identified and we can expect even more with further development.

Adamczyk, George R.

1992-01-01

103

Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fulfill President George W. Bush's "Vision for Space Exploration" (2004) - successful human and robotic missions to and from other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) must reduce the trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that the payload and scientific experiments' capabilities can be maximized. The new project described in this paper will generate thermal protection system (TPS) product that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in the optimization of vehicle weights, and provide materials and processes templates for use in the development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans.

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Levine, Stanley R.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2005-01-01

104

High Temperature Aerogels for Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 system are being investigated as possible constituents for lightweight integrated thermal protection system (TPS) designs for use in supersonic and hypersonic applications. Gels are synthesized from ethoxysilanes and AlCl3.6H2O, using an epoxide catalyst. The influence of Al:Si ratio, solvent, water to metal and water to alcohol ratios on aerogel composition, morphology, surface area, and pore size distribution were examined, and phase transformation on heat treatment characterized. Aerogels have been fabricated which maintain porous, fractal structures after brief exposures to 1000 C. Incorporation of nanofibers, infiltration of aerogels into SiC foams, use of polymers for crosslinking the aerogels, or combinations of these, offer potential for toughening and integration of TPS with composite structure. Woven fabric composites having Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels as a matrix also have been fabricated. Continuing work is focused on reduction in shrinkage and optimization of thermal and physical properties.

Hurwitz, Frances I.; Mbah, Godfrey C.

2008-01-01

105

Thermal protection system (TPS) monitoring using acoustic emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project investigates acoustic emission (AE) as a tool for monitoring the degradation of thermal protection systems (TPS). The AE sensors are part of an array of instrumentation on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch designed for testing advanced thermal protection aerospace materials used for hypervelocity vehicles. AE are generated by stresses within the material, propagate as elastic stress waves,

D. A. Hurley; D. R. Huston; D. G. Fletcher; W. P. Owens

2011-01-01

106

Ceramic-Fibrous-Insulation Thermal-Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New composite thermal-protection system developed in which glass-ceramic impregnated into surface of fibrous insulation. Called TUFI for toughened unipiece fibrous insulation developed as replacement for tiles with reaction-cured-glass (RCG) coating. Impregnation of glass-ceramic results in thermal protection system with insulating properties comparable to existing system but with 20 to 100 times more resistance to impact.

Leiser, Daniel; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

1992-01-01

107

Ocean Thermal Conversion (OTEC) Project Bottom Cable Protection Study. Analysis and Selection of Protection Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General guidelines and procedures for cable protection are given for the four proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant sites and cable routes, together with seafloor scenarios ad protection strategies for each site. Burial of the cable below ...

1981-01-01

108

Thermal protection systems manned spacecraft flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first U.S. manned entry, Mercury (May 5, 1961), seventy-five manned entries have been made resulting in significant progress in the understanding and development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for manned rated spacecraft. The TPS materials and systems installed on these spacecraft are compared. The first three vehicles (Mercury, Gemini, Apollo) used ablative (single-use) systems while the Space Shuttle Orbiter TPS is a multimission system. A TPS figure of merit, unit weight lb/sq ft, illustrates the advances in TPS material performance from Mercury (10.2 lb/sq ft) to the Space Shuttle (1.7 lb/sq ft). Significant advances have been made in the design, fabrication, and certification of TPS on manned entry vehicles (Mercury through Shuttle Orbiter). Shuttle experience has identified some key design and operational issues. State-of-the-art ceramic insulation materials developed in the 1970's for the Space Shuttle Orbiter have been used in the initial designs of aerobrakes. This TPS material experience has identified the need to develop a technology base from which a new class of higher temperature materials will emerge for advanced space transportation vehicles.

Curry, Donald M.

1992-01-01

109

Thermal protection systems manned spacecraft flight experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first U.S. manned entry, Mercury (May 5, 1961), seventy-five manned entries have been made resulting in significant progress in the understanding and development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for manned rated spacecraft. The TPS materials and systems installed on these spacecraft are compared. The first three vehicles (Mercury, Gemini, Apollo) used ablative (single-use) systems while the Space Shuttle Orbiter TPS is a multimission system. A TPS figure of merit, unit weight lb/sq ft, illustrates the advances in TPS material performance from Mercury (10.2 lb/sq ft) to the Space Shuttle (1.7 lb/sq ft). Significant advances have been made in the design, fabrication, and certification of TPS on manned entry vehicles (Mercury through Shuttle Orbiter). Shuttle experience has identified some key design and operational issues. State-of-the-art ceramic insulation materials developed in the 1970's for the Space Shuttle Orbiter have been used in the initial designs of aerobrakes. This TPS material experience has identified the need to develop a technology base from which a new class of higher temperature materials will emerge for advanced space transportation vehicles.

Curry, Donald M.

1992-10-01

110

Structural characteristics of the shuttle orbiter ceramic thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described as well as the results of dynamic reponse studies conducted in support of the efforts to certify the TPS for flight. The ceramic Thermal Protection System consists of ceramic tiles bonded to felt pads which are in turn bonded to the Orbiter substructure to protect the aluminum substructure from the heat of reentry.

Cooper, P. A.

1982-01-01

111

Intumescence: An in situ approach to thermal protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection of flammable structures with intumescent protective coatings is discussed. Various materials which have demonstrated an ability to provide protection through intumecence are described. Materials tests for intumescent coatings are presented and physical properties of various materials are included.

Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M.

1971-01-01

112

Evaluation of thermal protective performance of basalt fiber nonwoven fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal insulation and fire protection have been a point of interest and discussion for several decades. Due to its excellent\\u000a performances, basalt fiber has been widely used in the fields of thermal insulation and fire protection. The morphological\\u000a structure and thermal stability of continuous basalt fiber were analysed using CH-2 projection microscope, scanning electron\\u000a microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). In

L. C. Hao; W. D. Yu

2010-01-01

113

Subsonic and Transonic Dynamic Stability Characteristics of the X-33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic stability testing was conducted on a 2.5% scale model of the X-33 technology demonstrator sub-orbital flight-test vehicle. This testing was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) l6-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel with the LaRC High-speed Dynamic Stability system. Forced oscillation data were acquired for various configurations over a Mach number range of 0.3 to 1.15 measuring pitch, roll and yaw damping, as well as the normal force due to pitch rate and the cross derivatives. The test angle of attack range was from -2 to 24 degrees, except for those cases where load constraints limited the higher angles of attack at the higher Mach numbers. A variety of model configurations with and without control surfaces were employed, including a body alone configuration. Stable pitch damping is exhibited for the baseline configuration throughout the angle of attack range for Mach numbers 0.3, 0.8, and 1.15. Stable pitch damping is present for Mach numbers 0.9 and 0.6 with the exception of angles 2 and 16 degrees, respectively. Constant and stable roll damping were present for the baseline configuration over the range of Mach numbers up to an angle of attack of 16 degrees. The yaw damping for the baseline is somewhat stable and constant for the angle of attack range from -2 to 8 degrees, with the exception of Mach numbers 0.6 and 0.8. Yaw damping becomes highly unstable for all Mach numbers at angles of attack greater than 8 degrees.

Tomek, D.; Boyden, R.

2000-01-01

114

Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

2005-06-01

115

46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214 Section 199.214 Shipping... Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must...passenger vessel must carry a thermal protective aid approved under approval series...

2013-10-01

116

77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...application of thermal overload protection devices that...the availability of information regarding this document...application of thermal overload protection devices...ensure that the thermal overload protection devices will...function. II. Further Information DG-1264, was...

2012-02-27

117

Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

2006-01-01

118

Deployable Aeroshell Flexible Thermal Protection System Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deployable aeroshells offer the promise of achieving larger aeroshell surface areas for entry vehicles than otherwise attainable without deployment. With the larger surface area comes the ability to decelerate high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. However, for an aeroshell to perform even at the low ballistic coefficients attainable with deployable aeroshells, a flexible thermal protection system (TPS) is required that is capable of surviving reasonably high heat flux and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction handling, high density packing, deployment, aerodynamic loading and aerothermal heating. The Program for the Advancement of Inflatable Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is tasked with developing the technologies required to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of inflatable deployable aeroshells, and one of several of the technologies PAIDAE is developing for use on inflatable aeroshells is flexible TPS. Several flexible TPS layups were designed, based on commercially available materials, and tested in NASA Langley Research Center's 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8ft HTT). The TPS layups were designed for, and tested at three different conditions that are representative of conditions seen in entry simulation analyses of inflatable aeroshell concepts. Two conditions were produced in a single run with a sting-mounted dual wedge test fixture. The dual wedge test fixture had one row of sample mounting locations (forward) at about half the running length of the top surface of the wedge. At about two thirds of the running length of the wedge, a second test surface drafted up at five degrees relative to the first test surface established the remaining running length of the wedge test fixture. A second row of sample mounting locations (aft) was positioned in the middle of the running length of the second test surface. Once the desired flow conditions were established in the test section the dual wedge test fixture, oriented at 5 degrees angle of attack down, was injected into the flow. In this configuration the aft sample mounting location was subjected to roughly twice the heat flux and surface pressure of the forward mounting location. The tunnel was run at two different conditions for the test series: 1) 'Low Pressure', and 2) 'High Pressure'. At 'Low Pressure' conditions the TPS layups were tested at 6W/cm2 and 11W/cm2 while at 'High Pressure' conditions the TPS layups were tested at 11W/cm2 and 20W/cm2. This paper details the test configuration of the TPS samples in the 8Ft HTT, the sample holder assembly, TPS sample layup construction, sample instrumentation, results from this testing, as well as lessons learned.

Hughes, Stephen J.; Ware, Joanne S.; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Lugo, Rafael A.

2009-01-01

119

Thermal Protection System Development, Testing and Qualification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science community currently has interest in planetary entry probe missions to improve our understanding of the atmospheres of Saturn and Venus [1,2]. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such data are critical to the understanding of not only the individual planets but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the solar system. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient [1] to provide the desired scientific data. The heating rates for the "shallow" Saturn probes and Venus are in the range of 2 - 5KW/cm2 . It is clear that new, mid-density Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission-enabling for mass efficiency [3] and also make the use of smaller vehicles possible from advancements in scientific instrumentation [4]. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet Arcjet Facility that was used to qualify Carbon Phenolic for the Galileo Probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technology and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arc jet that can be used for TPS development in test gases appropriate for the aforementioned, new planetary probe applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include a mid-density, chopped molded carbon phenolic (CMCP) material around 0.8g/cc and a densified variant of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) around 0.5g/cc. The small 5 MW arc jet facility, called the Development Arcjet Facility (DAF) and the methodology of testing TPS, both based on previous work, are discussed. Finally, the applications to Earth entry appropriate to speeds greater than lunar return (11km/s) are discussed as will facility-to-facility validation using air as a test gas. The use of other facilities for development, qualification and certification of TPS for Saturn and Venus is also discussed. [1] Atreya, S. K., et. al. Formation of Giant Planets and Their Atmospheres: Entry Probes for Saturn and Beyond; 5 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, June 25-29, Bordeaux, France. [2] Baines, K. H, et. al, Exploring Venus with Balloons: Science Objectives and Mission Architectures. 5 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, June 25-29 Bordeaux, France.

Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.

120

Design and Calibration of the X-33 Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the design of the X-33 Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system. The X-33 FADS uses a matrix of pressure orifices on the vehicle nose to estimate airdata parameters. The system is designed with dual-redundant measurement hardware, which pro...

B. R. Cobleigh E. A. Haering S. A. Whitmore

1998-01-01

121

The success of the X-33 depends on its technologyan overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the X-33, and therefore the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program, is highly dependent on the maturity of the components and subsystems selected and the ability to verify their performance, cost, and operability goals. The success of the technology that will be developed to support these components and subsystems will be critical to developing an operationally efficient X-33

Jackie O. Bunting; Steven E. Sasso

1996-01-01

122

NASA Ames Develops Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS)  

NASA Video Gallery

The Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) project explores an innovative way to design, develop and manufacture a family of ablative TPS materials using weaving technology and testing them in the ...

123

A Method and Rating System for Evaluation of Thermal Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal protection rating systems for fabrics, based on pain and blister effects in human skin, are considered in terms of: (1) precise evaluations applicable to any known temperature-time pattern, and (2) simple laboratory procedures to provide a univers...

A. M. Stoll M. A. Chianta

1968-01-01

124

Flexible Thermal Protection System Development for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) project has invested in development of multiple thermal protection system (TPS) candidates to be used in inflatable, high downmass, technology flight projects. Flexible TPS is one element of the HI...

A. M. Calomino D. G. Fletcher H. Guo J. A. Dec J. A. DelCorso M. A. B. Meador M. D. Rezin M. N. Cheatwood S. J. Hughes W. E. Bruce

2012-01-01

125

Woven Thermal Protection System (Woven TPS) for Extreme Entry Environments  

NASA Video Gallery

The Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) project explores an innovative way to design, develop and manufacture a family of ablative TPS materials using weaving technology and testing them in the ...

126

Results of Two-Stage Light-Gas Gun Development Efforts and Hypervelocity Impact Tests of Advanced Thermal Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gun development efforts to increase the launching capabilities of the NASA Ames 0.5-inch two-stage light-gas gun have been investigated. A gun performance simulation code was used to guide initial parametric variations and hardware modifications, in order to increase the projectile impact velocity capability to 8 km/s, while maintaining acceptable levels of gun barrel erosion and gun component stresses. Concurrent with this facility development effort, a hypervelocity impact testing series in support of the X-33/RLV program was performed in collaboration with Rockwell International. Specifically, advanced thermal protection system materials were impacted with aluminum spheres to simulate impacts with on-orbit space debris. Materials tested included AETB-8, AETB-12, AETB-20, and SIRCA-25 tiles, tailorable advanced blanket insulation (TABI), and high temperature AFRSI (HTA). The ballistic limit for several Thermal Protection System (TPS) configurations was investigated to determine particle sizes which cause threshold TPS/structure penetration. Crater depth in tiles was measured as a function of impact particle size. The relationship between coating type and crater morphology was also explored. Data obtained during this test series was used to perform a preliminary analysis of the risks to a typical orbital vehicle from the meteoroid and space debris environment.

Cornelison, C. J.; Watts, Eric T.

1998-01-01

127

Composite flexible insulation for thermal protection of space vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite flexible blanket insulation (CFBI) system considered for use as a thermal protection system for space vehicles is described. This flexible composite insulation system consists of an outer layer of silicon carbide fabric, followed by alumina mat insulation, and alternating layers of aluminized polyimide film and aluminoborosilicate scrim fabric. A potential application of this composite insulation would be as a thermal protection system for the aerobrake of the aeroassist space transfer vehicle (ASTV). It would also apply to other space vehicles subject to high convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The thermal performance of this composite insulation as exposed to a simulated atmospheric entry environment in a plasma arc test facility is described. Other thermophysical properties which affect the thermal response of this composite insulation is included. It shows that this composite insulation is effective as a thermal protection system at total heating rates up to 30.6 W/sq cm.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Tran, Huy K.; Chiu, S. Amanda

1991-01-01

128

Space vehicle integrated thermal protection/structural/meteoroid protection system, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine the merit of a combined structure/thermal meteoroid protection system for a cryogenic vehicle propulsion module. Structural concepts were evaluated to identify least weight designs. Thermal analyses determined optimum tank arrangements and insulation materials. Meteoroid penetration experiments provided data for design of protection systems. Preliminary designs were made and compared on the basis of payload capability. Thermal performance tests demonstrated heat transfer rates typical for the selected design. Meteoroid impact tests verified the protection characteristics. A mockup was made to demonstrate protection system installation. The best design found combined multilayer insulation with a truss structure vehicle body. The multilayer served as the thermal/meteoroid protection system.

Bartlett, D. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

1973-01-01

129

Thermal Protection with 5% Dextrose Solution Blanket During Radiofrequency Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious complication for any thermal radiofrequency ablation is thermal injury to adjacent structures, particularly the\\u000a bowel, which can result in additional major surgery or death. Several methods using air, gas, fluid, or thermometry to protect\\u000a adjacent structures from thermal injury have been reported. In the cases presented in this report, 5% dextrose water (D5W)\\u000a was instilled to prevent injury

Enn Alexandria Chen; Ziv Neeman; Fred T. Lee; Anthony Kam; Brad Wood

2006-01-01

130

Self-diagnostic thermal protection systems for future spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal protection system (TPS) represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission (Dr. Charles Smith, NASA ARC). Any damage to the TPS leaves the space vehicle vulnerable and could result in the loss of human life as happened in the Columbia accident. Aboard the current Space Shuttle Orbiters no system exists to notify the astronauts or ground control if the thermal protection system has been damaged. Through this research, a proof-of-concept monitoring system was developed. The system has two specific applications for thermal protection systems: (1) Improving models used to predict thermal and mechanical response of TPS materials, and (2) Self-diagnosing damage within regions of the TPS and communicating the damage to the appropriate personnel over a potentially unstable network. Mechanical damage is among the most important things to protect the TPS against. Methods to detect the primary types of mechanical damage suffered by thermal protection systems have been developed. Lightweight, low-power sensors were developed to detect any cracks in small regions of a TPS. Implementation of a network of these sensors within 10's to 1000's of regions will eventually provide high spatial resolution of damage detection; allowing for detection of holes in the TPS. Also important in thermal protection material development is to know the ablation rates and time/temperature response of the materials. A new type of sensor has been developed to monitor temperature at different depths within thermal protection materials. The signals being transmitted through the sensors can be multiplexed to allow for mechanical damage and temperature to be monitored using the same sensor.

Hanlon, Alaina B.

131

Arcjet Testing of Micro-Meteoroid Impacted Thermal Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several harsh space environments that could affect thermal protection systems and in turn pose risks to the atmospheric entry vehicles. These environments include micrometeoroid impact, extreme cold temperatures, and ionizing radiation during deep space cruise, all followed by atmospheric entry heating. To mitigate these risks, different thermal protection material samples were subjected to multiple tests, including hyper velocity impact, cold soak, irradiation, and arcjet testing, at various NASA facilities that simulated these environments. The materials included a variety of honeycomb packed ablative materials as well as carbon-based non-ablative thermal protection systems. The present paper describes the results of the multiple test campaign with a focus on arcjet testing of thermal protection materials. The tests showed promising results for ablative materials. However, the carbon-based non-ablative system presented some concerns regarding the potential risks to an entry vehicle. This study provides valuable information regarding the capability of various thermal protection materials to withstand harsh space environments, which is critical to sample return and planetary entry missions.

Agrawal, Parul; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.

2013-01-01

132

Active Wireless Temperature Sensors for Aerospace Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life-cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to advance inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and Korteks to develop active wireless sensors that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor sub-surface temperature histories. These devices are thermocouples integrated with radio-frequency identification circuitry to enable acquisition and non-contact communication of temperature data through aerospace thermal protection materials. Two generations of prototype sensors are discussed. The advanced prototype collects data from three type-k thermocouples attached to a 2.54-cm square integrated circuit.

Milos, Frank S.; Karunaratne, K.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

133

A ceramic matrix composite thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation of hypersonic vehicles (NASP, SSTO) that require reusable thermal protection systems will experience acreage surface temperatures in excess of 1100 C. More important, they will experience a more severe physical environment than the Space Shuttle due to non-pristine launching and landing conditions. As a result, maintenance, inspection, and replacement factors must be more thoroughly incorporated into the design of the TPS. To meet these requirements, an advanced thermal protection system was conceived, designated 'TOPHAT'. This system consists of a toughened outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) attached to a rigid reusable surface insulator (RSI) which is directly bonded to the surface. The objective of this effort was to evaluate this concept in an aeroconvective environment, to determine the effect of impacts to the CMC material, and to compare the results with existing thermal protection systems.

Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Pitts, William C.

1993-01-01

134

Assessment of Thermal Control and Protective Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report is concerned with the tasks performed during the contract period which included spacecraft coating development, testing, and applications. Five marker coatings consisting of a bright yellow handrail coating, protective overcoat for ceramic coatings, and specialized primers for composites (or polymer) surfaces were developed and commercialized by AZ Technology during this program. Most of the coatings have passed space environmental stability requirements via ground tests and/or flight verification. Marker coatings and protective overcoats were successfully flown on the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) and the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiments flown on the Russian space station MIR. To date, most of the coatings developed and/or modified during this program have been utilized on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. For ISS, AZ Technology manufactured the 'UNITY' emblem now being flown on the NASA UNITY node (Node 1) that is docked to the Russian Zarya (FGB) utilizing the colored marker coatings (white, blue, red) developed by AZ Technology. The UNITY emblem included the US American flag, the Unity logo, and NASA logo on a white background, applied to a Beta cloth substrate.

Mell, Richard J.

2000-01-01

135

Thermal Protection During Percutaneous Thermal Ablation Procedures: Interest of Carbon Dioxide Dissection and Temperature Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation of tumor is widely used, and thermal injury to collateral structures is a known complication of this technique. To avoid thermal damage to surrounding structures, several protection techniques have been reported. We report the use of a simple and effective protective technique combining carbon dioxide dissection and thermocouple: CO{sub 2} displaces the nontarget structures, and its low thermal conductivity provides excellent insulation; insertion of a thermocouple in contact with vulnerable structures achieves continuous thermal monitoring. We performed percutaneous thermal ablation of 37 tumors in 35 patients (4 laser, 10 radiofrequency, and 23 cryoablations) with protection of adjacent vulnerable structures by using CO{sub 2} dissection combined with continuous thermal monitoring with thermocouple. Tumor locations were various (19 intra-abdominal tumors including 4 livers and 9 kidneys, 18 musculoskeletal tumors including 11 spinal tumors). CO{sub 2} volume ranged from 10 ml (epidural space) to 1500 ml (abdominal). Repeated insufflations were performed if necessary, depending on the information given by the thermocouple and imaging control. Dissection with optimal thermal protection was achieved in all cases except two patients where adherences (one postoperative, one arachnoiditis) blocked proper gaseous distribution. No complication referred to this technique was noted. This safe, cost-effective, and simple method increases the safety and the success rate of percutaneous thermal ablation procedures. It also offers the potential to increase the number of tumors that can be treated via a percutaneous approach.

Buy, Xavier; Tok, Chung-Hong; Szwarc, Daniel; Bierry, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@rad6.u-strasbg.f [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

2009-05-15

136

Composite flexible insulation for thermal protection of space vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite flexible blanket insulation (CFBI) system considered for use as a thermal protection system for space vehicles is described. This flexible composite insulation system consists of an outer layer of silicon carbide fabric, followed by alumina mat insulation, and alternating layers of aluminized polyimide film and aluminoborosilicate scrim fabric. A potential application of this composite insulation would be as a thermal protection system for the aerobrake of the Aeroassist Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV). It would also apply to other space vehicles subject to high convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The thermal performance of this composite insulation as exposed to a simulated atmospheric entry environment in a plasma arc test facility is described. Other thermophysical properties which affect the thermal response of this system are also described. Analytical modeling describing the thermal performance of this composite insulation is included. It shows that this composite insulation is effective as a thermal protection system at total heating rates up to 30.6 W/sq cm.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Tran, Huy K.; Chiu, S. Amanda

1992-01-01

137

Thermal protection with 5% dextrose solution blanket during radiofrequency ablation.  

PubMed

A serious complication for any thermal radiofrequency ablation is thermal injury to adjacent structures, particularly the bowel, which can result in additional major surgery or death. Several methods using air, gas, fluid, or thermometry to protect adjacent structures from thermal injury have been reported. In the cases presented in this report, 5% dextrose water (D5W) was instilled to prevent injury to the bowel and diaphragm during radiofrequency ablation. Creating an Insulating envelope or moving organs with D5W might reduce risk for complications such as bowel perforation. PMID:16802079

Chen, Enn Alexandria; Neeman, Ziv; Lee, Fred T; Kam, Anthony; Wood, Brad

2006-01-01

138

Thermal testing techniques for space shuttle thermal protection system panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental system was developed for evaluation of the effects of aerodynamic heating and cooling, vacuum, and pressure loading on candidate insulation packages proposed for use on the space shuttle. The system includes a number of design features which facilitate rapid recycle times. This is necessary to efficiently conduct extensive thermal cycling tests on these insulation packages to determine their reuse capabilities. The heart of the system is a 26-inch graphite element radiant heater. A susceptor plate functions as a uniform-temperature intermediate radiating surface. The susceptor also forms the lid of an inert atmosphere enclosure which separates the heater from the oxidizing test atmosphere. In some tests the plate properly simulates the heating from an actual flight heat-shield panel. Although other materials were used at lower required test temperatures, 2500 F was routinely achieved using a coated columbium susceptor plate.

Cox, B. G.

1972-01-01

139

Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strateg...

T. J. Kowal

2010-01-01

140

Closed-pore insulation thermal protection system design concept development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a unique closed-pore ceramic foam insulation (CPI) produced from low cost fly ash cenospheres is reported for space shuttle external thermal protection. Two basic design approaches were developed: bonded and mechanically fastened. A description of the concepts is presented in addition to fabrication and test results.

Varisco, A.; Harris, H. G.

1973-01-01

141

Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

2005-01-01

142

Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's

T. E. Diller

1994-01-01

143

Self-diagnostic thermal protection systems for future spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal protection system (TPS) represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission (Dr. Charles Smith, NASA ARC). Any damage to the TPS leaves the space vehicle vulnerable and could result in the loss of human life as happened in the Columbia accident. Aboard the current Space Shuttle Orbiters no system exists to notify the astronauts or

Alaina B. Hanlon

2008-01-01

144

X-33 Attitude Control Using the XRS-2200 Linear Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Structures and Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing, under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control systems for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Test flights, while suborbital, will achieve sufficient altitudes and Mach numbers to test Single Stage To Orbit, Reusable Launch Vehicle technologies. Ascent flight control phase, the focus of this paper, begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (MECO). The X-33 attitude control system design is confronted by a myriad of design challenges: a short design cycle, the X-33 incremental test philosophy, the concurrent design philosophy chosen for the X-33 program, and the fact that the attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems. Additionally, however, and of special interest, the use of the linear aerospike engine is a departure from the gimbaled engines traditionally used for thrust vector control (TVC) in launch vehicles and poses certain design challenges. This paper discusses the unique problem of designing the X-33 attitude control system with the linear aerospike engine, requirements development, modeling and analyses that verify the design.

Hall, Charles E.; Panossian, Hagop V.

1999-01-01

145

Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

1998-01-01

146

Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier- Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

1998-01-01

147

Hypervelocity impact testing of Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a series of 22 hypervelocity impact tests carried out on the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Shuttle Orbiter. Both coated and uncoated low-density (0.14 g/cu cm) LI-900 and high-density (0.35 g/cu cm) LI-2200 tiles were tested. The results are used to develop the penetration and damage correlations which can be used in meteoroid and debris hazard analyses for spacecraft with a ceramic tile TPS. It is shown that tile coatings act as a 'bumper' to fragment the impacting projectile, with thicker coating providing increased protection.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Ortega, Javier

1990-01-01

148

Real-Time Trajectory Assessment and Abort Management for the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 is a flying testbed to evaluate technologies and designs for a reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) production vehicle. Although it is sub-orbital, it is trans-atmospheric. This paper will discuss the abort capabilities, both commanded and autonomous, available to the X-33. The cornerstone of the abort capabilities is the Performance Monitor (PM) and it's supporting software. PM is an on-board 3-DOF simulation, which evaluates the vehicle ability to execute the current trajectory. The Abort Manager evaluates the results from PM, and, when indicated, computes and implements an abort trajectory.

Moise, M. C.; McCarter, J. W.; Mulqueen, J.

2000-01-01

149

Development of X-33/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the aerothermodynamic chain, the links of which are personnel, facilities, models/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Because the aerodynamic data bases upon which the X-33 and X-34 vehicles will fly are almost exclusively from wind tunnel testing, as opposed to CFD, the primary focus of the lessons learned is on ground-based testing.

Miller, C. G.

1999-01-01

150

Structural design aspects of reusable surface insulation thermal protection systems.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low density fiber ceramic materials coated with refractory ceramics meet the requirements of reusable low weight thermal protection systems. The structural characteristics of this class of material impose unique design and analysis requirements on the application to spacecraft structural elements. Finite element type stress analysis techniques are required to adequately predict the structural response of the system. Parametric analyses have been performed to determine the response of the system to variations in geometry, and to thermal and structural load conditions. Sensitivity of coating, insulation and attachment stresses are presented and critical failure modes are identified.

Michalak, R. J.; Hess, T. E.; Gluck, R. L.

1972-01-01

151

Investigation of Fundamental Modeling and Thermal Performance Issues for a Metallic Thermal Protection System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. A current advanced metallic thermal protection system (TPS) concept was systematically analyzed to discover the most important factors governing the thermal performance of metallic TPS. A large number of relevant factors that influence the thermal analysis and thermal performance of metallic TPS were identified and quantified. Detailed finite element models were developed for predicting the thermal performance of design variations of the advanced metallic TPS concept mounted on a simple, unstiffened structure. The computational models were also used, in an automated iterative procedure, for sizing the metallic TPS to maintain the structure below a specified temperature limit. A statistical sensitivity analysis method, based on orthogonal matrix techniques used in robust design, was used to quantify and rank the relative importance of the various modeling and design factors considered in this study. Results of the study indicate that radiation, even in small gaps between panels, can reduce significantly the thermal performance of metallic TPS, so that gaps should be eliminated by design if possible. Thermal performance was also shown to be sensitive to several analytical assumptions that should be chosen carefully. One of the factors that was found to have the greatest effect on thermal performance is the heat capacity of the underlying structure. Therefore the structure and TPS should be designed concurrently.

Blosser, Max L.

2002-01-01

152

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

Selvaduray, Guna S.

1995-01-01

153

The Challenges of Credible Thermal Protection System Reliability Quantification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses several of the challenges associated with developing a credible reliability estimate for a human-rated crew capsule thermal protection system. The process of developing such a credible estimate is subject to the quantification, modeling and propagation of numerous uncertainties within a probabilistic analysis. The development of specific investment recommendations, to improve the reliability prediction, among various potential testing and programmatic options is then accomplished through Bayesian analysis.

Green, Lawrence L.

2013-01-01

154

Evaluation of Thermal Protection Tile Transmissibility for Ground Vibration Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmissibility analyses and tests were conducted on a composite panel with thermal protection system foams to evaluate the quality of the measured frequency response functions. Both the analysis and the test results indicate that the vehicle dynamic responses are fully transmitted to the accelerometers mounted on the thermal protection system in the normal direction below a certain frequency. In addition, the in-plane motions of the accelerometer mounted on the top surface of the thermal protection system behave more actively than those on the composite panel due to the geometric offset of the accelerometer from the panel in the test set-up. The transmissibility tests and analyses show that the frequency response functions measured from the accelerometers mounted on the TPS will provide accurate vehicle responses below 120 Hz for frequency and mode shape identification. By confirming that accurate dynamic responses below a given frequency can be obtained, this study increases the confidence needed for conducting the modal testing, model correlation, and model updating for a vehicle installed with TPS. '

Chung, Y. T.; Fowler, Samuel B.; Lo, Wenso; Towner, Robert

2005-01-01

155

X-33 Aerodynamic and Aeroheating Computations for Wind Tunnel and Flight Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an overview of hypersonic Computational Fluid Dynamics research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to support the Phase II development of the X-33 vehicle. The X-33, which is being developed by Lockheed-Martin in partnership with NASA, is an experimental Single-Stage-to-Orbit demonstrator that is intended to validate critical technologies for a full-scale Reusable Launch Vehicle. As part of the development of the X-33, CFD codes have been used to predict the aerodynamic and aeroheating characteristics of the vehicle. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for the X 33 vehicle using two finite- volume, Navier-Stokes solvers. Inviscid solutions were also generated with an Euler code. Computations were performed for Mach numbers of 4.0 to 10.0 at angles-of-attack from 10 deg to 48 deg with body flap deflections of 0, 10 and 20 deg. Comparisons between predictions and wind tunnel aerodynamic and aeroheating data are presented in this paper. Aeroheating and aerodynamic predictions for flight conditions are also presented.

Hollis, Brian R.; Thompson, Richard A.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Riley, Christopher J.; Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

156

X-33 Attitude Control Using the XRS-2200 Linear Aerospike Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing, under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control systems for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Test flights, while suborbital, will achieve sufficient altitudes and Mach numbers to test Single Stage To Orbit, Reusable

Charles E. Hall; Hagop V. Panossian

157

Design and Calibration of the X-33 Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design of the X-33 Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system. The X-33 FADS uses a matrix of pressure orifices on the vehicle nose to estimate airdata parameters. The system is designed with dual-redundant measurement hardware, which produces two independent measurement paths. Airdata parameters that correspond to the measurement path with the minimum fit error are selected as the output values. This method enables a single sensor failure to occur with minimal degrading of the system performance. The paper shows the X-33 FADS architecture, derives the estimating algorithms, and demonstrates a mathematical analysis of the FADS system stability. Preliminary aerodynamic calibrations are also presented here. The calibration parameters, the position error coefficient (epsilon), and flow correction terms for the angle of attack (delta alpha), and angle of sideslip (delta beta) are derived from wind tunnel data. Statistical accuracy of' the calibration is evaluated by comparing the wind tunnel reference conditions to the airdata parameters estimated. This comparison is accomplished by applying the calibrated FADS algorithm to the sensed wind tunnel pressures. When the resulting accuracy estimates are compared to accuracy requirements for the X-33 airdata, the FADS system meets these requirements.

Whitmore, Stephen A.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Haering, Edward A.

1998-01-01

158

X-33 Attitude Control System Design for Ascent, Transition, and Entry Flight Regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control system for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Ascent flight control begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (NECO) while Transition and Entry flight control begins at MECO and concludes at the terminal area energy management (TAEM) interface. TAEM occurs at approximately Mach 3.0. This task includes not only the design of the vehicle attitude control systems but also the development of requirements for attitude control system components and subsystems. The X-33 attitude control system design is challenged by a short design cycle, the design environment (Mach 0 to about Mach 15), and the X-33 incremental test philosophy. The X-33 design-to-launch cycle of less than 3 years requires a concurrent design approach while the test philosophy requires design adaptation to vehicle variations that are a function of Mach number and mission profile. The flight attitude control system must deal with the mixing of aerosurfaces, reaction control thrusters, and linear aerospike engine control effectors and handle parasitic effects such as vehicle flexibility and propellant sloshing from the uniquely shaped propellant tanks. The attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems.

Hall, Charles E.; Gallaher, Michael W.; Hendrix, Neal D.

1998-01-01

159

Research on thermal protection mechanism of forward-facing cavity and opposing jet combinatorial thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Validated by the correlated experiments, a nose-tip with forward-facing cavity/opposing jet/the combinatorial configuration of forward-facing cavity and opposing jet thermal protection system (TPS) are investigated numerically. The physical mechanism of these TPS is discussed, and the cooling efficiency of them is compared. The combinatorial system is more suitable to be the TPS for the high speed vehicles which need fly under various flow conditions with long-range and long time.

Lu, Hai-Bo; Liu, Wei-Qiang

2014-04-01

160

Bioassay of thermal protection afforded by candidate flight suit fabrics.  

PubMed

The United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) porcine cutaneous bioassay technique was used to determine what mitigating effect four thermally protective flight suit fabrics would have on fire-induced skin damage. The fabrics were 4.8-ox twill weave Nomex aramide, 4.5-oz stabilized twill weave polybenzimidazole, 4.8-oz plain weave experimental high-temperature polymer (HT4), and 4.8-oz plain weave Nomex aramide (New Weave Nomex or NWN). Each fabric sample was assayed 20 times in each of four configurations: as a single layer in contact with the skin; as a single layer with a 6.35 mm (0.25 in) air gap between fabric and skin; in conjuction with a cotton T-shirt with no air gaps; and, finally, in conjuction with a T-shirt with a 6.35 mm air gap between T-shirt and fabric. Bare skin was used as a control. A JP-4 fueled furnace was used as a thermal source and was adjested to deliver a mean heat flux of 3.07 cal/cm2/s. The duration of exposure was 5 s. Four hundred burn sites were graded using clinical observation and microscopic techniques. Used as single layers, none of the fabrics demonstrated superiority in providing clinically significant protection. When used with a cotton T-shirt, protection was improved. Protection improved progressively for all fabrics and configuration when an air gap was introduced. The experimental high-temperature polymer consistently demonstrated lower heat flux transmission in all configurations, but did not significantly reduce clinical burns. PMID:518445

Knox, F S; Wachtel, T L; McCahan, G R

1979-10-01

161

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

Selvaduray, Guna S.

1994-01-01

162

Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

1997-01-01

163

Fiber optic temperature profiling for thermal protection heat shields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable Thermal Protection System (TPS) sensors are needed to achieve better designs for spacecraft (probe) heatshields for missions requiring atmospheric aero-capture or entry/reentry. In particular, they will allow both reduced risk and heat-shield mass minimization, which will facilitate more missions and allow increased payloads and returns. For thermal measurements, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) is providing a temperature monitoring system involving innovative lightweight, EMI-immune, high-temperature resistant Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors with a thermal mass near that of TPS materials together with fast FBG sensor interrogation. The IFOS fiber optic sensing technology is highly sensitive and accurate. It is also low-cost and lends itself to high-volume production. Multiple sensing FBGs can be fabricated as arrays on a single fiber for simplified design and reduced cost. In this paper, we provide experimental results to demonstrate the temperature monitoring system using multi-sensor FBG arrays embedded in small-size Super-Light Ablator (SLA) coupon, which was thermally loaded to temperatures in the vicinity of the SLA charring temperature. In addition, a high temperature FBG array was fabricated and tested for 1000C operation.

Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Moslehi, Behzad; Zarnescu, Livia; Hackney, Drew; Peters, Kara

2014-04-01

164

Exercising divers' thermal protection as a function of water temperature.  

PubMed

Physiological adjustments and passive thermal insulation are not sufficient to protect divers in the cold and warm waters experienced by sport, professional and military divers. In a previous study of resting subjects, divers were protected by actively heated/cooled water that perfused a six-zone (head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet) tube suit. Subsequently a self-contained diver thermal protection system (DTPS) was developed and used in this study to test male divers (n = 8) wearing a 6-mm foam neoprene wetsuit in water temperatures (T(W)) of 10 degrees C-39 degrees C at 4 feet in depth. The DTPS is a scuba backpack containing five thermoelectric devices that heat/cool water to 30 degrees C, six pumps that circulate the water through a six-zone tube suit via two manifolds, and an electronic controller. Skin temperatures (T(S), n = 17) and core temperature (T(C), capsule) were measured. The DTPS and each zone of the tube suit were also instrumented. Divers were tested with the DTPS operational (protected) and turned off (unprotected) for 90 minutes. In the unprotected condition, T(S) decreased and approached T(W), while T(C) trended to decrease over the exposure time. Mean T(S) as a function of T(W) was T(S) = 0.44 T(W) + 21.23 degrees C while unprotected, but T(S) = 0.19 T(W) + 27.1 degrees C when the diver was protected. The average total heating/cooling power required to protect the diver was 166 +/- 78W, 86 +/- 95W, 9 +/- 75W, 72 +/- 45W, 135 +/- 73W, 279 +/- 87W and 336 +/- 95W at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 39 degrees C water temperatures, respectively. This power requirement was nominally split 4%, 22%, 22%, 14%, 25% and 13% for head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet, respectively. While unprotected, divers T(S) and T(C) did not remain within acceptable limits in T(W) below 25 degrees C or above 30 degrees C. When using the DTPS, however, they did remain within acceptable limits, and the divers reported they were comfortable. PMID:21510272

Pendergast, David R; Mollendorf, Joseph

2011-01-01

165

Ablation Modeling of Ares-I Upper State Thermal Protection System Using Thermal Desktop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system (TPS) for the Ares-I Upper Stage will be based on Space Transportation System External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) heritage materials. These TPS materials were qualified via hot gas testing that simulated ascent and re-entry aerothermodynamic convective heating environments. From this data, the recession rates due to ablation were characterized and used in thermal modeling for sizing the thickness required to maintain structural substrate temperatures. At Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the in-house code ABL is currently used to predict TPS ablation and substrate temperatures as a FORTRAN application integrated within SINDA/G. This paper describes a comparison of the new ablation utility in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT with the heritage ABL code and empirical test data which serves as the validation of the Thermal Desktop software for use on the design of the Ares-I Upper Stage project.

Sharp, John R.; Page, Arthur T.

2007-01-01

166

A Base Drag Reduction Experiment on the X-33 Linear Aerospike SR71 Experiment (LASRE) Flight Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drag reduction tests were conducted on the LASRE\\/ X-33 flight experiment. The LASRE experiment is a flight test of a roughly 20-percent scale model of an X-33 forebody with a single aerospike engine at the rear. The experiment apparatus is mounted on top of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper suggests a method for reducing base drag by adding surface roughness

Stephen A. Whitmore; Timothy R. Moes

1999-01-01

167

An Innovative Structural Mode Selection Methodology: Application for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative methodology for determining structural target mode selection and mode selection based on a specific criterion is presented. An effective approach to single out modes which interact with specific locations on a structure has been developed for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model (FEM). We presented Root-Sum-Square (RSS) displacement method computes resultant modal displacement for each mode at selected degrees of freedom (DOF) and sorts to locate modes with highest values. This method was used to determine modes, which most influenced specific locations/points on the X-33 flight vehicle such as avionics control components, aero-surface control actuators, propellant valve and engine points for use in flight control stability analysis and for flight POGO stability analysis. Additionally, the modal RSS method allows for primary or global target vehicle modes to also be identified in an accurate and efficient manner.

Hidalgo, Homero, Jr.

2000-01-01

168

Development of X-33\\/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the aerothermodynamic chain, the links of which are personnel, facilities, models\\/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques,

C. G. Miller

169

X-33 Metallic TPS Tests in NASA-LaRC High Temperature Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conclusions The first series of metallic TPS tests in the NASA-LaRC Mach 7 High Temperature Tunnel has been completed. Additional testing is 'in progress and shall provide data for off-design configurations for the metallic TPS. The available data are being analyzed and being used to correlate analytical models to be used for X-33 flight design analysis. The final paper shan present additional data from these tests and comparisons between the data and analytical predictions.

Bouslog, Stanley A.; Moore, Brad; Scanlon, Ron J.; Sawyer, James Wayne

1998-01-01

170

An Inviscid Computational Study of an X-33 Configuration at Hypersonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of a study conducted to compute the inviscid longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified X-33 configuration. The major components of the X-33 vehicle, namely the body, the canted fin, the vertical fin, and the body-flap, were simulated in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) model. The rear-ward facing surfaces at the base including the aerospike engine surfaces were not simulated. The FELISA software package consisting of an unstructured surface and volume grid generator and two inviscid flow solvers was used for this study. Computations were made for Mach 4.96, 6.0, and 10.0 with perfect gas air option, and for Mach 10 with equilibrium air option with flow condition of a typical point on the X-33 flight trajectory. Computations were also made with CF4 gas option at Mach 6.0 to simulate the CF4 tunnel flow condition. An angle of attack range of 12 to 48 deg was covered. The CFD results were compared with available wind tunnel data. Comparison was good at low angles of attack; at higher angles of attack (beyond 25 deg) some differences were found in the pitching moment. These differences progressively increased with increase in angle of attack, and are attributed to the viscous effects. However, the computed results showed the trends exhibited by the wind tunnel data.

Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

171

Ascent, Transition, Entry, and Abort Guidance Algorithm Design for the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary requirements for X-33 is that it be capable of flying autonomously. That is, onboard computers must be capable of commanding the entire flight from launch to landing, including cases where a single engine failure abort occurs. Guidance algorithms meeting these requirements have been tested in simulation and have been coded into prototype flight software. These algorithms must be sufficiently robust to account for vehicle and environmental dispersions, and must issue commands that result in the vehicle operating, within all constraints. Continual tests of these algorithms (and modifications as necessary) will occur over the next year as the X-33 nears its first flight. This paper describes the algorithms in use for X-33 ascent, transition, and entry flight, as well as for the powered phase of PowerPack-out (PPO) aborts (equivalent in thrust impact to losing an engine). All following discussion refers to these phases of flight when discussing guidance. The paper includes some trajectory results and results of dispersion analysis.

Hanson, John M.; Coughlin, Dan J.; Dukeman, Gregory A.; Mulqueen, John A.; McCarter, James W.

1998-01-01

172

Ballistic performance of porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/ft3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrousinsulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principles impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.; Foreman, Cory D.

2012-03-01

173

Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are also highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on one of these systems. The materials considered are 8 lb/ft^3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. A model extension to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state measurements is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Foreman, Cory

2011-06-01

174

Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/cu ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, B. A.; Foreman, C. D.

2011-01-01

175

Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's best heat flux sensor technology in a sensor which would be tested in the Vortek facility at Lewis early in 1995. The NASA concept for thermocouple measurement of surface temperature was adopted, and Vatell methods for fabrication of sensors on small diameter substrates of aluminum nitride were used to produce a sensor. This sensor was then encapsulated in a NARloy-Z housing. Various improvements to the Vatell substrate design were explored without success. The basic NASA and Vatell sensor layouts were analyzed by finite element modeling, in an attempt to better understand the effects of material properties, dimensions and thermal differential element location on sensor symmetry, bandwidth and sensitivity. This analysis showed that, as long as the thermal resistivity of the thermal differential element material is much larger (10X) than that of the substrate material, the simplest arrangement of layer is best. During calibration of the sensor produced in this project, undesirable side-effects of combining the heat flux and temperature sensor return leads were observed. The sensor did not cleanly separate the heat flux and temperature signals, as sensors with four leads have consistently done before. Task 7 and 8 discussed in the meeting will be performed with a continuation of funding in 1995. The following is a discussion of each of the tasks performed as outlined in the statement of work dated september 26, 1994. Task 1A was added to cover further investigation into the NASA sensor concept.

Diller, T. E.

1994-01-01

176

Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's best heat flux sensor technology in a sensor which would be tested in the Vortek facility at Lewis early in 1995. The NASA concept for thermocouple measurement of surface temperature was adopted, and Vatell methods for fabrication of sensors on small diameter substrates of aluminum nitride were used to produce a sensor. This sensor was then encapsulated in a NARloy-Z housing. Various improvements to the Vatell substrate design were explored without success. The basic NASA and Vatell sensor layouts were analyzed by finite element modeling, in an attempt to better understand the effects of material properties, dimensions and thermal differential element location on sensor symmetry, bandwidth and sensitivity. This analysis showed that, as long as the thermal resistivity of the thermal differential element material is much larger (10X) than that of the substrate material, the simplest arrangement of layer is best. During calibration of the sensor produced in this project, undesirable side-effects of combining the heat flux and temperature sensor return leads were observed. The sensor did not cleanly separate the heat flux and temperature signals, as sensors with four leads have consistently done before. Task 7 and 8 discussed in the meeting will be performed with a continuation of funding in 1995. The following is a discussion of each of the tasks performed as outlined in the statement of work dated september 26, 1994. Task 1A was added to cover further investigation into the NASA sensor concept.

Diller, T. E.

1994-12-01

177

Thermoacoustic fatigue testing facility for space shuttle thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a reusable space shuttle by NASA in the next decade depends in part on the design of a satisfactory thermal protection system (TPS). The booster and orbiter parts of the shuttle require TPS panels which will withstand thermoacoustic fatigue. The Langley Research Center has begun tests on early panel designs in a new acoustic fatigue facility which is capable of simulating the combined elevated temperature and acoustic environments which these panels are expected to experience. The capabilities of the facility and computer system are outlined, and problems encountered in establishing the test methods are discussed. Tests of a Haynes 25 TPS panel are described, and representative data from tests of the panel at 650 C are included.

Rucker, C. E.; Grandle, R. E.

1973-01-01

178

Terahertz Computed Tomography of NASA Thermal Protection System Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A terahertz axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three-dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 cubic meters (1 cubic foot) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the system is evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize flat bottom holes, drilled holes, and embedded voids in foam materials utilized as thermal protection on the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttle. X-ray micro-computed tomography was also performed on the samples to compare against the terahertz computed tomography results and better define embedded voids. Limits of detectability based on depth and size for the samples used in this study are loosely defined. Image sharpness and morphology characterization ability for terahertz computed tomography are qualitatively described.

Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

2011-01-01

179

High temperature electromagnetic characterization of thermal protection system tile materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated the impact of elevated temperatures on the electromagnetic performance of the LI-2200 thermal protection system. A 15-kilowatt CO2 laser was used to heat an LI-2200 specimen to 3000 F while electromagnetic measurements were performed over the frequency range of l9 to 21 GHz. The electromagnetic measurement system consisted of two Dual-Lens Spot-Focusing (DLSF) antennas, a sample support structure, and an HP-8510B vector network analyzer. Calibration of the electromagnetic system was accomplished with a Transmission-Reflection-Line (TRL) procedure and was verified with measurements on a two-layer specimen of known properties. The results of testing indicated that the LI-2200 system's electromagnetic performance is slightly temperature dependent at temperatures up to 3000 F.

Heil, Garrett G.

1993-01-01

180

Aerothermodynamic Assessment of Corrugated Panel Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using corrugated panels as a thermal protection system for an advanced space transportation vehicle was investigated. The study consisted of two major tasks: development of improved correlations for wind tunnel heat transfer and pressure data to yield design techniques, and application of the design techniques to determine if corrugated panels have application future aerospace vehicles. A single-stage-to-orbit vehicle was used to assess advantages and aerothermodynamic penalties associated with use of such panels. In the correlation task, experimental turbulent heat transfer and pressure data obtained on corrugation roughened surfaces during wind tunnel testing were analyzed and compared with flat plate data. The correlations and data comparisons included the effects of a large range of geometric, inviscid flow, internal boundary layer, and bulk boundary layer parameters in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

Brandon, H. J.; Britt, A. H.; Kipp, H. W.; Masek, R. V.

1978-01-01

181

Terahertz computed tomography of NASA thermal protection system materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terahertz (THz) axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 m3 (1 ft3) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the THz-CT system was evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize 1) an embedded void in Space Shuttle external fuel tank thermal protection system (TPS) foam material and 2) impact damage in a TPS configuration under consideration for use in NASA's multi-purpose Orion crew module (CM). Micro-focus X-ray CT is utilized to characterize the flaws and provide a baseline for which to compare the THz CT results.

Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

2012-05-01

182

High temperature performance of flexible thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aero convective tests of several flexible thermal protection system (FTPS) concepts were conducted in the NASA Ames Research Center 20 MW arcjet aero heating wind tunnel. The concepts consisted of quilted insulation blankets with nextel AB312 felt insulation stitched between cover cloths with AB312 thread. The cover cloths were commercially available nextel AB312 and nicalon fabrics. The specimens were subjected to convective heat fluxes ranging from 7 to 35 Btu/per sq ft per sec at stagnation pressures of .005 to .02 atm. Specimens were tested both with and without transpiration cooling. Results indicated that both the nextel and nicalon fabrics offer the potential for higher temperature applications than current FTPS, and nicalon appears to be capable of withstanding temperatures well above 2500 degrees F with minimal degradation.

Savage, R. T.; Love, W.; Bloetscher, F.

1984-01-01

183

Buffet loads on shuttle thermal-protection-system tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of wind-tunnel and acoustic tests to investigate buffet loads on Shuttle Thermal-Protection-System (TPS) tiles are given. Also described is the application of these results to the prediction of tile buffet loads for the first shuttle flight into orbit. The wind-tunnel tests of tiles were conducted at transonic and supersonic Mach numbers simulating flow regions on the Orbiter where shock waves and boundary-layer separations occur. The acoustic tests were conducted in a progressive wave tube at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) approximately equal to the maximum OASPL measured during the wind-tunnel tests in a region of flow separation. The STS-1 buffet load predictions yielded peak tile stresses due to buffeting that were as much as 20 percent of the total stress for the design-load case when a shock wave was on a tile.

Coe, C. F.

1982-01-01

184

A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, Andy P.

2013-01-01

185

Thermal Protection Studies of Synthetic And Woven Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents results of experimental study to evaluate the thermal protection properties of synthetic felt and woven materials using an NBS smoke chamber. The chamber was modified to record the weight loss of the samples, which in turn, indicated the effectiveness of the insulation material. The following materials were tested: (a) aluminoborosilicate cloth (NEXTEL); (b) fiber glass cloth; (c) carbonized polyaacrylonitrile and rayon cloth; (d) aromatic nylon felt; (e) SiC (NICALON) CLOTH; and (f) phenolic novolac (KYNOL) cloth. Samples of these were put in front of fiber glass batting containing 18% phenolic resin (Owens Corning PF-204). They were exposed to a radiant heat of 5w cm-2 which resulted in an almost complete resin mass loss within four minutes. Results of this study are shown in various figures, where the mass loss from the fiber glass batting is plotted vs. time. In these figures, solid curves show the percent mass loss of the exposed fiber glass and dashed curves indicate the loss in another fiber glass sample of the same initial mass protected by the material under test.

Saad, Michel A.; Altman, Robert L.; Ransky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

186

Shearographic nondestructive evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of shearographic inspections of the shuttle external tank (ET) spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) and solid rocket booster (SRB) Marshall sprayable ablative (MSA-2) epoxy-cork thermal protection systems (TPS) are presented. Debonding SOFI or MSA-2 damage the orbiter `belly' tile and exposes the ET/SRB to thermal loading. Previous work with the ET/SRB showed promising results with shearography. The first area investigated was the jack pad close-out, one of many areas on the ET where foam is applied at KSC. Voids 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of less than 0.4 psi. Of primary interest are areas of the ET that directly face the orbiter tile TPS. It is estimated that 90% of tile TPS damage on the orbiter `belly' results from debonding SOFI during ascent. Test panels modeling these areas were manufactured with programmed debonds to determine the sensitivity of shearography as a function of debond size, SOFI thickness and vacuum. Results show repeatable detection of debonds with a diameter approximately half the SOFI thickness at less than 0.4 psi pressure reduction. Preliminary results are also presented on inspections of MSA-2 and the remote manipulator system (RMS) honeycomb material.

Davis, Christopher K.; Hooker, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Stephen M.; Tenbusch, Kenneth E.

1995-07-01

187

A Monte Carlo Dispersion Analysis of the X-33 Simulation Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis has been completed on the X-33 software simulation. The simulation is based on a preliminary version of the software and is primarily used in an effort to define and refine how a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis would have been done on the final flight-ready version of the software. This report gives an overview of the processes used in the implementation of the dispersions and describes the methods used to accomplish the Monte Carlo analysis. Selected results from 1000 Monte Carlo runs are presented with suggestions for improvements in future work.

Williams, Peggy S.

2001-01-01

188

Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

189

Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-...

K. A. Schweikhard W. L. Richards J. Theisen W. Mouyos R. Garbos

2001-01-01

190

Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a comme...

K. A. Schweikhard W. L. Richards J. Theisen W. Mouyos R. Garbos

1998-01-01

191

Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

2001-01-01

192

Design of metallic foams as insulation in thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic foams are novel materials that can be used as thermal insulation in many applications. The low volume fraction of solid, the small cell size and the low conductivity of enclosed gases limit the heat flow in foams. Varying the density, geometry and or material composition from point to point within the foam, one can produce functionally graded foams that may insulate more efficiently. The goal of this research is to investigate the use of functionally graded metal foam in thermal protection systems (TPS) for reusable launch vehicles. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the foam is derived based on a simple cubic unit cell model. Then two problems under steady state of heat transfer have been considered. The first one is the optimization of functionally graded foam insulation for minimum heat transmitted to the structure and the second is minimizing the mass of the functionally graded foam insulation for a given aerodynamic heating. In both cases optimality conditions are derived in closed-form, and numerical methods are used to solve the resulting differential equations to determine the optimal grading of the foam. In order to simplify the analysis the insulation was approximated by finite layers of uniform foams when studying the transient heat transfer case. The maximum structure temperature was minimized by varying the solidity profile for a given total thickness and mass. The principles that govern the design of TPS for transient conditions were identified. To take advantage of the load bearing ability of metallic foams, an integrated sandwich TPS/structure with metallic foam core is proposed. Such an integrated TPS will insulate the vehicle interior from aerodynamic heating as well as carry the primary vehicle loads. Thermal-structural analysis of integrated sandwich TPS panel subjected to transient heat conduction is developed to evaluate their performances. The integrated TPS design is compared with a conventional fibrous Safill TPS design. The weights of both designs are minimized subject to temperature constraints, stress constraints or both. Global buckling, shear crimping and face wrinkling are investigated for the integrated sandwich structure during the launch. It is found that for designs with variable insulation thickness, structure thickness and subjected to structure temperature constraint only, an integrated sandwich design tends to require as thick insulation as possible, while a Safill design requires thin structure. Shear crimping is most critical among all the three failure modes we studied in the integrated sandwich design.

Zhu, Huadong

193

Three-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response and Thermostructural Design of Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element ablation and thermal response program is presented for simulation of three-dimensional transient thermostructural analysis. The three-dimensional governing differential equations and finite element formulation are summarized. A novel probabilistic design methodology for thermal protection systems is presented. The design methodology is an eight step process beginning with a parameter sensitivity study and is followed by a deterministic analysis whereby an optimum design can determined. The design process concludes with a Monte Carlo simulation where the probabilities of exceeding design specifications are estimated. The design methodology is demonstrated by applying the methodology to the carbon phenolic compression pads of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The maximum allowed values of bondline temperature and tensile stress are used as the design specifications in this study.

Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

2011-01-01

194

Thermal-Structural Evaluation of TD Ni-20Cr Thermal Protection System Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a thermal-structural test program to verify the performance of a metallic/radiative Thermal Protection System (TPS) under reentry conditions are presented. This TPS panel is suitable for multiple reentry, high L/D space vehicles, such as the NASA space shuttle, having surface temperatures up to 1200 C (2200 F). The TPS panel tested consists of a corrugation-stiffened, beaded-skin TD Ni-20Cr metallic heat shield backed by a flexible fibrous quartz and radiative shield insulative system. Test conditions simulated the critical heating and aerodynamic pressure environments expected during 100 repeated missions of a reentry vehicle. Temperatures were measured during each reentry cycle; heat-shield flatness surveys to measure permanent set of the metallic components were made every 10 cycles. The TPS panel, in spite of localized surface failures, performed its designated function.

Eidinoff, H. L.; Rose, L.

1974-01-01

195

Thermal certification tests of Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles coated with KSC coating slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal tests of Orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles, which were coated with borosilicate glass slurries fabricated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), were performed in the Radiant Heat Test Facility and the Atmospheric Reentry Materials & Structures Evaluation Facility at Johnson Space Center to verify tile coating integrity after exposure to multiple entry simulation cycles in both radiant and convective heating environments. Eight high temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) tiles and six low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were subjected to 25 cycles of radiant heat at peaked surface temperatures of 2300 F and 1200 F, respectively. For the LRSI tiles, an additional cycle at peaked surface temperature of 2100 F was performed. There was no coating crack on any of the HRSI specimens. However, there were eight small coating cracks (less than 2 inches long) on two of the six LRSI tiles on the 26th cycle. There was practically no change on the surface reflectivity, physical dimensions, or weight of any of the test specimens. There was no observable thermal-chemical degradation of the coating either. For the convective heat test, eight HRSI tiles were tested for five cycles at a surface temperature of 2300 F. There was no thermal-induced coating crack on any of the test specimens, almost no change on the surface reflectivity, and no observable thermal-chemical degradation with an exception of minor slumping of the coating under painted TPS identification numbers. The tests demonstrated that KSC's TPS slurries and coating processes meet the Orbiter's thermal specification requirements.

Milhoan, James D.; Pham, Vuong T.; Sherborne, William D.

1993-01-01

196

Protection of thermal and cryogenic insulating materials by the use of metal jacketing and mastic coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal insulation continues to increase in importance in energy conservation programs. Most thermal and cryogenic insulating materials are structurally weak and require protection from weather, fire, and physical abuse. This protection may be provided in the form of metal jacketing, mastic coatings, or a combination of both, depending upon the application and service and economic requirements. Products offering sound attenuation,

1983-01-01

197

Interfacial fracture of Space-Shuttle thermal-protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable crack growth and fracture at the interface of undensified LI-900 reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile and the Nomex strain isolation pad (SIP) of the Space-Shuttle thermal-protection system (TPS) were modeled by double-edged notch-tension specimens. These specimens were loaded under uniaxial tension or 50-Hz cyclic loading and the resultant stable crack growth leading to eventual fracture was monitored by a videocamera. These tests showed that successive local tear-outs due to local tensile overload in the RSI tile resulted in the interfacial fracture where the crack-tip opening angle, CTOA, of the SIP was related to initiation and intermittent stable crack propagation. Fractures in similar static and dynamic test specimens using densified LI-900 RSI tiles occurred in the undensified regions of the RSI tiles. These failures were consistent with the above failure mechanism based on the local tensile strength of the undensified LI-900 RSI tile. The intermittent stable crack growth of undensified LI-900 RSI tile was reproduced by a deterministic, two-dimensional finite-element model with SIP of variable elastic moduli.

Komine, A.; Kobayashi, A. S.

1982-01-01

198

Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

2007-01-01

199

Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

Diller, T. E.

200

Thermal Growth and Performance of Manganese Cobaltite Spinel Protection Layers on Ferritic Stainless Steel SOFC Interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To protect solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from chromium poisoning and improve metallic interconnect stability, manganese cobaltite spinel protection layers with a nominal composition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 were thermally grown on Crofer22 APU, a ferritic stainless steel. Thermal, electrical and electrochemical investigations indicated that the spinel protection layers not only significantly decreased the contact area specific resistance (ASR) between a LSF

Zhenguo Yang; Guanguang Xia; Steven P. Simner; Jeffry W. Stevenson

2005-01-01

201

Development of X-33/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the "aerothermodynamic chain," the links of which are personnel, facilities, models/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Because the aerodynamic data bases upon which the X-33 and X-34 vehicles will fly are almost exclusively from wind tunnel testing, as opposed to CFD, the primary focus of the lessons learned is on ground-based testing. The period corresponding to the development of X-33 and X-34 aerothermodynamic data bases was challenging, since a number of other such programs (e.g., X-38, X-43) competed for resources at a time of downsizing of personnel, facilities, etc., outsourcing, and role changes as NASA Centers served as subcontractors to industry. The impact of this changing environment is embedded in the lessons learned. From a technical perspective, the relatively long times to design and fabricate metallic force and moment models, delays in delivery of models, and a lack of quality assurance to determine the fidelity of model outer mold lines (OML) prior to wind tunnel testing had a major negative impact on the programs. On the positive side, the application of phosphor thermography to obtain global, quantitative heating distributions on rapidly fabricated ceramic models revolutionized the aerothermodynamic optimization of vehicle OMLs, control surfaces, etc. Vehicle designers were provided with aeroheating information prior to, or in conjunction with, aerodynamic information early in the program, thereby allowing trades to be made with both sets of input; in the past only aerodynamic data were available as input. Programmatically, failure to include transonic aerodynamic wind tunnel tests early in the assessment phase led to delays in the optimization phase, as OMLs required modification to provide adequate transonic aerodynamic performance without sacrificing subsonic and hypersonic performance. Funding schedules for industry, based on technical milestones, also presented challenges to aerothermodynamics seeking optimum flying characteristics across the subsonic to hypersonic speed regimes and minimum aeroheating. This paper is concluded with a brief discussion of enhancements in ground-based testing/CFD capabilities necessary to partially/fully satisfy future requirements.

Miller, C. G.

2000-01-01

202

Investigation for thermal stability of U(sub 3)Si(sub 2) and protection methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal stability of U(sub 3)Si(sub 2) in Ar, N(sub 2) and air, and the interaction between U(sub 3)Si(sub 2) and Al, Zr have been investigated by thermal analysis method. According to the results of thermal analysis, protection measures for various p...

Zhang Huiying Sun Jichang Sun Rongxian

1994-01-01

203

Investigation of Freon discharge incident cell X-33-6-8  

SciTech Connect

As the result of the actuation of the rupture disk assembly a type ''B'' investigation was initiated in accordance with DOE Order 5484.1. The Investigation Board developed its findings through various means including interviews, examination of failed equipment, testing of controls, completion of a Management Oversight Risk Tree (MORT), Causal Factors Charting, Change Analysis, and investigation of incidents that occurred prior to and after the rupture disk actuation. On May 3, 1985, a dual rupture disk assembly actuated in the X-333 Building on the cell X-33-6-8 (even) Freon condenser. The Freon vapor discharged from the rupture disk assembly and impacted the roof, resulting in 32,400 sq. ft. of roof damage and a loss of 26,900 pounds of Freon coolant. The estimated total cost of property damage and lost Freon coolant was $150,000.

Not Available

1985-10-17

204

Reconfigurable Flight Control Designs With Application to the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the right body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zhenglu

1999-01-01

205

Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Production and Performance Test Results With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Propellant Tank for the X33 RLV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes in-detail a test program that was initiated at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) involving the cryogenic densification of liquid oxygen (LO2). A large scale LO2 propellant densification system rated for 200 gpm and sized for the X-33 LO2 propellant tank, was designed, fabricated and tested at the GRC. Multiple objectives of the test program included validation of LO2 production unit hardware and characterization of densifier performance at design and transient conditions. First, performance data is presented for an initial series of LO2 densifier screening and check-out tests using densified liquid nitrogen. The second series of tests show performance data collected during LO2 densifier test operations with liquid oxygen as the densified product fluid. An overview of LO2 X-33 tanking operations and load tests with the 20,000 gallon Structural Test Article (STA) are described. Tank loading testing and the thermal stratification that occurs inside of a flight-weight launch vehicle propellant tank were investigated. These operations involved a closed-loop recirculation process of LO2 flow through the densifier and then back into the STA. Finally, in excess of 200,000 gallons of densified LO2 at 120 oR was produced with the propellant densification unit during the demonstration program, an achievement that s never been done before in the realm of large-scale cryogenic tests.

Tomsik, Thomas M.; Meyer, Michael L.

2010-01-01

206

Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings for Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the evaluation and testing of high emissivity protective coatings applied to flexible insulations for the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology program. Ceramic coatings were evaluated for their thermal properties, durability, and potential for reuse. One of the major goals was to determine the mechanism by which these coated blanket surfaces become brittle and try to modify the coatings to reduce or eliminate embrittlement. Coatings were prepared from colloidal silica with a small percentage of either SiC or SiB6 as the emissivity agent. These coatings are referred to as gray C-9 and protective ceramic coating (PCC), respectively. The colloidal solutions were either brushed or sprayed onto advanced flexible reusable surface insulation blankets. The blankets were instrumented with thermocouples and exposed to reentry heating conditions in the Ames Aeroheating Arc Jet Facility. Post-test samples were then characterized through impact testing, emissivity measurements, chemical analysis, and observation of changes in surface morphology. The results show that both coatings performed well in arc jet tests with backface temperatures slightly lower for the PCC coating than with gray C-9. Impact testing showed that the least extensive surface destruction was experienced on blankets with lower areal density coatings.

Kourtides, Demetrius; Carroll, Carol; Smith, Dane; Guzinski, Mike; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan; Ridge, Jerry; Tran, Duoc

1997-01-01

207

Evaluation of protective ensemble thermal characteristics through sweating hot plate, sweating thermal manikin, and human tests.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capability of fabric Total Heat Loss (THL) values on thermal stress that Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ensemble wearers may encounter while performing work. A series of three tests, consisting of the Sweating Hot Plate (SHP) test on two sample fabrics and the Sweating Thermal Manikin (STM) and human performance tests on two single-layer encapsulating ensembles (fabric/ensemble A = low THL and B = high THL), was conducted to compare THL values between SHP and STM methods along with human thermophysiological responses to wearing the ensembles. In human testing, ten male subjects performed a treadmill exercise at 4.8km and 3% incline for 60min in two environmental conditions (mild = 22C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and hot/humid = 35C, 65% RH). The thermal and evaporative resistances were significantly higher on a fabric level as measured in the SHP test than on the ensemble level as measured in the STM test. Consequently the THL values were also significantly different for both fabric types (SHP vs. STM: 191.3vs. 81.5W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble A, and 909.3vs. 149.9W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble B (p < 0.001). Body temperature and heart rate response between ensembles A and B were consistently different in both environmental conditions (p < 0.001), which is attributed to significantly higher sweat evaporation in ensemble B than in A (p < 0.05), despite a greater sweat production in ensemble A (p < 0.001) in both environmental conditions. Further, elevation of microclimate temperature (p < 0.001) and humidity (p < 0.01) was significantly greater in ensemble A than in B. It was concluded that: (1) SHP test determined THL values are significantly different from the actual THL potential of the PPE ensemble tested on STM, (2) physiological benefits from wearing a more breathable PPE ensemble may not be feasible with incremental THL values (SHP test) less than approximately 150-200Wm(2), and (3) the effects of thermal environments on a level of heat stress in PPE ensemble wearers are greater than ensemble thermal characteristics. PMID:24579755

Kim, Jung-Hyun; Powell, Jeffery B; Roberge, Raymond J; Shepherd, Angie; Coca, Aitor

2014-01-01

208

SAFER Inspection of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the aftermath of the space shuttle Columbia accident, it quickly became clear that new methods would need to be developed that would provide the capability to inspect and repair the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS). A boom extension to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with a laser topography sensor package was identified as the primary means for measuring the damage depth in acreage tile as well as scanning Reinforced Carbon- Carbon (RCC) surfaces. However, concern over the system's fault tolerance made it prudent to investigate alternate means of acquiring close range photographs and contour depth measurements in the event of a failure. One method that was identified early was to use the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion system to allow EVA access to damaged areas of concern. Several issues were identified as potential hazards to SAFER use for this operation. First, the ability of an astronaut to maintain controlled flight depends upon efficient technique and hardware reliability. If either of these is insufficient during flight operations, a safety tether must be used to rescue the crewmember. This operation can jeopardize the integrity of the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) or delicate TPS materials. Controls were developed to prevent the likelihood of requiring a tether rescue, and procedures were written to maximize the chances for success if it cannot be avoided. Crewmember ability to manage tether cable tension during nominal flight also had to be evaluated to ensure it would not negatively affect propellant consumption. Second, although propellant consumption, flight control, orbital dynamics, and flight complexity can all be accurately evaluated in Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, there are some shortcomings. As a crewmember's hand is extended to simulate measurement of tile damage, it will pass through the vehicle without resistance. In reality, this force will push the crewmember away from the vehicle, and could induce a moment which, if strong enough, could saturate the attitude control system in SAFER. This raises the concern that additional propellant will be consumed to maintain controlled flight. To account for this, the fidelity of the Virtual Reality simulation was improved to include the effect of crewmember contact with the vehicle during SAFER flight. In addition, while participating in VR simulations, the subject is in shirt sleeves and sits in a chair. This does not provide a flight-like representation of body position awareness. To prevent inadvertent contact with tile or RCC, other facilities were utilized to establish crew preferences for body attitude and tool configuration. Finally, a study was performed to determine if attitude constraints are needed for the Space shuttle and International Space Station to reduce SAFER flight difficulty.

Scoville, Zebulon C.; Rajula, Sudhakar

2005-01-01

209

Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (...

W. L. Ko L. Gong R. D. Quinn

2004-01-01

210

75 FR 10410 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events for pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessels. DATES: The correction is effective March 8, 2010, and is applicable to February 3, 2010, the date the...

2010-03-08

211

75 FR 72653 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events for pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessels. On February 3, 2010, the NRC published in the Federal Register a correction to the final rule (75 FR...

2010-11-26

212

An assessment of radiative metallic thermal protection systems for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metallic thermal protection system technology program for the space shuttle is reviewed for the areas of environmental uncertainties, materials data base, TPS design concepts and heat-shield panel configurations, testing and evaluation of materials, panels, and complete systems.

Stein, B. A.; Bohon, H. L.; Rummler, D. R.

1972-01-01

213

New Thermal Protection Concepts for the Next Generation Gas Turbines and Hypersonic Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal protection of gas turbine blades, combustors and some rocket nozzles is generally provided by thin superficial layer coatings of yttria- stabilized zirconia (YSZ). This material, deposited by either electron-beam physical vapor deposition or plasm...

D. R. Clarke

2008-01-01

214

Protection of Alodine Coatings from Thermal Aging by Removable Polymer Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Removable polymer coatings were evaluated as a means to suppress dehydration of Alodine chromate conversion coatings during thermal aging and thereby retain the corrosion protection afforded by Alodine. Two types of polymer coatings were applied to Alodin...

B. R. Wagstaff L. L. Whinnery R. W. Bradshaw

2006-01-01

215

Analysis of Linear Aerospike Plume Induced X-33 Base Heating Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational analysis is conducted to study the effect of an linear aerospike engine plume on the X-33 base-heating environment during ascent flight. To properly account for the freestream-body interaction and to allow for potential plume-induced flow-separation, the thermo-flowfield of the entire vehicle at several trajectory points is computed. A sequential grid-refinement technique is used in conjunction with solution-adaptive, patched, and embedded grid methods to limit the model to a manageable size. The computational methodology is based on a three-dimensional, finite-difference, viscous flow, chemically reacting, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a three-dimensional, finite-volume, spectral-line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption, computational radiation heat transfer formulation. The computed forebody and afterbody surface pressure coefficients and base pressure characteristic curves are compared with those of a cold-flow test. The predicted convective and radiative base-heat fluxes, the effect of base-bleed, and the potential of plume-induced flow separation are presented.

Wang, Ten-See

1998-01-01

216

Fiber optic microsensor hydrogen leak detection system on Aerospike X-33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial and military launch vehicles are designed to use cryogenic hydrogen as the main propellant, which is very volatile, extremely flammable, and highly explosive. Current detection system uses Teflon transfer tubes at small number of vehicle location through which gas samples are drawn and stream analyzed by a mass spectrometer. A concern with this approach is the high cost of the system. Also, the current system does not provide leak location and is not in real time. This system is very complex and cumbersome for production and ground support measurement personnel. This paper describes the successful test of a multipoint fiber optic hydrogen microsensors system on the Linear Aerospike X-33 rocket engine at NASA's Stennis Flight Center. The system consisted of a reversible chemical interaction causing a change in reflective of a thin film of coated Palladium. The sensor using a passive element consisting of chemically reactive microcoatings deposited on the surface of a glass microlens, which is then bonded to an optical fiber. The system uses a multiplexing technique with a fiber optic driver-receiver consisting of a modulated LED source that is launched into the sensor, and photodiode detector that synchronously measures the reflected signal. The system incorporates a microprocessor to perform the data analysis and storage, as well as trending and set alarm function. The paper illustrates the sensor design and performance data under field deployment conditions.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Goepp, John W.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark E.

2007-10-01

217

Performance Tests of a Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Densification Ground System for the X33/RLV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for improving the performance of propulsion systems in expendable and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles much like the X33/RLV has been identified. The approach is to utilize densified cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants to fuel the propulsion stage. The primary benefit for using this relatively high specific impulse densified propellant mixture is the subsequent reduction of the launch vehicle gross lift-off weight. Production of densified propellants however requires specialized equipment to actively subcool both the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to temperatures below their normal boiling point. A propellant densification unit based on an external thermodynamic vent principle which operates at subatmospheric pressure and supercold temperatures provides a means for the LH2 and LOX densification process to occur. To demonstrate the production concept for the densification of the liquid hydrogen propellant, a system comprised of a multistage gaseous hydrogen compressor, LH2 recirculation pumps and a cryogenic LH2 heat exchanger was designed, built and tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). This paper presents the design configuration of the LH2 propellant densification production hardware, analytical details and results of performance testing conducted with the hydrogen densifier Ground Support Equipment (GSE).

Tomsik, Thomas M.

1997-01-01

218

Design, fabrication, and tests of a metallic shell tile thermal protection system for space transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal protection tile for earth-to-orbit transports is described. The tiles consist of a rigid external shell filled with a flexible insulation. The tiles tend to be thicker than the current Shuttle rigidized silica tiles for the same entry heat load but are projected to be more durable and lighter. The tiles were thermally tested for several simulated entry trajectories.

Macconochie, Ian O.; Kelly, H. Neale

1989-01-01

219

Fabrication of titanium thermal protection system panels by the NOR-Ti-bond process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for fabricating titanium thermal protection system panels is described. The method has the potential for producing wide faying surface bonds to minimize temperature gradients and thermal stresses resulting during service at elevated temperatures. Results of nondestructive tests of the panels are presented. Concepts for improving the panel quality and for improved economy in production are discussed.

Wells, R. R.

1971-01-01

220

Composite Multilayer Insulations for Thermal Protection of Aerospace Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline...

D. A. Kourtides W. C. Pitts

1989-01-01

221

Design and fabrication of titanium multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TPS) test panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A titanium multiwall thermal protection system panel was designed. The panel is a nine sheet sandwich structure consisting of an upper and lower face sheet; four dimpled sheets, three septum sheets, and clips for attachment to a vehicle structure. An acceptable fabrication process was developed, and the panel design was verified through mechanical and thermal testing of component specimens. A design was completed which takes into consideration fabrication techniques, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and materials availability.

Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E., Jr.; Rosenthal, H. A.

1980-01-01

222

3D electro-thermal modeling of ggNMOS ESD protection structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a simple-to-implement, 3D electro-thermal model for circuit-level SPICE simulation of grounded-gate NMOS (ggNMOS), with application for ESD (electrostatic discharge) protection circuit design verification. A new ESD discharging fitting resistor (Ron) is employed to improve ESD electrical modeling in the high-current region and a new 3D thermal resistor parameter (Rth) is proposed to model the electro-thermal characteristics of

Haolu Xie; Rouying Zhan; Albert Wang; R. Gafiteanu

2004-01-01

223

Corrosion resistant thermal barrier coating. [protecting gas turbines and other engine parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal barrier coating system for protecting metal surfaces at high temperature in normally corrosive environments is described. The thermal barrier coating system includes a metal alloy bond coating, the alloy containing nickel, cobalt, iron, or a combination of these metals. The system further includes a corrosion resistant thermal barrier oxide coating containing at least one alkaline earth silicate. The preferred oxides are calcium silicate, barium silicate, magnesium silicate, or combinations of these silicates.

Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E. (inventors)

1981-01-01

224

Heat Transfer and Effective Thermal Conductivity Analyses in Carbon-Based Foams for Use in Thermal Protection Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of carbon-based foams as an insulation material in the thermal protection systems (TPSs) of space vehicles is considered using a physical analysis and computer modelling. The heat transfer through the foam is considered through its solid phase and the gas residing in the foam pores via conduction and radiation. As the cellular structure of the foam prevents a

M Grujicic; C L Zhao; S B Biggers; J M Kennedy; D R Morgan

2005-01-01

225

High temperature insulation materials for reradiative thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a two year program to evaluate packaged thermal insulations for use under a metallic radiative TPS of a shuttle orbiter vehicle. Evaluations demonstrated their survival for up to 100 mission reuse cycles under shuttle acoustic and thermal loads with peak temperatures of 1000 F, 1800 F, 2000 F, 2200 F and 2500 F. The specimens were composed of low density refractory fiber felts, packaged in thin gage metal foils. In addition, studies were conducted on the venting requirements of the packages, salt spray resistance of the metal foils, and the thermal conductivity of many of the insulations as a function of temperature and ambient air pressure. Data is also presented on the radiant energy transport through insulations, and back-scattering coefficients were experimentally determined as a function of source temperature.

Hughes, T. A.

1972-01-01

226

Multifunctional materials by powder processing for a thermal protection system with self-cooling capability: Perspirable skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic heating generated by the friction between the atmosphere and the space vehicle's surface at reentry can enhance the temperature on the surface as high as 1700C. A Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to inhibit the heat entering into the vehicle. Presently, the completely passive thermal protection is used for TPS. The thermal ablation\\/erosion and oxidization reaction of the

Li Sun

2009-01-01

227

Design of a thermal and micrometeorite protection system for an unmanned lunar cargo lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first vehicles to land on the lunar surface during the establishment phase of a lunar base will be unmanned lunar cargo landers. These landers will need to be protected against the hostile lunar environment for six to twelve months until the next manned mission arrives. The lunar environment is characterized by large temperature changes and periodic micrometeorite impacts. An automatically deployable and reconfigurable thermal and micrometeorite protection system was designed for an unmanned lunar cargo lander. The protection system is a lightweight multilayered material consisting of alternating layers of thermal and micrometeorite protection material. The protection system is packaged and stored above the lander common module. After landing, the system is deployed to cover the lander using a system of inflatable struts that are inflated using residual fuel (liquid oxygen) from the fuel tanks. Once the lander is unloaded and the protection system is no longer needed, the protection system is reconfigured as a regolith support blanket for the purpose of burying and protecting the common module, or as a lunar surface garage that can be used to sort and store lunar surface vehicles and equipment. A model showing deployment and reconfiguration of the protection system was also constructed.

Hernandez, Carlos A.; Sunder, Sankar; Vestgaard, Baard

1989-01-01

228

Fabrication of prepackaged superalloy honeycomb Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature materials were surveyed, and Inconel 617 and titanium were selected for application to a honeycomb TPS configuration designed to withstand 2000 F. The configuration was analyzed both thermally and structurally. Component and full-sized panels were fabricated and tested to obtain data for comparison with analysis. Results verified the panel design. Twenty five panels were delivered to NASA Langley Research Center for additional evaluation.

Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E.; Rosenthal, H. A.

1985-01-01

229

Coating effects on thermal properties of carbon carbon and carbon silicon carbide composites for space thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many are the materials for hot structures, but the most promising one are the carbon based composites nowadays. This is because they have good characteristics with a high stability at high temperatures, preserving their mechanical properties. Unfortunately, carbon reacts rapidly with oxygen and the composites are subjected to oxidation degradation. From this point of view C\\C has to be modified in order to improve its thermal and oxidative resistance. The most common solutions are the use of silicon carbide into the carbon composites matrix (SiC composites) to make the thermal properties increase and the use of coating on the surface in order to protect the composite from the space plasma effects. Here is presented an experimental study on coating effects on these composites. Thermal properties of coated and non coated materials have been studied and the thermal impact on the matrix and surface degradation is analyzed by a SEM analysis.

Albano, M.; Morles, R. B.; Cioeta, F.; Marchetti, M.

2014-06-01

230

The employment of a high density plasma jet for the investigation of thermal protection materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of tests of thermal protection materials (TPM) at conditions that simulate the atmospheric re-entry of space vehicles, tested by means of a high velocity and enthalpy air plasma jet generated with a dc plasma torch. Such a high velocity and enthalpy air plasma jet allows us to investigate TPM by simulating heat flux values varying with time in accordance with real re-entry altitudes and trajectories. The main research interests include the measurements of plasma flow temperature and heat flux for the testing of materials used for thermal protection systems of space vehicles. The test results of investigations of light composite thermal protective system material and graphite are presented.

Kezelis, R.; Grigaitiene, V.; Levinskas, R.; Brinkiene, K.

2014-05-01

231

Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

Culp, J. D.

1972-01-01

232

X-33 (Rev-F) Aeroheating Results of Test 6770 in NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroheating characteristics of the X-33 Rev-F configuration have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel (Test 6770). Global surface heat transfer distributions, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on a 0.013-scale model at Mach 6 in air. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 20-deg, 30-deg, and 40-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.9 to 4.9 million; and body-flap deflections of 10-deg and 20-deg. The effects of discrete roughness elements on boundary layer transition, which included trip height, size, and location, both on and off the windward centerline, were investigated. This document is intended to serve as a quick release of preliminary data to the X-33 program; analysis is limited to observations of the experimental trends in order to expedite dissemination.

Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kowalkowski, Matthew K.; Liechty, Derek S.

1999-01-01

233

Research progress on thermal protection materials and structures of hypersonic vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersonic vehicles represent future trends of military equipments and play an important role in future war. Thermal protection\\u000a materials and structures, which relate to the safety of hypersonic vehicles, are one of the most key techniques in design\\u000a and manufacture of hypersonic vehicles. Among these materials and structures, such as metallic temperature protection structure,\\u000a the temperature ceramics and carbon\\/carbon composites

Ya-zheng Yang; Jia-ling Yang; Dai-ning Fang

2008-01-01

234

Characterization of an Integral Thermal Protection and Cryogenic Insulation Material for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's planned advanced space transportation vehicles will benefit from the use of integral/conformal cryogenic propellant tanks which will reduce the launch weight and lower the earth-to-orbit costs considerably. To implement the novel concept of integral/conformal tanks requires developing an equally novel concept in thermal protection materials. Providing insulation against reentry heating and preserving propellant mass can no longer be considered separate problems to be handled by separate materials. A new family of materials, Superthermal Insulation (STI), has been conceiving and investigated by NASA's Ames Research Center to simultaneously provide both thermal protection and cryogenic insulation in a single, integral material.

Salerno, L. J.; White, S. M.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

2000-01-01

235

Probabilistic Design of a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The driving requirement for design of a Mars Sample Return mission is to assure containment of the returned samples. Designing to, and demonstrating compliance with, such a requirement requires physics based tools that establish the relationship between engineer's sizing margins and probabilities of failure. The traditional method of determining margins on ablative thermal protection systems, while conservative, provides little insight into the actual probability of an over-temperature during flight. The objective of this paper is to describe a new methodology for establishing margins on sizing the thermal protection system (TPS). Results of this Monte Carlo approach are compared with traditional methods.

Dec, John A.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.

2002-01-01

236

Flight Set 360L006 STS-34 field joint protection system, thermal protection system, and systems tunnel components, volume 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the thermal protection system, field joint protection system, and systems tunnel components of Flight Set 360L006, are documented, as evaluated by postflight hardware inspection. The condition of both motors was similar to previous flights. Sixteen aft edge hits were noted on the ground environment instrumentation thermal protection system. Each hit left a clean substrate, indicating that the damage was caused by nozzle severance debris and/or water impact. No National Space and Transporation System debris criteria for missing thermal protection system were violated. One 5.0 by 1.0 in. unbond was observed on the left hand center field joint K5NA closeout and was elevated to an in-flight anomaly (STS-34-M-4) by the NASA Ice/Debris team. Aft edge damage to the K5NA and an associated black streak indicate that burning debris from the nozzle severance system was the likely cause of the damage. Minor divots caused by debris were seen on previous flights, but this is the first occurrence of a K5NA unbond. Since the unbond occurred after booster separation there is no impact on flight safety and no corrective actions was taken. The right hand center field joint primary heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test after joint closeout. The heater was then disabled by opening the circuit breaker, and the redundant heater was used. The redundant heater performed nominally during the launch countdown. A similar condition occurred on Flight 4 when a secondary joint heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test.

Wilkinson, J. P.

1990-01-01

237

Predicted Thermal Responses of Military Working Dog (MWD) to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) Protective Kennel Enclosure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal physiological responses of military working dogs (MWD) enclosed in a kennel with a chemical protective cover were evaluated under various conditions using a thermo-physiological simulation computer model. The intent was to quantify the thermal...

A. W. Potter L. G. Berglund M. Yokota T. L. Endrusick W. R. Santee

2011-01-01

238

Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

1977-01-01

239

Re-design and fabrication of titanium multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TPS) test panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titanium Multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TIPS) panel was re-designed to incorporate Ti-6-2-4-2 outer sheets for the hot surface, ninety degree side closures for ease of construction and through panel fastness for ease of panel removal. Thermal and structural tests were performed to verify the design. Twenty-five panels were fabricated and delivered to NASA for evaluation at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center.

Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E., Jr.; Rosenthal, H. A.

1984-01-01

240

Status of reusable surface insulation thermal protection system technology programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of three low-density rigidized insulation materials for the shuttle TPS application is reported. These materials consist of one high purity silica system and two systems based on mullite, an aluminum silicate. Both systems consist of fibers joined together with appropriate binders to obtain a rigidized insulation composite. Both material systems require the application of a glassy coating to provide a wear resistant, high emittance surface and to prevent the absorption of water by the fiber matrix. The technology program has addressed the development of water impervious coatings, methods of assembling the materials in design concepts while minimizing the thermal stress in the insulation, achieving compatibility between the RSI material and the structural system, and test evaluations to demonstrate the feasibility of the surface insulation concept.

Greenshields, D. H.; Meyer, A. J.; Tillian, D. J.

1972-01-01

241

Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of aluminum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.

1989-01-01

242

Mars transit vehicle thermal protection system: Issues, options, and trades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mars mission is characterized by different mission phases. The thermal control of cryogenic propellant in a propulsive vehicle must withstand the different mission environments. Long term cryogenic storage may be achieved by passive or active systems. Passive cryo boiloff management features will include multilayer insulation, vapor cooled shield, and low conductance structural supports and penetrations. Active boiloff management incorporates the use of a refrigeration system. Key system trade areas include active verses passive system boiloff management (with respect to safety, reliability, and cost) and propellant tank insulation optimizations. Technology requirements include refrigeration technology advancements, insulation performance during long exposure, and cryogenic fluid transfer system for mission vehicle propellant tanking during vehicle buildip in LEO.

Brown, Norman

1986-01-01

243

Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of alumininum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

Kourtides, D. A.; Pitts, W. C.

1989-01-01

244

Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of alumininum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

Kourtides, D.A.; Pitts, W.C.

1989-02-01

245

Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

2007-04-01

246

The Influence of Thermal Evolution in the Magnetic Protection of Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic protection of potentially habitable planets plays a central role in determining their actual habitability and/or the chances of detecting atmospheric biosignatures. Here we develop a thermal evolution model of potentially habitable Earth-like planets and super-Earths (SEs). Using up-to-date dynamo-scaling laws, we predict the properties of core dynamo magnetic fields and study the influence of thermal evolution on their properties. The level of magnetic protection of tidally locked and unlocked planets is estimated by combining simplified models of the planetary magnetosphere and a phenomenological description of the stellar wind. Thermal evolution introduces a strong dependence of magnetic protection on planetary mass and rotation rate. Tidally locked terrestrial planets with an Earth-like composition would have early dayside magnetopause distances between 1.5 and 4.0 Rp , larger than previously estimated. Unlocked planets with periods of rotation ~1 day are protected by magnetospheres extending between 3 and 8 Rp . Our results are robust in comparison with variations in planetary bulk composition and uncertainties in other critical model parameters. For illustration purposes, the thermal evolution and magnetic protection of the potentially habitable SEs GL 581d, GJ 667Cc, and HD 40307g were also studied. Assuming an Earth-like composition, we found that the dynamos of these planets are already extinct or close to being shut down. While GL 581d is the best protected, the protection of HD 40307g cannot be reliably estimated. GJ 667Cc, even under optimistic conditions, seems to be severely exposed to the stellar wind, and, under the conditions of our model, has probably suffered massive atmospheric losses.

Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Bustamante, Sebastian; Cuartas, Pablo A.; Hoyos, Jaime H.

2013-06-01

247

THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL EVOLUTION IN THE MAGNETIC PROTECTION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic protection of potentially habitable planets plays a central role in determining their actual habitability and/or the chances of detecting atmospheric biosignatures. Here we develop a thermal evolution model of potentially habitable Earth-like planets and super-Earths (SEs). Using up-to-date dynamo-scaling laws, we predict the properties of core dynamo magnetic fields and study the influence of thermal evolution on their properties. The level of magnetic protection of tidally locked and unlocked planets is estimated by combining simplified models of the planetary magnetosphere and a phenomenological description of the stellar wind. Thermal evolution introduces a strong dependence of magnetic protection on planetary mass and rotation rate. Tidally locked terrestrial planets with an Earth-like composition would have early dayside magnetopause distances between 1.5 and 4.0 R{sub p} , larger than previously estimated. Unlocked planets with periods of rotation {approx}1 day are protected by magnetospheres extending between 3 and 8 R{sub p} . Our results are robust in comparison with variations in planetary bulk composition and uncertainties in other critical model parameters. For illustration purposes, the thermal evolution and magnetic protection of the potentially habitable SEs GL 581d, GJ 667Cc, and HD 40307g were also studied. Assuming an Earth-like composition, we found that the dynamos of these planets are already extinct or close to being shut down. While GL 581d is the best protected, the protection of HD 40307g cannot be reliably estimated. GJ 667Cc, even under optimistic conditions, seems to be severely exposed to the stellar wind, and, under the conditions of our model, has probably suffered massive atmospheric losses.

Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Bustamante, Sebastian; Cuartas, Pablo A. [Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 No. 53-108, Medellin (Colombia); Hoyos, Jaime H., E-mail: jzuluaga@fisica.udea.edu.co, E-mail: sbustama@pegasus.udea.edu.co, E-mail: p.cuartas@fisica.udea.edu.co, E-mail: jhhoyos@udem.edu.co [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad de Medellin, Carrera 87 No. 30-65, Medellin (Colombia)

2013-06-10

248

NASA Earth-to-Orbit Engineering Design Challenges: Thermal Protection Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Dryden Flight Research Center, and their partners at other NASA centers and in private industry are currently developing X-33, a prototype to test technologies for the next generation of space transportation. This single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2010

2010-01-01

249

Free-Flight Test Results on the Performance of Cork as a Thermal Protection Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of flight tests was initiated by the Langley Research Center for the purpose of testing ablative cork as a lightweight thermal protection material. These flight tests were conducted aboard NASA flight vehicles in the low-heating-rate environment ...

R. A. Graves T. E. Walton

1964-01-01

250

Development of metallic thermal protection systems for the reusable launch vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reusable Thermal Protection System (TPS) that is not only lightweight, but durable, operable and cost effective is one of the technologies required by the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to achieve the goal of drastically reducing the cost of delivering payload to orbit. Metallic TPS is one of the systems being developed to meet this challenge. Current efforts involve improving

Max L. Blosser

1997-01-01

251

Solid rocket booster thermal protection system materials development. [space shuttle boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete run log of all tests conducted in the NASA-MSFC hot gas test facility during the development of materials for the space shuttle solid rocket booster thermal protection system are presented. Lists of technical reports and drawings generated under the contract are included.

Dean, W. G.

1978-01-01

252

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

253

Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

Ardema, Mark D.

1995-01-01

254

Performance of thermal control tape in the protection of composite materials to space environmental exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control tape flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment A0171 has shown to be effective in protecting epoxy fiberglass composites from atomic oxygen and ultraviolet degradation. The tape adhesive performed well. The aluminum, however, appeared to have become embrittled by the 5.8 years of space radiation exposure.

Kamenetzky, R. R.; Whitaker, A. F.

1992-01-01

255

Structural health monitoring technology for bolted carbon-carbon thermal protection panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research in this dissertation is motivated by the need for reliable inspection technologies for the detection of bolt loosening in Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels on Space Operation Vehicles (SOV) using minimal human intervention. A concept demonstrator of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system was developed to autonomously detect the degradation of the mechanical integrity of the

Jinkyu Yang

2005-01-01

256

Identifying, Protecting, and Restoring (?) Fine-Scale Thermal Heterogeneity in Streams  

EPA Science Inventory

The functional role of thermal heterogeneity to fish in warm streams has been well recognized in the scientific literature, and is increasingly invoked as an important aspect of biodiversity conservation. Water temperature standards designed to protect cold-water taxa are also be...

257

Robotic system for the servicing of the orbiter thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design and development of a mobile robotic system to process orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. This work was justified by a TPS automation study which identified tile rewaterproofing and visual inspection as excellent applications for robotic automation.

Graham, Todd; Bennett, Richard; Dowling, Kevin; Manouchehri, Davoud; Cooper, Eric; Cowan, Cregg

1994-01-01

258

Panel-flutter analysis of a thermal protection-shield concept for the space shuttle.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the panel flutter characteristics of a candidate thermal protection system (TPS) for the space shuttle, using piston theory aerodynamics and Lagrange equations. The results show the TPS candidate panel array to be deep in the 'no-flutter' region during launch and, therefore, safe from panel flutter.

Cunningham, H. J.

1972-01-01

259

Design, development and test of shuttle/Centaur G-prime cryogenic tankage thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection systems for the shuttle/Centaur would have had to provide fail-safe thermal protection during prelaunch, launch ascent, and on-orbit operations as well as during potential abort. The thermal protection systems selected used a helium-purged polyimide foam beneath three rediation shields for the liquid-hydrogen tank and radiation shields only for the liquid-oxygen tank (three shields on the tank sidewall and four on the aft bulkhead). A double-walled vacuum bulkhead separated the two tanks. The liquid-hydrogen tank had one 0.75-in-thick layer of foam on the forward bulkhead and two layers on the larger area sidewall. Full scale tests of the flight vehicle in a simulated shuttle cargo bay that was purged with gaseous nitrogen gave total prelaunch heating rates of 88,500 Btu/hr and 44,000 Btu/hr for the liquid-hydrogen and -oxygen tanks, respectively. Calorimeter tests on a representative sample of the liquid-hydrogen tank sidewall thermal protection system indicated that the measured unit heating rate would rapidly decrease from the prelaunch rate of approx 100 Btu/hr/sq ft to a desired rate of less than 1.3 Btu/hr/sq ft once on orbit.

Knoll, Richard H.; Macneil, Peter N.; England, James E.

1987-01-01

260

Development of thermal protection system of the MUSES-C\\/DASH reentry capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the final phase of the MUSES-C mission, a small capsule with asteroid sample conducts reentry flight directly from the interplanetary transfer orbit at the velocity over 12 km\\/s. The severe heat flux, the complicated functional requirements, and small weight budget impose several engineering challenges on the designing of the thermal protection system of the capsule. The heat shield is

Tetsuya Yamada; Yoshifumi Inatani; Masahisa Honda; Ken'ich Hirai

2002-01-01

261

Thermal Growth and Performance of Manganese Cobaltite Spinel Protection Layers on Ferritic Stainless Steel SOFC Interconnects  

SciTech Connect

To protect solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from chromium poisoning and improve metallic interconnect stability, manganese cobaltite spinel protection layers with a nominal composition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 were thermally grown on Crofer22 APU, a ferritic stainless steel. Thermal, electrical and electrochemical investigations indicated that the spinel protection layers not only significantly decreased the contact area specific resistance (ASR) between a LSF cathode and the stainless steel interconnect, but also inhibited the sub-scale growth on the stainless steel by acting as a barrier to the inward diffusion of oxygen. A long-term thermal cycling test demonstrated excellent structural and thermomechanical stability of these spinel protection layers, which also acted as a barrier to outward chromium cation diffusion to the interconnect surface. The reduction in the contact ASR and prevention of Cr migration achieved by application of the spinel protection layers on ferritic stainless steel resulted in improved stability and electrochemical performance of SOFCs.

Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Simner, Steven P.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2005-08-01

262

Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

1996-01-01

263

Wireless Subsurface Microsensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems on Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to develop inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and SRI International to develop 'SensorTags,' radio frequency identification devices coupled with event-recording sensors, that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor temperature or other quantities of interest. Two prototype SensorTag designs containing thermal fuses to indicate a temperature overlimit are presented and discussed.

Milos, Frank S.; Watters, David G.; Pallix, Joan B.; Bahr, Alfred J.; Huestis, David L.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

264

A new approach to characterize the effect of fabric deformation on thermal protective performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to evaluate thermal protective performance (TPP) in laboratory-simulated fire scenes as accurately as possible. For this paper, to thoroughly understand the effect of fabric deformation on basic physical properties and TPP of flame-retardant fabrics exposed to flash fire, a new modified TPP testing apparatus was developed. Different extensions were employed to simulate the various extensions displayed during different body motions. The tests were also carried out with different air gaps. The results showed a significant decrease in air permeability after deformation. However, the change of thickness was slight. The fabric deformation had a complicated effect on thermal protection with different air gaps. The change of TPP depended on the balance between the surface contact area and the thermal insulation. The newly developed testing apparatus could be well employed to evaluate the effect of deformation on TPP of flame-resistant fabrics.

Li, Jun; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Yehu; Wang, Yunyi

2012-04-01

265

Durability of thermal control and environmental protective materials for the SSRMS in simulated LEO environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thermal control and environmental protection materials, selected on the basis of their space pedigree, thermal vacuum stability, and thermo-optical properties, were tested to determine their suitability for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The ground based testing was carried out to simulate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. These factors are deemed most likely to cause degradation to the selected materials. With the exception of the urethane based coatings, the materials tested demonstrate sufficient resistance to atomic oxygen. The detrimental effect of thermal cycling on the adhesion of the silicate based coatings to aluminum substrate was found to depend on the pigment. A separate experiment on Beta-Cloth showed that its thermo-optical properties remained substantially unchanged as the Teflon coating was progressively removed in a plasma asher.

Chang, S. K.

1993-06-01

266

Reliability enhancement of germanium nanowires using graphene as a protective layer: aspect of thermal stability.  

PubMed

We synthesized thermally stable graphene-covered Ge (Ge@G) nanowires and applied them in field emission devices. Vertically aligned Ge@G nanowires were prepared by sequential growth of the Ge nanowires and graphene shells in a single chamber. As a result of the thermal treatment experiments, Ge@G nanowires were much more stable than pure Ge nanowires, maintaining their shape at high temperatures up to 850 C. In addition, field emission devices based on the Ge@G nanowires clearly exhibited enhanced thermal reliability. Moreover, field emission characteristics yielded the highest field enhancement factor (?2298) yet reported for this type of device, and also had low turn-on voltage. Our proposed approach for the application of graphene as a protective layer for a semiconductor nanowire is an efficient way to enhance the thermal reliability of nanomaterials. PMID:24617670

Lee, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Soon-Hyung; Patole, Shashikant P; Jang, Yamujin; Heo, Keun; Joo, Won-Jae; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Hwang, Sung Woo; Whang, Dongmok

2014-04-01

267

Integrated Sensing and Material Damage Identification in Metallic and Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems Using Vibration and Wave Propagation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global thermal and impact material damage mechanisms in metallic and ceramic thermal protection systems are detected, located, and quantified using four complementary methods for sensing and data interrogation. First, spatial-temporal beamforming algorithms are used to process active elastic waves measured from remote sensor arrays in two different equilibrium positions of a gamma Ti-Al sheet to localize simulated thermal damage. Damage

S. Sundararaman; J. White; H. Jiang; D. Adams; K. Jata

2006-01-01

268

An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

2006-01-01

269

An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

2005-01-01

270

Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (inventor); Smith, Marnell (inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (inventor)

1986-01-01

271

An atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matters concerned with development of methodical and mathematical support for an atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system are considered taking as an example the problem of controlling nitrogen oxide emissions at a gas-and-oil-fired thermal power station. The combined environmental-and-economic characteristics of boilers, which correlate the costs for suppressing emissions with the boiler steam load and mass discharge of nitrogen oxides in analytic form, are used as the main tool for optimal control. A procedure for constructing and applying environmental-and-economic characteristics on the basis of technical facilities available in modern instrumentation and control systems is presented.

Parchevskii, V. M.; Kislov, E. A.

2014-03-01

272

Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of Protected Polymers Using Thermal Energy Plasma Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The durability evaluation of protected polymers intended for use in low Earth orbit (LEO) has necessitated the use of large-area, high-fluence, atomic oxygen exposure systems. Two thermal energy atomic oxygen exposure systems which are frequently used for such evaluations are radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers and electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources. Plasma source testing practices such as ample preparation, effective fluence prediction, atomic oxygen flux determination, erosion measurement, operational considerations, and erosion yield measurements are presented. Issues which influence the prediction of in-space durability based on ground laboratory thermal energy plasma system testing are also addressed.

Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Gebauer, Linda; Lamoreaux, Cynthia M.

1995-01-01

273

A Base Drag Reduction Experiment on the X-33 Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Flight Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drag reduction tests were conducted on the LASRE/X-33 flight experiment. The LASRE experiment is a flight test of a roughly 20% scale model of an X-33 forebody with a single aerospike engine at the rear. The experiment apparatus is mounted on top of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper suggests a method for reducing base drag by adding surface roughness along the forebody. Calculations show a potential for base drag reductions of 8-14%. Flight results corroborate the base drag reduction, with actual reductions of 15% in the high-subsonic flight regime. An unexpected result of this experiment is that drag benefits were shown to persist well into the supersonic flight regime. Flight results show no overall net drag reduction. Applied surface roughness causes forebody pressures to rise and offset base drag reductions. Apparently the grit displaced streamlines outward, causing forebody compression. Results of the LASRE drag experiments are inconclusive and more work is needed. Clearly, however, the forebody grit application works as a viable drag reduction tool.

Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

1999-01-01

274

Development and Verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method with first and second order implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton's method, while the fully implicit linear system is solved with the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Verification results from exact solutions and the Method of Manufactured Solutions are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan D.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

2010-01-01

275

Effects of natural environment on first generation solid rocket booster thermal protection system materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort to demonstrate, by real-time exposure, the effects of the natural environment at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, upon the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is summarized, and that the overall SRB TPS configuration is verified to meet all requirements for resistance to the conditions associated with outdoor weathering, including: solar radiation; temperature; humidity; precipitation; wind; sand/dust abrasion; static electricity; salt spray; fungus; and atmospheric oxidants. The evaluation criterion for this project was based upon flatwise tensile properties, visual inspection, color change, and thermal performance. Based upon the evaluation of the changes in these properties, it is concluded that properly applied and topcoat-protected TPS can satisfactorily withstand the conditions of the natural environment at KSC for exposures up to six months.

Webb, D. D.

1988-01-01

276

Acoustic Characterization and Impact Sensing for Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems (TPS)  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to understand acoustic wave propagation characteristics in a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) wrapped tile thermal protection system (CMC+ Foam+ RTV+ SIP+ RTV+ Al) and ceramic foam. Sound velocities were measured in three orthogonal directions on the above material. The attenuation coefficients were also determined for a uncoated ceramic foam. Commercially available standard acoustic emission transducers, piezo-wafers and polymer based PVDF (polyvinylidiene fluoride) film were employed in the experiments to acquire the acoustic data. The performance characteristics of these sensors will be discussed in light of impact detection. Variation in the wave propagation characteristics along different directions and the role of processing in causing anisotropic acoustic properties in thermal protection systems will be discussed.

Kuhr, S. J. [Anteon Corporation, 5100 Springfield St, Suite 509, Dayton, OH, 45431 (United States); Reibel, R.; Sathish, S. [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH, 45469 (United States); Jata, K. V. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (AFRL/MLL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States)

2006-03-06

277

Shearographic and thermographic nondestructive evaluation of the space shuttle structure and thermal protection systems (TPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shearography and thermography have shown promising results on orbiter structure and external tank (ET) and solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal protection systems (TPS). The orbiter uses a variety of composite structure, the two most prevalent materials being aluminum and graphite-epoxy honeycomb. Both techniques have detected delaminations as small at 0.25 inches diameter in the orbiter payload bay doors graphite-epoxy honeycomb

Christopher K. Davis

1996-01-01

278

Heath Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems - Preliminary Measurements and Design Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work reported here is the first stage of a project that aims to develop a health monitoring system for Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) that enables a vehicle to safely re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. The TPS health monitoring system is to be integrated into an existing acoustic emissions-based Concept Demonstrator, developed by CSIRO, which has been previously demonstrated for evaluating impact damage of aerospace systems.

Scott, D. A.; Price, D. C.

2007-01-01

279

Analysis of gap heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical methods used to investigate entry gap heating in the Shuttle orbiter thermal protection system are described. Analytical results are given for a fuselage lower-surface location and a wing lower-surface location. These are locations where excessive gap heating occurred on the first flight of the Shuttle. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half-height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot-gas flow in the tile gaps are also given.

Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Carlson, A. B.

1983-01-01

280

A non rigid reusable surface insulation concept for the space shuttle thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reusable thermal protection system concept was developed for the space shuttle that utilizes a flexible, woven ceramic mat insulation beneath an aerodynamic skin and moisture barrier consisting of either a dense ceramic coating or a super alloy metallic foil. The resulting heat shield material has unique structural characteristics. The shear modulus of the woven mat is very low such that bending and membrane loads introduced into the underlying structural panel remain isolated from the surface skin.

Alexander, J. G.

1973-01-01

281

Work tolerance and physiological responses to thermal environment wearing protective NBC clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six young, healthy male subjects performed a series of experiments in a climatic chamber in different environmental conditions wearing protective ventilated NBC clothing. Ambient temperature, TA, ranged from -20 to 35C, relative humidity, RH, from 20 to 85%, and air velocity, VA, from 01 to 50 ms. In addition, thermal radiation, measured by the temperature of the globothermometer, TG, was

G. CORTILI; P. MOGNONI; F. SAIBENE

1996-01-01

282

STS-28 MS Adamson inspects Columbia's, OV-102's, thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-28 Mission Specialist (MS) James C. Adamson along with Acting Astronaut Office Chief Michael L. Coats inspect Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. Walking underneath the parked orbiter, Adamson (mustache) and Coats examine tiles as Pilot Richard N. Richards (back to camera) talks to ground crews around main landing gear (MLG). OV-102 landed on Runway 17 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB),California.

1989-01-01

283

A modernized high-pressure heater protection system for nuclear and thermal power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience gained from operation of high-pressure heaters and their protection systems serving to exclude ingress of water into the turbine is analyzed. A formula for determining the time for which the high-pressure heater shell steam space is filled when a rupture of tubes in it occurs is analyzed, and conclusions regarding the high-pressure heater design most advisable from this point of view are drawn. A typical structure of protection from increase of water level in the shell of high-pressure heaters used in domestically produced turbines for thermal and nuclear power stations is described, and examples illustrating this structure are given. Shortcomings of components used in the existing protection systems that may lead to an accident at the power station are considered. A modernized protection system intended to exclude the above-mentioned shortcomings was developed at the NPO Central Boiler-Turbine Institute and ZioMAR Engineering Company, and the design solutions used in this system are described. A mathematical model of the protection system's main elements (the admission and check valves) has been developed with participation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and a numerical investigation of these elements is carried out. The design version of surge tanks developed by specialists of the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute for excluding false operation of the high-pressure heater protection system is proposed.

Svyatkin, F. A.; Trifonov, N. N.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Tren'kin, V. B.; Koltunov, V. A.; Borovkov, A. I.; Klyavin, O. I.

2013-09-01

284

Wireless Subsurface Sensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems on Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to develop inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop "wireless" devices that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor temperature or other quantities of interest. These devices are sensors integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable non-contact communication of sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Both passive and active prototype devices have been developed. The passive device uses a thermal fuse to indicate the occurrence of excessive temperature. This device has a diameter under 0.13 cm. (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles on an RLV) and can withstand 370 C for 15 minutes. The active device contains a small battery to provide power to a thermocouple for recording a temperature history during flight. The bulk of the device must be placed beneath the TPS for protection from high temperature, but the thermocouple can be placed in a hot location such as near the external surface.

Milos, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

285

Development of Thermal Protection Materials for Future Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entry Systems will play a crucial role as NASA develops the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development Program Office established the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of current entry system technologies identified significant opportunity to improve the current state of the art in thermal protection materials in order to enable landing of heavy mass (40 mT) payloads. To accomplish this goal, the EDL Project has outlined a framework to define, develop and model the thermal protection system material concepts required to allow for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two primary classes of ablative materials are being developed: rigid and flexible. The rigid ablatives will be applied to the acreage of a 10x30 m rigid mid L/D Aeroshell to endure the dual pulse heating (peak approx.500 W/sq cm). Likewise, flexible ablative materials are being developed for 20-30 m diameter deployable aerodynamic decelerator entry systems that could endure dual pulse heating (peak aprrox.120 W/sq cm). A technology Roadmap is presented that will be used for facilitating the maturation of both the rigid and flexible ablative materials through application of decision metrics (requirements, key performance parameters, TRL definitions, and evaluation criteria) used to assess and advance the various candidate TPS material technologies.

Cassell, Alan M.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Arnold, James O.; Hwang, Helen; Wright, Michael J.; Szalai, Christine E.; Blosser, Max; Poteet, Carl C.

2010-01-01

286

Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective devices either do not protect or are themselves a hazard to the cell due to their limitations. These devices do not help in cases where the cells develop high impedance that suddenly causes them to go into a thermal runaway condition. Temperature monitoring typically helps with tracking the performance of a battery. But normal thermistors or thermal sensors do not provide the accuracy needed for this and cannot track a change in internal cell temperatures until it is too late to stop a thermal runaway.

Jeevarajan, Judith

2011-01-01

287

Protection of alodine coatings from thermal aging by removable polymer coatings.  

SciTech Connect

Removable polymer coatings were evaluated as a means to suppress dehydration of Alodine chromate conversion coatings during thermal aging and thereby retain the corrosion protection afforded by Alodine. Two types of polymer coatings were applied to Alodine-treated panels of aluminum alloys 7075-T73 and 6061-T6 that were subsequently aged for 15 to 50 hours at temperatures between 135 F to 200 F. The corrosion resistance of the thermally aged panels was evaluated, after stripping the polymer coatings, by exposure to a standard salt-fog corrosion test and the extent of pitting of the polymer-coated and untreated panels compared. Removable polymer coatings mitigated the loss of corrosion resistance due to thermal aging experienced by the untreated alloys. An epoxide coating was more effective than a fluorosilicone coating as a dehydration barrier.

Wagstaff, Brett R. (.); Bradshaw, Robert W.; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr. (.,; .)

2006-12-01

288

Development and Qualification of Alternate Blowing Agents for Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerospace industry has a long history of using low density polyurethane and polyurethane-modified isocyanurate foam systems as lightweight, low cost, easily processed cryogenic Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for ascent vehicles. The Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) is required so that quality liquid cryogenic propellant can be supplied to the Orbiter main engines and to protect the metal structure of the tanks from becoming too hot from aerodynamic heating, hence preventing premature break-up of the tank. These foams are all blown with CFC-1 I blowing agent which has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an ozone depleting substance. CFCs will not be manufactured after 1995, Consequently, alternate blowing agent substances must be identified and implemented to assure continued ET manufacture and delivery. This paper describes the various testing performed to select and qualify HCFC-1 41 b as a near term drop-in replacement for CFC-11. Although originally intended to be a one for one substitution in the formulation, several technical issues were identified regarding material performance and processability which required both formulation changes and special processing considerations to overcome. In order to evaluate these material changes, each material was subjected to various tests to qualify them to meet the various loads imposed on them during long term storage, pre-launch operations, launch, separation and re-entry. Each material was tested for structural, thermal, aeroshear, and stress/strain loads for the various flight environments each encounters. Details of the development and qualification program and the resolution of specific problems are discussed in this paper.

Williams, Charles W.; Cavalaris, James G.

1994-01-01

289

Integrated Hypersonic Aerothermoelastic Methodology for Transatmospheric Vehicle (TAV)/Thermal Protection System (TPS) Structural Design and Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adaptation of ZONA unified hypersonic/supersonic method ZONA7U and its integration/development into a ZONA aerothermoelastic software system for transatmospheric vehicle (TAV)/thermal protection system (TPS) design/ analysis was proven a successful to...

D. D. Liu P. C. Chen L. Tang K. T. Chang A. Chemaly

2002-01-01

290

Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass estimating relationships have been formulated to determine a vehicle's Thermal Protection System material and required thickness for safe Earth entry. We focus on developing MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

Sepka, S. A.; Samareh, J. A.

2014-06-01

291

SIMOUN: Systeme d'Investigation pour Materiaux Optimises Utilisables sur Navette (SIMOUN: Test System for Shuttle Thermal Protection Materials).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test system is designed to simulate Hermes shuttle reentry conditions in order to verify the behavior of the critical thermal protection layers, The system described generates a hot supersonic flow at the pressure and density calculated conditions. The ...

J. P. Serrano

1988-01-01

292

Computational techniques for design optimization of thermal protective systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 2: User's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular program for design optimization of thermal protection systems is discussed. Its capabilities and limitations are reviewed. Instructions for the operation of the program, output, and the program itself are given.

1971-01-01

293

Development Of FIAT-Based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems ...

J. Samareh K. A. Trumble R. W. Maddock S. Sepka

2012-01-01

294

Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications  

SciTech Connect

Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950/sup 0/C (1562 to 1742/sup 0/F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required.

Li, C.C.

1980-03-01

295

Measuring the spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials during atmospheric reentry simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypersonic spacecraft reentering the earth's atmosphere encounter extreme heat due to atmospheric friction. Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials shield the craft from this searing heat, which can reach temperatures of 2900 F. Various thermophysical and optical properties of TPS materials are tested at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility, which has the capability to simulate critical environmental conditions associated with entry into the earth's atmosphere. Emissivity is an optical property that determines how well a material will reradiate incident heat back into the atmosphere upon reentry, thus protecting the spacecraft from the intense frictional heat. This report describes a method of measuring TPS emissivities using the SR5000 Scanning Spectroradiometer, and includes system characteristics, sample data, and operational procedures developed for arc-jet applications.

Marble, Elizabeth

1996-01-01

296

Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 3; The Validation of Antice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program was generated by the Icing Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center to validate two ice protection simulation codes: (1) LEWICE/Thermal for transient electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing simulations, and (2) ANTICE for steady state hot gas and electrothermal anti-icing simulations. An electrothermal ice protection system was designed and constructed integral to a 36 inch chord NACA0012 airfoil. The model was fully instrumented with thermo-couples, RTD'S, and heat flux gages. Tests were conducted at several icing environmental conditions during a two week period at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. Experimental results of running-wet and evaporative cases were compared to the ANTICE computer code predictions and are presented in this paper.

Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Horvath, Charles; Miller, Dean R.; Wright, William B.

2001-01-01

297

Corrosion protection of Mg/Al alloys by thermal sprayed aluminium coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protective features of thermal sprayed Al-coatings applied on AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium/aluminium alloys were evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The changes in the morphology and corrosion behaviour of the Al-coatings induced by a cold-pressing post-treatment were also examined. The specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The as-sprayed Al-coatings revealed a high degree of porosity and poor corrosion protection, which resulted in galvanic acceleration of the corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment produced more compact Al-coatings with better bonding at the substrate/coating interface and higher corrosion resistance regardless of the nature of the magnesium alloy.

Pardo, A.; Casajs, P.; Mohedano, M.; Coy, A. E.; Viejo, F.; Torres, B.; Matykina, E.

2009-05-01

298

Revitalizing the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System with Reverse Engineering and 3D Vision Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle is protected by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) made of tens of thousands of individually shaped heat protection tile. With every flight, tiles are damaged on take-off and return to earth. After each mission, the heat tiles must be fixed or replaced depending on the level of damage. As part of the return to flight mission, the TPS requirements are more stringent, leading to a significant increase in heat tile replacements. The replacement operation requires scanning tile cavities, and in some cases the actual tiles. The 3D scan data is used to reverse engineer each tile into a precise CAD model, which in turn, is exported to a CAM system for the manufacture of the heat protection tile. Scanning is performed while other activities are going on in the shuttle processing facility. Many technicians work simultaneously on the space shuttle structure, which results in structural movements and vibrations. This paper will cover a portable, ultra-fast data acquisition approach used to scan surfaces in this unstable environment.

Wilson, Brad; Galatzer, Yishai

2008-01-01

299

Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle RLV design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal protection system (TPS). It consists of the coupling and automation of four computer software packages: MINIVER, TPSX, TCAT and ADS. MINIVER is an Aeroheating code that produces centerline radiation equilibrium temperatures, convective heating rates, and heat loads over simplified vehicle geometries. These include flat plates and swept cylinders that model wings and leading edges, respectively. TPSX is a NASA Ames material properties database that is available on the World Wide Web. The newly developed Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT) uses finite difference methods to carry out a transient in-depth I-D conduction analysis over the center mold line of the vehicle. This is used along with the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) code to correctly size the vehicle's thermal protection system JPS). The numerical optimizer ADS uses algorithms that solve constrained and unconstrained design problems. The resulting outputs for this process are TPS material types, unit thicknesses, and acreage percentages. TCAT was developed for several purposes. First, it provides a means to calculate the transient in-depth conduction seen by the surface of the TPS material that protects a vehicle during ascent and reentry. Along with the in-depth conduction, radiation from the surface of the material is calculated along with the temperatures at the backface and interior parts of the TPS material. Secondly, TCAT contributes added speed and automation to the overall design process. Another motivation in the development of TCAT is optimization.

Olds, John R.; Cowart, Kris

2001-01-01

300

Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems Using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, and an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during re-entry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry

Richards, Lance

2013-01-01

301

Thermal sprayed titanium anode for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable operation of cobalt catalyzed thermal sprayed titanium anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of bridge reinforcing steel was maintained in accelerated tests for a period equivalent to 23 years service at Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) bridge CP conditions with no evidence that operation would degrade with further aging. The cobalt catalyst dispersed into the concrete near the anodeconcrete interface with electrochemical aging to produce a more diffuse anode reaction zone. The titanium anode had a porous heterogeneous structure composed of ?-titanium containing interstitial oxygen and nitrogen, and a fee phase thought to be Ti(O,N). Splat cooling rates were 10 to 150 K/s, and microstructures were produced by equilibrium processes at the splat solidification front. Nitrogen gas atomization during thermal spraying produced a coating with more uniform composition, less cracking, and lower resistivity than using air atomization.

Cramer, S. D.; Covino, B. S.; Holcomb, G. R.; Bullard, S. J.; Collins, W. K.; Govier, R. D.; Wilson, R. D.; Laylor, H. M.

1999-03-01

302

The optimum levels of the thermal protection of residential buildings under climatic conditions of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports the results of determining the optimum values of the resistance of building envelopes to heat transfer for both existing and newly constructed buildings for regions of Russia with different climatic conditions. An analysis for the sensitivity of obtained optimum solutions to changes in external factors has been made. The potential of energy saving in both the existing housing stock and in newly constructed buildings due to the improvement of thermal protection performance of buildings to the optimum level has been determined.

Filippov, S. P.; Dil'man, M. D.; Ionov, M. S.

2013-11-01

303

Position Paper External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Manually Sprayed fly-as-is Foam Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During manufacture of the existing External Tanks (ETs), the Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam manual spray application processes lacked the enhanced controls/procedures to ensure that defects produced were less than the critical size. Therefore the only remaining option to certify the "fly-as-is" foam is to verify ET120 tank hardware meets the new foam debris requirements. The ET project has undertaken a significant effort studying the existing "fly-as-is" TPS foam. This paper contains the findings of the study.

Stadler, John H.

2009-01-01

304

Molecular outgassing measurements for an element of the Shuttle thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular outgassing studies were conducted on a thermal-protection material recently developed for the Shuttle Orbiter. Molecular outgassing rates as low as 10 to the minus 11th g/sq cm/sec, condensation coefficients, and molecular desorption rates were measured in four separate experiments using cryogenically and thermoelectrically cooled quartz crystal microbalances. Although the initial outgassing rates are high, they decreased to values in the 10 to the minus 10th g/sq cm/sec range in a reasonable period of time. Outgassing rates do not increase after entry heating although the condensation coefficients at various microbalance collection-surface temperatures become somewhat larger.

Visentine, J. T.; Richmond, R. G.; Kelso, R. M.

1976-01-01

305

Measured catalycities of various candidate space shuttle thermal protection system coatings at low temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atom recombination catalytic rates for surface coatings of various candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle vehicle were obtained from measurements in arc jet, air flow. The coatings, chrome oxides, siliconized carbon/carbon, hafnium/tantalum carbide on carbon/carbon, and niobium silicide, were bonded to the sensitive surface of transient slug calorimeters that measured the heat transfer rates to the coatings. The catalytic rates were inferred from these heat transfer rates Surface temperatures of the calorimeters varied from approximately 300 to 410 K.

Scott, C. D.

1973-01-01

306

Effect of surface catalysis on heating to ceramic coated thermal protection systems for transatmospheric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the effect of surface catalysis on the heat transfer rate to the heat shield of a typical Transatmospheric Vehicle (TAV) during ascent and atmospheric entry. Surface kinetics and optical properties obtained from arc-jet tests on candidate thermal protection systems (coated metals) were used in a reacting boundary layer code to estimate the heating distribution along the surface of a TAV. Thermochemical stability of the coatings is described in terms of reduction in emittance and loss of opacifiers from the coatings during the arc-jet tests.

Stewart, David A.; Kolodziej, Paul; Henline, William D.; Pincha, Elizabeth M. W.

1988-01-01

307

Refurbishment cost study of the thermal protection system of a space shuttle vehicle, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The labor costs and techniques associated with the refurbishment and maintenance of representative thermal protection system (TPS) components and their attachment concepts suitable for space shuttle application are defined, characterized, and evaluated from the results of an experimental test program. This program consisted of designing selected TPS concepts, fabricating and assembling test hardware, and performing a time and motion study of specific maintenance functions of the test hardware on a full-scale- mockup. Labor requirements and refurbishment techniques, as they relate to the maintenance functions of inspection, repair, removal, and replacement were identified.

Haas, D. W.

1972-01-01

308

CFD Analysis of Flexible Thermal Protection System Shear Configuration Testing in the LCAT Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents results of computational analysis performed after flexible thermal protection system shear configuration testing in the LCAT facility. The primary objectives were to predict the shear force on the sample and the sensitivity of all surface properties to the shape of the sample. Bumps of 0.05, 0.10,and 0.15 inches were created to approximate the shape of some fabric samples during testing. A large amount of information was extracted from the CFD solutions for comparison between runs and also current or future flight simulations.

Ferlemann, Paul G.

2014-01-01

309

Quantitative assessment of the relationship between radiant heat exposure and protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing during dry and wet conditions.  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of clothing on a person is important to the criteria for people exposure to radiant heat flux from fires. The thermal protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing exposed to low heat fluxes during dry and wet conditions was studied using two designed bench-scale test apparatus. The protective clothing with four fabric layers (outer shell, moisture barrier, thermal linear and inner layer) was exposed to six levels of thermal radiation (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10kW/m(2)). Two kinds of the moisture barrier (PTFE and GoreTex) with different vapor permeability were compared. The outside and inside surface temperatures of each fabric layer were measured. The fitting analysis was used to quantitatively assess the relationship between the temperature of each layer during thermal exposure and the level of external heat flux. It is indicated that there is a linear correlation between the temperature of each layer and the radiant level. Therefore, a predicted equation is developed to calculate the thermal insulation of the multilayer clothing from the external heat flux. It can also provide some useful information on the beneficial effects of clothing for the exposure criteria of radiant heat flux from fire. PMID:24922096

Fu, M; Weng, W G; Yuan, H Y

2014-07-15

310

X-33 Program Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation briefly presents the current status of the program. The program's objectives and near term plans are stated. A brief description of the vehicle configuration, the technologies to be demonstrated and the missions to be flown are presented. Finally, a status of the vehicle assembly, the launch control center development and the significant test programs' accomplishments are presented.

Dill, Charlie C.; Austin, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

311

Edgewise Compression Testing of STIPS-0 (Structurally Integrated Thermal Protection System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Structurally Integrated Thermal Protection System (SITPS) task was initiated by the NASA Hypersonics Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program to develop a structural load-carrying thermal protection system for use in aerospace applications. The initial NASA concept for SITPS consists of high-temperature composite facesheets (outer and inner mold lines) with a light-weight insulated structural core. An edgewise compression test was performed on the SITPS-0 test article at room temperature using conventional instrumentation and methods in order to obtain panel-level mechanical properties and behavior of the panel. Three compression loadings (10, 20 and 37 kips) were applied to the SITPS-0 panel. The panel behavior was monitored using standard techniques and non-destructive evaluation methods such as photogrammetry and acoustic emission. The elastic modulus of the SITPS-0 panel was determined to be 1.146x106 psi with a proportional limit at 1039 psi. Barrel-shaped bending of the panel and partial delamination of the IML occurred under the final loading.

Brewer, Amy R.

2011-01-01

312

Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

1997-01-01

313

Survey of the supporting research and technology for the thermal protection of the Galileo Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo Probe, which is scheduled to be launched in 1985 and to enter the hydrogen-helium atmosphere of Jupiter up to 1,475 days later, presents thermal protection problems that are far more difficult than those experienced in previous planetary entry missions. The high entry speed of the Probe will cause forebody heating rates orders of magnitude greater than those encountered in the Apollo and Pioneer Venus missions, severe afterbody heating from base-flow radiation, and thermochemical ablation rates for carbon phenolic that rival the free-stream mass flux. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the experimental work and computational research that provide technological support for the Probe's heat-shield design effort. The survey includes atmospheric modeling; both approximate and first-principle computations of flow fields and heat-shield material response; base heating; turbulence modelling; new computational techniques; experimental heating and materials studies; code validation efforts; and a set of 'consensus' first-principle flow-field solutions through the entry maneuver, with predictions of the corresponding thermal protection requirements.

Howe, J. T.; Pitts, W. C.; Lundell, J. H.

1981-01-01

314

A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to all other systems, as is the case with SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In particular, the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results in high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately calculate the TPS mass of this type of vehicle several engineering disciplines and analytical tools must be used preferably in an environment that data is easily transferred and multiple iterations are easily facilitated.

Alexander, Reginald; Stanley, Thomas Troy

2001-01-01

315

Evaluation of holographic subsurface radar for NDE of space shuttle thermal protection tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been carried out to evaluate holographic subsurface radar (RASCAN) for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of subnominal bond conditions between the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System tiles and the aluminum substrate. Initial results have shown detection of small voids and spots of moisture between Space Shuttle thermal protection tiles and underlying aluminum substrate. The characteristic feature of this device is the ability to obtain one-sided radar soundings/images with high sensitivity (detecting of wire of 20 micron and less in diameter), and high resolution (2 cm lateral resolution) in the frequency band of 3.6-4.0 GHz. JPL's advanced high-speed image processing and pattern recognition algorithms can be used to process the data generated by the holographic radar and automatically detect and measure the defects. Combining JPL's technologies with the briefcase size, portable RASCAN system will produce a simple and fully automated scanner capable of inspecting dielectric heat shielding materials or other spacecraft structures for cracks, voids, inclusions, delamination, debonding, etc.. We believe this technology holds promise to significantly enhance the safety of the Space Shuttle and the future CEV and other space exploration missions.

Lu, Thomas; Snapp, Cooper; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Thakoor, Anilkumar; Bechtel, Tim; Ivashov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Igor

2007-05-01

316

Development of thermal protection system of the MUSES-C/DASH reentry capsule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the final phase of the MUSES-C mission, a small capsule with asteroid sample conducts reentry flight directly from the interplanetary transfer orbit at the velocity over 12 km/s. The severe heat flux, the complicated functional requirements, and small weight budget impose several engineering challenges on the designing of the thermal protection system of the capsule. The heat shield is required to function not only as ablator but also as a structural component. The cloth-layered carbon-phenolic ablator, which has higher allowable stress, is developed in newly-devised fabric method for avoiding delamination due to the high aerodynamic heating. The ablation analysis code, which takes into account of the effect of pyrolysis gas on the surface recession rate, has been developed and verified in the arc-heating tests in the facility environment of broad range of enthalpy level. The capsule was designed to be ventilated during the reentry flight up to about atmospheric pressure by the time of parachute deployment by being sealed with porous flow-restrict material. The designing of the thermal protection system, the hardware specifications, and the ground-based test programs of both MUSES-C and DASH capsule are summarized and discussed here in this paper.

Yamada, Tetsuya; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Honda, Masahisa; Hirai, Ken'ich

2002-07-01

317

Ballistic Performance Model of Crater Formation in Monolithic, Porous Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous monolithic ablative systems insulate atmospheric reentry vehicles from reentry plasmas generated by atmospheric braking from orbital and exo-orbital velocities. Due to the necessity that these materials create a temperature gradient up to several thousand Kelvin over their thickness, it is important that these materials are near their pristine state prior to reentry. These materials may also be on exposed surfaces to space environment threats like orbital debris and meteoroids leaving a probability that these exposed surfaces will be below their prescribed values. Owing to the typical small size of impact craters in these materials, the local flow fields over these craters and the ablative process afford some margin in thermal protection designs for these locally reduced performance values. In this work, tests to develop ballistic performance models for thermal protection materials typical of those being used on Orion are discussed. A density profile as a function of depth of a typical monolithic ablator and substructure system is shown in Figure 1a.

Miller, J. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Deighton, K. D.

2014-01-01

318

Flight set 360L007 (STS-33R) field joint protection system, thermal protection system, and systems tunnel components, volume 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the thermal protection system, field joint protection system, and systems tunnel components of flight set 360L007 is presented as evaluated by postflight hardware inspection. The condition of both motors was similar to previous flights. Four aft edge strikes were noted on the ground environment instrumentation thermal protection system. The hits all left a clean substrate, indicating that the damage was caused by nozzle severance debris and/or water impact. No National Space Transportation System debris criteria for missing thermal protection system were violated. Two problem reports were written against the field joint protection system. The first concerned two cracks in the K5NA closeout over the trunnion/vent valve location on the left-hand aft field joint. A similar condition was observed on Flight 5 (360H005). The second problem report referred to a number of small surface cracks between two impact marks on the left-hand forward field joint. Neither area exhibited loose material or any abnormal heat effects, and they have no impact on flight safety.

1990-01-01

319

Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

2006-01-01

320

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-10-01

321

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-10-01

322

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-07-01

323

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2002-04-01

324

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2004-10-01

325

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-04-01

326

International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

2013-01-01

327

Development of metallic thermal protection systems for the reusable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reusable Thermal Protection System (TPS) that is not only lightweight, but durable, operable and cost effective is one of the technologies required by the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to achieve the goal of drastically reducing the cost of delivering payload to orbit. Metallic TPS is one of the systems being developed to meet this challenge. Current efforts involve improving the superalloy honeycomb TPS concept, which consists of a foil-gage metallic box encapsulating a low density fibrous insulation, and evaluating it for RLV requirements. The superalloy honeycomb TPS concept is mechanically attached to the vehicle structure. Improvements include more efficient internal insulation, a simpler, lighter weight configuration, and a quick-release fastener system for easier installation and removal. Evaluation includes thermal and structural analysis, fabrication and testing of both coupons and TPS panels under conditions simulating RLV environments. Coupons of metallic honeycomb sandwich, representative of the outer TPS surface, were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, and rain erosion testing as well as subsequent arcjet exposure. Arrays of TPS panels have been subjected to radiant heating in a thermal/vacuum facility, aerodynamic heating in an arcjet facility and acoustic loading.

Blosser, Max L.

1997-01-01

328

Development of metallic thermal protection systems for the reusable launch vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A reusable Thermal Protection System (TPS) that is not only lightweight, but durable, operable and cost effective is one of the technologies required by the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to achieve the goal of drastically reducing the cost of delivering payload to orbit. Metallic TPS is one of the systems being developed to meet this challenge. Current efforts involve improving the superalloy honeycomb TPS concept, which consists of a foil-gage metallic box encapsulating a low density fibrous insulation, and evaluating it for RLV requirements. The superalloy honeycomb TPS concept is mechanically attached to the vehicle structure. Improvements include more efficient internal insulation, a simpler, lighter weight configuration, and a quick-release fastener system for easier installation and removal. Evaluation includes thermal and structural analysis, fabrication and testing of both coupons and TPS panels under conditions simulating RLV environments. Coupons of metallic honeycomb sandwich, representative of the outer TPS surface, were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, and rain erosion testing as well as subsequent arcjet exposure. Arrays of TPS panels have been subjected to radiant heating in a thermal/vacuum facility, aerodynamic heating in an arcjet facility and acoustic loading. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Blosser, M.L. [NASA-Langley Research Center Mail Stop 396 Hampton, Virginia23681-0001 (United States)

1997-01-01

329

Performance of thermal control tape in the protection of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of materials for construction of long duration mission spacecraft has presented many challenges to the aerospace design community. After nearly six years in low earth orbit, NASA's Long duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), retrieved in January of 1990, has provided valuable information on both the nature of the space environment as well as the effects of the space environment on potential spacecraft materials. Composites, long a favorite of the design community because of a high strength-to-weight ratio, were flown in various configurations on LDEF in order to evaluate the effects of radiation, atomic oxygen, vacuum, micrometeoroid debris, and thermal variation on their performance. Fiberglass composite samples covered with an aluminum thermal control tape were flown as part of the flight experiment A0171, the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE). Visual observations and test results indicate that the thermal control tape suffered little degradation from the space exposure and proved to be a reliable source of protection from atomic oxygen erosion and UV radiation for the underlying composite material.

Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Whitaker, Ann F.

1992-01-01

330

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high precision high PSRR bandgap reference with thermal hysteresis protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the accuracy requirement for the bandgap voltage reference by the increasing data conversion precision of integrated circuits, a high-order curvature-compensated bandgap voltage reference is presented employing the characteristic of bipolar transistor current gain exponentially changing with temperature variations. In addition, an over-temperature protection circuit with a thermal hysteresis function to prevent thermal oscillation is proposed. Based on the CSMC 0.5 ?m 20 V BCD process, the designed circuit is implemented; the active die area is 0.17 0.20 mm2. Simulation and testing results show that the temperature coefficient is 13.7ppm/K with temperature ranging from -40 to 150 C, the power supply rejection ratio is -98.2 dB, the line regulation is 0.3 mV/V, and the power consumption is only 0.38 mW. The proposed bandgap voltage reference has good characteristics such as small area, low power consumption, good temperature stability, high power supply rejection ratio, as well as low line regulation. This circuit can effectively prevent thermal oscillation and is suitable for on-chip voltage reference in high precision analog, digital and mixed systems.

Yintang, Yang; Yani, Li; Zhangming, Zhu

2010-09-01

331

Development of Metallic Thermal Protection Systems for the Reusable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reusable Thermal Protection System (TPS) that is not only lightweight, but durable, operable and cost effective is one of the technologies required by the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to achieve the goal of drastically reducing the cost of delivering payload to orbit. Metallic TPS is one of the systems being developed to meet this challenge. Current efforts involve improving the superalloy honeycomb TPS concept, which consists of a foil-gage metallic box encapsulating a low density fibrous insulation, and evaluating it for RLV requirements. The superalloy honeycomb TPS concept is mechanically attached to the vehicle structure. Improvements include more efficient internal insulation, a simpler, lighter weight configuration, and a quick-release fastener system for easier installation and removal. Evaluation includes thermal and structural analysis, fabrication and testing of both coupons and TPS panels under conditions simulating RLV environments. Coupons of metallic honeycomb sandwich, representative of the outer TPS surface, were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, and rain erosion testing as well as subsequent arcjet exposure. Arrays of TPS panels have been subjected to radiant heating in a thermal/vacuum facility, aerodynamic heating in an arcjet facility and acoustic loading.

Blosser, Max L.

1996-01-01

332

Evaluation of the thermal performance of fire fighter protective clothing with the addition of phase change material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire fighters rely on fire fighter protective clothing (FFPC) to provide adequate protection in the various hazardous environments they may encounter during operations. FFPC has seen significant advancement in technology over the past few decades. The addition of phase change material (PCM) to FFPC is a new technology with potential to enhance the thermal protection provided by the FFPC. To explore this technology, data from bench-scale experiments involving FFPC with PCMs are compared with a theoretical finite difference heat transfer model. The results demonstrate an effective method to mathematically model the heat transfer and provide insight into the effectiveness of improving the thermal protection of FFPC. The experiments confirm that the latent heat absorbed during the phase change reduces temperatures that might be experienced at the fire fighter's skin surface, advancing the high temperature performance of FFPC.

McCarthy, Lee K.

333

Impacts of Space Shuttle thermal protection system tile on F-15 aircraft vertical tile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impacts of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile on the leading edge and the side of the vertical tail of the F-15 aircraft were analyzed under different TPS tile orientations. The TPS tile-breaking tests were conducted to simulate the TPS tile impacts. It was found that the predicted tile impact forces compare fairly well with the tile-breaking forces, and the impact forces exerted on the F-15 aircraft vertical tail were relatively low because a very small fraction of the tile kinetic energy was dissipated in the impact, penetration, and fracture of the tile. It was also found that the oblique impact of the tile on the side of the F-15 aircraft vertical tail was unlikely to dent the tail surface.

Ko, W. L.

1985-01-01

334

The Evolution of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Shearography is being developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam while terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography are being developed to identify voids and cracks in thick foam regions. The basic theory of operation along with factors affecting the results of these methods will be described. Also, the evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

2006-01-01

335

Flow through the tile gaps in the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis and is verified against available experimental data. This model derives the tile-gap pressure field from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is also given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculations. Finally recommendations are made concerning additional analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions.

Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.

1982-01-01

336

Assessing Factors of Safety, Margins of Safety, and Reliability of Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides formally derived definitions for Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) factors of safety and margins of safety borrowing from machine design approaches. The new factors of safety and margins of safety definitions are quite simple and easy to use, and should provide improved comparison of design safety and margins of past, present and future vehicles, These definitions are then applied to several entry vehicles, including Apollo, the Space Shuttle, the Mars Viking and Pathfinder vehicles, and the Pioneer Venus entry vehicle for example and clarity, and to aid in developing a database of previous TPS design experience. In addition to the factors and margins of safety, definitions of computed reliabilities incorporation the reliability index used in machine design are also developed and presented. Adoption and use of the reliability index will hopefully considerably aid the optimization of TPS design for future vehicles.

Rasky, Daniel J.; Arnold, Jim O. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

337

An Assessment of Alternate Thermal Protection Systems for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Volume 1; Executive Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternate thermal protection system (TPS) concepts to the Space Shuttle Orbiter were assessed. Metallic, ablator, and carbon-carbon concepts which are the result of some previous design, manufacturing and testing effort were considered. Emphasis was placed on improved TPS durability, which could potentially reduce life cycle costs and improve Orbiter operational characteristics. Integrated concept/orbiter point designs were generated and analyzed on the basis of Shuttle design environments and criteria. A merit function evaluation methodology based on mission impact, life cycle costs, and risk was developed to compare the candidate concepts and to identify the best alternate. Voids and deficiencies in the technology were identified, along with recommended activities to overcome them. Finally, programmatic plans, including ROM costs and schedules, were developed for all activities required to bring the selected alternate system up to operational readiness.

Hays, D.

1982-01-01

338

Application experience of gas-thermal aluminum coatings to protect the pipes for underground construction and repair of heat networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questions of sacrificial protection for pipes of underground heat networks with aluminum against the external corrosion are considered. The description of pilot production of pipes with a plasma aluminum coating and the deposition of a sacrificial gas-plasma aluminum coating on weld joints of pipelines and the zone of their thermal influence during assemblage is presented. Examples of repairing the segments of distribution heat networks by the pipes with the tread protection are presented.

Kolpakov, A. S.

2013-11-01

339

Laser interferometric method for ns-time scale thermal mapping of Smart Power ESD protection devices during ESD stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A backside heterodyne interferometric technique is presented to study thermal effects in smart-power electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection devices during the ESD stress. The temperature increase in the device active area causes an increase in the silicon refractive index (thermo-optical effect) which is monitored by the time-resolved measurements of optical phase changes. Thermal dynamics and spatial temperature distribution in different types

C. Frbck; M. Litzenberger; D. Pogany; E. Gornik; N. Seliger; T. Mller-Lynch; M. Stecher; H. Goner; W. Werner

1999-01-01

340

Improving Metallic Thermal Protection System Hypervelocity Impact Resistance Through Design of Experiments Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design of experiments approach has been implemented using computational hypervelocity impact simulations to determine the most effective place to add mass to an existing metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) to improve hypervelocity impact protection. Simulations were performed using axisymmetric models in CTH, a shock-physics code developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and validated by comparison with existing test data. The axisymmetric models were then used in a statistical sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of five design parameters on degree of hypervelocity particle dispersion. Several damage metrics were identified and evaluated. Damage metrics related to the extent of substructure damage were seen to produce misleading results, however damage metrics related to the degree of dispersion of the hypervelocity particle produced results that corresponded to physical intuition. Based on analysis of variance results it was concluded that the most effective way to increase hypervelocity impact resistance is to increase the thickness of the outer foil layer. Increasing the spacing between the outer surface and the substructure is also very effective at increasing dispersion.

Poteet, Carl C.; Blosser, Max L.

2001-01-01

341

Testing Lunar Return Thermal Protection Systems using Sub-Scale Flight Test Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key objective of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to revisit the lunar surface. Such an ambitious goal requires the development of a new human-rated spacecraft, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), to ferry crews to low earth orbit and to the moon. The successful conclusion of both types of missions will require a thermal protection system (TPS) capable of protecting the vehicle and crew from the extreme heat of atmospheric reentry. As a part of the TPS development, various materials are being tested in arcjet tunnels; however, the combined lunar return aerothermal environment of high heat flux, shear stress, and surface pressure cannot be duplicated using only existing ground test facilities. To ensure full TPS qualification, a flight test program using sub-scale Orion capsules has been proposed to test TPS materials and heat shield construction techniques under the most stressing combination of lunar return aerothermal environments. Originally called Testing Of Reentry Capsule Heat Shield, or TORCH, but later renamed LEX, for Lunar Reentry Experiment, the proposed flight test program is presented along with the driving requirements and descriptions of the vehicle and the TPS instrumentation suite slated to conduct in-flight measurements.

Chen, George; De Jong, Christian; Ivanov, Mark; Ong, Chester; Seybold, Calina; Hash, David

2007-01-01

342

Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems and MMOD using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, such as those from Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD). The approach uses an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during reentry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry.

Richards, Lance

2014-01-01

343

Shearographic non-destructive evaluation of space shuttle thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of shearographic inspections of the shuttle external tank (ET) spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) and solid rocket booster (SRB) Marshall sprayable ablative (MSA-2) epoxy-cork thermal protection systems (TPS) are presented. Debonding SOFI or MSA-2 damage the orbiter 'belly' tile and exposes the ET/SRB to thermal loading. Previous work with the ET/SRB showed promising results with shearography. The first area investigated was the jack pad close-out, one of many areas on the ET where foam is applied at KSC. Voids 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of less than 0.4 psi. Of primary interest are areas of the ET that directly face the orbiter tile TPS. It is estimated that 90% of tile TPS damage on the orbiter 'belly' results from debonding SOFI during ascent. Test panels modeling these areas were manufactured with programmed debonds to determine the sensitivity of shearography as a function of debond size, SOFI thickness and vacuum. Results show repeatable detection of debonds with a diameter approximately half the SOFI thickness at less than 0.4 psi pressure reduction. Preliminary results are also presented on inspections of MSA-2 and the remote manipulator system (RMS) honeycomb material

Hooker, Jeffrey A.; Simmons, Stephen M.; Davis, Christopher K.; Tenbusch, Kenneth E.

1995-01-01

344

Shearographic Non-Destructive Evaluation of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of shearographic inspections of the shuttle external tank (ET) spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) and solid rocket booster (SRB) Marshall sprayable ablative (MSA-2) epoxy-cork thermal protection systems (TPS) are presented. Debonding SOFI or MSA-2 damage the orbiter 'belly' tile and exposes the ET/SRB to thermal loading. Previous work with the ET/SRB showed promising results with shearography. The first area investigated was the jack pad close-out, one of many areas on the ET where foam is applied at KSC. Voids 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of less than 0.4 psi. Of primary interest are areas of the ET that directly face the orbiter tile TPS. It is estimated that 90% of tile TPS damage on the orbiter 'belly' results from debonding SOFI during ascent. Test panels modeling these areas were manufactured with programmed debonds to determine the sensitivity of shearography as a function of debond size, SOFI thickness and vacuum. Results show repeatable detection of debonds with a diameter approximately half the SOFI thickness at less than 0.4 psi pressure reduction. Preliminary results are also presented on inspections of MSA-2 and the remote manipulator system (RMS) honeycomb material.

Davis, Christopher K.; Hooker, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Stephen A.; Tenbusch, Kenneth E.

1995-01-01

345

Parametric Weight Comparison of Current and Proposed Thermal Protection System (TPS) Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (1 -D) thermal finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to ac- count for coatings, fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a particular trajectory. Eight TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile systems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

1999-01-01

346

Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and Hot Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this paper is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components. The two primary technical challenges impacting the use of CMC TPS and hot structures for hypersonic vehicles are environmental durability and fabrication, and will be discussed briefly.

Glass, David E.

2008-01-01

347

Increasing refiner production by using motor thermal capacity for protection and control  

SciTech Connect

Industrial motors are typically controlled and operated by closely monitoring the stator winding temperatures and limiting the phase currents within the motor manufacturer`s full-load ampacity rating. A different approach to motor operation and control was implemented at the Blue Ridge Lumber medium density fiberboard (MDF) plant at Whitecourt, Alta., Canada. The capacity control of the refiner is based on using the remaining thermal capacity of the motor as the primary control parameter. In this installation, a 4,000-hp totally enclosed water air cooled (TEWAC) squirrel-cage induction motor is continuously operating above the manufacturer`s rated full-load current, but is being controlled by maintaining thermal capacity at 50%. Temporary current loadings well above this are permitted for up to several minutes to accommodate variations in the wood feed stock to the refiner. This was implemented by installing a modern motor protection relay, communication with a programmable logic controller (PLC) system, and the development of operator interface displays to provide plant operators with the necessary information to monitor the motor parameters. Factors which needed to be considered were the electrical power system limitations, the motor cooling effectiveness, and mechanical limitations imposed by the refiner shaft design.

Grainger, L.G. [Grainger Electrical Research Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)] [Grainger Electrical Research Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); McDonald, M.C. [Alberta Energy Co., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Alberta Energy Co., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1997-05-01

348

CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

Stroud, C. W.

1994-01-01

349

Improvements in Thermal Protection Sizing Capabilities for TCAT: Conceptual Design for Advanced Space Transportation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT), originally developed for the Space Systems Design Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is a conceptual design tool capable of integrating aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle design. It provides Thermal Protection System (TPS) unit thicknesses and acreage percentages based on the geometry of the vehicle and a reference trajectory to be used in calculation of the total cost and weight of the vehicle design. TCAT has proven to be reasonably accurate at calculating the TPS unit weights for in-flight trajectories; however, it does not have the capability of sizing TPS materials above cryogenic fuel tanks for ground hold operations. During ground hold operations, the vehicle is held for a brief period (generally about two hours) during which heat transfer from the TPS materials to the cryogenic fuel occurs. If too much heat is extracted from the TPS material, the surface temperature may fall below the freezing point of water, thereby freezing any condensation that may be present at the surface of the TPS. Condensation or ice on the surface of the vehicle is potentially hazardous to the mission and can also damage the TPS. It is questionable whether or not the TPS thicknesses provided by the aeroheating analysis would be sufficiently thick to insulate the surface of the TPS from the heat transfer to the fuel. Therefore, a design tool has been developed that is capable of sizing TPS materials at these cryogenic fuel tank locations to augment TCAT's TPS sizing capabilities.

Olds, John R.; Izon, Stephen James

2002-01-01

350

Prediction of In-Space Durability of Protected Polymers Based on Ground Laboratory Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probability of atomic oxygen reacting with polymeric materials is orders of magnitude lower at thermal energies (greater than O.1 eV) than at orbital impact energies (4.5 eV). As a result, absolute atomic oxygen fluxes at thermal energies must be orders of magnitude higher than orbital energy fluxes, to produce the same effective fluxes (or same oxidation rates) for polymers. These differences can cause highly pessimistic durability predictions for protected polymers and polymers which develop protective metal oxide surfaces as a result of oxidation if one does not make suitable calibrations. A comparison was conducted of undercut cavities below defect sites in protected polyimide Kapton samples flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) with similar samples exposed in thermal energy oxygen plasma. The results of this comparison were used to quantify predicted material loss in space based on material loss in ground laboratory thermal energy plasma testing. A microindent hardness comparison of surface oxidation of a silicone flown on the Environmental Oxygen Interaction with Materials-III (EOIM-III) experiment with samples exposed in thermal energy plasmas was similarly used to calibrate the rate of oxidation of silicone in space relative to samples in thermal energy plasmas exposed to polyimide Kapton effective fluences.

Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon; DiFilippo, Frank J.

1996-01-01

351

Structural health monitoring technology for bolted carbon-carbon thermal protection panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research in this dissertation is motivated by the need for reliable inspection technologies for the detection of bolt loosening in Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels on Space Operation Vehicles (SOV) using minimal human intervention. A concept demonstrator of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system was developed to autonomously detect the degradation of the mechanical integrity of the standoff C-C TPS panels. This system assesses the torque levels of the loosened bolts in the C-C TPS panel, as well as identifies the location of those bolts accordingly. During the course of building the proposed SHM prototype, efforts have been focused primarily on developing a trustworthy diagnostic scheme and a responsive sensor suite. Based on the microcontact conditions and damping phenomena of ultrasonic waves across the bolted joints, an Attenuation-based Diagnostic Method was proposed to assess the fastener integrity by observing the attenuation patterns of the resultant sensor signals. Parametric model studies and prototype testing validated the theoretical explanation of the attenuation-based method. Once the diagnostic scheme was determined, the implementation of a sensor suite was the next step. A new PZT-embedded sensor washer was developed to enhance remote sensing capability and achieve sufficient sensitivity by guiding diagnostic waves primarily through the inspection areas. The sensor-embedded washers replace the existing washers to constitute the sensor network, as well as to avoid jeopardizing the integrity of the original fastener components. After sensor design evolution and appropriate algorithm development, verification tests were conducted using a shaker and a full-scale oven, which simulated the acoustic and thermal environments during the re-entry process, respectively. The test results revealed that the proposed system successfully identifies the loss of the preload for the bolted joints that were loosened. The sensors were also found to be durable under the cyclic mechanical and thermal loads without major failures.

Yang, Jinkyu

2005-12-01

352

Aerothermal and structural performance of a cobalt-base superalloy thermal protection system at Mach 6.6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flightweight, metallic thermal protection system (TPS) applicable to reentry and hypersonic vehicles was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating in order to evaluate its aerothermal performance and structural integrity. Good structural integrity and thermal performance were demonstrated by the TPS under both a radiant and aerothermal heating environment typical of a shuttle entry. The shingle-slip joints effectively allowed for thermal expansion of the panel without allowing any appreciable hot gas flow into the TPS cavity. The TPS also demonstrated good structural ruggedness.

Sawyer, J. W.

1977-01-01

353

Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

2010-01-01

354

Thermal Protection System Cavity Heating for Simplified and Actual Geometries Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations with Unstructured Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.

McCloud, Peter L.

2010-01-01

355

Numerical Simulation of control of plasma flow with magnetic field for thermal protection in Earth reentry flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present numerical study examines the possibility and usefulness of the control of weakly ionized plasma flow ahead of a space vehicle by means of the magnetic field for thermal protection in earth reentry flight under the flight conditions at the altitudes from about 72 to 48 km along the real earth reentry trajectory of the blunt body OREX, which

Takayasu Fujino; Motoo Ishikawa

2006-01-01

356

Study on corrosion protection of organic coatings using electrochemical techniques: Thermal property characterization, film thickness investigation, and coating performance evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an initial effort to establish a rapid, accurate, and comprehensive testing protocol for performance evaluation and lifetime prediction of corrosion protective coatings, the effects of coating thermal characteristics, coating application parameters, and coating formulation variations on corrosion protection have been explored. The study has been accomplished primarily through modern electrochemical techniques, such as Electrochemical Noise Methods (ENM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), with the aid of traditional thermal analysis, surface characterization, and appearance inspection. The employed electrochemical techniques have exhibited usefulness as powerful testing tools that have provided valuable results in good agreement with field observations and other measures by traditional methods. Thermal property characterization on fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings has shown that coating electrical resistances decreased as temperature rose with a distinct thermal transition point corresponding to glass transition temperature (Tg) of the immersed coatings. The change in coating capacitance with temperature revealed the irreversible process of water ingress and the effects of electrolyte plasticization in the coating films. Film thickness investigation on marine coating systems has demonstrated that film thickness has significant influences on coating corrosion protection. Better performance is expected for a coating system with thicker film thickness as well as with more coating layers when applied at a constant film thickness. The results indicate that there was a possible critical minimum film thickness above which coating protective performance was greatly enhanced and that there was also a maximum limiting film thickness above which increasing film thickness made little contribution to corrosion protection. Coating performance evaluation on aircraft coating systems has offered accurate performance ranking and reasonable lifetime prediction for high-quality, anticorrosive coatings. The mechanisms of corrosion protection by several coating systems with various types of polymers and pigment volume concentrations (PVC) have been discovered. Future work will consider a broader selection of materials, different test conditions, and a greater variety of characterization techniques. More sophisticated data analysis methods also need to be developed.

Li, Junping

2002-08-01

357

THERMAL INSTABILITY OF ?F508 CFTR CHANNEL FUNCTION: PROTECTION BY SINGLE SUPPRESSOR MUTATIONS AND INHIBITING CHANNEL ACTIVITY  

PubMed Central

Deletion of Phe508 from CFTR results in a temperature-sensitive folding defect that impairs protein maturation and chloride channel function. Both of these adverse effects, however, can be mitigated to varying extents by second-site, suppressor mutations. To better understand the impact of second-site mutations on channel function, we compared the thermal sensitivity of CFTR channels in Xenopus oocytes. CFTR-mediated conductance of oocytes expressing wt or ?F508 CFTR was stable at 22C and increased at 28C; a temperature permissive for ?F508 CFTR expression in mammalian cells. At 37C, however, CFTR-mediated conductance was further enhanced, whereas that due to ?F508 CFTR channels decreased rapidly towards background, a phenomenon referred to here as thermal inactivation. Thermal inactivation of ?F508 was mitigated by each of five suppressor mutations, I539T, R553M, G550E, R555K and R1070W; but each exerted unique effects on the severity of, and recovery from, thermal inactivation. Another mutation, K1250A, known to increase open probability (Po) of ?F508 CFTR channels, exacerbated thermal inactivation. Application of potentiators known to increase Po of ?F508 CFTR channels at room temperature failed to protect channels from inactivation at 37C and one, PG-01, actually exacerbated thermal inactivation. Unstimulated ?F508CFTR channels or those inhibited by CFTRinh-172, were partially protected from thermal inactivation, suggesting a possible inverse relationship between thermal stability and gating transitions. Thermal stability of channel function and temperature-sensitive maturation of the mutant protein appear to reflect related, but distinct facets of the ?F508 CFTR conformational defect, both of which must be addressed by effective therapeutic modalities.

Liu, Xuehong; O'Donnell, Nicolette; Landstrom, Allison; Skach, William R.; Dawson, David C.

2012-01-01

358

Health Monitoring Technology for Thermal Protection Systems on Reusable Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated subsystem health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. This talk summarizes a joint effort between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop rapid non-contact diagnostic tools for health and performance monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS) on future RLVs. The specific goals for TPS health monitoring are to increase the speed and reliability of TPS inspections for improved operability at lower cost. The technology being developed includes a 3-D laser scanner for examining the exterior surface of the TPS, and a subsurface microsensor suite for monitoring the health and performance of the TPS. The sensor suite consists of passive overlimit sensors and sensors for continuous parameter monitoring in flight. The sensors are integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable wireless communication of-the sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Prototypes of the laser system and both types of subsurface sensors have been developed. The laser scanner was tested on Shuttle Orbiter Columbia and was able to dimension surface chips and holes on a variety of TPS materials. The temperature-overlimit microsensor has a diameter under 0.05 inch (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles) and can withstand 700 F for 15 minutes.

Milos, Frank S.; Watters, D. G.; Heinemann, J. M.; Karunaratne, K. S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

359

Optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 1: Final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study performed to continue development of computational techniques for the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System is reported. The resulting computer code was used to perform some additional optimization studies on several TPS configurations. The program was developed in Fortran 4 for the CDC 6400, and it was converted to Fortran 5 to be used for the Univac 1108. The computational methodology is developed in modular fashion to facilitate changes and updating of the techniques and to allow overlaying the computer code to fit into approximately 131,000 octal words of core storage. The program logic involves subroutines which handle input and output of information between computer and user, thermodynamic stress, dynamic, and weight/estimate analyses of a variety of panel configurations. These include metallic, ablative, RSI (with and without an underlying phase change material), and a thermodynamic analysis only of carbon-carbon systems applied to the leading edge and flat cover panels. Two different thermodynamic analyses are used. The first is a two-dimensional, explicit precedure with variable time steps which is used to describe the behavior of metallic and carbon-carbon leading edges. The second is a one-dimensional implicity technique used to predict temperature in the charring ablator and the noncharring RSI. The latter analysis is performed simply by suppressing the chemical reactions and pyrolysis of the TPS material.

1972-01-01

360

Backscatter X-Ray Development for Space Vehicle Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Backscatter X-Ray (BSX) imaging technique is used for various single sided inspection purposes. Previously developed BSX techniques for spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) have been used for detecting defects in Space Shuttle External Tank foam insulation. The developed BSX hardware and techniques are currently being enhanced to advance Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods for future space vehicle applications. Various Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials were inspected using the enhanced BSX imaging techniques, investigating the capability of the method to detect voids and other discontinuities at various locations within each material. Calibration standards were developed for the TPS materials in order to characterize and develop enhanced BSX inspection capabilities. The ability of the BSX technique to detect both manufactured and natural defects was also studied and compared to through-transmission x-ray techniques. The energy of the x-ray, source to object distance, angle of x-ray, focal spot size and x-ray detector configurations were parameters playing a significant role in the sensitivity of the BSX technique to image various materials and defects. The image processing of the results also showed significant increase in the sensitivity of the technique. The experimental results showed BSX to be a viable inspection technique for space vehicle TPS systems.

Bartha, Bence B.; Hope, Dale; Vona, Paul; Born, Martin; Corak, Tony

2011-06-01

361

Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (premature transition at 800 sec) were used as reentry heat inputs. The TPS missing or eroded site is assumed to be located at the center or corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of missing TPS tiles, under the original STS-5 heating, the orbiter can afford to lose only one TPS tile at the center or two TPS tiles at the corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. Under modified STS-5 heating, the orbiter cannot afford to lose even one TPS tile at the center or at the corner of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of eroded TPS tiles, the aluminum skin temperature rises relatively slowly with the decreasing thickness of the eroded central or corner TPS tile until most of the TPS tile is eroded away, and then increases exponentially toward the missing tile case.

Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

2004-01-01

362

Methodology for Flight Relevant Arc-Jet Testing of Flexible Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology to correlate flight aeroheating environments to the arc-jet environment is presented. For a desired hot-wall flight heating rate, the methodology provides the arcjet bulk enthalpy for the corresponding cold-wall heating rate. A series of analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the test sample model holder geometry to the overall performance of the test sample. The analyses were compared with arc-jet test samples and challenges and issues are presented. The transient flight environment was calculated for the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Earth Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle, which is a planned demonstration vehicle using a large inflatable, flexible thermal protection system to reenter the Earth's atmosphere from the International Space Station. A series of correlations were developed to define the relevant arc-jet test environment to properly approximate the HEART flight environment. The computed arcjet environments were compared with the measured arc-jet values to define the uncertainty of the correlated environment. The results show that for a given flight surface heat flux and a fully-catalytic TPS, the flight relevant arc-jet heat flux increases with the arc-jet bulk enthalpy while for a non-catalytic TPS the arc-jet heat flux decreases with the bulk enthalpy.

Mazaheri, Alireza; Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Sutton, Kenneth

2013-01-01

363

Development of Wireless Subsurface Microsensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost access to space is a primary goal for both NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry. Integrated subsystem health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVS) in order to reduce life cycle costs, increase safety margins and improve mission reliability. A number of efforts are underway to use existing and emerging technologies to establish new methods for vehicle health monitoring on operational vehicles as well as X-vehicles. This paper summarizes a joint effort between several NASA centers and industry partners to develop rapid wireless diagnostic tools for failure management and long-term TPS performance monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS) on future RLVS. An embedded wireless microsensor suite is being designed to allow rapid subsurface TPS health monitoring and damage assessment. This sensor suite will consist of both passive overlimit sensors and sensors for continuous parameter monitoring in flight. The on-board diagnostic system can be used to radio in maintenance requirements before landing and the data could also be used to assist in design validation for X-vehicles. For a 3rd generation vehicle, wireless diagnostics should be at a stage of technical development that will allow use for intelligent feedback systems for guidance and navigation control applications and can also serve as feedback for TPS that can intelligently adapt to its environment.

Pallix, Joan; Milos, Frank; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

364

In-Space Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Thermal Protection System Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the RCC-based thermal protection system of current space transportation system as well as for future Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV). The damage to these components could be caused by impact during ground handling or due to falling of ice or other objects during launch. In addition, in-orbit damage includes micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate adhesives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during simulated entry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, PLASTER (Patch Laminates and Sealant Technology for Exterior Repair) based systems have been developed. In this presentation, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges as well as various issues and complexities will be discussed along with the plasma performance and post test characterization of repaired RCC materials.

Singh, Mrityunjay

2005-01-01

365

Metallic Thermal Protection System Technology Development: Concepts, Requirements and Assessment Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology development program was conducted to evolve an earlier metallic thermal protection system (TPS) panel design, with the goals of: improving operations features, increasing adaptability (ease of attaching to a variety of tank shapes and structural concepts), and reducing weight. The resulting Adaptable Robust Metallic Operable Reusable (ARMOR) TPS system incorporates a high degree of design flexibility (allowing weight and operability to be traded and balanced) and can also be easily integrated with a large variety of tank shapes, airframe structural arrangements and airframe structure/material concepts. An initial attempt has been made to establish a set of performance based TPS design requirements. A set of general (FARtype) requirements have been proposed, focusing on defining categories that must be included for a comprehensive design. Load cases required for TPS design must reflect the full flight envelope, including a comprehensive set of limit loads, However, including additional loads. such as ascent abort trajectories, as ultimate load cases, and on-orbit debris/micro-meteoroid hypervelocity impact, as one of the discrete -source -damage load cases, will have a significant impact on system design and resulting performance, reliability and operability. Although these load cases have not been established, they are of paramount importance for reusable vehicles, and until properly included, all sizing results and assessments of reliability and operability must be considered optimistic at a minimum.

Dorsey, John T.; Poteet, Carl C.; Chen, Roger R.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

2002-01-01

366

Room temperature shear properties of the strain isolator pad for the shuttle thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the shear properties of the strain isolator pad (SIP) material used in the thermal protection system of the space shuttle. Tests were conducted on both the .23 cm and .41 cm thick SIP material in the virgin state and after fifty fully reversed shear cycles. The shear stress displacement relationships are highly nonlinear, exhibit large hysteresis effects, are dependent on material orientation, and have a large low modulus region near the zero stress level where small changes in stress can result in large displacements. The values at the higher stress levels generally increase with normal and shear force load conditioning. Normal forces applied during the shear tests reduces the low modulus region for the material. Shear test techniques which restrict the normal movement of the material give erroneous stress displacement results. However, small normal forces do not significantly effect the shear modulus for a given shear stress. Poisson's ratio values for the material are within the range of values for many common materials. The values are not constant but vary as a function of the stress level and the previous stress history of the material. Ultimate shear strengths of the .23 cm thick SIP are significantly higher than those obtained for the .41 cm thick SIP.

Sawyer, J. W.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

1981-01-01

367

Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile, and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (I-D) finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to account for coatings fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a certain trajectory. Ten TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile stems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

2000-01-01

368

In-flight load testing of advanced shuttle thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center has conducted in-flight airload testing of some advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The two flexible TPS materials tested, felt reusable surface insulation (FRSI) and advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI), are currently certified for use on the Shuttle orbiter. The objectives of the flight tests were to evaluate the performance of FRSI and AFRSI at simulated launch airloads and to provide a data base for future advanced TPS flight tests. Five TPS configurations were evaluated in a flow field which was representative of relatively flat areas without secondary flows. The TPS materials were placed on a fin, the Flight Test fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of the fuselage of an F-104 aircraft. This paper describes the test approach and techniques used and presents the results of the advanced TPS flight test. There were no failures noted during post-flight inspections of the TPS materials which were exposed to airloads 40 percent higher than the design launch airloads.

Trujillo, B. M.; Meyer, R., Jr.; Sawko, P. M.

1983-01-01

369

A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system and in the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately determine insulation masses for a vehicle such as the one described above, the aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to reduce the TPS mass. The problem described is an example of the need for collaborative design and analysis. Analysis tools are being developed to facilitate these collaborative efforts. RECIPE is a cross-platform application capable of hosting a number of engineers and designers across the Internet for distributed and collaborative engineering environments. Such integrated system design environments allow for collaborative team design analysis for performing individual or reduced team studies. The analysis tools mentioned earlier are commonly run on different platforms and are usually run by different people. To facilitate the larger number of potential runs that may need to be made, RECIPE connects the computer codes that calculate the trajectory data, heat rate data, and TPS masses so that the output from each tool is easily transferred to the model input files that need it. This methodology is being applied to solve launch vehicle thermal design problems to shorten the design cycle, and enable the project team to evaluate design options. Results will be presented indicating the effectiveness of this as a collaborative design tool.

Alexander, Reginald A.; Stanley, Thomas Troy

1999-01-01

370

PESTICIDE SPRAY PENETRATION AND THERMAL COMFORT OF PROTECTIVE APPAREL FOR PESTICIDE APPLICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of protective apparel to serve as a barrier from dermal exposure is considered vital for providing some measure of protection for those who work with and around pesticides. his research is aimed at ultimately providing recommendations for types of protective apparel for p...

371

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials. Annual progress report, 1 June 1994-31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

Selvaduray, G.S.

1995-06-01

372

Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. In addition, recently released NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reductions in spacecraft structural mass more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems more efficient lighter propulsion systems and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location(s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry systems robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: 1) Mass to Surface, 2) Surface Access, 3) Precision Landing, 4) Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, 5) Safety and Mission Assurance, and 6) Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems is manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (3/8 cell) by hand and within a limited amount of time once the ablative compound is mixed, all of the cells have to be filled and the entire heat-shield has to be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the mechanical strength characteristic and the manufacturing limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS> A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials.

Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

2012-01-01

373

Development of Natural Flaw Samples for Evaluating Nondestructive Testing Methods for Foam Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low density polyurethane foam has been an important insulation material for space launch vehicles for several decades. The potential for damage from foam breaking away from the NASA External Tank was not realized until the foam impacts on the Columbia Orbiter vehicle caused damage to its Leading Edge thermal protection systems (TPS). Development of improved inspection techniques on the foam TPS is necessary to prevent similar occurrences in the future. Foamed panels with drilled holes for volumetric flaws and Teflon inserts to simulate debonded conditions have been used to evaluate and calibrate nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. Unfortunately the symmetric edges and dissimilar materials used in the preparation of these simulated flaws provide an artificially large signal while very little signal is generated from the actual defects themselves. In other words, the same signal are not generated from the artificial defects in the foam test panels as produced when inspecting natural defect in the ET foam TPS. A project to create more realistic voids similar to what actually occurs during manufacturing operations was began in order to improve detection of critical voids during inspections. This presentation describes approaches taken to create more natural voids in foam TPS in order to provide a more realistic evaluation of what the NDT methods can detect. These flaw creation techniques were developed with both sprayed foam and poured foam used for insulation on the External Tank. Test panels with simulated defects have been used to evaluate NDT methods for the inspection of the External Tank. A comparison of images between natural flaws and machined flaws generated from backscatter x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, terahertz imaging and millimeter wave imaging show significant differences in identifying defect regions.

Workman, Gary L.; Davis, Jason; Farrington, Seth; Walker, James

2007-01-01

374

Acousto-optic signature analysis for inspection of the orbiter thermal protection tile bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to develop a viable NDE technique for the inspection of orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tile bonds. Phase 2, discussed here, concentrated on developing an empirical understanding of the bonded and unbonded vibration signatures of acreage tiles. Controlled experiments in the laboratory have provided useful information on the dynamic response of TPS tiles. It has been shown that several signatures are common to all the pedigree tiles. This degree of consistency in the tile-SIP (strain isolation pad) dynamic response proves that an unbond can be detected for a known tile and establish the basis for extending the analysis capability to arbitrary tiles for which there are no historical data. The field tests of the noncontacting laser acoustic sensor system, conducted at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), investigated the vibrational environment of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and its effect on the measurement and analysis techniques being developed. The data collected showed that for orbiter locations, such as the body flap and elevon, the data analysis scheme, and/or the sensor, will require modification to accommodate the ambient motion. Several methods were identified for accomplishing this, and a solution is seen as readily achievable. It was established that the tile response was similar to that observed in the laboratory. Of most importance, however, is that the field environment will not affect the physics of the dynamic response that is related to bond condition. All of this information is fundamental to any future design and development of a prototype system.

Rodriguez, Julio G.; Tow, D. M.; Barna, B. A.

1990-01-01

375

Development of acceptance criteria for batches of silane primer for external tank thermal protection system bonding applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silane primers for use as thermal protection on external tanks were subjected to various analytic techniques to determine the most effective testing method for silane lot evaluation. The analytic methods included high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thermogravimetry (TGA), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is suggested that FTIR be used as the method for silane lot evaluation. Chromatograms, TGA profiles, bar graphs showing IR absorbances, and FTIR spectra are presented.

Mikes, F.

1984-01-01

376

Development of FIAT-based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

Sepka, Steven Andrew; Zarchi, Kerry Agnes; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

2011-01-01

377

Development Of FIAT-Based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

Sepka, Steven; Trumble, Kerry A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid

2012-01-01

378

Development of Instrumented Manikin Hands for Characterizing the Thermal Protective Performance of Gloves in Flash Fire Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly developed instrumented hand manikin fire test system called Pyrohands. This system is designed\\u000a to measure the thermal protective performance of gloves in controlled flame exposures, including predicted second and third\\u000a degree burns and the distribution of burns to the hands. This paper also describes a study that demonstrates the utility of\\u000a the Pyrohands system for

Alexander Hummel; Roger Barker; Kevin Lyons; A. Shawn Deaton; John Morton-Aslanis

2011-01-01

379

Protecting-group-free synthesis of taiwaniaquinone h using a one-pot thermal ring expansion/4?-electrocyclization strategy.  

PubMed

A strategy to the 6-5-6 tricyclic scaffold of taiwaniaquinoids was established on the basis of a one-pot thermal ring expansion/4?-electrocyclization process. The efficiency of this methodology has been demonstrated through its application in the total synthesis of taiwaniaquinone H, which has been accomplished in three steps and 14% overall yield in a protecting-group-free manner starting from commercially available materials. PMID:24837463

Yan, Xiuxiang; Hu, Xiangdong

2014-06-01

380

Suitability of a Coal-Derived Carbon-Based Foam for use in Thermal Protection Systems of Common Aero Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common Aero Vehicles (CAVs) are relatively small-size, un-powered, self-maneuvering vehicles equipped with a variety of weapons and launched from space. One of the major obstacles hampering a full the realization of the CAV concept is a present lack of lightweight, high-temperature insulation materials which can be used for construction of the CAVs thermal protection system (TPS). A computational analysis is

M. Grujicic; C. L. Zhao; S. B. Biggers; J. M. Kennedy; D. R. Morgan

2007-01-01

381

A novel function - thermal protective properties of an antifreeze protein from the summer desert beetle Microdera punctipennis.  

PubMed

It is well known that antifreeze proteins play an important role in protecting poikilothermic organisms from freezing. However, the transcripts of antifreeze protein genes, Mpafps, were observed in the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis in summer. The mRNA levels of Mpafps increased significantly after heat shock at 50C, which implies that a novel function may exist in the antifreeze proteins from M. punctipennis. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of multiple copies of the Mpafps family in the genome. Transcripts of two cDNAs encoding antifreeze proteins (Mpafps77 and Mpafps52) were isolated from beetles collected in the summer. The deduced amino acid sequences of the MpAFPs expressed in the summer are shorter by one 12-residue repeat and have significantly different C-terminal end sequences relative to the AFPs expressed in winter. Mpafps77 was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, maltose-binding protein (MBP)-MpAFPS77. An in vitro heat protection assay was done by measuring the survival of bacteria and yeast that were exposed to 50 and 42C, respectively and showed that the fusion protein significantly increased the thermal tolerance of these cells. It also increased the thermotolerance of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme at 65C. These studies are the first biochemical demonstration of a thermal protective function for MpAFP and suggest some novel protective mechanisms may be present in M. punctipennis. PMID:23187046

Qiu, Liming; Mao, Xinfang; Hou, Feng; Ma, Ji

2013-02-01

382

Performance of full size metallic and RSI thermal protection systems in a Mach 7 environment. [Reusable Surface Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integrity and reusability of three flight-weight metallic and RSI thermal protection systems, designed for the Shuttle entry environment, have been demonstrated. Each model successfully survived over 23 entry thermal cycles without serious degradation. The metallic systems were more tolerant of the hostile environment and provided a higher degree of reusability than did the RSI. Thermal expansion slip joints of the metallic TPS successfully prevented hot gas ingress to the substructure. The RSI demonstrated high damage tolerance and field repairs increased its reusability. Heat-transfer tests to further assess RSI gap heating indicate that stacked tile orientations may impose a penalty on tile thickness. Parameters influencing RSI impingement heating were determined, and the heating data were correlated.

Bohon, H. L.; Sawyer, J. W.; Hunt, L. R.; Weinstein, I.

1975-01-01

383

Ozone- and thermally activated films of palladium monolayer-protected clusters for chemiresistive hydrogen sensing.  

PubMed

Here we describe the chemiresistive H2-sensing properties of drop-cast films comprised of 3.0 nm average diameter hexanethiolate-coated Pd monolayer-protected clusters (C6 Pd MPCs) bridging a pair of electrodes separated by a 23 microm gap. The gas-sensing properties were measured for 9.6-0.11% H2 in a H2/N2 mixture. The sensing mechanism is based on changes in the resistance of the film upon reaction of Pd with H2 to form PdH(x), which is known to be larger in volume and more resistive than pure Pd. As-prepared Pd MPC films are highly insensitive to H2, requiring O3 and thermal treatment to enhance changes in film resistance in the presence of H2. Exposure to O3 for 15 min followed by activation in 100% H2 leads to an increase in film conductivity in the presence of H2, with a detection limit of 0.11% H2. When exposed to temperatures of 180-200 degrees C, the conductivity of the film increases and a decrease in conductivity occurs in the presence of H2 with a detection limit of 0.21%. The sensing behavior reverses after further heating to 260 degrees C, exhibiting an increase in conductivity in the presence of H2 as in O3-treated films and a detection limit of 0.11%. The sensitivity of the variously treated films follows the order O3 > high temp > low temp, and the response times at 1.0% H2 range from 10 to 50s, depending on the treatment. FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy provide information about the C6 monolayer, Pd metal, and film morphology, respectively, as a function of O3 and heat treatment to aid in understanding the observed sensing behavior. This work demonstrates a simple chemical approach toward fabricating a fast, reversible sensor capable of detecting low concentrations of H2. PMID:17073513

Ibaez, Francisco J; Zamborini, Francis P

2006-11-01

384

Integrated Sensing and Material Damage Identification in Metallic and Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems Using Vibration and Wave Propagation Data  

SciTech Connect

Global thermal and impact material damage mechanisms in metallic and ceramic thermal protection systems are detected, located, and quantified using four complementary methods for sensing and data interrogation. First, spatial-temporal beamforming algorithms are used to process active elastic waves measured from remote sensor arrays in two different equilibrium positions of a gamma Ti-Al sheet to localize simulated thermal damage. Damage is located even when it is behind the sensor array and on the edge of the panel; results are shown to be dependent on the equilibrium position considered. Second, an active virtual force method is implemented in a honeycomb Al-Al sandwich panel instrumented with a distributed piezo sensor and actuator array to identify impact and thermal damage using frequency response inversion. Damage is quantified and is similarly diagnosed regardless of the excitation location. Third, passive acoustic transmission measurements through a homogeneous baffled Al panel subject to launch-type sound pressure variations are used to detect and locate material damage. The frequency range with highest transmission is shown to be optimal for damage detection. Fourth, thermal damage in a wrapped ceramic tile with a mock strain isolation pad is identified using active propagating waves. Remote actuation and sensing on the bulkhead and the tile backside are shown to be sufficient for detection even when variability is present in the data.

Sundararaman, S.; White, J.; Jiang, H.; Adams, D. [Purdue University, Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-2031 (United States); Jata, K. [AFRL/MLL, NDE Branch, 2230 Tenth St., Wright Patterson AFB, OH, 45433 (United States)

2006-03-06

385

Integrated Sensing and Material Damage Identification in Metallic and Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems Using Vibration and Wave Propagation Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global thermal and impact material damage mechanisms in metallic and ceramic thermal protection systems are detected, located, and quantified using four complementary methods for sensing and data interrogation. First, spatial-temporal beamforming algorithms are used to process active elastic waves measured from remote sensor arrays in two different equilibrium positions of a gamma Ti-Al sheet to localize simulated thermal damage. Damage is located even when it is behind the sensor array and on the edge of the panel; results are shown to be dependent on the equilibrium position considered. Second, an active virtual force method is implemented in a honeycomb Al-Al sandwich panel instrumented with a distributed piezo sensor and actuator array to identify impact and thermal damage using frequency response inversion. Damage is quantified and is similarly diagnosed regardless of the excitation location. Third, passive acoustic transmission measurements through a homogeneous baffled Al panel subject to launch-type sound pressure variations are used to detect and locate material damage. The frequency range with highest transmission is shown to be optimal for damage detection. Fourth, thermal damage in a wrapped ceramic tile with a mock strain isolation pad is identified using active propagating waves. Remote actuation and sensing on the bulkhead and the tile backside are shown to be sufficient for detection even when variability is present in the data.

Sundararaman, S.; White, J.; Jiang, H.; Adams, D.; Jata, K.

2006-03-01

386

Thermal Behavior of the Type 30 B Cylinder Equipped with the 21 PF.1 Overpack and Study of Protective Covers for the 48 Y Cylinder Valve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the tests which have been performed in France: first to verify the behavior of 30B cylinders with their 21 PF.1 protective overpack, secondly to develop a better mechanical protection of the valve. The thermal tests have been performed...

P. Warniez C. Ringot J. Perrot H. Bernard

1988-01-01

387

Effect of Ethanol and Thermally Oxidized Sunflower Oil Ingestion on Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition of Rat Liver: Protective Role of Cuminum cyminum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The current study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil ingestion on liver phospholipid fatty acids and the protective role of Cuminum cyminum L. Methods: Ethanol was administered at a level of 20% and thermally oxidized sunflower oil at a level of 15% for 45 days. C. cyminum was administered at a dosage

Aruna Kode; Rukkumani Rajagopalan; Suresh Varma Penumathsa; Venugopal P. Menon

2005-01-01

388

Development and design application of rigidized surface insulation thermal protection systems, volume 1. [for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials and design technology of the all-silica LI-900 rigid surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) concept for the shuttle spacecraft is presented. All results of contract development efforts are documented. Engineering design and analysis of RSI strain arrestor plate material selections, sizing, and weight studies are reported. A shuttle prototype test panel was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and delivered. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of LI-900 were experimentally established and reported. Environmental tests, including simulations of shuttle loads represented by thermal response, turbulent duct, convective cycling, and chemical tolerance tests are described and results reported. Descriptions of material test samples and panels fabricated for testing are included. Descriptions of analytical sizing and design procedures are presented in a manner formulated to allow competent engineering organizations to perform rational design studies. Results of parametric studies involving material and system variables are reported. Material performance and design data are also delineated.

1972-01-01

389

Measurements of spectral and total emittance of reinforced carbon-carbon. [thermal protection tests for Space Shuttle Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elevated temperature measurements of the spectral emittance of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) as the thermal protection material for the leading edge areas of the Space Shuttle Orbiter were carried out in situ, with environments provided by arc-heated streams of air and argon. A monochromator, infrared pyrometers, and thermocouples were used in evaluating the response of the RCC test specimens during the emittance measurements. Results indicate that the material is nongray, with lowest spectral emittance at the short wavelengths and with relatively high total emittance. The trend of the total emittance data suggests a slight decrease in total emittance with increasing temperature, although the emittance value stabilizes with continuing exposure.

Grinberg, I. M.; Luce, R. G.; Mcginnis, F. K.

1976-01-01

390

Diverse Studies in the Reactivated NASA/Ames Radiation Facility: From Shock Layer Spectroscopy to Thermal Protection System Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA/Ames' Hypervelocity Free-Flight Radiation Facility has been reactivated after having been decommissioned for some 15 years, first tests beginning in early 1994. This paper discusses two widely different studies from the first series, one involving spectroscopic analysis of model shock-layer radiation, and the other the production of representative impact damage in space shuttle thermal protection tiles for testing in the Ames arc-jet facilities. These studies emphasize the interorganizational and interdisciplinary value of the facility in the newly-developing structure of NASA.

Miller, Robert J.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

391

AASERT Grant: Evolution of Stress and Damage in Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this AASERT were to establish quantitative relationships between the stress in alumina scales (formed beneath thermal barrier coatings during high-temperature exposure), the oxidation conditions and accompanying microstructural changes. The t...

D. R. Clarke

1999-01-01

392

Improvements in Thermal Protection Sizing Capabilities for TCAT: Conceptual Design for Advanced Space Transportation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT), originally developed for the Space Systems Design Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is a conceptual design tool capable of integrating aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle des...

J. R. Olds S. J. Izon

2002-01-01

393

Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) as Thermal Protection Systems for Discovery Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the development of the light weight Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) and its thermal performance in a simulated heating environment for planetary entry vehicles. The PICA material was developed as a member of the Light Weigh...

C. E. Johnson D. Paragas D. J. Rasky F. C. L. Hui H. K. Tran L. Kobayashi M. T. Hsu T. Chen Y. K. Chen

1997-01-01

394

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...satisfied, the reactor vessel beltline may be given a thermal annealing treatment to recover the fracture toughness of the material...this section, with RTPTS accounting for the effects of annealing and subsequent irradiation. (c) Calculation of RT...

2010-01-01

395

Phase I: Low-Cost Protective Layer Coatings on Thermal Barrier Coatings via CCVD. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MicroCoating Technologies, Inc., investigated the use of the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process to deposit oxygen or sintering barrier coatings for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. In addition, it looked at the use of its nanop...

M. Hendrick N. Richards A. Hunt

2004-01-01

396

Non-thermal plasma processing for environmental protection: decomposition of dilute VOCs in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-thermal plasma processing is one of the most hopeful air-cleaning technologies to remove toxic gas contaminants in air. The historical background of the non-thermal plasma related with the electrostatics is described and the fundamental experimental system including the reactor designs and their power supplies is introduced. Some experimental results suggested the high potential of the plasma processing to decompose those

T. Oda

2003-01-01

397

Microstructure, thermal shock resistance and thermal emissivity of plasma sprayed LaMAl11O19 (M = Mg, Fe) coatings for metallic thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LaMAl11O19 (M = Mg, Fe) ceramic coatings were plasma-sprayed on nickel-based superalloy with NiCoCrAlYTa as the bond coat. The microstructure, thermal shock resistance and thermal emissivity of these two ceramic coatings were investigated. LaMAl11O19 coatings exhibit a characteristic of stacked lamellae, and consist mainly of a magnetoplumbite-type hexaaluminate phase and an amorphous phase. During thermal cycling, the amorphous phase disappears and a LaAlO3 phase is formed at temperatures of both 1000 and 1200 C. The thermal cycling numbers of LaMgAl11O19 coating are 102 at 1000 C and 42 at 1200 C; LaFeAl11O19 has a thermal cycling lifetime of 87 at 1000 C and 30 at 1200 C, respectively. Normal spectral emissivity of nickel-based superalloy is about 0.2 over the whole wavelength range of 3-14 ?m. However, the emissivity of LaFeAl11O19 coating is about 0.7 at short wavelengths and above 0.9 in the wavelength range of 7-14 ?m.

Liu, Hong-Zhi; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Wang, Ya-Ming

2013-04-01

398

High Temperature Resistant Organopolysiloxane Coating for Protecting and Repairing Rigid Thermal Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramics are protected from high temperature degradation, including high temperature, oxidative, aeroconvective degradation by a high temperature and oxidation resistant coating of a room temperature curing, hydrolyzed and partially condensed liquid polyorganosiloxane to the surface of the ceramic. The liquid polyorganosiloxane is formed by the hydrolysis and partial condensation of an alkyltrialkoxysilane with water or a mixture of an alkyltrialkoxysilane and a dialkyldialkoxysilane with water. The liquid polyorganosiloxane cures at room temperature on the surface of the ceramic to form a hard, protective, solid coating which forms a high temperature environment, and is also used as an adhesive for adhering a repair plug in major damage to the ceramic. This has been found useful for protecting and repairing porous, rigid ceramics of a type used on reentry space vehicles.

Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

399

Multi-functional materials by powder processing for a thermal protection system with self-cooling capability: Perspirable skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamic heating generated by the friction between the atmosphere and the space vehicle's surface at reentry can enhance the temperature on the surface as high as 1700C. A Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to inhibit the heat entering into the vehicle. Presently, the completely passive thermal protection is used for TPS. The thermal ablation/erosion and oxidization reaction of the current TPS is the major threat to the safety of the space vehicle. Therefore, a new design for TPS with actively self-cooling capability was proposed by bio-mimicking the perspiration of the human body, henceforth called Perspirable skin. The design of Perspirable Skin consists of core material shrink-fitted into a skin panel such as Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Composite. The core material contains a very small Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) compared to the panel material. As temperature increases, the gap between the core and the skin are produced due to the CTE difference. Compressed gas on board the space vehicle will blow out from the gap once the surface temperature reaches a critical value. The cold gas flows over the surface and mixes with the atmospheric air to compensate for the frictional heat. With Perspirable Skin, the highest temperature on the surface is expected to decrease, and we assumed it to be around half of the present temperature. This dissertation focuses on the selection of the core materials and their manufacturing by powder processing. Based on a series of experiments, several results were obtained: (1) the effect of powder mixing on the compaction capability and sintering capability was determined; (2) a flat 3-layered Al 2O3/ZrO2 Functionally Graded Material (FGM) without cracks was fabricated; (3) the factors contributing to the cracks in the multi-layered materials were investigated; (4) an isotropic negative thermal expansion material, ZrW2O8, as well as its composites with ZrO2 were processed by in-situ reaction of WO3 and ZrO2; (5) several CTE prediction models on composites containing ZrW2O 8 were studied and proposed as a better scheme for applying the contiguity of phase; (6) a novel processing technique to produce ZrW2O 8-ZrO2 continuous FGMs was developed; and (7) the thermal and mechanical properties of the various materials were measured. Finally, using finite element analysis (FEA), the complete design of Perspirable Skin has been accomplished.

Sun, Li

400

Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) as Thermal Protection Systems for Discovery Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the development of the light weight Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) and its thermal performance in a simulated heating environment for planetary entry vehicles. The PICA material was developed as a member of the Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA's), and the manufacturing process of this material has since been significantly improved. The density of PICA material ranges from 14 to 20 lbm/ft(exp 3), having uniform resin distribution with and without a densified top surface. The thermal performance of PICA was evaluated in the Ames arc-jet facility at cold wall heat fluxes from 375 to 2,960 BtU/ft(exp 2)-s and surface pressures of 0.1 to 0.43 atm. Heat loads used in these tests varied from 5,500 to 29,600 BtU/ft(exp 2) and are representative of the entry conditions of the proposed Discovery Class Missions. Surface and in-depth temperatures were measured using optical pyrometers and thermocouples. Surface recession was also measured by using a template and a height gage. The ablation characteristics and efficiency of PICA are quantified by using the effective heat of ablation, and the thermal penetration response is evaluated from the thermal soak data. In addition, a comparison of thermal performance of standard and surface densified PICA is also discussed.

Tran, Huy K.; Johnson, Christine E.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hui, Frank C. L.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Chen, Timothy; Chen, Y. K.; Paragas, Daniel; Kobayashi, Loreen

1997-01-01

401

Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

Schreiber, Roger B. (Penn Twp., PA); Fero, Arnold H. (New Kensington, PA); Sejvar, James (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01

402

Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

1997-12-16

403

Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (inventors)

1973-01-01

404

Using gas-thermal coatings for high-temperature protection of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature gas corrosion on slab heating in a furnace atmosphere containing oxygen leads to loss of metal in scale and in burning, increase in size of surface casting defects, and decarburization and gas saturation of the metal surface. To improve the efficiency of sheet production, it is expedient to create protective coatings by diffusional saturation of the surface layer with

A. G. Radyuk; A. E. Titlyanov; Yu. Z. Kulmameteva

2007-01-01

405

Development and evaluation of an ablative closeout material for solid rocket booster thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A trowellable closeout/repair material designated as MTA-2 was developed and evaluated for use on the Solid Rocket Booster. This material is composed of an epoxy-polysulfide binder and is highly filled with phenolic microballoons for density control and ablative performance. Mechanical property testing and thermal testing were performed in a wind tunnel to simulate the combined Solid Rocket Booster trajectory aeroshear and heating environments. The material is characterized by excellent thermal performance and was used extensively on the Space Shuttle STS-1 and STS-2 flight hardware.

Patterson, W. J.

1979-01-01

406

Study of uncertainties of predicting space shuttle thermal environment. [impact of heating rate prediction errors on weight of thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative estimates of the uncertainty in predicting aerodynamic heating rates for a fully reusable space shuttle system are developed and the impact of these uncertainties on Thermal Protection System (TPS) weight are discussed. The study approach consisted of statistical evaluations of the scatter of heating data on shuttle configurations about state-of-the-art heating prediction methods to define the uncertainty in these heating predictions. The uncertainties were then applied as heating rate increments to the nominal predicted heating rate to define the uncertainty in TPS weight. Separate evaluations were made for the booster and orbiter, for trajectories which included boost through reentry and touchdown. For purposes of analysis, the vehicle configuration is divided into areas in which a given prediction method is expected to apply, and separate uncertainty factors and corresponding uncertainty in TPS weight derived for each area.

Fehrman, A. L.; Masek, R. V.

1972-01-01

407

Low-density polybenzimidazole foams for thermal insulation and fire protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire-resistant and nonsmoking foam can be prepared in desirable density range of 24 to 50 kg/cu m by controlled thermal crosslinking of polybenzimidazole prepolymer. Reproducible foams of specific density can be produced by controlling volative content and melting temperature of prepolymer.

Kourtides, D.; Parker, J. A.; Deland, C.; Milligan, R.

1975-01-01

408

Performance evaluation of green roof and shading for thermal protection of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a mathematical model for evaluating cooling potential of green roof and solar thermal shading in buildings. A control volume approach based on finite difference methods is used to analyze the components of green roof, viz. green canopy, soil and support layer. Further, these individual decoupled models are integrated using Newton's iterative algorithm until the convergence for

Rakesh Kumar; S. C. Kaushik

2005-01-01

409

Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle RLV design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal pro...

J. R. Olds K. Cowart

2001-01-01

410

An evaluation of flight data for the Apollo thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to correlate Apollo ablation and thermal response flight data using advanced state-of-the-art analytical procedures. The agreement between flight data and predictions is consistently excellent for in-depth temperature distributions, char density profiles, and surface ablation, thus validating the analytical procedures.

Bartlett, E. P.; Curry, D. M.

1972-01-01

411

Surface modifications and surface-protective coatings analyzed by means of thermal waves (invited) (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depth profiles of the thermophysical properties of alloy systems, for example, shape memory alloys (NiTi), steel, and tool steel, can vary considerably due to rolling, surface machining, heat treatment, mechanical wear, and erosion. The same is true for coated tool steel samples, which show variations of the effective thermal depth profiles due to the effects of substrate preparation and

B. K. Bein; J. L. N. Fotsing; J. Gibkes; I. Delgadillo-Holtfort; D. Dietzel; J. Pelzl

2003-01-01

412

Development of high temperature silicone adhesive formulations for thermal protection system applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trade-off studies and screening evaluations were made of commercial polymers and silicone foam sheet stock. A low modulus, low density 0.26 gm/cc modification was developed of the GE-RESD PD-200 system based upon GE RTV-560 silicone polymer. The bond system modification was initially characterized for mechanical and thermal properties, evaluated for application methods, and its capability demonstrated as a strain arrestor bond system.

Hockridge, R. R.

1973-01-01

413

Arc Jet Testing of the TIRS Cover Thermal Protection System for Mars Exploration Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the arc jet test results of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA) Transverse Impulse Rocket System (TIRS) Cover test series in the Panel Test Facility (PTF) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). NASA ARC performed aerothermal environment analyses, TPS sizing and thermal response analyses, and arc jet testing to evaluate the MER SIRCA TIRS Cover design and interface to the aeroshell structure. The primary objective of this arc jet test series was to evaluate specific design details of the SIRCA TIRS Cover interface to the MER aeroshell under simulated atmospheric entry heating conditions. Four test articles were tested in an arc jet environment with various sea] configurations. The test condition was designed to match the predicted peak flight heat load at the gap region between the SIRCA and the backshell TPS material, SLA-561S, and resulted in an over-test (with respect to heat flux and heat load) for the apex region of the SIRCA TIRS Cover. The resulting pressure differential was as much as twenty times that predicted for the flight case, depending on the location, and there was no post-test visual evidence of over-heating or damage to the seal, bracket, or backshell structure. The exposed titanium bolts were in good condition at post-test and showed only a small amount of oxidation at the leading edge locations. Repeatable thermocouple data were obtained and SIRCA thermal response analyses were compared to applicable thermocouple data. For the apex region of the SIRCA TIRS Cover, a one-dimensional thermal response prediction proved overly conservative, as there were strong multi-dimensional conduction effects evident from the thermocouple data. The one-dimensional thermal response prediction compared well with the thermocouple data for the leading edge "lip" region at the bolt location. In general, the test results yield confidence in the baseline seal design to prevent hot gas ingestion at the bracket and composite aeroshell structure interface.

Szalai, Christine E.; Chen, Y.-K.; Loomis, Mark; Hui, Frank; Scrivens, Larry

2002-01-01

414

Development of polyisocyanurate pour foam formulation for space shuttle external tank thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four commercially available polyisocyanurate polyurethane spray-foam insulation formulations are used to coat the external tank of the space shuttle. There are several problems associated with these formulations. For example, some do not perform well as pourable closeout/repair systems. Some do not perform well at cryogenic temperatures (poor adhesion to aluminum at liquid nitrogen temperatures). Their thermal stability at elevated temperatures is not adequate. A major defect in all the systems is the lack of detailed chemical information. The formulations are simply supplied to NASA and Martin Marietta, the primary contractor, as components; Part A (isocyanate) and Part B (poly(s) and additives). Because of the lack of chemical information the performance behavior data for the current system, NASA sought the development of a non-proprietary room temperature curable foam insulation. Requirements for the developed system were that it should exhibit equal or better thermal stability both at elevated and cryogenic temperatures with better adhesion to aluminum as compared to the current system. Several formulations were developed that met these requirements, i.e., thermal stability, good pourability, and good bonding to aluminum.

Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

1988-01-01

415

X-33 Liquid Hydrogen Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The liquid hydrogen tank is a multi-lobe graphite/epoxy tank with integrally bonded, woven composite joints. The tanks are broken down into three major subgroups: aft dome/bulkhead, mid barrel section, and the forward dome/bulkhead. The vehicle uses two tanks (a left and right hand tank) as the "aft fuselage" of the vehicle, to react all body bending loads, landing gear loads, canted and vertical fin loads and air loads, as well as being used as the cryogenic fuel cells.

Adams, Andrew J.; Buck, P.; Franklin, W.; Yu, T.

1999-01-01

416

Cost-Effective Application of Thermal Protection on LPG Road Transport Tanks for Risk Reduction Due to Hot BLEVE Incidents.  

PubMed

A simplified risk and cost-benefit analysis is presented for the application of thermal protection (TP) on propane and LPG highway tanker trucks operating in North America.