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1

X-33 Base Region Thermal Protection System Design Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator for validating critical technologies and systems required for an operational Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusuable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Currently under development by a unique contractor/government team led by Lockheed- Martin Skunk Works (LMSW), and managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the X-33 will be the prototype of the first new launch system developed by the United States since the advent of the space shuttle. This paper documents a design trade study of the X-33 base region thermal protection system (TPS). Two candidate designs were evaluated for thermal performance and weight. The first candidate was a fully reusable metallic TPS using Inconel honeycomb panels insulated with high temperature fibrous insulation, while the second was an ablator/insulator sprayed on the metallic skin of the vehicle. The TPS configurations and insulation thickness requirements were determined for the predicted main engine plume heating environments and base region entry aerothermal environments. In addition to thermal analysis of the design concepts, sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effect of variations in key parameters of the base TPS analysis.

Lycans, Randal W.

1998-01-01

2

Transient Analysis of Thermal Protection System for X-33 Aircraft using MSC/NASTRAN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator vehicle for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The thermal protection system (TPS) for the X-33 is composed of complex layers of materials to protect internal components, while withstanding severe external temperatures induced by aerodynamic heating during high speed flight. It also serves as the vehicle aeroshell in some regions using a stand-off design. MSC/NASTRAN thermal analysis capability was used to predict transient temperature distribution (within the TPS) throughout a mission, from launch through the cool-off period after landing. In this paper, a typical analysis model, representing a point on the vehicle where the liquid oxygen tank is closest to the outer mold line, is described. The maximum temperature difference between the outer mold line and the internal surface of the liquid oxygen tank can exceed 1500 F. One dimensional thermal models are used to select the materials and determine the thickness of each layer for minimum weight while insuring that all materials remain within the allowable temperature range. The purpose of working with three dimensional (3D) comprehensive models using MSC/NASTRAN is to assess the 3D radiation effects and the thermal conduction heat shorts of the support fixtures.

Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, M. K.; Bowles, J.; Tam, T.; Chu, D.; Chainyk, M.; Green, Michael J. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

3

Thermal Management Design for the X-33 Lifting Body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 Advantage Technology Demonstrator offers a rare and exciting opportunity in Thermal Protection System development. The experimental program incorporates the latest design innovation in re-useable, low life cycle cost, and highly dependable Thermal Protection materials and constructions into both ground based and flight test vehicle validations. The unique attributes of the X-33 demonstrator for design application validation for the full scale Reusable Launch Vehicle, (RLV), are represented by both the configuration of the stand-off aeroshell, and the extreme exposures of sub-orbital hypersonic re-entry simulation. There are several challenges of producing a sub-orbital prototype demonstrator of Single Stage to Orbit/Reusable Launch Vehicle (SSTO/RLV) operations. An aggressive schedule with budgetary constraints precludes the opportunity for an extensive verification and qualification program of vehicle flight hardware. However, taking advantage of off the shelf components with proven technologies reduces some of the requirements for additional testing. The effects of scale on thermal heating rates must also be taken into account during trajectory design and analysis. Described in this document are the unique Thermal Protection System (TPS) design opportunities that are available with the lifting body configuration of the X-33. The two principal objectives for the TPS are to shield the primary airframe structure from excessive thermal loads and to provide an aerodynamic mold line surface. With the relatively benign aeroheating capability of the lifting body, an integrated stand-off aeroshell design with minimal weight and reduced procurement and operational costs is allowed. This paper summarizes the design objectives of the X-33 TPS, the flight test requirements driven configuration, and design benefits. Comparisons are made of the X-33 flight profiles and Space Shuttle Orbiter, and lifting body Reusable Launch Vehicle aerothermal environments. The X-33 TPS is based on a design to cost configuration concept. Only RLV critical technologies are verified to conform to cost and schedule restrictions. The one-off prototype vehicle configuration has evolved to minimize the tooling costs by reducing the number of unique components. Low cost approaches such as a composite/blanket leeward aeroshell and the use of Shuttle technology are implemented where applicable. The success of the X-33 will overcome the ballistic re-entry TPS mindset. The X-33 TPS is tailored to an aircraft type mission while maintaining sufficient operational margins. The flight test program for the X-33 will demonstrate that TPS for the RLV is not simply a surface insulation but rather an integrated aeroshell system.

Bouslog, S.; Mammano, J.; Strauss, B.

1998-01-01

4

Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

1995-01-01

5

Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

1995-05-01

6

X-33 artist concept - 1999  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's conception of the half scale X-33 demonstrator flying over the southwestern desert. The vehicle was a wedge-shaped lifting body, with two vertical fins and a pair of stub wings. On the fins are the Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works logo, which was the prime contractor. At the rear is the aerospike engine, an experimental design that lacked the nozzles of conventional rockets. The X-33 tested several other new technologies, including composite structures and a metallic thermal protection system. It was hoped that these advances would lead eventually to an operational single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called the VentureStar. However, due to technical problems with the composite liquid hydrogen tank, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1999-01-01

7

Cyclic Cryogenic Thermal-Mechanical Testing of an X-33/RLV Liquid Oxygen Tank Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important step in developing a cost-effective, reusable, launch vehicle is the development of durable, lightweight, insulated, cryogenic propellant tanks. Current cryogenic tanks are expendable so most of the existing technology is not directly applicable to future launch vehicles. As part of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, an experimental apparatus developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for evaluating the effects of combined, cyclic, thermal and mechanical loading on cryogenic tank concepts was used to evaluate cryogenic propellant tank concepts for Lockheed-Martin Michoud Space Systems. An aluminum-lithium (Al 2195) liquid oxygen tank concept, insulated with SS-1171 and PDL-1034 cryogenic insulation, is tested under simulated mission conditions, and the results of those tests are reported. The tests consists of twenty-five simulated Launch/Abort missions and twenty-five simulated flight missions with temperatures ranging from -320 F to 350 F and a maximum mechanical load of 71,300 lb. in tension.

Rivers, H. Kevin

1999-01-01

8

X-33 Simulation Lab and Staff Engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-33 program engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, monitor a flight simulation of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator as a 'flight' unfolds. The simulation provided flight trajectory data while flight control laws were being designed and developed. It also provided information which assisted X-33 developer Lockheed Martin in aerodynamic design of the vehicle. The X-33 program was a government/industry effort to design, build and fly a half-scale prototype that was to demonstrate in flight the new technologies needed for Lockheed Martin's proposed full-scale VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was intended to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was intended to dramatically increase reliability and lower costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to reach altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to be launched from a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

9

X-33 Contractor Design Proposals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the three designs submitted for the X-33 proposal for a technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). NASA considered design submissions from Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, and McDonnell Douglas. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have create new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was to have normally been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting schedule delay and cost increase, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

10

X-33 Simulation Flown by Steve Ishmael  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steve Ishmael flies a simulation of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This simulation was used to provide flight trajectory data while flight control laws were being designed and developed, as well as to provide aerodynamic design information to X-33 developer Lockheed Martin. The X-33 program was a government/industry effort to design, build and fly a half-scale prototype that was to have demonstrated in flight the new technologies needed for the proposed Lockheed Martin full-scale VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

11

X-33 Proposal by Rockwell - Computer Graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the Rockwell International X-33 proposal for technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). NASA considered design submissions from Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, and McDonnell Douglas. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight research Center, Edwards, California, was to have had a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to have improved U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 design selected for development was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) by Lockheed Martin. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The Lockheed Martin X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

12

The X-33 Flight Test Challenge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost access to space has eluded present launch system technologies. Our objective is to reduce the cost of putting a payload into space from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. In July 1996, a cooperative agreement was initiated between the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and NASA to help accomplish this goal. The X-33 is the first step in the process to make low cost space access a reality. The X-33 is a suborbital, hypersonic lifting body, proof of concept of a reusable launch vehicle. The X-33 flight test program will validate technologies such as a metallic thermal protection system, Linear Aerospike Engines, use of tanks and struts as fundamental structural elements, as well as quick turnaround time. Flight testing will begin in July 2000, with launches originating from Edwards Air Force Base and initial landings at Michael Army Airfield in Utah. Data collected from these flight tests will aid in the decision to build an economically viable single stage to orbit reusable launch vehicle. This paper will explore the technical challenges facing the X-33 Flight Test Team.

Borden, David; Ramiscal, Ermin; Howell, John

1999-01-01

13

[X-33 Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

1999-01-01

14

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of the high pressure nitrogen system used for the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

15

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model support system and instumentation cabling of the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

16

X-33 Development History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of dealing with various types of proprietary documents, whether from the Lockheed Martin, the Skunk Works, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, and other corporations extant or extinct, remains unresolved. The computerized archive finding aid has over 100 records at present. These records consist of X-33 photographs, press releases, media clippings, and the small number of X-33 project records collected to date.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1997-01-01

17

The X-33 Program Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the X-33 program update, including details on program objectives and plans, the X-33 configuration, technologies used, and X-33 assembly and test status.

Dill, Charlie

2000-01-01

18

X-33 by Lockheed Martin above Earth - Computer Graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the NASA/Lockheed Martin X-33 technology demonstrator for a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) in orbit over the Earth. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California., expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to have improved U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting time delay and cost increase, the X-33 was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

19

X-33 by Lockheed Martin on Launch Pad - Computer Graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artist's conception of the X-33 technology demonstrator on its launch pad, ready for lift-off into orbit. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33, which was a technology demonstrator vehicle for a possible Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that would improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increase reliability and lowered costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting delays and increased costs, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

20

Multiwall thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

Jackson, L. R. (inventor)

1982-01-01

21

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

22

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20

23

The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

Barret, Chris

1999-01-01

24

Artist concept of X-33 and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the NASA/Lockheed Martin X-33 technology demonstrator alongside the Venturestar, a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The X-33, a half-scale prototype for the Venturestar, is scheduled to be flight tested in 1999. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, plays a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program is a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program is to enable signifigant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. NASA Headquarter's Office of Space Access and Technology is overseeing the RLV program, which is being managed by the RLV Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, located in Huntsville, Alabama. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to dramatically increase reliability and lower costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program had hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

25

X-33 Experimental Aeroheating at Mach 6 Using Phosphor Thermography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature and demonstrate essential, cost effective technologies for next generation launch systems. The X-33 flight vehicle presently being developed by Lockheed Martin is an experimental Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) demonstrator that seeks to validate critical technologies and insure applicability to a full scale RLV. As with the design of any hypersonic vehicle, the aeroheating environment is an important issue and one of the key technologies being demonstrated on X-33 is an advanced metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS). As part of the development of this TPS system, the X-33 aeroheating environment is being defined through conceptual analysis, ground based testing, and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aeroheating wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the ground based testing activities. Global surface heat transfer images, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013 scale (10-in.) ceramic models of the proposed X-33 configuration in Mach 6 air. The test parametrics include angles of attack from -5 to 40 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 1x106 to 8x106/ft, and body flap deflections of 0, 10, and 20 deg. Experimental and computational results indicate the presence of shock/shock interactions that produced localized heating on the deflected flaps and boundary layer transition on the canted fins. Comparisons of the experimental data to laminar and turbulent predictions were performed. Laminar windward heating data from the wind tunnel was extrapolated to flight surface temperatures and generally compared to within 50 deg F of flight prediction along the centerline. When coupled with the phosphor technique, this rapid extrapolation method would serve as an invaluable TPS design tool.

Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Liechty, Derek S.; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Merski, N. Ronald

1999-01-01

26

X-33 Proposal by McDonnell Douglas - Computer Graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the McDonnell Douglas X-33 proposal for a technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). McDonnell Douglas submitted a vertical landing configuration design which used liquid oxygen/hydrogen bell engines. NASA considered design submissions from Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, and McDonnell Douglas. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight research Center, Edwards, California, expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to have improved U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

27

X-33 Proposal by Lockheed Martin - Computer Graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's rendering depicts the Lockheed Martin X-33 for a technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), as submitted in the aerospace company's original proposal. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight research Center, Edwards, California, was to have had a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to have improved U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was to have been an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to have reached altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to have been launched at a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquide hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting time delay and cost increase, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1996-01-01

28

Orbiter thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major material and design challenges associated with the orbiter thermal protection system (TPS), the various TPS materials that are used, the different design approaches associated with each of the materials, and the performance during the flight test program are described. The first five flights of the Orbiter Columbia and the initial flight of the Orbiter Challenger provided the data necessary to verify the TPS thermal performance, structural integrity, and reusability. The flight performance characteristics of each TPS material are discussed, based on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation data. Flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements for the orbiter TPS are met and that the overall performance is outstanding.

Dotts, R. L.; Curry, D. M.; Tillian, D. J.

1985-01-01

29

Thermal Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

Johnson, Sylvia M.

2011-01-01

30

X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. A successful X-33 flight test program will validate the aerospike nozzle concept, a key technical feature of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar(trademark) reusable launch vehicle. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of high chamber pressure bell engines, in part because of perceived technical risk. The aerospike engine (discussed below) has several performance advantages over conventional bell engines. However, these performance advantages are difficult to validate by ground test. The space shuttle, a multibillion dollar program intended to provide all of NASA's future space lift could not afford the gamble of choosing a potentially superior though unproven aerospike engine over a conventional bell engine. The X-33 demonstrator provides an opportunity to prove the aerospike's performance advantage in flight before commiting to an operational vehicle.

Vinson, John

1998-01-01

31

Thermographic Testing Using on the X-33 Space Launch Vehicle Program by BFGoodrich Aerospace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA, under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStar(Trademark), an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite-epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor 1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountainview, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, 2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at NASA Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and 3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

Burleigh, Douglas

1999-01-01

32

Thermographic testing used on the X-33 space launch vehicle program by BFGoodrich Aerospace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStarTM, an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite- epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor (1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain view, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, (2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at Nasa Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and (3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

Burleigh, Douglas D.

1999-03-01

33

Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

Beck, Robin A. S.

2013-01-01

34

Ablative Thermal Protection: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Why ablative thermal protections - TPS. Ablative TPS chronology: strategic reentry systems, solid rocket motor nozzles, space (manned missions and planetary entry probes). Ablation mechanisms. Ablation material testing. Ablative material testing.

Laub, Bernie

2003-01-01

35

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

36

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

37

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

38

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

39

Adaptive transformer thermal overload protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a report of the same title, prepared by Working Group K3 of the Substation Protection Subcommittee of the Power System Relaying Committee of the Power Engineering Society of the IEEE. The paper begins with background information on the causes, measurement techniques, and consequences of overheating in mineral-oil-immersed power transformers. Then techniques for adaptive transformer thermal

G. W. Swift; E. S. Zocholl; M. Bajpai; J. F. Burger; C. H. Castro; S. R. Chano; F. Cobelo; P. de Sa; E. C. Fennell; J. G. Gilbert; S. E. Grier; R. W. Haas; W. G. Hartmann; R. A. Hedding; P. Kerrigan; S. Mazumdar; D. H. Miller; P. G. Mysore; M. Nagpal; R. V. Rebbapragada; M. V. Thaden; J. T. Uchiyama; S. M. Usman; J. D. Wardlow; M. Yalla

2001-01-01

40

X33 Transient Liftoff Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful design of a launch vehicle requires the careful characterization of the various loads the structure will experience over its lifetime. Many of the most demanding load environments occur during the launch/ascent phase of a mission, typically defined as the point of engine start through engine cut off. One of the critical events during the launch phase is the liftoff event. This event imparts high loads on the vehicle due to transient events such as thrust build-up and vehicle release. This paper describes the theory and procedures used to calculate structural loads due to the liftoff event for the Lockheed-Martin X33 technology demonstrator vehicle. These procedures were developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and verified previously on other advanced launch system concepts and the Space Shuttle system.

Peck, Jeff; Brunty, Joseph

2000-01-01

41

Shell tile thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reusable, externally applied thermal protection system for use on aerospace vehicles subject to high thermal and mechanical stresses utilizes a shell tile structure which effectively separates its primary functions as an insulator and load absorber. The tile consists of structurally strong upper and lower metallic shells manufactured from materials meeting the thermal and structural requirements incident to tile placement on the spacecraft. A lightweight, high temperature package of insulation is utilized in the upper shell while a lightweight, low temperature insulation is utilized in the lower shell. Assembly of the tile which is facilitated by a self-locking mechanism, may occur subsequent to installation of the lower shell on the spacecraft structural skin.

Macconochie, I. O.; Lawson, A. G.; Kelly, H. N. (inventors)

1984-01-01

42

X-33 Launch - Computer generated graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 45-second computer-generated launch sequence begins with a view of the X-33 launch facility located near Haystack Butte on the test range at Edwards AFB, California.The X-33 vehicle is then (hypothetically) raised into position, fueled, and launched, making its roll maneuver and then proceeding on its flightpath.

1996-01-01

43

X-33 Venture Star - Reusable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this artist's concept, the X-33 Venture Star, a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), manufactured by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, is shown in orbit with a deployed payload. The Venture Star was one of the earliest versions of the RLV's developed to replace the aging shuttle fleet. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

1996-01-01

44

X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wedge-shaped X-33 was a sub-scale technology demonstration prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Through demonstration flights and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin (builder of the X-33 Venture Star) to decide by the year 2000 whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. This program would dramatically increase reliability and lower the costs of putting a payload into space. This would in turn create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the worldwide launch marketplace. NASA would be a customer, not the operator in the commercial RLV. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

45

Thermal protection system and related methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

46

Thermal protection system ablation sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

47

Current Technology for Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems.

Scotti, Stephen J. (compiler)

1992-01-01

48

IAblative Thermal Protection SystemsAblative Thermal Protection Systems Technical Abstract  

E-print Network

SBIR SBIR 64 65 IAblative Thermal Protection SystemsAblative Thermal Protection Systems Technical Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) materials for joining thermal protection system segments and penetrations environment around ablation-cooled hypersonic atmospheric entry vehicles. This tool is based on coupling

49

Apollo experience report: Thermal protection subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo command module was the first manned spacecraft to be designed to enter the atmosphere of the earth at lunar-return velocity, and the design of the thermal protection subsystem for the resulting entry environment presented a major technological challenge. Brief descriptions of the Apollo command module thermal design requirements and thermal protection configuration, and some highlights of the ground and flight testing used for design verification of the system are presented. Some of the significant events that occurred and decisions that were made during the program concerning the thermal protection subsystem are discussed.

Pavlosky, J. E.; St.leger, L. G.

1974-01-01

50

Risk Reduction on X-33/RLV Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Risk management has received considerable attention in the X-33 and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program due to aggressive schedules, limited funding. and planned private investment to develop the commercial VentureStar vehicle. As an X-33 and RLV team member and main propulsion supplier, Boeing Rocketdyn Propulsion and Power has addressed risk through a methodical application of systems engineering in identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks. The methods employed involve rigorous risk mitigation planning early in development, continuous risk monitoring and assessment during the course of development, and the systematic verification of compliance with technical requirements prior to delivery. In addition, an engine system reliability analysis was conducted to reduce risk. In July 1996, NASA selected Lockheed Martin's "Skunk Works" (LMSW) as the lead contractor for the X-33 and RLV program. The X-33 vehicle is a half-scale pathfinder for the full-scale RLV. The LMSW RLV design is a lifting body shaped vehicle employing linear aerospike engine provided propulsion. The initial X-33 flight is planned for the summer of 2000, and the initial VentureStar flight is planned for between 2005 and 2007.

Crowley, Tim

1999-01-01

51

RLV/X-33 operations overview  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the VentureStar{trademark} SSTO RLV and X-33 operations concepts. Applications of advanced technologies, automated ground support systems, advanced aircraft and launch vehicle lessons learned have been integrated to develop a streamlined vehicle and mission processing concept necessary to meet the goals of a commercial SSTO RLV. These concepts will be validated by the X-33 flight test program where financial and technical risk mitigation are required. The X-33 flight test program totally demonstrates the vehicle performance, technology, and efficient ground operations at the lowest possible cost. The Skunk Work{close_quote}s test program approach and test site proximity to the production plant are keys. The X-33 integrated flight and ground test program incrementally expands the knowledge base of the overall system allowing minimum risk progression to the next flight test program milestone. Subsequent X-33 turnaround processing flows will be performed with an aircraft operations philosophy. The differences will be based on research and development, component reliability and flight test requirements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Black, S.T. [United Space Alliance Mail Code USK-247 Kennedy Space Center, Florida32899 (United States); Eshleman, W. [Lockheed Martin Skunk Works 1011 Lockheed Way Palmdale, California93599 (United States)

1997-01-01

52

RLV/X-33 operations overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the VentureStar™ SSTO RLV and X-33 operations concepts. Applications of advanced technologies, automated ground support systems, advanced aircraft and launch vehicle lessons learned have been integrated to develop a streamlined vehicle and mission processing concept necessary to meet the goals of a commercial SSTO RLV. These concepts will be validated by the X-33 flight test program where financial and technical risk mitigation are required. The X-33 flight test program totally demonstrates the vehicle performance, technology, and efficient ground operations at the lowest possible cost. The Skunk Work's test program approach and test site proximity to the production plant are keys. The X-33 integrated flight and ground test program incrementally expands the knowledge base of the overall system allowing minimum risk progression to the next flight test program milestone. Subsequent X-33 turnaround processing flows will be performed with an aircraft operations philosophy. The differences will be based on research and development, component reliability and flight test requirements.

Black, Stephen T.; Eshleman, Wally

1997-01-01

53

Testing the Preliminary X-33 Navigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) must meet the demanding requirements of landing autonomously on a narrow landing strip following a flight that reaches an altitude of up to 200,000 feet and a speed in excess of Mach 9 with significant in-flight energy bleed-off maneuvers. To execute this flight regimen a highly reliable avionics system has been designed that includes three LN-100G Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS) units as the primary navigation system for the X-33. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) tested an INS/GPS system in real-time simulations to determine the ability of this navigation suite to meet the in flight and autonomous landing requirements of the X-33 RLV. A total of sixty-one open loop tests were performed to characterize the navigation accuracy of the LN-100G. Twenty-seven closed-loop tests were also performed to evaluate the performance of the X-33 Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) algorithms with the real navigation hardware. These closed-loop tests were also designed to expose any integration or operational issues with the real-time X-33 vehicle simulation. Dynamic road tests of the INS/GPS were conducted by Litton to assess the performance of differential and nondifferential INS/GPS hybrid navigation solutions. The results of the simulations and road testing demonstrate that this novel solution is capable of meeting the demanding requirements of take-off, in-flight navigation, and autonomous landing of the X-33 RLV. This paper describes the test environment developed to stimulate the LN-100G and discusses the results of this test effort. This paper also presents recommendations for a navigation system suitable to an operational RLV system.

Lomas, James J.; Mitchell, Daniel W.; Freestone, Todd M.; Lee, Charles; Lessman, Craig; Foster, Lee D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

54

X-33 Landing - Computer generated graphic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 46-second clip has the X-33 aircraft on final approach to Michael AAF in Utah, then with its landing gear down, it flares for touchdown and brakes to a halt. This graphic like the three before it shows an early configuration without vertical stabilizers, which have since been added.

1996-01-01

55

Thermal protection in space technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The provision of heat protection for various elements of space flight apparata has great significance, particularly in the construction of manned transport vessels and orbital stations. A popular explanation of the methods of heat protection in rocket-space technology at the current stage as well as in perspective is provided.

Salakhutdinov, G. M.

1982-01-01

56

Ariane 5 upper stage thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal protection system of the Ariane 5 upper stage tank section development program is described with special emphasis on the heat shield. The optimization process is given, beginning with material selection combined with analysis and followed by test verification. Attention is given to the storable propellant stage (SPS) thermal design, heat shield component thermal performance tests, SPS heat shield verification test results, and the manufacturing and integration approach.

Schwarz, B.; Menn, F.; Gutschmidt, K.

1991-07-01

57

49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.18 Thermal protection systems...this subchapter require thermal protection on a tank car, the tank car must have sufficient thermal resistance so...

2011-10-01

58

49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.18 Thermal protection systems...this subchapter require thermal protection on a tank car, the tank car must have sufficient thermal resistance so...

2012-10-01

59

49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.18 Thermal protection systems...this subchapter require thermal protection on a tank car, the tank car must have sufficient thermal resistance so...

2013-10-01

60

Reusable thermal protection system development: A prospective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in passive reusable thermal protection system materials is described. Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, which was the first reusable vehicle, is discussed. The thermal protection materials and given concepts and some of the shuttle development and manufacturing problems are described. Evolution of a family of grid and flexible ceramic external insulation materials from the initial shuttle concept in the early 1970's to the present time is described. The important properties and their evolution are documented. Application of these materials to vehicles currently being developed and plans for research to meet the space programs future needs are summarized.

Goldstein, Howard

1992-01-01

61

X-33/RLV Program Aerospike Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Substantial progress was made during the past year in support of the X-33/RLV program. X-33 activity was directed towards completing the remaining design work and building hardware to support test activities. RLV work focused on the nozzle ramp and powerpack technology tasks and on supporting vehicle configuration studies. On X-33, the design activity was completed to the detail level and the remainder of the drawings were released. Component fabrication and engine assembly activity was initiated, and the first two powerpacks and the GSE and STE needed to support powerpack testing were completed. Components fabrication is on track to support the first engine assembly schedule. Testing activity included powerpack testing and component development tests consisting of thrust cell single cell testing, CWI system spider testing, and EMA valve flow and vibration testing. Work performed for RLV was divided between engine system and technology development tasks. Engine system activity focused on developing the engine system configuration and supporting vehicle configuration studies. Also, engine requirements were developed, and engine performance analyses were conducted. In addition, processes were developed for implementing reliability, mass properties, and cost controls during design. Technology development efforts were divided between powerpack and nozzle ramp technology tasks. Powerpack technology activities were directed towards the development of a prototype powerpack and a ceramic turbine technology demonstrator (CTTD) test article which will allow testing of ceramic turbines and a close-coupled gas generator design. Nozzle technology efforts were focused on the selection of a composite nozzle supplier and on the fabrication and test of composite nozzle coupons.

1999-01-01

62

Toughened Thermal Blanket for MMOD Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal blankets are used extensively on spacecraft to provide passive thermal control of spacecraft hardware from thermal extremes encountered in space. Toughened thermal blankets have been developed that greatly improve protection from hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. These blankets can be outfitted if so desired with a reliable means to determine the location, depth and extent of MMOD impact damage by incorporating an impact sensitive piezoelectric film. Improved MMOD protection of thermal blankets was obtained by adding selective materials at various locations within the thermal blanket. As given in Figure 1, three types of materials were added to the thermal blanket to enhance its MMOD performance: (1) disrupter layers, near the outside of the blanket to improve breakup of the projectile, (2) standoff layers, in the middle of the blanket to provide an area or gap that the broken-up projectile can expand, and (3) stopper layers, near the back of the blanket where the projectile debris is captured and stopped. The best suited materials for these different layers vary. Density and thickness is important for the disrupter layer (higher densities generally result in better projectile breakup), whereas a highstrength to weight ratio is useful for the stopper layer, to improve the slowing and capture of debris particles.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

2014-01-01

63

Thermal Protection Materials: Development, Characterization and Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are used to protect space vehicles from the heat experienced during entry into an atmosphere. The application for these materials is very specialized as are the materials. They must have specific properties to withstand conditions during specific entries. There is no one-size-fits-all TPS as the conditions experienced by a material are very dependent upon the atmosphere, the entry speed, the size and shape of the vehicle, and the location on the vehicle. However, all TPS must be reliable and efficient to ensure mission safety, that is to protect the vehicle while ensuring that payload is maximized. Types of TPS will be reviewed in relation to types of missions and applications. Both reusable and ablative materials will be discussed. Approaches to characterizing and evaluating these materials will be presented. The role of heritage versus new materials will be described.

Johnson, Silvia M.

2012-01-01

64

Lightweight Thermal Protection System for Atmospheric Entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TUFROC (Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Reinforced Oxidation-resistant Composite) has been developed as a new thermal protection system (TPS) material for wing leading edge and nose cap applications. The composite withstands temperatures up to 1,970 K, and consists of a toughened, high-temperature surface cap and a low-thermal-conductivity base, and is applicable to both sharp and blunt leading edge vehicles. This extends the possible application of fibrous insulation to the wing leading edge and/or nose cap on a hypersonic vehicle. The lightweight system comprises a treated carbonaceous cap composed of ROCCI (Refractory Oxidation-resistant Ceramic Carbon Insulation), which provides dimensional stability to the outer mold line, while the fibrous base material provides maximum thermal insulation for the vehicle structure.

Stewart, David; Leiser, Daniel

2007-01-01

65

Estimates Of The Orbiter RSI Thermal Protection System Thermal Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Orbiter post-flight inspection, structure temperatures are recorded at selected positions on the windward, leeward, starboard and port surfaces. Statistical analysis of this flight data and a non-dimensional load interference (NDLI) method are used to estimate the thermal reliability at positions were reusable surface insulation (RSI) is installed. In this analysis, structure temperatures that exceed the design limit define the critical failure mode. At thirty-three positions the RSI thermal reliability is greater than 0.999999 for the missions studied. This is not the overall system level reliability of the thermal protection system installed on an Orbiter. The results from two Orbiters, OV-102 and OV-105, are in good agreement. The original RSI designs on the OV-102 Orbital Maneuvering System pods, which had low reliability, were significantly improved on OV-105. The NDLI method was also used to estimate thermal reliability from an assessment of TPS uncertainties that was completed shortly before the first Orbiter flight. Results fiom the flight data analysis and the pre-flight assessment agree at several positions near each other. The NDLI method is also effective for optimizing RSI designs to provide uniform thermal reliability on the acreage surface of reusable launch vehicles.

Kolodziej, P.; Rasky, D. J.

2002-01-01

66

Advanced materials for thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2?sec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2?sec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

1996-03-01

67

Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

2002-01-01

68

Testing of the X-33 umbilical system at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Launch Equipment Test Facility, Will Reaves (top of stand), with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations, looks over components of the X-33 umbilical system undergoing testing. A team of Kennedy Space Center experts developed the umbilical system, comprising panels, valves and hoses that provide the means to load the X-33 with super-cold propellant. The X-33, under construction at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in Palmdale, Calif., is a half-scale prototype of the planned operational reusable launch vehicle dubbed VentureStar.

1999-01-01

69

Testing of the X-33 umbilical system at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Launch Equipment Test Facility, , Will Reaves and Mike Solomon (kneeling), both with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations, observe parts of the X-33 umbilical system during testing. A team of Kennedy Space Center experts developed the umbilical system, comprising panels, valves and hoses that provide the means to load the X-33 with super-cold propellant. The X-33, under construction at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in Palmdale, Calif., is a half-scale prototype of the planned operational reusable launch vehicle dubbed VentureStar.

1999-01-01

70

Testing of the X-33 umbilical system at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Launch Equipment Test Facility, Mike Solomon, with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations, studies a part of the X-33 umbilical system during testing. Pointing to the part is Will Reaves, also with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations. A team of Kennedy Space Center experts developed the umbilical system, comprising panels, valves and hoses that provide the means to load the X-33 with super-cold propellant. The X-33, under construction at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in Palmdale, Calif., is a half-scale prototype of the planned operational reusable launch vehicle dubbed VentureStar.

1999-01-01

71

Testing of the X-33 umbilical system at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Launch Equipment Test Facility, workers check results from testing the X-33 umbilical system. From left are Greg Melton (left), a NASA engineer; Will Reaves, with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations; and Scott Holcomb, also with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations. A team of Kennedy Space Center experts developed the umbilical system, comprising panels, valves and hoses that provide the means to load the X-33 with super-cold propellant. The X-33, under construction at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in Palmdale, Calif., is a half-scale prototype of the planned operational reusable launch vehicle dubbed VentureStar.

1999-01-01

72

Testing of the X-33 umbilical system at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Launch Equipment Test Facility, Mike Solomon (left) and Will Reaves (right), both with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations, move in for a close look at part of the X-33 umbilical system. A team of Kennedy Space Center experts developed the umbilical system, comprising panels, valves and hoses that provide the means to load the X-33 with super-cold propellant. The X-33, under construction at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in Palmdale, Calif., is a half-scale prototype of the planned operational reusable launch vehicle dubbed VentureStar.

1999-01-01

73

Testing of the X-33 umbilical system at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Launch Equipment Test Facility, Greg Melton (left), a NASA engineer, and Will Reaves (right), with Lockheed Martin Technical Operations, look at components of the X-33 umbilical system that is undergoing testing. A team of Kennedy Space Center experts developed the umbilical system, comprising panels, valves and hoses that provide the means to load the X-33 with super-cold propellant. The X-33, under construction at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in Palmdale, Calif., is a half-scale prototype of the planned operational reusable launch vehicle dubbed VentureStar.

1999-01-01

74

Testing of the X-33 umbilical system at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Launch Equipment Test Facility, Mike Ynclan, with Dynacs, and Greg Melton, a NASA engineer, look at measurements during testing of the X-33 umbilical system. A team of Kennedy Space Center experts developed the umbilical system, comprising panels, valves and hoses that provide the means to load the X-33 with super-cold propellant. The X-33, under construction at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in Palmdale, Calif., is a half-scale prototype of the planned operational reusable launch vehicle dubbed VentureStar.

1999-01-01

75

49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179...thermal protection on a tank car, the tank car...minutes. (b) Thermal analysis. (1) Compliance...entire surface of the tank car. The analysis must consider the...

2010-10-01

76

Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fulfill President George W. Bush's "Vision for Space Exploration" (2004) - successful human and robotic missions to and from other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) must reduce the trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that the payload and scientific experiments' capabilities can be maximized. The new project described in this paper will generate thermal protection system (TPS) product that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in the optimization of vehicle weights, and provide materials and processes templates for use in the development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans.

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Levine, Stanley R.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2005-01-01

77

Shearographic and thermographic nondestructive evaluation of the space shuttle structure and thermal protection systems (TPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shearography and thermography have shown promising results on orbiter structure and external tank (ET) and solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal protection systems (TPS). The orbiter uses a variety of composite structure, the two most prevalent materials being aluminum and graphite-epoxy honeycomb. Both techniques have detected delaminations as small at 0.25 inches diameter in the orbiter payload bay doors graphite-epoxy honeycomb structure. Other applications include the robotic manipulator system (RMS) and the rudder speed brake structure. The ET uses spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) as the TPS and the SRB forward section uses marshall sprayable ablative as the TPS. Debonding SOFI damage to the orbiter 'belly' tile and exposes the ET to thermal loading. Voids in SOFI test panels as small as 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of not more than 10 inches of water or 0.4 pounds per square inch. Preliminary results of the X33 metallic TPS are presented. Ultrasonic testing approved for orbiter bond integrity testing, is time consuming and problematic. No current non-destructive inspection technique is approved for inspection of ET/SRB TPS or the orbiter RMS honeycomb at Kennedy Space Center. Only visual inspections are routinely performed on orbiter structure. The various successes of these two techniques make them good candidates for the aforementioned applications.

Davis, Christopher K.

1996-11-01

78

High Temperature Aerogels for Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 system are being investigated as possible constituents for lightweight integrated thermal protection system (TPS) designs for use in supersonic and hypersonic applications. Gels are synthesized from ethoxysilanes and AlCl3.6H2O, using an epoxide catalyst. The influence of Al:Si ratio, solvent, water to metal and water to alcohol ratios on aerogel composition, morphology, surface area, and pore size distribution were examined, and phase transformation on heat treatment characterized. Aerogels have been fabricated which maintain porous, fractal structures after brief exposures to 1000 C. Incorporation of nanofibers, infiltration of aerogels into SiC foams, use of polymers for crosslinking the aerogels, or combinations of these, offer potential for toughening and integration of TPS with composite structure. Woven fabric composites having Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels as a matrix also have been fabricated. Continuing work is focused on reduction in shrinkage and optimization of thermal and physical properties.

Hurwitz, Frances I.; Mbah, Godfrey C.

2008-01-01

79

X-33, Stepping Stone ot Low Cost Access to Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the Access to Space Study, which was conducted in 1993 through the Office of Space Systems Development, an advanced technology Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) was selected for demonstration. The X-33 was advanced as an demonstration project, to build and test a 53-percent scale prototype of an operational RLV, it would also demonstrate new technologies which would be required to assure the operation of the new RLV. This presentation reviews the progress of the X-33 development and supporting sites. The X-33 design has been completed and fabrication and assembly is progressing well. The X-33 launch site has been completed. The first LH2 tank and engine is in testing. This will lead to the full scale development of VentureStar(tm).

Naftel, J. Chris

2000-01-01

80

Support to X-33/Resusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Peer Review Team (PRT) was formed to assess the integrated X-33 vehicle GN&C system in order to identify any areas of disproportionate risk for initial flight. The eventual scope of the PRT assessment encompasses the GN&C algorithms, software, avionics, control effectors, applicable models, and testing. The initial (phase 1) focus of the PRT was on the GN&C algorithms and the Flight Control Actuation Subsystem (FCAS). The PRT held meetings during its phase 1 assessment at X-33 assembly facilities in Palmdale, California on May 17-18, 2000 and at Honeywell facilities in Tempe, Arizona on June 7, 2000. The purpose of these meetings was for the PRT members to get background briefings on the X-33 vehicle and for the PRT team to be briefed on the design basis and current status of the X-33 GN&C algorithms as well as the FCAS. The following material is covered in this PRT phase 1 final report. Some significant GN&C-related accomplishments by the X-33 development team are noted. Some topics are identified that were found during phase 1 to require fuller consideration when the PRT reconvenes in the future. Some new recommendations by the PRT to the X-33 program will likely result from a thorough assessment of these subjects. An initial list of recommendations from the PRT to the X-33 program is provided. These recommendations stem from topics that received adequate review by the PRT in phase 1. Significant technical observations by the PRT members as a result of the phase 1 meetings are detailed. (These are covered in an appendix.) There were many X-33 development team members who contributed to the technical information used by the PRT during the phase 1 assessment, who supported presentations to the PRT, and who helped to address the many questions posed by the PRT members at and after the phase 1 meetings. In all instances the interaction between the PRT and the X-33 development team members was cordial and very professional. The members of the PRT are grateful for the time and effort applied by all of these individuals and hope that the contents of this report will help to make the X-33 program a success.

2000-01-01

81

Intumescence: An in situ approach to thermal protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection of flammable structures with intumescent protective coatings is discussed. Various materials which have demonstrated an ability to provide protection through intumecence are described. Materials tests for intumescent coatings are presented and physical properties of various materials are included.

Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M.

1971-01-01

82

Thermal protection systems manned spacecraft flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first U.S. manned entry, Mercury (May 5, 1961), seventy-five manned entries have been made resulting in significant progress in the understanding and development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for manned rated spacecraft. The TPS materials and systems installed on these spacecraft are compared. The first three vehicles (Mercury, Gemini, Apollo) used ablative (single-use) systems while the Space Shuttle Orbiter TPS is a multimission system. A TPS figure of merit, unit weight lb/sq ft, illustrates the advances in TPS material performance from Mercury (10.2 lb/sq ft) to the Space Shuttle (1.7 lb/sq ft). Significant advances have been made in the design, fabrication, and certification of TPS on manned entry vehicles (Mercury through Shuttle Orbiter). Shuttle experience has identified some key design and operational issues. State-of-the-art ceramic insulation materials developed in the 1970's for the Space Shuttle Orbiter have been used in the initial designs of aerobrakes. This TPS material experience has identified the need to develop a technology base from which a new class of higher temperature materials will emerge for advanced space transportation vehicles.

Curry, Donald M.

1992-01-01

83

X-33, Demonstrating Revolutionary Operations for VentureStar(TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33, reusable space plane technology demonstrator is on course to begin the flights of the X-33 by the end of 2002 that will serve as a basis for industry and government decisions that could lead to VentureStar(Trademark). Lockheed Martin has placed the VentureStar LLC in it's Space Company and is now competing in an industry wide effort that will permit NASA to select a Second Generation RLV source by 2005. This move provides the focus for firm business planning needed to enable the decision by the time X-33 flies in mid 2002 and possibly with upgraded technologies a year or so later. The operations concept for the X-33 is an integration of launch vehicle and aircraft operations approaches. VentureStar is a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) and will therefore enable a new approach to Space Launch Operations that is more "aircraft like" and can produce substantially lower operating costs over current systems. NASA's initiatives over the past several years in Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) have had as a primary objective to demonstrate technologies that will result in significant reduction in costs of space access. Further, the end objective is to commercialize the development and operations of the next generation RLV. Hence, the X-33 and its operations demonstration is a major contributor to that next generation system.

Austin, Robert E.; Ishmael, Stephen D.; Lacefield, Cleon

2000-01-01

84

Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

2005-06-01

85

77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...application of thermal overload protection devices that...the availability of information regarding this document...application of thermal overload protection devices...ensure that the thermal overload protection devices will...function. II. Further Information DG-1264, was...

2012-02-27

86

Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

2006-01-01

87

Deployable Aeroshell Flexible Thermal Protection System Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deployable aeroshells offer the promise of achieving larger aeroshell surface areas for entry vehicles than otherwise attainable without deployment. With the larger surface area comes the ability to decelerate high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. However, for an aeroshell to perform even at the low ballistic coefficients attainable with deployable aeroshells, a flexible thermal protection system (TPS) is required that is capable of surviving reasonably high heat flux and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction handling, high density packing, deployment, aerodynamic loading and aerothermal heating. The Program for the Advancement of Inflatable Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is tasked with developing the technologies required to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of inflatable deployable aeroshells, and one of several of the technologies PAIDAE is developing for use on inflatable aeroshells is flexible TPS. Several flexible TPS layups were designed, based on commercially available materials, and tested in NASA Langley Research Center's 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8ft HTT). The TPS layups were designed for, and tested at three different conditions that are representative of conditions seen in entry simulation analyses of inflatable aeroshell concepts. Two conditions were produced in a single run with a sting-mounted dual wedge test fixture. The dual wedge test fixture had one row of sample mounting locations (forward) at about half the running length of the top surface of the wedge. At about two thirds of the running length of the wedge, a second test surface drafted up at five degrees relative to the first test surface established the remaining running length of the wedge test fixture. A second row of sample mounting locations (aft) was positioned in the middle of the running length of the second test surface. Once the desired flow conditions were established in the test section the dual wedge test fixture, oriented at 5 degrees angle of attack down, was injected into the flow. In this configuration the aft sample mounting location was subjected to roughly twice the heat flux and surface pressure of the forward mounting location. The tunnel was run at two different conditions for the test series: 1) 'Low Pressure', and 2) 'High Pressure'. At 'Low Pressure' conditions the TPS layups were tested at 6W/cm2 and 11W/cm2 while at 'High Pressure' conditions the TPS layups were tested at 11W/cm2 and 20W/cm2. This paper details the test configuration of the TPS samples in the 8Ft HTT, the sample holder assembly, TPS sample layup construction, sample instrumentation, results from this testing, as well as lessons learned.

Hughes, Stephen J.; Ware, Joanne S.; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Lugo, Rafael A.

2009-01-01

88

X-33 Rev-F Turbulent Aeroheating Results From Test 6817 in NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and Comparisons With Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements and predictions of the X-33 turbulent aeroheating environment have been performed at Mach 6, perfect-gas air conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to compare measured turbulent aeroheating levels on smooth models, models with discrete trips, and models with arrays of bowed panels (which simulate bowed thermal protections system tiles) with each other and with predictions from two Navier-Stokes codes, LAURA and GASP. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at free stream Reynolds numbers based on length of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) to 6.1 x 10(exp 6) on 0.0132 scale X-33 models at a = 40-deg. Turbulent flow was produced by the discrete trips and by the bowed panels at ill but the lowest Reynolds number, but turbulent flow on the smooth model was produced only at the highest Reynolds number. Turbulent aeroheating levels on each of the three model types were measured using global phosphor thermography and were found to agree to within .he estimated uncertainty (plus or minus 15%) of the experiment. Computations were performed at the wind tunnel free stream conditions using both codes. Turbulent aeroheating levels predicted using the LAURA code were generally 5%-10% lower than those from GASP, although both sets of predictions fell within the experimental accuracy of the wind tunnel data.

Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.

2003-01-01

89

Space vehicle integrated thermal protection/structural/meteoroid protection system, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine the merit of a combined structure/thermal meteoroid protection system for a cryogenic vehicle propulsion module. Structural concepts were evaluated to identify least weight designs. Thermal analyses determined optimum tank arrangements and insulation materials. Meteoroid penetration experiments provided data for design of protection systems. Preliminary designs were made and compared on the basis of payload capability. Thermal performance tests demonstrated heat transfer rates typical for the selected design. Meteoroid impact tests verified the protection characteristics. A mockup was made to demonstrate protection system installation. The best design found combined multilayer insulation with a truss structure vehicle body. The multilayer served as the thermal/meteoroid protection system.

Bartlett, D. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

1973-01-01

90

Principle of thermal insulation for permafrost protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In permafrost regions, the measures of constructing embankments or installing thermal insulations are in common use to keep the permafrost table under the roadways stable. However, the effectiveness of these measures depends on their adjustment to the mean annual ground temperature and the temperature amplitude in the permafrost under the roadway. This paper explains the principle of thermal insulation for

Guodong Cheng; Jianming Zhang; Yu Sheng; Ji Chen

2004-01-01

91

Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

Curry, Donald M.

1993-01-01

92

Aerothermodynamic study of UHTC-based thermal protection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are coupled to a thermal analysis model to investigate the thermal response of the new Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) being considered for Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) of future reusable re-entry vehicles.The numerical methodology has been applied to the Sub-orbital Re-entry Test (SRT), mission foreseen in the frame of the Italian unmanned space program. The

Raffaele Savino; Mario De Stefano Fumo; Diego Paterna; Michelangelo Serpico

2005-01-01

93

Arcjet Testing of Micro-Meteoroid Impacted Thermal Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several harsh space environments that could affect thermal protection systems and in turn pose risks to the atmospheric entry vehicles. These environments include micrometeoroid impact, extreme cold temperatures, and ionizing radiation during deep space cruise, all followed by atmospheric entry heating. To mitigate these risks, different thermal protection material samples were subjected to multiple tests, including hyper velocity impact, cold soak, irradiation, and arcjet testing, at various NASA facilities that simulated these environments. The materials included a variety of honeycomb packed ablative materials as well as carbon-based non-ablative thermal protection systems. The present paper describes the results of the multiple test campaign with a focus on arcjet testing of thermal protection materials. The tests showed promising results for ablative materials. However, the carbon-based non-ablative system presented some concerns regarding the potential risks to an entry vehicle. This study provides valuable information regarding the capability of various thermal protection materials to withstand harsh space environments, which is critical to sample return and planetary entry missions.

Agrawal, Parul; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.

2013-01-01

94

Thermal protection system (TPS) monitoring using acoustic emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigates acoustic emission (AE) as a tool for monitoring the degradation of thermal protection systems (TPS). The AE sensors are part of an array of instrumentation on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch designed for testing advanced thermal protection aerospace materials used for hypervelocity vehicles. AE are generated by stresses within the material, propagate as elastic stress waves, and can be detected with sensitive instrumentation. Graphite (POCO DFP-2) is used to study gas-surface interaction during degradation of thermal protection materials. The plasma is produced by a RF magnetic field driven by a 30kW power supply at 3.5 MHz, which creates a noisy environment with large spikes when powered on or off. AE are waveguided from source to sensor by a liquid-cooled copper probe used to position the graphite sample in the plasma stream. Preliminary testing was used to set filters and thresholds on the AE detection system (Physical Acoustics PCI-2) to minimize the impact of considerable operating noise. Testing results show good correlation between AE data and testing environment, which dictates the physics and chemistry of the thermal breakdown of the sample. Current efforts for the project are expanding the dataset and developing statistical analysis tools. This study shows the potential of AE as a powerful tool for analysis of thermal protection material thermal degradations with the unique capability of real-time, in-situ monitoring.

Hurley, D. A.; Huston, D. R.; Fletcher, D. G.; Owens, W. P.

2011-04-01

95

X-33 LH2 Tank Failure Investigation Findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 liquid hydrogen tank failure investigation found the following: (1) The inner skin microcracked and hydrogen infiltrated into it; (2) The cracks grew larger under pressure; (3) When pressure was removed, the cracks closed slightly; (4) When the tank was drained and warmed, the cracks closed and blocked the leak path; (5) Foreign object debris (FOD) and debond areas provided an opportunity for a leak path; and (6) There is still hydrogen in the other three lobes today.

Niedermeyer, M.

2001-01-01

96

X-33 Environmental Impact Statement: A Fast Track Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to prepare an appropriate level environmental analysis for its major projects. Development of the X-33 Technology Demonstrator and its associated flight test program required an environmental impact statement (EIS) under the NEPA. The EIS process is consists of four parts: the "Notice of Intent" to prepare an EIS and scoping; the draft EIS which is distributed for review and comment; the final ETS; and the "Record of Decision." Completion of this process normally takes from 2 - 3 years, depending on the complexity of the proposed action. Many of the agency's newest fast track, technology demonstration programs require NEPA documentation, but cannot sustain the lengthy time requirement between program concept development to implementation. Marshall Space Flight Center, in cooperation with Kennedy Space Center, accomplished the NEPA process for the X-33 Program in 13 months from Notice of Intent to Record of Decision. In addition, the environmental team implemented an extensive public involvement process, conducting a total of 23 public meetings for scoping and draft EIS comment along with numerous informal meetings with public officials, civic organizations, and Native American Indians. This paper will discuss the fast track approach used to successfully accomplish the NEPA process for X-33 on time.

McCaleb, Rebecca C.; Holland, Donna L.

1998-01-01

97

Deterministic Reconfigurable Control Design for the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the event of a control surface failure, the purpose of a reconfigurable control system is to redistribute the control effort among the remaining working surfaces such that satisfactory stability and performance are retained. Four reconfigurable control design methods were investigated for the X-33 vehicle: Redistributed Pseudo-Inverse, General Constrained Optimization, Automated Failure Dependent Gain Schedule, and an Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization. The Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization approach was chosen for implementation on the X-33. Two example failures are shown, a right outboard elevon jam at 25 deg. at a Mach 3 entry condition, and a left rudder jam at 30 degrees. Note however, that reconfigurable control laws have been designed for the entire flight envelope. Comparisons between responses with the nominal controller and reconfigurable controllers show the benefits of reconfiguration. Single jam aerosurface failures were considered, and failure detection and identification is considered accomplished in the actuator controller. The X-33 flight control system will incorporate reconfigurable flight control in the baseline system.

Wagner, Elaine A.; Burken, John J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wohletz, Jerry M.

1998-01-01

98

Reconfigurable Control Design for the Full X-33 Flight Envelope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reconfigurable control law for the full X-33 flight envelope has been designed to accommodate a failed control surface and redistribute the control effort among the remaining working surfaces to retain satisfactory stability and performance. An offline nonlinear constrained optimization approach has been used for the X-33 reconfigurable control design method. Using a nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom simulation, three example failures are evaluated: ascent with a left body flap jammed at maximum deflection; entry with a right inboard elevon jammed at maximum deflection; and landing with a left rudder jammed at maximum deflection. Failure detection and identification are accomplished in the actuator controller. Failure response comparisons between the nominal control mixer and the reconfigurable control subsystem (mixer) show the benefits of reconfiguration. Single aerosurface jamming failures are considered. The cases evaluated are representative of the study conducted to prove the adequate and safe performance of the reconfigurable control mixer throughout the full flight envelope. The X-33 flight control system incorporates reconfigurable flight control in the existing baseline system.

Cotting, M. Christopher; Burken, John J.

2001-01-01

99

A ceramic matrix composite thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation of hypersonic vehicles (NASP, SSTO) that require reusable thermal protection systems will experience acreage surface temperatures in excess of 1100 C. More important, they will experience a more severe physical environment than the Space Shuttle due to non-pristine launching and landing conditions. As a result, maintenance, inspection, and replacement factors must be more thoroughly incorporated into the design of the TPS. To meet these requirements, an advanced thermal protection system was conceived, designated 'TOPHAT'. This system consists of a toughened outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) attached to a rigid reusable surface insulator (RSI) which is directly bonded to the surface. The objective of this effort was to evaluate this concept in an aeroconvective environment, to determine the effect of impacts to the CMC material, and to compare the results with existing thermal protection systems.

Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Pitts, William C.

1993-01-01

100

X-33 Metal Model Testing In Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The countrys next generation of space transportation, a reusable launch vehicle (RLV), continues to undergo wind tunnel testing at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. All four photos are a metal model of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle (about 15 inches long by 15 inches wide) being tested for Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) at NASA Langley Research Center. Tests are being conducted by members of the Aerothermodynamics Branch. According to Kelly Murphy of Langleys Aerothermodynamics Branch, the aluminum and stainless steel model of the X-33 underwent aerodynamic testing in the tunnel. *The subsonic tests were conducted at the speed of Mach .25,* she said. *Force and moment testing and measurement in this tunnel lasted about one week.* Future testing of the metal model is scheduled for Langleys 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, from the end of March to mid-April 1997, and the Unitary Wind Tunnel, from mid-April to the beginning of May. Other tunnel testing for X-33 models are scheduled from the present through June in the hypersonic tunnels, and the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel from about mid-June to mid-July. Since 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. has been the lead center for coordinating the Agencys X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, an industry-led effort, which NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin has declared the agency's highest priority new program. The RLV Technology Program is a partnership among NASA, the United States Air Force and private industry to develop world leadership in low-cost space transportation. The goal of the program is to develop technologies and new operational concepts that can radically reduce the cost of access to space. The RLV program also hopes to speed the commercialization of space and improve U.S. economic competitiveness by making access to space as routine and reliable as today's airline industry, while reducing costs and enhancing safety and reliability. The RLV program combines ground and flight demonstrations. The use of experimental flight vehicles like the X-33, to be developed by Lockheed Martin Corp., Palmdale, Calif. will help verify full-up systems performance in a realistic environment.

1997-01-01

101

X-33 Metal Model Testing In Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The countrys next generation of space transportation, a reusable launch vehicle (RLV), continues to undergo wind tunnel testing at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. All four photos are a metal model of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle (about 15 inches long by 15 inches wide) being tested for Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) at NASA Langley Research Center. Tests are being conducted by members of the Aerothermodynamics Branch. According to Kelly Murphy of Langleys Aerothermodynamics Branch, the aluminum and stainless steel model of the X-33 underwent aerodynamic testing in the tunnel. *The subsonic tests were conducted at the speed of Mach 25,* she said. *Force and moment testing and measurement in this tunnel lasted about one week.* Future testing of the metal model is scheduled for Langleys 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, from the end of March to mid-April 1997, and the Unitary Wind Tunnel, from mid-April to the beginning of May. Other tunnel testing for X-33 models are scheduled from the present through June in the hypersonic tunnels, and the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel from about mid-June to mid-July. Since 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. has been the lead center for coordinating the Agencys X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, an industry-led effort, which NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin has declared the agency's highest priority new program. The RLV Technology Program is a partnership among NASA, the United States Air Force and private industry to develop world leadership in low-cost space transportation. The goal of the program is to develop technologies and new operational concepts that can radically reduce the cost of access to space. The RLV program also hopes to speed the commercialization of space and improve U.S. economic competitiveness by making access to space as routine and reliable as today's airline industry, while reducing costs and enhancing safety and reliability. The RLV program combines ground and flight demonstrations. The use of experimental flight vehicles like the X-33, to be developed by Lockheed Martin Corp., Palmdale, Calif. will help verify full-up systems performance in a realistic environment.

1997-01-01

102

Study of skin model and geometry effects on thermal performance of thermal protective fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal protective clothing has steadily improved over the years as new materials and improved designs have reached the market. A significant method that has brought these improvements to the fire service is the NFPA 1971 standard on structural fire fighters’ protective clothing. However, this testing often neglects the effects of cylindrical geometry on heat transmission in flame resistant fabrics. This paper deals with methods to develop cylindrical geometry testing apparatus incorporating novel skin bioheat transfer model to test flame resistant fabrics used in firefighting. Results show that fabrics which shrink during the test can have reduced thermal protective performance compared with the qualities measured with a planar geometry tester. Results of temperature differences between skin simulant sensors of planar and cylindrical tester are also compared. This test method provides a new technique to accurately and precisely characterize the thermal performance of thermal protective fabrics.

Zhu, Fanglong; Ma, Suqin; Zhang, Weiyuan

2008-05-01

103

Thermal Protection During Percutaneous Thermal Ablation Procedures: Interest of Carbon Dioxide Dissection and Temperature Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation of tumor is widely used, and thermal injury to collateral structures is a known complication of this technique. To avoid thermal damage to surrounding structures, several protection techniques have been reported. We report the use of a simple and effective protective technique combining carbon dioxide dissection and thermocouple: CO{sub 2} displaces the nontarget structures, and its low thermal conductivity provides excellent insulation; insertion of a thermocouple in contact with vulnerable structures achieves continuous thermal monitoring. We performed percutaneous thermal ablation of 37 tumors in 35 patients (4 laser, 10 radiofrequency, and 23 cryoablations) with protection of adjacent vulnerable structures by using CO{sub 2} dissection combined with continuous thermal monitoring with thermocouple. Tumor locations were various (19 intra-abdominal tumors including 4 livers and 9 kidneys, 18 musculoskeletal tumors including 11 spinal tumors). CO{sub 2} volume ranged from 10 ml (epidural space) to 1500 ml (abdominal). Repeated insufflations were performed if necessary, depending on the information given by the thermocouple and imaging control. Dissection with optimal thermal protection was achieved in all cases except two patients where adherences (one postoperative, one arachnoiditis) blocked proper gaseous distribution. No complication referred to this technique was noted. This safe, cost-effective, and simple method increases the safety and the success rate of percutaneous thermal ablation procedures. It also offers the potential to increase the number of tumors that can be treated via a percutaneous approach.

Buy, Xavier; Tok, Chung-Hong; Szwarc, Daniel; Bierry, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@rad6.u-strasbg.f [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

2009-05-15

104

Thermal Protection with 5% Dextrose Solution Blanket During Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

A serious complication for any thermal radiofrequency ablation is thermal injury to adjacent structures, particularly the bowel, which can result in additional major surgery or death. Several methods using air, gas, fluid, or thermometry to protect adjacent structures from thermal injury have been reported. In the cases presented in this report, 5% dextrose water (D5W) was instilled to prevent injury to the bowel and diaphragm during radiofrequency ablation. Creating an Insulating envelope or moving organs with D5W might reduce risk for complications such as bowel perforation.

Chen, Enn Alexandria, E-mail: echen@cc.nih.gov; Neeman, Ziv; Lee, Fred T.; Kam, Anthony; Wood, Brad [National Institutes of Health, Radiology Department, Warren G. Magmison Clinical Center (United States)

2006-12-15

105

Numerical simulation for thermal shock resistance of thermal protection materials considering different operating environments.  

PubMed

Based on the sensitivities of material properties to temperature and the complexity of service environment of thermal protection system on the spacecraft, ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTCs), which are used as thermal protection materials, cannot simply consider thermal shock resistance (TSR) of the material its own but need to take the external constraint conditions and the thermal environment into full account. With the thermal shock numerical simulation on hafnium diboride (HfB2), a detailed study of the effects of the different external constraints and thermal environments on the TSR of UHTCs had been made. The influences of different initial temperatures, constraint strengths, and temperature change rates on the TSR of UHTCs are discussed. This study can provide a more intuitively visual understanding of the evolution of the TSR of UHTCs during actual operation conditions. PMID:23983628

Li, Weiguo; Li, Dingyu; Wang, Ruzhuan; Fang, Daining

2013-01-01

106

Numerical Simulation for Thermal Shock Resistance of Thermal Protection Materials Considering Different Operating Environments  

PubMed Central

Based on the sensitivities of material properties to temperature and the complexity of service environment of thermal protection system on the spacecraft, ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTCs), which are used as thermal protection materials, cannot simply consider thermal shock resistance (TSR) of the material its own but need to take the external constraint conditions and the thermal environment into full account. With the thermal shock numerical simulation on hafnium diboride (HfB2), a detailed study of the effects of the different external constraints and thermal environments on the TSR of UHTCs had been made. The influences of different initial temperatures, constraint strengths, and temperature change rates on the TSR of UHTCs are discussed. This study can provide a more intuitively visual understanding of the evolution of the TSR of UHTCs during actual operation conditions. PMID:23983628

Fang, Daining

2013-01-01

107

Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

2005-01-01

108

European Directions for Hypersonic Thermal Protection Systems and Hot Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will overview European Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and Hot Structures activities in Europe. The Europeans have a lot of very good work going on in the area. The presentation will discuss their emphasis on focused technology development for their flight vehicles.

Glass, David E.

2007-01-01

109

"TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

110

Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct

S. D. Williams; Donald M. Curry; Stanley A. Bouslog; William C. Rochelle

1993-01-01

111

Thermal performance evaluation of artificial protective coatings applied to steam surface condenser tubes.  

E-print Network

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coating thermal conductivity, the effective coated-tube thermal conductivity and the coating factor of three artificial protective coatings (APCs) applied to condenser tubes… (more)

Goodenough, John L.

2013-01-01

112

Hypervelocity impact testing of Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a series of 22 hypervelocity impact tests carried out on the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Shuttle Orbiter. Both coated and uncoated low-density (0.14 g/cu cm) LI-900 and high-density (0.35 g/cu cm) LI-2200 tiles were tested. The results are used to develop the penetration and damage correlations which can be used in meteoroid and debris hazard analyses for spacecraft with a ceramic tile TPS. It is shown that tile coatings act as a 'bumper' to fragment the impacting projectile, with thicker coating providing increased protection.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Ortega, Javier

1990-01-01

113

Intumescent-ablators as improved thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitroaromatic amine-based intumescent coatings were improved with regard to their thermal protection ability by adding endothermic decomposing fillers with endotherms at or near the exothermic reaction of the intumescent agent, since the effectiveness of the intumescent coatings without fillers is reduced by the exothermic behavior of the coatings during thermal activation. Fillers were dispersed directly in the base coating. Potassium fluoborate, ammonium fluoborate, zinc borate, and ammonium oxalate function as endothermic ablative materials at specific temperature regions, and also enhance the char formation during the intumescent process.

Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

1977-01-01

114

Investigation of Fundamental Modeling and Thermal Performance Issues for a Metallic Thermal Protection System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. A current advanced metallic thermal protection system (TPS) concept was systematically analyzed to discover the most important factors governing the thermal performance of metallic TPS. A large number of relevant factors that influence the thermal analysis and thermal performance of metallic TPS were identified and quantified. Detailed finite element models were developed for predicting the thermal performance of design variations of the advanced metallic TPS concept mounted on a simple, unstiffened structure. The computational models were also used, in an automated iterative procedure, for sizing the metallic TPS to maintain the structure below a specified temperature limit. A statistical sensitivity analysis method, based on orthogonal matrix techniques used in robust design, was used to quantify and rank the relative importance of the various modeling and design factors considered in this study. Results of the study indicate that radiation, even in small gaps between panels, can reduce significantly the thermal performance of metallic TPS, so that gaps should be eliminated by design if possible. Thermal performance was also shown to be sensitive to several analytical assumptions that should be chosen carefully. One of the factors that was found to have the greatest effect on thermal performance is the heat capacity of the underlying structure. Therefore the structure and TPS should be designed concurrently.

Blosser, Max L.

2002-01-01

115

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a)...

2012-01-01

116

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a)...

2013-01-01

117

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a)...

2010-01-01

118

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a)...

2014-01-01

119

10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...protection against pressurized thermal shock events. (a)...

2011-01-01

120

75 FR 72653 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events; Correction AGENCY...protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events for pressurized...the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; the Energy Reorganization Act of...

2010-11-26

121

The Challenges of Credible Thermal Protection System Reliability Quantification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses several of the challenges associated with developing a credible reliability estimate for a human-rated crew capsule thermal protection system. The process of developing such a credible estimate is subject to the quantification, modeling and propagation of numerous uncertainties within a probabilistic analysis. The development of specific investment recommendations, to improve the reliability prediction, among various potential testing and programmatic options is then accomplished through Bayesian analysis.

Green, Lawrence L.

2013-01-01

122

Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

Kerr, Justin

2006-01-01

123

Metallic thermal protection concept for aerodynamic controlled hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal protection system (TPS) application conditions in future European Space Trasporter systems are discussed. Metallic multiwall panels optionally combined with ultralight multiscreen insulations are shown to be applicable in the temperature range 200-1300 C. For higher temperatures, advanced ceramic composites are preferable, provided some basic ceramic material problems are solved. A comparison between metallic and ceramic TPS design characteristics is presented for the temperature range 200-1300 C.

Grallert, H.; Keller, K.

124

Thermal and aerothermal performance of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A metallic thermal protection system (TPS) concept the multiwall designed for temperature and pressure at Shuttle body point 3140 where the maximum surface temperature is approximately 811 K was tested to evaluate thermal performance and structural integrity. A two tile model of titanium multiwall and a model consisting of a low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were exposed to 25 simulated thermal and pressure Shuttle entry missions. The two systems performed the same, and neither system deteriorated during the tests. It is indicated that redesign of the multiwall tiles reduces tile thickness and/or weight. A nine tile model of titanium multiwal was tested for radiant heating and aerothermodynamics. Minor design changes that improve structural integrity without having a significant impact on the thermal protection ability of the titanium multiwall TPS are identified. The capability of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system to protect an aluminum surface during a Shuttle type entry trajectory at locations on the vehicle where the maximum surface temperature is below 811 K is demonstrated.

Avery, D. E.; Shideler, J. L.; Stuckey, R. N.

1981-01-01

125

75 FR 10410 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events; Correcting...protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events...authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended...S.C. 3504 note); Energy policy Act of 2005...protection against pressurized thermal shock...

2010-03-08

126

46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214 Section...Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger...section, each passenger vessel must carry a thermal protective aid approved under...

2010-10-01

127

Quantitative thermal diffusivity imaging of disbonds in thermal protective coatings using inductive heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inductive heating technique for making thermal diffusivity images of disbonds between thermal protective coatings and their substrates is presented. Any flaw in the bonding of the coating and the substrate shows as an area of lowered values in the diffusivity image. The benefits of the inductive heating approach lie in its ability to heat the conductive substrate without directly heating the dielectric coating. Results are provided for a series of samples with fabricated disbonds, for a range of coating thicknesses.

Heath, D. M.; Winfree, William P.

1990-01-01

128

Support to X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Primary activities of Lee & Associates for the referenced Purchase Order has been in direct support of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program. An independent review to evaluate the X-33 liquid hydrogen fuel tank failure, which recently occurred after-test of the starboard tank has been provided. The purpose of the Investigation team was to assess the tank design modifications, provide an assessment of the testing approach used by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in determining the flight worthiness of the tank, assessing the structural integrity, and determining the cause of the failure of the tank. The approach taken to satisfy the objectives has been for Lee & Associates to provide the expertise of Mr. Frank Key and Mr. Wayne Burton who have relevant experience from past programs and a strong background of experience in the fields critical to the success of the program. Mr. Key and Mr. Burton participated in the NASA established Failure Investigation Review Team to review the development and process data and to identify any design, testing or manufacturing weaknesses and potential problem areas. This approach worked well in satisfying the objectives and providing the Review Team with valuable information including the development of a Fault Tree. The detailed inputs were made orally in real time in the Review Team daily meetings. The results of the investigation were presented to the MSFC Center Director by the team on February 15, 2000. Attached are four charts taken from that presentation which includes 1) An executive summary, 2) The most probable cause, 3) Technology assessment, and 4) Technology Recommendations for Cryogenic tanks.

2000-01-01

129

X-33/RLV System Health Management/Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal

1998-01-01

130

Characterization of a yam class IV chitinase produced by recombinant Pichia pastoris X-33.  

PubMed

A yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb) class IV chitinase, whose genomic DNA was cloned by Mitsunaga et al. (2004), was produced by the recombinant Pichia pastoris X-33 in high yields such as 66 mg/L of culture medium. The chitinase was purified by column chromatography after Endoglycosidase H treatment and then characterized. It showed properties similar to the original chitinase E purified from the yam tuber reported by Arakane et al. (2000). This Pichia-produced chitinase also showed strong lytic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora nicotianae, wide pH and thermal stability, optimum activity at higher temperature such as 70?°C, and high substrate affinity, indicating that one can use this Pichia-produced yam chitinase as a bio-control agent. PMID:25036674

Akond, Muhammad Ali; Matsuda, Yusuke; Ishimaru, Takayuki; Iwai, Ken; Saito, Akira; Kato, Akio; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Jun; Koga, Daizo

2014-01-01

131

Research on thermal protection mechanism of forward-facing cavity and opposing jet combinatorial thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Validated by the correlated experiments, a nose-tip with forward-facing cavity/opposing jet/the combinatorial configuration of forward-facing cavity and opposing jet thermal protection system (TPS) are investigated numerically. The physical mechanism of these TPS is discussed, and the cooling efficiency of them is compared. The combinatorial system is more suitable to be the TPS for the high speed vehicles which need fly under various flow conditions with long-range and long time.

Lu, Hai-Bo; Liu, Wei-Qiang

2014-04-01

132

Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2005-01-01

133

Computer graphic of Lockheed Martin X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle over clouds and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another artist's conception of the X-33, this time after engine shutdown. The vehicle is shown gliding toward its landing site in the southwestern U.S. The X-33 was undertaken to demonstrate the technologies required for a full scale, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. The goal was to substantially reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit. This proved elusive, and for a variety of reasons, the X-33 was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

134

Thermal Protective Coating for High Temperature Polymer Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central theme of this research is the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticles as precursors to thermally protective coatings for high temperature polymer composites. In addition, we will investigate the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle as a component to polymer composites. The objective of this research was the high temperature protection of polymer composites via novel chemistry. The significance of this research is the development of a low cost and highly flexible synthetic methodology, with a compatible processing technique, for the fabrication of high temperature polymer composites. We proposed to accomplish this broad goal through the use of a class of ceramic precursor material, alumoxanes. Alumoxanes are nano-particles with a boehmite-like structure and an organic periphery. The technical goals of this program are to prepare and evaluate water soluble carboxylate-alumoxane for the preparation of ceramic coatings on polymer substrates. Our proposed approach is attractive since proof of concept has been demonstrated under the NRA 96-LeRC-1 Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines, HITEMP Program. For example, carbon and Kevlar(tm) fibers and matting have been successfully coated with ceramic thermally protective layers.

Barron, Andrew R.

1999-01-01

135

MMOD Protection and Degradation Effects for Thermal Control Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by JSC & is the predominate threat in low Earth orbit - ORDEM 3.0 is latest model (released December 2013) - http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/ - Man-made objects in orbit about Earth impacting up to 16 km/s average 9-10 km/s for ISS orbit - High-density debris (steel) is major issue Meteoroid model provided by MSFC - MEM-R2 is latest release - http://www.nasa.gov/offices/meo/home/index.html - Natural particles in orbit about sun Mg-silicates, Ni-Fe, others - Meteoroid environment (MEM): 11-72 km/s Average 22-23 km/s.

Christiansen, Eric

2014-01-01

136

Thermal-Acoustic Analysis of a Metallic Integrated Thermal Protection System Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is undertaken to investigate the response of a representative integrated thermal protection system structure under combined thermal, aerodynamic pressure, and acoustic loadings. A two-step procedure is offered and consists of a heat transfer analysis followed by a nonlinear dynamic analysis under a combined loading environment. Both analyses are carried out in physical degrees-of-freedom using implicit and explicit solution techniques available in the Abaqus commercial finite-element code. The initial study is conducted on a reduced-size structure to keep the computational effort contained while validating the procedure and exploring the effects of individual loadings. An analysis of a full size integrated thermal protection system structure, which is of ultimate interest, is subsequently presented. The procedure is demonstrated to be a viable approach for analysis of spacecraft and hypersonic vehicle structures under a typical mission cycle with combined loadings characterized by largely different time-scales.

Behnke, Marlana N.; Sharma, Anurag; Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

137

Design of experiments for thermal protection system process optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) structures were protected from heating due to aeroshear, radiation and plume impingement by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) known as Marshall Sprayable Ablative (MSA-2). MSA-2 contains Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which due to strict environmental legislation was eliminated. MSA-2 was also classified as hazardous waste, which makes the disposal very costly. Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) replaced MSA-2, and eliminated the use of solvents by delivering the dry filler materials and the fluid resin system to a patented spray gun which utilizes Convergent Spray Technologies spray process. The selection of TPS material was based on risk assessment, performance comparisons, processing, application and cost. Design of Experiments technique was used to optimize the spraying parameters. .

Longani, Hans R.

2000-01-01

138

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

Selvaduray, Guna S.

1994-01-01

139

Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal-Protection-Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Space Shuttle and are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s, and the findings of the influence of material equation-of-state on the simulation of the impact event to characterize the ballistic performance of these materials. These results will be compared with heritage models1 for these materials developed from testing at lower velocities. Assessments of predicted spacecraft risk based upon these tests and simulations will also be discussed.

Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.

2009-01-01

140

Vibroacoustic testing of Space Shuttle thermal protection system panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modes and acoustic responses of two panels representing Space Shuttle thermal protection panels were investigated. The panels consisted of flat aluminum sheet stiffened longitudinally with hat-section stringers and corrugated supporting panels representing Shuttle ring frame bulkheads. In addition, one panel had 24 tiles of LI900 silica thermal insulation material and a strain isolator pad bonded to the face sheet. Both panels were found to have approximately eight modal frequencies in the 60 to 500 Hz range, where Shuttle acoustic loads are expected to be high. The strain response to a progressive acoustic wave representing a Shuttle spectrum was characterized by the occurrence of larger strains in the direction normal to the stringers than in the direction parallel to the stringers; three modes in the 100 to 400 Hz range contributed significantly to the strain response.

Rucker, C. E.; Mixson, J. S.

1976-01-01

141

MSFC Thermal Protection System Materials on MISSE-6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology (LNTPMT) program studied a number of ceramic matrix composites, ablator materials, and tile materials for durability in simulated space environment. Materials that indicated low atomic oxygen reactivity and negligible change in thermo-optical properties in ground testing were selected to fly on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)-6. These samples were exposed for 17 months to the low Earth orbit environment on both the ram and wake sides of MISSE-6B. Thermo-optical properties are discussed, along with any changes in mass.

Finckenor, Miria M.; Valentine, Peter G.; Gubert, Michael K.

2010-01-01

142

Fiber optic temperature profiling for thermal protection heat shields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable Thermal Protection System (TPS) sensors are needed to achieve better designs for spacecraft (probe) heatshields for missions requiring atmospheric aero-capture or entry/reentry. In particular, they will allow both reduced risk and heat-shield mass minimization, which will facilitate more missions and allow increased payloads and returns. For thermal measurements, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) is providing a temperature monitoring system involving innovative lightweight, EMI-immune, high-temperature resistant Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors with a thermal mass near that of TPS materials together with fast FBG sensor interrogation. The IFOS fiber optic sensing technology is highly sensitive and accurate. It is also low-cost and lends itself to high-volume production. Multiple sensing FBGs can be fabricated as arrays on a single fiber for simplified design and reduced cost. In this paper, we provide experimental results to demonstrate the temperature monitoring system using multi-sensor FBG arrays embedded in small-size Super-Light Ablator (SLA) coupon, which was thermally loaded to temperatures in the vicinity of the SLA charring temperature. In addition, a high temperature FBG array was fabricated and tested for 1000°C operation.

Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Moslehi, Behzad; Zarnescu, Livia; Hackney, Drew; Peters, Kara

2014-04-01

143

Ablation Modeling of Ares-I Upper State Thermal Protection System Using Thermal Desktop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system (TPS) for the Ares-I Upper Stage will be based on Space Transportation System External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) heritage materials. These TPS materials were qualified via hot gas testing that simulated ascent and re-entry aerothermodynamic convective heating environments. From this data, the recession rates due to ablation were characterized and used in thermal modeling for sizing the thickness required to maintain structural substrate temperatures. At Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the in-house code ABL is currently used to predict TPS ablation and substrate temperatures as a FORTRAN application integrated within SINDA/G. This paper describes a comparison of the new ablation utility in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT with the heritage ABL code and empirical test data which serves as the validation of the Thermal Desktop software for use on the design of the Ares-I Upper Stage project.

Sharp, John R.; Page, Arthur T.

2007-01-01

144

Thermal and heat flow instrumentation for the space shuttle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 100 mission lifetime requirement for the space shuttle orbiter vehicle dictates a unique set of requirements for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) thermal and heat flow instrumentation. This paper describes the design and development of such instrumentation with emphasis on assessment of the accuracy of the measurements when the instrumentation is an integral part of the TPS. The temperature and heat flow sensors considered for this application are described and the optimum choices discussed. Installation techniques are explored and the resulting impact on the system error defined.

Hartman, G. J.; Neuner, G. J.; Pavlosky, J.

1974-01-01

145

Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/cu ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, B. A.; Foreman, C. D.

2011-01-01

146

Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are also highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on one of these systems. The materials considered are 8 lb/ft^3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. A model extension to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state measurements is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Foreman, Cory

2011-06-01

147

Subsonic and Transonic Dynamic Stability Characteristics of the X-33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic stability testing was conducted on a 2.5% scale model of the X-33 technology demonstrator sub-orbital flight-test vehicle. This testing was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) l6-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel with the LaRC High-speed Dynamic Stability system. Forced oscillation data were acquired for various configurations over a Mach number range of 0.3 to 1.15 measuring pitch, roll and yaw damping, as well as the normal force due to pitch rate and the cross derivatives. The test angle of attack range was from -2 to 24 degrees, except for those cases where load constraints limited the higher angles of attack at the higher Mach numbers. A variety of model configurations with and without control surfaces were employed, including a body alone configuration. Stable pitch damping is exhibited for the baseline configuration throughout the angle of attack range for Mach numbers 0.3, 0.8, and 1.15. Stable pitch damping is present for Mach numbers 0.9 and 0.6 with the exception of angles 2 and 16 degrees, respectively. Constant and stable roll damping were present for the baseline configuration over the range of Mach numbers up to an angle of attack of 16 degrees. The yaw damping for the baseline is somewhat stable and constant for the angle of attack range from -2 to 8 degrees, with the exception of Mach numbers 0.6 and 0.8. Yaw damping becomes highly unstable for all Mach numbers at angles of attack greater than 8 degrees.

Tomek, D.; Boyden, R.

2000-01-01

148

Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's best heat flux sensor technology in a sensor which would be tested in the Vortek facility at Lewis early in 1995. The NASA concept for thermocouple measurement of surface temperature was adopted, and Vatell methods for fabrication of sensors on small diameter substrates of aluminum nitride were used to produce a sensor. This sensor was then encapsulated in a NARloy-Z housing. Various improvements to the Vatell substrate design were explored without success. The basic NASA and Vatell sensor layouts were analyzed by finite element modeling, in an attempt to better understand the effects of material properties, dimensions and thermal differential element location on sensor symmetry, bandwidth and sensitivity. This analysis showed that, as long as the thermal resistivity of the thermal differential element material is much larger (10X) than that of the substrate material, the simplest arrangement of layer is best. During calibration of the sensor produced in this project, undesirable side-effects of combining the heat flux and temperature sensor return leads were observed. The sensor did not cleanly separate the heat flux and temperature signals, as sensors with four leads have consistently done before. Task 7 and 8 discussed in the meeting will be performed with a continuation of funding in 1995. The following is a discussion of each of the tasks performed as outlined in the statement of work dated september 26, 1994. Task 1A was added to cover further investigation into the NASA sensor concept.

Diller, T. E.

1994-01-01

149

Study of organic ablative thermal-protection coating for solid rocket motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is conducted to find a new interior thermal-protection material that possesses good thermal-protection performance and simple manufacturing possibilities. Quartz powder and Cr2O3 are investigated using epoxy resin as a binder and Al2O3 as the burning inhibitor. Results indicate that the developed thermal-protection coating is suitable as ablative insulation material for solid rocket motors.

Hua, Zenggong

1992-06-01

150

A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

Addy, Gene; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, David

2013-01-01

151

Fracture behavior of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable crack-growth and fracture-toughness experiments were conducted using precracked specimens machined from LI-900 reusable surface insulation (RSI) tiles of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) at room temperature. Similar fracture experiments were conducted on fracture specimens with preexisting cracks at the interface of the tile and the strain isolation pad (SIP). Stable crack growth was not observed in the LI-900 tile fracture specimens which had a fracture toughness of 12.0 kPa sq rt of m. The intermittent subcritical crack growth at the tile-pad interface of the fracture specimens was attributed to successive local pull-outs due to tensile overload in the LI-900 tile and cannot be characterized by linear elastic fracture mechanics. No subcritical interfacial crack growth was observed in the fracture specimens with densified LI-900 tiles where brittle fracture initiated at an interior point away from the densification.

Komine, A.; Kobayashi, A. S.

1983-01-01

152

Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.

2006-01-01

153

Aerothermodynamic Assessment of Corrugated Panel Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using corrugated panels as a thermal protection system for an advanced space transportation vehicle was investigated. The study consisted of two major tasks: development of improved correlations for wind tunnel heat transfer and pressure data to yield design techniques, and application of the design techniques to determine if corrugated panels have application future aerospace vehicles. A single-stage-to-orbit vehicle was used to assess advantages and aerothermodynamic penalties associated with use of such panels. In the correlation task, experimental turbulent heat transfer and pressure data obtained on corrugation roughened surfaces during wind tunnel testing were analyzed and compared with flat plate data. The correlations and data comparisons included the effects of a large range of geometric, inviscid flow, internal boundary layer, and bulk boundary layer parameters in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

Brandon, H. J.; Britt, A. H.; Kipp, H. W.; Masek, R. V.

1978-01-01

154

Ocean thermal conversion (OTEC) project bottom cable protection study. Analysis and selection of protection techniques  

SciTech Connect

General guidelines and procedures for cable protection are given for the four proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant sites and cable routes, together with seafloor scenarios and protection strategies for each site. Burial of the cable below the seafloor is the recommended and best method of protecting OTEC cables from the hazards existing at all sites, namely, chafe and corrosion, hydrodynamic forces, trawler/dredge, and ship anchor. For landslides and earthquakes the only feasible method of protection, although limited, is to provide slack, in the cable, i.e. lay extra length. Trenches for burying the cable are recommended to be constructed a) by blasting through hard bottom at Hawaii for the first nautical mile (n.m.) and at Puerto Rico for the first 0.9 n.m; b)by a plowing machine at Hawaii for the next 0.5 n.m.; c) by a trenching machine at Guam for the first 0.55 n.m.; d) by a trenching /laying machine at Florida for 110 n.m.; and e) by a conventional floating dredge for 15 n.m. For the outshore segments of the cable routes it is recommenced to lay the cable on th seafloor because bottom sediments are soft enough to permit the cable to bury itself. Except for the Florida route, a normal cable laying vessel is recommended for laying the cable from plant site to landfall and for performing the protection details which are temie concrete cover over the cable at Hawaii for 0.5 n.m. and split pipe and rock anchor at Puerto Rico for 0l2 n.m.

Not Available

1981-10-01

155

Hypervelocity Impact Test Results for a Metallic Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on specimens representing metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) developed at NASA Langley Research Center for use on next-generation reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The majority of the specimens tested consists of a foil gauge exterior honeycomb panel, composed of either Inconel 617 or Ti-6Al-4V, backed with 2.0 in. of fibrous insulation and a final Ti-6Al-4V foil layer. Other tested specimens include titanium multi-wall sandwich coupons as well as TPS using a second honeycomb sandwich in place of the foil backing. Hypervelocity impact tests were performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Orbital Debris Simulation Facility. An improved test fixture was designed and fabricated to hold specimens firmly in place during impact. Projectile diameter, honeycomb sandwich material, honeycomb sandwich facesheet thickness, and honeycomb core cell size were examined to determine the influence of TPS configuration on the level of protection provided to the substructure (crew, cabin, fuel tank, etc.) against micrometeoroid or orbit debris impacts. Pictures and descriptions of the damage to each specimen are included.

Karr, Katherine L.; Poteet, Carl C.; Blosser, Max L.

2003-01-01

156

Thermal Cycling Assessment of Steel-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings for Al Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong interest from the transportation industry to achieve vehicle weight reduction through the replacement of steel components by aluminum parts. For some applications, aluminum requires protective coatings due to its limited wear and lower temperature resistance compared to steel. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of amorphous-type plasma-sprayed steel coatings and conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings as thermal barrier coatings, mainly through the evaluation of their spalling resistance under thermal cycling. The microstructures of the different coatings were first compared via SEM. The amorphicity of the coatings produced via plasma spraying of specialized alloyed steel and the crystalline phases of the conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings were confirmed through x-ray diffraction. The thermal diffusivity of all coatings produced was measured to be about a third of that of bulk stainless steel. Conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings typically offered better spalling resistance under thermal cycling than steel-based amorphous coatings due probably to their higher initial bond strength. However, the presence of vertical cracks in the steel-based amorphous coatings was found to have a beneficial effect on their thermal cycling resistance. The amorphous plasma-sprayed steel coatings presented indications of recrystallization after their exposure to high temperature.

Poirier, Dominique; Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

2014-11-01

157

Thermal Cycling Assessment of Steel-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings for Al Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong interest from the transportation industry to achieve vehicle weight reduction through the replacement of steel components by aluminum parts. For some applications, aluminum requires protective coatings due to its limited wear and lower temperature resistance compared to steel. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of amorphous-type plasma-sprayed steel coatings and conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings as thermal barrier coatings, mainly through the evaluation of their spalling resistance under thermal cycling. The microstructures of the different coatings were first compared via SEM. The amorphicity of the coatings produced via plasma spraying of specialized alloyed steel and the crystalline phases of the conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings were confirmed through x-ray diffraction. The thermal diffusivity of all coatings produced was measured to be about a third of that of bulk stainless steel. Conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings typically offered better spalling resistance under thermal cycling than steel-based amorphous coatings due probably to their higher initial bond strength. However, the presence of vertical cracks in the steel-based amorphous coatings was found to have a beneficial effect on their thermal cycling resistance. The amorphous plasma-sprayed steel coatings presented indications of recrystallization after their exposure to high temperature.

Poirier, Dominique; Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

2015-01-01

158

Shearographic nondestructive evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of shearographic inspections of the shuttle external tank (ET) spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) and solid rocket booster (SRB) Marshall sprayable ablative (MSA-2) epoxy-cork thermal protection systems (TPS) are presented. Debonding SOFI or MSA-2 damage the orbiter `belly' tile and exposes the ET/SRB to thermal loading. Previous work with the ET/SRB showed promising results with shearography. The first area investigated was the jack pad close-out, one of many areas on the ET where foam is applied at KSC. Voids 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of less than 0.4 psi. Of primary interest are areas of the ET that directly face the orbiter tile TPS. It is estimated that 90% of tile TPS damage on the orbiter `belly' results from debonding SOFI during ascent. Test panels modeling these areas were manufactured with programmed debonds to determine the sensitivity of shearography as a function of debond size, SOFI thickness and vacuum. Results show repeatable detection of debonds with a diameter approximately half the SOFI thickness at less than 0.4 psi pressure reduction. Preliminary results are also presented on inspections of MSA-2 and the remote manipulator system (RMS) honeycomb material.

Davis, Christopher K.; Hooker, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Stephen M.; Tenbusch, Kenneth E.

1995-07-01

159

Design of metallic foams as insulation in thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic foams are novel materials that can be used as thermal insulation in many applications. The low volume fraction of solid, the small cell size and the low conductivity of enclosed gases limit the heat flow in foams. Varying the density, geometry and or material composition from point to point within the foam, one can produce functionally graded foams that may insulate more efficiently. The goal of this research is to investigate the use of functionally graded metal foam in thermal protection systems (TPS) for reusable launch vehicles. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the foam is derived based on a simple cubic unit cell model. Then two problems under steady state of heat transfer have been considered. The first one is the optimization of functionally graded foam insulation for minimum heat transmitted to the structure and the second is minimizing the mass of the functionally graded foam insulation for a given aerodynamic heating. In both cases optimality conditions are derived in closed-form, and numerical methods are used to solve the resulting differential equations to determine the optimal grading of the foam. In order to simplify the analysis the insulation was approximated by finite layers of uniform foams when studying the transient heat transfer case. The maximum structure temperature was minimized by varying the solidity profile for a given total thickness and mass. The principles that govern the design of TPS for transient conditions were identified. To take advantage of the load bearing ability of metallic foams, an integrated sandwich TPS/structure with metallic foam core is proposed. Such an integrated TPS will insulate the vehicle interior from aerodynamic heating as well as carry the primary vehicle loads. Thermal-structural analysis of integrated sandwich TPS panel subjected to transient heat conduction is developed to evaluate their performances. The integrated TPS design is compared with a conventional fibrous Safill TPS design. The weights of both designs are minimized subject to temperature constraints, stress constraints or both. Global buckling, shear crimping and face wrinkling are investigated for the integrated sandwich structure during the launch. It is found that for designs with variable insulation thickness, structure thickness and subjected to structure temperature constraint only, an integrated sandwich design tends to require as thick insulation as possible, while a Safill design requires thin structure. Shear crimping is most critical among all the three failure modes we studied in the integrated sandwich design.

Zhu, Huadong

160

Thermal-Structural Evaluation of TD Ni-20Cr Thermal Protection System Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a thermal-structural test program to verify the performance of a metallic/radiative Thermal Protection System (TPS) under reentry conditions are presented. This TPS panel is suitable for multiple reentry, high L/D space vehicles, such as the NASA space shuttle, having surface temperatures up to 1200 C (2200 F). The TPS panel tested consists of a corrugation-stiffened, beaded-skin TD Ni-20Cr metallic heat shield backed by a flexible fibrous quartz and radiative shield insulative system. Test conditions simulated the critical heating and aerodynamic pressure environments expected during 100 repeated missions of a reentry vehicle. Temperatures were measured during each reentry cycle; heat-shield flatness surveys to measure permanent set of the metallic components were made every 10 cycles. The TPS panel, in spite of localized surface failures, performed its designated function.

Eidinoff, H. L.; Rose, L.

1974-01-01

161

Three-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response and Thermostructural Design of Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element ablation and thermal response program is presented for simulation of three-dimensional transient thermostructural analysis. The three-dimensional governing differential equations and finite element formulation are summarized. A novel probabilistic design methodology for thermal protection systems is presented. The design methodology is an eight step process beginning with a parameter sensitivity study and is followed by a deterministic analysis whereby an optimum design can determined. The design process concludes with a Monte Carlo simulation where the probabilities of exceeding design specifications are estimated. The design methodology is demonstrated by applying the methodology to the carbon phenolic compression pads of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The maximum allowed values of bondline temperature and tensile stress are used as the design specifications in this study.

Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

2011-01-01

162

Thermal certification tests of Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles coated with KSC coating slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal tests of Orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles, which were coated with borosilicate glass slurries fabricated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), were performed in the Radiant Heat Test Facility and the Atmospheric Reentry Materials & Structures Evaluation Facility at Johnson Space Center to verify tile coating integrity after exposure to multiple entry simulation cycles in both radiant and convective heating environments. Eight high temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) tiles and six low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were subjected to 25 cycles of radiant heat at peaked surface temperatures of 2300 F and 1200 F, respectively. For the LRSI tiles, an additional cycle at peaked surface temperature of 2100 F was performed. There was no coating crack on any of the HRSI specimens. However, there were eight small coating cracks (less than 2 inches long) on two of the six LRSI tiles on the 26th cycle. There was practically no change on the surface reflectivity, physical dimensions, or weight of any of the test specimens. There was no observable thermal-chemical degradation of the coating either. For the convective heat test, eight HRSI tiles were tested for five cycles at a surface temperature of 2300 F. There was no thermal-induced coating crack on any of the test specimens, almost no change on the surface reflectivity, and no observable thermal-chemical degradation with an exception of minor slumping of the coating under painted TPS identification numbers. The tests demonstrated that KSC's TPS slurries and coating processes meet the Orbiter's thermal specification requirements.

Milhoan, James D.; Pham, Vuong T.; Sherborne, William D.

1993-01-01

163

Space Shuttle thermal protection system inspection by 3D imaging laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has developed a sensor suite to inspect the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System while the Shuttle is flying in orbit. When the Space Shuttle returns to flight, it will carry a 3D Imaging Laser Radar as part of the sensor suite to observe the Thermal Protection System and indicate any damages that may need to be repaired before return

James C. Lamoreux; James D. Siekierski; J. P. N. Carter

2004-01-01

164

Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct entry and aerocapture followed by Low Earth Orbit entry (LEO). Convective heating was obtained by the boundary layer integral matrix procedure (BLIMP) code, and radiative heating was computed with the QRAD program. The AESOP-STAB code and the AESOP-THERM code were used for TPS analysis for ablating materials and nonablating materials respectively. Results indicated that there was an optimum size for minimum heating and that direct entry had higher heating rates than aerocapture. Aerocapture resulted in higher heat loads and TPS weight. The TPS weight factor was 6-8 percent for all lunar return strategies, with the TPS weight being about 50 percent less than that of the original Apollo CM vehicle.

Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Rochelle, William C.

1993-01-01

165

Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct entry and aerocapture followed by Low Earth Orbit entry (LEO). Convective heating was obtained by the boundary layer integral matrix procedure (BLIMP) code, and radiative heating was computed with the QRAD program. The AESOP-STAB code and the AESOP-THERM code were used for TPS analysis for ablating materials and nonablating materials respectively. Results indicated that there was an optimum size for minimum heating and that direct entry had higher heating rates than aerocapture. Aerocapture resulted in higher heat loads and TPS weight. The TPS weight factor was 6-8 percent for all lunar return strategies, with the TPS weight being about 50 percent less than that of the original Apollo CM vehicle.

Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Rochelle, William C.

1993-07-01

166

Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

Diller, T. E.

1994-01-01

167

Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strategy with succeeding rounds of development, testing and down selections. The Project raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of 8 different TPS materials from 5 different commercial vendors, eventual down selecting to a single material system for the Orion heat shield. In addition to providing a heat shield material and design for Orion on time and on budget, the Project accomplished the following: 1) Re-invigorated TPS industry & re-established a NASA competency to respond to future TPS needs; 2) Identified a potentially catastrophic problem with the planned MSL heat shield, and provided a viable, high TRL alternate heat shield design option; and 3) Transferred mature heat shield material and design options to the commercial space industry, including TPS technology information for the SpaceX Dragon capsule.

Kowal, T. John

2010-01-01

168

IAblative Thermal Protection SystemsRobotic Systems for Human Exploration 2010 Phase II  

E-print Network

Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) Fiber Materials, Inc. Technical Abstract FMI has developed graded. The ablative outer layer and thermal inner layer will be integrated in a continuously cast, monolithic material will be converted to GPP and then characterized mechanically, thermally, and tested for ablation performance

169

X-33 Attitude Control Using the XRS-2200 Linear Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Structures and Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing, under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control systems for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Test flights, while suborbital, will achieve sufficient altitudes and Mach numbers to test Single Stage To Orbit, Reusable Launch Vehicle technologies. Ascent flight control phase, the focus of this paper, begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (MECO). The X-33 attitude control system design is confronted by a myriad of design challenges: a short design cycle, the X-33 incremental test philosophy, the concurrent design philosophy chosen for the X-33 program, and the fact that the attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems. Additionally, however, and of special interest, the use of the linear aerospike engine is a departure from the gimbaled engines traditionally used for thrust vector control (TVC) in launch vehicles and poses certain design challenges. This paper discusses the unique problem of designing the X-33 attitude control system with the linear aerospike engine, requirements development, modeling and analyses that verify the design.

Hall, Charles E.; Panossian, Hagop V.

1999-01-01

170

X-33 Model Tested In Langley's 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomas Horvath of Langley's Aerothermodynamics Branch examines the surface of a model of the X-33 prior to testing in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The tests, held during the month of September 1997, were conducted to determine aeroheating characteristics of the X-33. The X-33 vehicle will consist of a lifting body airframe with two cryogenic propellant tanks (liquid hydrogen, LH2, and liquid oxygen, LOX) placed within the aeroshell. The vehicle will have two linear aerospike main engines. The X-33 Design and Flight Demonstration Program key objectives are to reduce business and technical risks to privately finance development and operation of a next-generation space transportation system through ground and flight tests of a spaceplane technology demonstrator, ensure that the X-33 design and major components are usable and scaleable to a full-scale, single-stage-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV), demonstrate autonomous capability from takeoff to landing, and verify operability and performance in 'real world' environments.

1997-01-01

171

X-33 Model Tested In Langley's 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomas Horvath of Langley's Aerothermodynamics Branch uses digital instrumentation to set the angle of attack on a model of the X-33 prior to a wind tunnel test run in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The tests, held during the month of September 1997, were conducted to determine aeroheating characteristics of the X-33. The X-33 vehicle will consist of a lifting body airframe with two cryogenic propellant tanks (liquid hydrogen, LH2, and liquid oxygen, LOX) placed within the aeroshell. The vehicle will have two linear aerospike main engines. The X-33 Design and Flight Demonstration Program key objectives are to reduce business and technical risks to privately finance development and operation of a next-generation space transportation system through ground and flight tests of a spaceplane technology demonstrator, ensure that the X-33 design and major components are usable and scaleable to a full-scale, single-stage-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV), demonstrate autonomous capability from takeoff to landing, and verify operability and performance in 'real world' environments.

1997-01-01

172

Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings for Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the evaluation and testing of high emissivity protective coatings applied to flexible insulations for the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology program. Ceramic coatings were evaluated for their thermal properties, durability, and potential for reuse. One of the major goals was to determine the mechanism by which these coated blanket surfaces become brittle and try to modify the coatings to reduce or eliminate embrittlement. Coatings were prepared from colloidal silica with a small percentage of either SiC or SiB6 as the emissivity agent. These coatings are referred to as gray C-9 and protective ceramic coating (PCC), respectively. The colloidal solutions were either brushed or sprayed onto advanced flexible reusable surface insulation blankets. The blankets were instrumented with thermocouples and exposed to reentry heating conditions in the Ames Aeroheating Arc Jet Facility. Post-test samples were then characterized through impact testing, emissivity measurements, chemical analysis, and observation of changes in surface morphology. The results show that both coatings performed well in arc jet tests with backface temperatures slightly lower for the PCC coating than with gray C-9. Impact testing showed that the least extensive surface destruction was experienced on blankets with lower areal density coatings.

Kourtides, Demetrius; Carroll, Carol; Smith, Dane; Guzinski, Mike; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan; Ridge, Jerry; Tran, Duoc

1997-01-01

173

Development of an engineering methodology for thermal analysis of protected structural members in fire   

E-print Network

In order to overcome the limitations of existing methodologies for thermal analysis of protected structural members in fire, a novel CFD-based methodology has been developed. This is a generalised quasi- 3D approach with ...

Liang, Hong; Welch, Stephen

174

NASA Ames Develops Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) - Duration: 4:03.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) project explores an innovative way to design, develop and manufacture a family of ablative TPS materials using weaving technology and testing them in the ...

175

SAFER Inspection of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the aftermath of the space shuttle Columbia accident, it quickly became clear that new methods would need to be developed that would provide the capability to inspect and repair the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS). A boom extension to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with a laser topography sensor package was identified as the primary means for measuring the damage depth in acreage tile as well as scanning Reinforced Carbon- Carbon (RCC) surfaces. However, concern over the system's fault tolerance made it prudent to investigate alternate means of acquiring close range photographs and contour depth measurements in the event of a failure. One method that was identified early was to use the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion system to allow EVA access to damaged areas of concern. Several issues were identified as potential hazards to SAFER use for this operation. First, the ability of an astronaut to maintain controlled flight depends upon efficient technique and hardware reliability. If either of these is insufficient during flight operations, a safety tether must be used to rescue the crewmember. This operation can jeopardize the integrity of the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) or delicate TPS materials. Controls were developed to prevent the likelihood of requiring a tether rescue, and procedures were written to maximize the chances for success if it cannot be avoided. Crewmember ability to manage tether cable tension during nominal flight also had to be evaluated to ensure it would not negatively affect propellant consumption. Second, although propellant consumption, flight control, orbital dynamics, and flight complexity can all be accurately evaluated in Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, there are some shortcomings. As a crewmember's hand is extended to simulate measurement of tile damage, it will pass through the vehicle without resistance. In reality, this force will push the crewmember away from the vehicle, and could induce a moment which, if strong enough, could saturate the attitude control system in SAFER. This raises the concern that additional propellant will be consumed to maintain controlled flight. To account for this, the fidelity of the Virtual Reality simulation was improved to include the effect of crewmember contact with the vehicle during SAFER flight. In addition, while participating in VR simulations, the subject is in shirt sleeves and sits in a chair. This does not provide a flight-like representation of body position awareness. To prevent inadvertent contact with tile or RCC, other facilities were utilized to establish crew preferences for body attitude and tool configuration. Finally, a study was performed to determine if attitude constraints are needed for the Space shuttle and International Space Station to reduce SAFER flight difficulty.

Scoville, Zebulon C.; Rajula, Sudhakar

2005-01-01

176

Real-Time Trajectory Assessment and Abort Management for the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 is a flying testbed to evaluate technologies and designs for a reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) production vehicle. Although it is sub-orbital, it is trans-atmospheric. This paper will discuss the abort capabilities, both commanded and autonomous, available to the X-33. The cornerstone of the abort capabilities is the Performance Monitor (PM) and it's supporting software. PM is an on-board 3-DOF simulation, which evaluates the vehicle ability to execute the current trajectory. The Abort Manager evaluates the results from PM, and, when indicated, computes and implements an abort trajectory.

Moise, M. C.; McCarter, J. W.; Mulqueen, J.

2000-01-01

177

Optimization of thermal protection systems for the space vehicle. Volume 2: User's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the computational techniques for the design optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle are discussed. The resulting computer program was then used to perform initial optimization and sensitivity studies on a typical thermal protection system (TPS) to demonstrate its application to the space shuttle TPS design. The program was developed in FORTRAN IV for CDC 6400 computer, but it was subsequently converted to the FORTRAN V language to be used on the Univac 1108.

1972-01-01

178

Fabrication of titanium thermal protection system panels by the NOR-Ti-bond process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for fabricating titanium thermal protection system panels is described. The method has the potential for producing wide faying surface bonds to minimize temperature gradients and thermal stresses resulting during service at elevated temperatures. Results of nondestructive tests of the panels are presented. Concepts for improving the panel quality and for improved economy in production are discussed.

Wells, R. R.

1971-01-01

179

Orion Flight Test-1 Thermal Protection System Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was originally under development to provide crew transport to the International Space Station after the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and to provide a means for the eventual return of astronauts to the Moon. With the current changes in the future direction of the United States human exploration programs, the focus of the Orion project has shifted to the project s first orbital flight test, designated Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1). The OFT-1 is currently planned for launch in July 2013 and will demonstrate the Orion vehicle s capability for performing missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), as well as extensibility beyond LEO for select, critical areas. Among the key flight test objectives are those related to validation of the re-entry aerodynamic and aerothermal environments, and the performance of the thermal protection system (TPS) when exposed to these environments. A specific flight test trajectory has been selected to provide a high energy entry beyond that which would be experienced during a typical low Earth orbit return, given the constraints imposed by the possible launch vehicles. This trajectory resulted from a trade study that considered the relative benefit of conflicting objectives from multiple subsystems, and sought to provide the maximum integrated benefit to the re-entry state-of-the-art. In particular, the trajectory was designed to provide: a significant, measureable radiative heat flux to the windward surface; data on boundary transition from laminar to turbulent flow; and data on catalytic heating overshoot on non-ablating TPS. In order to obtain the necessary flight test data during OFT-1, the vehicle will need to have an adequate quantity of instrumentation. A collection of instrumentation is being developed for integration in the OFT-1 TPS. In part, this instrumentation builds upon the work performed for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Instrument (MEDLI) suite to instrument the OFT-1 ablative heat shield. The MEDLI integrated sensor plugs and pressure sensors will be adapted for compatibility with the Orion TPS design. The sensor plugs will provide in-depth temperature data to support aerothermal and TPS model correlation, and the pressure sensors will provide a flush air data system for validation of the entry and descent aerodynamic environments. In addition, a radiometer design will be matured to measure the radiative component of the reentry heating at two locations on the heat shield. For the back shell, surface thermocouple and pressure port designs will be developed and applied which build upon the heritage of the Space Shuttle Program for instrumentation of reusable surface insulation (RSI) tiles. The quantity and location of the sensors has been determined to balance the needs of the reentry disciplines with the demands of the hardware development, manufacturing and integration. Measurements which provided low relative value and presented significant engineering development effort were, unfortunately, eliminated. The final TPS instrumentation has been optimized to target priority test objectives. The data obtained will serve to provide a better understanding of reentry environments for the Orion capsule design, reduce margins, and potentially reduce TPS mass or provide TPS extensibility for alternative missions.

Kowal, T. John

2011-01-01

180

X-33 Aerodynamic and Aeroheating Computations for Wind Tunnel and Flight Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an overview of hypersonic Computational Fluid Dynamics research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to support the Phase II development of the X-33 vehicle. The X-33, which is being developed by Lockheed-Martin in partnership with NASA, is an experimental Single-Stage-to-Orbit demonstrator that is intended to validate critical technologies for a full-scale Reusable Launch Vehicle. As part of the development of the X-33, CFD codes have been used to predict the aerodynamic and aeroheating characteristics of the vehicle. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for the X 33 vehicle using two finite- volume, Navier-Stokes solvers. Inviscid solutions were also generated with an Euler code. Computations were performed for Mach numbers of 4.0 to 10.0 at angles-of-attack from 10 deg to 48 deg with body flap deflections of 0, 10 and 20 deg. Comparisons between predictions and wind tunnel aerodynamic and aeroheating data are presented in this paper. Aeroheating and aerodynamic predictions for flight conditions are also presented.

Hollis, Brian R.; Thompson, Richard A.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Riley, Christopher J.; Wood, William A.; Alter, Stephen J.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

181

X-33 Attitude Control System Design for Ascent, Transition, and Entry Flight Regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control system for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Ascent flight control begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (NECO) while Transition and Entry flight control begins at MECO and concludes at the terminal area energy management (TAEM) interface. TAEM occurs at approximately Mach 3.0. This task includes not only the design of the vehicle attitude control systems but also the development of requirements for attitude control system components and subsystems. The X-33 attitude control system design is challenged by a short design cycle, the design environment (Mach 0 to about Mach 15), and the X-33 incremental test philosophy. The X-33 design-to-launch cycle of less than 3 years requires a concurrent design approach while the test philosophy requires design adaptation to vehicle variations that are a function of Mach number and mission profile. The flight attitude control system must deal with the mixing of aerosurfaces, reaction control thrusters, and linear aerospike engine control effectors and handle parasitic effects such as vehicle flexibility and propellant sloshing from the uniquely shaped propellant tanks. The attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems.

Hall, Charles E.; Gallaher, Michael W.; Hendrix, Neal D.

1998-01-01

182

Thermal degradation study of silicon carbide threads developed for advanced flexible thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber is a material that may be used in advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) for future aerospace vehicles. SiC fiber's mechanical properties depend greatly on the presence or absence of sizing and its microstructure. In this research, silicon dioxide is found to be present on the surface of the fiber. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) show that a thin oxide layer (SiO2) exists on the as-received fibers, and the oxide thickness increases when the fibers are exposed to high temperature. ESCA also reveals no evidence of Si-C bonding on the fiber surface on both as-received and heat treated fibers. The silicon oxide layer is thought to signal the decomposition of SiC bonds and may be partially responsible for the degradation in the breaking strength observed at temperatures above 400 C. The variation in electrical resistivity of the fibers with increasing temperature indicates a transition to a higher band gap material at 350 to 600 C. This is consistent with a decomposition of SiC involving silicon oxide formation.

Tran, Huy Kim; Sawko, Paul M.

1992-01-01

183

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...LNG transfer system must have a thermal exclusion zone in accordance with section 2.2.3...Administrator's approval. (b) In calculating exclusion distances, the wind speed producing the maximum exclusion distances shall be used except for...

2014-10-01

184

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LNG transfer system must have a thermal exclusion zone in accordance with section 2.2.3...Administrator's approval. (b) In calculating exclusion distances, the wind speed producing the maximum exclusion distances shall be used except for...

2010-10-01

185

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LNG transfer system must have a thermal exclusion zone in accordance with section 2.2.3...Administrator's approval. (b) In calculating exclusion distances, the wind speed producing the maximum exclusion distances shall be used except for...

2011-10-01

186

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LNG transfer system must have a thermal exclusion zone in accordance with section 2.2.3...Administrator's approval. (b) In calculating exclusion distances, the wind speed producing the maximum exclusion distances shall be used except for...

2012-10-01

187

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LNG transfer system must have a thermal exclusion zone in accordance with section 2.2.3...Administrator's approval. (b) In calculating exclusion distances, the wind speed producing the maximum exclusion distances shall be used except for...

2013-10-01

188

Numerical simulation for aerodynamic heating and opposing jet thermal protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the theory and semi-empirical formulas, the surface heating flux of warhead at zero attack angle under aerodynamic heating is calculated by using reference enthalpy method, and the equilibrium curves of temperature for radiation of wall are obtained, by which the anti-thermal effects of blunt leading edge is proved in this paper. At the same time, the anti-thermal effects

Lv Hongqing; Wang Zhenqing; Jin Chengbin; Zhang Cuie; Wang Yongjun

2008-01-01

189

Development of high temperature combustor thermally protected by ceramic tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of attaching ceramic tiles to gas turbine high temperature components has been suggested; this ceramic thermal barrier (CTB) method is presently considered for the case of a gas turbine combustor. CTB accomplishes metallic combustor structure cooling by leaving a narrow air flow corridor between the ceramic tile and metal surfaces. Attention is given to the adequacy of methods for the support of the ceramic tiles, as well as to the determination of CTB thermal insulation effects.

Abe, T.; Ishikawa, H.

190

Spaceplane aerodynamic heating and thermal protection design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the first phase of concept design of spaceplanes, parametric studies and optimization for the various body configurations and trajectories are needed. For that purpose, the aerodynamic heating is predicted by a simple method. The wall temperature is estimated from the predicted aerodynamic heating against the various wall thickness and coolant heat transfer coefficients. A method for designing a thermal

Hirotoshi Kubota; Norihiko Itoda; Kiyoshi Yamamoto; Yukimitsu Yamamoto

1990-01-01

191

Multidimensional Tests of Thermal Protection Materials in the Arcjet Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many thermal protection system materials used for spacecraft heatshields have anisotropic thermal properties, causing them to display significantly different thermal characteristics in different directions, when subjected to a heating environment during flight or arcjet tests. This paper investigates the effects of sidewall heating coupled with anisotropic thermal properties of thermal protection materials in the arcjet environment. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and LI-2200 materials (the insulation material of Shuttle tiles) were used for this study. First, conduction-based thermal response simulations were carried out, using the Marc.Mentat finite element solver, to study the effects of sidewall heating on PICA arcjet coupons. The simulation showed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. Arcjet tests at the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) at NASA Ames Research Center were performed later on instrumented coupons to obtain temperature history at sidewall and various radial locations. The details of instrumentation and experimental technique are the prime focus of this paper. The results obtained from testing confirmed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. The test results were later used to verify the two-dimensional ablation, thermal response, and sizing program, TITAN. The test data and model predictions were found to be in excellent agreement

Agrawal, Parul; Ellerby, Donald T.; Switzer, Mathew R.; Squire, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

192

Multidimensional Testing of Thermal Protection Materials in the Arcjet Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many thermal protection system materials used for spacecraft heatshields have anisotropic thermal properties, causing them to display significantly different thermal characteristics in different directions, when subjected to a heating environment during flight or arcjet tests. The anisotropic effects are enhanced in the presence of sidewall heating. This paper investigates the effects of anisotropic thermal properties of thermal protection materials coupled with sidewall heating in the arcjet environment. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and LI-2200 materials (the insulation material of Shuttle tiles) were used for this study. First, conduction-based thermal response simulations were carried out, using the Marc.Mentat finite element solver, to study the effects of sidewall heating on PICA arcjet coupons. The simulation showed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. Arcjet tests at the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) at NASA Ames Research Center were performed later on instrumented coupons to obtain temperature history at sidewall and various radial locations. The details of instrumentation and experimental technique are the prime focus of this paper. The results obtained from testing confirmed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. The test results were later used to validate the two-dimensional ablation, thermal response, and sizing program, TITAN. The test data and model predictions were found to be in excellent agreement

Agrawal, Parul; Ellerby, Donald T.; Switzer, Matt R.; Squire, Thomas Howard

2010-01-01

193

Fabrication of prepackaged superalloy honeycomb Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature materials were surveyed, and Inconel 617 and titanium were selected for application to a honeycomb TPS configuration designed to withstand 2000 F. The configuration was analyzed both thermally and structurally. Component and full-sized panels were fabricated and tested to obtain data for comparison with analysis. Results verified the panel design. Twenty five panels were delivered to NASA Langley Research Center for additional evaluation.

Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E.; Rosenthal, H. A.

1985-01-01

194

The employment of a high density plasma jet for the investigation of thermal protection materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of tests of thermal protection materials (TPM) at conditions that simulate the atmospheric re-entry of space vehicles, tested by means of a high velocity and enthalpy air plasma jet generated with a dc plasma torch. Such a high velocity and enthalpy air plasma jet allows us to investigate TPM by simulating heat flux values varying with time in accordance with real re-entry altitudes and trajectories. The main research interests include the measurements of plasma flow temperature and heat flux for the testing of materials used for thermal protection systems of space vehicles. The test results of investigations of light composite thermal protective system material and graphite are presented.

Kezelis, R.; Grigaitiene, V.; Levinskas, R.; Brinkiene, K.

2014-05-01

195

Thermal Instability of Protected End States in a 1-D Topological Insulator  

E-print Network

We have studied the dynamical thermal effects on the protected end states of a topological insula- tor (TI) when it is considered as an open quantum system in interaction with a noisy environment at a certain temperature T . As a result, we find that protected end states in a TI become unstable and decay with time. Very remarkably, the interaction with the thermal environment (fermion-boson) respects chiral symmetry, which is the symmetry responsible for the protection (robustness) of the end states in this TI when it is isolated from the environment. Therefore, this mechanism makes end states unstable while preserving their protecting symmetry. Our results have immediate practical implications in recently proposed simulations of TI using cold atoms in optical lattices. Accordingly, we have computed lifetimes of topological end states for these physical implementations that are useful to make those experiments realistic.

O. Viyuela; A. Rivas; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2012-10-23

196

Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

Culp, J. D.

1972-01-01

197

Including Aeroelastic Effects in the Calculation of X-33 Loads and Control Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Up until now, loads analyses of the X-33 RLV have been done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using aerodynamic loads derived from CFD and wind tunnel models of a rigid vehicle. Control forces and moments are determined using a rigid vehicle trajectory analysis and the detailed control load distributions for achieving the desired control forces and moments, again on the rigid vehicle, are determined by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. However, static aeroelastic effects upon the load distributions are not known. The static aeroelastic effects will generally redistribute external loads thereby affecting both the internal structural loads as well as the forces and moments generated by aerodynamic control surfaces. Therefore, predicted structural sizes as well as maneuvering requirements can be altered by consideration of static aeroelastic effects. The objective of the present work is the development of models and solutions for including static aeroelasticity in the calculation of X-33 loads and in the determination of stability and control derivatives.

Zeiler, Thomas A.

1998-01-01

198

Simulation of Foam Impact Effects on Components of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System. Chapter 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of three dimensional simulations has been performed to investigate analytically the effect of insulating foam impacts on ceramic tile and reinforced carbon-carbon components of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system. The simulations employed a hybrid particle-finite element method and a parallel code developed for use in spacecraft design applications. The conclusions suggested by the numerical study are in general consistent with experiment. The results emphasize the need for additional material testing work on the dynamic mechanical response of thermal protection system materials, and additional impact experiments for use in validating computational models of impact effects.

Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Park, Young-Keun

2004-01-01

199

Probabilistic Design of a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The driving requirement for design of a Mars Sample Return mission is to assure containment of the returned samples. Designing to, and demonstrating compliance with, such a requirement requires physics based tools that establish the relationship between engineer's sizing margins and probabilities of failure. The traditional method of determining margins on ablative thermal protection systems, while conservative, provides little insight into the actual probability of an over-temperature during flight. The objective of this paper is to describe a new methodology for establishing margins on sizing the thermal protection system (TPS). Results of this Monte Carlo approach are compared with traditional methods.

Dec, John A.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.

2002-01-01

200

Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

1977-01-01

201

Development of X-33\\/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the Ňaerothermodynamic chain,Ó the links of which are personnel, facilities, models\\/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques,

C. G. Miller

202

Re-design and fabrication of titanium multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TPS) test panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titanium Multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TIPS) panel was re-designed to incorporate Ti-6-2-4-2 outer sheets for the hot surface, ninety degree side closures for ease of construction and through panel fastness for ease of panel removal. Thermal and structural tests were performed to verify the design. Twenty-five panels were fabricated and delivered to NASA for evaluation at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center.

Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E., Jr.; Rosenthal, H. A.

1984-01-01

203

Ceramic matrix composites - Forerunners of technological breakthrough in space vehicle hot structures and thermal protection system  

SciTech Connect

The current status of carbon-carbon and carbon-silicon carbide composites developed for aerospace applications is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to production facilities and technologies for the manufacture of C-C and C-SiC composites, mechanical and thermal characteristics of carbon-carbon and carbon-silicon carbide materials, applications to thermal structures and protection, and technologies developed to build large C-SiC thermostructural components within the Hermes program. 9 refs.

Lacombe, A.; Rouges, J.

1990-01-01

204

An Inviscid Computational Study of an X-33 Configuration at Hypersonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of a study conducted to compute the inviscid longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified X-33 configuration. The major components of the X-33 vehicle, namely the body, the canted fin, the vertical fin, and the body-flap, were simulated in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) model. The rear-ward facing surfaces at the base including the aerospike engine surfaces were not simulated. The FELISA software package consisting of an unstructured surface and volume grid generator and two inviscid flow solvers was used for this study. Computations were made for Mach 4.96, 6.0, and 10.0 with perfect gas air option, and for Mach 10 with equilibrium air option with flow condition of a typical point on the X-33 flight trajectory. Computations were also made with CF4 gas option at Mach 6.0 to simulate the CF4 tunnel flow condition. An angle of attack range of 12 to 48 deg was covered. The CFD results were compared with available wind tunnel data. Comparison was good at low angles of attack; at higher angles of attack (beyond 25 deg) some differences were found in the pitching moment. These differences progressively increased with increase in angle of attack, and are attributed to the viscous effects. However, the computed results showed the trends exhibited by the wind tunnel data.

Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

205

Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

2007-04-01

206

Heat Shield Employing Cured Thermal Protection Material Blocks Bonded in a Large-Cell Honeycomb Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes a new way to integrate thermal protection materials on external surfaces of vehicles that experience the severe heating environments of atmospheric entry from space. Cured blocks of thermal protection materials are bonded into a compatible, large-cell honeycomb matrix that can be applied on the external surfaces of the vehicles. The honeycomb matrix cell size, and corresponding thermal protection material block size, is envisioned to be between 1 and 4 in. (.2.5 and 10 cm) on a side, with a depth required to protect the vehicle. The cell wall thickness is thin, between 0.01 and 0.10 in. (.0.025 and 0.25 cm). A key feature is that the honeycomb matrix is attached to the vehicle fs unprotected external surface prior to insertion of the thermal protection material blocks. The attachment integrity of the honeycomb can then be confirmed over the full range of temperature and loads that the vehicle will experience. Another key feature of the innovation is the use of uniform-sized thermal protection material blocks. This feature allows for the mass production of these blocks at a size that is convenient for quality control inspection. The honeycomb that receives the blocks must have cells with a compatible set of internal dimensions. The innovation involves the use of a faceted subsurface under the honeycomb. This provides a predictable surface with perpendicular cell walls for the majority of the blocks. Some cells will have positive tapers to accommodate mitered joints between honeycomb panels on each facet of the subsurface. These tapered cells have dimensions that may fall within the boundaries of the uniform-sized blocks.

Zell, Peter

2012-01-01

207

Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of aluminum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.

1989-01-01

208

Mars transit vehicle thermal protection system: Issues, options, and trades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mars mission is characterized by different mission phases. The thermal control of cryogenic propellant in a propulsive vehicle must withstand the different mission environments. Long term cryogenic storage may be achieved by passive or active systems. Passive cryo boiloff management features will include multilayer insulation, vapor cooled shield, and low conductance structural supports and penetrations. Active boiloff management incorporates the use of a refrigeration system. Key system trade areas include active verses passive system boiloff management (with respect to safety, reliability, and cost) and propellant tank insulation optimizations. Technology requirements include refrigeration technology advancements, insulation performance during long exposure, and cryogenic fluid transfer system for mission vehicle propellant tanking during vehicle buildip in LEO.

Brown, Norman

1986-01-01

209

Performance of thermal control tape in the protection of composite materials to space environmental exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control tape flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment A0171 has shown to be effective in protecting epoxy fiberglass composites from atomic oxygen and ultraviolet degradation. The tape adhesive performed well. The aluminum, however, appeared to have become embrittled by the 5.8 years of space radiation exposure.

Kamenetzky, R. R.; Whitaker, A. F.

1992-01-01

210

Design, development and test of shuttle/Centaur G-prime cryogenic tankage thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection systems for the shuttle/Centaur would have had to provide fail-safe thermal protection during prelaunch, launch ascent, and on-orbit operations as well as during potential abort. The thermal protection systems selected used a helium-purged polyimide foam beneath three rediation shields for the liquid-hydrogen tank and radiation shields only for the liquid-oxygen tank (three shields on the tank sidewall and four on the aft bulkhead). A double-walled vacuum bulkhead separated the two tanks. The liquid-hydrogen tank had one 0.75-in-thick layer of foam on the forward bulkhead and two layers on the larger area sidewall. Full scale tests of the flight vehicle in a simulated shuttle cargo bay that was purged with gaseous nitrogen gave total prelaunch heating rates of 88,500 Btu/hr and 44,000 Btu/hr for the liquid-hydrogen and -oxygen tanks, respectively. Calorimeter tests on a representative sample of the liquid-hydrogen tank sidewall thermal protection system indicated that the measured unit heating rate would rapidly decrease from the prelaunch rate of approx 100 Btu/hr/sq ft to a desired rate of less than 1.3 Btu/hr/sq ft once on orbit.

Knoll, Richard H.; Macneil, Peter N.; England, James E.

1987-01-01

211

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

212

Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

Ardema, Mark D.

1995-01-01

213

Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

Stewart, David A.

1996-01-01

214

Important features affecting thermal protection provided by drum and fiberboard packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive materials that do not require much shielding are frequently shipped inside steel drums with cane fiberboard dunnage between the containment vessel and the steel drum. The cane fiberboard serves two purposes; 1) it cushions the containment vessel from impact and puncture and 2) it thermally protects the containment vessel from fire all as defined by the hypothetical accident tests

Towell

1988-01-01

215

Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

216

Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature, thermal protection materials (TPM), is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heatshield of Orbiter 105, Endeavor.

Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

217

GCD TechPort Data Sheets Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project consists of three distinct project elements: the 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D MAT) project element; the Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System (CA-TPS) project element; and the Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project element. 3D MAT seeks to design, develop and deliver a game changing material solution based on 3-dimensional weaving and resin infusion approach for manufacturing a material that can function as a robust structure as well as a thermal protection system. CA-TPS seeks to develop and deliver a conformal ablative material designed to be efficient and capable of withstanding peak heat flux up to 500 W/ sq cm, peak pressure up to 0.4 atm, and shear up to 500 Pa. HEEET is developing a new ablative TPS that takes advantage of state-of-the-art 3D weaving technologies and traditional manufacturing processes to infuse woven preforms with a resin, machine them to shape, and assemble them as a tiled solution on the entry vehicle substructure or heatshield.

Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

2014-01-01

218

Design of a Protection Thermal Energy Storage Using Phase Change Material Coupled to a Solar Receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is the key for a stable electricity production in future Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants. This work presents a study on the thermal protection of the central receiver of CSP plant using a tower which is subject to considerable thermal stresses in case of cloudy events. The very high temperatures, 800 °C at design point, impose the use of special materials which are able to resist at high temperature and high mechanical constraints and high level of concentrated solar flux. In this paper we investigate a TES coupling a metallic matrix drilled with tubes of Phase Change Material (PCM) in order to store a large amount of thermal energy and release it in a short time. A numerical model is developed to optimize the arrangement of tubes into the TES. Then a methodology is given, based from the need in terms of thermal capacity, in order to help the choice of the geometry.

Verdier, D.; Falcoz, Q.; Ferričre, A.

2014-12-01

219

Heat Shielding Characteristics and Thermostructural Performance of a Superalloy Honeycomb Sandwich Thermal Protection System (TPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-transfer, thermal bending, and mechanical buckling analyses have been performed on a superalloy "honeycomb" thermal protection system (TPS) for future hypersonic flight vehicles. The studies focus on the effect of honeycomb cell geometry on the TPS heat-shielding performance, honeycomb cell wall buckling characteristics, and the effect of boundary conditions on the TPS thermal bending behavior. The results of the study show that the heat-shielding performance of a TPS panel is very sensitive to change in honeycomb core depth, but insensitive to change in honeycomb cell cross-sectional shape. The thermal deformations and thermal stresses in the TPS panel are found to be very sensitive to the edge support conditions. Slight corrugation of the honeycomb cell walls can greatly increase their buckling strength.

Ko, William L.

2004-01-01

220

Design of thermal protection system for 8 foot HTST combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustor in the 8-foot high temperature structures tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center has encountered cracking over a period of 50-250 tunnel tests within a limited range of the required operating envelope. A program was conducted which analyzed the failed combustor liner hardware and determined that the mechanism of failure was vibratory fatigue. A vibration damper system using wave springs located axially between the liner T-bar and the liner support was designed as an intermediate solution to extend the life of the current two-pass regenerative air-cooled liner. The effects of liner wall thickness, cooling air passage height, stiffener ring geometry, reflective coatings, and liner material selection were investigated for these designs. Preliminary layout design arrangements including the external water-cooling system requirements, weight estimates, installation requirements and preliminary estimates of manufacturing costs were prepared for the most promissing configurations. A state-of-the-art review of thermal barrier coatings and an evaluation of reflective coatings for the gasside surface of air-cooled liners are included.

Moskowitz, S.

1973-01-01

221

Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

1996-01-01

222

Aerodynamic heating environment definition/thermal protection system selection for the HL-20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Definition of the aerothermal environment is critical to any vehicle such as the HL-20 Personnel Launch System that operates within the hypersonic flight regime. Selection of an appropriate thermal protection system design is highly dependent on the accuracy of the heating-environment prediction. It is demonstrated that the entry environment determines the thermal protection system design for this vehicle. The methods used to predict the thermal environment for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle are described. Comparisons of the engineering solutions with computational fluid dynamic predictions, as well as wind-tunnel test results, show good agreement. The aeroheating predictions over several critical regions of the vehicle, including the stagnation areas of the nose and leading edges, windward centerline and wing surfaces, and leeward surfaces, are discussed. Results of predictions based on the engineering methods found within the MINIVER aerodynamic heating code are used in conjunction with the results of the extensive wind-tunnel tests on this configuration to define a flight thermal environment. Finally, the selection of the thermal protection system based on these predictions and current technology is described.

Wurster, K. E.; Stone, H. W.

1993-01-01

223

Lightweight Ablative and Ceramic Thermal Protection System Materials for NASA Exploration Systems Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a collaborative effort among NASA Centers, the "Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology" Project was set up to assist mission/vehicle design trade studies, to support risk reduction in thermal protection system (TPS) material selections, to facilitate vehicle mass optimization, and to aid development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on advanced heatshields that allow reductions in spacecraft mass by minimizing propellant requirements. Information will be presented on candidate materials for such reentry approaches and on screening tests conducted (material property and space environmental effects tests) to evaluate viable candidates. Seventeen materials, in three classes (ablatives, tiles, and ceramic matrix composites), were studied. In additional to physical, mechanical, and thermal property tests, high heat flux laser tests and simulated-reentry oxidation tests were performed. Space environmental effects testing, which included exposures to electrons, atomic oxygen, and hypervelocity impacts, was also conducted.

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2006-01-01

224

Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

225

Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

2001-01-01

226

A Monte Carlo Dispersion Analysis of the X-33 Simulation Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis has been completed on the X-33 software simulation. The simulation is based on a preliminary version of the software and is primarily used in an effort to define and refine how a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis would have been done on the final flight-ready version of the software. This report gives an overview of the processes used in the implementation of the dispersions and describes the methods used to accomplish the Monte Carlo analysis. Selected results from 1000 Monte Carlo runs are presented with suggestions for improvements in future work.

Williams, Peggy S.

2001-01-01

227

Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (inventor); Smith, Marnell (inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (inventor)

1986-01-01

228

An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

2005-01-01

229

An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

2006-01-01

230

Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Production and Performance Test Results With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Propellant Tank for the X33 RLV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes in-detail a test program that was initiated at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) involving the cryogenic densification of liquid oxygen (LO2). A large scale LO2 propellant densification system rated for 200 gpm and sized for the X-33 LO2 propellant tank, was designed, fabricated and tested at the GRC. Multiple objectives of the test program included validation of LO2 production unit hardware and characterization of densifier performance at design and transient conditions. First, performance data is presented for an initial series of LO2 densifier screening and check-out tests using densified liquid nitrogen. The second series of tests show performance data collected during LO2 densifier test operations with liquid oxygen as the densified product fluid. An overview of LO2 X-33 tanking operations and load tests with the 20,000 gallon Structural Test Article (STA) are described. Tank loading testing and the thermal stratification that occurs inside of a flight-weight launch vehicle propellant tank were investigated. These operations involved a closed-loop recirculation process of LO2 flow through the densifier and then back into the STA. Finally, in excess of 200,000 gallons of densified LO2 at 120 oR was produced with the propellant densification unit during the demonstration program, an achievement that s never been done before in the realm of large-scale cryogenic tests.

Tomsik, Thomas M.; Meyer, Michael L.

2010-01-01

231

An atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matters concerned with development of methodical and mathematical support for an atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system are considered taking as an example the problem of controlling nitrogen oxide emissions at a gas-and-oil-fired thermal power station. The combined environmental-and-economic characteristics of boilers, which correlate the costs for suppressing emissions with the boiler steam load and mass discharge of nitrogen oxides in analytic form, are used as the main tool for optimal control. A procedure for constructing and applying environmental-and-economic characteristics on the basis of technical facilities available in modern instrumentation and control systems is presented.

Parchevskii, V. M.; Kislov, E. A.

2014-03-01

232

Ablation, Thermal Response, and Chemistry Program for Analysis of Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous work, the authors documented the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) and Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response (FIAT) programs. In this work, key features from MAT and FIAT were combined to create the new Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal response, and Chemistry (FIATC) program. FIATC is fully compatible with FIAT (version 2.5) but has expanded capabilities to compute the multispecies surface chemistry and ablation rate as part of the surface energy balance. This new methodology eliminates B' tables, provides blown species fractions as a function of time, and enables calculations that would otherwise be impractical (e.g. 4+ dimensional tables) such as pyrolysis and ablation with kinetic rates or unequal diffusion coefficients. Equations and solution procedures are presented, then representative calculations of equilibrium and finite-rate ablation in flight and ground-test environments are discussed.

Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

2010-01-01

233

The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

2014-01-01

234

Multi-tube thermal fuse for nozzle protection from a flame holding or flashback event  

DOEpatents

A protection system for a pre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine, includes: a main body having an inlet portion, an outlet portion and an exterior wall that collectively establish a fuel delivery plenum; and a plurality of fuel mixing tubes that extend through at least a portion of the fuel delivery plenum, each of the plurality of fuel mixing tubes including at least one fuel feed opening fluidly connected to the fuel delivery plenum; at least one thermal fuse disposed on an exterior surface of at least one tube, the at least one thermal fuse including a material that will melt upon ignition of fuel within the at least one tube and cause a diversion of fuel from the fuel feed opening to at least one bypass opening. A method and a turbine engine in accordance with the protection system are also provided.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Davis, Jr., Lewis Berkley; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David

2012-07-03

235

Development and Verification of the Charring, Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver (CATPISS) is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) with first and second order fully implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton s method, while the linear system is solved via the Generalized Minimum Residual method (GMRES). Verification results from exact solutions and Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan; Kirk, Benjamin S.

2011-01-01

236

Development and Verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method with first and second order implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton's method, while the fully implicit linear system is solved with the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Verification results from exact solutions and the Method of Manufactured Solutions are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan D.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

2010-01-01

237

Arc-heating tests of thermal protection system materials for the H-2 rocket fairing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials suitable for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the rocket fairing for the Japanese next generation launch vehicle named H-2 were tested using an arc-heated wind tunnel. The main constituents of the candidate materials were epoxy resin and silicon rubber. The heating rate was from 60 to 100 kW/(sq m) in accordance with the maximum heating rate of the nose region of an ascending H-2 rocket. Test results showed that polycondensed silicon rubber was the best candidate as the main component of the TPS, and also that a SiC coating was indispensable. In addition, based on results and a preliminary estimation of the skin temperatures of the fairing nose region, a SiC coating of about 2 mm in thickness is considered sufficient to achieve thermal protection capability.

Hirabayashi, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Fukushima, Yukio; Nakamura, Tomihisa; Fujita, Takeshi

1992-10-01

238

Design and fabrication of metallic thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to develop a lightweight, efficient metallic thermal protection system (TPS) for application to future shuttle-type reentry vehicles, advanced space transports, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Technical requirements were generally derived from the space shuttle. A corrugation-stiffened beaded-skin TPS design was used as a baseline. The system was updated and modified to incorporate the latest technology developments and design criteria. The primary objective was to minimize mass for the total system.

Varisco, A.; Bell, P.; Wolter, W.

1978-01-01

239

STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, thermal protection system (TPS) tile repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, underside, technician prepares surface during thermal protection system (TPS) tile repair / replacement. OV-102 is being refurbished for the STS-28 Department of Defense (DOD) dedicated mission in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) high bay 2. Technician stands on scaffolding next to deployed landing gear. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-87PC-126.

1988-01-01

240

A Non Rigid Reusable Surface Insulation Concept for the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reusable thermal protection system concept was developed for the space shuttle that utilizes a flexible, woven ceramic mat insulation beneath an aerodynamic skin and moisture barrier consisting of either a dense ceramic coating or a super alloy metallic foil. The resulting heat shield material has unique structural characteristics. The shear modulus of the woven mat is very low such that bending and membrane loads introduced into the underlying structural panel remain isolated from the surface skin.

Alexander, J. G.

1973-01-01

241

Design of a built-in health monitoring system for bolted thermal protection panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space vehicles require high performance thermal protection systems (TPS) that provide high temperature insulation capability with lower weight, high strength, and reliable integration with the existing system. Carbon-carbon panels mounted with bracket joints are potential future thermal protection systems with light weight, low creep, and high stiffness at high temperatures. However, the thermal protection system experiences a very harsh high-temperature and aerodynamic environment in addition to foreign object impacts. Damage or failure of panels without being detected can lead to catastrophe. Therefore, knowledge of the integrity of the thermal protection system before each launch and reentry is essential to the success of the mission. The objective of the study is to develop a built-in diagnostic system to assess the integrity of TPS panels as well as to lower inspection and maintenance time and costs. An integrated structural health monitoring system is being developed to monitor the TPS panels. The technology includes investigation of the loosening of bolts which connects TPS panels to the supporting structure, and potentially, identifying the location of damage on the panel caused by external impacts from micrometeorites and other objects. The first generation prototype was manufactured and tested in an acoustic chamber which simulated a re-entry environment to investigate the feasibility of the health monitoring system focusing on its survivability and sensitivity. The preliminary results were very promising. Based on the test results, the second generation design was proposed to improve the performance of the first generation design. To put a reliable and accurate decision on the diagnostics of the TPS panels, an advanced algorithm was developed with the aid of a wavelet transform technique.

Yang, Jinkyu; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Derriso, Mark M.

2003-08-01

242

A modernized high-pressure heater protection system for nuclear and thermal power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience gained from operation of high-pressure heaters and their protection systems serving to exclude ingress of water into the turbine is analyzed. A formula for determining the time for which the high-pressure heater shell steam space is filled when a rupture of tubes in it occurs is analyzed, and conclusions regarding the high-pressure heater design most advisable from this point of view are drawn. A typical structure of protection from increase of water level in the shell of high-pressure heaters used in domestically produced turbines for thermal and nuclear power stations is described, and examples illustrating this structure are given. Shortcomings of components used in the existing protection systems that may lead to an accident at the power station are considered. A modernized protection system intended to exclude the above-mentioned shortcomings was developed at the NPO Central Boiler-Turbine Institute and ZioMAR Engineering Company, and the design solutions used in this system are described. A mathematical model of the protection system's main elements (the admission and check valves) has been developed with participation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and a numerical investigation of these elements is carried out. The design version of surge tanks developed by specialists of the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute for excluding false operation of the high-pressure heater protection system is proposed.

Svyatkin, F. A.; Trifonov, N. N.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Tren'kin, V. B.; Koltunov, V. A.; Borovkov, A. I.; Klyavin, O. I.

2013-09-01

243

Development of Thermal Protection Materials for Future Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entry Systems will play a crucial role as NASA develops the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development Program Office established the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of current entry system technologies identified significant opportunity to improve the current state of the art in thermal protection materials in order to enable landing of heavy mass (40 mT) payloads. To accomplish this goal, the EDL Project has outlined a framework to define, develop and model the thermal protection system material concepts required to allow for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two primary classes of ablative materials are being developed: rigid and flexible. The rigid ablatives will be applied to the acreage of a 10x30 m rigid mid L/D Aeroshell to endure the dual pulse heating (peak approx.500 W/sq cm). Likewise, flexible ablative materials are being developed for 20-30 m diameter deployable aerodynamic decelerator entry systems that could endure dual pulse heating (peak aprrox.120 W/sq cm). A technology Roadmap is presented that will be used for facilitating the maturation of both the rigid and flexible ablative materials through application of decision metrics (requirements, key performance parameters, TRL definitions, and evaluation criteria) used to assess and advance the various candidate TPS material technologies.

Cassell, Alan M.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Arnold, James O.; Hwang, Helen; Wright, Michael J.; Szalai, Christine E.; Blosser, Max; Poteet, Carl C.

2010-01-01

244

Wireless Subsurface Sensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems on Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to develop inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop "wireless" devices that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor temperature or other quantities of interest. These devices are sensors integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable non-contact communication of sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Both passive and active prototype devices have been developed. The passive device uses a thermal fuse to indicate the occurrence of excessive temperature. This device has a diameter under 0.13 cm. (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles on an RLV) and can withstand 370 C for 15 minutes. The active device contains a small battery to provide power to a thermocouple for recording a temperature history during flight. The bulk of the device must be placed beneath the TPS for protection from high temperature, but the thermocouple can be placed in a hot location such as near the external surface.

Milos, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

245

The 90-kDa heat shock protein Hsp90 protects tubulin against thermal denaturation.  

PubMed

Hsp90 and tubulin are among the most abundant proteins in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Although Hsp90 plays key roles in maintaining its client proteins in their active state, tubulin is essential for fundamental processes such as cell morphogenesis and division. Several studies have suggested a possible connection between Hsp90 and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Because tubulin is a labile protein in its soluble form, we investigated whether Hsp90 protects it against thermal denaturation. Both proteins were purified from porcine brain, and their interaction was characterized in vitro by using spectrophotometry, sedimentation assays, video-enhanced differential interference contrast light microscopy, and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our results show that Hsp90 protects tubulin against thermal denaturation and keeps it in a state compatible with microtubule polymerization. We demonstrate that Hsp90 cannot resolve tubulin aggregates but that it likely binds early unfolding intermediates, preventing their aggregation. Protection was maximal at a stoichiometry of two molecules of Hsp90 for one of tubulin. This protection does not require ATP binding and hydrolysis by Hsp90, but it is counteracted by geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of Hsp90. PMID:20110359

Weis, Felix; Moullintraffort, Laura; Heichette, Claire; Chrétien, Denis; Garnier, Cyrille

2010-03-26

246

Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective devices either do not protect or are themselves a hazard to the cell due to their limitations. These devices do not help in cases where the cells develop high impedance that suddenly causes them to go into a thermal runaway condition. Temperature monitoring typically helps with tracking the performance of a battery. But normal thermistors or thermal sensors do not provide the accuracy needed for this and cannot track a change in internal cell temperatures until it is too late to stop a thermal runaway.

Jeevarajan, Judith

2011-01-01

247

Protection of alodine coatings from thermal aging by removable polymer coatings.  

SciTech Connect

Removable polymer coatings were evaluated as a means to suppress dehydration of Alodine chromate conversion coatings during thermal aging and thereby retain the corrosion protection afforded by Alodine. Two types of polymer coatings were applied to Alodine-treated panels of aluminum alloys 7075-T73 and 6061-T6 that were subsequently aged for 15 to 50 hours at temperatures between 135 F to 200 F. The corrosion resistance of the thermally aged panels was evaluated, after stripping the polymer coatings, by exposure to a standard salt-fog corrosion test and the extent of pitting of the polymer-coated and untreated panels compared. Removable polymer coatings mitigated the loss of corrosion resistance due to thermal aging experienced by the untreated alloys. An epoxide coating was more effective than a fluorosilicone coating as a dehydration barrier.

Wagstaff, Brett R. (.); Bradshaw, Robert W.; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr. (.,; .)

2006-12-01

248

Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems to 9 km/s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. These materials are also highly exposed to solid particle space environment hazards. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles are a porous-ceramic insulator of nominally 8 lb/ft(exp 3) alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG).

Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Foreman, Cory D.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.

2010-01-01

249

Ballistic Performance of Porous Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems at 9 km/s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous-ceramic, thermal-protection-systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive electronic components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles have a porous-batting of nominally 8 lb/cubic ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) insulating material coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation (TUFI) layer.

Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, B. A.

2009-01-01

250

Development of X-33/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the "aerothermodynamic chain," the links of which are personnel, facilities, models/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Because the aerodynamic data bases upon which the X-33 and X-34 vehicles will fly are almost exclusively from wind tunnel testing, as opposed to CFD, the primary focus of the lessons learned is on ground-based testing. The period corresponding to the development of X-33 and X-34 aerothermodynamic data bases was challenging, since a number of other such programs (e.g., X-38, X-43) competed for resources at a time of downsizing of personnel, facilities, etc., outsourcing, and role changes as NASA Centers served as subcontractors to industry. The impact of this changing environment is embedded in the lessons learned. From a technical perspective, the relatively long times to design and fabricate metallic force and moment models, delays in delivery of models, and a lack of quality assurance to determine the fidelity of model outer mold lines (OML) prior to wind tunnel testing had a major negative impact on the programs. On the positive side, the application of phosphor thermography to obtain global, quantitative heating distributions on rapidly fabricated ceramic models revolutionized the aerothermodynamic optimization of vehicle OMLs, control surfaces, etc. Vehicle designers were provided with aeroheating information prior to, or in conjunction with, aerodynamic information early in the program, thereby allowing trades to be made with both sets of input; in the past only aerodynamic data were available as input. Programmatically, failure to include transonic aerodynamic wind tunnel tests early in the assessment phase led to delays in the optimization phase, as OMLs required modification to provide adequate transonic aerodynamic performance without sacrificing subsonic and hypersonic performance. Funding schedules for industry, based on technical milestones, also presented challenges to aerothermodynamics seeking optimum flying characteristics across the subsonic to hypersonic speed regimes and minimum aeroheating. This paper is concluded with a brief discussion of enhancements in ground-based testing/CFD capabilities necessary to partially/fully satisfy future requirements.

Miller, C. G.

2000-01-01

251

Development and Qualification of Alternate Blowing Agents for Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerospace industry has a long history of using low density polyurethane and polyurethane-modified isocyanurate foam systems as lightweight, low cost, easily processed cryogenic Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for ascent vehicles. The Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) is required so that quality liquid cryogenic propellant can be supplied to the Orbiter main engines and to protect the metal structure of the tanks from becoming too hot from aerodynamic heating, hence preventing premature break-up of the tank. These foams are all blown with CFC-1 I blowing agent which has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an ozone depleting substance. CFCs will not be manufactured after 1995, Consequently, alternate blowing agent substances must be identified and implemented to assure continued ET manufacture and delivery. This paper describes the various testing performed to select and qualify HCFC-1 41 b as a near term drop-in replacement for CFC-11. Although originally intended to be a one for one substitution in the formulation, several technical issues were identified regarding material performance and processability which required both formulation changes and special processing considerations to overcome. In order to evaluate these material changes, each material was subjected to various tests to qualify them to meet the various loads imposed on them during long term storage, pre-launch operations, launch, separation and re-entry. Each material was tested for structural, thermal, aeroshear, and stress/strain loads for the various flight environments each encounters. Details of the development and qualification program and the resolution of specific problems are discussed in this paper.

Williams, Charles W.; Cavalaris, James G.

1994-01-01

252

Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramics for Thermal Protection of Next Generation Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials with improved properties are needed for thermal protection of next generation space vehicles. Sharp leading edges on these vehicles will have to withstand exposure to high temperatures (> 2200 C or 4000 F) and severe thermal cycling in both neutral and oxidizing environments. These extreme conditions will require materials that possess superior oxidation resistance, low creep, and excellent thermal shock properties. This presentation will first discuss the system requirements for thermal protection of advanced space vehicles and then show how they are driving development of new materials systems. The presentation will focus on ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs) that are promising candidates for such applications. ZrB2 and HfB2 and composites of those ceramics with SiC are two particular families of UHTCs that are currently under development for sharp leading edges. These ceramics are appealing because their melting temperatures are 3245 C (5873 F) for ZrB2 and 3380 C (6116 F) for HfB2 and because they may form protective, oxidation resistant coatings in use. The mechanical properties of the UHTCs are strongly dependent on phase purity and the processing route used to make them, both of which factors are being actively investigated. For example, oxide impurities could form glassy grain boundary phases that soften at high temperatures and make the ceramic susceptible to creep deformation. Results from scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies of the UHTCs have shown how their processing can be improved to give better properties. This presentation will discuss the UHTC characterization results in some detail, focusing particularly on the structure and composition of the ceramic grain boundaries. The presentation will conclude with some remarks on how the properties of these promising UHTCs can be further improved and how they might be made more economically.

Loehman, R. E.; Ellerby, D. T.; Gusman, M. I.; Stackpoole, M.; Johnson, S. M.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

253

Computational techniques for design optimization of thermal protective systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 2: User's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular program for design optimization of thermal protection systems is discussed. Its capabilities and limitations are reviewed. Instructions for the operation of the program, output, and the program itself are given.

1971-01-01

254

Reconfigurable Flight Control Designs With Application to the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the right body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zhenglu

1999-01-01

255

Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications  

SciTech Connect

Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950/sup 0/C (1562 to 1742/sup 0/F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required.

Li, C.C.

1980-03-01

256

Role of HSP70 in cytoplasm protection against thermal stress in rohu, Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

To understand the function of HSP70 of Labeo rohita (LrHSP70) in cellular protection, LrHSP70 ORF cDNA was inserted into the plasmid of pET-32a(+) or pEGFP-L1. Then, the recombinant plasmids were transformed or transfected into Escherichia coli cells, mouse myeloma cells (MPC-11) or fish hepatoma cells (PLHC-1). Western blot results revealed that LrHSP70 was expressed in E. coli cells and molecular weight was estimated to be 70 kDa. In cells, LrHSP70 was over-expressed following thermal or cold stress. Results revealed that LrHSP70 protected prokaryotic cells against thermal or cold extremes as well as played the same role in MPC-11 and PLHC-1 cells. After heat treatment at 42 °C for 1 h, the viability of the cell was declined considerably. PLHC-1 cells with pEGFP-L1/LrHSP70 exhibited a higher survival rate (50%) than wild-type cells (18%) or cells with only pEGFP-L1 (21.2%). When the time lag extended to 2 h, the survival rates were 30%, 3.4% and 5.3% respectively. The present study revealed that LrHSP70 plays an important role in response to thermal and cold stress in fish. PMID:25240978

Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V

2014-12-01

257

A study on metallic thermal protection system panel for Reusable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Ni-based superalloy honeycomb thermal protection system (TPS) panel has been fabricated. And a curved Ni-based superalloy honeycomb sandwich has also been fabricated. The preliminary thermal insulation results of a fabricated Ni-based superalloy honeycomb TPS panel (the areal density of this panel is 6.7kg/m2 and total height is 32 mm) indicate that the maximum temperature of the lower surfaces of the panel is lower than 150C when the temperature of outer surface is held at 650C for 30 min. The flatwise tensile strength and compressive properties of a fabricated Ni-based superalloy honeycomb sandwich coupon was studied at room temperature. A multilayered coating has been developed on the surface of the superalloy honeycomb TPS panel for environmental protection and thermal control. The oxidation weight-change results show that the weight change of the Ni-based superalloy honeycomb sandwich with the oxidation resistant coating is extremely small at 1100C in air for 10 h. The emittance layer of the multilayered coating imparts an emittance in excess of 0.85 during exposure at 850C, which was at least 14% greater than that of the substrate with oxidation resistant alone.

Caogen, Yao; Hongjun, Lü; Zhonghua, Jia; Xinchao, Jia; Yan, Lu; Haigang, Li

2008-07-01

258

Replacement of Ablators with Phase-Change Material for Thermal Protection of STS Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the research and development program to develop new Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for aerospace applications at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), an experimental study was conducted on a new concept for a non-ablative TPS material. Potential loss of TPS material and ablation by-products from the External Tank (ET) or Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) during Shuttle flight with the related Orbiter tile damage necessitates development of a non-ablative thermal protection system. The new Thermal Management Coating (TMC) consists of phase-change material encapsulated in micro spheres and a two-part resin system to adhere the coating to the structure material. The TMC uses a phase-change material to dissipate the heat produced during supersonic flight rather than an ablative material. This new material absorbs energy as it goes through a phase change during the heating portion of the flight profile and then the energy is slowly released as the phase-change material cools and returns to its solid state inside the micro spheres. The coating was subjected to different test conditions simulating design flight environments at the NASA/MSFC Improved Hot Gas Facility (IHGF) to study its performance.

Kaul, Raj K.; Stuckey, Irvin; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

259

Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 3; The Validation of Antice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program was generated by the Icing Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center to validate two ice protection simulation codes: (1) LEWICE/Thermal for transient electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing simulations, and (2) ANTICE for steady state hot gas and electrothermal anti-icing simulations. An electrothermal ice protection system was designed and constructed integral to a 36 inch chord NACA0012 airfoil. The model was fully instrumented with thermo-couples, RTD'S, and heat flux gages. Tests were conducted at several icing environmental conditions during a two week period at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. Experimental results of running-wet and evaporative cases were compared to the ANTICE computer code predictions and are presented in this paper.

Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Horvath, Charles; Miller, Dean R.; Wright, William B.

2001-01-01

260

Measuring the spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials during atmospheric reentry simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypersonic spacecraft reentering the earth's atmosphere encounter extreme heat due to atmospheric friction. Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials shield the craft from this searing heat, which can reach temperatures of 2900 F. Various thermophysical and optical properties of TPS materials are tested at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility, which has the capability to simulate critical environmental conditions associated with entry into the earth's atmosphere. Emissivity is an optical property that determines how well a material will reradiate incident heat back into the atmosphere upon reentry, thus protecting the spacecraft from the intense frictional heat. This report describes a method of measuring TPS emissivities using the SR5000 Scanning Spectroradiometer, and includes system characteristics, sample data, and operational procedures developed for arc-jet applications.

Marble, Elizabeth

1996-01-01

261

Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle RLV design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal protection system (TPS). It consists of the coupling and automation of four computer software packages: MINIVER, TPSX, TCAT and ADS. MINIVER is an Aeroheating code that produces centerline radiation equilibrium temperatures, convective heating rates, and heat loads over simplified vehicle geometries. These include flat plates and swept cylinders that model wings and leading edges, respectively. TPSX is a NASA Ames material properties database that is available on the World Wide Web. The newly developed Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT) uses finite difference methods to carry out a transient in-depth I-D conduction analysis over the center mold line of the vehicle. This is used along with the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) code to correctly size the vehicle's thermal protection system JPS). The numerical optimizer ADS uses algorithms that solve constrained and unconstrained design problems. The resulting outputs for this process are TPS material types, unit thicknesses, and acreage percentages. TCAT was developed for several purposes. First, it provides a means to calculate the transient in-depth conduction seen by the surface of the TPS material that protects a vehicle during ascent and reentry. Along with the in-depth conduction, radiation from the surface of the material is calculated along with the temperatures at the backface and interior parts of the TPS material. Secondly, TCAT contributes added speed and automation to the overall design process. Another motivation in the development of TCAT is optimization.

Olds, John R.; Cowart, Kris

2001-01-01

262

Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) a Novel Approach to Meet Nasa's Most Demanding Reentry Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future robotic missions to Venus and other planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of current mid density ablators (PICA or Avcoat). Therefore mission planners assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heatshield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic is a robust TPS, however, its high density and thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, high fluxes, pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose certification challenges in existing ground based test facilities. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This presentation will summarize the maturation of the WTPS project.

Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matt; Ventkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beerman, Adam; Boghozian, Tane; Gonzales, Gregory; Feldman, Jay; Peterson, Keith; Prabhu, Dinesh

2014-01-01

263

Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems Using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, and an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during re-entry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry

Richards, Lance

2013-01-01

264

Study of heat sink thermal protection systems for hypersonic research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a single metallic heat sink thermal protection system (TPS) over a projected flight test program for a hypersonic research vehicle was studied using transient thermal analyses and mission performance calculations. Four materials, aluminum, titanium, Lockalloy, and beryllium, as well as several combinations, were evaluated. Influence of trajectory parameters were considered on TPS and mission performance for both the clean vehicle configuration as well as with an experimental scramjet mounted. From this study it was concluded that a metallic heat sink TPS can be effectively employed for a hypersonic research airplane flight envelope which includes dash missions in excess of Mach 8 and 60 seconds of cruise at Mach numbers greater than 6. For best heat sink TPS match over the flight envelope, Lockalloy and titanium appear to be the most promising candidates

Vahl, W. A.; Edwards, C. L. W.

1978-01-01

265

Creation and protection of entanglement in systems out of thermal equilibrium  

E-print Network

We investigate the creation of entanglement between two quantum emitters interacting with a realistic common stationary electromagnetic field out of thermal equilibrium. In the case of two qubits we show that the absence of equilibrium allows the generation of steady entangled states, which is inaccessible at thermal equilibrium and is realized without any further external action on the two qubits. We first give a simple physical interpretation of the phenomenon in a specific case and then we report a detailed investigation on the dependence of the entanglement dynamics on the various physical parameters involved. Sub- and super-radiant effects are discussed, and qualitative differences in the dynamics concerning both creation and protection of entanglement according to the initial two-qubit state are pointed out.

Bruno Bellomo; Mauro Antezza

2014-12-12

266

CFD Analysis of Flexible Thermal Protection System Shear Configuration Testing in the LCAT Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents results of computational analysis performed after flexible thermal protection system shear configuration testing in the LCAT facility. The primary objectives were to predict the shear force on the sample and the sensitivity of all surface properties to the shape of the sample. Bumps of 0.05, 0.10,and 0.15 inches were created to approximate the shape of some fabric samples during testing. A large amount of information was extracted from the CFD solutions for comparison between runs and also current or future flight simulations.

Ferlemann, Paul G.

2014-01-01

267

Effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on ultimate strength of shuttle orbiter thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on the ultimate strength and stress displacement properties of the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) was determined. The LI-900 Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tiles mounted on the .41 cm thick Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) were investigated. Substructure deformations reduce the ultimate strength of the SIP/tile TPS and increase the scatter in the ultimate strength data. Substructure deformations that occur unsymmetric to the tile can cause the tile to rotate when subjected to a uniform applied load. Load eccentricity reduces SIP/tile TPS ultimate strength and causes tile rotation.

Sawyer, J. W.

1981-01-01

268

Effect of surface catalysis on heating to ceramic coated thermal protection systems for transatmospheric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the effect of surface catalysis on the heat transfer rate to the heat shield of a typical Transatmospheric Vehicle (TAV) during ascent and atmospheric entry. Surface kinetics and optical properties obtained from arc-jet tests on candidate thermal protection systems (coated metals) were used in a reacting boundary layer code to estimate the heating distribution along the surface of a TAV. Thermochemical stability of the coatings is described in terms of reduction in emittance and loss of opacifiers from the coatings during the arc-jet tests.

Stewart, David A.; Kolodziej, Paul; Henline, William D.; Pincha, Elizabeth M. W.

1988-01-01

269

Refurbishment cost study of the thermal protection system of a space shuttle vehicle, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The labor costs and techniques associated with the refurbishment and maintenance of representative thermal protection system (TPS) components and their attachment concepts suitable for space shuttle application are defined, characterized, and evaluated from the results of an experimental test program. This program consisted of designing selected TPS concepts, fabricating and assembling test hardware, and performing a time and motion study of specific maintenance functions of the test hardware on a full-scale- mockup. Labor requirements and refurbishment techniques, as they relate to the maintenance functions of inspection, repair, removal, and replacement were identified.

Haas, D. W.

1972-01-01

270

Techniques for aerothermal tests of large, flightweight thermal protection panels in a Mach 7 wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal performance and structural integrity are experimentally evaluated in the Langley 8-ft high temperature structures tunnel, which uses a combustion products test medium to provide realistic combinations of aerodynamic heating and loading. Recently developed techniques provide independent control of rate and magnitude of surface heating and differential pressure, protection against adverse acoustics buffeting during facility starting and stopping, programed radiant heating before exposing test panels to the high energy stream, and infrared radiometry for detailed surface temperatures. These techniques were verified repeatedly by return of useful data on metallic and nonmetallic panel concepts of reusable surface insulation.

Deveikis, W. D.; Bruce, W. E., Jr.; Karns, J. R.

1974-01-01

271

Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism.  

PubMed

Mutualism is an often complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and, in exchange, protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40 °C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0 °C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C; Bronstein, Judith L

2014-09-01

272

Quantitative assessment of the relationship between radiant heat exposure and protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing during dry and wet conditions.  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of clothing on a person is important to the criteria for people exposure to radiant heat flux from fires. The thermal protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing exposed to low heat fluxes during dry and wet conditions was studied using two designed bench-scale test apparatus. The protective clothing with four fabric layers (outer shell, moisture barrier, thermal linear and inner layer) was exposed to six levels of thermal radiation (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10kW/m(2)). Two kinds of the moisture barrier (PTFE and GoreTex) with different vapor permeability were compared. The outside and inside surface temperatures of each fabric layer were measured. The fitting analysis was used to quantitatively assess the relationship between the temperature of each layer during thermal exposure and the level of external heat flux. It is indicated that there is a linear correlation between the temperature of each layer and the radiant level. Therefore, a predicted equation is developed to calculate the thermal insulation of the multilayer clothing from the external heat flux. It can also provide some useful information on the beneficial effects of clothing for the exposure criteria of radiant heat flux from fire. PMID:24922096

Fu, M; Weng, W G; Yuan, H Y

2014-07-15

273

Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

1997-01-01

274

A novel approach for fit analysis of thermal protective clothing using three-dimensional body scanning.  

PubMed

The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30 mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden. PMID:24793820

Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

2014-11-01

275

Edgewise Compression Testing of STIPS-0 (Structurally Integrated Thermal Protection System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Structurally Integrated Thermal Protection System (SITPS) task was initiated by the NASA Hypersonics Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program to develop a structural load-carrying thermal protection system for use in aerospace applications. The initial NASA concept for SITPS consists of high-temperature composite facesheets (outer and inner mold lines) with a light-weight insulated structural core. An edgewise compression test was performed on the SITPS-0 test article at room temperature using conventional instrumentation and methods in order to obtain panel-level mechanical properties and behavior of the panel. Three compression loadings (10, 20 and 37 kips) were applied to the SITPS-0 panel. The panel behavior was monitored using standard techniques and non-destructive evaluation methods such as photogrammetry and acoustic emission. The elastic modulus of the SITPS-0 panel was determined to be 1.146x106 psi with a proportional limit at 1039 psi. Barrel-shaped bending of the panel and partial delamination of the IML occurred under the final loading.

Brewer, Amy R.

2011-01-01

276

A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to all other systems, as is the case with SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In particular, the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results in high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately calculate the TPS mass of this type of vehicle several engineering disciplines and analytical tools must be used preferably in an environment that data is easily transferred and multiple iterations are easily facilitated.

Alexander, Reginald; Stanley, Thomas Troy

2001-01-01

277

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-10-01

278

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-10-01

279

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-07-01

280

International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

2013-01-01

281

Development of metallic thermal protection systems for the reusable launch vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A reusable Thermal Protection System (TPS) that is not only lightweight, but durable, operable and cost effective is one of the technologies required by the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to achieve the goal of drastically reducing the cost of delivering payload to orbit. Metallic TPS is one of the systems being developed to meet this challenge. Current efforts involve improving the superalloy honeycomb TPS concept, which consists of a foil-gage metallic box encapsulating a low density fibrous insulation, and evaluating it for RLV requirements. The superalloy honeycomb TPS concept is mechanically attached to the vehicle structure. Improvements include more efficient internal insulation, a simpler, lighter weight configuration, and a quick-release fastener system for easier installation and removal. Evaluation includes thermal and structural analysis, fabrication and testing of both coupons and TPS panels under conditions simulating RLV environments. Coupons of metallic honeycomb sandwich, representative of the outer TPS surface, were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, and rain erosion testing as well as subsequent arcjet exposure. Arrays of TPS panels have been subjected to radiant heating in a thermal/vacuum facility, aerodynamic heating in an arcjet facility and acoustic loading. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Blosser, M.L. [NASA-Langley Research Center Mail Stop 396 Hampton, Virginia23681-0001 (United States)

1997-01-01

282

Development of metallic thermal protection systems for the reusable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reusable Thermal Protection System (TPS) that is not only lightweight, but durable, operable and cost effective is one of the technologies required by the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to achieve the goal of drastically reducing the cost of delivering payload to orbit. Metallic TPS is one of the systems being developed to meet this challenge. Current efforts involve improving the superalloy honeycomb TPS concept, which consists of a foil-gage metallic box encapsulating a low density fibrous insulation, and evaluating it for RLV requirements. The superalloy honeycomb TPS concept is mechanically attached to the vehicle structure. Improvements include more efficient internal insulation, a simpler, lighter weight configuration, and a quick-release fastener system for easier installation and removal. Evaluation includes thermal and structural analysis, fabrication and testing of both coupons and TPS panels under conditions simulating RLV environments. Coupons of metallic honeycomb sandwich, representative of the outer TPS surface, were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, and rain erosion testing as well as subsequent arcjet exposure. Arrays of TPS panels have been subjected to radiant heating in a thermal/vacuum facility, aerodynamic heating in an arcjet facility and acoustic loading.

Blosser, Max L.

1997-01-01

283

Mission load dynamic tests of two undensified Space shuttle thermal protection system tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two tests of undensified Space Shuttle thermal protection tiles under combined static and dynamic loads were conducted. The tiles had a density of approximately 144 Kg/cum (LI900 tiles) and were mounted on a strain isolation pad which was 0.41 cm (.160 inch) thick. A combined static and dynamic mission stress histogram representative of the W-3 area of the wing of the orbiter vehicle was applied. The stress histogram was provided by the space shuttle project. Results presented include: tabulation of measured peak and root-mean-square (RMS) accelerations in both compression and tension; peak SIP stress in compression and tension, peak and RMS amplitude response ratios; lateral to vertical response ratios; response time histories; peak stress distributions (histograms), and SIP extension measured both with and without static tension at various mission times.

Leatherwood, J. D.; Gowdey, J. C.

1981-01-01

284

Impacts of Space Shuttle thermal protection system tile on F-15 aircraft vertical tile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impacts of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile on the leading edge and the side of the vertical tail of the F-15 aircraft were analyzed under different TPS tile orientations. The TPS tile-breaking tests were conducted to simulate the TPS tile impacts. It was found that the predicted tile impact forces compare fairly well with the tile-breaking forces, and the impact forces exerted on the F-15 aircraft vertical tail were relatively low because a very small fraction of the tile kinetic energy was dissipated in the impact, penetration, and fracture of the tile. It was also found that the oblique impact of the tile on the side of the F-15 aircraft vertical tail was unlikely to dent the tail surface.

Ko, W. L.

1985-01-01

285

An Assessment of Alternate Thermal Protection Systems for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Volume 1; Executive Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternate thermal protection system (TPS) concepts to the Space Shuttle Orbiter were assessed. Metallic, ablator, and carbon-carbon concepts which are the result of some previous design, manufacturing and testing effort were considered. Emphasis was placed on improved TPS durability, which could potentially reduce life cycle costs and improve Orbiter operational characteristics. Integrated concept/orbiter point designs were generated and analyzed on the basis of Shuttle design environments and criteria. A merit function evaluation methodology based on mission impact, life cycle costs, and risk was developed to compare the candidate concepts and to identify the best alternate. Voids and deficiencies in the technology were identified, along with recommended activities to overcome them. Finally, programmatic plans, including ROM costs and schedules, were developed for all activities required to bring the selected alternate system up to operational readiness.

Hays, D.

1982-01-01

286

Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

2006-01-01

287

The Evolution of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Shearography is being developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam while terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography are being developed to identify voids and cracks in thick foam regions. The basic theory of operation along with factors affecting the results of these methods will be described. Also, the evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

2006-01-01

288

Testing Lunar Return Thermal Protection Systems using Sub-Scale Flight Test Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key objective of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to revisit the lunar surface. Such an ambitious goal requires the development of a new human-rated spacecraft, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), to ferry crews to low earth orbit and to the moon. The successful conclusion of both types of missions will require a thermal protection system (TPS) capable of protecting the vehicle and crew from the extreme heat of atmospheric reentry. As a part of the TPS development, various materials are being tested in arcjet tunnels; however, the combined lunar return aerothermal environment of high heat flux, shear stress, and surface pressure cannot be duplicated using only existing ground test facilities. To ensure full TPS qualification, a flight test program using sub-scale Orion capsules has been proposed to test TPS materials and heat shield construction techniques under the most stressing combination of lunar return aerothermal environments. Originally called Testing Of Reentry Capsule Heat Shield, or TORCH, but later renamed LEX, for Lunar Reentry Experiment, the proposed flight test program is presented along with the driving requirements and descriptions of the vehicle and the TPS instrumentation suite slated to conduct in-flight measurements.

Chen, George; De Jong, Christian; Ivanov, Mark; Ong, Chester; Seybold, Calina; Hash, David

2007-01-01

289

Improving Metallic Thermal Protection System Hypervelocity Impact Resistance Through Design of Experiments Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design of experiments approach has been implemented using computational hypervelocity impact simulations to determine the most effective place to add mass to an existing metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) to improve hypervelocity impact protection. Simulations were performed using axisymmetric models in CTH, a shock-physics code developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and validated by comparison with existing test data. The axisymmetric models were then used in a statistical sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of five design parameters on degree of hypervelocity particle dispersion. Several damage metrics were identified and evaluated. Damage metrics related to the extent of substructure damage were seen to produce misleading results, however damage metrics related to the degree of dispersion of the hypervelocity particle produced results that corresponded to physical intuition. Based on analysis of variance results it was concluded that the most effective way to increase hypervelocity impact resistance is to increase the thickness of the outer foil layer. Increasing the spacing between the outer surface and the substructure is also very effective at increasing dispersion.

Poteet, Carl C.; Blosser, Max L.

2001-01-01

290

Prediction of In-Space Durability of Protected Polymers Based on Ground Laboratory Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probability of atomic oxygen reacting with polymeric materials is orders of magnitude lower at thermal energies (greater than O.1 eV) than at orbital impact energies (4.5 eV). As a result, absolute atomic oxygen fluxes at thermal energies must be orders of magnitude higher than orbital energy fluxes, to produce the same effective fluxes (or same oxidation rates) for polymers. These differences can cause highly pessimistic durability predictions for protected polymers and polymers which develop protective metal oxide surfaces as a result of oxidation if one does not make suitable calibrations. A comparison was conducted of undercut cavities below defect sites in protected polyimide Kapton samples flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) with similar samples exposed in thermal energy oxygen plasma. The results of this comparison were used to quantify predicted material loss in space based on material loss in ground laboratory thermal energy plasma testing. A microindent hardness comparison of surface oxidation of a silicone flown on the Environmental Oxygen Interaction with Materials-III (EOIM-III) experiment with samples exposed in thermal energy plasmas was similarly used to calibrate the rate of oxidation of silicone in space relative to samples in thermal energy plasmas exposed to polyimide Kapton effective fluences.

Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon; DiFilippo, Frank J.

1996-01-01

291

Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems and MMOD using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, such as those from Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD). The approach uses an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during reentry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry.

Richards, Lance

2014-01-01

292

Improvements in Thermal Protection Sizing Capabilities for TCAT: Conceptual Design for Advanced Space Transportation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT), originally developed for the Space Systems Design Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is a conceptual design tool capable of integrating aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle design. It provides Thermal Protection System (TPS) unit thicknesses and acreage percentages based on the geometry of the vehicle and a reference trajectory to be used in calculation of the total cost and weight of the vehicle design. TCAT has proven to be reasonably accurate at calculating the TPS unit weights for in-flight trajectories; however, it does not have the capability of sizing TPS materials above cryogenic fuel tanks for ground hold operations. During ground hold operations, the vehicle is held for a brief period (generally about two hours) during which heat transfer from the TPS materials to the cryogenic fuel occurs. If too much heat is extracted from the TPS material, the surface temperature may fall below the freezing point of water, thereby freezing any condensation that may be present at the surface of the TPS. Condensation or ice on the surface of the vehicle is potentially hazardous to the mission and can also damage the TPS. It is questionable whether or not the TPS thicknesses provided by the aeroheating analysis would be sufficiently thick to insulate the surface of the TPS from the heat transfer to the fuel. Therefore, a design tool has been developed that is capable of sizing TPS materials at these cryogenic fuel tank locations to augment TCAT's TPS sizing capabilities.

Olds, John R.; Izon, Stephen James

2002-01-01

293

Final analysis and design of a thermal protection system for 8-foot HTST combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cylindrical shell combustor with T-bar supports in the 8-foot HTST at the NASA-Langley Research Center encountered vibratory fatigue cracking over a period of 50-250 tunnel tests within a limited range of the required operating envelope. A preliminary design study provided several suitable thermal protection system designs for the combustor, one of which was a two-pass regenerative type air-cooled omega-shaped segment liner. A final design layout of the omega segment liner was prepared and analyzed for steady-state and transient conditions. The design of a support system for the fuel spray bar assembly was also included. Detail drawings suitable for fabrication purposes were also prepared. Liner design problems defined during the preliminary study included (1) the ingress of gas into the attachment bulb section of the omega segment, (2) the large thermal gradient along the leg of the omega bulb attachment section and, (3) the local peak metal temperature at the radius between the liner ID and the leg of the bulb attachment. These were resolved during the final design task. Analyses of the final design of the omega segment liner indicated that all design goals were met and the design provided the capability of operating over the required test envelope with a life expectancy substantially above the goal of 1500 cycles.

Moskowitz, S.

1973-01-01

294

Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and Hot Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this paper is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components. The two primary technical challenges impacting the use of CMC TPS and hot structures for hypersonic vehicles are environmental durability and fabrication, and will be discussed briefly.

Glass, David E.

2008-01-01

295

Shearographic non-destructive evaluation of space shuttle thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of shearographic inspections of the shuttle external tank (ET) spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) and solid rocket booster (SRB) Marshall sprayable ablative (MSA-2) epoxy-cork thermal protection systems (TPS) are presented. Debonding SOFI or MSA-2 damage the orbiter 'belly' tile and exposes the ET/SRB to thermal loading. Previous work with the ET/SRB showed promising results with shearography. The first area investigated was the jack pad close-out, one of many areas on the ET where foam is applied at KSC. Voids 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of less than 0.4 psi. Of primary interest are areas of the ET that directly face the orbiter tile TPS. It is estimated that 90% of tile TPS damage on the orbiter 'belly' results from debonding SOFI during ascent. Test panels modeling these areas were manufactured with programmed debonds to determine the sensitivity of shearography as a function of debond size, SOFI thickness and vacuum. Results show repeatable detection of debonds with a diameter approximately half the SOFI thickness at less than 0.4 psi pressure reduction. Preliminary results are also presented on inspections of MSA-2 and the remote manipulator system (RMS) honeycomb material

Hooker, Jeffrey A.; Simmons, Stephen M.; Davis, Christopher K.; Tenbusch, Kenneth E.

1995-01-01

296

Shearographic Non-destructive Evaluation of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of shearographic inspections of the shuttle external tank (ET) spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) and solid rocket booster (SRB) Marshall sprayable ablative (MSA-2) epoxy-cork thermal protection systems (TPS) are presented. Debonding SOFI or MSA-2 damage the orbiter 'belly' tile and exposes the ET/SRB to thermal loading. Previous work with the ET/SRB showed promising results with shearography. The first area investigated was the jack pad close-out, one of many areas on the ET where foam is applied at KSC. Voids 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of less than 0.4 psi. Of primary interest are areas of the ET that directly face the orbiter tile TPS. It is estimated that 90% of tile TPS damage on the orbiter 'belly' results from debonding SOFI during ascent. Test panels modeling these areas were manufactured with programmed debonds to determine the sensitivity of shearography as a function of debond size, SOFI thickness and vacuum. Results show repeatable detection of debonds with a diameter approximately half the SOFI thickness at less than 0.4 psi pressure reduction. Preliminary results are also presented on inspections of MSA-2 and the remote manipulator system (RMS) honeycomb material.

Davis, Christopher K.; Hooker, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Stephen A.; Tenbusch, Kenneth E.

1995-01-01

297

Parametric Weight Comparison of Current and Proposed Thermal Protection System (TPS) Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (1 -D) thermal finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to ac- count for coatings, fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a particular trajectory. Eight TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile systems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

1999-01-01

298

CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

Stroud, C. W.

1994-01-01

299

Efficient Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems on the TI MSP 430x33x Family of Microcontrollers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution describes a methodology used to eciently implement elliptic curves (EC) overGF (p) on the 16-bit TI MSP430x33x family of low-cost microcontrollers. We show that it is possible to im- plement EC cryptosystems in highly constrained embedded systems and still obtain acceptable performance at low cost. We modied the EC point addition and doubling formulae to reduce the number

Jorge Guajardo; Rainer Blümel; Uwe Krieger; Christof Paar

2001-01-01

300

Structural health monitoring technology for bolted carbon-carbon thermal protection panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research in this dissertation is motivated by the need for reliable inspection technologies for the detection of bolt loosening in Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels on Space Operation Vehicles (SOV) using minimal human intervention. A concept demonstrator of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system was developed to autonomously detect the degradation of the mechanical integrity of the standoff C-C TPS panels. This system assesses the torque levels of the loosened bolts in the C-C TPS panel, as well as identifies the location of those bolts accordingly. During the course of building the proposed SHM prototype, efforts have been focused primarily on developing a trustworthy diagnostic scheme and a responsive sensor suite. Based on the microcontact conditions and damping phenomena of ultrasonic waves across the bolted joints, an Attenuation-based Diagnostic Method was proposed to assess the fastener integrity by observing the attenuation patterns of the resultant sensor signals. Parametric model studies and prototype testing validated the theoretical explanation of the attenuation-based method. Once the diagnostic scheme was determined, the implementation of a sensor suite was the next step. A new PZT-embedded sensor washer was developed to enhance remote sensing capability and achieve sufficient sensitivity by guiding diagnostic waves primarily through the inspection areas. The sensor-embedded washers replace the existing washers to constitute the sensor network, as well as to avoid jeopardizing the integrity of the original fastener components. After sensor design evolution and appropriate algorithm development, verification tests were conducted using a shaker and a full-scale oven, which simulated the acoustic and thermal environments during the re-entry process, respectively. The test results revealed that the proposed system successfully identifies the loss of the preload for the bolted joints that were loosened. The sensors were also found to be durable under the cyclic mechanical and thermal loads without major failures.

Yang, Jinkyu

2005-12-01

301

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

1996-01-01

302

Aerothermal and structural performance of a cobalt-base superalloy thermal protection system at Mach 6.6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flightweight, metallic thermal protection system (TPS) applicable to reentry and hypersonic vehicles was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating in order to evaluate its aerothermal performance and structural integrity. Good structural integrity and thermal performance were demonstrated by the TPS under both a radiant and aerothermal heating environment typical of a shuttle entry. The shingle-slip joints effectively allowed for thermal expansion of the panel without allowing any appreciable hot gas flow into the TPS cavity. The TPS also demonstrated good structural ruggedness.

Sawyer, J. W.

1977-01-01

303

Thermal Protection System Cavity Heating for Simplified and Actual Geometries Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations with Unstructured Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.

McCloud, Peter L.

2010-01-01

304

Numerical Simulation of control of plasma flow with magnetic field for thermal protection in Earth reentry flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present numerical study examines the possibility and usefulness of the control of weakly ionized plasma flow ahead of a space vehicle by means of the magnetic field for thermal protection in earth reentry flight under the flight conditions at the altitudes from about 72 to 48 km along the real earth reentry trajectory of the blunt body OREX, which

Takayasu Fujino; Motoo Ishikawa

2006-01-01

305

Coating Layer and Corrosion Protection Characteristics in Sea Water with Various Thermal Spray Coating Materials for STS304  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the optimal method of application and the anticorrosive abilities of Zn, Al, and Zn + 15%Al spray coatings in protecting stainless steel 304 (STS304) in sea water. If a defect such as porosity or an oxide layer, causes STS304 to be exposed to sea water, and the thermal spray coating material will act as the cathode and anode, respectively. The Tafel experiments revealed that Al-coated specimens among applied coating methods had the lowest corrosion current densities. As the corrosion potential decreases with increasing corrosion current density, we estimated the characteristics and lifetime of the protective thermal spray coating layer in the galvanic cell formed by the thermal spray coating layer and STS304.

Kim, Seong-Jong; Woo, Yong-Bin

306

Woven Thermal Protection System Based Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environments Technology (HEEET)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future robotic missions utilizing an entry system into Venus and the outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of state of the art low to mid density ablators such as PICA or Avcoat. Therefore mission planners typically assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic is a robust TPS material however its high density and relatively high thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, with high heat fluxes and pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose challenges for certification in existing ground based test facilities and the longer-term sustainability of CP will continue to pose challenges. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This project was highly successful demonstrating that a Woven TPS solution compares favorably to CP in performance in simulated reentry environments and provides the opportunity to manufacture graded materials that should result in overall reduced mass solutions and enable a much broader set of missions than does CP. Building off the success of the WTPS project GCDP has funded a follow on project to further mature and scale up the WTPS concept for insertion into future NASA robotic missions. The matured WTPS will address the CP concerns associated with ground based test limitations and sustainability. This presentation will briefly discuss results from the WTPS Project and the plans for WTPS maturation into a heat-shield for extreme entry environment.

Ellerby, Donald; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Stackpoole, Margaret; Chinnapongse, Ronald; Munk, Michelle; Dillman, Robert; Feldman, Jay; Prabhu, Dinesh; Beerman, Adam

2013-01-01

307

Woven Thermal Protection System Based Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environments Technology (HEEET)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future robotic missions utilizing an entry system into Venus and the outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely severe entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of state of the art low to mid density ablators such as PICA or Avcoat. Therefore mission planners typically assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic (CP) is a robust TPS material however its high density and relatively high thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, with high heat fluxes and pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose challenges for certification in existing ground based test facilities and the longer-­-term sustainability of CP will continue to pose challenges. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This project was highly successful demonstrating that a Woven TPS solution compares favorably to CP in performance in simulated reentry environments and provides the opportunity to manufacture graded materials that should result in overall reduced mass solutions and enable a much broader set of missions than does CP. Building off the success of the WTPS project GCDP has funded a follow on project to further mature and scale up the WTPS concept for insertion into future NASA robotic missions. The matured WTPS will address the CP concerns associated with ground based test limitations and sustainability. This presentation will briefly discuss results from the WTPS Project and the plans for WTPS maturation into a heat-­-shield for extreme entry environment.

Chinnapongse, Ronald; Ellerbe, Donald; Stackpoole, Maragaret; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beerman, Adam; Feldman, Jay; Peterson Keith; Prabhu, Dinesh; Dillman, Robert; Munk, Michelle

2013-01-01

308

CMC thermal protection system for future reusable launch vehicles: Generic shingle technological maturation and tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental re-entry demonstrators are currently being developed in Europe, with the objective of increasing the technology readiness level (TRL) of technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. Among these are the Pre-X programme, currently funded by CNES, the French Space Agency, and which is about to enter into development phase B, and the IXV, within the future launcher preparatory programme (FLPP) funded by ESA. One of the major technologies necessary for such vehicles is the thermal protection system (TPS), and in particular the ceramic matrix composites (CMC) based windward TPS. In support of this goal, technology maturation activities named "generic shingle" were initiated beginning of 2003 by SPS, under a CNES contract, with the objective of performing a test campaign of a complete shingle of generic design, in preparation of the development of a re-entry experimental vehicle decided in Europe. The activities performed to date include: the design, manufacturing of two C/SiC panels, finite element model (FEM) calculation of the design, testing of technological samples extracted from a dedicated panel, mechanical pressure testing of a panel, and a complete study of the attachment system. Additional testing is currently under preparation on the panel equipped with its insulation, seal, attachment device, and representative portion of cold structure, to further assess its behaviour in environments relevant to its application The paper will present the activities that will have been performed in 2006 on the prediction and preparation of these modal characterization, dynamic, acoustic as well as thermal and thermo-mechanical tests. Results of these tests will be presented and the lessons learned will be discussed.

Pichon, T.; Barreteau, R.; Soyris, P.; Foucault, A.; Parenteau, J. M.; Prel, Y.; Guedron, S.

2009-07-01

309

In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

Singh, M.

2007-01-01

310

Methodology for Flight Relevant Arc-Jet Testing of Flexible Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology to correlate flight aeroheating environments to the arc-jet environment is presented. For a desired hot-wall flight heating rate, the methodology provides the arcjet bulk enthalpy for the corresponding cold-wall heating rate. A series of analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the test sample model holder geometry to the overall performance of the test sample. The analyses were compared with arc-jet test samples and challenges and issues are presented. The transient flight environment was calculated for the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Earth Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle, which is a planned demonstration vehicle using a large inflatable, flexible thermal protection system to reenter the Earth's atmosphere from the International Space Station. A series of correlations were developed to define the relevant arc-jet test environment to properly approximate the HEART flight environment. The computed arcjet environments were compared with the measured arc-jet values to define the uncertainty of the correlated environment. The results show that for a given flight surface heat flux and a fully-catalytic TPS, the flight relevant arc-jet heat flux increases with the arc-jet bulk enthalpy while for a non-catalytic TPS the arc-jet heat flux decreases with the bulk enthalpy.

Mazaheri, Alireza; Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Sutton, Kenneth

2013-01-01

311

Structural tests on a tile/strain isolation pad thermal protection system. [space shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aluminum skin of the space shuttle is covered by a thermal protection system (TPS) consisting of a low density ceramic tile bonded to a matted-felt material called strain insulation pad (SIP). The structural characteristics of the TPS were studied experimentally under selected extreme load conditions. Three basic types of loads were imposed: tension, eccentrically applied tension, and combined in-plane force and transverse pressure. For some tests, transverse pressure was applied rapidly to simulate a transient shock wave passing over the tile. The failure mode for all specimens involved separation of the tile from the SIP at the silicone rubber bond interface. An eccentrically applied tension load caused the tile to separate from the SIP at loads lower than experienced at failure for pure tension loading. Moderate in-plane as well as shock loading did not cause a measurable reduction in the TPS ultimate failure strength. A strong coupling, however, was exhibited between in-plane and transverse loads and displacements.

Williams, J. G.

1980-01-01

312

Effect of strain isolator pad modulus on inplane strain in Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system used on the Space Shuttle orbiter to determine strains in the reusable surface insulation tiles under simulated flight loads was investigated. The effects of changes in the strain isolator pad (SIP) moduli on the strains in the tile were evaluated. To analyze the SIP/tile system, it was necessary to conduct tests to determine inplane tension and compression modulus and inplane failure strain for the densified layer of the tiles. It is shown that densification of the LI-900 tile material increases the modulus by a factor of 6 to 10 and reduces the failure strain by about 50%. It is indicated that the inplane strain levels in the Shuttle tiles in the highly loaded regions are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than the failure strain of the material. It is concluded that most of the LI-900 tiles on the Shuttle could be mounted on a SIP with tensile and shear stiffnesses 10 times those of the present SIP without inplane strain failure in the tile.

Sawyer, J. W.

1983-01-01

313

Optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 1: Final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study performed to continue development of computational techniques for the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System is reported. The resulting computer code was used to perform some additional optimization studies on several TPS configurations. The program was developed in Fortran 4 for the CDC 6400, and it was converted to Fortran 5 to be used for the Univac 1108. The computational methodology is developed in modular fashion to facilitate changes and updating of the techniques and to allow overlaying the computer code to fit into approximately 131,000 octal words of core storage. The program logic involves subroutines which handle input and output of information between computer and user, thermodynamic stress, dynamic, and weight/estimate analyses of a variety of panel configurations. These include metallic, ablative, RSI (with and without an underlying phase change material), and a thermodynamic analysis only of carbon-carbon systems applied to the leading edge and flat cover panels. Two different thermodynamic analyses are used. The first is a two-dimensional, explicit precedure with variable time steps which is used to describe the behavior of metallic and carbon-carbon leading edges. The second is a one-dimensional implicity technique used to predict temperature in the charring ablator and the noncharring RSI. The latter analysis is performed simply by suppressing the chemical reactions and pyrolysis of the TPS material.

1972-01-01

314

Health Monitoring Technology for Thermal Protection Systems on Reusable Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated subsystem health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. This talk summarizes a joint effort between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop rapid non-contact diagnostic tools for health and performance monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS) on future RLVs. The specific goals for TPS health monitoring are to increase the speed and reliability of TPS inspections for improved operability at lower cost. The technology being developed includes a 3-D laser scanner for examining the exterior surface of the TPS, and a subsurface microsensor suite for monitoring the health and performance of the TPS. The sensor suite consists of passive overlimit sensors and sensors for continuous parameter monitoring in flight. The sensors are integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable wireless communication of-the sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Prototypes of the laser system and both types of subsurface sensors have been developed. The laser scanner was tested on Shuttle Orbiter Columbia and was able to dimension surface chips and holes on a variety of TPS materials. The temperature-overlimit microsensor has a diameter under 0.05 inch (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles) and can withstand 700 F for 15 minutes.

Milos, Frank S.; Watters, D. G.; Heinemann, J. M.; Karunaratne, K. S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

315

Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (premature transition at 800 sec) were used as reentry heat inputs. The TPS missing or eroded site is assumed to be located at the center or corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of missing TPS tiles, under the original STS-5 heating, the orbiter can afford to lose only one TPS tile at the center or two TPS tiles at the corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. Under modified STS-5 heating, the orbiter cannot afford to lose even one TPS tile at the center or at the corner of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of eroded TPS tiles, the aluminum skin temperature rises relatively slowly with the decreasing thickness of the eroded central or corner TPS tile until most of the TPS tile is eroded away, and then increases exponentially toward the missing tile case.

Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

2004-01-01

316

Metallic Thermal Protection System Technology Development: Concepts, Requirements and Assessment Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology development program was conducted to evolve an earlier metallic thermal protection system (TPS) panel design, with the goals of: improving operations features, increasing adaptability (ease of attaching to a variety of tank shapes and structural concepts), and reducing weight. The resulting Adaptable Robust Metallic Operable Reusable (ARMOR) TPS system incorporates a high degree of design flexibility (allowing weight and operability to be traded and balanced) and can also be easily integrated with a large variety of tank shapes, airframe structural arrangements and airframe structure/material concepts. An initial attempt has been made to establish a set of performance based TPS design requirements. A set of general (FARtype) requirements have been proposed, focusing on defining categories that must be included for a comprehensive design. Load cases required for TPS design must reflect the full flight envelope, including a comprehensive set of limit loads, However, including additional loads. such as ascent abort trajectories, as ultimate load cases, and on-orbit debris/micro-meteoroid hypervelocity impact, as one of the discrete -source -damage load cases, will have a significant impact on system design and resulting performance, reliability and operability. Although these load cases have not been established, they are of paramount importance for reusable vehicles, and until properly included, all sizing results and assessments of reliability and operability must be considered optimistic at a minimum.

Dorsey, John T.; Poteet, Carl C.; Chen, Roger R.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

2002-01-01

317

Investigation of Post-Flight Solid Rocket Booster Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After every Shuttle mission, the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) are recovered and observed for missing material. Most of the SRB is covered with a cork-based thermal protection material (MCC-l). After the most recent shuttle mission, STS-114, the forward section of the booster appeared to have been impacted during flight. The darkened fracture surfaces indicated that this might have occurred early in flight. The scope of the analysis included microscopic observations to assess the degree of heat effects and locate evidence of the impact source as well as chemical analysis of the fracture surfaces and recovered foreign material using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The amount of heat effects and presence of soot products on the fracture surface indicated that the material was impacted prior to SRB re-entry into the atmosphere. Fragments of graphite fibers found on these fracture surfaces were traced to slag inside the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) that forms during flight as the propellant is spent and is ejected throughout the descent of the SRB after separation. The direction of the impact mark matches with the likely trajectory of SRBs tumbling prior to re-entry.

Nelson, Linda A.

2006-01-01

318

Backscatter x-ray development for space vehicle thermal protection systems  

SciTech Connect

The Backscatter X-Ray (BSX) imaging technique is used for various single sided inspection purposes. Previously developed BSX techniques for spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) have been used for detecting defects in Space Shuttle External Tank foam insulation. The developed BSX hardware and techniques are currently being enhanced to advance Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods for future space vehicle applications. Various Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials were inspected using the enhanced BSX imaging techniques, investigating the capability of the method to detect voids and other discontinuities at various locations within each material. Calibration standards were developed for the TPS materials in order to characterize and develop enhanced BSX inspection capabilities. The ability of the BSX technique to detect both manufactured and natural defects was also studied and compared to through-transmission x-ray techniques. The energy of the x-ray, source to object distance, angle of x-ray, focal spot size and x-ray detector configurations were parameters playing a significant role in the sensitivity of the BSX technique to image various materials and defects. The image processing of the results also showed significant increase in the sensitivity of the technique. The experimental results showed BSX to be a viable inspection technique for space vehicle TPS systems.

Bartha, Bence B.; Hope, Dale; Vona, Paul; Born, Martin; Corak, Tony [USA NDE, United Space Alliance, Cape Canaveral, FL 32920 (United States)

2011-06-23

319

The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planted roofs contribute positively to the improvement of the thermal performance of a building. They block solar radiation, and reduce daily temperature variations and thermal ranges between winter and summer. In this paper, a calculation has been done, using a stationary method, in order to determine the thermal behaviour of the planted roof and the way it influences the thermal

Ekaterini Eumorfopoulou; Dimitris Aravantinos

1998-01-01

320

High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia National Laboratories. These tests are designed to validate aeroshell manufacturability using advanced material systems, and to demonstrate the maintenance of bondline integrity at realistically high temperatures and heating rates. Finally, a status is given of ongoing aeroshell modeling and analysis efforts which will be used to correlate with experimental testing, and to provide a reliable means of extrapolating to performance under actual flight conditions. The modeling and analysis effort includes a parallel series of experimental tests to determine TSP thermal expansion and other mechanical properties which are required for input to the analysis models.

Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

2005-01-01

321

Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was obtained by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm. In this research DPSM has been extended to model DPSM transient problems without using FFT. This modified technique has been denoted as t-DPSM. Using DPSM, scattering of focused ultrasonic fields by single and multiple cavities in fluid & solid media is studied. It is investigated when two cavities in close proximity can be distinguished and when it is not possible. A comparison between the radiation forces generated by the ultrasonic energies reflected from two small cavities versus a single big cavity is also carried out.

Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

322

Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. In addition, recently released NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reductions in spacecraft structural mass more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems more efficient lighter propulsion systems and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location(s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry systems robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: 1) Mass to Surface, 2) Surface Access, 3) Precision Landing, 4) Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, 5) Safety and Mission Assurance, and 6) Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems is manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (3/8 cell) by hand and within a limited amount of time once the ablative compound is mixed, all of the cells have to be filled and the entire heat-shield has to be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the mechanical strength characteristic and the manufacturing limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS> A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials.

Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

2012-01-01

323

Development of FIAT-based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

Sepka, Steven Andrew; Zarchi, Kerry Agnes; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

2011-01-01

324

Development Of FIAT-Based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

Sepka, Steven; Trumble, Kerry A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid

2012-01-01

325

An efficiency study on obtaining the minimum weight of a thermal protection system. [using numerical optimization and nonlinear least squares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three minimizing techniques are evaluated to determine the most efficient method for minimizing the weight of a thermal protection system and for reducing computer usage time. The methods used (numerical optimization and nonlinear least squares) for solving the minimum-weight problem involving more than one material and more than one constraint are discussed. In addition, the one material and one constraint problem is discussed.

Williams, S. D.; Curry, D. M.

1974-01-01

326

Aerothermodynamic performance and thermal protection design for blunt re-entry bodies at L\\/D = 0.3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic heating and thermal protection design analyses were performed for three blunt re-entry bodies at an L\\/D = 0.3 returning from low earth orbit. These configurations consisted of a scaled up Apollo command module, a Viking re-entry vehicle, and an Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) aerobrake, each with a maximum diameter of 4.42 m. The aerothermodynamic analysis determined the equilibrium stagnation

Jose M. Caram; T. J. Kowal

1993-01-01

327

Quality assurance program for PLZT ceramic lenses and associated helmet hardware used with thermal\\/flash protect device (TFPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia Laboratories was authorized by the USERDA on 6 February 1975 to initiate work on a reimbursable program with the USAF Life Support System Program Office, ASD\\/AELS, located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The purpose of the program is to develop PLZT thermal\\/flash protective devices (TFPD), with primary emphasis on the establishment of a production capability for goggles. In

Balthaser

1979-01-01

328

Acousto-optic signature analysis for inspection of the orbiter thermal protection tile bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to develop a viable NDE technique for the inspection of orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tile bonds. Phase 2, discussed here, concentrated on developing an empirical understanding of the bonded and unbonded vibration signatures of acreage tiles. Controlled experiments in the laboratory have provided useful information on the dynamic response of TPS tiles. It has been shown that several signatures are common to all the pedigree tiles. This degree of consistency in the tile-SIP (strain isolation pad) dynamic response proves that an unbond can be detected for a known tile and establish the basis for extending the analysis capability to arbitrary tiles for which there are no historical data. The field tests of the noncontacting laser acoustic sensor system, conducted at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), investigated the vibrational environment of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and its effect on the measurement and analysis techniques being developed. The data collected showed that for orbiter locations, such as the body flap and elevon, the data analysis scheme, and/or the sensor, will require modification to accommodate the ambient motion. Several methods were identified for accomplishing this, and a solution is seen as readily achievable. It was established that the tile response was similar to that observed in the laboratory. Of most importance, however, is that the field environment will not affect the physics of the dynamic response that is related to bond condition. All of this information is fundamental to any future design and development of a prototype system.

Rodriguez, Julio G.; Tow, D. M.; Barna, B. A.

1990-01-01

329

Development of Natural Flaw Samples for Evaluating Nondestructive Testing Methods for Foam Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low density polyurethane foam has been an important insulation material for space launch vehicles for several decades. The potential for damage from foam breaking away from the NASA External Tank was not realized until the foam impacts on the Columbia Orbiter vehicle caused damage to its Leading Edge thermal protection systems (TPS). Development of improved inspection techniques on the foam TPS is necessary to prevent similar occurrences in the future. Foamed panels with drilled holes for volumetric flaws and Teflon inserts to simulate debonded conditions have been used to evaluate and calibrate nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. Unfortunately the symmetric edges and dissimilar materials used in the preparation of these simulated flaws provide an artificially large signal while very little signal is generated from the actual defects themselves. In other words, the same signal are not generated from the artificial defects in the foam test panels as produced when inspecting natural defect in the ET foam TPS. A project to create more realistic voids similar to what actually occurs during manufacturing operations was began in order to improve detection of critical voids during inspections. This presentation describes approaches taken to create more natural voids in foam TPS in order to provide a more realistic evaluation of what the NDT methods can detect. These flaw creation techniques were developed with both sprayed foam and poured foam used for insulation on the External Tank. Test panels with simulated defects have been used to evaluate NDT methods for the inspection of the External Tank. A comparison of images between natural flaws and machined flaws generated from backscatter x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, terahertz imaging and millimeter wave imaging show significant differences in identifying defect regions.

Workman, Gary L.; Davis, Jason; Farrington, Seth; Walker, James

2007-01-01

330

A Base Drag Reduction Experiment on the X-33 Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Flight Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drag reduction tests were conducted on the LASRE/X-33 flight experiment. The LASRE experiment is a flight test of a roughly 20% scale model of an X-33 forebody with a single aerospike engine at the rear. The experiment apparatus is mounted on top of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper suggests a method for reducing base drag by adding surface roughness along the forebody. Calculations show a potential for base drag reductions of 8-14%. Flight results corroborate the base drag reduction, with actual reductions of 15% in the high-subsonic flight regime. An unexpected result of this experiment is that drag benefits were shown to persist well into the supersonic flight regime. Flight results show no overall net drag reduction. Applied surface roughness causes forebody pressures to rise and offset base drag reductions. Apparently the grit displaced streamlines outward, causing forebody compression. Results of the LASRE drag experiments are inconclusive and more work is needed. Clearly, however, the forebody grit application works as a viable drag reduction tool.

Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

1999-01-01

331

Remote sensing of thermal radiation from an aircraft - An analysis and evaluation of crop-freeze protection methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal images from an aircraft-mounted scanner are used to evaluate the effectiveness of crop-freeze protection devices. Data from flights made while using fuel oil heaters, a wind machine and an undercanopy irrigation system are compared. Results show that the overall protection provided by irrigation (at approximately 2 C) is comparable to the less energy-efficient heater-wind machine combination. Protection provided by the wind machine alone (at approximately 1 C) was found to decrease linearly with distance from the machine by approximately 1 C/100 m. The flights were made over a 1.5 hectare citrus grove at an altitude of 450 m with an 8-14 micron detector. General meteorological conditions during the experiments, conducted during the nighttime, were cold (at approximately -6 C) and calm with clear skies.

Sutherland, R. A.; Hannah, H. E.; Cook, A. F.; Martsolf, J. D.

1981-01-01

332

Today`s thermal imaging systems: Background and applications for civilian law enforcement and military force protection  

SciTech Connect

Thermal (infrared) imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, or commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. In the past, thermal imagers required cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost and maintenance requirements restricted their use. However, recent developments in reliable, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater accessibility and practicality for military as well as civilian security and force protection applications. This paper discusses recent advances in thermal imaging technology including uncooled and cryo-cooled. Applications of Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) systems are also discussed, including integration with a high-speed pan/tilt mount and remote control, video frame storage and recall, low-cost vehicle-mounted systems, and hand-held devices. Other facility installation topics will be discussed, such as site layout, assessment ranges, imager positioning, fields-of-view, sensor and alarm reporting systems, and communications links.

Bisbee, T.L.; Pritchard, D.A.

1997-10-01

333

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators protect G551D but not ?F508 CFTR from thermal instability.  

PubMed

The G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation is associated with severe disease in ?5% of cystic fibrosis patients worldwide. This amino acid substitution in NBD1 results in a CFTR chloride channel characterized by a severe gating defect that can be at least partially overcome in vitro by exposure to a CFTR potentiator. In contrast, the more common ?F508 mutation is associated with a severe protein trafficking defect, as well as impaired channel function. Recent clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial effect of the CFTR potentiator, Ivacaftor (VX-770), on lung function of patients bearing at least one copy of G551D CFTR, but no comparable effect on ?F508 homozygotes. This difference in efficacy was not surprising in view of the established difference in the molecular phenotypes of the two mutant channels. Recently, however, it was shown that the structural defect introduced by the deletion of F508 is associated with the thermal instability of ?F508 CFTR channel function in vitro. This additional mutant phenotype raised the possibility that the differences in the behavior of ?F508 and G551D CFTR, as well as the disparate efficacy of Ivacaftor, might be a reflection of the differing thermal stabilities of the two channels at 37 °C. We compared the thermal stability of G551D and ?F508 CFTR in Xenopus oocytes in the presence and absence of CTFR potentiators. G551D CFTR exhibited a thermal instability that was comparable to that of ?F508 CFTR. G551D CFTR, however, was protected from thermal instability by CFTR potentiators, whereas ?F508 CFTR was not. These results suggest that the efficacy of VX-770 in patients bearing the G551D mutation is due, at least in part, to the ability of the small molecule to protect the mutant channel from thermal instability at human body temperature. PMID:25148434

Liu, Xuehong; Dawson, David C

2014-09-01

334

Thermal Stress Induced Aggregation of Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) and Protection by ?-Crystallin via Its Chaperone Function  

PubMed Central

Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) formerly known as membrane intrinsic protein (MIP), is expressed exclusively in the lens during terminal differentiation of fiber cells. AQP0 plays an important role not only in the regulation of water content but also in cell-to-cell adhesion of the lens fiber cells. We have investigated the thermal stress-induced structural alterations of detergent (octyl glucoside)-solubilized calf lens AQP0. The results show an increase in the amount of AQP0 that aggregated as the temperature increased from 40°C to 65°C. ?-Crystallin, molecular chaperone abundantly present in the eye lens, completely prevented the AQP0 aggregation at a 1?1 (weight/weight) ratio. Since ?-crystallin consists of two gene products namely ?A- and ?B-crystallins, we have tested the recombinant proteins on their ability to prevent thermal-stress induced AQP0 aggregation. In contrast to the general observation made with other target proteins, ?A-crystallin exhibited better chaperone-like activity towards AQP0 compared to ?B-crystallin. Neither post-translational modifications (glycation) nor C-terminus truncation of AQP0 have any appreciable effect on its thermal aggregation properties. ?-Crystallin offers similar protection against thermal aggregation as in the case of the unmodified AQP0, suggesting that ?crystallin may bind to either intracellular loops or other residues of AQP0 that become exposed during thermal stress. Far-UV circular dichroism studies indicated a loss of ?helical structures when AQP0 was subjected to temperatures above 45°C, and the presence of ?-crystallin stabilized these secondary structures. We report here, for the first time, that ?-crystallin protects AQP0 from thermal aggregation. Since stress-induced structural perturbations of AQP0 may affect the integrity of the lens, presence of the molecular chaperone, ?-crystallin (particularly ?A-crystallin) in close proximity to the lens membrane is physiologically relevant. PMID:24312215

Swamy-Mruthinti, Satyanarayana; Srinivas, Volety; Hansen, John E.; Rao, Ch Mohan

2013-01-01

335

Thermal stress induced aggregation of aquaporin 0 (AQP0) and protection by ?-crystallin via its chaperone function.  

PubMed

Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) formerly known as membrane intrinsic protein (MIP), is expressed exclusively in the lens during terminal differentiation of fiber cells. AQP0 plays an important role not only in the regulation of water content but also in cell-to-cell adhesion of the lens fiber cells. We have investigated the thermal stress-induced structural alterations of detergent (octyl glucoside)-solubilized calf lens AQP0. The results show an increase in the amount of AQP0 that aggregated as the temperature increased from 40°C to 65°C. ?-Crystallin, molecular chaperone abundantly present in the eye lens, completely prevented the AQP0 aggregation at a 1?1 (weight/weight) ratio. Since ?-crystallin consists of two gene products namely ?A- and ?B-crystallins, we have tested the recombinant proteins on their ability to prevent thermal-stress induced AQP0 aggregation. In contrast to the general observation made with other target proteins, ?A-crystallin exhibited better chaperone-like activity towards AQP0 compared to ?B-crystallin. Neither post-translational modifications (glycation) nor C-terminus truncation of AQP0 have any appreciable effect on its thermal aggregation properties. ?-Crystallin offers similar protection against thermal aggregation as in the case of the unmodified AQP0, suggesting that ?crystallin may bind to either intracellular loops or other residues of AQP0 that become exposed during thermal stress. Far-UV circular dichroism studies indicated a loss of ?helical structures when AQP0 was subjected to temperatures above 45°C, and the presence of ?-crystallin stabilized these secondary structures. We report here, for the first time, that ?-crystallin protects AQP0 from thermal aggregation. Since stress-induced structural perturbations of AQP0 may affect the integrity of the lens, presence of the molecular chaperone, ?-crystallin (particularly ?A-crystallin) in close proximity to the lens membrane is physiologically relevant. PMID:24312215

Swamy-Mruthinti, Satyanarayana; Srinivas, Volety; Hansen, John E; Rao, Ch Mohan

2013-01-01

336

Cold tolerance of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and thermal-refuge technology to protect this species from cold-kill in aquaculture ponds  

E-print Network

The need to protect red drum in aquaculture ponds from cold-kill led to the development of thermalrefuge technology for overwintering these fish. Successive versions of an experimental thermal refuge were installed and operated in two adjacent red...

Dorsett, Paul Wesley

2012-06-07

337

Integrated Sensing and Material Damage Identification in Metallic and Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems Using Vibration and Wave Propagation Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global thermal and impact material damage mechanisms in metallic and ceramic thermal protection systems are detected, located, and quantified using four complementary methods for sensing and data interrogation. First, spatial-temporal beamforming algorithms are used to process active elastic waves measured from remote sensor arrays in two different equilibrium positions of a gamma Ti-Al sheet to localize simulated thermal damage. Damage is located even when it is behind the sensor array and on the edge of the panel; results are shown to be dependent on the equilibrium position considered. Second, an active virtual force method is implemented in a honeycomb Al-Al sandwich panel instrumented with a distributed piezo sensor and actuator array to identify impact and thermal damage using frequency response inversion. Damage is quantified and is similarly diagnosed regardless of the excitation location. Third, passive acoustic transmission measurements through a homogeneous baffled Al panel subject to launch-type sound pressure variations are used to detect and locate material damage. The frequency range with highest transmission is shown to be optimal for damage detection. Fourth, thermal damage in a wrapped ceramic tile with a mock strain isolation pad is identified using active propagating waves. Remote actuation and sensing on the bulkhead and the tile backside are shown to be sufficient for detection even when variability is present in the data.

Sundararaman, S.; White, J.; Jiang, H.; Adams, D.; Jata, K.

2006-03-01

338

Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

2013-04-01

339

THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE: THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting an extensive research program to study the practice of destroying hazardous waste in high temperature industrial processes. These studies have encompassed processes such as hazardous waste incineration, and processes c...

340

MMOD testing of C-SiC based Rigid External Insulation of the CRV Thermal Protection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

is to provide protection to the vehicle during the reentry, it also has to resist Micro Meteoroids and Orbital Debris (MMOD) aggression during the required 3 years in orbit stay of the CRV. composite panels that are fixed to the metallic airframe. An innovative approach for the thermal protection is to use a Rigid External Insulation composed of a C-SiC panel, an internal light insulation, attachment system and seal directly fixed on the metallic airframe. includes firstly a preliminary TPS design based on CRV specifications, then a comparison of the proposed REI design with the current tile. impacts, generic test articles have been designed and manufactured then exposed to MMOD testing. design of the TPS, the manufacturing of the test items, MMOD testing and results.

Copéret, Hervé; Soyris, Philippe; Lacoste, Marc

2002-01-01

341

Development and Design Application of Rigidized Surface Insulation Thermal Protection Systems, Volume 1. [for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials and design technology of the all-silica LI-900 rigid surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) concept for the shuttle spacecraft is presented. All results of contract development efforts are documented. Engineering design and analysis of RSI strain arrestor plate material selections, sizing, and weight studies are reported. A shuttle prototype test panel was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and delivered. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of LI-900 were experimentally established and reported. Environmental tests, including simulations of shuttle loads represented by thermal response, turbulent duct, convective cycling, and chemical tolerance tests are described and results reported. Descriptions of material test samples and panels fabricated for testing are included. Descriptions of analytical sizing and design procedures are presented in a manner formulated to allow competent engineering organizations to perform rational design studies. Results of parametric studies involving material and system variables are reported. Material performance and design data are also delineated.

1972-01-01

342

Aerothermal performance and structural integrity of a Rene 41 thermal protection system at Mach 6.6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flightweight panel based on a metallic thermal-protection-system concept for hypersonic and reentry vehicles was subjected repeatedly to thermal cycling by quartz-lamp radiant heating using a thermal history representative of a reentry heat pulse and to aerodynamic heating at heating rates required to sustain a surface temperature of 1089 K (1960 R). The panel consisted of a corrugated heat shield and support members of 0.05-cm (0.02-in.) thick Rene 41 of riveted construction and 5.08-cm (2-in.) thick silica fibrous insulation packages covered by Rene 41 foil and inconel screening. All tests were conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel with the heat shield corrugations alined in the stream direction. The panel sustained 5.33 hr of intermittent radiant heating and 6.5 min of intermittent aerodynamic heating of up to 1-min duration for differential pressures up to 6.2 kPa (0.9 psi) with no apparent degradation of thermal or structural integrity, as indicated by temperature distributions and results from load deflection tests and vibration surveys of natural frequencies.

Deveikis, W. D.; Miserentino, R.; Weinstein, I.; Shideler, J. L.

1975-01-01

343

Ceramic thermal protective coating withstands hostile environment of rotating turbine blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic coatings have low thermal conductivity. They provide potential for increased engine performance, reduced fuel consumption, use of less costly materials or construction procedures, and increased life and durability.

Liebert, C. H.; Stecura, S.

1975-01-01

344

High Temperature Resistant Organopolysiloxane Coating for Protecting and Repairing Rigid Thermal Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramics are protected from high temperature degradation, including high temperature, oxidative, aeroconvective degradation by a high temperature and oxidation resistant coating of a room temperature curing, hydrolyzed and partially condensed liquid polyorganosiloxane to the surface of the ceramic. The liquid polyorganosiloxane is formed by the hydrolysis and partial condensation of an alkyltrialkoxysilane with water or a mixture of an alkyltrialkoxysilane and a dialkyldialkoxysilane with water. The liquid polyorganosiloxane cures at room temperature on the surface of the ceramic to form a hard, protective, solid coating which forms a high temperature environment, and is also used as an adhesive for adhering a repair plug in major damage to the ceramic. This has been found useful for protecting and repairing porous, rigid ceramics of a type used on reentry space vehicles.

Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

345

Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) as Thermal Protection Systems for Discovery Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the development of the light weight Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) and its thermal performance in a simulated heating environment for planetary entry vehicles. The PICA material was developed as a member of the Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA's), and the manufacturing process of this material has since been significantly improved. The density of PICA material ranges from 14 to 20 lbm/ft(exp 3), having uniform resin distribution with and without a densified top surface. The thermal performance of PICA was evaluated in the Ames arc-jet facility at cold wall heat fluxes from 375 to 2,960 BtU/ft(exp 2)-s and surface pressures of 0.1 to 0.43 atm. Heat loads used in these tests varied from 5,500 to 29,600 BtU/ft(exp 2) and are representative of the entry conditions of the proposed Discovery Class Missions. Surface and in-depth temperatures were measured using optical pyrometers and thermocouples. Surface recession was also measured by using a template and a height gage. The ablation characteristics and efficiency of PICA are quantified by using the effective heat of ablation, and the thermal penetration response is evaluated from the thermal soak data. In addition, a comparison of thermal performance of standard and surface densified PICA is also discussed.

Tran, Huy K.; Johnson, Christine E.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hui, Frank C. L.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Chen, Timothy; Chen, Y. K.; Paragas, Daniel; Kobayashi, Loreen

1997-01-01

346

Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

Schreiber, Roger B. (Penn Twp., PA); Fero, Arnold H. (New Kensington, PA); Sejvar, James (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01

347

Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

1997-12-16

348

Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (inventors)

1973-01-01

349

Development and evaluation of an ablative closeout material for solid rocket booster thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A trowellable closeout/repair material designated as MTA-2 was developed and evaluated for use on the Solid Rocket Booster. This material is composed of an epoxy-polysulfide binder and is highly filled with phenolic microballoons for density control and ablative performance. Mechanical property testing and thermal testing were performed in a wind tunnel to simulate the combined Solid Rocket Booster trajectory aeroshear and heating environments. The material is characterized by excellent thermal performance and was used extensively on the Space Shuttle STS-1 and STS-2 flight hardware.

Patterson, W. J.

1979-01-01

350

IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL OXIDATION PROTECTION OF SURFACE-COATED CARBON FIBER\\/PHENOLIC TOWPREGS AND COMPOSITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

homogeneously coated by immersing them into a 0.5 Carbon fiber reinforced composite materials have vol.% phosphoric acid in methanol for a sufficient been widely interested in the acedemic, industrial, and period. The impregnated tow with the resin was military fields over the last decade because of their completely cured. The phenolic resin was impregnated superb mechanical, thermal, and physical properties,

Donghwan Cho; Yun Soo Lim; Kwang Soo Kim

351

An evaluation of flight data for the Apollo thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to correlate Apollo ablation and thermal response flight data using advanced state-of-the-art analytical procedures. The agreement between flight data and predictions is consistently excellent for in-depth temperature distributions, char density profiles, and surface ablation, thus validating the analytical procedures.

Bartlett, E. P.; Curry, D. M.

1972-01-01

352

Thermal Barrier and Protective Coatings to Improve the Durability of a Combustor Under a Pulse Detonation Engine Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse detonation engine (PDE) concepts are receiving increasing attention for future aeronautic propulsion applications, due to their potential thermodynamic cycle efficiency and higher thrust to density ratio that lead to the decrease in fuel consumption. But the resulting high gas temperature and pressure fluctuation distributions at high frequency generated with every detonation are viewed to be detrimental to the combustor liner material. Experimental studies on a typical metal combustion material exposed to a laser simulated pulse heating showed extensive surface cracking. Coating of the combustor materials with low thermal conductivity ceramics is shown to protect the metal substrate, reduce the thermal stresses, and hence increase the durability of the PDE combustor liner material. Furthermore, the temperature fluctuation and depth of penetration is observed to decrease with increasing the detonation frequency. A crack propagation rate in the coating is deduced by monitoring the variation of the coating apparent thermal conductivity with time that can be utilized as a health monitoring technique for the coating system under a rapid fluctuating heat flux.

Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming

2008-01-01

353

Development of high temperature silicone adhesive formulations for thermal protection system applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trade-off studies and screening evaluations were made of commercial polymers and silicone foam sheet stock. A low modulus, low density 0.26 gm/cc modification was developed of the GE-RESD PD-200 system based upon GE RTV-560 silicone polymer. The bond system modification was initially characterized for mechanical and thermal properties, evaluated for application methods, and its capability demonstrated as a strain arrestor bond system.

Hockridge, R. R.

1973-01-01

354

X-33 Program Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation briefly presents the current status of the program. The program's objectives and near term plans are stated. A brief description of the vehicle configuration, the technologies to be demonstrated and the missions to be flown are presented. Finally, a status of the vehicle assembly, the launch control center development and the significant test programs' accomplishments are presented.

Dill, Charlie C.; Austin, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

355

Structural tests on space shuttle thermal protection system constructed with nondensified and densified Li 900 and LI 2200 tile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural tests were conducted on thermal protection systems (TPS) LI 900 and LI 2200 tiles and .41 cm and .23 cm thick strain isolation pads. The bond surface of selected tiles was densified to obtain improved strength. Four basic types of experiments were conducted including tension tests, substrate mismatch (initial imperfection) tests, tension loads eccentrically applied, and pressure loads applied rapidly to the tile top surface. A small initial imperfection mismatch (2.29 m spherical radius on the substrate) did not influence significantly the ultimate failure strength. Densification of the tile bond region improved the strength of TPS constructed both of LI 900 tile and of LI 2200 tile. Pressure shock conditions studied did not significantly affect the TPS strength.

Williams, J. G.

1981-01-01

356

The Effects of Foam Thermal Protection System on the Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Sandwich Structures for Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For any structure composed of laminated composite materials, impact damage is one of the greatest risks and therefore most widely tested responses. Typically, impact damage testing and analysis assumes that a solid object comes into contact with the bare surface of the laminate (the outer ply). However, most launch vehicle structures will have a thermal protection system (TPS) covering the structure for the majority of its life. Thus, the impact response of the material with the TPS covering is the impact scenario of interest. In this study, laminates representative of the composite interstage structure for the Ares I launch vehicle were impact tested with and without the planned TPS covering, which consists of polyurethane foam. Response variables examined include maximum load of impact, damage size as detected by nondestructive evaluation techniques, and damage morphology and compression after impact strength. Results show that there is little difference between TPS covered and bare specimens, except the residual strength data is higher for TPS covered specimens.

Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

2011-01-01

357

Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research was two-fold: first, to identify and test inorganic water-repellent materials that would be hydrophobic even after thermal cycling to temperatures above 600 C and, second, to develop a model that would link hydrophobicity of a material to the chemical properties of its constituent atoms. Four different materials were selected for detailed experimental study, namely, boron nitride, talc, molybdenite, and pyrophyllite, all of which have a layered structure made up of ionic/covalent bonds within the layers but with van der Waals bonds between the layers. The materials tested could be considered hydrophobic for a nonporous surface but none of the observed contact angles exceeded the necessary 90 degrees required for water repellency of porous materials. Boron nitride and talc were observed to retain their water-repellency when heated in air to temperatures that did not exceed 800 C, and molybdenite was found to be retain its hydrophobicity when heated to temperatures up to 600 C. For these three materials, oxidation and decomposition were identified to be the main cause for the breakdown of water repellency after repeated thermal cycling. Pyrophyllite shows the maximum promise as a potential water-repellent inorganic material, which, when treated initially at 900 C, retained its shape and remained hydrophobic for two thermal cycles where the maximum retreatment temperature is 900 C. A model was developed for predicting materials that might exhibit hydrophobicity by linking two chemical properties, namely, that the constituent ions of the compound belong to the soft acid-base category and that the fractional ionic character of the bonds be less than about 20 percent.

Fuerstenau, D. W.; Huang, P.; Ravikumar, R.

1997-01-01

358

Malin and laforin are essential components of a protein complex that protects cells from thermal stress.  

PubMed

The heat-shock response is a conserved cellular process characterized by the induction of a unique group of proteins known as heat-shock proteins. One of the primary triggers for this response, at least in mammals, is heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1)--a transcription factor that activates the transcription of heat-shock genes and confers protection against stress-induced cell death. In the present study, we investigated the role of the phosphatase laforin and the ubiquitin ligase malin in the HSF1-mediated heat-shock response. Laforin and malin are defective in Lafora disease (LD), a neurodegenerative disorder associated with epileptic seizures. Using cellular models, we demonstrate that these two proteins, as a functional complex with the co-chaperone CHIP, translocate to the nucleus upon heat shock and that all the three members of this complex are required for full protection against heat-shock-induced cell death. We show further that laforin and malin interact with HSF1 and contribute to its activation during stress by an unknown mechanism. HSF1 is also required for the heat-induced nuclear translocation of laforin and malin. This study demonstrates that laforin and malin are key regulators of HSF1 and that defects in the HSF1-mediated stress response pathway might underlie some of the pathological symptoms in LD. PMID:21652633

Sengupta, Sonali; Badhwar, Ishima; Upadhyay, Mamta; Singh, Sweta; Ganesh, Subramaniam

2011-07-01

359

Regenerable thermal control and carbon dioxide control techniques for use in advanced extravehicular protective systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most promising closed CO2 control concept identified by this study is the solid pellet, Mg(OH2)2 system. Two promising approaches to closed thermal control were identified. The AHS system uses modular fusible heat sinks, with a contingency evaporative mode, to allow maximum EVA mobility. The AHS/refrigerator top-off subsystem requires an umbilical to minimize expendables, but less EVA time is used to operate the system, since there is no requirement to change modules. Both of these subsystems are thought to be practical solutions to the problem of providing closed heat rejection for an EVA system.

Williams, J. L.; Copeland, R. J.; Nebbon, B. W.

1972-01-01

360

Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

1976-01-01

361

Thermal protection for hypervelocity flight in earth's atmosphere by use of radiation backscattering ablating materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat-shield-material response code predicting the transient performance of a material subject to the combined convective and radiative heating associated with the hypervelocity flight is developed. The code is dynamically interactive to the heating from a transient flow field, including the effects of material ablation on flow field behavior. It accomodates finite time variable material thickness, internal material phase change, wavelength-dependent radiative properties, and temperature-dependent thermal, physical, and radiative properties. The equations of radiative transfer are solved with the material and are coupled to the transfer energy equation containing the radiative flux divergence in addition to the usual energy terms.

Howe, John T.; Yang, Lily

1991-01-01

362

Development and validation of purged thermal protection systems for liquid hydrogen fuel tanks of hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economical, lightweight, safe, efficient, reliable, and reusable insulation system was developed for hypersonic cruise vehicle hydrogen fuel tanks. Results indicate that, a nitrogen purged, layered insulation system with nonpermeable closed-cell insulation next to the cryogenic tank and a high service temperature fibrous insulation surrounding it, is potentially an attractive solution to the insulation problem. For the postulated hypersonic flight the average unit weight of the purged insulation system (including insulation, condensate and fuel boil off) is 6.31 kg/sq m (1.29 psf). Limited cyclic tests of large specimens of closed cell polymethacrylimide foam indicate it will withstand the expected thermal cycle.

Helenbrook, R. D.; Colt, J. Z.

1977-01-01

363

Light Weight Ceramic Ablators for Mars Follow-on Mission Vehicle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA) were produced by using ceramic and carbon fibrous substrates, impregnated with silicone and phenolic resins. The special infiltration techniques (patent pending) were developed to control the amount of organic resins in the highly porous fiber matrices so that the final densities of LCA's range from 0.22 to 0.24 g/cc. This paper presents the thermal and ablative performance of the Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablators (SIRCA) in simulated entry conditions for Mars-Pathfinder in the Ames 60 MW Interaction Heating Facility (I HF). Arc jet test results yielded no evidence of char erosion and mass loss at high stagnation pressures to 0.25 atm. Minimal silica melt was detected on surface char at a stagnation pressure of 0.31 atm. Four ceramic substrates were used in the production of SIRCA's to obtain the effective of boron oxide present in substrate so the thermal performance of SIRCA's. A sample of SIRCA was also exposed to the same heating condition for five cycles and no significant mass loss or recession was observed. Tensile testing established that the SIRCA tensile strength is about a factor of two higher than that of the virgin substrates. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the char in nitrogen and air showed no evidence of free carbon in the char. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the post test sample showed that the char surface consists of a fibrous structure that was sealed with a thin layer of silicon oxide melt.

Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Turan, Ryan

1994-01-01

364

SRB thermal protection systems materials test results in an arc-heated nitrogen environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The external surface of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) will experience imposed thermal and shear environments due to aerodynamic heating and radiation heating during launch, staging and reentry. This report is concerned with the performance of the various TPS materials during the staging maneuver. During staging, the wash from the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) exhust plumes impose severe, short duration, thermal environments on the SRB. Five different SRB TPS materials were tested in the 1 MW Arc Plasma Generator (APG) facility. The maximum simulated heating rate obtained in the APG facility was 248 Btu/sq ft./sec, however, the test duration was such that the total heat was more than simulated. Similarly, some local high shear stress levels of 0.04 psia were not simulated. Most of the SSME plume impingement area on the SRB experiences shear stress levels of 0.02 psia and lower. The shear stress levels on the test specimens were between 0.021 and 0.008 psia. The SSME plume stagnation conditions were also simulated.

Wojciechowski, C. J.

1979-01-01

365

Novel Strategy of Using Methyl Esters as Slow Release Methanol Source during Lipase Expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33  

PubMed Central

One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5%) caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression. PMID:25170843

Kumari, Arti; Gupta, Rani

2014-01-01

366

A Thermal Physiological Comparison of Two HazMat Protective Ensembles With and Without Active Convective Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wearing impermeable garments for hazardous materials clean up can often present a health and safety problem for the wearer. Even short duration clean up activities can produce heat stress injuries in hazardous materials workers. It was hypothesized that an internal cooling system might increase worker productivity and decrease likelihood of heat stress injuries in typical HazMat operations. Two HazMat protective ensembles were compared during treadmill exercise. The different ensembles were created using two different suits: a Trelleborg VPS suit representative of current HazMat suits and a prototype suit developed by NASA engineers. The two life support systems used were a current technology Interspiro Spirolite breathing apparatus and a liquid air breathing system that also provided convective cooling. Twelve local members of a HazMat team served as test subjects. They were fully instrumented to allow a complete physiological comparison of their thermal responses to the different ensembles. Results showed that cooling from the liquid air system significantly decreased thermal stress. The results of the subjective evaluations of new design features in the prototype suit were also highly favorable. Incorporation of these new design features could lead to significant operational advantages in the future.

Williamson, Rebecca; Carbo, Jorge; Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.

1998-01-01

367

Computational techniques for design optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 1: Final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational techniques were developed and assimilated for the design optimization. The resulting computer program was then used to perform initial optimization and sensitivity studies on a typical thermal protection system (TPS) to demonstrate its application to the space shuttle TPS design. The program was developed in Fortran IV for the CDC 6400 but was subsequently converted to the Fortran V language to be used on the Univac 1108. The program allows for improvement and update of the performance prediction techniques. The program logic involves subroutines which handle the following basic functions: (1) a driver which calls for input, output, and communication between program and user and between the subroutines themselves; (2) thermodynamic analysis; (3) thermal stress analysis; (4) acoustic fatigue analysis; and (5) weights/cost analysis. In addition, a system total cost is predicted based on system weight and historical cost data of similar systems. Two basic types of input are provided, both of which are based on trajectory data. These are vehicle attitude (altitude, velocity, and angles of attack and sideslip), for external heat and pressure loads calculation, and heating rates and pressure loads as a function of time.

1971-01-01

368

The Application of Infrared Thermographic Inspection Techniques to the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center has been actively involved in the development of thermographic inspection techniques for more than 15 years. Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on the improvement of advanced NDE techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter s wing leading edge. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can be used to inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been shown effective for reducing thermographic NDE data. A typical implementation of PCA is when the eigenvectors are generated from the data set being analyzed. Although it is a powerful tool for enhancing the visibility of defects in thermal data, PCA can be computationally intense and time consuming when applied to the large data sets typical in thermography. Additionally, PCA can experience problems when very large defects are present (defects that dominate the field-of-view), since the calculation of the eigenvectors is now governed by the presence of the defect, not the "good" material. To increase the processing speed and to minimize the negative effects of large defects, an alternative method of PCA is being pursued where a fixed set of eigenvectors, generated from an analytic model of the thermal response of the material under examination, is used to process the thermal data from the RCC materials. Details of a one-dimensional analytic model and a two-dimensional finite-element model will be presented. An overview of the PCA process as well as a quantitative signal-to-noise comparison of the results of performing both embodiments of PCA on thermographic data from various RCC specimens will be shown. Finally, a number of different applications of this technology to various RCC components will be presented.

Cramer, K. E.; Winfree, W. P.

2005-01-01

369

Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

McGuire, Mary Kathleen

2011-01-01

370

Galileo probe forebody entry thermal protection - Aerothermal environments and heat shielding requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions are presented for the aerothermal heating environments and the material thermal response for the forebody heatshield on the candidate 242 kg Galileo probe entering the modeled nominal and cold-dense Jovian atmospheres. In the flowfield analysis, a finite difference procedure was employed to obtain benchmark predictions of pressure, radiation and convective heating rates (both laminar and turbulent) and the corresponding wall blowing obtained under the steady state approximation. The fluxes over the probe flank were found to be in a range where spallation is an important mass loss mechanism. The predicted heating rates were also used as boundary conditions for a charring materials ablation which was used to predict thermochemical based surface recession, mass loss and bondline temperatures. The contingency factor of 30% currently employed by NASA was found to be insufficient for entry into the cold-dense atmosphere.

Nicolet, W. E.; Davy, W. C.; Wilson, J. F.

1980-01-01

371

Analytical modeling of intumescent coating thermal protection system in a JP-5 fuel fire environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermochemical response of Coating 313 when exposed to a fuel fire environment was studied to provide a tool for predicting the reaction time. The existing Aerotherm Charring Material Thermal Response and Ablation (CMA) computer program was modified to treat swelling materials. The modified code is now designated Aerotherm Transient Response of Intumescing Materials (TRIM) code. In addition, thermophysical property data for Coating 313 were analyzed and reduced for use in the TRIM code. An input data sensitivity study was performed, and performance tests of Coating 313/steel substrate models were carried out. The end product is a reliable computational model, the TRIM code, which was thoroughly validated for Coating 313. The tasks reported include: generation of input data, development of swell model and implementation in TRIM code, sensitivity study, acquisition of experimental data, comparisons of predictions with data, and predictions with intermediate insulation.

Clark, K. J.; Shimizu, A. B.; Suchsland, K. E.; Moyer, C. B.

1974-01-01

372

Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the object. A release agent is applied to the inside surface of the mount just before the binding potting material is injected in the mount. This prevents the potting material from bonding to the mount, and thus prevents stress from being applied, at very low temperatures, to the fragile object being mounted. The potting material mixing and curing is temperature- and humidity-controlled. The mount has radial grooves cut in it that the potting material fills, thus controlling the vertical position of the mounted object. The design can easily be used for long and thin objects, short and wide objects, and any shape in between. The design s advantages are amplified for long and thin fragile objects. The general testing range was 45 to +45 C, but multiple mounts were successfully tested down to 60 and up to 50 C and the design can be adjusted for larger ranges.

Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

2011-01-01

373

Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

2015-01-01

374

Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

2014-09-01

375

Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses  

SciTech Connect

Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi, E-mail: roudkenar@ibto.ir [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halabian, Raheleh [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourani, Mohammad Reza [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masroori, Nasser [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Majid [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-11-01

376

Ground based impact testing of Orbiter thermal protection system materials in support of the Columbia accident investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On January 16, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) was launched for a nominal 16-day mission of microgravity research. Fifteen days and 20 hours after launch, and just 16 minutes before its scheduled landing, the OV-102 vehicle disintegrated during its descent. The entire crew was lost. Film and video cameras located around the launch complex captured images of the vehicle during its ascent. Of note were data that showed a piece of debris strike the port wing at approximately 82 sec after lift-off (T+82). As resulting analysis would show, the source of the debris was the left bipod ramp of the Shuttle external tank. This foam debris struck the Orbiter leading edge at sufficient velocity to breech the thermal protection system (TPS). During reentry at the end of the mission, the hot plasma impinged inside the Orbiter wing and aerodynamic forces ultimately failed the wing structure. This thesis documents the activities conducted to evaluate the effects of foam impact on Orbiter TPS. These efforts were focused on, to the greatest extent practical, replicating the impact event during the STS-107 mission ascent. This thesis fully documents the test program development, methodology, results, analysis, and conclusions to the degree that future investigators can reproduce the tests and understand the basis for decisions made during the development of the tests.

Kerr, Justin Hamilton

377

Effects of substrate deformation and sip thickness on tile/sip interface stresses for shuttle thermal protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonlinear analysis was used to study the effects of substrate deformation characteristics and strain isolator pad (SIP) thickness on TILE/SIP interface stresses for the space shuttle thermal protection system. The configuration analyzed consisted of a 5.08 cm thick, 15.24 cm square tile with a 12.7 cm square SIP footprint bordered by a 1.27 cm wide filler bar and was subjected to forces and moments representative of a 20.7 kPa aerodynamic shock passing over the tile. The SIP stress deflection curves were obtained after a 69 kPa proof load and 100 cycles conditioning at 55 kPa. The TILE/SIP interface stresses increase over flat substrate values for zero to peak substrate deformation amplitudes up to 0.191 cm by up to a factor of nearly five depending on deformation amplitude, half wave length, and location. Stresses for a 0.23 cm thick SIP found to be up to 60 percent greater than for a 0.41 cm thick SIP for identical loads and substrate deformation characteristics. A simplified method was developed for approximating the substrate location which produces maximum TILE/SIP interface stresses.

Shore, C. P.; Garcia, R.

1980-01-01

378

Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program is the development of the tradespace to support the design of a family of multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) to meet a wide range of mission requirements. An integrated tool called the Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE tool is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. Part of M-SAPE's application required the development of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) to determine the vehicle's required Thermal Protection System (TPS) for safe Earth entry. For this analysis, the heat shield was assumed to be made of a constant thickness TPS. This resulting MERs will then e used to determine the pre-flight mass of the TPS. Two Mers have been developed for the vehicle forebaody. One MER was developed for PICA and the other consisting of Carbon Phenolic atop an Advanced Carbon-Carbon composition. For the the backshell, MERs have been developed for SIRCA, Acusil II, and LI-900. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed in this poster.

Sepka, Steven A.; Zarchi, Kerry; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

2013-01-01

379

Aerothermal performance and damage tolerance of a Rene 41 metallic standoff thermal protection system at Mach 6.7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight-weight, metallic thermal protection system (TPS) model applicable to Earth-entry and hypersonic-cruise vehicles was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating in order to evaluate its aerothermal performance, structural integrity, and damage tolerance. The TPS was designed for a maximum operating temperature of 2060 R and featured a shingled, corrugation-stiffened corrugated-skin heat shield of Rene 41, a nickel-base alloy. The model was subjected to 10 radiant heating tests and to 3 radiant preheat/aerothermal tests. Under radiant-heating conditions with a maximum surface temperature of 2050 R, the TPS performed as designed and limited the primary structure away from the support ribs to temperatures below 780 R. During the first attempt at aerothermal exposure, a failure in the panel-holder test fixture severely damaged the model. However, two radiant preheat/aerothermal tests were made with the damaged model to test its damage tolerance. During these tests, the damaged area did not enlarge; however, the rapidly increasing structural temperature measuring during these tests indicates that had the damaged area been exposed to aerodynamic heating for the entire trajectory, an aluminum burn-through would have occurred.

Avery, D. E.

1984-01-01

380

Fundamental ultrasonic wave propagation studies in a model thermal protection system (porous tiles bonded to aluminum bulkhead)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model thermal protection system (TPS) was designed by bonding ceramic porous tiles to 2.2 and 3.5 mm thick 2124-T351 aluminum alloy plates. One of the goals of the present work was to investigate the potential of detecting simulated defects using guided waves. Simulated defects consisted of cracks, voids and delaminations at the tile-substrate interface. Cracks and voids were introduced into the porous tiles during the fabrication of the TPS. Delamination was created by cutting the gluing tape between the tile and the aluminum substrate. Guided wave propagation studies were conducted using the pitch-catch approach, while changing the angle of strike and the frequency of the transducer excitation to generate the appropriate guided wave mode. The receiver was placed at a distance so that only the guided waves were received during the immersion experiment. The delamination defect could be conclusively detected, however the presence of the imperfect bond between the tiles and the substrate interfered with the detection of the simulated cracks and voids in the porous tiles.

Kundu, Tribikram; Reibel, Richard; Jata, Kumar V.

2006-03-01

381

In-Flight Aeroelastic Stability of the Thermal Protection System on the NASA HIAD, Part I: Linear Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conical shell theory and piston theory aerodynamics are used to study the aeroelastic stability of the thermal protection system (TPS) on the NASA Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). Structural models of the TPS consist of single or multiple orthotropic conical shell systems resting on several circumferential linear elastic supports. The shells in each model may have pinned (simply-supported) or elastically-supported edges. The Lagrangian is formulated in terms of the generalized coordinates for all displacements and the Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to derive the equations of motion. The natural modes of vibration and aeroelastic stability boundaries are found by calculating the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a large coefficient matrix. When the in-flight configuration of the TPS is approximated as a single shell without elastic supports, asymmetric flutter in many circumferential waves is observed. When the elastic supports are included, the shell flutters symmetrically in zero circumferential waves. Structural damping is found to be important in this case. Aeroelastic models that consider the individual TPS layers as separate shells tend to flutter asymmetrically at high dynamic pressures relative to the single shell models. Several parameter studies also examine the effects of tension, orthotropicity, and elastic support stiffness.

Goldman, Benjamin D.; Dowell, Earl H.; Scott, Robert C.

2014-01-01

382

Isomeric sugar effects on thermal phase transition of aqueous PNIPA solutions, probed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; insights to protein protection by sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

To illuminate the impacts of sugar concentration and stereochemistry on protein protection we used attenuated-total-reflectance\\u000a Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to study the effects of four aldohexoses on poly-N-isopropylacrylamide\\u000a (PNIPA) phase transition. Protein stability in aqueous solutions is essential in numerous fields, predominantly biotechnology\\u000a and food science. Saccharides protect proteins against thermal denaturation, but the mechanisms are still debatable. We therefore\\u000a studied

Avi Shpigelman; Yaron Paz; Ory Ramon; Yoav D. Livney

2011-01-01

383

Biological control of great brome ( Bromus diandrus ) in durum wheat ( Triticum durum ): specificity, physiological traits and impact on plant growth and root architecture of the fluorescent pseudomonad strain X33d  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizobacterial strain X33d was previously shown to suppress the growth of the weed great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth.). The aim of this work was to identify X33d, characterize its physiological activities, assess its specificity on different\\u000a non-target crops, and its impact on the growth and the root architecture of great brome and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown alone

Dorsaf Mejri; Elisa Gamalero; Riccardo Tombolini; Chiara Musso; Nadia Massa; Graziella Berta; Thouraya Souissi

2010-01-01

384

Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application. Volume 3, phase 3: Full size TPS evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system (TPS), designed for incorporation with space shuttle orbiter systems, consists of one primary heat shield thermally and structurally isolated from the test fixture by eight peripheral guard panels, all encompassing an area of approximately 12 sq ft. TPS components include tee-stiffened Cb 752/R-512E heat shields, bi-metallic support posts, panel retainers, and high temperature insulation blankets. The vehicle primary structure was simulated by a titanium skin, frames, and stiffeners. Test procedures, manufacturing processes, and methods of analysis are fully documented. For Vol. 1, see N72-30948; for Vol. 2, see N74-15660.

Baer, J. W.; Black, W. E.

1974-01-01

385

The Evolution of Flexible Insulation as Thermal Protection Systems for Reusable Launch Vehicles: AFRSI (Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) to CRI (Conformal Reusable Insulation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the evolution of flexible insulation as a thermal protection system for reusable launch vehicles, Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) to Conformal Reusable Insulation (CRI). Details are given on the approved use of AFRIS on the Shuttle Orbiter in June 1980, the first flight of AFRIS on STS-6, windward blanket development, composite flexible blanket insulation, and flight demonstrations.

Rezin, Marc; Oka, Kris; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

386

Exertional thermal strain, protective clothing and auxiliary cooling in dry heat: evidence for physiological but not cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Individuals exposed to extreme heat may experience reduced physiological and cognitive performance, even during very light work. This can have disastrous effects on the operational capability of aircrew, but such impairment could be prevented by auxiliary cooling devices. This hypothesis was tested under very hot-dry conditions, in which eight males performed 2 h of low-intensity exercise (~30 W) in three trials, whilst wearing biological and chemical protective clothing: temperate (control: 20°C, 30% relative humidity) and two hot-dry trials (48°C, 20% relative humidity), one without (experimental) and one with liquid cooling (water at 15°C). Physiological strain and six cognitive functions were evaluated (MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery), and participants drank to sustain hydration state. Maximal core temperatures averaged 37.0°C (±0.1) in the control trial, and were significantly elevated in the experimental trial (38.9°C ± 0.3; P < 0.05). Similarly, heart rates peaked at 92 beats min(-1) (±7) and 133 beats min(-1) (±4; P < 0.05), respectively. Liquid cooling reduced maximal core temperatures (37.3°C ± 0.1; P < 0.05) and heart rates 87 beats min(-1) (±3; P < 0.05) in the heat, such that neither now differed significantly from the control trial (P > 0.05). However, despite inducing profound hyperthermia and volitional fatigue, no cognitive degradation was evident in the heat (P > 0.05). Since extensive dehydration was prevented, it appears that thermal strain in the absence of dehydration may have minimal impact upon cognitive function, at least as evaluated within this experiment. PMID:22328005

Caldwell, Joanne N; Patterson, Mark J; Taylor, Nigel A S

2012-10-01

387

Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia's ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia's left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom a simulated PAL ramp panel. It was found that the smooth rind on the foam facing the cable tray did significantly affect the properties of foam at the PAL ramp surface. The smooth rind increased the storage modulus E' of the foam as much as 20- 40% over a temperature range of -145 to 95 C. Because of foam loss fiom the PAL ramp, future Shuttle flights were grounded indefinitely to allow further testing to better understand foam properties. The decision was also made to remove foam from the LH2 PAL, ramp. Other RTF efforts prior to the launch of Discovery included

Wingard, Doug

2006-01-01

388

A Five-year Performance Study of Low VOC Coatings over Zinc Thermal Spray for the Protection of Carbon Steel at the Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch facilities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are located approximately 1000 feet from the Atlantic Ocean where they are exposed to salt deposits, high humidity, high UV degradation, and acidic exhaust from solid rocket boosters. These assets are constructed from carbon steel, which requires a suitable coating to provide long-term protection to reduce corrosion and its associated costs. While currently used coating systems provide excellent corrosion control performance, they are subject to occupational, safety, and environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their use. Many contain high volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants, and other hazardous materials. Hazardous waste from coating operations include vacuum filters, zinc dust, hazardous paint related material, and solid paint. There are also worker safety issues such as exposure to solvents and isocyanates. To address these issues, top-coated thermal spray zinc coating systems were investigated as a promising environmentally friendly corrosion protection for carbon steel in an acidic launch environment. Additional benefits of the combined coating system include a long service life, cathodic protection to the substrate, no volatile contaminants, and high service temperatures. This paper reports the results of a performance based study to evaluate low VOC topcoats (for thermal spray zinc coatings) on carbon steel for use in a space launch environment.

Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Calle, Luz Marina

2014-01-01

389

Experimental Design for the Evaluation of Detection Techniques of Hidden Corrosion Beneath the Thermal Protective System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of corrosion beneath Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protective system is traditionally accomplished by removing the Reusable Surface Insulation tiles and performing a visual inspection of the aluminum substrate and corrosion protection system. This process is time consuming and has the potential to damage high cost tiles. To evaluate non-intrusive NDE methods, a Proof of Concept (PoC) experiment was designed and test panels were manufactured. The objective of the test plan was three-fold: establish the ability to detect corrosion hidden from view by tiles; determine the key factor affecting detectability; roughly quantify the detection threshold. The plan consisted of artificially inducing dimensionally controlled corrosion spots in two panels and rebonding tile over the spots to model the thermal protective system of the orbiter. The corrosion spot diameter ranged from 0.100" to 0.600" inches and the depth ranged from 0.003" to 0.020". One panel consisted of a complete factorial array of corrosion spots with and without tile coverage. The second panel consisted of randomized factorial points replicated and hidden by tile. Conventional methods such as ultrasonics, infrared, eddy current and microwave methods have shortcomings. Ultrasonics and IR cannot sufficiently penetrate the tiles, while eddy current and microwaves have inadequate resolution. As such, the panels were interrogated using Backscatter Radiography and Terahertz Imaging. The terahertz system successfully detected artificially induced corrosion spots under orbiter tile and functional testing is in-work in preparation for implementation.

Kemmerer, Catherine C.; Jacoby, Joseph A.; Lomness, Janice K.; Hintze, Paul E.; Russell, Richard W.

2007-01-01

390

A leading edge heating array and a flat surface heating array: Final design. [for testing the thermal protection system of the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heating array is described for testing full-scale sections of the leading edge and lower fuselage surfaces of the shuttle. The heating array was designed to provide a tool for development and acceptance testing of leading edge segments and large flat sections of the main body thermal protection system. The array was designed using a variable length module concept to meet test requirements using interchangeable components from one test configuration in another configuration. Heat generating modules and heat absorbing modules were employed to achieve the thermal gradient around the leading edge. A support was developed to hold the modules to form an envelope around a variety of leading edges; to supply coolant to each module; the support structure and to hold the modules in the flat surface heater configuration. An optical pyrometer system mounted within the array was designed to monitor specimen surface temperatures without altering the test article's surface.

1975-01-01

391

Evaluation of three thermal protection systems in a hypersonic high-heating-rate environment induced by an elevon deflected 30 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three thermal protection systems proposed for a hypersonic research airplane were subjected to high heating rates in the Langley 8 foot, high temperature structures tunnel. Metallic heat sink (Lockalloy), reusable surface insulation, and insulator-ablator materials were each tested under similar conditions. The specimens were tested for a 10 second exposure on the windward side of an elevon deflected 30 deg. The metallic heat sink panel exhibited no damage; whereas the reusable surface insulation tiles were debonded from the panel and the insulator-ablator panel eroded through its thickness, thus exposing the aluminum structure to the Mach 7 environment.

Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Weinstein, I.

1977-01-01

392

Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket and tile materials on shuttle) should be significantly reduced. The conformal ablator design will include a simplified design of seams between gore panels, which should eliminate the need for gap filler design, and should accommodate a wider range of allowable carrier structure imperfections when compared to a rigid material such as PICA.The Conformal TPS development project leverages the past investments made by earlier projects with a goal to develop and deliver a TRL 5 conformal TPS capable of 250 Wcm2 for missions such as MSL or COTS missions. The capabilities goal for the conformal TPS is similar to an MSL design reference mission (250 Wcm2) with matching pressures and shear environments. Both conformal and flexible carbon-felt based materials were successfully tested in stagnation aerothermal environments above 500 Wcm2 under earlier programs. Results on a myriad of materials developed during FY11 were used to determine which materials to start with in FY12. In FY12, the conformal TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a Conformal Ablative TPS. In FY13, development and refining metrics for mission utilization of conformal ablator technology along with assessment for potential mission stakeholders will be carried out.

Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

2013-01-01

393

Feasibility and Performance of the Microwave Thermal Rocket Launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beamed-energy launch concepts employing a microwave thermal thruster are feasible in principle, and microwave sources of sufficient power to launch tons into LEO already exist. Microwave thermal thrusters operate on an analogous principle to nuclear thermal thrusters, which have experimentally demonstrated specific impulses exceeding 850 seconds. Assuming such performance, simple application of the rocket equation suggests that payload fractions of 10% are possible for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) microwave thermal rocket. We present an SSTO concept employing a scaled X-33 aeroshell. The flat aeroshell underside is covered by a thin-layer microwave absorbent heat-exchanger that forms part of the thruster. During ascent, the heat-exchanger faces the microwave beam. A simple ascent trajectory analysis incorporating X-33 aerodynamic data predicts a 10% payload fraction for a 1 ton craft of this type. In contrast, the Saturn V had 3 non-reusable stages and achieved a payload fraction of 4%.

Parkin, Kevin L. G.; Culick, Fred E. C.

2004-03-01

394

Thermal protection of ?-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.  

PubMed

?-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. ?-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect ?-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing ?-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected ?-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products. PMID:23411284

Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

2013-06-01

395

Thermal protection afforded by two anti-exposure coveralls when worn in cold water. Final technical report, December 1987-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) was contracted by U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters to evaluate the thermal protection afforded by two prototype aircrew anti exposure coveralls when worn in cold water. The coveralls were developed by two different manufacturers to meet U.S. Coast Guard specification G-OAV-3-1401/A of 15 July 1986. The coveralls were evaluated on seven male subjects immersed in 10/sup 0/C water for 2 hours (with air temperature 13/sup 0/C, minimal wind). When either of the two anti-exposure coveralls was worn, all subjects were able to complete the 2-hour water immersion. There were no differences in the thermal protection afforded by the two coveralls, as measured by rectal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, and oxygen uptake responses (P>0.05). The decrease in rectal temperature after 2 hours of cold water immersion averaged 1.0 C; mean weighted skin temperature averaged 2.3/sup 0/C. Final heart rate averaged 77 b/min. Oxygen consumption, used as a measure of shivering, was the same when either coverall was worn. Both coveralls met the Coast Guard requirement of preventing rectal temperature from dropping more than 1 C per hour.

Pimental, N.A.; Avellini, B.A.

1988-10-01

396

Thermally Sprayed Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 Coatings for High-Temperature Protection of SiC Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of certain glass compositions in the Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) system as protecting coatings for silicon carbide components has been prospected. One particular YAS composition was formulated considering its glass formation ability and subsequent crystallization during service. Round-shaped and homogeneous granules of the selected composition were prepared by spray drying the corresponding homogeneous oxide powder mixture. Glassy coatings (197 µm thick) were obtained by oxyacetylene flame spraying the YAS granules over SiC substrates, previously grit blasted and coated with a Si bond layer (56 µm thick). Bulk glass of the same composition was produced by the conventional glass casting method and used as reference material for comparative evaluation of the characteristic glass transition temperatures, crystallization behavior, mechanical, and thermal coating properties. The mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of the coating were lower than those of the bulk glass owing to its lower density, higher porosity, and characteristic lamellar structure. The crystallization of both bulk glass and coating occurred during isothermal treatments in air at 1100-1350 °C. Preliminary data on ablation tests at 900 °C using the oxyacetylene gun indicated that the YAS glassy coating was a viable protective shield for the SiC substrate during 150 s.

García, E.; Nistal, A.; Martín de la Escalera, F.; Khalifa, A.; Sainz, M. A.; Osendi, M. I.; Miranzo, P.

2014-11-01

397

Thermally Sprayed Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 Coatings for High-Temperature Protection of SiC Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of certain glass compositions in the Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) system as protecting coatings for silicon carbide components has been prospected. One particular YAS composition was formulated considering its glass formation ability and subsequent crystallization during service. Round-shaped and homogeneous granules of the selected composition were prepared by spray drying the corresponding homogeneous oxide powder mixture. Glassy coatings (197 µm thick) were obtained by oxyacetylene flame spraying the YAS granules over SiC substrates, previously grit blasted and coated with a Si bond layer (56 µm thick). Bulk glass of the same composition was produced by the conventional glass casting method and used as reference material for comparative evaluation of the characteristic glass transition temperatures, crystallization behavior, mechanical, and thermal coating properties. The mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of the coating were lower than those of the bulk glass owing to its lower density, higher porosity, and characteristic lamellar structure. The crystallization of both bulk glass and coating occurred during isothermal treatments in air at 1100-1350 °C. Preliminary data on ablation tests at 900 °C using the oxyacetylene gun indicated that the YAS glassy coating was a viable protective shield for the SiC substrate during 150 s.

García, E.; Nistal, A.; Martín de la Escalera, F.; Khalifa, A.; Sainz, M. A.; Osendi, M. I.; Miranzo, P.

2015-01-01

398

High-Temperature Properties of Ceramic Fibers and Insulations for Thermal Protection of Atmospheric Entry and Hypersonic Cruise Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer insulations which will operate in the 500C to 1000C temperature range are being considered for possible applications on aerospace vehicles subject to convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The insulations described in this paper consist of ceramic fabrics, insulations, and metal foils quilted together using ceramic thread. As these types of insulations have highly anisotropic properties, the total heat transfer characteristics of these insulations must be determined. Data are presented on the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of four types of multilayer insulations and are compared to the baseline Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.; Araujo, Myrian; Zimmerman, R. S.

1988-01-01

399

The Protectiveness of Thermally Grown Oxides on Cold Sprayed CoNiCrAlY Bond Coat in Thermal Barrier Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of an oxidation behavior study for a thermal barrier coating (TBC) with air plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia top coat and CoNiCrAlY bond coat deposited using low pressure plasma spray (LPPS) and cold spray (CS). The TBC is subjected to isothermal oxidation and creep tests at 900 °C and evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The thermally grown oxide (TGO) developed in the TBC with the LPPS bond coat was composed of only ?-Al2O3 and the TGO developed in the TBC with a CS bond coat is composed of ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3. Despite the presence of this metastable ? phase, the TGO in the CS specimens exhibits a dense microstructure and lower amounts of mixed oxides. The correlation between ?-Al2O3 and the formation of mixed oxides was investigated through the measurement of ?-Al2O3 thickness ratio and mixed oxides coverage ratio. It was found that the mixed oxides coverage ratio is inversely proportional to the ?-Al2O3 thickness ratio.

Manap, A.; Nakano, A.; Ogawa, K.

2012-06-01

400

Thermal denaturation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and protection of secondary and tertiary structural changes by sugars: CD and fluorescence studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication reports on changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of native and apo-yeast alcohol dehydrogenase upon heating at 50°C, as evident from circular dichroism (CD) studies. The presence of sugars provided significant protection with trehalose being the most effective. Exposure of hydrophobic clusters in the protein molecule upon heat denaturation was confirmed by fluorescence studies using 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate

Mehran Miroliaei; B. Ranjbar; H. Naderi-Manesh; Mohsen Nemat-Gorgani

2007-01-01

401

High temperature properties of ceramic fibers and insulations for thermal protection of atmospheric entry and hypersonic cruise vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer insulations (MIs) which will operate in the 500 to 1000 C temperature range are being considered for possible applications on aerospace vehicles subject to convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The insulations described consist of ceramic fibers, insulations, and metal foils quilted together with ceramic thread. As these types of insulations have highly anisotropic properties, the total heat transfer characteristics must be determined. Data are presented on the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of four types of MIs and are compared to the baseline Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation currently used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. In addition, the high temperature properties of the fibers used in these MIs are discussed. The fibers investigated included silica and three types of aluminoborosilicate (ABS). Static tension tests were performed at temperatures up to 1200 C and the ultimate strain, tensile strength, and tensile modulus of single fibers were determined.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.; Araujo, Myrian; Zimmerman, R. S.

1988-01-01

402

High-temperature properties of ceramic fibers and insulations for thermal protection of atmospheric entry and hypersonic cruise vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer insulations (MIs) which will operate in the 500 to 1000 C temperature range are being considered for possible applications on aerospace vehicles subject to convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The insulations described consist of ceramic fibers, insulations, and metal foils quilted together with ceramic thread. As these types of insulations have highly anisotropic properties, the total heat transfer characteristics must be determined. Data are presented on the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of four types of MIs and are compared to the baseline Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation currently used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. In addition, the high temperature properties of the fibers used in these MIs are discussed. The fibers investigated included silica and three types of aluminoborosilicate (ABS). Static tension tests were performed at temperatures up to 1200 C and the ultimate strain, tensile strength, and tensile modulus of single fibers were determined.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.; Araujo, Myrian; Zimmerman, R. S.

1988-01-01

403

Studies on thermal protection system for capsule type re-entry vehicle - Computer aided TPS design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-aided conceptual design method to determine the optimum TPS for a capsule-type reentry vehicle was investigated aerodynamically and aerothermodynamically. This method aims at the effective and rapid design at the conceptual stage, and consequently graphical optimization procedures were adopted using a computer-generated data bank consisting of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics of capsule-type vehicles, atmospheric trajectories, thermal properties of TPS,

S. Nomura; Y. Yamamoto; M. Watanabe

1984-01-01

404

Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement. Part 2; Structural Analysis Technologies and Modeling Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology review and assessment of modeling and analysis efforts underway in support of a safe return to flight of the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) are summarized. This review and assessment effort focuses on the structural modeling and analysis practices employed for ET TPS foam design and analysis and on identifying analysis capabilities needed in the short-term and long-term. The current understanding of the relationship between complex flight environments and ET TPS foam failure modes are reviewed as they relate to modeling and analysis. A literature review on modeling and analysis of TPS foam material systems is also presented. Finally, a review of modeling and analysis tools employed in the Space Shuttle Program is presented for the ET TPS acreage and close-out foam regions. This review includes existing simplified engineering analysis tools are well as finite element analysis procedures.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

2004-01-01

405

Prediction and verification of creep behavior in metallic materials and components for the space shuttle thermal protection system. Volume 2: Phase 2 subsize panel cyclic creep predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting permanent cyclic creep deflections in stiffened panel structures was developed. The resulting computer program may be applied to either the time-hardening or strain-hardening theories of creep accumulation. Iterative techniques were used to determine structural rotations, creep strains, and stresses as a function of time. Deflections were determined by numerical integration of structural rotations along the panel length. The analytical approach was developed for analyzing thin-gage entry vehicle metallic-thermal-protection system panels subjected to cyclic bending loads at high temperatures, but may be applied to any panel subjected to bending loads. Predicted panel creep deflections were compared with results from cyclic tests of subsize corrugation and rib-stiffened panels. Empirical equations were developed for each material based on correlation with tensile cyclic creep data and both the subsize panels and tensile specimens were fabricated from the same sheet material. For Vol. 1, see N75-21431.

Cramer, B. A.; Davis, J. W.

1975-01-01

406

Thermal tolerance of contractile function in oxidative skeletal muscle: no protection by antioxidants and reduced tolerance with eicosanoid enzyme inhibition  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms for the loss of muscle contractile function in hyperthermia are poorly understood. This study identified the critical temperature, resulting in a loss of contractile function in isolated diaphragm (thermal tolerance), and then tested the hypotheses 1) that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to the loss of contractile function at this temperature, and 2) eicosanoid metabolism plays an important role in preservation of contractile function in hyperthermia. Contractile function and passive force were measured in rat diaphragm bundles during and after 30 min of exposure to 40, 41, 42 or 43°C. Between 40 and 42°C, there were no effects of hyperthermia, but at 43°C, a significant loss of active force and an increase in passive force were observed. Inhibition of ROS with the antioxidants, Tiron or Trolox, did not inhibit the loss of contractile force at 43°C. Furthermore, treatment with dithiothreitol, a thiol (-SH) reducing agent, did not reverse the effects of hyperthermia. A variety of global lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors further depressed force during 43°C and caused a significant loss of thermal tolerance at 42°C. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors also caused a loss of thermal tolerance at 42°C. Blockage of phospholipase with phospholipase A2 inhibitors, bromoenol lactone or arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone failed to significantly prevent the loss of force at 43°C. Overall, these data suggest that ROS do not play an apparent role in the loss of contractile function during severe hyperthermia in diaphragm. However, functional LOX and COX enzyme activities appear to be necessary for maintaining normal force production in hyperthermia. PMID:18768765

Oliver, S. Ryan; Wright, Valerie P.; Parinandi, Narasimham; Clanton, Thomas L.

2008-01-01

407

Use of ordered mesoporous SiO2 as protection against thermal disturbance in phase-change memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To commercialize phase change memory (PCM), a drastic change of resistivity at specific temperatures and a low power consumption to minimize heat transfer to neighboring cells are needed. Therefore, in this work, an ordered mesoporous SiO2 thin film of 45% porosity was introduced as an intercell dielectric in Ge1Sb4Te7 PCM because it has a low thermal conductivity (0.177 W/m K). By using a hybrid layer structure of mesoporous and dense SiO2 films, the temperature of neighboring cells could be decreased from 393.3 K to 353.2 K, corresponding to a 100-fold change in resistivity.

Ha, Tae-Jung; Shin, Sangwoo; Keun Kim, Hyung; Hong, Min-Hee; Park, Chang-Sun; Hee Cho, Hyung; Jin Choi, Doo; Park, Hyung-Ho

2013-04-01

408

Studies on thermal protection system for capsule type re-entry vehicle - Computer aided TPS design method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-aided conceptual design method to determine the optimum TPS for a capsule-type reentry vehicle was investigated aerodynamically and aerothermodynamically. This method aims at the effective and rapid design at the conceptual stage, and consequently graphical optimization procedures were adopted using a computer-generated data bank consisting of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics of capsule-type vehicles, atmospheric trajectories, thermal properties of TPS, and so forth. As examples, optimum TPS designs were demonstrated both for reusable alumina tile and for charring ablator under a constrained deceleration rate of less than 2 gs.

Nomura, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Watanabe, M.

409

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING FPE College of Engineering California Polytechnic State University San problems and develop fire safety design solutions in a variety of professional settings. Fire Protection Engineering Science · Apply concepts associated with the thermal sciences, to the analysis of fire protection

Sze, Lawrence

410

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING FPE College of Engineering California Polytechnic State University San and develop fire safety design solutions in a variety of professional settings. Fire Protection Engineering Science · Apply concepts associated with the thermal sciences, to the analysis of fire protection

Sze, Lawrence

411

CAVE: A computer code for two-dimensional transient heating analysis of conceptual thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis Via Eigenvalues), which finds application in the analysis of two dimensional transient heating of hypersonic vehicles is described. The CAVE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on both IBM 360-67 and CDC 6600 computers. The method of solution is a hybrid analytical numerical technique that is inherently stable permitting large time steps even with the best of conductors having the finest of mesh size. The aerodynamic heating boundary conditions are calculated by the code based on the input flight tr