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Sample records for x-ray analysis electron

  1. Calcium measurements with electron probe X-ray and electron energy loss analysis

    SciTech Connect

    LeFurgey, A.; Ingram, P. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper presents a broad survey of the rationale for electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) and the various methods for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information on the distribution and amount of elements, particularly calcium, in cryopreserved cells and tissues. Essential in an introductory consideration of microanalysis in biological cryosections is the physical basis for the instrumentation, fundamentals of X-ray spectrometry, and various analytical modes such as static probing and X-ray imaging. Some common artifacts are beam damage and contamination. Inherent pitfalls of energy dispersive X-ray systems include Si escape peaks, doublets, background, and detector calibration shifts. Quantitative calcium analysis of thin cryosections is carried out in real time using a multiple least squares fitting program on filtered X-ray spectra and normalizing the calcium peak to a portion of the continuum. Recent work includes the development of an X-ray imaging system where quantitative data can be retrieved off-line. The minimum detectable concentration of calcium in biological cryosections is approximately 300 mumole kg dry weight with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 A. The application of electron energy loss (EELS) techniques to the detection of calcium offers the potential for greater sensitivity and spatial resolution in measurement and imaging. Determination of mass thickness with EELS can facilitate accurate calculation of wet weight concentrations from frozen hydrated and freeze-dried specimens. Calcium has multiple effects on cell metabolism, membrane transport and permeability and, thus, on overall cell physiology or pathophysiology. Cells can be rapidly frozen for EPXMA during basal or altered functional conditions to delineate the location and amount of calcium within cells. 72 references.

  2. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  3. Calcium measurements with electron probe X-ray and electron energy loss analysis.

    PubMed Central

    LeFurgey, A; Ingram, P

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a broad survey of the rationale for electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) and the various methods for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information on the distribution and amount of elements, particularly calcium, in cryopreserved cells and tissues. Essential in an introductory consideration of microanalysis in biological cryosections is the physical basis for the instrumentation, fundamentals of X-ray spectrometry, and various analytical modes such as static probing and X-ray imaging. Some common artifacts are beam damage and contamination. Inherent pitfalls of energy dispersive X-ray systems include Si escape peaks, doublets, background, and detector calibration shifts. Quantitative calcium analysis of thin cryosections is carried out in real time using a multiple least squares fitting program on filtered X-ray spectra and normalizing the calcium peak to a portion of the continuum. Recent work includes the development of an X-ray imaging system where quantitative data can be retrieved off-line. The minimum detectable concentration of calcium in biological cryosections is approximately 300 mumole kg dry weight with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 A. The application of electron energy loss (EELS) techniques to the detection of calcium offers the potential for greater sensitivity and spatial resolution in measurement and imaging. Determination of mass thickness with EELS can facilitate accurate calculation of wet weight concentrations from frozen hydrated and freeze-dried specimens. Calcium has multiple effects on cell metabolism, membrane transport and permeability and, thus, on overall cell physiology or pathophysiology. Cells can be rapidly frozen for EPXMA during basal or altered functional conditions to delineate the location and amount of calcium within cells and the changes in location and concentration of cations or anions accompanying calcium redistribution. Recent experiments in our laboratory document that EPXMA in combination with other biochemical and electrophysiological techniques can be used to study, for example, sodium and calcium compartmentation in cultured cardiac cells. Such analyses can also be used to clarify the role of calcium in anoxic renal cell injury and to evaluate proposed ionic defects in cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:2190819

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of X-ray Spectra from Scanning Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.; Bekar, Kursat B.

    2014-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate x-ray spectra generated within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine elemental composition of small samples. This will be accomplished by performing Monte Carlo simulations of the electron and photon interactions in the sample and in the x-ray detector. The elemental inventories will be determined by an inverse process that progressively reduces the difference between the measured and simulated x-ray spectra by iteratively adjusting composition and geometric variables in the computational model. The intended benefit of this work will be to develop a method to perform quantitative analysis on substandard samples (heterogeneous phases, rough surfaces, small sizes, etc.) without involving standard elemental samples or empirical matrix corrections (i.e., true standardless quantitative analysis).

  5. Feasibility analysis for attosecond X-ray pulses at FERMI@ELETTRA free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    We present preliminary analysis for the feasibility of the attosecond x-ray pulses at a proposed FERMI@ELETTRA free electron laser (FEL) [1]. In part 1 we restrict ourselves to minimal modifications to the proposed FEL and consider a scheme for attosecond x-ray production which can be qualified as a small add-on to a primary facility. We demonstrate that at 5-nm wavelength our scheme is capable for production of pulses with an approximate duration of 100 attoseconds at approximately 2 MW peak power and with an absolute temporal synchronization to a pump laser pulse. In part 2 we propose to use an FEL amplifier seeded by a VUV signal and to follow it by the scheme for attosecond x-ray production described in part 1.

  6. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  7. X-Ray photonics: X-rays inspire electron movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The advent of high-energy, short-pulse X-ray sources based on free-electron lasers, laser plasmas and high-harmonic generation is now making it possible to probe the dynamics of electrons within molecules.

  8. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens. PMID:26004522

  9. Quantitative analysis of shadow x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, S.; Da, S., Col; Rougemaille, N.; Wartelle, A.; Locatelli, A.; Mente?, T. O.; Santos Burgos, B.; Afid, R.; Cagnon, L.; Bochmann, S.; Bachmann, J.; Fruchart, O.; Toussaint, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Shadow x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy is a recent technique, in which the photon intensity in the shadow of an object lying on a surface may be used to gather information about the three-dimensional magnetization texture inside the object. Our purpose here is to lay the basis of a quantitative analysis of this technique. We first discuss the principle and implementation of a method to simulate the contrast expected from an arbitrary micromagnetic state. Textbook examples and successful comparison with experiments are then given. Instrumental settings are finally discussed, having an impact on the contrast and spatial resolution: photon energy, microscope extraction voltage and plane of focus, microscope background level, electric-field related distortion of three-dimensional objects, Fresnel diffraction, or photon scattering.

  10. Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis in dermatology--an up-date

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.

    1988-06-01

    Dermatological papers comprising scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis data published 1983 through 1986 in international journals are reviewed, as an update to our 1984 paper on Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in dermatology. The present paper not only deals with a review of recent publications in this area but also presents the application of microincineration to hair and cryosectioned freeze-dried skin specimens. Examples of the increased contrast obtained in hair cross sections are presented and a discussion on the feasibility of microincineration at analysis of hair and skin cross sections is given. Particle probe analysis (EDX: energy dispersive X-ray analysis and PMP: proton microprobe analysis) as applied to hair and skin samples are presented with stress put on the proton probe analysis. The complementarity of EDX and PMP is demonstrated and future applications are suggested. 75 references.

  11. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  12. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-06-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  13. Fast Detection Allows Analysis of the Electronic Structure of Metalloprotein by X-ray Emission Spectroscopy at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Davis, Katherine M; Mattern, Brian A; Pacold, Joseph I; Zakharova, Taisiya; Brewe, Dale; Kosheleva, Irina; Henning, Robert W; Graber, Timothy J; Heald, Steve M; Seidler, Gerald T; Pushkar, Yulia

    2012-07-19

    The paradigm of "detection-before-destruction" was tested for a metalloprotein complex exposed at room temperature to the high x-ray flux typical of third generation synchrotron sources. Following the progression of the x-ray induced damage by Mn K? x-ray emission spectroscopy, we demonstrated the feasibility of collecting room temperature data on the electronic structure of native Photosystem II, a trans-membrane metalloprotein complex containing a Mn(4)Ca cluster. The determined non-damaging observation timeframe (about 100 milliseconds using continuous monochromatic beam, deposited dose 1*10(7) photons/m(2) or 1.3*10(4) Gy, and 66 microseconds in pulsed mode using pink beam, deposited dose 4*10(7) photons/m(2) or 4.2*10(4) Gy) is sufficient for the analysis of this protein's electron dynamics and catalytic mechanism at room temperature. Reported time frames are expected to be representative for other metalloproteins. The described instrumentation, based on the short working distance dispersive spectrometer, and experimental methodology is broadly applicable to time-resolved x-ray emission analysis at synchrotron and x-ray free-electron laser light sources. PMID:22919444

  14. Fast Detection Allows Analysis of the Electronic Structure of Metalloprotein by X-ray Emission Spectroscopy at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Katherine M.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Zakharova, Taisiya; Brewe, Dale; Kosheleva, Irina; Henning, Robert W.; Graber, Timothy J.; Heald, Steve M.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Pushkar, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of detection-before-destruction was tested for a metalloprotein complex exposed at room temperature to the high x-ray flux typical of third generation synchrotron sources. Following the progression of the x-ray induced damage by Mn K? x-ray emission spectroscopy, we demonstrated the feasibility of collecting room temperature data on the electronic structure of native Photosystem II, a trans-membrane metalloprotein complex containing a Mn4Ca cluster. The determined non-damaging observation timeframe (about 100 milliseconds using continuous monochromatic beam, deposited dose 1*107 photons/m2 or 1.3*104 Gy, and 66 microseconds in pulsed mode using pink beam, deposited dose 4*107 photons/m2 or 4.2*104 Gy) is sufficient for the analysis of this proteins electron dynamics and catalytic mechanism at room temperature. Reported time frames are expected to be representative for other metalloproteins. The described instrumentation, based on the short working distance dispersive spectrometer, and experimental methodology is broadly applicable to time-resolved x-ray emission analysis at synchrotron and x-ray free-electron laser light sources. PMID:22919444

  15. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray micro analysis on tooth enamel exposed to alkaline agents.

    PubMed

    Taubee, Fabian; Steiniger, Frank; Nietzsche, Sandor; Norn, Jrgen G

    2010-01-01

    The background of this study comprises two clinical cases, where patients exposed to aerosols of an alkaline and surface active cleaning agent developed loss of enamel substance on their teeth, further resulting in loss of teeth and partially destroyed soft tissues. The alkaline cleaning agent consisted of potassium hydroxide and various surfactants. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible changes in morphology and composition in human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions, by means of X-ray micro analysis (XRMA), FTIR-spectroscopic analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extracted premolars, exposed to potassium hydroxide solutions and alkaline cleaning solution,were analyzed by means of XRMA and SEM. Enamel powder, exposed to cleaning solution, was analyzed by means of FTIR. The SEM analysis revealed an increased porosity of the enamel surface and partially loss of enamel substance after exposure to alkaline solutions. The XRMA analyses revealed a decrease in carbon concentration while phosphorous and calcium showed no marked changes. The FTIR analyses showed no significant changes in peak heights or peak positions for phosphate, carbonate or hydroxide. It was concluded that human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions showed loss of organic substance, marked pores in enamel surface and loss of substance in the enamel surface. PMID:21121412

  16. Comprehensive Study of Hydrated IDPs: X-Ray Diffraction, IR Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, K.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Nozaki, W.; Tomeoka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Chondritic hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) comprise up to 50% of all IDPs collected in the stratosphere(1). Although much is known about the mineralogy, chemistry and carbon abundance of hydrated IDPs (2-4) controversies still exist regarding their formation, history, and relationship to other primitive solar system materials. Hydrated IDPs are generally believed to be derived from asteroidal sources that have undergone some degree of aqueous alteration. However, the high C contents of hydrated IDPs (by 2 to 6X CI levels (3,4) indicate that they are probably not derived from the same parent bodies sampled by the known chondritic meteorites. We report the comprehensive study of individual hydrated IDPs. The strong depletion in Ca (I) has been used as a diagnostic feature of hydrated IDPs. The particles are embedded in elemental sulfur or low viscosity epoxy and ultramicrotomed thin sections are observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) followed by other measurements including: 1) FTIR microspectroscopy to understand the significant constraints on the organic functionality and the nature of the C-bearing phases and 2) powder X-ray difiaction using a synchrotron X-ray source to understand the bulk mineralogy of the particles.

  17. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF TANK 18 SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; O'Rourke, P.; Ajo, H.

    2012-03-08

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) Performance Assessment (PA) utilizes waste speciation in the waste release model used in the FTF fate and transport modeling. The waste release modeling associated with the residual plutonium in Tank 18 has been identified as a primary contributor to the Tank 18 dose uncertainty. In order to reduce the uncertainty related to plutonium in Tank 18, a better understanding of the plutonium speciation in the Tank 18 waste (including the oxidation state and stoichiometry) is desired. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilized Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to analyze Tank 18 samples to provide information on the speciation of plutonium in the waste material. XRD analysis of the Tank 18 samples did not identify any plutonium mineral phases in the samples. These indicates the crystalline mineral phases of plutonium are below the detection limits of the XRD method or that the plutonium phase(s) lack long range order and are present as amorphous or microcrystalline solids. SEM analysis of the Tank 18 samples did locate particles containing plutonium. The plutonium was found as small particles, usually <1 {micro}m but ranging up to several micrometers in diameter, associated with particles of an iron matrix and at low concentration in other elemental matrices. This suggests the plutonium has an affinity for the iron matrix. Qualitatively, the particles of plutonium found in the SEM analysis do not appear to account for all of the plutonium in the sample based on concentrations determined from the chemical analysis of the Tank 18 samples. This suggests that plutonium is also distributed throughout the solids in low concentrations.

  18. Stimulated Electronic X-Ray Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weninger, Clemens; Purvis, Michael; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A.; Bozek, John D.; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Brown, Gregory; Rocca, Jorge J.; Rohringer, Nina

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate strong stimulated inelastic x-ray scattering by resonantly exciting a dense gas target of neon with femtosecond, high-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). A small number of lower energy XFEL seed photons drive an avalanche of stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering processes that amplify the Raman scattering signal by several orders of magnitude until it reaches saturation. Despite the large overall spectral width, the internal spiky structure of the XFEL spectrum determines the energy resolution of the scattering process in a statistical sense. This is demonstrated by observing a stochastic line shift of the inelastically scattered x-ray radiation. In conjunction with statistical methods, XFELs can be used for stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, with spectral resolution smaller than the natural width of the core-excited, intermediate state.

  19. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1992-10-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ({mu}-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  20. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F. . Dept. of Chemistry); Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ([mu]-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  1. Single shot speckle and coherence analysis of the hard X-ray free electron laser LCLS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooheyong; Roseker, W; Gutt, C; Fischer, B; Conrad, H; Lehmkhler, F; Steinke, I; Zhu, D; Lemke, H; Cammarata, M; Fritz, D M; Wochner, P; Castro-Colin, M; Hruszkewycz, S O; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Grbel, G; Robert, A

    2013-10-21

    The single shot based coherence properties of hard x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) were measured by analyzing coherent diffraction patterns from nano-particles and gold nanopowder. The intensity histogram of the small angle x-ray scattering ring from nano-particles reveals the fully transversely coherent nature of the LCLS beam with a number of transverse mode ?Ms? = 1.1. On the other hand, the speckle contrasts measured at a large wavevector yields information about the longitudinal coherence of the LCLS radiation after a silicon (111) monochromator. The quantitative agreement between our data and the simulation confirms a mean coherence time of 2.2 fs and a x-ray pulse duration of 29 fs. Finally the observed reduction of the speckle contrast generated by x-rays with pulse duration longer than 30 fs indicates ultrafast dynamics taking place at an atomic length scale prior to the permanent sample damage. PMID:24150309

  2. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zhang, Wenkai; Robert, Aymeric; Zhu, Diling

    2015-04-14

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus' location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging.

  3. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zhang, Wenkai; Robert, Aymeric; Zhu, Diling

    2015-01-01

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging. PMID:25931074

  4. Degradation of spatial resolution in thin-foil x-ray microchemical analysis due to plural scattering of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Twigg, Mark Erickson

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based Monte Carlo simulation of incoherent plural scattering of electrons has been developed in order to estimate the broadening of an electron probe as it propagates through a solid. By applying this approach to modeling the spreading of a fine (50 A) probe focused on a thin foil in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), we have estimated the spatial resolution of the compositional analysis obtainable using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Specifically, an attempt has been made to determine how the apparent microchemistry of a feature of finer dimensions than the broadened beam differs from the actual composition of the given feature. The apparent Ge concentration profile in the vicinity of a 200 A wide Ge platelet in a 5000 A thick Al foil was measured, using STEM and EDS, and compared with the profile predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Results are presented and discussed.

  5. X-ray Topographic Methods and Application to Analysis of Electronic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, W. E.; Liu, H. Y.; Chaudhuri, J.

    1984-01-01

    Three supplementary X-ray techniques new to semiconductor applications are discussed. These are the Computer Aided Rocking Curve Analyzer, the Divergent Beam Method and a new method based on enhanced X-ray flourescence. The first method is used for quantitative mapping of an elastic or plastic strain field while the other two methods are used only to measure elastic strains. The divergent beam method is used for measuring the full strain tensor while the microfluorescence method is useful for monitoring strain uniformity. These methods are discussed in detail and examples of their application is presented. Among these are determination of the full strain ellipsoid in state-of-the-art liquid phase epitaxy deposited III-V epitaxial films; mapping of the plastic strain concentrations in tensile deformed Si; and quantitative determination of damage in V3Si due to ion implantation.

  6. Multivariate analysis of X-ray, ion and electron spectral images: from surface to 3D materials characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2005-02-01

    Spectral imaging where a complete spectrum is collected from each of a series of spatial locations (1D lines, 2D images or 3D volumes) is now available on a wide range of analytical tools - from electron and x-ray to ion beam instruments. With this capability to collect extremely large spectral images comes the need for automated data analysis tools that can rapidly and without bias reduce a large number of raw spectra to a compact, chemically relevant, and easily interpreted representation. It is clear that manual interrogation of individual spectra is impractical even for very small spectral images (< 5000 spectra). More typical spectral images can contain tens of thousands to millions of spectra, which given the constraint of acquisition time may contain between 5 and 300 counts per 1000-channel spectrum. Conventional manual approaches to spectral image analysis such as summing spectra from regions or constructing x-ray maps are prone to bias and possibly error. One way to comprehensively analyze spectral image data, which has been automated, is to utilize an unsupervised self-modeling multivariate statistical analysis method such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR). This approach has proven capable of solving a wide range of analytical problems based upon the counting of x-rays (SEM/STEM-EDX, XRF, PIXE), electrons (EELS, XPS) and ions (TOF-SIMS). As an example of the MCR approach, a STEM x-ray spectral image from a ZrB2-SiC composite was acquired and analyzed. The data were generated in a FEI Tecnai F30-ST TEM/STEM operated at 300kV, equipped with an EDAX SUTW x-ray detector. The spectral image was acquired with the TIA software on the STEM at 128 by 128 pixels (12nm/pixel) for 100msec dwell per pixel (total acquisition time was 30 minutes) with a probe of approximately the same size as each pixel. Each spectrum in the image had, on average, 500 counts. The calculation took 5 seconds on a PC workstation with dual 2.4GHz PentiumIV Xeon processors and 2Gbytes of RAM and resulted in four chemically relevant components, which are shown in Figure 1. The analysis region was at a triple junction of three ZrB2 grains that contained zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide and a glass phase. The power of unbiased statistical methods, such as MCR as applied here, is that no a priori knowledge of the material's chemistry is required. The algorithms, in this case, effectively reduced over 16,000 2000-channel spectra (64Mbytes) to four images and four spectral shapes (72kbytes), which in this case represent chemical phases. This three order of magnitude compression is achieved rapidly with no loss of chemical information. There is also the potential to correlate multiple analytical techniques like, for example, EELS and EDS in the STEM adding sensitivity to light elements as well as bonding information for EELS to the more comprehensive spectral coverage of EDS.

  7. Independent-electron analysis of the x-ray spectra from single-electron capture in Ne10 + collisions with He, Ne, and Ar atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Anthony C. K.; Kirchner, Tom

    2015-09-01

    We present a theoretical study on the x-ray spectra from single-electron capture in 4.54 keV/amu Ne10 +-He, -Ne, and -Ar collisions. Single-particle capture probabilities were calculated using the two-center basis generator method within the independent electron model. In this framework we investigated the effects of a time-dependent screening potential that models target response on capture cross sections and x-ray spectra. Excellent agreement is shown with the previously measured relative cross sections and x-ray spectra and calculations based on the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method using the no-response single-particle electron capture probabilities in a multinomial single-electron capture analysis. Our results demonstrate the importance of using this consistent statistical analysis of single-electron capture within the independent electron model; a requirement that a previous calculation for the same collision problem using the two-center atomic-orbital close-coupling method may not have considered.

  8. X-ray Free-electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Feldhaus, J.; Arthur, J.; Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC

    2007-02-23

    In a free-electron laser (FEL) the lasing medium is a high-energy beam of electrons flying with relativistic speed through a periodic magnetic field. The interaction between the synchrotron radiation that is produced and the electrons in the beam induces a periodic bunching of the electrons, greatly increasing the intensity of radiation produced at a particular wavelength. Depending only on a phase match between the electron energy and the magnetic period, the wavelength of the FEL radiation can be continuously tuned within a wide spectral range. The FEL concept can be adapted to produce radiation wavelengths from millimeters to Angstroms, and can in principle produce hard x-ray beams with unprecedented peak brightness, exceeding that of the brightest synchrotron source by ten orders of magnitude or more. This paper focuses on short-wavelength FELs. It reviews the physics and characteristic properties of single-pass FELs, as well as current technical developments aiming for fully coherent x-ray radiation pulses with pulse durations in the 100 fs to 100 as range. First experimental results at wavelengths around 100 nm and examples of scientific applications planned on the new, emerging x-ray FEL facilities are presented.

  9. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  10. Classification and assessment of retrieved electron density maps in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is one of the techniques used to visualize structures of non-crystalline particles of micrometer to submicrometer size from materials and biological science. In the structural analysis of CXDI, the electron density map of a sample particle can theoretically be reconstructed from a diffraction pattern by using phase-retrieval (PR) algorithms. However, in practice, the reconstruction is difficult because diffraction patterns are affected by Poisson noise and miss data in small-angle regions due to the beam stop and the saturation of detector pixels. In contrast to X-ray protein crystallography, in which the phases of diffracted waves are experimentally estimated, phase retrieval in CXDI relies entirely on the computational procedure driven by the PR algorithms. Thus, objective criteria and methods to assess the accuracy of retrieved electron density maps are necessary in addition to conventional parameters monitoring the convergence of PR calculations. Here, a data analysis scheme, named ASURA, is proposed which selects the most probable electron density maps from a set of maps retrieved from 1000 different random seeds for a diffraction pattern. Each electron density map composed of J pixels is expressed as a point in a J-dimensional space. Principal component analysis is applied to describe characteristics in the distribution of the maps in the J-dimensional space. When the distribution is characterized by a small number of principal components, the distribution is classified using the k-means clustering method. The classified maps are evaluated by several parameters to assess the quality of the maps. Using the proposed scheme, structure analysis of a diffraction pattern from a non-crystalline particle is conducted in two stages: estimation of the overall shape and determination of the fine structure inside the support shape. In each stage, the most accurate and probable density maps are objectively selected. The validity of the proposed scheme is examined by application to diffraction data that were obtained from an aggregate of metal particles and a biological specimen at the XFEL facility SACLA using custom-made diffraction apparatus. PMID:26698079

  11. NASA Li/CF(x) cell problem analysis: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    1991-01-01

    An analysis was made of Lithium/carbon fluoride cell parts for possible chloride contamination induced by exposure to thionyl chloride (SOCl2); various samples were submitted for analysis. Only a portion of the analysis which has been conducted is covered, herein, namely analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS). A strip of nickel was exposed to SOCl2 vapors to observe variations in surface concentrations of sulfur and chlorine with time. By detecting chlorine one can not infer contamination by SOCl2 only that contamination is present. Six samples of stainless steel foil were analyzed for chlorine using EDS. Chlorine was not detected on background samples but was detected on the samples which had been handled including those which had been cleaned. Cell covers suspected of being contaminated while in storage and covers which were not exposed to the same storage conditions were analyzed for chlorine. Although no chlorine was found on the covers from cells, it was found on all stored covers. Results are presented with techniques shown for analysis and identification. Relevant photomicrographs are presented.

  12. ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

    2010-09-01

    Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  13. Localization of electron acceleration in solar flares based on the spectrum analysis of hard X-ray time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charikov, Yu. E.; Globina, V. I.; Shabalin, A. N.; Elfimova, E.

    2015-12-01

    Data on hard X-rays of solar flares recorded by the BATSE spectrometer are analyzed. Time delays were determined and their spectra were constructed for X-ray profiles at different energies. The X-ray emission of 82 flares was analyzed, and three types of time delay spectra were identified, i.e., decaying spectra, U-shaped spectra, and spectra that grow with increasing photon energy. In order to interpret delay spectra, the kinetic model of accelerated electrons that propagate in the plasma of the flare loop with a converging magnetic field was considered. Two cases of electron injection were investigated, i.e., isotropic injection and injection in a pitch-angle cone. Of particular note is that delay spectra that decay with increasing energy can be explained only in the case of the spatial diversity of areas of injection and acceleration and a small change in the magnetic field with altitude or if magnetic inhomogeneities is present. Calculations have also shown different types of delay spectra at the top and footpoints of the loop, which are determined by the dynamics of electrons in the loop when selecting different initial conditions, loop geometry, and spatial localization of the areas of acceleration and injection.

  14. STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAX (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSOPY WITH AUTOMATED IMAGE ANALYSIS AND X-RAY ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY) RESULTS FOR RECEPTOR MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hundreds of thousands of individual particle measurements may be accumulated in a receptor model study employing Scanning electron microscopy with Automated image analysis and X-ray energy spectroscopy (SAX). At present, the summaries of these data are utilized in apportionment c...

  15. Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy at an X-ray Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higley, Daniel; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua; Moeller, Stefan; Mitra, Ankush; Tsukamoto, Arata; Marvel, Robert; Haglund, Richard; Durr, Hermann; Stohr, Joachim; Dakovski, Georgi

    2015-03-01

    X-ray free electron lasers, providing coherent, ultrafast, high intensity x-ray pulses, have enabled groundbreaking scattering experiments to probe the atomic structure of materials on femtosecond timescales. Nonetheless, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), one of the most fundamental and common x-ray techniques practiced at synchrotron light sources, has proven challenging to conduct with satisfactory signal-to-noise levels at soft x-ray energies using free electron laser sources. The ability to routinely collect high quality XAS spectra, especially in a time-resolved manner, will open many new scientific possibilities in the areas of ultrafast demagnetization, phase transitions and chemical dynamics to highlight a few. Here, we report how XAS using total fluorescence yield detection yields high signal-to-noise x-ray absorption spectra at an x-ray free electron laser source. Data were collected over multiple absorption edges on technologically relevant materials. These measurements were recorded on the Soft X-Ray Materials Science instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The results are easily extendable to time-resolved measurements.

  16. Electron dynamics in WDM with x-ray pump/x-ray probe at LCLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbrel, Benjamin; Falcone, Roger; Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried; Ravasio, Alessandra; Galtier, Eric; Engelhorn, Kyle; Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Monaco, Giulio; Saunders, Alison; Fletcher, Luke; Hastings, Jerome; Zastrau, Ulf; MacDonald, Mac; Schumaker, Will; Gautier, Maxence; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Gamboa, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Recent machine developments at LCLS have led to the capability for the FEL to deliver two x-ray pulses separated both in time and photon energy. This enables x-ray pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed to study the ultrafast dynamics of electrons in warm dense matter (WDM) plasmas. Such experiments open a window over the first tens of femtoseconds of the time evolution of non-equilibrium electronic distribution in dense plasmas. We recently conducted an LCLS-MEC experiment in which thin metallic foils where irradiated with two x-ray pulses. The first x-ray pulse isochorically heats up the material, and the second one probes the electronics properties of the sample in the first 100 fs of its evolution via x-ray Thomson scattering. In this presentation I will discuss the first results of this experiments as well as the potential of x-ray pump/x-ray probe experiments for WDM science.

  17. VETA-I x ray test analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, R. J. V.; Chartas, G.; Freeman, M. D.; Hughes, J. P.; Kellogg, E. M.; Podgorski, W. A.; Schwartz, D. A.; Zhao, P.

    1992-01-01

    This interim report presents some definitive results from our analysis of the VETA-I x-ray testing data. It also provides a description of the hardware and software used in the conduct of the VETA-I x-ray test program performed at the MSFC x-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). These test results also serve to supply data and information to include in the TRW final report required by DPD 692, DR XC04. To provide an authoritative compendium of results, we have taken nine papers as published in the SPIE Symposium, 'Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Projection Lithography' and have reproduced them as the content of this report.

  18. Angular and polarization analysis of x-rays emitted from highly-charged, few-electron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.; Jentschura, U. D.; Sthlker, T.

    2007-11-01

    The recent theoretical progress in studying the x-ray emission from highly-charged, few-electron ions is reviewed. These case studies show that relativistic, high-Z ions provide a unique tool for better understanding the interplay between the electron-photon and electron-electron interactions in strong fields. Most naturally, this interplay is probed by the radiative capture of a (quasi-) free electron into the bound states of projectile ions, and by varying the charge state and the energy of the projectiles. For the capture into initially hydrogen-and lithium-like ions, here we summarize the recent results for the angular distribution and polarization of the recombination photons as well as the subsequent K? emission, if the electron is captured into an excited state of the ion.

  19. Use of electron microprobe x-ray analysis for determination of low calcium concentrations across leaves deficient in calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An electron microprobe with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) was found to be useful for the determination of Ca concentrations in leaf tissue deficient in Ca. WDS effectively detected Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/g dry wt in the presence of high levels of K and Mg (120 and 50 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Leaf specimens were prepared for analysis by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and freeze-drying at -20 degrees C to maintain elemental integrity within the tissue. Because dry material was analyzed, sample preparation was simple and samples could be stored for long periods before analysis. A large beam diameter of 50 gm was used to minimize tissue damage under the beam and analyze mineral concentrations within several cells at one time. Beam penetration was between 50 and 55 microns, approximately one-third of the thickness of the leaf. For analysis of concentrations in interveinal areas, analyses directed into the abaxial epidermis were found most useful. However, because of limited beam penetration, analyses of veinal areas would require use of cross sections [correction of crosssections]. Solid mineral standards were used for instrument standardization. To prevent measurement errors resulting from differences between the matrix of the mineral standards and the analyzed tissue, concentrations in leaves were corrected using gelatin standards prepared and analyzed under the same conditions. WDS was found to be useful for documenting that very low Ca levels occur in specific areas of lettuce leaves exhibiting the Ca deficiency injury termed tipburn.

  20. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  1. Studies on x-ray and UV emissions in electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S.

    2008-02-15

    A novel electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source is constructed based on the ECR technique. In this paper, the possibility of using the ECR x-ray source for producing UV rays by optimizing the plasma parameters is explored. X-ray and UV emissions from the ECR x-ray source are carried out for argon, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} plasma. The x-ray spectral and dose measurements are carried with NaI(Tl) based spectrometer and dosimeter, respectively. For UV measurement, a quartz window arrangement is made at the exit port and the UV intensity is measured at 5 cm from the quartz plate using UV meter. The x-ray and UV emissions are carried out for different microwave power levels and gas pressures. The x-ray emission is observed in the pressure range {<=}10{sup -5} Torr, whereas the UV emission is found to be negligible for the gas pressures <10{sup -5} Torr and it starts increasing in the pressure range between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -3} Torr. At high-pressure range, collision frequency of electron-atom is large which leads to the higher UV flux. At low pressure, the electron-atom collision frequency is low and hence the electrons reach high energy and by hitting the cavity wall produces higher x-ray flux. By choosing proper experimental conditions and plasma gas species, the same source can be used as either an x-ray source or an UV source.

  2. Development of scanning electron and x-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Tomokazu; Hirano, Tomohiko; Suyama, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new type of microscope possessing a unique feature of observing both scanning electron and X-ray images under one unit. Unlike former X-ray microscopes using SEM [1, 2], this scanning electron and X-ray (SELX) microscope has a sample in vacuum, thus it enables one to observe a surface structure of a sample by SEM mode, to search the region of interest, and to observe an X-ray image which transmits the region. For the X-ray observation, we have been focusing on the soft X-ray region from 280 eV to 3 keV to observe some bio samples and soft materials. The resolutions of SEM and X-ray modes are 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively, at the electron energy of 7 keV.

  3. Novel chemical analysis for thin films - Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) - X-ray take-off angle effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Toshio; Kamei, Masayuki; Aoki, Yuji; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied for fluorescence X-ray analysis of 50 A- and 125 A-thick Au thin films on Si(100). The intensity of the AuM line (2.15 keV) emitted from the Au thin films varied as a function of the take-off angle (theta sub t) with respect to the film surface; the intensity of AuM line from the 125 A-thick Au thin film was 1.5 times as large as that of SiK-alpha line (1.74 keV) emitted from the Si substrate when theta sub t is 0-3 deg, in the vicinity of a critical angle for total external reflection of the AuM line at Si (0.81 deg). In addition, the intensity of the AuM line emitted from the 50 A-thick Au thin film was also sufficiently strong for chemical analysis.

  4. Analysis of 20 KEV Electron Induced X-Ray Production in Skull, Femur/tibia Bones of Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rahul; Watson, Alec; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2010-04-01

    Hind-limb suspension (HLS) of rats is a NASA validated model of simulated weightlessness. This study examines the effects of microgravity on the skeletal system of rats to assess whether or not exposure of rats to HLS for one week will induce alteration of structural features in selected bones. Four groups of rats were used: two unsuspended controls and two suspended groups. Body weight, food, and water intake were monitored daily before and after suspension. X-rays were measured by a liquid nitrogen cooled Si(li) detector on a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that provided the 20 keV electron beam. X-ray data were collected from square cross sections between 100 μm2 and 104 μm2. The bones were measured for elemental levels of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon from both control and HLS rats. The average body weight of all HLS groups decreased compared to their respective unsuspended controls. Food and water intake was also lower in both suspended groups. A correlation among HLS and control samples in terms of the distribution of the primary elements was found in the bone tissue when analyzed as a function of position along the hind-leg and within the cross sections.

  5. The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey. II. X-ray spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, P.; Moretti, A.; Tundo, E.; Liu, T.; Rosati, P.; Borgani, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; D'Avanzo, P.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We present a spectral analysis of a new, flux-limited sample of 72 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies identified with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite down to a flux limit of ~10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 (SWXCS). We carry out a detailed X-ray spectral analysis with the twofold aim of measuring redshifts and characterizing the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) for the majority of the SWXCS sources. Methods: Optical counterparts and spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for some of the sources are obtained with a cross-correlation with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Additional photometric redshifts are computed with a dedicated follow-up program with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and a cross-correlation with the SDSS. In addition, we also blindly search for the Hydrogen-like and He-like iron K? emission line complex in the X-ray spectrum. We detect the iron emission lines in 35% of the sample, and hence obtain a robust measure of the X-ray redshift zX with typical rms error 1-5%. We use zX whenever the optical redshift is not available. Finally, for all the sources with measured redshift, background-subtracted spectra are fitted with a single-temperature mekal model to measure global temperature, X-ray luminosity and iron abundance of the ICM. We perform extensive spectral simulations to accounts for fitting bias, and to assess the robustness of our results. We derive a criterion to select reliable best-fit models and an empirical formula to account for fitting bias. The bias-corrected values are then used to investigate the scaling properties of the X-ray observables. Results: Overall, we are able to characterize the ICM of 46 sources with redshifts (64% of the sample). The sample is mostly constituted by clusters with temperatures between 3 and 10 keV, plus 14 low-mass clusters and groups with temperatures below 3 keV. The redshift distribution peaks around z ~ 0.25 and extends up to z ~ 1, with 60% of the sample at 0.1 < z < 0.4. We derive the luminosity-temperature relation for these 46 sources, finding good agreement with previous studies. Conclusions: Thanks to the good X-ray spectral quality and the low background of Swift/XRT, we are able to measure ICM temperatures and X-ray luminosities for the 46 sources with redshifts. Once redshifts are available for the remaining 26 sources, this sample will constitute a well-characterized, flux-limited catalog of clusters distributed over a broad redshift range (0.1 ? z ? 1.0) providing a statistically complete view of the cluster population with a selection function that allows a proper treatment of any measurement bias. The quality of the SWXCS sample is comparable to other samples available in the literature and obtained with much larger X-ray telescopes. Our results have interesting implications for the design of future X-ray survey telescopes, characterized by good-quality PSF over the entire field of view and low background. Tables 1 and 2 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgCatalog and data products of SWXCS, constantly updated, are made available to the public through the websites http://www.arcetri.astro.it/SWXCS/ and http://swxcs.ustc.edu.cn/

  6. Muscle cell membranes from early degeneration muscle cell fibers in Solenopsis are leaky to lanthanum: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.G.; Davis, W.L.

    1985-06-01

    Lanthanum infusion techniques, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis were utilized to compare the permeability of muscle cell membranes from normal and degenerating muscle fibers of Solenopsis spp. In normal fibers, the electron-dense tracer was limited to components of the sarcotubular system. However, the insemination-induced degeneration of muscle fibers was characterized by the presence of an electron-dense precipitate within the myofibrils and mitochondria as well as in the extramyofibrillar spaces. The electron-dense material was subsequently identified by elemental analysis to be lanthanum. Such data indicate that one of the earliest stages of muscle degeneration involves an alteration in cell membrane permeability.

  7. Comparative analysis of isolated cellular organelles by means of soft X-ray contact microscopy with laser-plasma source and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Limongi, T; Palladino, L; Tomassetti, G; Reale, L; Cesare, P; Flora, F; Aimola, P; Ragnelli, A M

    2004-04-01

    Soft X-ray contact microscopy (SXCM) is, at present, a useful tool for the examination at submicrometre resolution of biological systems maintained in their natural hydrated conditions. Among current X-ray-generating devices, laser-plasma sources are now easily available and, owing to their pulse nature, offer the opportunity to observe living biological samples before radiation damage occurs, even if the resolution achievable is not as high as with synchrotron-produced X-rays. To assess the potential of laser-plasma source SXCM in the study of cellular organelles, we applied it for the analysis of chloroplasts extracted from spinach leaves and mitochondria isolated from bovine heart and liver. X-ray radiation was generated by a nanosecond laser-plasma source, produced by a single shot excimer XeCl laser focused onto an yttrium target. The images obtained with SXCM were then compared with those produced by transmission electron microscopy observation of the same samples prepared with negative staining, a technique requiring no chemical fixation, in order to facilitate their interpretation and test the applicability of SXCM imaging. PMID:15049867

  8. The preparation, examination and analysis of frozen hydrated tissue sections by scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Saubermann, A J; Echlin, P

    1975-11-01

    A method is reported for preparing, examining and analysing frozen hydrated tissue sections using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Use of this method permits localization and measurement of water soluble or diffusible elements within the hydrated cell matrix. Since any change in total fresh weight of the specimen will affect the concentration of all components, great care has been taken to demonstrate that the mass neither increases nor decreases and to ensure that the tissue remains frozen-hydrated. Criteria for assessing whether or not the tissue remains frozen-hydrated are reported. After quench freezing, 1-2 mum thick sections of mouse liver were cut at 193 degrees K and picked up on a specially designed annular specimen holder covered with an aluminium coated nylon film. Using a transfer device which prevents contamination of the tissue sections while maintaining them at a low temperature (below 143 degrees K), the sections are transferred either to the vacuum evaporator cold stage or the scanning microscope cold stage. The tissue sections may be coated with an aluminium layer to improve electrical and thermal conductivity. The specimens are examined in the scanning transmission imaging mode and analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray analyser. Concentration of intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic K, P, S and Cl are reported for mouse hepatocytes as ratios of the characteristic radiation to the continuum radiation used as a measure of mass. Ratios for all four elements were higher in the nucleus than the cytoplasm. Examples are given of this method as applied to plant and insect tissue. PMID:765465

  9. Stochastic stimulated electronic x-ray Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kimberg, Victor; Rohringer, Nina

    2016-05-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) is a well-established tool for studying electronic, nuclear, and collective dynamics of excited atoms, molecules, and solids. An extension of this powerful method to a time-resolved probe technique at x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to ultimately unravel ultrafast chemical and structural changes on a femtosecond time scale is often challenging, due to the small signal rate in conventional implementations at XFELs that rely on the usage of a monochromator setup to select a small frequency band of the broadband, spectrally incoherent XFEL radiation. Here, we suggest an alternative approach, based on stochastic spectroscopy, which uses the full bandwidth of the incoming XFEL pulses. Our proposed method is relying on stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where in addition to a pump pulse that resonantly excites the system a probe pulse on a specific electronic inelastic transition is provided, which serves as a seed in the stimulated scattering process. The limited spectral coherence of the XFEL radiation defines the energy resolution in this process and stimulated RIXS spectra of high resolution can be obtained by covariance analysis of the transmitted spectra. We present a detailed feasibility study and predict signal strengths for realistic XFEL parameters for the CO molecule resonantly pumped at the [Formula: see text] transition. Our theoretical model describes the evolution of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the transmitted x-ray radiation, by solving the equation of motion for the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom of the system self consistently with the propagation by Maxwell equations. PMID:26958585

  10. Stochastic stimulated electronic x-ray Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kimberg, Victor; Rohringer, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) is a well-established tool for studying electronic, nuclear, and collective dynamics of excited atoms, molecules, and solids. An extension of this powerful method to a time-resolved probe technique at x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to ultimately unravel ultrafast chemical and structural changes on a femtosecond time scale is often challenging, due to the small signal rate in conventional implementations at XFELs that rely on the usage of a monochromator setup to select a small frequency band of the broadband, spectrally incoherent XFEL radiation. Here, we suggest an alternative approach, based on stochastic spectroscopy, which uses the full bandwidth of the incoming XFEL pulses. Our proposed method is relying on stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where in addition to a pump pulse that resonantly excites the system a probe pulse on a specific electronic inelastic transition is provided, which serves as a seed in the stimulated scattering process. The limited spectral coherence of the XFEL radiation defines the energy resolution in this process and stimulated RIXS spectra of high resolution can be obtained by covariance analysis of the transmitted spectra. We present a detailed feasibility study and predict signal strengths for realistic XFEL parameters for the CO molecule resonantly pumped at the O1s→π* transition. Our theoretical model describes the evolution of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the transmitted x-ray radiation, by solving the equation of motion for the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom of the system self consistently with the propagation by Maxwell equations. PMID:26958585

  11. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  12. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  13. Note: Alignment/focus dependent core-line sensitivity for quantitative chemical analysis in hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using a hemispherical electron analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Conan; Browning, Raymond; Karlin, Barry A.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2013-03-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is an established technique for quantitative chemical analysis requiring accurate peak intensity analysis. We present evidence of focus/alignment dependence of relative peak intensities for peaks over a broad kinetic energy range with a hemispherical electron analyzer operated in a position imaging mode. A decrease of over 50% in the Ag 2p{sub 3/2} to Ag 3d ratio is observed in a Ag specimen. No focus/alignment dependence is observed when using an angular imaging mode, necessitating the use of angular mode for quantitative chemical analysis.

  14. Note: Alignment/focus dependent core-line sensitivity for quantitative chemical analysis in hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using a hemispherical electron analyzer.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Conan; Browning, Raymond; Karlin, Barry A; Fischer, Daniel A; Woicik, Joseph C

    2013-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is an established technique for quantitative chemical analysis requiring accurate peak intensity analysis. We present evidence of focus?alignment dependence of relative peak intensities for peaks over a broad kinetic energy range with a hemispherical electron analyzer operated in a position imaging mode. A decrease of over 50% in the Ag 2p?/? to Ag 3d ratio is observed in a Ag specimen. No focus?alignment dependence is observed when using an angular imaging mode, necessitating the use of angular mode for quantitative chemical analysis. PMID:23556858

  15. Electron beam welder X-rays its own welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Beam of an electron beam welder X rays its own welds, enabling rapid weld quality checks to be made without removing the work from the vacuum chamber. A tungsten target produces X rays when hit by the beam. They are directed at the weld specimen and recorded on polaroid film.

  16. X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Kim W. (Albuquerque, NM); Turman, Bobby N. (Albuquerque, NM); Kaye, Ronald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

  17. X-ray framing camera for pulsed, high current, electron beam x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failor, B. H.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Riordan, J. C.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2007-07-01

    High power x-ray sources built for nuclear weapons effects testing are evolving toward larger overall diameters and smaller anode cathode gaps. We describe a framing camera developed to measure the time-evolution of these 20-50 ns pulsed x-ray sources produced by currents in the 1.5-2.5 MA range and endpoint voltages between 0.2 and 1.5 MV. The camera has up to 4 frames with 5 ns gate widths; the frames are separated by 5 ns. The image data are recorded electronically with a gated intensified CCD camera and the data are available immediately following a shot. A fast plastic scintillator (2.1 ns decay time) converts the x-rays to visible light and, for high sensitivity, a fiber optic imaging bundle carries the light to the CCD input. Examples of image data are shown.

  18. A false report of product tampering involving a rodent and soft drink can: light microscopy, image analysis and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Platek, F; Ranieri, N; Wolnik, K A

    1997-11-01

    The "Pepsi Tamperings" of 1993 resulted in a large number of cases involving foreign objects reportedly found inside canned soft drinks. Although the majority of cases involved medical syringes and metallic objects, one case involved the report of a mouse found inside a can of Caffeine-Free Diet Pepsi. Using light and polarized light microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis, trace evidence and tooth structure from the suspect mouse were matched to scratches and indentions on the suspect can. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to compare and match particles of gnawed metal from the lid of the suspect can to other particles recovered from the muzzle and stomach of the suspect mouse. The forensic analyses in this case proved the mouse could not have been canned in the soft drink product and refuted the defendant's sworn statements. PMID:9397564

  19. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    PubMed

    Spth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. PMID:25553413

  20. Micro and imaging x-ray analysis by using polycapillary x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Yonehara, Tasuku

    2008-08-01

    We have studied the micro x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and 2D- or 3D-XRF analysis in the laboratory by using polycapillary optics. A confocal 3D micro-XRF instrument was applied for solid/liquid interface analysis. 2D elemental maps of x-ray fluorescence for the solid surface of an Fe plate after Cu was deposited by chemical plating were obtained. The 2D images could be taken in the solution. This result suggests that this 3D micro-XRF method is useful for in-situ monitoring of chemical reactions on solid-liquid interfaces. Furthermore, we have reported a new application of polycapillary x-ray optics. Two independent straight polycapillary optics were arranged between the sample and an x-ray energy dispersive detector. X-ray fluorescence emitted from the sample was collimated by the first capillary, and then it was introduced into the second capillary. By adjusting the angle between two capillary optics, only the x-rays totally reflected on the inner wall of the second capillary could be detected by the x-ray detector. This result suggests that we can use these polycapillary optics for x-ray energy filtering optics.

  1. Growth and texture of spark plasma sintered Al2O3 ceramics: A combined analysis of X-rays and electron back scatter diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravarthana, D.; Chateigner, D.; Lutterotti, L.; Lacotte, M.; Marinel, S.; Dubos, P. A.; Hervas, I.; Hug, E.; Salvador, P. A.; Prellier, W.

    2013-04-01

    Textured alumina ceramics were obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering of undoped commercial ?-Al2O3 powders. Various parameters (density, grain growth, grain size distribution) of the alumina ceramics, sintered at two typical temperatures 1400 C and 1700 C, are investigated. Quantitative textural and structural analysis, carried out using a combination of Electron Back Scattering Diffraction and X-ray diffraction, are represented in the form of mapping and pole figures. The mechanical properties of these textured alumina ceramics include high elastic modulus and hardness values with high anisotropic nature, opening the door for a large range of applications.

  2. Solving modulated structures by X-ray and electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Caldes, M T; Deniard, P; Zou, X D; Marchand, R; Diot, N; Brec, R

    2001-07-01

    X-ray diffraction can be used for accurately determining not only classical, ordinary structures, but also modulated ones. For structures with weak modulations, the modulation induced satellite reflections are often hard to be observed by X-ray diffraction, but they appear clearly in electron diffraction. In these cases, X-ray diffraction will give only average structures whereas electron diffraction will yield information about the modulations. Sr(1.4)Ta(0.6)O(2.9) is a complex modulated compound with weak modulation and small modulated domains. Here we demonstrate the power of combining X-ray and electron crystallography for studying modulated structures on powders. The modulations of Sr(1.4)Ta(0.6)O(2.9) were determined from electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images. With specially developed image processing techniques, the weak modulations were enhanced, facilitating the interpretation of HREM images in terms of atomic structure. PMID:11163723

  3. Atmospheric electron-induced x-ray spectrometer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Urgiles, Eduardo; Toda, Risaku; Crisp, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends the work reported at the IEEE Aerospace conference in 2001 and 2003 where the concept and progress in the development of the so called atmospheric Electron X-ray Spectrometer (AEXS) has been described.

  4. SU-E-J-09: A Monte Carlo Analysis of the Relationship Between Cherenkov Light Emission and Dose for Electrons, Protons, and X-Ray Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, A; Zhang, R; Gladstone, D; Pogue, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A number of recent studies have proposed that light emitted by the Cherenkov effect may be used for a number of radiation therapy dosimetry applications. Here we investigate the fundamental nature and accuracy of the technique for the first time by using a theoretical and Monte Carlo based analysis. Methods: Using the GEANT4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) and BEAMnrc for phase space file generation, the light yield, material variability, field size and energy dependence, and overall agreement between the Cherenkov light emission and dose deposition for electron, proton, and flattened, unflattened, and parallel opposed x-ray photon beams was explored. Results: Due to the exponential attenuation of x-ray photons, Cherenkov light emission and dose deposition were identical for monoenergetic pencil beams. However, polyenergetic beams exhibited errors with depth due to beam hardening, with the error being inversely related to beam energy. For finite field sizes, the error with depth was inversely proportional to field size, and lateral errors in the umbra were greater for larger field sizes. For opposed beams, the technique was most accurate due to an averaging out of beam hardening in a single beam. The technique was found to be not suitable for measuring electron beams, except for relative dosimetry of a plane at a single depth. Due to a lack of light emission, the technique was found to be unsuitable for proton beams. Conclusions: The results from this exploratory study suggest that optical dosimetry by the Cherenkov effect may be most applicable to near monoenergetic x-ray photon beams (e.g. Co-60), dynamic IMRT and VMAT plans, as well as narrow beams used for SRT and SRS. For electron beams, the technique would be best suited for superficial dosimetry, and for protons the technique is not applicable due to a lack of light emission. NIH R01CA109558 and R21EB017559.

  5. Possibility of scanning electron microscope observation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis in microscale region of insulating samples using diluted ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Ze, Long; Kawai, Jun

    2012-04-01

    The possibility of scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry analysis in microscale regions of insulating samples using diluted ionic liquid was investigated. It is possible to obtain clear secondary electron images of insulating samples such as a rock and mineral at 5,000 times magnification by dropping 10 ?L of 1 wt% of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMI-CH?COO) diluted with ethanol onto the samples. We also obtained EDX spectra of the samples in microscale regions (~5 ?m) without overlapping EDX spectra of other minerals with different composition. It might be possible to perform quantitative analysis of the samples if a method that does not need standard samples is applied or an X-ray detector sensitive for light elements was attached. The method of dropping 1 wt% EMI-CH?COO diluted with ethanol onto insulating samples is useful for SEM observation, EDX analysis in microscale regions, and the preservation of scarce rock and mineral samples because ionic liquid can be easily removed with acetone. PMID:22364683

  6. Forensic analysis of soil and sediment traces by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Pye, Kenneth; Croft, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of experiments carried out to determine the precision of soil trace comparisons based on elemental peak height ratios determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXRA) in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Experiments were conducted on 'bulk' soil aggregates, ground powders prepared from the <150 microm soil fractions and on smears of both the bulk soil and <150 microm material placed on cotton cloth. X-ray count data were obtained using area scans and spot analyses at different magnifications. The effects on elemental peak height ratios of varying the SEM chamber pressure, beam spot size, emission current and accelerating voltage were also examined. The peak height ratios for oxygen, silicon, aluminium, potassium, calcium and iron were found to show little variation as a function of chamber pressure, spot size and emission current over the ranges examined, but a strong dependency on accelerating voltage was observed. Within-sample variation in results, expressed by the percentage coefficient of variation, was found to be lowest for area scan analyses of the ground <150 microm fractions and greatest for the spot analyses of the bulk soil aggregates and the <150 microm fractions. We conclude that comparison of elemental peak height ratios determined by EDXRA can be a useful tool for rapid screening of soil samples, especially when combined with investigation of other attributes of the soil traces such as colour, fabric and the composition, shapes and surface textures of individual particles or aggregates within the soil traces. If sufficient material is available and can be readily separated without contamination or loss, higher resolution and more precise elemental data should be obtained by methods such as inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) or mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). PMID:16621381

  7. Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-10-22

    The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the NCH3 functional group about 2850cm(-1) is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field. PMID:25459705

  8. Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Neda

    2015-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33 nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the Nsbnd CH3 functional group about 2850 cm-1 is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field.

  9. Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

    2005-07-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating various approaches to minimize the x-ray source size on the Flash X-Ray (FXR) linear induction accelerator in order to improve x-ray flux and increase resolution for hydrodynamic radiography experiments. In order to effectively gauge improvements to final x-ray source size, a fast, robust, and accurate system for measuring the spot size is required. Timely feedback on x-ray source size allows new and improved accelerator tunes to be deployed and optimized within the limited run-time constraints of a production facility with a busy experimental schedule; in addition, time-resolved measurement capability allows the investigation of not only the time-averaged source size, but also the evolution of the source size, centroid position, and x-ray dose throughout the 70 ns beam pulse. Combined with time-resolved measurements of electron beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and current, key limiting factors can be identified, modeled, and optimized for the best possible spot size. Roll-bar techniques are a widely used method for x-ray source size measurement, and have been the method of choice at FXR for many years. A thick bar of tungsten or other dense metal with a sharp edge is inserted into the path of the x-ray beam so as to heavily attenuate the lower half of the beam, resulting in a half-light, half-dark image as seen downstream of the roll-bar; by measuring the width of the transition from light to dark across the edge of the roll-bar, the source size can be deduced. For many years, film has been the imaging medium of choice for roll-bar measurements thanks to its high resolution, linear response, and excellent contrast ratio. Film measurements, however, are fairly cumbersome and require considerable setup and analysis time; moreover, with the continuing trend towards all-electronic measurement systems, film is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to procure. Here, we shall discuss an x-ray source size measurement system which utilizes a traditional roll-bar setup combined with a high resolution gated CCD camera, fast-response organic plastic scintillator, and image processing and analysis software, which is executable on a standard PC running which is executable on a standard PC running LabVIEW and Matlab. Analysis time is reduced from several hours to several minutes, while our experimental results demonstrate good agreement with both traditional film-based roll-bar measurements as well as the entirely unrelated technique of x-ray pinhole camera measurements; in addition, our time-resolved measurements show a significant variation in source size throughout the 70 ns beam pulse, a phenomenon which requires further investigation and indicates the possibility of greatly improving final spot size.

  10. Feasibility of coherent X-ray production by X-ray pumping. [inverting electron population in lithium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csonka, P. L.; Crasemann, B.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested that coherent X-rays can be produced by inverting the electron population in a suitable target, such as Li, through irradiation with X-rays generated by fast electrons traversing an electromagnetic field (as in a storage ring). Conditions to be satisfied by target and radiation parameters are stated, and examples given.

  11. Exotic X-ray Sources from Intermediate Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Jones, J.L.; Lancaster, G.

    2003-08-26

    High intensity x-ray beams are used in a wide variety of applications in solid-state physics, medicine, biology and material sciences. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is currently the primary, high-quality x-ray source that satisfies both brilliance and tunability. The high cost, large size and low x-ray energies of SR facilities, however, are serious limitations. Alternatively, 'novel' x-ray sources are now possible due to new small linear accelerator (LINAC) technology, such as improved beam emittance, low background, sub-Picosecond beam pulses, high beam stability and higher repetition rate. These sources all stem from processes that produce Radiation from relativistic Electron beams in (crystalline) Periodic Structures (REPS), or the periodic 'structure' of laser light. REPS x-ray sources are serious candidates for bright, compact, portable, monochromatic, and tunable x-ray sources with varying degrees of polarization and coherence. Despite the discovery and early research into these sources over the past 25 years, these sources are still in their infancy. Experimental and theoretical research are still urgently needed to answer fundamental questions about the practical and ultimate limits of their brightness, mono-chromaticity etc. We present experimental results and theoretical comparisons for three exotic REPS sources. These are Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS), Channeling Radiation (CR) and Parametric X-Radiation (PXR)

  12. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusinski, J.

    2010-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  13. Bremsstrahlung X-rays from Jovian auroral electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of X-rays from the planet Jupiter is calculated according to an auroral electron beam model. The electrons are assumed to be accelerated by a field-aligned potential drop and penetrate into the atmosphere as a Maxwellian beam of primaries which are scattered, degraded in energy, and merged with a population of ionization secondaries having a power law energy distribution. The soft X-rays observed by the Einstein Observatory satellite are due to bremsstrahlung from the secondary electrons in the H2 atmosphere. The X-ray intensity is best reconciled with a beam of primaries having a characteristic energy 30-100 keV and penetrating the homopause with an auroral energy flux typically of 10-20 ergs/sq cm s but no greater than 50 ergs/sq cm s.

  14. Imaging instantaneous electron flow with ultrafast resonant x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova-Gorelova, Daria; Santra, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We propose a way to image dynamical properties of nonstationary electron systems using ultrafast resonant x-ray scattering. Employing a rigorous theoretical analysis within the framework of quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that a single scattering pattern from a nonstationary electron system encodes the instantaneous interatomic electron current in addition to the structural information usually obtained by resonant x-ray scattering from stationary systems. Thus, inelastic contributions that are indistinguishable from elastic processes induced by a broadband probe pulse, instead of being a concern, serve as an advantage for time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering. Thereby, we propose an approach combining elastic and inelastic resonant x-ray scattering for imaging dynamics of nonstationary electron systems in both real space and real time. In order to illustrate its power, we show how it can be applied to image the electron-hole current in an ionized diatomic molecule.

  15. Structural and electron density changes in dense guest-host systems: Analysis of X-ray diffraction data by the Rietveld and Maximum Entropy Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flacau, Roxana Ioana

    2007-12-01

    When studying the high-pressure structural behavior of crystalline materials, it is highly desirable to determine structural changes accurately, preferably at electron density levels. The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) has already proven to be a very powerful tool for extracting the most probable charge density distributions directly from X-ray diffraction data. This thesis presents high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on two distinct, but structurally similar, classes of guest-host materials: gas clathrate hydrates (M8(H2O)46, with M= Kr, Xe) and silicon clathrate (Ba8Si46). In order to characterize the change of crystalline structure and electron distribution resulting from the increase of density due to the application of high pressure, we have used a recently developed approach wherein the classical Rietveld analysis is complemented iteratively with MEM calculations. It is found that charge density distributions derived from probability maps obtained by MEM provide further, in-depth insights into the structural changes induced by pressure in guest-host compounds. Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds, in which guest atoms or molecules are trapped in cages formed by an ice-like host lattice of water molecules. In recent years, large deposits of methane hydrate (a clathrate hydrate) have been found on the oceanic floors, leading to a considerable interest in the physical properties of gas hydrates. In the present study the crystalline structure I of xenon and krypton hydrates was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction at room temperature, over the pressure ranges for which these compounds are stable. Structure I, which has a cubic symmetry with Pm3n space group, is formed by two types of polyhedron, also referred to as small and large cages. The pressure dependence of the structural parameters was determined by applying a Rietveld analysis to the X-ray diffraction data. To further explore the effect of pressure on the guest atoms and the water molecule framework, we used the combined Rietveld/MEM method to derive the most probable charge density distributions at each pressure. Our results show that the charge density distribution of the encaged atoms differs depending on the type of the host cage, small or large, at all pressures. Spherical density distributions were observed for the guest atoms in the small cages, while the atoms in the large cages showed longitudinal elongated electronic distributions. These findings are common to both Kr and Xe hydrates. Along with the observed cage deformations, this is a clear indication that the guest-host interaction differs significantly between the small and large cages at high pressures. A similar behavior has been previously reported in low-temperature studies of methane clathrate hydrate. The combined Rietveld/MEM method was also successfully applied to explore the subtle changes in the electronic density distribution induced in Ba 8Si46 clathrate by the application of high pressure. This compound has been the object of extensive studies since its superconductivity has been discovered. Previous X-ray diffraction, near-edge X-ray absorption, and Raman spectroscopy studies have revealed two iso-structural phase transitions occurring at 5 and 17 GPa in Ba8Si46; their physical origin, however, was still not clearly understood. In our study, the most probable electron density distributions were calculated using the combined Rietveld/MEM method, with the goal to propose possible mechanisms for the two observed transitions. The examination of the electron density maps, and also electron density difference distributions, revealed that the low pressure transition is related to an enhanced charge transfer of Ba atoms to the Si framework, while the 17 GPa transition is a result of a sudden change in the electron density topology of the Si-Si bonds. As the pressure is increased, the electrons in the Si-Si bonds are displaced from the bonding region into the interstitial region, leading to a weakening of the Si-Si bonds, which explains the large volume reduction accompanying thi

  16. The history of X-ray free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C.

    2012-10-01

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 , pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 1013 to 1011, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  17. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.; ,

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  18. Conformational analysis of an acyclic tetrapeptide: ab-initio structure determination from X-ray powder diffraction, Hirshfeld surface analysis and electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Das, Uday; Naskar, Jishu; Mukherjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    A terminally protected acyclic tetrapeptide has been synthesized, and the crystal structure of its hydrated form, Boc-Tyr-Aib-Tyr-Ile-OMe·2H2 O (1), has been determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data. The backbone conformation of tetrapeptide (1) exhibiting two consecutive β-turns is stabilized by two 4 → 1 intramolecular N-H · · · O hydrogen bonds. In the crystalline state, the tetrapeptide molecules are assembled through water-mediated O-H · · · O hydrogen bonds to form two-dimensional molecular sheets, which are further linked by intermolecular C-H · · · O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supramolecular framework. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface of (1) has been used to supplement the crystallographic observations. The nature of intermolecular interactions in (1) has been analyzed quantitatively through the Hirshfeld surface and two-dimensional fingerprint plot. The DFT optimized molecular geometry of (1) agrees closely with that obtained from the X-ray structure analysis. The present structure analysis of Boc-Tyr-Aib-Tyr-Ile-OMe·2H2 O (1) represents a case where ab-initio crystal structure of an acyclic tetrapeptide with considerable molecular flexibility has been accomplished from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26434376

  19. X-ray Emission from Electron Betatron Motion in a Laser-Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Plateau, Guillaume; Geddes, Cameron; Thorn, Daniel; Matlis, Nicholas; Mittelberger, Daniel; Stoehlker, T; Battaglia, Marco; Kim, Tae; Nakamura, Kei; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19

    Single-shot x-ray spectra from electron bunches produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator (LPA) were measured using a photon-counting single-shot pixelated Silicon-based detector [3], providing for the first time direct spectra without assumptions required by filter based techniques. In addition, the electron bunch source size was measured by imaging a wire target, demonstrating few micron source size and stability. X-rays are generated when trapped electrons oscillate in the focusing field of the wake trailing the driver laser pulse. In addition to improving understanding of bunch emittance and wake structure, this provides a broadband, synchronized femtosecond source of keV x-rays. Electron bunch spectra and divergence were measured simultaneously and preliminary analysis shows correlation between x-ray andelectron spectra. Bremsstrahlung background was managed using shielding and magnetic diversion.

  20. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Grgura, I; Behrens, C; Bromberger, H; Costello, J T; Czwalinna, M K; Felber, M; Hoffmann, M C; Ilchen, M; Liu, H Y; Mazza, T; Meyer, M; Pfeiffer, S; Pr?dki, P; Schefer, S; Schmidt, C; Wegner, U; Schlarb, H; Cavalieri, A L

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  1. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  2. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; et al

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarilymore » by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.« less

  3. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.; Grgura, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Pr?dki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  4. An X-ray Analysis of ? Cru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, Mark; Ignace, R.; Oskinova, L.

    2010-01-01

    The star ? Cru is an early B type subgiant star recently observed by the Chandra Space Telescope. This star is of particular interest due to the observed x-ray emission produced by shocks that form in the stellar wind. We observe hydrogen like O VIII and helium like O VII spectral lines in the Low Energy Transmission Grating spectrum. The O VII produces characteristic triplet line. We provide an analysis of the helium like triplet that explains the conditions in the stellar wind where that line emission is formed. ? Cru is also an ultraviolet bright star, so an International Ultraviolet Explorer observation is used to explain the effect of ultraviolet pumping on the forbidden component of the ? triplet line. The data appear basically consistent with theoretical models of shocks in stellar winds by Owocki, Caster, & Rybicki (1988) and Feldmeier et al. (1997). This project was funded by a partnership between the National Science Foundation (NSF AST-0552798), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), and the Department of Defense (DoD) ASSURE (Awards to Stimulate and Support Undergraduate Research Experiences) programs.

  5. Molecular Imaging Using X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, Anton; Kpper, Jochen; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-04-01

    The opening of hard X-ray free-electron laser facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, has ushered in a new era in structural determination. With X-ray pulse durations down to 10 fs or shorter, and up to 1013 transversely coherent photons per pulse in a narrow spectral bandwidth, focused irradiances of 1018 to 1021 W cm-2 or higher can be produced at X-ray energies ranging from 500 eV to 10 keV. New techniques for determining the structure of systems that cannot be crystallized and for studying the time-resolved behavior of irreversible reactions at femtosecond timescales are now available.

  6. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-Ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Piana, M.; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  7. Electron Microscopic and X-Ray Structural Analysis of the Layered Crystals TaReSe 4: Structure, Defect Structure, and Microstructure, Including Rotation Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. V.; Van Landuyt, J.; Amelinckx, S.; Pervov, V. S.; Makhonina, E. V.

    1998-02-01

    A combined X-ray and electron microscopy analysis was used for structure and microstructure characterisation of the newly synthesized layered compound TaReSe 4. This compound crystallizes in the hexagonal system with lattice parameters a= b=3.32130(4), c=12.95910(16) and ?= ?=90, ?=120 (space group P6 3/ mmc, Z=1, D x=9.161 g/cm 3). X-ray powder structure refinement confirmed TaReSe 4as a full structural analogue of 2H-WSe 2. The defect structure of TaReSe 4is characterized by the presence of a number of rotation twins with twist angles 9.43, 13.17, 17.89, 21.78, and 27.79. Apart from these, a high density of 2D-defects was observed in the (0001) plane. In some cases these results in the formation of an almost periodical "superlattice" with a period along the caxis of about 60 . A simple geometrical theory for the rotations- (R-) twins on the hexagonal lattice has been developed as well. Experimental results on R-twins fit very well the predicted ones based on an explicit formulae derived in this work. Along with the main phase a small admixture of a superstructure phase (<2%) with lattice parameters a'? b'?2 a, c'? c/2 and epitaxially grown on TaReSe 4was found. It was identified from selected area diffraction patterns as the triclinic ReSe 2phase. A self-consistent structure-physical model for the coexistence of R-twins, 2D-defects and prismatic cluster defects in the material is proposed and discussed in view of the experimental results.

  8. ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-08-02

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

  9. Remote X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The legacy of planetary X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) began in 1960 when W. Parish proposed an XRD instrument for deployment on the moon. The instrument was built and flight qualified, but the Lunar XRD program was cancelled shortly before the first human landing in 1969. XRF chemical data have been collected in situ by surface landers on Mars (Viking 1 & 2, Pathfinder) and Venus (Venera 13 & 14). These highly successful experiments provide critical constraints on our current understanding of surface processes and planetary evolution. However, the mineralogy, which is more critical to planetary surface science than simple chemical analysis, will remain unknown or will at best be imprecisely constrained until X-ray diffraction (XRD) data are collected. Recent progress in X-ray detector technology allows the consideration of simultaneous XRD (mineralogic analysis) and high-precision XRF (elemental analysis) in systems miniaturized to the point where they can be mounted on fixed landers or small robotic rovers. There is a variety of potential targets for XRD/XRF equipped landers within the solar system, the most compelling of which are the poles of the moon, the southern highlands of Mars and Europa.

  10. X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, K. E.; Unnam, J.; Naidu, S. V. N.; Houska, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    SOPAD separates overlapping peaks and analyzes derivatives of X-ray diffraction data. SOPAD helps analyst get most information out of available diffraction data. SOPAD uses Marquardt-type nonlinear regression routine to refine initial estimates of individual peak positions, intensities, shapes, and half-widths.

  11. Parametric X-ray radiation along relativistic electron velocity in asymmetric Laue geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Noskov, A. V.

    2009-12-15

    An analysis is presented of the parametric X-ray radiation emitted by a relativistic electron at a small angle to its velocity as it passes through a single-crystal plate in asymmetric Laue geometry (including symmetric geometry as a particular case). Expressions describing the spectral-angular distributions of parametric X-ray radiation, transition radiation, and their interference are obtained. The effect of asymmetry on the spectral-angular distributions is examined.

  12. Harmonic lasing in x-ray free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2012-08-01

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of x-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned x-ray FEL (XFEL) facilities. In particular, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multigigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow one to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other x-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact x-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the parameter space, corresponding to the operating range of soft x-ray beam lines of x-ray FEL facilities (like SASE3 beam line of the European XFEL), harmonics can grow faster than the fundamental wavelength. This feature can be used in some experiments, but might also be an unwanted phenomenon, and we discuss possible measures to diminish it.

  13. OSO-8 soft X-ray wheel experiment: Data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The soft X-ray experiment hardware and its operation are described. The device included six X-ray proportional counters, two of which, numbers 1 and 4, were pressurized with on-board methane gas supplies. Number 4 developed an excessive leak rate early in the mission and was turned off on 1975 day number 282 except for brief (typically 2-hour) periods up to day 585 after which it as left off. Counter 1 worked satisfactorily until 1975 day number 1095 (January 1, 1978) at which time the on-board methane supply was depleted. The other four counters were sealed and all except number 3 worked satisfactorily throughout the mission which terminated with permanent satellie shut-down on day 1369. This was the first large area thin-window, gas-flow X-ray detector to be flown in orbit. The background problems were severe and consumed a very large portion of the data analysis effort. These background problems were associated with the Earth's trapped electron belts.

  14. An optimal design of X-ray target for uniform X-ray emission from an electronic brachytherapy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihsan, Aamir; Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kang, Chang Mu; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-05-01

    We present a novel design of an X-ray target to deliver uniform dose from an electronic brachytherapy system (EBS). This design comprises of a combination of both the reflection- and transmission-type target geometries. Monte-Carlo simulation code MCNP5 has been employed for the calculation of angular distribution of the X-ray intensity produced from various morphologies of X-ray targets. The simulation results reveal that the combinatorial target-assembly is promising and effective in achieving uniformity of X-ray emission over the entire space of solid angle of 4 ? in comparison to a transmission-type target that produces X-rays mainly in the forward direction and a reflection-type target that generates X-rays mostly in the backward direction. As a direct consequence of the uniformity of X-ray emission, the combinatorial target-assembly can impart a uniform dose distribution which makes it suitable as a target of an X-ray tube for EBS.

  15. HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem

    2012-07-20

    We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

  16. PARTICULATE MATTER ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task is primarily concerned with the elemental characterization, by X-ray fluorescence analysis, of particulate matter (PM) collected during active or passive sampling of ambient air. The NERL X-ray fluorescence laboratory is an in-house research facility dedicated to quant...

  17. Hot electron diagnostics using X-rays and Cerenkov radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J.; Fill, E.; Habs, D.; Pretzler, G.; Witte, K.

    2004-07-01

    The propagation of laser-generated hot electrons through matter and across narrow vacuum gaps is studied. We use the ATLAS titanium sapphire laser of Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik to irradiate aluminum and copper foils at intensities of up to 1019 W/cm2, generating electrons with temperatures in the megaelectron volt range. After propagating through the target the electrons are detected by means of visible Cerenkov radiation generated in a dielectric or hard X-rays emitted from an X-ray “fluor.” These diagnostics allow the electrons to be characterized with respect to their energy, number, and directionality. We also investigate the propagation of the hot electrons across narrow vacuum gaps, with a width ranging from 500 [mu]m down to 50 [mu]m. The effect of self-generated fields in preventing electrons from crossing the gap is demonstrated. Implications of these experiments with respect to fast ignitor physics, developing optics for fourth-generation light sources and X-ray lasers are indicated.

  18. Search for X-rays and relativistic electrons in laboratory discharge experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostgaard, Nikolai; Carlson, Brant E.; Grndahl, ystein; Kochkin, Pavlo; Nisi, Ragnhild S.; Gjesteland, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In 2013 discharge experiments were carried out at the Technical University of Eindhoven. The experimental set-up was designed to search for both X-rays and electrons produced in meter-scale sparks using a 1 MV Marx generator. In this paper we present the spatial distribution of signals and examine whether they are X-rays only or X-rays and electrons. Other characteristics of the signals will be presented as well. These experiments are carried out in the context of a larger effort to understand the various phenomena of X-rays and gammas from natural lightning. We acknowledge Z. Scherrer, K. Weber and K. LeCaptain at the Carthage college for supporting the initial data-analysis.

  19. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.; Attac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J.; Wang, X.; Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G.; Gallardo, J.; Pellegrini, C.; Westenskow, G.

    1988-09-09

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be concerted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high fields strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne. Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitable for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Electronic noise compensation in iterative x-ray CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2008-03-01

    Electronic noise compensation can be important for low-dose x-ray CT applications where severe photon starvation occurs. For clinical x-ray CT systems utilizing energy-integrating detectors, it has been shown that the detected x-ray intensity is compound Poisson distributed, instead of the Poisson distribution that is often studied in the literature. We model the electronic noise contaminated signal Z as the sum of a compound Poisson distributed random variable (r.v.) Y and a Gaussian distributed electronic noise N with known mean and variance. We formulate the iterative x-ray CT reconstruction problem with electronic noise compensation as a maximum-likelihood reconstruction problem. However the likelihood function of Z is not analytically trackable; instead of working with it directly, we formulate the problem in the expectation-maximization (EM) framework, and iteratively maximize the conditional expectation of the complete log-likelihood of Y. We further demonstrate that the conditional expectation of the surrogate function of the complete log-likelihood is a legitimate surrogate for the incomplete surrogate. Under certain linearity conditions on the surrogate function, a reconstruction algorithm with electronic noise compensation can be obtained by some modification of one previously derived without electronic noise considerations; the change incurred is simply replacing the unavailable, uncontaminated measurement Y by its conditional expectation E(Y|Z). The calculation of E(Y|Z) depends on the model of Y, N, and Z. We propose two methods for calculating this conditional expectation when Y follows a special compound Poisson distribution - the exponential dispersion model (ED). Our methods can be regarded as an extension of similar approaches using the Poisson model to the compound Poisson model.

  1. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks onmore » the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.« less

  2. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  3. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Patt, M. Wiemann, C.; Weber, N.; Escher, M.; Merkel, M.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Schneider, C. M.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO{sub 3} sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

  4. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E.; Majewska, U.; Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Góźdź, S.

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  5. Uncertainty estimates for electron probe X-ray microanalysis measurements.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E

    2012-11-20

    It has been over 60 years since Castaing (Castaing, R. Application of Electron Probes to Local Chemical and Crystallographic Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Paris, Paris, France, 1951; translated by P. Duwez and D. Wittry, California Institute of Technology, 1955) introduced the technique of electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), yet the community remains unable to quantify some of the largest terms in the technique's uncertainty budget. Historically, the EPMA community has assigned uncertainties to its measurements which reflect the measurement precision portion of the uncertainty budget and omitted terms related to the measurement accuracy. Yet, in many cases, the precision represents only a small fraction of the total budget. This paper addresses this shortcoming by considering two significant sources of uncertainty in the quantitative matrix correction models--the mass absorption coefficient, [?/?], and the backscatter coefficient, ?. Understanding the influence of these sources provides insight into the utility of EPMA measurements, and equally important, it allows practitioners to develop strategies to optimize measurement accuracy by minimizing the influence of poorly known model parameters. PMID:23088729

  6. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.P.; Acremann, Y.; Scherz, A.; Burkhardt, M.; Stohr, J.; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W.F.; Beeck, T.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Wurth, W.; Fohlisch, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy on solids by means of femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Our experiments, carried out at the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH), used a special sample geometry, spectrographic energy dispersion, single shot position-sensitive detection and a data normalization procedure that eliminates the severe fluctuations of the incident intensity in space and photon energy. As an example we recorded the {sup 3}D{sub 1} N{sub 4,5}-edge absorption resonance of La{sup 3+}-ions in LaMnO{sub 3}. Our study opens the door for x-ray absorption measurements on future x-ray FEL facilities.

  7. A Study of the Oxidation Behaviour of Pile Grade A (PGA) Nuclear Graphite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT)

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J.; Scott, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Pile grade A (PGA) graphite was used as a material for moderating and reflecting neutrons in the UK’s first generation Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all but one of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to understand the residual state of the material prior to decommissioning of the cores, in particular the location and concentration of key radio-contaminants such as 14C. The oxidation behaviour of unirradiated PGA graphite was studied, in the temperature range 600–1050°C, in air and nitrogen using thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography to investigate the possibility of using thermal degradation techniques to examine 14C distribution within irradiated material. The thermal decomposition of PGA graphite was observed to follow the three oxidation regimes historically identified by previous workers with limited, uniform oxidation at temperatures below 600°C and substantial, external oxidation at higher temperatures. This work demonstrates that the different oxidation regimes of PGA graphite could be developed into a methodology to characterise the distribution and concentration of 14C in irradiated graphite by thermal treatment. PMID:26575374

  8. A Study of the Oxidation Behaviour of Pile Grade A (PGA) Nuclear Graphite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT).

    PubMed

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J; Scott, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Pile grade A (PGA) graphite was used as a material for moderating and reflecting neutrons in the UK's first generation Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all but one of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to understand the residual state of the material prior to decommissioning of the cores, in particular the location and concentration of key radio-contaminants such as 14C. The oxidation behaviour of unirradiated PGA graphite was studied, in the temperature range 600-1050C, in air and nitrogen using thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography to investigate the possibility of using thermal degradation techniques to examine 14C distribution within irradiated material. The thermal decomposition of PGA graphite was observed to follow the three oxidation regimes historically identified by previous workers with limited, uniform oxidation at temperatures below 600C and substantial, external oxidation at higher temperatures. This work demonstrates that the different oxidation regimes of PGA graphite could be developed into a methodology to characterise the distribution and concentration of 14C in irradiated graphite by thermal treatment. PMID:26575374

  9. {alpha}-Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 10} crystal structure and oxidation mechanism. X-ray and electron diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Satto, C.; Millet, P.; Sciau, P.; Roucau, C.; Galy, J.

    1999-03-15

    The {alpha}-Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 10} structure was determined from Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction powder data and electron diffraction microscopy. {alpha}-Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 10} crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma with a = 5.4704(2) {angstrom}, b = 17.2471(4) {angstrom}, and c = 14.9219(4) {angstrom}. This compound, derived from the Aurivillius family, presents a typical layered structure of alternating (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub 2n} and (VO{sub 3}){sub 2n} layers. These layers are built up by corner-sharing VO{sub 5} square pyramids in the succession along [010] of three pyramids pointing alternately up and down. Structural relationships between this compound and Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 10.66} are described, and a structural mechanism that might explain the oxidation at room temperature of {alpha}-Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 10} into Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 10.66} is proposed.

  10. Electronic structure of Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys: X-ray-absorption fine-structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, A.N.; Dmitrienko, A.; Soldatov, A.V.

    1997-06-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) above the Ni K edge in Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys has been measured and theoretical full multiple-scattering analysis of these data have been done. The theoretical XAFS are found to be in agreement with experimental data. The XAFS of Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys are rather different. Since the dipole transition matrix element is not a very sharp function of the energy the experimental XAFS reflects the averaged in space partial Ni p unoccupied states in the conduction bands of the Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys, showing changes in the electronic structure going from Ni{sub 3}Al to NiAl{sub 3} alloy. Theoretical partial density of states curves calculated along the axis parallel to the c vector differ from the partial density of states curves calculated in the {ital ab} plane for both alloys. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. X ray microscope assembly and alignment support and advanced x ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted recently to the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft x ray application in microscopy and projection lithography. The spherical Schwarzschild microscope consists of two concentric spherical mirrors configured such that the third order spherical aberration and coma are zero. Since multilayers are used on the mirror substrates for x ray applications, it is desirable to have only two reflecting surfaces in a microscope. In order to reduce microscope aberrations and increase the field of view, generalized mirror surface profiles have been considered in this investigation. Based on incoherent and sine wave modulation transfer function (MTF) calculations, the object plane resolution of a microscope has been analyzed as a function of the object height and numerical aperture (NA) of the primary for several spherical Schwarzschild, conic, and aspherical head reflecting two mirror microscope configurations.

  12. Characterization of AN Electron-Cyclotron - Mirror Plasma as a Soft X-Ray Source for X-Ray Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Timothy Paul

    There exists an international race to reduce the linewidths of integrated circuits to the sub-micron level. The results of this race are likely to have a strong impact on both the economic and military independence of this country as our society relies more and more heavily on highly sophisticated electronic equipment in our daily lives and in the defense of the country. One of the leading technologies in attaining sub-micron linewidths is x-ray lithography. Results from the ECRIAXS computer code have suggested that a laboratory-sized electron-cyclotron-resonance -heated mirror plasma may be a viable source for x-ray lithography. This work attempts to investigate this suggestion. A foil-filtered x-ray PIN diode and an x-ray pinhole camera have been used to measure x-ray intensities from krypton and neon plasma. The spatially resolved spectral density of the negatives from the x-ray pinhole camera has been measured. A film modeling code (FILM) has been written which predicts the film response. The code includes the integrated spectral response of the film to plasma x-ray emission that has been filtered by a beryllium foil filter. The PIN diode also yields electron temperatures for the plasmas (T_{rm e} ~ 1.3-4.0 keV). The intensity measurements are compared to computations from the ECRIAXS code. The measurements of the spectrally integrated x-ray intensity are supplemented by the measurement of plasma parameters that can be directly compared with some of the ECRIAXS code outputs. It has been found that the plasma densities that are predicted by the code (e.g. 1.75 times 10^{12 } cm^{-3}) are significantly higher than the experimental measurements (e.g. 4.5 times 10^ {11} cm^{-3} ). Modifications to the code can explain some of the discrepancies; however, the results are reliable only to within an order of magnitude.

  13. Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy with x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D. P.; Acremann, Y.; Scherz, A.; Burkhardt, M.; Stoehr, J.; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W. F.; Beeck, T.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Wurth, W.; Foehlisch, A.

    2009-09-28

    We demonstrate the feasibility of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on solids by means of femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Our experiments, carried out at the FEL at Hamburg used a special sample geometry, spectrographic energy dispersion, single shot position-sensitive detection, and a data normalization procedure that eliminates the severe fluctuations of the incident intensity in space and photon energy. As an example, we recorded the {sup 3}D{sub 1} N{sub 4,5} edge absorption resonance of La{sup 3+} ions in LaMnO{sub 3}. Our study opens the door for x-ray absorption measurements on future x-ray FEL facilities.

  14. Atmospheric Electron-Induced X-Ray Spectrometer (AEXS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Urgiles, Eduardo; Toda, Risaku; George, Thomas; Douglas, Susanne; Crisp, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the progress in the development of the so-called Atmospheric Electron X-ray Spectrometer (AEXS) instrument in our laboratory at JPL. The AEXS is a novel miniature instrument concept based on the excitation of characteristic X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and luminescence spectra using a focused electron beam, for non-destructive evaluation of surfaces of samples in situ, in planetary ambient atmosphere. In situ operation is obtained through the use of a thin electron transmissive membrane to isolate the vacuum within the AEXS electron source from the outside ambient atmosphere. By using a focused electron beam, the impinging electrons on samples in the external atmosphere excite XRF spectra from the irradiated spots with high-to-medium spatial resolution. The XRF spectra are analyzed using an energy-dispersive detector to determine surface elemental composition. The use of high- intensity electron beam results in rapid spectrum acquisition (several minutes), and consequently low energy consumption (several tens of Joules) per acquired XRF spectrum in comparison to similar portable instruments.

  15. Meat Tenderness Evaluation by X-Ray Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krger, Chris; Devine, Carrick; Bartle, C. Murray; West, John G.

    2008-11-01

    We are presenting a method for the non-invasive and fast evaluation of meat tenderness. The method involves the scanning of individual meat samples through an x-ray scanner and the analysis of the resulting images. The x-ray scanner was calibrated on laboratory analyzed samples using the Warner-Bratzler shear force determination method. The trial described in this article resulted in favorable outcome both for beef and lamb meat, suggesting that an overarching correlation between certain aspects of x-ray images of meat and their shear force exists.

  16. Analysis of broadband x-ray spectra of highly charged krypton from a microcalorimeter detector of an electron-beam ion trap.

    PubMed

    Kink, I; Laming, J M; Takács, E; Porto, J V; Gillaspy, J D; Silver, E; Schnopper, H; Bandler, S R; Barbera, M; Brickhouse, N; Murray, S; Madden, N; Landis, D; Beeman, J; Haller, E E

    2001-04-01

    Spectra of highly charged Kr ions, produced in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), have been recorded in a broad x-ray energy band (0.3 keV to 4 keV) with a microcalorimeter detector. Most of the spectral lines have been identified as transitions of B- to Al-like Kr. The transition energies have been determined with 0.2% uncertainty. A semi-empirical EBIT plasma model has been created to calculate a synthetic spectrum of highly charged Kr and to determine a charge state distribution of Kr ions inside the EBIT. PMID:11308958

  17. Corneal silver deposits following Crede's prophylaxis an examination with electron dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX-analysis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Schirner, G.; Schrage, N.F.; Salla, S.; Teping, C.; Reim, M.; Burchard, W.G.; Schwab, B. )

    1990-01-01

    In a case of silver nitrate injury after Crede's prophylaxis, the cornea of a newborn presented yellow-brown, lime-like plaques on the nasal part of the right eye. A paracentral ulcerating stromal opacification undermined these appositions, when the patient was admitted to the eye-clinic at Aachen. In the material obtained by a lamellar keratectomy scanning electron microscopical examination was able to prove the existence of granules, previously described in light-microscopy. These granules measured 100 to 300 nm in diameter. An earlier chemical analysis of necrotic material showed no silver specific reaction. By means of EDX-analysis these granules could be identified as silver-containing. Injuries by silver nitrate solutions used for Crede's prophylaxis are seldom but still reported. The mechanism of injury in this case of a child, born by sectio remains unknown. Neither the use of an unusual silver nitrate solution, that was taken from a disposable ampoule (Mova-Nitrat R) was reported, nor any corneal injury during sectio mentioned. Nevertheless the method of EDX-analysis and SEM proved the diagnosis of corneal silver deposits, so that the origin of the granullar opacification of the cornea could be determined.

  18. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Conti, G.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Nemk, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Trndahl, T.; Fjllstrm, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Fadley, C. S.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO = VBMCIGS - VBMdiamond = 0.3 eV 0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV 0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  19. Glancing Angle Dependence of the X-Ray Emission Measured under Total Reflection Angle X-Ray Spectroscopy (TRAXS) Condition during Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Hanada, Takashi; Ino, Shozo; Daimon, Hiroshi

    1992-10-01

    We measured the glancing angle (?g) dependence of the X-ray emission from Si(111)-\\sqrt{3}\\sqrt{3}-Ag and ?-\\sqrt{3}\\sqrt{3}-Au surfaces during Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction observation under the Total Reflection Angle X-ray Spectroscopy condition. The characteristic X-rays AgL and AuM decreased according to 1/sin ?g. The function 1/\\sin?g is easily understood in terms of Ag and Au atoms located at the top layer of the surface. The SiK and the bremsstrahlung showed broad peaks around 8. These trends of the curves are explained by an analysis using Monte Carlo electron trajectory simulation. By measuring the glancing angle dependence we can easily distinguish whether or not a specific kind of atom is confined at the top layer of the surface.

  20. X-ray absorption and soft x-ray fluorescence analysis of KDP optics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A J; van Buuren, T; Miller, E; Land, T A; Bostedt, C; Franco, N; Whitman, P K; Baisden, P A; Terminello, L J; Callcott, T A

    2000-08-09

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) is a non-linear optical material used for laser frequency conversion and optical switches. Unfortunately, when KDP crystals are coated with a porous silica anti-reflection coating [1] and then exposed to ambient humidity, they develop dissolution pits [2,3]. Previous investigations [2] have shown that thermal annealing renders KDP optics less susceptible to pitting suggesting that a modification of surface chemistry has occurred. X-ray absorption and fluorescence were used to characterize changes in the composition and structure of KDP optics as a function of process parameters. KDP native crystals were also analyzed to provide a standard basis for interpretation. Surface sensitive total electron yield and bulk sensitive fluorescence yield from the K 2p, P 2p (L{sub 2,3}-edge) and O 1s (K-edge) absorption edges were measured at each process step. Soft X-ray fluorescence was also used to observe changes associated with spectral differences noted in the absorption measurements. Results indicate that annealing at 160 C dehydrates the surface of KDP resulting in a metaphosphate surface composition with K:P:O = 1:1:3.

  1. University of California electron and X-ray experiments on ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the University of California solar and interplanetary electron experiment and the solar X-ray experiment is outlined, and the two instruments used are described. The roles of personnel are mentioned and the data analysis projects completed or begun are summarized. A bibliography is included.

  2. Measurement of total calcium in neurons by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ?-160 C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis provided critical insight into mechanisms of excitotoxic injury and another that revealed the basis of ischemia resistance. PMID:24300079

  3. European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (EXFEL): local implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European X-Ray FEL - free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the "proof of principle" was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  4. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy in correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawatzky, George

    2002-03-01

    Resonant x ray scattering is evolving as a very important technique to study the interplay between the atomic structure and the electronic structure of correlated systems like the high Tc superconductors, collossal magneto resistance materials and transition metal compounds in general. The interpretation of the measurements is however far from trivial and reguires approaches which depend strongly on which core levels and valence bands are involved. I will present the basic physics regarding the approximations most suitable for several cases and demonstrate their success with examples from the classes of systems above. It turns out that the transition metal K edge data is not really a direct measure of orbital ordering but rather a measure of the local bond length distortions accompanying the orbital ordering and is well described in density functional band theory. On the other hand soft x ray L edge data is more directly a measure of the orbital as well as spin ordering. These data cannot be described with a band theory approach because of the importance of correlation effects and one must resort to methods like cluster approaches including the strong correlation effects explicitly. In cases where the atom of interest is not at an inversion center new effects in volving dipole and quadrupole channels are important and the experimental studies in these sytems provides direct information on the p-d hybridization in the conduction band. Resonant inelastic scattering in addition provides direct k dependent dispersion relations for a variety of elementary excitations including magnons, phonons and excitons. At soft x ray energies we can expect very strong inelastic scattering for spin flip excitations provided the core state used has a resolved spin orbit coupling.

  5. Food Irradiation Using Electron Beams and X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bruce

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the technology of food irradiation using electron accelerators. Food irradiation has generally come to describe the use of ionizing radiation to decrease the population of, or prevent the growth of, undesirable biological organisms in food. The many beneficial applications include insect disinfestation, sprouting inhibition, delayed ripening, and the enhanced safety and sterilization of fresh and frozen meat products, seafood, and eggs. With special regard to food safety, bacteria such as Salmonella enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 are the primary causes of food poisoning in industrialized countries. Ionizing doses in the range of only 1-5 kilogray (kGy) can virtually eliminate these organisms from food, without affecting the food's sensory and nutritional qualities, and without inducing radioactivity. The key elements of an accelerator-based irradiation facility include the accelerator system, a scanning system, and a material handling system that moves the product through the beam in a precisely controlled manner. Extensive radiation shielding is necessary to reduce the external dose to acceptable levels, and a safety system is necessary to prevent accidental exposure of personnel during accelerator operation. Parameters that affect the dose distribution must be continuously monitored and controlled with process control software. The choice of electron beam vs x-ray depends on the areal density (density times thickness) of the product and the anticipated mass throughput. To eliminate nuclear activation concerns, the maximum kinetic energy of the accelerator is limited by regulation to 10 MeV for electron beams, and 5 MeV for x-rays. From penetration considerations, the largest areal density that can be treated by double-sided electron irradiation at 10 MeV is about 8.8 g/cm2. Products having greater areal densities must be processed using more penetrating x-rays. The mass throughput (dM/dt in kg/s) of an accelerator-based system is proportional to the average beam power (P in kW), and inversely proportional to the minimum required dose (Dm in kGy, with 1 kGy = 1 kJ/kg). The constant of proportionality is the mass throughput efficiency. Throughput efficiencies of 0.4 or better are typical of electron beam installations, but are only 0.025-0.035 for x-ray installations, primarily because of the inefficiency of bremsstrahlung generation at 5 MeV (about 8an axially-coupled, standing-wave, L-band linac with an average power in excess of 100 kW to achieve reasonable throughput rates with x-ray processing. Various design aspects of this new machine will be presented.

  6. Hard x-ray or gamma ray laser by a dense electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S.; Joon Moon, Sung

    2012-06-15

    A dense electron beam propagating through a laser undulator can radiate a coherent x-ray or gamma ray. This lasing scheme is studied with the Landau damping theory. The analysis suggests that, with currently available physical parameters, coherent gamma rays of up to 50 keV can be generated. The electron quantum diffraction suppresses the free electron laser action, which limits the maximum radiation.

  7. Miniature, low-power X-ray tube using a microchannel electron generator electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Wm. Timothy (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Hershyn, William (Inventor); DeLong, David P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a novel, low-power X-ray tube and X-ray generating system. Embodiments of the invention use a multichannel electron generator as the electron source, thereby increasing reliability and decreasing power consumption of the X-ray tube. Unlike tubes using a conventional filament that must be heated by a current power source, embodiments of the invention require only a voltage power source, use very little current, and have no cooling requirements. The microchannel electron generator comprises one or more microchannel plates (MCPs), Each MCP comprises a honeycomb assembly of a plurality of annular components, which may be stacked to increase electron intensity. The multichannel electron generator used enables directional control of electron flow. In addition, the multichannel electron generator used is more robust than conventional filaments, making the resulting X-ray tube very shock and vibration resistant.

  8. Electron probe X-ray analysis on human hepatocellular lysosomes with copper deposits: copper binding to a thiol-protein in lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanaichi, T.; Kidokoro, R.; Hayashi, H.; Sakamoto, N.

    1984-11-01

    Livers of eight patients with chronic liver diseases were investigated by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. First, three kinds of preparations (osmium-Epon sections, glutaraldehyde-frozen sections, and unfixed-frozen sections) were compared for element detectability at a subcellular level. The glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were satisfactory as far as copper, sulfur, and phosphorus were concerned. Five patients (one patient with Wilson's disease, one chronic cholestasis, one chronic hepatitis, and two asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis) yielded x-ray images of copper and sulfur consistent with hepatocellular lysosomes. Second, the glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were utilized for a study of copper deposits in the patients' livers. There was a significant correlation between copper and sulfur contents in the lysosomes of all patients studied but no correlation in the remainder of the cytoplasm. Zinc was not detected in the lysosomes. Whatever the content of copper in the lysosomes, the ratio of delta copper to phosphorus (weight/weight) to delta sulfur to phosphorus was 0.60. These data indicate that most lysosomal copper binds to a thiol protein, probably metallothionein, in the liver.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, David; Castro, Giuseppe; Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József; Caliri, Claudia; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed "on-line" during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis of various alloys. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, J.W. Jr.; Ferguson, M.R.; Eager, M.H.

    1980-02-15

    For a number of years, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been used in the Y-12 Plant Laboratory for the analysis of a wide variety of materials. During the past few years, the technique has been applied to the analysis of a large number of experimental alloys. The general procedure consists of the following steps: (1) ignition of the alloy to oxides, (2) addition of suitable internal standards, (3) dissolution of the oxides and internal standards by sodium tetraborate (borax) fusion, (4) casting a pellet from the fusion in a graphite mold (Figure 1), and (5) determination of the major constituents by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

  11. X-ray fluorescence analysis major elements in silicate minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    An automated wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer is operational for analysis of major elements in rocks and minerals. Procedures for trace-element analysis are being developed. Sample preparation methods and analytical techniques are similar to those commonly used elsewhere, but data reduction is conducted by the Fundamental Parameters program developed by Criss. Unlike empirically derived calibration curves, this data reduction method considers x-ray absorption and secondary fluorescence, which vary with differences in sample composition. X-ray intensities for each element from several standards are averaged to develop a theoretical standard for comparison with samples of unknown composition. Accurate data for samples with wide compositional ranges result from these data reduction and standardization techniques.

  12. X-Ray Free Electron Laser Interaction With Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, S

    2009-05-12

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) will enable studying new areas of laser-matter interaction. We summarize the current understanding of the interaction of XFEL pulses with matter and describe some of the simulation approaches that are used to design experiments on future XFEL sources. Modified versions of these models have been successful in guiding and analyzing experiments performed at the extreme-ultraviolet FEL FLASH at wavelengths of 6 nm and longer. For photon energies of several keV, no XFEL-matter interaction experiments have been performed yet but data is anticipated to become available in the near future, which will allow to test our understanding of the interaction physics in this wavelength regime.

  13. Focusing mirror for x-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Morita, Shinya; Kimura, Takashi; Yamakawa, Daisuke; Lin, Weimin; Uehara, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Tamasaku, Kenji; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2008-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a large total-reflection mirror for focusing x-ray free-electron laser beams to nanometer dimensions. We used an elliptical focusing mirror made of silicon that was 400 mm long and had a focal length of 550 mm. Electrolytic in-process dressing grinding was used for initial-step figuring and elastic emission machining was employed for final figuring and surface smoothing. A figure accuracy with a peak-to-valley height of 2 nm was achieved across the entire area. Characterization of the focused beam was performed at BL29XUL of SPring-8. The focused beam size was 75 nm at 15 keV, which is almost equal to the theoretical size. PMID:19044333

  14. Focusing mirror for x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Takashi; Yamakawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Morita, Shinya; Uehara, Yoshihiro; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Lin, Weimin; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2008-08-15

    We present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a large total-reflection mirror for focusing x-ray free-electron laser beams to nanometer dimensions. We used an elliptical focusing mirror made of silicon that was 400 mm long and had a focal length of 550 mm. Electrolytic in-process dressing grinding was used for initial-step figuring and elastic emission machining was employed for final figuring and surface smoothing. A figure accuracy with a peak-to-valley height of 2 nm was achieved across the entire area. Characterization of the focused beam was performed at BL29XUL of SPring-8. The focused beam size was 75 nm at 15 keV, which is almost equal to the theoretical size.

  15. Development of a quantification method for x-ray microanalysis with an electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horny, Paula

    The overview of the history of quantitative x-ray microanalysis shows the efficiency of the use of standards to achieve the most reliable quantification. State-of-the-art cold field emission gun scanning electron microscopes offer excellent resolution but lack a sufficient level of beam current stability essential for reliable quantitative microanalysis. The purpose of this work is to develop a new method for quantitative x-ray microanalysis adapted to unstable beam current conditions. In the Cliff and Lorimer method, which was developed for the analytical transmission electron microscope, the composition was calculated from the ratio of the characteristic x-ray intensities of two elements in the same spectrum. In this work, this ratio method is applied to bulk specimens in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In order to reduce the amplitude of error propagation, the proposed ratio for SEM quantitative microanalysis is the intensity of a x-ray divided by the sum of intensities of one or more characteristic lines of each of tire elements found in the specimen. Moreover, the calculated x-ray intensities are corrected for the effects of absorption, fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, and other physical factors normally considered in microbeam analysis. Uncertainties in physical parameters and models, clue to the lack of exhaustive measurements as well as their scattering, revealed by a disaggrement between the measured and calculated ratios, are minimized by the use of a calibration factor inserted into the ratio. This calibration factor is determined using a standard for a given element. It can be used as often as needed and allows for the correction of uncertainties in the x-ray detector efficiency. In order to quantify the specimen, the measured experimental ratio is compared to a simulated ratio with the appropriate calibration factor. The composition is interpolated from the theoretical ratio curves. Two methods of calculation of emitted x-ray intensity are proposed, by analytical calculations using the Pouchou and Pichoir model or by an in-house developed Monte Carlo simulation program. Two sets of National Bureau of Standards (NBS) microanalysis standard reference materials, AuCu (SRM 482) and AuAg (SRM 481), are used to validate this method. The comparison of calculated composition with the nominal one underlines the need for a beam-energy-dependent calibration factor, particularly because of ionization cross-section uncertainties. The use of high energy characteristic x-ray lines (above 5 keV) permits accuracy around 3% with a beam-energy-dependent calibration factor. The effects of beam energy, ionization cross-section models, mass-absorption coefficients and x-ray generation methods are compensated by the appropriate calibration factor. The change of the family of characteristic lines affects the accuracy. Finally, as in any quantitative microanalysis, the use of a filter to extract the characteristic intensity causes errors for low energy peaks. The analysis of the effect of calibration factors and mass-absorption coefficient enhances the need for refining the x-ray generation and emission parameters. The error propagation is less important than if using the classical Cliff and Lorimer method in a SEM. However, the use of appropriate calibration factors and pair of lines offers promising accuracy in almost any conditions. This method is independent of the beam current, which is the purpose of this work. Despite many uncertainties of physical parameters, this method offers an efficient and reliable alternative to quantitative x-ray microanalysis with any electron microscope. Although developed for a binary material, the method can be extended to heterogeneous, rough, multiple-component materials, inasmuch as it can be simulated with a Monte Carlo program or any other method that computes characteristic x-ray lines intensities.

  16. Detection of terrestrial radionuclides with X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Trojek, T; Čechák, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of analytical methods frequently used to identify terrestrial radionuclides in samples. While radioactivity is normally measured through the ionising radiation produced during the spontaneous decay of unstable atoms, selected radionuclides or their chemical elements can be quantified with instrumental techniques based on stimulated emission or counting of atoms. The advantages and disadvantages of these analytical methods are discussed. Particular attention is paid to X-ray fluorescence analysis of materials containing uranium and thorium. It is also possible to determine the area distributions of these chemical elements in samples with the use of scanning X-ray fluorescence systems. PMID:25977354

  17. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

  18. In Situ X-Ray Analysis of Protein Crystals in Low-Birefringent And X-Ray Transmissive Plastic Microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, J.D.; Clark, P.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Kuhn, P.

    2009-05-22

    Plastic microchannel crystallization template designs made from inexpensive cyclic olefin copolymers have been shown to be low-birefringent, X-ray transmissive and compatible with microfluidic fabrication in restricted geometry. The model proteins thaumatin, lysozyme and bacteriorhodopsin demonstrated the feasibility of conducting counter-diffusion equilibration within the new plastic configuration. Crystals of each of these proteins were directly evaluated in situ using synchrotron radiation and their diffraction quality was evaluated without invasive manipulation or cryofreezing. Protein crystals able to produce complete X-ray data sets were used to calculate electron-density maps for structure determination. Fluidic crystallization in the plastic platform was also coupled with a commercialized automated imager and an in situ X-ray scanner that allowed optical and X-ray inspection of crystallization hits. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rapid nanovolume counter-diffusion crystallization experiments without the need for additional instrumentation.

  19. X-RAY EMISSION ANALYSIS: SAMPLE LOSSES DURING EXCITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many samples of atmospheric aerosols and biological materials containing volatile or unstable species are now being examined by X-ray emission analysis, and loss of these species by sample heating is a critical consideration. The amount of heat energy deposited in a sample by the...

  20. Manganese binding properties of human calprotectin under conditions of high and low calcium: X-ray crystallographic and advanced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Derek M; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bowman, Sarah E J; Stich, Troy A; Drennan, Catherine L; Britt, R David; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial protein calprotectin (CP), a hetero-oligomer of the S100 family members S100A8 and S100A9, is the only identified mammalian Mn(II)-sequestering protein. Human CP uses Ca(II) ions to tune its Mn(II) affinity at a biologically unprecedented hexahistidine site that forms at the S100A8/S100A9 interface, and the molecular basis for this phenomenon requires elucidation. Herein, we investigate the remarkable Mn(II) coordination chemistry of human CP using X-ray crystallography as well as continuous-wave (CW) and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. An X-ray crystallographic structure of Mn(II)-CP containing one Mn(II), two Ca(II), and two Na(I) ions per CP heterodimer is reported. The CW EPR spectrum of Ca(II)- and Mn(II)-bound CP prepared with a 10:0.9:1 Ca(II):Mn(II):CP ratio is characterized by an unusually low zero-field splitting of 485 MHz (E/D = 0.30) for the S = 5/2 Mn(II) ion, consistent with the high symmetry of the His6 binding site observed crystallographically. Results from electron spin-echo envelope modulation and electron-nuclear double resonance experiments reveal that the six Mn(II)-coordinating histidine residues of Ca(II)- and Mn(II)-bound CP are spectroscopically equivalent. The observed (15)N (I = 1/2) hyperfine couplings (A) arise from two distinct classes of nitrogen atoms: the coordinating ?-nitrogen of the imidazole ring of each histidine ligand (A = [3.45, 3.71, 5.91] MHz) and the distal ?-nitrogen (A = [0.11, 0.18, 0.42] MHz). In the absence of Ca(II), the binding affinity of CP for Mn(II) drops by two to three orders of magnitude and coincides with Mn(II) binding at the His6 site as well as other sites. This study demonstrates the role of Ca(II) in enabling high-affinity and specific binding of Mn(II) to the His6 site of human calprotectin. PMID:25597447

  1. Hard-X-ray magnetic microscopy and local magnetization analysis using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motohiro

    2014-11-01

    X-ray measurement offers several useful features that are unavailable from other microscopic means including electron-based techniques. By using X-rays, one can observe the internal parts of a thick sample. This technique basically requires no high vacuum environment such that measurements are feasible for wet specimens as well as under strong electric and magnetic fields and even at a high pressure. X-ray spectroscopy using core excitation provides element-selectivity with significant sensitivities to the chemical states and atomic magnetic moments in the matter. Synchrotron radiation sources produce a small and low-divergent X-ray beam, which can be converged to a spot with the size of a micrometer or less using X-ray focusing optics. The recent development in the focusing optics has been driving X-ray microscopy, which has already gone into the era of X-ray nanoscopy. With the use of the most sophisticated focusing devices, an X-ray beam of 7-nm size has successfully been achieved [1]. X-ray microscopy maintains above-mentioned unique features of X-ray technique, being a perfect complement to electron microscopy.In this paper, we present recent studies on magnetic microscopy and local magnetic analysis using hard X-rays. The relevant instrumentation developments are also described. The X-ray nanospectroscopy station of BL39XU at SPring-8 is equipped with a focusing optics consisting of two elliptic mirrors, and a focused X-ray beam with the size of 100 × 100 nm(2) is available [2]. Researchers can perform X-ray absorption spectroscopy: nano-XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) using the X-ray beam as small as 100 nm. The available X-ray energy is from 5 to 16 keV, which allows nano-XAFS study at the K edges of 3d transition metals, L edges of rare-earth elements and 5d noble metals. Another useful capability of the nanoprobe is X-ray polarization tunability, enabling magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy with a sub-micrometer resolution. Scanning XMCD imaging, XMCD measurement in local areas, and element-specific magnetometry for magnetic particles/magnetic devices as small as 100 nm can be performed. Nano-XAFS application includes visualization of the chemical state in a particle catalyst [3] and phase-change memory devices [4]. For magnetic microscopic study, magnetization reversal processes of an individual magnetic CoPt dot in bit-patterned media have directly been observed [2]. Imaging of the chemical distribution and magnetic domain evolution in a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet in demagnetization processes is presented. PMID:25359804

  2. Soft X-ray Measurement of the Thermal Electron Temperature on the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Matthew; Garnier, Darren; Mauel, Michael; Ellsworth, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment studies plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole field. Measurement of the plasma pressure profile is of particular interest in determining whether the dipole geometry is suitable for magnetically confined fusion. Interferometer measurements on LDX have shown the density profile to be ``peaked'' during levitation but while edge probe temperature measurements and measurements of the hot electron temperature have been made the thermal electron temperature profile has not been determined. Preliminary soft X-ray measurements have approximated a thermal electron temperature of 800 eV. Here we present further soft X-ray measurements made with a Si-PIN diode and pulse height analysis system. By comparing levitated shots with similar supported shots, in which the thermal population is largely absent due to end losses, we deduce the thermal electron temperature.

  3. Analysis of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering from Sr2IrO4 in an itinerant-electron approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Jun-ichi; Nagao, Tatsuya

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the resonant x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra from Sr2IrO4 in an itinerant-electron approach. Employing a multiorbital tight-binding model on the square lattice, we calculate the one-electron energy band within the Hartree-Fock approximation, which leads to an antiferromagnetic ground state. We then evaluate the two-particle Green's functions for the particle-hole pair excitations within the random phase approximation, which are connected to the RIXS spectra within the fast collision approximation. The calculated RIXS spectra exhibit a two-peak structure with slightly different energies in the low-energy region, which originate from the bound states in the two-particle Green's function. They may be interpreted as the split modes of a magnon. We also obtain several ?-function peaks, which arise from the bound states around the bottom of the energy continuum. They may be called exciton modes. These characteristics are in qualitative agreement with the RIXS experiment, demonstrating that the weak coupling theory could explain both the magnon and the exciton peaks in the RIXS spectra on an equal footing.

  4. A study on electron density imaging using the Compton scattered X-ray CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuji, Ryota; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira

    2011-10-01

    We propose a novel electron density imaging technique based on a Compton scattered X-ray CT (CSX-CT) technique. We design fundamental configuration of the CSX-CT system, which consists of a fan-shaped X-ray beam, two-dimensional sensors for scattered X-ray detection, parallel plate collimators for limitation of the direction of scattered X-rays and a line sensor for the transmission of X-ray CT (TX-CT). An image obtained by the TX-CT can be used to correct the attenuation effect of scattered X-rays. Through Monte Carlo simulation modeling studies of the CSX-CT system, we demonstrate that the utilization of the information of scattered X-rays is useful to obtain the electron density image. We additionally confirm that the medical exposure irradiated in the CSX-CT is estimated to be lower than the maximum dose recommended in the guideline of some committees.

  5. Observation of Runaway Electrons with Soft X-Ray Camera on HT-7 Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ye-Bin; Chen, Kai-Yun; Xu, Li-Qing; Zhou, Rui-Jie; Hu, Li-Qun

    2014-12-01

    Runaway electrons produced during minor disruptions, which are confirmed by the hard x-ray system and the runaway energy spectrum system, are observed by a soft x-ray camera on the HT-7 Tokamak. In this observation, the soft x-ray system can also provide the size information and the position information of the runaway electron current directly from the signal information on the chord. This observation implies that the soft x-ray system can provide the control system with the physical information of the runaway electron current on future devices to avoid electrons hitting the first wall.

  6. Characterization of acrylic polyamide plastic embolization particles in vitro and in human tissue sections by light microscopy, infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Murakata, Linda A; Lewin-Smith, Michael R; Specht, Charles S; Kalasinsky, Victor F; McEvoy, Peter L; Vinh, Tuyethoa N; Rabin, Lionel N M I; Mullick, Florabel G

    2006-07-01

    Vascular embolization is a well-established practice for the treatment of tumors and vascular lesions. Rounded beads (microspheres) of various materials (collagen, dextran and trisacryl-polymer-gelatin) were developed to solve problems encountered with earlier versions of embolic material. We performed histochemistry, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis on two uterine and one hepatic specimen with unidentified intravascular foreign material, and examined a reference embolization product for comparison. The hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections showed multiple foci with unidentified intravascular foreign material and fibrous obliteration of vessel lumens. Only one case had a clinical history of previous embolization but without specifying the material used. One case was submitted for identification of a 'parasite'. The material stained positively with Sirius red and mucicarmine, variably with Masson's trichrome stain and Movat pentachrome, and did not stain centrally with periodic acid Schiff with diastase. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the material from all three cases demonstrated the spectrum of acrylic polyamide plastic. A control sample of EmboGold exhibited infrared microspectroscopic spectra similar to the three tissue specimens. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated some differences in elemental composition between the tissue sections and the selected reference material. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infrared spectrophotometric analysis with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis of an acrylic polyamide plastic embolization product both in vitro and in human histologic tissue sections. In cases lacking appropriate clinical information, identification by these methods and/or a panel of special stains may assist pathologists unfamiliar with this material's light microscopic appearance. PMID:16619001

  7. Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging of Chloroplasts from Cyanidioschyzon merolae by Using X-Ray Free Electron Laser.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuki; Inui, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a lens-less technique for visualizing the structures of non-crystalline particles with the dimensions of submicrometer to micrometer at a resolution of several tens of nanometers. We conducted cryogenic CXDI experiments at 66 K to visualize the internal structures of frozen-hydrated chloroplasts of Cyanidioschyzon merolae using X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) as a coherent X-ray source. Chloroplast dispersed specimen disks at a number density of 7/(10×10 µm(2)) were flash-cooled with liquid ethane without staining, sectioning or chemical labeling. Chloroplasts are destroyed at atomic level immediately after the diffraction by XFEL pulses. Thus, diffraction patterns with a good signal-to-noise ratio from single chloroplasts were selected from many diffraction patterns collected through scanning specimen disks to provide fresh specimens into the irradiation area. The electron density maps of single chloroplasts projected along the direction of the incident X-ray beam were reconstructed by using the iterative phase-retrieval method and multivariate analyses. The electron density map at a resolution of 70 nm appeared as a C-shape. In addition, the fluorescence image of proteins stained with Flamingo™ dye also appeared as a C-shape as did the autofluorescence from Chl. The similar images suggest that the thylakoid membranes with an abundance of proteins distribute along the outer membranes of chloroplasts. To confirm the present results statistically, a number of projection structures must be accumulated through high-throughput data collection in the near future. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of XFEL-CXDI experiments in the structural analyses of cellular organelles. PMID:25745031

  8. Wavelength dispersive analysis with the synchrotron x ray fluorescence microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, M. L.; Thorn, K. S.; Sutton, S. R.; Jones, K. W.; Bajt, S.

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) was tested on the synchrotron x ray fluorescence microprobe at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Compared to WDS spectra using an electron microprobe, the synchrotron WDS spectra have much better sensitivity and, due to the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation, lower backgrounds. The WDS spectrometer was successfully used to resolve REE L fluorescence spectra from standard glasses and transition metal K fluorescence spectra from kamacite.

  9. Few-femtosecond time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, C.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dolgashev, V. A.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.-H.; Welch, J.; Wu, J.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers, with pulse durations ranging from a few to several hundred femtoseconds, are uniquely suited for studying atomic, molecular, chemical and biological systems. Characterizing the temporal profiles of these femtosecond X-ray pulses that vary from shot to shot is not only challenging but also important for data interpretation. Here we report the time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers by using an X-band radiofrequency transverse deflector at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We demonstrate this method to be a simple, non-invasive technique with a large dynamic range for single-shot electron and X-ray temporal characterization. A resolution of less than 1?fs root mean square has been achieved for soft X-ray pulses. The lasing evolution along the undulator has been studied with the electron trapping being observed as the X-ray peak power approaches 100?GW.

  10. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, U.; LeBrun, T.; Southworth, S.H.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1996-12-01

    Argon L{sub 2.3}-M{sub 2.3}M{sub 2.3} Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with K{alpha} fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons.

  11. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser. PMID:26740326

  12. Image analysis and X-ray microanalysis in cytochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    de Bruijn, W.C.; Koerten, H.K.; Cleton-Soeteman, M.I.; Blok-van Hoek, C.J.

    1987-12-01

    When cytochemical reaction products are homogeneously distributed within an organelle, point analyses suffice for the quantitative approach. However, quantitative analysis becomes tedious, when the elements in the reaction product are inhomogeneously distributed. Problems arise when elements from two reaction products have to be related to each other, or to endogenous cytological products (ferritin, haemosiderin, calcium, electron dense markers), either topographically or in concentration. When analyzing inhomogeneous/heteromorphical reaction product-containing organelles special attention has to be paid to measure and relate both volume and concentration. In this paper a relative simple structure (eosinophil granules) is chosen to demonstrate that the acquisition of the requested morphometrical plus chemical information and their integration is possible. The following points will be covered to acquire the morphometrical and chemical information: a). How to estimate the total cell cross-sectioned area. b). How to estimate the total cross-sectioned area of all reaction product-containing particles inside that cell. The ratio of these two areas will provide the requested information about the particle volume fraction. By using the X-ray detector in addition: c). How to acquire the chemical information at the requested resolution, within a reasonable total acquisition time d). How to integrate the morphometrical and chemical data per organelle, by matrix analysis in a reduced scan area. e). How to acquire quantitative chemical information, by the use of cross-sectioned standards. f). How to make this acquisition method independent from changes in the instrumental conditions during the acquisition.

  13. Electron and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Electron-Atom Collisions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Muhammad Afzal

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Electron-ion and x-ray-ion coincidence techniques have been used to measure the relative values of double -differential cross-sections for n-fold ionization, DDCS(n+), for helium, argon, krypton and xenon atoms. In these experiments a focussed beam of energetic electrons is crossed with a dilute beam of thermal gas atoms. The electron-atom interaction can produce ionization of the atom when the incident electron energy is greater than its ionization potential. In electron-ion coincidence experiments the electrons ejected from an atom as a result of the ionization are energy analysed in a 30^ circ parallel plate electrostatic analyser and are detected in coincidence with the product ions which are also analysed with respect to charge by a time-of-flight (TOF) type analyser. The delay time of the ions with respect to the detected electron gives information about the charge state of the ions. From these delay time spectra true coincidences are measured for every charge state n up to n = 9 to determine (Chaudhry et al. 1986; Hippler et al. 1984b) relative values of DDCS(n+) as a function of the detected electron energy and the incident electron energy. These values have been compared with other experimental data as well as theoretical values from literature, where possible. In x-ray-ion coincidence experiments with xenon atoms, x-rays produced as a result of the de-excitation of the ionized atoms are detected with a liquid nitrogen cooled hyperpure germanium (HPGe) detector, in coincidence with the product ions which are analysed by a TOF type analyser. The time delay of the detected ions with respect to the detected x-ray gives information about the charge states of these ions. A Bragg type crystal x-ray spectrometer (Jitschin et al. 1984) has also been set up for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In this instrument collimated x-rays are specularly reflected from a plane crystal which is rotated by a micro-computer-controlled stepping motor. A constant gas flow type proportional counter with a large thin window monitors the reflected x-rays. Pulses from the proportional counter are fed to an MCA in MCS mode which is also controlled by the same micro-computer. An x-ray spectrum can be built up in the MCA giving about 10-15 times better resolution than the HPGe detector in the region of the characteristic x-rays emitted by the ionized rare gas atoms.

  14. Quantitative characterization of epitaxial superlattices by x-ray diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fullerton, E.E. ); Cao, W.; Thomas, G. ); Schuller, I.K. ); Carey, M.J.; Berkowitz, A.E. )

    1993-07-26

    Quantitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) have been applied to the analysis of an epitaxial CoO/NiO superlattice. This example shows that the qualitative information determined directly from a XRD spectrum or HREM image is limited and can even be misleading. However, by a combination of quantitative intensity measurements and structural modeling, a detailed quantitative characterization of the superlattice structure is possible.

  15. Repair of fractured framework: scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh-Fard, Ahmad; Wagner, Warren C

    2004-09-01

    Fractured metal prostheses can be analyzed for possible causes of failure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, fractography is used to determine the cause of the failure and whether repair is practical. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is used to determine composition of the fractured prosthesis so that a repair process can be recommended. The technique is presented for the repair of a titanium framework for an implant-supported overdenture based on the analysis data. PMID:15359153

  16. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  17. X-ray emission from relativistically moving electron density cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nakamura, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Kawase, K.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Daito, I.; Kameshima, T.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Daido, H.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Ragozin, E. N.; Kawachi, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2012-07-01

    We report on novel methods to generate ultra-short, coherent, X-rays using a laserplasma interaction. Nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma creates stable, specific structures such as electron cusps. For example, wake waves excited in an underdense plasma by an intense, short-pulse laser become dense and propagate along with the laser pulse. This is called a relativistic flying mirror. The flying mirror can reflect a counter-propagating laser pulse and directly convert it into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor of 4?2 and pulse shortening with the same factor. After the proof-of-principle experiments, we observed that the photon number generated in the flying mirror is close to the theoretical estimate. We present the details of the experiment in which a 9 TW laser pulse focused into a He gas jet generated the Flying Mirror, which partly reflected a 1 TW pulse, giving up to 1010 photons, 60 nJ (1.41012 photons/sr) in the XUV spectral region (12.8-22 nm).

  18. Intravenous coronary angiography utilizing K-emission and bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by electron bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with synchrotron radiation at SSRL and NSLS have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an intense source of monochromatic X-rays. Because of the high cost of an electron synchrotron, theoretical analysis and experiments using inanimate phantoms has been undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of using the spectrum produced by two appropriately chosen anode materials when bombarded with electrons in the 100--500 keV energy range for angiography. By using the X-rays emitted at 120{degree} to the incident electron direction, about 20--30% of the X-ray intensity would be due to K-emission lines. Calculations using the TIGERP Monte Carlo Code, have shown that high quality angiograms of human coronary arteries should be possible with a contrast agent containing ytterbium, if an electron beam pulses of 16 kJ were used for each anode target. The experimental program supported in part by the DOE has consisted of these theoretical calculations and experiments at the Dynamitron Electron Accelerator Facility at BNL.

  19. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Vartanyants, I.A.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; Williams, G.J.; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; Sinn, H.; Attwood, D.; Nugent, K.A.; Weckert, E.; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  20. X-ray scattering measurements of the structure of strongly coupled plasmas at x-ray free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumayer, Paul; Dppner, Tilo; Fletcher, Luke; Galtier, Eric; Gericke, Dirk; Glenzer, Siegfried; Gregori, Gianluca; Hartley, Nicholas; Khaghani, Dimitri; Lee, Hae Ja; Ma, Tammy; Nagler, Bob; Pak, Art; Redmer, Ronald; Zastrau, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    Laser-plasma x-ray sources have been an indispensable probe to diagnose and characterize plasmas in the warm-dense matter regime. The latest generation of bright x-ray free-electron lasers now enables such diagnostic techniques to be implemented at FEL facilities. Even more, FEL parameters, such as collimation, pulse duration, focusability, bandwidth, or repetition rate, are far superior compared to laser-driven sources, enabling measurements of unprecedented resolution and accuracy. As an example, we present measurements of the static structure factor in high energy density matter. Angle-resolved x-ray scattering was performed at the Matter at Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Strongly coupled warm-dense aluminium was produced by laser shock compression. Covering a wide range of scattering angles with unprecedented angular resolution the correlation peak of the ion-ion structure factor could be well resolved. The exceptional collimation of the LCLS beam enabled measurements at small scattering angles, thus approaching the long wavelength limit.

  1. The amorphous Zn biomineralization at Naracauli stream, Sardinia: electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medas, D; Lattanzi, P; Podda, F; Meneghini, C; Trapananti, A; Sprocati, A; Casu, M A; Musu, E; De Giudici, G

    2014-01-01

    An amorphous Zn biomineralization ("white mud"), occurring at Naracauli stream, Sardinia, in association with cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya frigida and diatoms, was investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Preliminary diffraction analysis shows that the precipitate sampled on Naracauli stream bed is mainly amorphous, with some peaks ascribable to quartz and phyllosilicates, plus few minor unattributed peaks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the white mud, precipitated in association with a seasonal biofilm, is made of sheaths rich in Zn, Si, and O, plus filaments likely made of organic matter. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the sheaths are made of smaller units having a size in the range between 100 and 200 nm. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure data collected at the Zn K-edge indicate that the biomineral has a local structure similar to hemimorphite, a zinc sorosilicate. The differences of this biomineral with respect to the hydrozincite biomineralization documented about 3 km upstream in the same Naracauli stream may be related to either variations in the physicochemical parameters and/or different metabolic behavior of the involved biota. PMID:23832800

  2. Microscale reconstruction of biogeochemical substrates using multimode X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M.; Miller, E.; Liu, J.; Lund, R. M.; McKinley, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMP), and computational image analysis are mature technologies used in many disciplines. Cross-discipline combination of these imaging and image-analysis technologies is the focus of this research, which uses laboratory and light-source resources in an iterative approach. The objective is to produce images across length scales, taking advantage of instrumentation that is optimized for each scale, and to unify them into a single compositional reconstruction. Initially, CT images will be collected using both x-ray absorption and differential phase contrast modes. The imaged sample will then be physically sectioned and the exposed surfaces imaged and characterized via SEM/EMP. The voxel slice corresponding to the physical sample surface will be isolated computationally, and the volumetric data will be combined with two-dimensional SEM images along CT image planes. This registration step will take advantage of the similarity between the X-ray absorption (CT) and backscattered electron (SEM) coefficients (both proportional to average atomic number in the interrogated volume) as well as the images' mutual information. Elemental and solid-phase distributions on the exposed surfaces, co-registered with SEM images, will be mapped using EMP. The solid-phase distribution will be propagated into three-dimensional space using computational methods relying on the estimation of compositional distributions derived from the CT data. If necessary, solid-phase and pore-space boundaries will be resolved using X-ray differential phase contrast tomography, x-ray fluorescence tomography, and absorption-edge microtomography at a light-source facility. Computational methods will be developed to register and model images collected over varying scales and data types. Image resolution, physically and dynamically, is qualitatively different for the electron microscopy and CT methodologies. Routine CT images are resolved at 10-20 ?m, while SEM images are resolved at 10-20 nm; grayscale values vary according to collection time and instrument sensitivity; and compositional sensitivities via EMP vary in interrogation volume and scale. We have so far successfully registered SEM imagery within a multimode tomographic volume and have used standard methods to isolate pore space within the volume. We are developing a three-dimensional solid-phase identification and registration method that is constrained by bulk-sample X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements. The results of this project will prove useful in fields that require the fine-scale definition of solid-phase distributions and relationships, and could replace more inefficient methods for making these estimations.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL PARTICULATES IN MUNICIPAL DRINKING-WATER BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY (ANALYSE VON BIOLOGISCHEN PARTIKELN IM TRINKWASSER DURCH RASTERELEKTRONEN-MIKROSKOPIE UND ELEKTRONENSTRAHLMIKROANALYSE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectroscopy (SEM/XES) were used to survey the biological and nonbiological particles in two different municipal drinking-water systems. Microbiological particles could be differentiated from nonbiological by their qualitative element...

  4. Analysis of sculptures using XRF and X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calza, C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Freitas, R. P.; Rocha, H. S.; Nascimento, J. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-11-01

    This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood using X-ray Radiography and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. The first case is the analysis of a sculpture portraying Saint Sebastian, the patron saint of Rio de Janeiro, which is considered the second most ancient sacred image of Brazil. This sculpture was made in Portugal and was transported to Brazil by Estácio Sá, founder of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 1565. Nowadays, it is located on the main altar of the Church of Capuchin Friars. The second case is the analysis of a sculpture representing Our Lady of Conception, which is located in the D. João VI Museum (EBA/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro). The objective of these analyses was to evaluate the general conditions of the sculptures, identifying possible problems and internal damages, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the materials and pigments employed by the artists, in order to assist its restoration procedures. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek and an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube with W anode. An X-ray source, a CR System GE CR50P and IP detectors were used to perform the radiographs. The XRF analysis of the sculptures identified the original pigments in both cases and the radiographic images revealed details of the manufacture; restored regions; extensive use of lead white; presence of cracks on the wood; use of nails and spikes, etc.

  5. Search for X-rays and relativistic electrons in laboratory discharge experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostgaard, N.; Carlson, B. E.; Grndahl, .; Kochkin, P.; Nisi, R.; Gjesteland, T.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 discharge experiments were carried out at the Technical University of Eindhoven. The experimental set-up was designed to search for both X-rays and electrons produced in meter-scale sparks using a 1 MV Marx generator. In this paper we present the spatial distribution of signals and examine whether they are X-rays only or X-rays and electrons. Other characteristics of the signals will be presented as well. These experiments are carried out in the context of a larger effort to understand the various phenomena of X-rays and gammas from natural lightning.

  6. Measurement of Total Calcium in Neurons by Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarova, Natalia B.; Andrews, S. Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 °C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ≤-160 °C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 °C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis provided critical insight into mechanisms of excitotoxic injury and another that revealed the basis of ischemia resistance. PMID:24300079

  7. Possibility Of Enlarging X-Ray Exposure Area With X-Ray Mirror Or By Electron Beam Vertical Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, H.; Mulhaupt, G.

    1984-03-01

    High collimation of synchrotron radiation perpendicular to the orbital plane of the 'electrons in a storage ring results in only a small exposed stripe on the wafer. Typically, the height ranges between 0.5 and 1 cm. Two methods of enlarging the exposure field, dealt with in this paper, are the application of plane scanning X-ray mirrors and the stimulation of electron beam oscillations in the ring. Due to the considerable decrease in reflectivity with decreasing wavelength and increasing mirror angle, the usable reflection angles are limited to the grazing-incidence region below 2° in the case of X-ray lithography. The pure Si02-mirror (Zerodur) used in the experiments has reflectivities above 80 % at up to 1.5°. For the wavelengths in question (--1 nm). The theoretical values of the absorbed energy in the resist, depending on the glacing angle, have been compared with experimental results. From this dependence, the velocity profile of the mirror movement for attaining a homogeneous exposure can be derived. The preliminary experiments concerning surface degradation due to cracked hydrocarbons indicate that this factor is not as severe as previously expected in the case of the soft X-rays used in lithography. The alternative method of enlarging the exposed area, by stimulating electron oscillations in the storage ring, has also been investigated. The initial results show a practically-homogeneous exposure area 3 cm in height. A simple improvement in the control electronics for the additional steering magnets, which is being made at the moment, will at least double this area. Then, the exposable step-and-repeat field will amount to 6 x 6 cm2 with this specific method, which does not require any special arrangements in the beam line.

  8. X-ray Telescopes: Development, Flight and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse-Madsen, Kristin Carolin

    2007-04-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts as themes of the same general subject: the X-ray focusing telescopes. On the 18'th of May 2005 the balloon borne High Energy Focusing Telescope, HEFT, was launched on its maiden voyage from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. For 24 hours the gondola remained afloat proving that it could successfully track and detect the galactic X-ray sources, Cygnus X-1 and the Crab, before plunging to a hard and brutal landing in the desert. In this thesis I describe the HEFT gondola platform, designed and build by LLNL to hold the HEFT payload, and discuss the sensor groups available for pointing, their performance and accuracy. I also outline the pointing strategy we adopted, and describe how the sensors worked in concert to achieve the required pointing stability. Based on the gondola configuration I present the aspect reconstruction procedures and use them to show a first data analysis of the HEFT flight observations of the Crab and Cygnus X-1. In the second part of my thesis I present a method of simulating concept study designs of grazing incidence focusing X-ray telescopes used on the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy Mission, XEUS. Past and current X-ray missions have used single films of gold, platinum or iridium coatings, utilizing the critical angle to achieve high grazing incidence reflection. These coatings are, however, not efficient at energies above 20 keV. A method of pushing up the energy is by employing multilayers, or supermirrors, which is a stack of films of alternating low and high density material. Using a Figure of Merit code I step through a limited parameter space and find the optimal multilayer recipe that yields the best reflectivity for a given telescope design. This tool can be used to study the effects of different design parameters such as material selection and substrate thickness. In the third part I analyze data of the QSO B1152+199 taken with the Chandra x-ray observatory. I present evidence of variability in the lightcurve of the lens, which is accompanied by movement in the Fe Kα line emitting region. A sudden redshift or broadening of the iron line is an indication of strong gravitational effects. These effects are commonly seen in conjunction with a brightening or hardening of the source, as part of the accretion disc momentarily lights up, and can be used to constrain the parameters of the central black hole. I show there is a correlation between the lightcurve and movement of the iron line, and fit the spectrum with relativistic line model kyrline from xspec.

  9. An X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator for Record High Spectral Purity and Average Brightness (Progress and Prospects for X-ray Free Electron Lasers)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kwang-Je

    2009-06-24

    With the success of the LCLS at SLAC, synchrotron radiation community is entering the era of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) with an enormous jump in brightness and coherence over that possible with third-generation x-ray sources. The LCLS is a single-pass, high-gain device producing quasi-coherent x-rays known as self-amplified spontaneous emission. Hard x-ray FELs are also feasible in an oscillator (XFELO) configuration, in which an x-ray pulse is trapped a low-loss optical cavity consisting of diamond crystals, permitting build-up in the intensity and coherence over several hundred passes. An XFELO produces ultrahigh spectral purity and brightness-average brightness several orders of magnitude higher than, and peak brightness comparable to, self-amplified spontaneous emission devices; opening up new scientific opportunities as well as drastically improving and complementing experimental techniques developed at third-generation x-ray facilities. We discuss unique R&D issues in accelerator and x-ray optics and encouraging progress to date.

  10. Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray topography.

    SciTech Connect

    Maj, J.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, X.; Maj, L.; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-01-01

    The Topography X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the topography laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the topography process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.

  11. Design and analysis of multilayer x ray/XUV microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The design and analysis of a large number of normal incidence multilayer x ray microscopes based on the spherical mirror Schwarzschild configuration is examined. Design equations for the spherical mirror Schwarzschild microscopes are summarized and used to evaluate mirror parameters for microscopes with magnifications ranging from 2 to 50x. Ray tracing and diffraction analyses are carried out for many microscope configurations to determine image resolution as a function of system parameters. The results are summarized in three publication included herein. A preliminary study of advanced reflecting microscope configurations, where aspherics are used in place of the spherical microscope mirror elements, has indicated that the aspherical elements will improve off-axis image resolution and increase the effective field of view.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1988-11-01

    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  13. Chemical selective microstructural analysis of thin film using resonant x-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Maheswar; Lodha, G. S.

    2013-07-14

    Strong modulations of the reflected x-ray intensities near the respective absorption edges of the constituent materials promise to determine layer composition of thin film structures along with spectroscopic like information. Near the absorption edge, the orders of magnitude more contrast beyond the pure electron density distributions of materials find an approach to overcome the low density difficulty of the conventional x-ray reflectivity technique. These aspects are explained by experimental studies on partially decomposed boron nitride thin films. Chemical composition profile is determined from free surface to the embedded buried layer with depth resolution in nanometer scale. The results of resonant reflectivity for chemical analysis are correlated with depth dependent x-ray photo electron spectroscopy.

  14. Sorting algorithms for single-particle imaging experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, S A; Teslyuk, A B; Kurta, R P; Gorobtsov, O Yu; Yefanov, O M; Ilyin, V A; Senin, R A; Vartanyants, I A

    2015-11-01

    Modern X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) operating at high repetition rates produce a tremendous amount of data. It is a great challenge to classify this information and reduce the initial data set to a manageable size for further analysis. Here an approach for classification of diffraction patterns measured in prototypical diffract-and-destroy single-particle imaging experiments at XFELs is presented. It is proposed that the data are classified on the basis of a set of parameters that take into account the underlying diffraction physics and specific relations between the real-space structure of a particle and its reciprocal-space intensity distribution. The approach is demonstrated by applying principal component analysis and support vector machine algorithms to the simulated and measured X-ray data sets. PMID:26524297

  15. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  16. X-ray fluorescence analysis of low concentrations metals in geological samples and technological products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoida, I. A.; Trushin, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    For the past several years many nuclear physics methods of quantitative elemental analysis have been designed. Many of these methods have applied in different devices which have become useful and effective instrument in many industrial laboratories. Methods of a matter structure analysis are based on the intensity detection of the X-ray radiation from the nuclei of elements which are excited by external X-ray source. The production of characteristic X-rays involves transitions of the orbital electrons of atoms in the target material between allowed orbits, or energy states, associated with ionization of the inner atomic shells. One of these methods is X-ray fluorescence analysis, which is widespread in metallurgical and processing industries and is used to identify and measure the concentration of the elements in ores and minerals on a conveyor belt. Samples of copper ore with known concentrations of elements, were taken from the Ural deposit. To excite the characteristic X-rays radionuclide sources 109Cd, with half-life 461.4 days were used. After finding the calibration coefficients, control measurements of samples and averaging of overall samples were made. The measurement error did not exceed 3%.

  17. Design of a hard X-ray beamline and end-station for pump and probe experiments at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeku; Eom, Intae; Kang, Tai-Hee; Rah, Seungyu; Nam, Ki Hyun; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Kwon, Soonam; Park, Sang Han; Kim, Kyung Sook; Hyun, Hyojung; Kim, Seung Nam; Lee, Eun Hee; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Seonghan; Kim, Myong-jin; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Ahn, Docheon; Lim, Jun; Yu, Chung-Jong; Song, Changyong; Kim, Hyunjung; Noh, Do Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Bongsoo; Kim, Kwang-Woo; Ko, In Soo; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Kim, Sunam

    2016-02-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser project, a new worldwide-user facility to deliver ultrashort, laser-like x-ray photon pulses, will begin user operation in 2017 after one year of commissioning. Initially, it will provide two beamlines for hard and soft x-rays, respectively, and two experimental end-stations for the hard x-ray beamline will be constructed by the end of 2015. This article introduces one of the two hard x-ray end-stations, which is for hard x-ray pump-probe experiments, and primarily outlines the overall design of this end-station and its critical components. The content of this article will provide useful guidelines for the planning of experiments conducted at the new facility.

  18. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  19. X-ray diffraction analysis of modulated crystals: Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotina, N. B.

    2007-07-15

    The state of the art of X-ray diffraction analysis of modulated crystals is reviewed. The review begins with a brief historical overview followed by the consideration of the main concepts and notations used in this field. Then, methods of structural analysis of modulated crystals are considered with emphasis on recent achievements. The most interesting objects are listed, and the directions of investigation are outlined. Examples of analysis of both individual structures and families of modulated and incommensurate composite structures are given in terms of superspace symmetry.

  20. Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sun, L. MacNeil

    2010-05-20

    The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

  1. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett, John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2008-06-08

    An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  2. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett Jr., John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2007-04-24

    An x-ray source assembly (2700) and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode (2125) having a source spot upon which electrons (2120) impinge and a control system (2715/2720) for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure (2710) notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  3. Hard X-ray emitting energetic electrons and photospheric electric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musset, S.; Vilmer, N.; Bommier, V.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The energy released during solar flares is believed to be stored in non-potential magnetic fields associated with electric currents flowing in the corona. While no measurements of coronal electric currents are presently available, maps of photospheric electric currents can now be derived from SDO/HMI observations. Photospheric electric currents have been shown to be the tracers of the coronal electric currents. Particle acceleration can result from electric fields associated with coronal electric currents. We revisit here some aspects of the relationship between particle acceleration in solar flares and electric currents in the active region. Aims: We study the relation between the energetic electron interaction sites in the solar atmosphere, and the magnitudes and changes of vertical electric current densities measured at the photospheric level, during the X2.2 flare on February 15, 2011, in AR NOAA 11158. Methods: X-ray images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) are overlaid on magnetic field and electric current density maps calculated from the spectropolarimetric measurements of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) using the UNNOFIT inversion and Metcalf disambiguation codes. X-ray images are also compared with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) to complement the flare analysis. Results: Part of the elongated X-ray emissions from both thermal and non-thermal electrons overlay the elongated narrow current ribbons observed at the photospheric level. A new X-ray source at 50-100 keV (produced by non-thermal electrons) is observed in the course of the flare and is cospatial with a region in which new vertical photospheric currents appeared during the same period (an increase of 15%). These observational results are discussed in the context of the scenarios in which magnetic reconnection (and subsequent plasma heating and particle acceleration) occurs at current-carrying layers in the corona.

  4. The use of Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (RXES) for the electronic analysis of metal complexes and their interactions with biomolecules.

    PubMed

    S, Jacinto; Czapla-Masztafiak, Joanna; Lipiec, Ewelina; Kayser, Yves; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Wood, Bayden; Deacon, Glen B; Berger, Gilles; Dufrasne, Franois; Fernandes, Daniel L A; Szlachetko, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    This review presents a new application of Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (RXES) to study the mechanism of action of metal containing anticancer derivatives and in particular platinum in situ and in vivo. The technique is an example of a photon-in photon-out X-ray spectroscopic approach, which enables chemical speciation of drugs to be determined and therefore to derive action mechanisms, and to determine drug binding rates under physiological conditions and therapeutic concentrations. This is made feasible due to the atomic specificity and high penetration depth of RXES. The review presents examples of the three main types of information that can be obtained by RXES and establishes an experimental protocol to perfect the measurements within cells. PMID:26547415

  5. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    SciTech Connect

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Conti, G.; Nemk, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S.; Trndahl, T.; Fjllstrm, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-10-14

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se? (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO=VBM{sub CIGS} VBM{sub diamond}=0.3 eV0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  6. Novel multi-beam X-ray source for vacuum electronics enabled medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neculaes, V. Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    For almost 100 of years, commercial medical X-ray applications have relied heavily on X-ray tube architectures based on the vacuum electronics design developed by William Coolidge at the beginning of the twentieth century. Typically, the Coolidge design employs one hot tungsten filament as the electron source; the output of the tube is one X-ray beam. This X-ray source architecture is the state of the art in today's commercial medical imaging applications, such as Computed Tomography. Recently, GE Global Research has demonstrated the most dramatic extension of the Coolidge vacuum tube design for Computed Tomography (CT) in almost a century: a multi-beam X-ray source containing thirty two cathodes emitting up to 1000 mA, in a cathode grounded - anode at potential architecture (anode up to 140 kV). This talk will present the challenges of the X-ray multi-beam vacuum source design - space charge electron gun design, beam focusing to compression ratios needed in CT medical imaging applications (image resolution is critically dependent on how well the electron beam is focused in vacuum X-ray tubes), electron emitter choice to fit the aggressive beam current requirements, novel electronics for beam control and focusing, high voltage and vacuum solutions, as well as vacuum chamber design to sustain the considerable G forces typically encountered on a CT gantry (an X-ray vacuum tube typically rotates on the CT gantry at less than 0.5 s per revolution). Consideration will be given to various electron emitter technologies available for this application - tungsten emitters, dispenser cathodes and carbon nano tubes (CNT) - and their tradeoffs. The medical benefits potentially enabled by this unique vacuum multi-beam X-ray source are: X-ray dose reduction, reduction of image artifacts and improved image resolution. This work was funded in part by NIH grant R01EB006837.

  7. Identification of thorium dioxide in human liver cells by electron microscopic x-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, A; Ophus, E M; Larsen, A M

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-two years after injection of thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) for diagnostic x-ray studies in a female patient deposits were found by light microscopy in the liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). They were shown by electron microscopy to be located inside secondary lysosomes, and by autoradiography and x-ray microanalysis they were identified as thorium. PMID:213451

  8. Microscale reconstruction of biogeochemical substrates using combined X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M.; McKinley, J. P.; Miller, E. A.; Liu, J.

    2011-12-01

    X-ray tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMP), and computational image analysis are mature technologies used in many disciplines. Cross-discipline combination of these imaging and image-analysis technologies is the focus of this research, which uses laboratory and light-source resources in an iterative approach. The objective is to produce images across length scales, taking advantage of instrumentation that is optimized for each scale, and to unify them into a single compositional reconstruction. Initially, a nominal CT image will be collected. The imaged sample will then be physically sectioned and the exposed surfaces imaged and characterized via SEM/EMP. The voxel slice corresponding to the physical sample surface will be isolated computationally, and the volumetric data will be combined with two-dimensional SEM images along CT image planes. This registration step will take advantage of the similarity between the X-ray absorption (CT) and backscattered electron (SEM) coefficients (both proportional to average atomic number in the interrogated volume). Elemental and solid-phase distributions on the exposed surfaces, pre-registered with SEM images, will be mapped using EMP. The solid-phase distribution will be propagated into three-dimensional space using computational methods relying on the estimation of compositional distributions derived from CT data. If necessary, solid-phase and pore-space boundaries will be resolved using X-ray phase-contrast imaging, x-ray fluorescence tomography, and absorption-edge microtomography at a light-source facility. Computational methods will be developed to register and model images collected over varying scales and data types. Image resolution, physically and dynamically, is qualitatively different for the electron microscopy and CT methodologies. Routine CT images are resolved at 10-20 ?m, while SEM images are resolved at 10-20 nm; grayscale values vary according to collection time and instrument sensitivity; and compositional sensitivities via EMP vary in interrogation volume and scale. We have so far successfully registered SEM and tomographic images along a single image plane, and have used standard methods to isolate pore space within the CT volume. We are developing a three-dimensional solid-phase identification and registration method that is constrained by bulk-sample X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements. The results of this project will prove useful in fields that require the fine-scale definition of solid-phase distributions and relationships, and could replace more inefficient methods for making these estimations.

  9. Study of titanate nanotubes by X-ray and electron diffraction and electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brunatova, Tereza; Popelkova, Daniela; Wan, Wei; Oleynikov, Peter; Danis, Stanislav; Zou, Xiaodong; Kuzel, Radomir

    2014-01-15

    The structure of titanate nanotubes (Ti-NTs) was studied by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Ti-NTs are prepared by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} powder. The structure is identified by powder X-ray diffraction as the one based on the structure of H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 2}O phase. The same structure is obtained by projected potential from HRTEM through-focus image series. The structure is verified by simulated PXRD pattern with the aid of the Debye formula. The validity of the model is tested by computing Fourier transformation of a single nanotube which is proportional to measured electron diffraction intensities. A good agreement of this calculation with measured precession electron diffraction data is achieved. - Highlights: Titanate nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal method. X-ray powder diffraction indicated their structure based on that of H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 2}O. Structural model was created with the aid of high-resolution electron microscopy. The model was verified with electron diffraction data. X-ray powder diffraction pattern was calculated with the aid of the Debye formula.

  10. Validation of X-ray Line Ratios for Electron Temperature Profiles in Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Andrew; Reinke, Matthew; Rice, John; Hubbard, Amanda; Hughes, Jerry

    2013-10-01

    X-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy (XICS) has been implemented on magnetic confinement fusion devices as a novel means of measuring local plasma temperature and flow profiles. At Alcator C-Mod, XICS allows for spatially-resolved, high spectral resolution measurements between 0.3 nm and 0.4 nm, enabling detailed analysis of He-like and H-like argon x-ray emission. Electron temperature profiles in the range of 0.5 keV < Te < 5.0 keV are computed from ratios of the n = 3 dielectronic satellites to the 1s2-1s2p resonance lines in He-like argon. These data are validated against existing measurements of Te from electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering. Line ratio data are analyzed via a tomographic inversion procedure, overcoming the traditional issue of data being averaged over the plasma cross-section. The implications of utilizing x-ray line ratios as valid local temperature diagnostics are not limited to Alcator C-Mod; plasma properties in future experiments as well as in astrophysical phenomena can also be investigated. This work supported by USDoE award DE-FC02-99ER54512 and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences through the National Undergraduate Fellowship.

  11. Phase contrast: the frontier of x-ray and electron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2013-12-01

    Phase contrast has been a fundamental component of microscopy since the early 1940s. In broad terms, it refers to the formation of images using not the combination of wave intensities but their amplitudes with the corresponding phase factors. The impact on visible microscopy of biological specimens has been major. This contrast mechanism is now playing an increasingly important role in other kinds of microscopy, notably those based on electrons or x-rays. It notably solves the background problem of weak absorption contrast. New breakthroughs and new techniques are continuously produced, unfortunately unknown to most of the scientists that could exploit them. The present special cluster issue of reviews was inspired by this situation. The case of x-rays is very interesting. Phase contrast requires a high degree of longitudinal and lateral coherence. But conventional x-ray sources are not coherent. The progress of synchrotron sources yielded high coherence as a key byproductand started a rapid expansion of phase contrast radiology. No reviewor cluster of reviewscan possibly cover all the facets of the recent progress. Without trying to be absolutely comprehensive, the present special cluster issue touches a variety of issues, giving a very broad picture. Liu et al review in general terms the different phase-based hard-x-ray techniques, with an interesting variety of examples. Then, Suortti et al and Wang et al present more specialized overviews of crystal and grating based x-ray imaging techniques, very powerful in the analysis of biological specimens. Mokso et al discuss the many facets of tomography using phase effects, expanding the picture of tomographic reconstruction of the three previous reviews. Wu et al treat the rapid progress in hard-x-ray focusing and its impact on radiology and tomography for materials science and biomedical research. The next two reviews deal with special and very interesting classes of applications. Specifically, Lee et al discuss the use of the new radiology techniques in the study of liquids, and Coan et al present the progress in phase-contrast radiology analysis of real patients. Although x-ray imaging is the main focus of the special cluster issue, the picture would not be complete without a view on the parallel and very exciting developments in electron microscopy. The last review, by Wu et al , is dedicated indeed to this broader picture, presenting recent progress in Zernike-related electron phase contrast. We trust that the special cluster issue will not only update readers on the evolution of a very important class of experimental techniques, but also prepare them for the forthcoming developments. We are indeed at the threshold of another revolution. The recently inaugurated first x-ray free electron lasers bring, together with many other record performances, full lateral coherence and excellent longitudinal coherence. The first imaging experiments show in practice their impact, and indicate that this field, far from saturating its progress, is ready for new major breakthroughs.

  12. Nondispersive X-ray emission analysis for geochemical exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Lamothe, R.; Schmadebeck, R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1969-01-01

    Nondispersive X-ray emission technique uses lightweight, and rugged X-ray fluorescence units. The X-ray pulse-height spectra is excited by radioactive isotope sources. The technique is applicable for quantitative and qualitative analyses on complex chemical systems, and satisfies the goals for a lunar geochemical exploration device.

  13. X-Ray Microanalysis and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in the Analytical Electron Microscope: Review and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses future directions in analytical electron microscopy for microchemical analysis using X-ray and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). The technique of X-ray microanalysis, using the ratio method and k(sub AB) factors, is outlined. The X-ray absorption correction is the major barrier to the objective of obtaining I% accuracy and precision in analysis. Spatial resolution and Minimum Detectability Limits (MDL) are considered with present limitations of spatial resolution in the 2 to 3 microns range and of MDL in the 0.1 to 0.2 wt. % range when a Field Emission Gun (FEG) system is used. Future directions of X-ray analysis include improvement in X-ray spatial resolution to the I to 2 microns range and MDL as low as 0.01 wt. %. With these improvements the detection of single atoms in the analysis volume will be possible. Other future improvements include the use of clean room techniques for thin specimen preparation, quantification available at the I% accuracy and precision level with light element analysis quantification available at better than the 10% accuracy and precision level, the incorporation of a compact wavelength dispersive spectrometer to improve X-ray spectral resolution, light element analysis and MDL, and instrument improvements including source stability, on-line probe current measurements, stage stability, and computerized stage control. The paper reviews the EELS technique, recognizing that it has been slow to develop and still remains firmly in research laboratories rather than in applications laboratories. Consideration of microanalysis with core-loss edges is given along with a discussion of the limitations such as specimen thickness. Spatial resolution and MDL are considered, recognizing that single atom detection is already possible. Plasmon loss analysis is discussed as well as fine structure analysis. New techniques for energy-loss imaging are also summarized. Future directions in the EELS technique will be the development of new spectrometers and improvements in thin specimen preparation. The microanalysis technique needs to be simplified and software developed so that the EELS technique approaches the relative simplicity of the X-ray technique. Finally, one can expect major improvements in EELS imaging as data storage and processing improvements occur.

  14. Win X-ray: A New Monte Carlo Program that Computes X-ray Spectra Obtained with a Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, Raynald; Lifshin, Eric; Demers, Hendrix; Horny, Paula; Campbell, Helen

    2006-02-01

    A new Monte Carlo program, Win X-ray, is presented that predicts X-ray spectra measured with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) attached to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) operating between 10 and 40 keV. All the underlying equations of the Monte Carlo simulation model are included. By simulating X-ray spectra, it is possible to establish the optimum conditions to perform a specific analysis as well as establish detection limits or explore possible peak overlaps. Examples of simulations are also presented to demonstrate the utility of this new program. Although this article concentrates on the simulation of spectra obtained from what are considered conventional thick samples routinely explored by conventional microanalysis techniques, its real power will be in future refinements to address the analysis of sample classifications that include rough surfaces, fine structures, thin films, and inclined surfaces because many of these can be best characterized by Monte Carlo methods. The first step, however, is to develop, refine, and validate a viable Monte Carlo program for simulating spectra from conventional samples.

  15. Use of electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source for nondestructive testing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S.

    2006-03-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique is being used for generating x rays in the low-energy region (<150keV). Recently, the source is used for the calibration of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) badges. In order to qualify the ECR x-ray source for imaging application, the source should give uniform flux over the area under study. Lead collimation arrangement is made to get uniform flux. The flux profile is measured using a teletector at different distance from the port and uniform field region of 1010cm2 has been marked at 20cm from the x-ray exit port. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuit pack is used for examining the source performance. The required dose for nondestructive testing examination has been estimated using a hospital x-ray machine and it is found to be 0.05mSv. Our source experimental parameters are tuned and the DAC circuit pack was exposed for nearly 7min to get the required dose value. The ECR x-ray source operating parameters are argon pressure: 10-5Torr, microwave power: 350W, and coil current: 0A. The effective energy of the x-ray spectrum is nearly 40keV. The x-ray images obtained from ECR x-ray source and hospital medical radiography machine are compared. It is found that the image obtained from ECR x-ray source is suitable for NDT application.

  16. Towards adaptive, streaming analysis of x-ray tomography data

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Mathew; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Lansing, Carina S.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Miller, Erin A.; Lanekoff, Ingela; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-04

    Temporal and spatial resolution of chemical imaging methodologies such as x-ray tomography are rapidly increasing, leading to more complex experimental procedures and fast growing data volumes. Automated analysis pipelines and big data analytics are becoming essential to effectively evaluate the results of such experiments. Offering those data techniques in an adaptive, streaming environment can further substantially improve the scientific discovery process, by enabling experimental control and steering based on the evaluation of emerging phenomena as they are observed by the experiment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)’ Chemical Imaging Initiative (CII - http://imaging.pnnl.gov/ ) has worked since 2011 towards developing a framework that allows users to rapidly compose and customize high throughput experimental analysis pipelines for multiple instrument types. The framework, named ‘Rapid Experimental Analysis’ (REXAN) Framework [1], is based on the idea of reusable component libraries and utilizes the PNNL developed collaborative data management and analysis environment ‘Velo’, to provide a user friendly analysis and data management environment for experimental facilities. This article will, discuss the capabilities established for X-Ray tomography, discuss lessons learned, and provide an overview of our more recent work in the Analysis in Motion Initiative (AIM - http://aim.pnnl.gov/ ) at PNNL to provide REXAN capabilities in a streaming environment.

  17. X-ray diffraction analysis of barton oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A.; Torralba, M.; Garca, A.; Adeva, P.

    In consequence of the influence of the composition of Barton oxides on the behaviour of batteries, a method has been developed for the quantitative determination of orthorhombic and tetragonal monoxides. An X-ray diffraction, internal standard method was used. Factors such as diffraction peak overlapping and its method of measurement, type of radiation, particle size as a function of the mass absorption coefficient, and the wavelength used, were all taken into account. An operational method was established and a statistical error analysis was carried out. Although the error varies with both chemical species and concentration, it can be considered as acceptable.

  18. Routine analysis of iron ores by X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, Franciszek

    A number of iron ores from all parts of the world were analysed with a powder sample preparation technique. Calibration curves were plotted for Fe, Ca, Si, Al and Mg in wide concentration ranges using 32 international and a few local standards. All iron ores were divided into 5 groups related to mineralogical differences; however, the calibration curve for Ca is common for all samples. For hematites and magnetites the relationship FeO + Fe 2O 3 = f(Fe) was experimentally established. The total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 5 min. A good correlation of chemical and X-ray results was obtained in this routine work.

  19. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  20. Speciman holder design improves accuracy of X-ray powder analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, M.

    1966-01-01

    Specimen holder for X ray diffraction analysis presents the specimen to the incident X rays in a curvature. This permits the use of an X ray beam having a larger divergence angle, the beam intensity is increased, and the statistical accuracy of analysis is improved.

  1. The soft x-ray instrument for materials studies at the linac coherent light source x-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Rowen, M.; Holmes, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Moeller, S.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, S.; Coffee, R.; Hays, G.; Heimann, P.; Krupin, O.; Soufli, R.; Fernandez-Perea, M.; Hau-Riege, S.; Kelez, N.; Beye, M.; Gerken, N.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Wurth, W.; and others

    2012-04-15

    The soft x-ray materials science instrument is the second operational beamline at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser. The instrument operates with a photon energy range of 480-2000 eV and features a grating monochromator as well as bendable refocusing mirrors. A broad range of experimental stations may be installed to study diverse scientific topics such as: ultrafast chemistry, surface science, highly correlated electron systems, matter under extreme conditions, and laboratory astrophysics. Preliminary commissioning results are presented including the first soft x-ray single-shot energy spectrum from a free electron laser.

  2. Chandra X-ray Data Analysis in Educational Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilsky, T.; Etkina, E.; Lestition, K.; Mandel, E.; Joye, W.

    2004-12-01

    Recent progress in both software and remote connectivity capabilities have made it possible for authentic data analysis tasks to be presented in a wide range of educational venues. No longer are precollege teachers and students, and interested members of the public limited by their lack of access to the scientific workstations and UNIX-based imaging and analytical software used by the research community. Through a suite of programs that couples a simplified graphical user interface using the "DS9" imaging software with a "virtual observatory" capability that processes the analytical algorithms used by X-ray astronomers, we can access archived Chandra observations and generate images, as well as light curves, energy spectra, power spectra and other common examples of science tasks. The system connects to a remote UNIX server, but the user may be sited on a PC or Mac platform. Furthermore, the use of VNC (a remote desktop display environment) allows a teacher to view, comment on and debug any analysis task in real time, from anywhere in the world, and across any computer platform. This makes these programs especially useful in distance learning settings. We have developed, tested and used these capabilities in a wide variety of educational arenas, from 4 week intensive courses in X-ray astronomy research techniques for precollege students and teachers, to one day teacher enrichment workshops, to modules of classroom activities suitable for precollege grade levels, using a variety of cosmic X-ray sources. Examples using archived Chandra observations will be presented demonstrating the flexibility and usefulness of these resources.

  3. An investigation on some of the tumor treatment cases using x-rays and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucar, Burcu; Yigitoglu, Ibrahim; Arslan Kabalay, Ipek; Altiparmak, Duygu; Kilicaslan, Sinem

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we discussed some of the applications which X-rays and electron beam used in radiotherapy for tumor treatments. This study has been performed at Radiation Oncology Department, Medicine Faculty in Gaziosmanpasa University by using the VARIAN CLINICA DHX linear accelerator which is operated in the range of 6 MeV - 15 MeV. Processes for the treatments that X-rays used for pancreas, bladder and prostate tumors and the processes that the electron beam used for some of the derm tumors are studied. Effects of X-rays and electron beams to treatments process are examined and the obtained results are presented comparatively.

  4. Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense x-rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.; Kanter, E .P.; Li, Y.; March, A.-M.; Pratt, S. T.; Santra, R.; Southworth, S. H.; Rohringer, N.; DiMauro, L. F.; Doumy, G.; Roedig, C. A.; Berrah, N.; Fang, L.; Hoener, M.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Cryan, J. P .; Ghimire, S.; Glownia, J. M.; Reis, D. A.; Bozek, J. D.; Bostedt, C.; Messerschmidt, M.; Western Michigan Univ.; SLAC National Accelerator Lab.; The Ohio State Univ.; LLNL; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-07-01

    An era of exploring the interactions of high-intensity, hard X-rays with matter has begun with the start-up of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Understanding how electrons in matter respond to ultra-intense X-ray radiation is essential for all applications. Here we reveal the nature of the electronic response in a free atom to unprecedented high-intensity, short-wavelength, high-fluence radiation (respectively 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}, 1.5-0.6 nm, {approx}10{sup 5} X-ray photons per {angstrom}{sup 2}). At this fluence, the neon target inevitably changes during the course of a single femtosecond-duration X-ray pulse - by sequentially ejecting electrons - to produce fully-stripped neon through absorption of six photons. Rapid photoejection of inner-shell electrons produces 'hollow' atoms and an intensity-induced X-ray transparency. Such transparency, due to the presence of inner-shell vacancies, can be induced in all atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems at high intensity. Quantitative comparison with theory allows us to extract LCLS fluence and pulse duration. Our successful modelling of X-ray/atom interactions using a straightforward rate equation approach augurs favourably for extension to complex systems.

  5. Soft x-ray spectroscopy for probing electronic and chemical states of battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanli, Yang; Ruimin, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    The formidable challenge of developing high-performance battery system stems from the complication of battery operations, both mechanically and electronically. In the electrodes and at the electrode–electrolyte interfaces, chemical reactions take place with evolving electron states. In addition to the extensive studies of material synthesis, electrochemical, structural, and mechanical properties, soft x-ray spectroscopy provides unique opportunities for revealing the critical electron states in batteries. This review discusses some of the recent soft x-ray spectroscopic results on battery binder, transition-metal based positive electrodes, and the solid-electrolyte-interphase. By virtue of soft x-ray’s sensitivity to electron states, the electronic property, the redox during electrochemical operations, and the chemical species of the interphases could be fingerprinted by soft x-ray spectroscopy. Understanding and innovating battery technologies need a multimodal approach, and soft x-ray spectroscopy is one of the incisive tools to probe the chemical and physical evolutions in batteries.

  6. Nonthermal X-rays and related processes. [analysis of hard X-rays associated with solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The hard X-rays associated with solar flares represent the bremsstrahlung of nonthermal electron streams. In the initial phase of the flare, the X-rays probably come from a dense region in the chromosphere, as a consequence of precipitation from the lower corona. A gradual nonthermal X-ray burst may occur in a later phase, probably caused by the electrons responsible for the type 4 burst. The bombardment of the chromosphere during the early phase of the flare releases a large amount of energy there. This energy can support many of the observed flash-phase phenomena. We therefore consider this picture of flare energetics: The energy initially goes into fast particles. These interact with the chromosphere, which expands to form the hot region observed in the corona. This hot region then provides energy for many of the main-phase flare phenomena, such as H-alpha emission. The bulk of the energy in the bombardment must reside in the electron component. A clear test of the whole picture lies in its prediction of a strong infrared excess during the flash phase.

  7. X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, A.C.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1993-11-01

    The in vivo measurement of lead burden in human bones by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a newly developed, noninvasive, and relatively rapid approach to assessing chronic lead exposure. XRF takes advantage of the fact that bone is the storage tissue for lead in the human body and that lead in bone has a half-life of decades. XRF analysis may be undertaken using either K or L X-rays, and both K and L XRF systems have been developed and validated. With the application of XRF technology to epidemiologic and clinical studies, the toxicology of chronic lead exposure in adults can be explored with a sensitivity and specificity not heretofore possible. XRF will also enable the examination of the possible influence of genetic polymorphism on chronic lead toxicity. The toxic endpoints that might be most fruitfully evaluated in prospective epidemiologic studies of workers include toxicity to the peripheral and central nervous system, renal toxicity, and lead-induced hypertension. XRF bone lead measurements will be important for assessing intervention in lead poisoning. Finally, XRF technology will be extremely important for refining existing models of the pharmacokinetics of lead.

  8. Comparison of the data of X-ray microtomography and fluorescence analysis in the study of bone-tissue structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadchikov, V. E.; Senin, R. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Buzmakov, A. V.; Gulimova, V. I.; Zolotov, D. A.; Orekhov, A. S.; Osadchaya, A. S.; Podurets, K. M.; Savel'ev, S. V.; Seregin, A. Yu.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Chukalina, M. V.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2012-09-01

    The possibility of localizing clusters of heavy atoms is substantiated by comparing the data of X-ray microtomography at different wavelengths, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The proximal tail vertebrae of Turner's thick-toed gecko ( Chondrodactylus turneri) have been investigated for the first time by both histological and physical methods, including X-ray microtomography at different wavelengths and elemental analysis. This complex methodology of study made it possible to reveal the regions of accumulation of heavy elements in the aforementioned bones of Turner's thick-toed gecko.

  9. 77 FR 12226 - Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed... regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of... use of electron beam and x- ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed...

  10. Efficient electronic structure calculation for molecular ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yajiang; Inhester, Ludger; Hanasaki, Kota; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We present the implementation of an electronic-structure approach dedicated to ionization dynamics of molecules interacting with x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses. In our scheme, molecular orbitals for molecular core-hole states are represented by linear combination of numerical atomic orbitals that are solutions of corresponding atomic core-hole states. We demonstrate that our scheme efficiently calculates all possible multiple-hole configurations of molecules formed during XFEL pulses. The present method is suitable to investigate x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics and accompanying nuclear dynamics, providing essential information on the chemical dynamics relevant for high-intensity x-ray imaging. PMID:26798806

  11. A simulation of X-ray shielding for a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2014-02-15

    It is generally assumed that large amounts of x-rays are emitted from the ion source of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) instrument. The total amount of x-rays should be strictly limited to avoid the extra heat load to the cryostat of the superconducting ECR ion source, since they are partly absorbed by the cold mass into the cryostat. A simulation of x-ray shielding was carried out to determine the effective thickness of the x-ray shield needed via the use of Geant4. X-ray spectra of the 10 GHz Nanogan ECR ion source were measured as a function of the thickness variation in the x-ray shield. The experimental results were compared with Geant4 results to verify the effectiveness of the x-ray shield. Based on the validity in the case of the 10 GHz ECR ion source, the x-ray shielding results are presented by assuming the spectral temperature of the 28 GHz ECR ion source.

  12. Investigation of surface structure with X-ray absorption and electron emission spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Mark Daniel

    The use of electron spectromicroscopy for the study of the chemical composition and electronic properties of surfaces, overlayers, and interfaces has become widely accepted. Improvements to the optics of instruments such as the X-ray photo electron emission microscope have pushed spectroscopic microscopies into the realm of very high spatial resolution, at and below 1 micrometer [1]. Coupled with the high spectral resolution available from third generation synchrotron sources, this spatial resolution allows the measurement of micro-X-ray absorption near-edge spectra in addition to the more typical electron emission spectra and diffraction patterns. Complementary to the experimental developments is the development of improved theoretical methods for computational modeling of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the field of tribochemistry, zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) has long been a topic of much study. ZDDP is widely used as an anti-wear additive in engine oils and there is interest in determining the decomposition products of ZDDP that provide this protection against friction. An analysis of X-ray absorption near-edge spectra of thermal films from ZDDP samples is presented, including a comparison of the Zinc L-edge spectra with model calculations [2]. It was found essential to carry out self-consistent calculations of the electronic structure for the modeling. For the techniques of electron diffraction, a new method for a full multiple-scattering calculation of diffraction patterns from crystals with two-dimensional periodicity parallel to the surface is presented [3]. The calculation makes use of Helmholtz's reciprocity principle to compute the path-reversed process of the back propagation of a photoelectron from the position of a distant detector to that of the emitting atom. Early application is demonstrated with simulations of 64 eV M2,3VV and 914 eV L 2,3VV Auger electron diffraction from a Cu(001) surface. The functionality of the path-reversed calculation is greatly increased by extension to photoelectron diffraction for crystal surfaces with many atoms per unit cell [4]. The results are essentially indistinguishable from those of a conventional forward-path calculation. Application to photoelectron diffraction for 955 eV O 1s emission from a MgO(001) surface shows good agreement with experiment.

  13. Controlled Betatron X-Ray Radiation from Tunable Optically Injected Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Corde, S.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Fitour, R.; Faure, J.; Tafzi, A.; Goddet, J. P.; Malka, V.; Rousse, A.

    2011-12-16

    The features of Betatron x-ray emission produced in a laser-plasma accelerator are closely linked to the properties of the relativistic electrons which are at the origin of the radiation. While in interaction regimes explored previously the source was by nature unstable, following the fluctuations of the electron beam, we demonstrate in this Letter the possibility to generate x-ray Betatron radiation with controlled and reproducible features, allowing fine studies of its properties. To do so, Betatron radiation is produced using monoenergetic electrons with tunable energies from a laser-plasma accelerator with colliding pulse injection [J. Faure et al., Nature (London) 444, 737 (2006)]. The presented study provides evidence of the correlations between electrons and x-rays, and the obtained results open significant perspectives toward the production of a stable and controlled femtosecond Betatron x-ray source in the keV range.

  14. Methods development for diffraction and spectroscopy studies of metalloenzymes at X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jan; Hattne, Johan; Tran, Rosalie; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Laksmono, Hartawan; Gul, Sheraz; Sierra, Raymond G; Rehanek, Jens; Erko, Alexei; Mitzner, Rolf; Wernet, Phillip; Bergmann, Uwe; Sauter, Nicholas K; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko

    2014-07-17

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new possibilities for X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples under close to physiological conditions. To facilitate these new X-ray sources, tailored experimental methods and data-processing protocols have to be developed. The highly radiation-sensitive photosystem II (PSII) protein complex is a prime target for XFEL experiments aiming to study the mechanism of light-induced water oxidation taking place at a Mn cluster in this complex. We developed a set of tools for the study of PSII at XFELs, including a new liquid jet based on electrofocusing, an energy dispersive von Hamos X-ray emission spectrometer for the hard X-ray range and a high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometer based on a reflection zone plate. While our immediate focus is on PSII, the methods we describe here are applicable to a wide range of metalloenzymes. These experimental developments were complemented by a new software suite, cctbx.xfel. This software suite allows for near-real-time monitoring of the experimental parameters and detector signals and the detailed analysis of the diffraction and spectroscopy data collected by us at the Linac Coherent Light Source, taking into account the specific characteristics of data measured at an XFEL. PMID:24914169

  15. Methods development for diffraction and spectroscopy studies of metalloenzymes at X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Jan; Hattne, Johan; Tran, Rosalie; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Laksmono, Hartawan; Gul, Sheraz; Sierra, Raymond G.; Rehanek, Jens; Erko, Alexei; Mitzner, Rolf; Wernet, Phillip; Bergmann, Uwe; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko

    2014-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new possibilities for X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples under close to physiological conditions. To facilitate these new X-ray sources, tailored experimental methods and data-processing protocols have to be developed. The highly radiation-sensitive photosystem II (PSII) protein complex is a prime target for XFEL experiments aiming to study the mechanism of light-induced water oxidation taking place at a Mn cluster in this complex. We developed a set of tools for the study of PSII at XFELs, including a new liquid jet based on electrofocusing, an energy dispersive von Hamos X-ray emission spectrometer for the hard X-ray range and a high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometer based on a reflection zone plate. While our immediate focus is on PSII, the methods we describe here are applicable to a wide range of metalloenzymes. These experimental developments were complemented by a new software suite, cctbx.xfel. This software suite allows for near-real-time monitoring of the experimental parameters and detector signals and the detailed analysis of the diffraction and spectroscopy data collected by us at the Linac Coherent Light Source, taking into account the specific characteristics of data measured at an XFEL. PMID:24914169

  16. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. H.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2008-10-01

    The properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam (S AEB) and X-ray radiation produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. An electron beam of the runaway electrons with amplitude of ~ 50 A has been obtained in air atmospheric pressure. It is reported that S AEB is formed in the angle above 2π sr. Three groups of the runaway electrons are formed in a gas diode under atmospheric air pressure, when nanosecond voltage pulses with amplitude of hundreds of kilovolts are applied. The electron beam has been generated behind a 45 μm thick AlBe foil in SF6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 arm, and in He under the pressure of about 12 atm. The paper gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of SAEB.

  17. Development of a hard X-ray delay line for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pumpprobe experiments at X-ray free-electron laser sources

    PubMed Central

    Roseker, Wojciech; Franz, Hermann; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Ehnes, Anita; Leupold, Olaf; Zontone, Federico; Lee, Sooheyong; Robert, Aymeric; Grbel, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    A hard X-ray delay line capable of splitting and delaying single X-ray pulses has been developed with the aim of performing X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and X-ray pumpprobe experiments at hard X-ray free-electron laser sources. The performance of the device was tested with 8.39?keV synchrotron radiation. Time delays up to 2.95?ns have been demonstrated. The feasibility of the device for performing XPCS studies was tested by recording static speckle patterns. The achieved speckle contrast of 56% indicates the possibility of performing ultra-fast XPCS studies with the delay line. PMID:21525658

  18. Preliminary X-ray Results From A Multiple Balloon Campaign to Study Relativistic Electron Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample, J. G.; Kokorowski, M.; Millan, R. M.; McCarthy, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Bering, E. A.; Parks, G. K.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Pulupa, M.; Bale, S.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Smith, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 24 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS North and South X-ray data. The first and second Southern payloads observed a rarely-seen phenomenon: gamma-ray line emission from nuclear interactions of solar protons in the Earth's atmosphere. When the solar particles abated, there were numerous opportunities for simultaneous observations of MeV precipitation from multiple payloads; we will present the first analysis of these data.

  19. Entangled Valence Electron-Hole Dynamics Revealed by Stimulated Attosecond X-ray Raman Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by stimulated resonant Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction. PMID:23755318

  20. Entangled valence electron-hole dynamics revealed by stimulated attosecond x-ray Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-09-06

    We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by resonant stimulated Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction.

  1. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (Γ) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of Γ with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  2. Observation of pulsed x-ray trains produced by laser-electron Compton scatterings

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Araki, Sakae; Fukuda, Masafumi; Higashi, Yasuo; Honda, Yosuke; Omori, Tsunehiko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Sasao, Noboru

    2009-12-15

    X-ray generation based on laser-electron Compton scattering is one attractive method to achieve a compact laboratory-sized high-brightness x-ray source. We have designed, built, and tested such a source; it combines a 50 MeV multibunch electron linac with a mode-locked 1064 nm laser stored and amplified in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We directly observed trains of pulsed x rays using a microchannel plate detector; the resultant yield was found to be 1.2x10{sup 5} Hz in good agreement with prediction. We believe that the result has demonstrated good feasibility of linac-based compact x-ray sources via laser-electron Compton scatterings.

  3. Predicting X-ray absorption spectra of semiconducting polymers for electronic structure and morphology characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Gregory; Patel, Shrayesh; Pemmaraju, C. Das; Kramer, Edward; Prendergast, David; Chabinyc, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Core-level X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals important information on the electronic structure of materials and plays a key role in morphology characterization. Semiconducting polymers are the active component in many organic electronics. Their electronic properties are critically linked to device performance, and a proper understanding of semiconducting polymer XAS is crucial. Techniques such as resonant X-ray scattering rely on core-level transitions to gain materials contrast and probe orientational order. However, it is difficult to identify these transitions based on experiments alone, and complementary simulations are required. We show that first-principles calculations can capture the essential features of experimental XAS of semiconducting polymers, and provide insight into which molecular model, such as oligomers or periodic boundary conditions, are best suited for XAS calculations. Simulated XAS can reveal contributions from individual atoms and be used to visualize molecular orbitals. This allows for improved characterization of molecular orientation and scattering analysis. These predictions lay the groundwork for understanding how chemical makeup is linked to electronic structure, and to properly utilize experiments to characterize semiconducting polymers.

  4. Soft X-ray, microwave, and hard X-ray emission from a solar flare - Implications for electron heating and acceleration in current channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The soft X-ray, microwave, and hard X-ray emissions from the solar flare of May 14, 1980 are studied. The flare consists of a gradual component in soft X-rays and microwaves and a superposed impulsive burst accompanied by hard X-ray emission. The impulsive phase of the flare appears in the soft X-ray emission as a temperature spike and as an increased rate of energy dissipation into the plasma. A new, spatially and spectrally distinct, microwave component appears during the impulsive burst. The data are interpreted in terms of Joule heating and the electric field acceleration of electrons in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft X-ray emitting plasma can be heated by a single current sheet only if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity. Conditions are also given for the hard X-ray emission to be from nonthermal electrons with classical resistivity.

  5. Electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube based field emission x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Shabana

    In this dissertation, electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source for medical imaging applications will be presented. However, for design optimization of x-ray tubes accurate electron beam optics simulation is essential. To facilitate design of CNT x-ray sources a commercial 3D finite element software has been chosen for extensive simulation. The results show that a simplified model of uniform electron field emission from the cathode surface is not sufficient when compared to experimental measurements. This necessitated the development of a refined model to describe a macroscopic field emission CNT cathode for electron beam optics simulations. The model emulates the random distribution of CNTs and the associated variation of local field enhancement factor. The main parameter of the model has been derived empirically from the experimentally measured I-V characteristics of the CNT cathode. Simulation results based on this model agree well with experiments which include measurements of the transmission rate and focus spot size. The model provides a consistent simulation platform for optimization of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray source design. A systematic study of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray tubes led to the development of a new generation of compact x-ray source with multiple pixels. A micro focus field emission x-ray source with a variable focal spot size has been fully characterized and evaluated. It has been built and successfully integrated into micro-CT scanners which are capable of dynamic cardiac imaging of free-breathing small animals with high spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition a spatially distributed high power multi-beam x-ray source has also been designed and integrated into a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) configuration. This system has the potential to reduce the total scan time to 4 seconds and yield superior image quality in breast imaging.

  6. Detection of soft X-rays with NEA III-V photocathodes. [Negative Electron Affinity X-ray detector for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardas, D.; Kellogg, E.; Murray, S.; Enck, R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of tests on an X-ray photomultiplier containing a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode. This device makes it possible to investigate the response of the NEA photocathode to X-rays of various energies. The obtained data provide a basis for the determination of the photoelectron yield and energy resolution of the considered photocathode as a function of energy in the range from 0.8 to 3 keV. The investigation demonstrates the feasibility of using an NEA III-V photocathode for the detection of soft X-rays.

  7. Caustic structures in x-ray Compton scattering off electrons driven by a short intense laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Kämpfer, B.

    2016-02-01

    We study the Compton scattering of x-rays off electrons that are driven by a relativistically intense short optical laser pulse. The frequency spectrum of the laser-assisted Compton radiation shows a broad plateau in the vicinity of the laser-free Compton line due to a nonlinear mixing between x-ray and laser photons. Special emphasis is placed on how the shape of the short assisting laser pulse affects the spectrum of the scattered x-rays. In particular, we observe sharp peak structures in the plateau region, whose number and locations are highly sensitive to the laser pulse shape. These structures are interpreted as spectral caustics by using a semiclassical analysis of the laser-assisted QED matrix element, relating the caustic peak locations to the laser-driven electron motion.

  8. Resonant soft x-ray inelastic scattering and soft x-ray emission study of the electronic structure of ?-MoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learmonth, T.; McGuinness, C.; Glans, P.-A.; Kennedy, B.; St. John, J.; Guo, J.-H.; Greenblatt, M.; Smith, K. E.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure of quasi-low-dimensional solids is a topic of enduring interest due to the complex many-body interactions that exist in such materials and their resulting exotic physical properties. A well studied class of such materials is the quasi-low-dimensional metals known collectively as molybdenum oxide bronzes. These materials are all derived from the band insulator ?-MoO3 . We report here a study of the electronic structure of ?-MoO3 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. We observe significant variation in x-ray scattering as a function of the relative orientation of the polarization vector of the incident light and the crystal axes. We interpret our data using a model of k -selective soft x-ray scattering.

  9. Study and dating of medieval ceramic tiles by analysis of enamels with atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and electron probe microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Ramos, S.; Bosch Reig, F.; Gimeno Adelantado, J. V.; Yusá Marco, D. J.; Doménech Carbó, A.

    2002-04-01

    This paper reports an analytical study of enamel on fragments of medieval tiles using atomic spectroscopy techniques — AAS, XRF and SEM/EDX. The samples came from a hermitage in the region of Valencia (Spain) and have different motifs, mainly floral ones in a wide variety of colors. A study of the soluble salts in the biscuits and mortar was carried out using AAS to determine their present capacity to produce efflorescence and the type of efflorescence. XRF was used to identify the oxides responsible for the different colors and the pigments used over large areas of the tiles (white and green). SEM/EDX was used to characterize the white and green and smaller areas of other colors. A correspondence between the different colors and tones and the metallic elements or mixtures was established. X-Ray energy spectra obtained for different areas of the same color have made it possible to quantify the contents of different elements, and thus to study the homogeneity of application. The presence of zinc is justified because of the physical and chemical properties it imparts to the enamels. The complementary nature of these spectroscopic techniques have made it possible to evaluate the state of conservation, to establish measures to clean the existing efflorescence according to their nature and to suggest dating of the materials.

  10. PROS: An IRAF based system for analysis of x ray data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, M. A.; Deponte, J.; Moran, J. F.; Orszak, J. S.; Roberts, W. P.; Schmidt, D.

    1992-01-01

    PROS is an IRAF based software package for the reduction and analysis of x-ray data. The use of a standard, portable, integrated environment provides for both multi-frequency and multi-mission analysis. The analysis of x-ray data differs from optical analysis due to the nature of the x-ray data and its acquisition during constantly varying conditions. The scarcity of data, the low signal-to-noise ratio and the large gaps in exposure time make data screening and masking an important part of the analysis. PROS was developed to support the analysis of data from the ROSAT and Einstein missions but many of the tasks have been used on data from other missions. IRAF/PROS provides a complete end-to-end system for x-ray data analysis: (1) a set of tools for importing and exporting data via FITS format -- in particular, IRAF provides a specialized event-list format, QPOE, that is compatible with its IMAGE (2-D array) format; (2) a powerful set of IRAF system capabilities for both temporal and spatial event filtering; (3) full set of imaging and graphics tasks; (4) specialized packages for scientific analysis such as spatial, spectral and timing analysis -- these consist of both general and mission specific tasks; and (5) complete system support including ftp and magnetic tape releases, electronic and conventional mail hotline support, electronic mail distribution of solutions to frequently asked questions and current known bugs. We will discuss the philosophy, architecture and development environment used by PROS to generate a portable, multimission software environment. PROS is available on all platforms that support IRAF, including Sun/Unix, VAX/VMS, HP, and Decstations. It is available on request at no charge.

  11. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    PubMed Central

    Szlachetko, J.; Milne, C. J.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; B?achucki, W.; S, J.; Kayser, Y.; Messerschmidt, M.; Abela, R.; Boutet, S.; David, C.; Williams, G.; Pajek, M.; Patterson, B. D.; Smolentsev, G.; van Bokhoven, J. A.; Nachtegaal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10?18 s) to femtoseconds (10?15 s) and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS), we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  12. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion. PMID:25744344

  13. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, A; Ratner, D; Lutman, A A; Turner, J; Welch, J; Decker, F-J; Loos, H; Behrens, C; Gilevich, S; Miahnahri, A A; Vetter, S; Maxwell, T J; Ding, Y; Coffee, R; Wakatsuki, S; Huang, Z

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion. PMID:25744344

  14. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore » in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  15. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  16. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-03-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  17. In Situ Mineralogical Analysis of Planetary Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Remote observations of Mars have led scientists to believe that its early climate was similar to that of the early Earth, having had abundant liquid water and a dense atmosphere. One of the most fascinating questions of recent times is whether simple bacterial life developed on Mars (as it did on the Earth) during this early element period. Analyses of SNC meteorites have broadened considerably our knowledge of the chemistry of certain types of Martian rocks, underscoring the tantalizing possibility of early hydrothermal systems and even of ancient bacterial life. Detailed analyses of SNC meteorites in Terrestrial laboratories utilize the most sophisticated organic, isotopic and microscopic techniques in existence. Indeed; it is unlikely that the key biogenic indicators used in McKay et al (ibid) could be identified by a remote instrument on the surface of Mars. As a result, it is probable that any robotic search for evidence of an ancient Martian biosphere will have as its focus the identification of key minerals in likely host rocks rather than the direct detection of organic or isotopic biomarkers. Even on a sample return mission, mineralogical screening will be utilized to choose the most likely candidate rocks. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the only technique that can provide a direct determination of the crystal structures of the phases present within a sample. When many different crystalline phases are present, quantitative analysis is better constrained if used in conjunction with a determination of elemental composition, obtainable by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using the same X-ray source as for XRD. For planetary surface analysis, a remote instrument combining XRD and XRF could be used for mineralogical characterization of both soils and rocks. We are designing a remote XRD/XRF instrument with this objective in mind. The instrument concept pays specific attention to constraints in sample preparation, weight, volume, power, etc. Based on the geometry of a pinhole camera (transmission geometry, flat two-dimensional detector perpendicular to the direct beam), the instrument (which we call CHEMIN, for Chemistry and Mineralogy) uses an X-ray sensitive CCD detector which will allow concurrent positional and energy-dispersive analysis of collected photons. Thus XRF (energy) and XRD (geometry) analysis of transmitted X-rays will be performed at the same time. Tests performed with single minerals and simple mixtures give promising results. Refinements of the prototype promise interpretable results on complex samples.

  18. Electron-ion collision-frequency for x-ray Thomson scattering in dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Two methods are presented to calculate the electron-ion collision-frequency in dense plasmas using an average-atom model. The first one is based on the Kubo-Greenwood approach. The second one uses the Born and Lenard-Balescu approximations. The two methods are used to calculate x-ray Thomson scattering spectra. Illustrations are shown for dense beryllium and aluminum plasmas. Comparisons with experiment are presented in the case of an x-ray Thomson scattering spectrum.

  19. Visualizing a protein quake with time resolved X-ray scattering at a free electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Barty, Anton; Williams, Garth J.; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Milathianaki, Despina; DePonte, Daniel P.; Shoeman, Robert L.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Katona, Gergely; Westenhoff, Sebastian; White, Thomas A.; Aquila, Andrew; Bari, Sadia; Berntsen, Peter; Bogan, Mike; van Driel, Tim Brandt; Doak, R. Bruce; Kjr, Kasper Skov; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Henning, Robert; Hunter, Mark S.; Kirian, Richard A.; Kosheleva, Irina; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sjhamn, Jennie; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Schlichting, Ilme; Boutet, Sbastien; Groenhof, Gerrit; Chapman, Henry N.; Neutze, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A protein quake describes the hypothesis that proteins rapidly dissipate energy through quake like structural motions. Here we measure ultrafast structural changes in the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center following multi-photon excitation using time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free electron laser. A global conformational change arises within picoseconds, which precedes the propagation of heat through the protein. This motion is damped within a hundred picoseconds. PMID:25108686

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of NLO Crystals: Traditional Applications and More New Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Clark, Ronald D.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis is one of the more important methods for the molecular and crystal structure determination of matter and therefore it has a great importance in material science including design and engineering of different compounds with non-linear optical (NLO) properties. It was shown in our previous publications that this method provides unique information about molecular structure of NLO compounds, their crystal symmetry and crystal packing arrays, molecular conformation and geometries and many other structural and electronic characteristics that are important for understanding the nature of NLO properties of solids. A very new application of the X-ray diffraction method is related to analysis of the electron density distribution p(r) in crystals and some of its characteristics (atomic and group charges, dipole and higher multipole moments, etc.), that may be obtained directly form the diffraction measurements. In the present work, we will discuss our preliminary low temperature high-resolution X-ray data for the m-nitroaniline (mNA) single crystal (VI). This is one of the "classical" organic NLO materials and electron density distribution analysis in this simple compound has a great scientific interest.

  1. Electron charge distribution of CaAl{sub 2-x}Zn{sub x}: Maximum entropy method combined with Rietveld analysis of high-resolution-synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    Soederberg, Karin; Kubota, Yoshiki; Muroyama, Norihiro; Gruener, Daniel; Yoshimura, Arisa; Terasaki, Osamu

    2008-08-15

    Using short wavelength X-rays from synchrotron radiation (SPring-8), high-resolution powder diffraction patterns were collected. In order to study both the structural relationship and the mechanism of stability in the CaAl{sub 2-x}Zn{sub x} system, among the Laves phases (MgCu{sub 2} and MgNi{sub 2} type) and KHg{sub 2}-type structures, the charge density distribution of CaAl{sub 2-x}Zn{sub x} as a function of x was obtained from the diffraction data by Rietveld analysis combined with the maximum entropy method (MEM). In the MEM charge density maps overlapping electron densities were clearly observed, especially in the Kagome nets of the Laves phases. In order to clarify the charge redistribution in the system, the deformation charge densities from the densities formed by the constituent free atoms are discussed. In the ternary MgNi{sub 2}-type phase, partial ordering of Al and Zn atoms is observed, a finding that is supported by ab-initio total energy calculations. - Graphical abstract: Using short wavelength X-rays from synchrotron radiation (SPring-8), high-resolution powder diffraction patterns of the Laves (MgCu{sub 2} and MgNi{sub 2} type) and KHg{sub 2}-type phases in the CaAl{sub 2-x}Zn{sub x} system were collected. The charge density distribution in the Laves phases as a function of x was obtained from the diffraction data by Rietveld analysis combined with the maximum entropy method (MEM)

  2. X-ray CT analysis of pore structure in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Miyata, Yoshihisa; Mikami, Kazuaki; Shiota, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The development of a micro-focused X-ray CT device enables digital imaging analysis at the pore-scale. The applications have been diverse, for instance, in soil mechanics, geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, petroleum engineering, and agricultural engineering. In particular, imaging of the pore space of porous media has contributed to numerical simulations for single and multi-phase flow, or contaminant transport, through the pore structure as three-dimensional image data. These obtained results are affected by the pore diameter so it is necessary to verify the image pre-processing for image analysis, and validate the pore diameters obtained from the CT image data. Besides, it is meaningful to produce the parameters in a representative element volume (REV) and significant to define the dimension of REV. This paper describes the underlying method of image processing and analysis and discusses the physical properties of Toyoura sand for the verification of image analysis based on the definition of REV. Based on the obtained verification results, pore diameter analysis can be conducted and validated by the comparison of the experimental work and image analysis. The pore diameter was deduced by Laplace's law and the water retentively test for the drainage process. The referenced result sand perforated pore diameter proposed originally in this study, called the voxel-percolation method (VPM), are compared in this paper. The paper describes the limitation of REV, the definition of pore diameter, and the effectiveness of VPM for the assessment of pore diameter.

  3. X-RAY NONLINEAR OPTICAL PROCESSES IN ATOMS USING A SELF-AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION FREE-ELECTRON LASER

    SciTech Connect

    Rohringer, N

    2008-08-08

    X-ray free electron lasers (xFEL) will open new avenues to the virtually unexplored territory of non-linear interactions of x rays with matter. Initially xFELs will be based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). Each SASE pulse consists of a number of coherent intensity spikes of random amplitude, i.e. the process is chaotic and pulses are irreproducible. The coherence time of SASE xFELs will be a few femtoseconds for a photon energy near 1 keV. The importance of coherence properties of light in non-linear optical processes was theoretically discovered in the early 1960s. In this contribution we will illustrate the impact of field chaoticity on x-ray non-linear optical processes on neon for photon energies around 1 keV and intensities up to 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Resonant and non-resonant processes are discussed. The first process to be addressed is the formation of a double-core hole in neon by photoionization with x rays above 1.25 keV energy. In contrast to the long-wavelength regime, non-linear optical processes in the x-ray regime are characterized in general by sequential single-photon single-electron interactions. Despite this fact, the sequential absorption of multiple x-ray photons depends on the statistical properties of the radiation field. Treating the x rays generated by a SASE FEL as fully chaotic, a quantum-mechanical analysis of inner-shell two-photon absorption is performed. By solving a system of time-dependent rate equations, we demonstrate that double-core hole formation in neon via x-ray two-photon absorption is enhanced by chaotic photon statistics. At an intensity of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the statistical enhancement is about 30%, much smaller than typical values in the optical regime. The second part of this presentation discusses the resonant Auger effect of atomic neon at the 1s-3p transition (at 867.1 eV). For low X-ray intensity, the excitation process 1s {yields} 3p in Neon can be treated perturbatively. The core-hole excited 1s{sup -1} 3p state is embedded in the continuum and decays via Auger-process on the timescale of approximately 5 fs. Increasing the x-ray intensity above 1.5 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, a peak intensity accessible with xFEL sources in the near future, x-ray induced emission from 3p back to 1s becomes possible, i.e. Rabi oscillations between these two levels can be induced. For the numerical analysis of this process, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. The observation of x-ray-driven atomic populations dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic xFEL pulses. In addition to requiring single-shot measurements, sub-femtosecond temporal resolution would be needed. The Rabi oscillations will, however, be imprinted on the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron (see Fig. 1). Measuring the resonant Auger-electron line profile will provide information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

  4. Analysis of urinary stone components by x-ray coherent scatter: characterizing composition beyond laboratory x-ray diffractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Batchelar, Deidre L.; Velupillai, Sujeevan; Denstedt, John D.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2005-08-01

    Monoenergetic x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is an established standard for the assessment of urinary stone composition. The inherent low energy of x-rays used (8 keV), however, restricts penetration depth and imposes a requirement for small powdered samples. A technique capable of producing detailed information regarding component structural arrangements in calculi non-destructively would provide clearer insights into causes of formation and subsequent growth and allow the selection of more appropriate courses of therapy. We describe a new method based on the detection of coherent scatter (CS) in stone components using polyenergetic x-rays (70 kVp) from diagnostic equipment. While the higher energy allows the analysis of intact calculi, the polyenergetic source causes an angular broadening of measured CS patterns. We show that it is possible to relate the polyenergetic (CS) and monoenergetic (XRD) measurements through a superposition integral of the monoenergetic XRD cross-section with a function representative of the polyenergetic spectrum used in CS. Experimentally acquired diffractometry cross-sections of the seven major urinary stone components were subjected to this operation, revealing good agreement of diffraction features with CS. Therefore, our CS analysis is sensitive to stone component structure, similar to conventional XRD analysis. This indicates that CS analysis can be used as a basis to classify urinary calculi by composition. The potential of identifying stone components non-destructively was demonstrated from a tomographic CS analysis of a stone-mimicking phantom. Tomographic composition maps were generated from CS patterns, showing the structural arrangement of multiple stone components within the phantom. CS analysis has the ability to detect components in the presence of many others. The ability to perform CS measurements in intact calculi would allow for the identification of stone structures critical to patient metaprophylaxis.

  5. Note: Theoretical study on the gas pressure dependence of x-ray yield in TE{sub 111} cavity based electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Selvakumaran, T. S. Sen, Soubhadra; Baskaran, R.

    2014-11-15

    Adopting Langevin methodology, a pressure dependent frictional force term which represents the collisional effect is added to the Lorentz equation. The electrons are assumed to be starting from the uniformly distributed co-ordinates on the central plane. The trajectory of each electron is numerically simulated by solving the modified Lorentz equation for a given pressure. The Bremsstrahlung x-ray energy spectrum for each electron crossing the cavity wall boundary is obtained using the Duane-Hunt law. The total x-ray yield is estimated by adding the spectral contribution of each electron. The calculated yields are compared with the experimental results and a good agreement is found.

  6. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    PubMed

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved. PMID:25273730

  7. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kameshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki; RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 ; Horigome, Toshio; Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen; Burt, David; Murao, Hajime

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 μm square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

  8. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  9. Electronic structure of hemin in solution studied by resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Atak, Kaan; Golnak, Ronny; Xiao, Jie; Suljoti, Edlira; Pflger, Mika; Brandenburg, Tim; Winter, Bernd; Aziz, Emad F

    2014-08-21

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra at the iron L-edge from hemin in dimethyl sulfoxide liquid solution are reported. Our experiments, which are interpreted with the help of electronic structure calculations, support earlier assignments of hemin-solvent interactions, including the iron spin state and the role of the chloride ligand obtained from a total fluorescence yield study. The analysis of the explicit radiative relaxation channels of 2p core-level excited iron, explored in the present work, allows for a rather quantitative assignment of the orbitals involved in the excitation-deexcitation process of the core-excited hemin in solution. We specifically distinguish between contributions of partially and fully occupied valence orbitals to the broad X-ray emission band. In addition, our calculations reveal a detailed picture of the character of these orbitals. PMID:25068599

  10. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  11. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  12. High sensitive X-ray films to detect electron showers in 100 GeV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taira, T.; Shirai, T.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Yoshida, A.; Aizu, H.; Nomura, Y.; Kazuno, M.

    1985-01-01

    Nonscreen type X-ray films were used in emulsion chamber experiments to detect high energy showers in cosmic rays. Ranges of the detection threshold is from about 1 to 2 TeV depending on the exposure conditions. Different types of X-ray films and sheets i.e. high sensitive screen type X-ray films and luminescence sheets were tested. The threshold of the shower detection is found to be about 200 GeV, which is much lower than that of nonscreen type X-ray films. These films are useful to detect showers in the medium energy range, a few hundred GeV, of the cosmic ray electrons.

  13. Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Feng Yiping; Fritz, David; Hastings, Jerome

    2011-02-15

    We have developed an x-ray beam-position monitor for detecting the radiation properties of an x-ray free electron laser (FEL). It is composed of four PIN photodiodes that detect backscattered x-rays from a semitransparent diamond film placed in the beam path. The signal intensities from the photodiodes are used to compute the beam intensity and position. A proof-of-principle experiment at a synchrotron light source revealed that the error in the beam position is reduced to below 7 {mu}m by using a nanocrystal diamond film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Owing to high dose tolerance and transparency of the diamond film, the monitor is suitable for routine diagnostics of extremely intense x-ray pulses from the FEL.

  14. Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuantao

    2015-05-01

    Generation of high power, femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses is attracting much attention within the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user community. At the existing FEL facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC, several methods have been developed to produce such short x-rays. Low-charge operation mode and emittance-spoiling scheme have successfully delivered short pulses for user experiments with duration less than 10 fs. A nonlinear compression mode has been recently developed and the pulse duration could be about 200 as. We will review the recent experimental progress at the LCLS for achieving few-femtosecond x-rays, and also discuss other short pulse schemes for reaching sub-femtosecond regime.

  15. Experimental demonstration of femtosecond two-color x-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Lutman, A A; Coffee, R; Ding, Y; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J; Maxwell, T; Messerschmidt, M; Nuhn, H-D

    2013-03-29

    With an eye toward extending optical wave-mixing techniques to the x-ray regime, we present the first experimental demonstration of a two-color x-ray free-electron laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We combine the emittance-spoiler technique with a magnetic chicane in the undulator section to control the pulse duration and relative delay between two intense x-ray pulses and we use differently tuned canted pole undulators such that the two pulses have different wavelengths as well. Two schemes are shown to produce two-color soft x-ray pulses with a wavelength separation up to ?1.9% and a controllable relative delay up to 40fs. PMID:23581326

  16. X-ray Split and Delay System for Soft x-ray Pump/Probe Experiments at the LCLS Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brendan; Bozek, John; Castagna, Jean-Charles; Berrah, Nora

    2011-05-01

    We will report on the development of a mirror based x-ray split and delay system (XRSD) for soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. This device will be used for x-ray pump, x-ray probe experiments in gas-phase as well as solid state using the LCLS femtosecond photon beam. The XRSD system will be positioned after the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors, delivering two pulses with a variable delay to the interaction chamber. Delay of 0-100 femtoseconds can be produced with resolution under 100 attoseconds. The energy in each pulse will be measured shot to shot. The XRSD is expected to be ready for user experiments in early 2012. We will report on the development of a mirror based x-ray split and delay system (XRSD) for soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. This device will be used for x-ray pump, x-ray probe experiments in gas-phase as well as solid state using the LCLS femtosecond photon beam. The XRSD system will be positioned after the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors, delivering two pulses with a variable delay to the interaction chamber. Delay of 0-100 femtoseconds can be produced with resolution under 100 attoseconds. The energy in each pulse will be measured shot to shot. The XRSD is expected to be ready for user experiments in early 2012. This work is funded by the DOE-SC-BES, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division.

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometers for multielement analysis: status of equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala Jimnez, Rony E.

    2001-11-01

    Multielement analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has evolved during two decades. At present commercial equipment is available for chemical analysis of all types of biological and mineral samples. The electronic industry has also benefited from scientific and technological developments in this field due to new instrumentation to determine contamination on the surface of silicon wafers (the equipment will not be covered in this paper). The basic components of the spectrometers can be summarized as follows: (a) excitation source; (b) geometric arrangement (optics) for collimation and monochromatization of the primary radiation; (c) X-ray detector; and (d) software for operation of the instrument, data acquisition and spectral deconvolution to determine the concentrations of the elements (quantitative analysis). As an optional feature one manufacturer offers a conventional 45 geometry for direct excitation. Personal communications of the author and commercial brochures available have allowed us to list the components used in TXRF for multielement analysis. Excitation source: high-power sealed X-ray tubes, output from 1300 to 3000 W, different mixed alloy anodes Mo/W are used but molybdenum, tungsten and copper are common; single anode metal ceramic low power X-ray tubes, output up to 40 W. Excitation systems can be customized according to the requirements of the laboratory. Detector: silicon-lithium drifted semiconductor detector liquid nitrogen cooled; or silicon solid state thermoelectrically cooled detector (silicon drift detector SDD and silicon-PIN diode detector). Optics: multilayer monochromator of silicon-tungsten, nickel-carbon or double multilayer monochromator. Electronics: spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter adapted to a PC compatible computer with software in a Windows environment for the whole operation of the spectrometer and for qualitative/quantitative analysis of samples are standard features in the production of this instrument. The detection limits reported in the literature are presented; pricing, analytical capability, ease of operation, calibration and optical alignment as well as technical support are also discussed.

  18. Direct observation of unstained wet biological samples by scanning-electron generation X-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    Analytical tools of nanometre-scale resolution are indispensable in the fields of biology, physics and chemistry. One suitable tool, the soft X-ray microscope, provides high spatial resolution of visible light for wet specimens. For biological specimens, X-rays of water-window wavelength between carbon (284 eV; 4.3 nm) and oxygen (540 eV; 2.3 nm) absorption edges provide high-contrast imaging of biological samples in water. Among types of X-ray microscope, the transmission X-ray microscope using a synchrotron radiation source with diffractive zone plates offers the highest spatial resolution, approaching 15-10 nm. However, even higher resolution is required to measure proteins and protein complexes in biological specimens; therefore, a new type of X-ray microscope with higher resolution that uses a simple light source is desirable. Here we report a novel scanning-electron generation X-ray microscope (SGXM) that demonstrates direct imaging of unstained wet biological specimens. We deposited wet yeasts in the space between two silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) films. A scanning electron beam of accelerating voltage 5 keV and current 1.6 nA irradiates the titanium (Ti)-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} film, and the soft X-ray signal from it is detected by an X-ray photodiode (PD) placed below the sample. The SGXM can theoretically achieve better than 5 nm resolution. Our method can be utilized easily for various wet biological samples of bacteria, viruses, and protein complexes.

  19. Application of Strong Field Physics Techniques to X-Ray Free Electron Laser Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roedig, Christoph Antony

    With the commissioning of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) was realized at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This novel device brings an unprecedented parameter set to a diverse community of scientists. The short wavelengths and short pulse durations enable an entire new class of time resolved structural analysis. The imaging capabilities enabled by the machine will lead to many breakthroughs in the fields of biophysics and nano technology. With the new capabilities of the LCLS come many challenges. The understanding required to effectively utilize the XFEL on complex molecular or biological systems goes back to the basic atomic physics of the interaction of light and matter. The parameter set of this machine is as unprecedented as it will be untested. To make informed measurements with the LCLS beam, a set of novel diagnostic techniques will be required. This report outlines major contributions made to the early experimental atomic physics and diagnostic efforts at LCLS. Building on a rich history of techniques used for ultra short optical lasers and atomic physics experimentation, a diagnostic instrument and experimental techniques are developed to make spectral, energy and temporal measurements of the LCLS pulses possible. Expanding on earlier studies of ionization performed on optical lasers and synchrotron sources, new ionization mechanisms such as multiphoton ionization in the x-ray regime are observed. Leveraging the unique combination of hard x-ray photon energy, extremely short pulse duration and high pulse energy, a technique for the time resolved study of ultrafast inner shell electronic relaxation processes is developed and studied for feasibility. The common theme to the efforts described here is the advancement of proven techniques and interesting atomic physics phenomena to the next generation of ultra short pulsed x-ray laser systems. The atomic physics explored here lay the groundwork for the next level of understanding the new experiments to be performed on molecular, biological and condensed phase systems using XFEL light pulses. The application of basic atomic physics established over the past 40 years with optical laser systems to diagnostic techniques suitable for the new properties of XFELs will lend crucial insight into the orchestration of future XFEL experiments.

  20. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic structure enables the systematic design of new dyes using less expensive materials.

  1. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-09-26

    A highly X-ray-transparent, silicon nitride-based device has been designed and fabricated to harvest protein microcrystals for high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collection using microfocus beamlines and XFELs. Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 l) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called fixed-target sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (1015 m) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 ) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  2. Capillary optics for micro x-ray fluorescence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bjeoumikhov, A.; Langhoff, N.; Bjeoumikhova, S.; Wedell, R.

    2005-06-15

    Practically achieved parameters of capillary optics are presented. A micro x-ray fluorescence (XRF) arrangement was realized by using a microfocus x-ray tube and a capillary optic. Several examples for application of micro XRF are given. It was shown that polycapillary lenses free of the 'halo effect' well suited for micro XRF of heavy elements can be manufactured. Limits of opportunities for micro XRF applications and further development for micro XRF by using capillary optics are analyzed.

  3. Three-dimensional structure determination protocol for noncrystalline biomolecules using x-ray free-electron laser diffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2013-02-01

    Coherent and intense x-ray pulses generated by x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources are paving the way for structural determination of noncrystalline biomolecules. However, due to the small scattering cross section of electrons for x rays, the available incident x-ray intensity of XFEL sources, which is currently in the range of 10(12)-10(13) photons/?m(2)/pulse, is lower than that necessary to perform single-molecule diffraction experiments for noncrystalline biomolecules even with the molecular masses of megadalton and submicrometer dimensions. Here, we propose an experimental protocol and analysis method for visualizing the structure of those biomolecules by the combined application of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction methods. To compensate the small scattering cross section of biomolecules, in our protocol, a thin vitreous ice plate containing several hundred biomolecules/?m(2) is used as sample, a setup similar to that utilized by single-molecule cryoelectron microscopy. The scattering cross section of such an ice plate is far larger than that of a single particle. The images of biomolecules contained within irradiated areas are then retrieved from each diffraction pattern, and finally provide the three-dimensional electron density model. A realistic atomic simulation using large-scale computations proposed that the three-dimensional structure determination of the 50S ribosomal subunit embedded in a vitreous ice plate is possible at a resolution of 0.8 nm when an x-ray beam of 10(16) photons/500500 nm(2)/pulse is available. PMID:23496553

  4. Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in 'Damavand' tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Rasouli, C.; Farahbod, A. H.; Rasouli, H.; Lamehi, M.; Iraji, D.; Akhtari, K.; Modarresi, H.

    2009-01-15

    Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.

  5. Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in "Damavand" tokamak.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, C; Iraji, D; Farahbod, A H; Akhtari, K; Rasouli, H; Modarresi, H; Lamehi, M

    2009-01-01

    Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in "Damavand" tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak. PMID:19191433

  6. Characteristics of secondary electrons produced by 6, 10 and 24 MV x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jursinic, Paul A.; Mackie, T. Rock

    1996-08-01

    Megavoltage x-ray beams generated by linear accelerators (linacs) deliver their maximum dose a few centimetres below the treatment or phantom surface. This skin-sparing effect is degraded by the generation of secondary electrons as the x-ray beam passes to the patient or phantom. This work measures the characteristics of these electrons. A light-weight electromagnet was constructed that could be mounted in the block-tray position, 58 cm from the x-ray source of a Varian Clinac 2100C or 2500 linac. A field strength as high as 0.1500 T was generated, which was strong enough to sweep secondary electrons out of a field. For 6, 10 and 24 MV x-ray beams, secondary contamination electrons produced 18, 38 and 65% of the surface dose, corresponding to 3, 5 and 12% of the maximum dose, respectively. A parameterized depth - dose curve for the contamination electrons was produced and was valid for all the x-ray energies studied.

  7. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis to understand the role of tannin-based dyes in the degradation of historical wool textiles.

    PubMed

    Restivo, Annalaura; Degano, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2014-10-01

    An innovative approach, combining field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, is presented to investigate the degradation mechanisms affecting tannin-dyed wool. In fact, tannin-dyed textiles are more sensitive to degradation then those dyed with other dyestuffs, even in the same conservation conditions. FESEM-EDX was first used to study a set of 48 wool specimens (artificially aged) dyed with several raw materials and mordants, and prepared according to historical dyeing recipes. EDX analysis was performed on the surface of wool threads and on their cross-sections. In addition, in order to validate the model formulated by the analysis of reference materials, several samples collected from historical and archaeological textiles were subjected to FESEM-EDX analysis. FESEM-EDX investigations enabled us to reveal the correlation between elemental composition and morphological changes. In addition, aging processes were clarified by studying changes in the elemental composition of wool from the protective cuticle to the fiber core in cross-sections. Morphological and elemental analysis of wool specimens and of archaeological and historical textiles showed that the presence of tannins increases wool damage, primarily by causing a sulfur decrease and fiber oxidation. PMID:24983911

  8. High-gain X-ray free electron laser by beat-wave terahertz undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao; Hei, DongWei; Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 ; Pellegrin, Claudio; Tantawi, Sami

    2013-12-15

    The THz undulator has a higher gain to realize a much brighter X-ray at saturation, compared with the optical undulator under the same undulator strength and beam quality. In order to fill the high-power THz gap and realize the THz undulator, two superimposed laser pulses at normal incidence to the electron-beam moving direction form an equivalent high-field THz undulator by the frequency difference to realize the high-gain X-ray Free electron laser. The pulse front tilt of lateral fed lasers is used to realize the electron-laser synchronic interaction. By PIC simulation, a higher gain and a larger X-ray radiation power by the beat wave THz undulator could be realized, compared with the optical undulator for the same electron beam parameters.

  9. Femtosecond X-ray Pulse Temporal Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Transverse Deflector

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Krejcik, P.; Wang, M-H.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    We propose a novel method to characterize the temporal duration and shape of femtosecond x-ray pulses in a free-electron laser (FEL) by measuring the time-resolved electron-beam energy loss and energy spread induced by the FEL process, with a transverse radio-frequency deflector located after the undulator. Its merits are simplicity, high resolution, wide diagnostic range, and non-invasive to user operation. When the system is applied to the Linac Coherent Light Source, the first hard x-ray free-electron laser in the world, it can provide single-shot measurements on the electron beam and x-ray pulses with a resolution on the order of 1-2 femtoseconds rms.

  10. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts: Bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons in the solar chromosphere and the total energy of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of various aspects of impulsive X-ray bursts (IXB's) has lead to the consideration of a model where the X-rays are produced by bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere. It was found that in general the X-ray spectrum from such a beam will fall off more rapidly than when the effect of the beaming of radiation is neglected. Furthermore, the spectral index of the resulting X-rays appears to increase by about unity for X-ray energies 100 kev, a fact which may explain the observed cutoff in the spectrum of the IXB's. It is also shown that in such a model there is sufficient energy in the form of nonthermal electrons to explain the total energy (approximately 10 to the 32nd power ergs) of a flare.

  11. Electronic ground states of Fe 2+ and Co 2+ as determined by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio-Bayer, V.; Hirsch, K.; Langenberg, A.; ?awicki, A.; Terasaki, A.; v. Issendorff, B.; Lau, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The 6? electronic ground state of the Co 2+ diatomic molecular cation has been assigned experimentally by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap. Three candidates, 6?, 8?, and 8?, for the electronic ground state of Fe 2+ have been identified. These states carry sizable orbital angular momenta that disagree with theoretical predictions from multireference configuration interaction and density functional theory. Our results show that the ground states of neutral and cationic diatomic molecules of 3d transition elements cannot generally be assumed to be connected by a one-electron process.

  12. Electronic ground states of Fe2 (+) and Co2 (+) as determined by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Bayer, V; Hirsch, K; Langenberg, A; Ławicki, A; Terasaki, A; V Issendorff, B; Lau, J T

    2015-12-28

    The (6)Π electronic ground state of the Co2 (+) diatomic molecular cation has been assigned experimentally by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap. Three candidates, (6)Φ, (8)Φ, and (8)Γ, for the electronic ground state of Fe2 (+) have been identified. These states carry sizable orbital angular momenta that disagree with theoretical predictions from multireference configuration interaction and density functional theory. Our results show that the ground states of neutral and cationic diatomic molecules of 3d transition elements cannot generally be assumed to be connected by a one-electron process. PMID:26723682

  13. Nanop: An x-ray to gold nanoparticle electron and photon emission software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casta, R.; Champeaux, J.-P.; Sence, M.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cafarelli, P.

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored as radiosensitizers for cancer radiotherapy. While the nanoparticle radiotherapy improvement has been clearly observed, there is still a debate over the physical and biological mechanisms leading to this result. In particular, the role of electrons and photons emitted by nanoparticle after x-ray absorption is not well understood and their energies are not well known. Therefore, we developed in this paper a new model to determine the electron and photon emission spectra of nanoparticles irradiated by x-ray photons. This model is implemented, for a gold nanoparticle, in a newly available software called Nanop which allows anyone to determine gold nanoparticle photon and electron emissions.

  14. X-ray and optical pulse interactions via electron trapping in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Stephen; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Dichiara, Anthony; Henning, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A highly excited state of GaAs is created by the absorption of an extremely intense focused 80 ps pulse of hard x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron. This state is probed by 2 ps laser pulses with photon energies near the semiconducting band gap, which has previously revealed x-ray induced optical transparency. Two unexpected results are found: x-ray induced luminescence is dramatically enhanced when a high intensity laser pulse precedes the x-ray pulse, and the decay of the induced transparency becomes much slower when the intensity of the subsequent probe laser is increased. Both results require that energy be stored in GaAs by the first pulse, and then released by the second pulse. We describe how this can be explained by electron trapping centers in GaAs with trapping lifetimes of a few nanoseconds. We compare these results with lifetime measurements of other excitations produced by ultrafast optical absorption. We also show how minor improvements in focusing will lead to single-pulse x-ray induced temperature jumps of thousands of Kelvin, allowing new x-ray excited dense matter states to be explored. Supported by DOE award DE-SC0004078. The Advanced Photon Source is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. BioCARS is supported by the NIGMS of the NIH under grant number R24GM111072.

  15. X-ray structure determination using low-resolution electron microscopy maps for molecular replacement

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Ryan N.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Structures of multi-subunit macromolecular machines are primarily determined by either electron microscopy (EM) or X-ray crystallography. In many cases, a structure for a complex can be obtained at low resolution (at a coarse level of detail) with EM and at higher resolution (with finer detail) by X-ray crystallography. The integration of these two structural techniques is becoming increasingly important for generating atomic models of macromolecular complexes. A low-resolution EM image can be a powerful tool for obtaining the "phase" information that is missing from an X-ray crystallography experiment, however integration of EM and X-ray diffraction data has been technically challenging. Here we present a step-by-step protocol that explains how low-resolution EM maps can be placed in the crystallographic unit cell by molecular replacement, and how initial phases computed from the placed EM density are extended to high resolution by averaging maps over non-crystallographic symmetry. As the resolution gap between EM and X-ray crystallography continues to narrow, the use of EM maps to help with X-ray crystal structure determination, as described in this protocol, will become increasingly effective. PMID:26226459

  16. Electron density characterization by use of a broadband x-ray-compatible wave-front sensor.

    PubMed

    Baker, K L; Brase, J; Kartz, M; Olivier, S S; Sawvel, B; Tucker, J

    2003-02-01

    The use of a Hartmann wave-front sensor to accurately measure the line-integrated electron density gradients formed in laser-produced and z-pinch plasma experiments is examined. This wave-front sensor may be used with a soft-x-ray laser as well as with incoherent line emission at multikilovolt x-ray energies. This diagnostic is significantly easier to use than interferometery and moir deflectometry, both of which have been demonstrated with soft-x-ray lasers. This scheme is experimentally demonstrated in the visible region by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor and a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator to simulate a phase profile that could occur when an x-ray probe passes through a plasma. The merits of using a Hartmann sensor include a wide dynamic range, broadband or low-coherence-length light capability, high x-ray efficiency, two-dimensional gradient determination, multiplexing capability, and experimental simplicity. Hartmann sensors could also be utilized for wavelength testing of extreme-ultraviolet lithography components and x-ray phase imaging of biological specimens. PMID:12656314

  17. Pixel array detector for X-ray free electron laser experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Hromalik, Marianne; Tate, Mark; Koerner, Lucas; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) promise to revolutionize X-ray science with extremely high peak brilliances and femtosecond X-ray pulses. This will require novel detectors to fully realize the potential of these new sources. There are many current detector development projects aimed at the many challenges of meeting the XFEL requirements [1,2]. This paper describes a pixel array detector (PAD) that has been developed for the Coherent X-ray Imaging experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Laboratory [3]. The detector features 14-bit in-pixel digitization; a 2-level in-pixel gain setting that can be used to make an arbitrary 2-D gain pattern that is adaptable to a particular experiment; the ability to handle instantaneous X-ray flux rates of 10 17 photons per second; and continuous frames rates in excess of 120 Hz. The detector uses direct detection of X-rays in a silicon diode. The charge produced by the diode is integrated in a pixilated application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which digitizes collected holes with single X-ray photon capability. Each ASIC is 194185 pixels, each pixel is 110 ?m110 ?m on a side. Each pixel can detect up to 2500 X-rays per frame in low-gain mode, yet easily detects single photons at high-gain. Cooled, single-chip detectors have been built and meet all the required specifications. SLAC National Laboratory is engaged in constructing a tiled, multi-chip 15161516 pixel detector.

  18. High-Performance X-ray Detection in a New Analytical Electron Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, C. E.; Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Ackland, D. W.; vonHarrach, S.; Nicholls, A. W.; Statham, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray detection by energy-dispersive spectrometry in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) is often limited by low collected X-ray intensity (P), modest peak-to-background (P/B) ratios, and limitations on total counting time (tau) due to specimen drift and contamination. A new AFM has been designed with maximization of P. P/B, and tau as the primary considerations. Maximization of P has been accomplished by employing a field-emission electron gun, X-ray detectors with high collection angles, high-speed beam blanking to allow only one photon into the detector at a time, and simultaneous collection from two detectors. P/B has been maximized by reducing extraneous background signals generated at the specimen holder, the polepieces and the detector collimator. The maximum practical tau has been increased by reducing specimen contamination and employing electronic drift correction. Performance improvments have been measured using the NIST standard Cr thin film. The 0-3 steradian solid angle of X-ray collection is the highest value available. The beam blanking scheme for X-ray detection provides 3-4 times greater throughput of X-rays at high count rates into a recorded spectrum than normal systems employing pulse-pileup rejection circuits. Simultaneous X-ray collection from two detectors allows the highest X-ray intensity yet recorded to be collected from the NIST Cr thin film. The measured P/B of 6300 is the highest level recorded for an AEM. In addition to collected X-ray intensity (cps/nA) and P/B measured on the standard Cr film, the product of these can be used as a figure-of-merit to evaluate instruments. Estimated minimum mass fraction (MMF) for Cr measured on the standard NIST Cr thin film is also proposed as a figure-of-merit for comparing X-ray detection in AEMs. Determinations here of the MMF of Cr detectable show at least a threefold improvement over previous instruments.

  19. X ray fiducial foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, C.; Serduke, F.; Makowiecki, D.; Jankowski, A.; Wall, M.

    1991-03-01

    An x-ray spectrum from a laser fusion experiment was passed through an Al, Si, Y multilayer foil. The position of the absorption edges of the Al, Si, and Y was used to calibrate the x-ray energy spectrum recorded on photographic film. The foil consisted of 4000 A of Al, 6000 A of Si, and 4000 A of Y sputter deposited on a 1.5 microns thick Mylar film. It was necessary to layer the structure in order to achieve the required mechanical strength and dimensional stability. The results include analysis of the x-ray energy spectrum and microstructural characterization of the foil using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW Quantitative strain analysis of surfaces and interfaces using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Koichi; Emoto, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Strain can reduce carrier mobility and the reliability of electronic devices and affect the growth mode of thin films and the stability of nanometer-scale crystals. To control lattice strain, a technique for measuring the minute lattice strain at surfaces and interfaces is needed. Recently, an extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction method has been developed for this purpose. By employing Darwin's dynamical x-ray diffraction theory, quantitative evaluation of strain at surfaces and interfaces becomes possible. In this paper, we review our quantitative strain analysis studies on native SiO2/Si interfaces, reconstructed Si surfaces, Ni/Si(111)-H interfaces, sputtered III-V compound semiconductor surfaces, high-k/Si interfaces, and Au ion-implanted Si.

  1. X-ray analysis of filaments in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. A.; Kosec, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    We perform a detailed X-ray study of the filaments surrounding the brightest cluster galaxies in a sample of nearby galaxy clusters using deep Chandra observations, namely the Perseus, Centaurus and Virgo clusters, and Abell 1795. We compare the X-ray properties and spectra of the filaments in all of these systems, and find that their Chandra X-ray spectra are all broadly consistent with an absorbed two-temperature thermal model, with temperature components at 0.75 and 1.7 keV. We find that it is also possible to model the Chandra ACIS filament spectra with a charge exchange model provided a thermal component is also present, and the abundance of oxygen is suppressed relative to the abundance of Fe. In this model, charge exchange provides the dominant contribution to the spectrum in the 0.5-1.0 keV band. However, when we study the high spectral resolution RGS spectrum of the filamentary plume seen in X-rays in Centaurus, the opposite appears to be the case. The properties of the filaments in our sample of clusters are also compared to the X-ray tails of galaxies in the Coma cluster and Abell 3627. In the Perseus cluster, we search for signs of absorption by a prominent region of molecular gas in the filamentary structure around NGC 1275. We do find a decrement in the X-ray spectrum below 2 keV, indicative of absorption. However, the spectral shape is inconsistent with this decrement being caused by simply adding an additional absorbing component. We find that the spectrum can be well fit (with physically sensible parameters) with a model that includes both absorption by molecular gas and X-ray emission from the filament, which partially counteracts the absorption.

  2. From electron microscopy to X-ray crystallography: molecular-replacement case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yong

    2008-01-01

    Test studies have been conducted on five crystal structures of large molecular assemblies, in which EM maps are used as models for structure solution by molecular replacement using various standard MR packages such as AMoRe, MOLREP and Phaser. Multi-component molecular complexes are increasingly being tackled by structural biology, bringing X-ray crystallography into the purview of electron-microscopy (EM) studies. X-ray crystallography can utilize a low-resolution EM map for structure determination followed by phase extension to high resolution. Test studies have been conducted on five crystal structures of large molecular assemblies, in which EM maps are used as models for structure solution by molecular replacement (MR) using various standard MR packages such as AMoRe, MOLREP and Phaser. The results demonstrate that EM maps are viable models for molecular replacement. Possible difficulties in data analysis, such as the effects of the EM magnification error, and the effect of MR positional/rotational errors on phase extension are discussed.

  3. Correlative electron and X-ray microscopy: probing chemistry and bonding with high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Angela E.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; McComb, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Two powerful and complementary techniques for chemical characterisation of nanoscale systems are electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the scanning transmission X-ray microscope. A correlative approach to spectro-microscopy may not only bridge the gaps in spatial and spectral resolution which exist between the two instruments, but also offer unique opportunities for nanoscale characterisation. This review will discuss the similarities of the two spectroscopy techniques and the state of the art for each microscope. Case studies have been selected to illustrate the benefits and limitations of correlative electron and X-ray microscopy techniques. In situ techniques and radiation damage are also discussed.

  4. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S; Doak, R Bruce; Kirian, Richard A; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A; Andreasson, Jakob; Arnlund, David; Bajt, Saa; Barends, Thomas R M; Barthelmess, Miriam; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bottin, Herv; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coppola, Nicola; Davidsson, Jan; DePonte, Daniel P; Elser, Veit; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Graafsma, Heinz; Grotjohann, Ingo; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Robert; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Hauser, Gnter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M; Hmke, Andr; Johansson, Linda; Kimmel, Nils; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Krasniqi, Faton; Khnel, Kai-Uwe; Liang, Mengning; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Maia, Filipe R N C; Messerschmidt, Marc; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Neutze, Richard; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Carlo; Schmidt, Kevin E; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Shoeman, Robert L; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wang, Xiaoyu; Williams, Garth J; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 s after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. PMID:22330507

  5. Detecting electronic coherence by multidimensional broadband stimulated x-ray Raman signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-08-01

    Nonstationary molecular states which contain electronic coherences can be impulsively created and manipulated by using recently developed ultrashort optical and x-ray pulses via photoexcitation, photoionization, and Auger processes. We propose several stimulated-Raman detection schemes that can monitor the subsequent phase-sensitive electronic and nuclear dynamics. Three detection protocols of an x-ray broadband probe are compared: frequency-dispersed transmission, integrated photon number change, and total pulse energy change. In addition, each can be either linear or quadratic in the x-ray probe intensity. These various signals offer different gating windows into the molecular response, which is described by correlation functions of electronic polarizabilities. Off-resonant and resonant signals are compared.

  6. Application of X-ray topographic methods to thin film electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissmann, Sigmund

    1986-12-01

    X-ray methods are presented which, besides offering a topographic survey of the defect structure in electronic materials, give quantitative information on the induced strain distribution. Complete strain tensor analyses are obtained by the back-reflection divergent beam method and by the method of computer-aided rocking curve analysis (CARCA). The latter is based on the double-crystal diffractometer principle. An example of the strain analysis by CARCA is given showing the strain dependence on the thickness variation of an InGaAsP film grown on a substrate of InP. Valuable information on the density of interface dislocation is obtained by combining these methods with lattice curvature measurements using scanning topography with automatic Bragg angle control. The elucidation of the strain distribution in depth becomes enhanced by application of X radiation of various wavelengths.

  7. Scale analysis using X-ray microfluorescence and computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeias, J. P.; de Oliveira, D. F.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-02-01

    Scale deposits are the most common and most troublesome damage problems in the oil field and can occur in both production and injection wells. They occur because the minerals in produced water exceed their saturation limit as temperatures and pressures change. Scale can vary in appearance from hard crystalline material to soft, friable material and the deposits can contain other minerals and impurities such as paraffin, salt and iron. In severe conditions, scale creates a significant restriction, or even a plug, in the production tubing. This study was conducted to qualify the elements present in scale samples and quantify the thickness of the scale layer using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR?XRF) and computed radiography (CR) techniques. The SR?XRF results showed that the elements found in the scale samples were strontium, barium, calcium, chromium, sulfur and iron. The CR analysis showed that the thickness of the scale layer was identified and quantified with accuracy. These results can help in the decision making about removing the deposited scale.

  8. Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shevelev, A.; Chugunov, I.; Khilkevitch, E.; Gin, D.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Kiptily, V.; Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2014-08-21

    Hard-X-ray spectrometry is a tool widely used for diagnostic of runaway electrons in existing tokamaks. In future machines, ITER and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam current and its profile during disruption.

  9. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.; Cowan, T.; Dietrich, D.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Levine, M.A.; Schneider, M.B.; Scofield, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged-ions (q /le/ 70+) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of dielectronic recombination, electron impact excitation and transition energies are presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Consequences of Electron Precipitation at Mercury: X-ray Aurorae and Heavy Ion Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Starr, R. D.; Anderson, B. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Baker, D. N.; Benna, M.; Hellinger, P.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McLain, J. L.; McNutt, R. L.; Orlando, T. M.; Raines, J. M.; Richard, R. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2012-12-01

    Observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have established that a quasi-trapped population of ions and electrons with 1-10 keV energies exists at about 1.5 RM radial distance from the planet center (where RM is Mercury's radius) around much of the planet. Additionally, measurements from MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) have documented numerous cases of nightside X-ray fluorescence, which is likely due to the precipitation of 1-10 keV electrons onto the surface of Mercury. Since Mercury has virtually no ionosphere or atmosphere, particles that precipitate impact the planet's surface directly. Using results from a global kinetic transport model of Mercury's magnetosphere, we find that an auroral oval type of electron precipitation pattern forms at latitudes above and below the geomagnetic equator, which is offset to the north of the geographic equator by about 0.2 RM. The locations of X-ray fluorescence on the planet map almost directly to where the nightside electron precipitation is seen in the global kinetic model, leading to the conclusion that the precipitating 1-10 keV electrons indeed result in an X-ray "aurora" at Mercury. Another consequence of electron precipitation at Mercury is the production of heavy ions, in particular sodium and potassium, through electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). Estimated electron precipitation fluxes and ESD yield rates suggest that this process may be a significant contributor to the exosphere and heavy ion cloud observed around Mercury.

  11. Electron spectroscopy of rare-gas clusters irradiated by x-ray free-electron laser pulses from SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, H.; Tachibana, T.; Motomura, K.; Xu, W. Q.; Nagaya, K.; Wada, S.; Johnsson, P.; Siano, M.; Mondal, S.; Ito, Y.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, T.; Matsunami, K.; Hayashita, H.; Kajikawa, J.; Liu, X.-J.; Robert, E.; Miron, C.; Feifel, R.; Marangos, J. P.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured electron energy spectra and asymmetry parameters of Ar clusters and Xe clusters illuminated by intense x-rays at 5 and 5.5 keV. A velocity map imaging spectrometer was developed for this purpose and employed at an x-ray free-electron laser facility, SACLA in Japan. The cluster size dependence and the peak fluence dependence of the electron spectra and asymmetry parameters are discussed.

  12. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, C; Pourshahab, B; Hosseini Pooya, S M; Orouji, T; Rasouli, H

    2014-05-01

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points--three TLDs per point--to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak. PMID:24880371

  13. Pair production from vacuum at the focus of an X-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2001-06-01

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: one could make use of not only the high energy and transverse coherence of the X-ray beam, but also of the possibility of focusing it to a spot with a small radius, hopefully in the range of the laser wavelength. Along this route one obtains very large electric fields, much larger than those obtainable with any optical laser of the same power. In this Letter we discuss the possibility of obtaining an electric field so high that electron-positron pairs are spontaneously produced in vacuum (Schwinger pair production). We find that if X-ray optics can be improved to approach the diffraction limit of focusing, and if the power of the planned X-ray FELs can be increased to the terawatt region, then there is ample room for an investigation of the Schwinger pair production mechanism.

  14. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.; Rasouli, H.

    2014-05-01

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points - three TLDs per point - to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  15. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  16. Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2010-09-30

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

  17. AMPHIBOLE FIBER CONCENTRATION DETERMINATION FOR A SERIES OF COMMUNITY AIR SAMPLES: USE OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION TO SUPPLEMENT ELECTRON MICROSCOPE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accurate measurement of annual average mineral fiber concentrations at various air sampling sites provides the best index of non-occupational inhalation exposure to fibers in a community located near an industrial source of airborne amphibole fibers. The transmission electron...

  18. Processing of X-ray Microcalorimeter Data with Pulse Shape Variation using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D.; Cecil, T.; Gades, L.; Jacobsen, C.; Madden, T.; Miceli, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method using principal component analysis (PCA) to process x-ray pulses with severe shape variation where traditional optimal filter methods fail. We demonstrate that PCA is able to noise-filter and extract energy information from x-ray pulses despite their different shapes. We apply this method to a dataset from an x-ray thermal kinetic inductance detector which has severe pulse shape variation arising from position-dependent absorption.

  19. Surface investigation on prototype cavities for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Aderhold, S.; Ermakov, A.; Twarowski, K.; Crooks, R.; Hoss, M.; Schlz, F.; Spaniol, B.

    2011-05-01

    The accelerating gradient Eacc of X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) prototype cavities manufactured at the industry and treated at DESY demonstrates wide-range scattering from 15 to 41MV/m. Most cavities satisfy the XFEL specification. Few cavities with low performance (15-17MV/m) are limited by quench without field emission. The T-map analysis detected quench areas mainly close to the equator. Optical control by a high resolution camera has been applied and allowed to monitor the defects in some cases with good correlation to T-map observation. In order to understand the cause of reduced performance and get more detailed information of the origin of defects, some samples have been extracted from two cavities and investigated by light microscope, digital light microscope with 3D profile measurement, scanning electron microscope SEM, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and Auger spectroscopy. The electron backscattered diffraction method in a SEM is used to make localized measurements of the lattice curvature. Several surface flaws with sizes from a few ?m to hundreds of ?m detected by microscopy. The defects can be separated into two categories. The first category of defects consists of foreign elements (often an increased content of carbon). Inclusions with increased content of carbon adhere on the surface and presumably have a hydrocarbon nature. Deviation from a smooth surface profile characterizes the second type of defects (holes, bumps, and pits). Some holes and bumps were found directly in the welding seam. The hot spots in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the equator welds have been partially associated with pits too. The study correlates the location of pits with the presence of plastic strain found to remain after welding. Pits near the HAZ were found either coincident with or near areas of high strain. Pits away from the weld were often found at grain boundary triple junctions.

  20. Micro-column Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray Spectrometer (MSEMS) for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribaya, B.; Niemann, D.; Makarewicz, J.; Clevenson, H.; McKenzie, C.; Nguyen, C.; Blake, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with electron-induced X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) is one of the most powerful techniques for characterizing sub-m surface morphology and composition. In terrestrial laboratories, SEM-EDX is used to elucidate natural processes such as low-temperature diagenesis, thermal or pressure induced metamorphism, volcanism/magmatism, atmosphere/crust interaction and biological activity. Such information would be highly useful for investigating the natural history of the terrestrial planets, satellites and primitive bodies, providing morphological and elemental information that is 2 orders of magnitude higher in resolution than optical techniques. Below we describe the development of a Micro-column Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray Spectrometer (MSEMS) for flight. The enabling technology of the MSEMS is a carbon nanotube field emission (CNTFE) electron source that is integrated with micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) - based electron gun and electron optical structures. A hallmark of CNTFE electron sources is their low chromatic aberration, which reduces the need for high accelerating voltages to obtain small spot size. The CNTFE also offers exceptional brightness and nanometer source size, eliminating the need for condenser lenses, making simple electrostatic focusing optics possible. Moreover, the CNT field emission gun (CFEG) at low operating voltage dissipates 103 less power than thermally-assisted Schottky emitters. A key feature of the MSEMS design is the lack of scanning coils. Rather, a piezoelectric sample stage capable of sub-nanometer resolution scans the sample past the fixed crossover of the MSEMS electron beam. We will describe a MEMS-based templating technique for fabricating mechanically and electrically stable miniature CFEGs. Using existing silicon (Si) technology, we fabricated highly controlled and precise MEMS structures for both the CNT cathode and focusing optics for the micro-column. The reproducibility of anisotropic wet etching enables precise alignment of the CNT tip with the electron extracting first anode in a gun configuration by using an interlocking templating technique. The CFEG can be fully integrated with a MEMS-based microcolumn. Extensive electron trajectory analysis using Lorentz 2D/3D software demonstrates that 10-nm imaging resolution at 5 keV is achievable with a 10-mm working distance from a column measuring just 16 mm in length. We will present the design of the microcolumn as well as the MEMS fabrication process. We have also tested a piezoelectric scanning stage inside a laboratory SEM with a fixed electron beam. Additional, we implemented our own LabVIEW software interface for controlling the stage and for enabling communication with the secondary electron detector for image formation. SEM micrographs obtained employing this novel technique will be presented.

  1. X rays from radiative electron capture into continuum states in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tawara, H.; Azuma, T.; Ito, T.; Komaki, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Tonuma, T.; Shima, K.; Kitagawa, A.; Takada, E.

    1997-01-01

    Continuum x rays originated from radiative electron capture into continuum states (RECC) of relativistic Ne{sup 10+} ions have been observed. It has been found that the intensities of x rays decrease as their energy increases and the observed spectra show a clear edge which corresponds to the maximum energy transferred to free electrons under energetic projectile-ion collisions. The edge becomes dramatically sharp as the incident projectile energy decreases from 290 to 75 MeV/amu, indicating that the cross sections for RECC sharply increase at low projectile energies, which is in agreement with the theoretical expectation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Human soft tissue analysis using x-ray or gamma-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakou, C.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    This topical review is intended to describe the x-ray techniques used for human soft tissue analysis. X-ray techniques have been applied to human soft tissue characterization and interesting results have been presented over the last few decades. The motivation behind such studies is to provide improved patient outcome by using the data obtained to better understand a disease process and improve diagnosis. An overview of theoretical background as well as a complete set of references is presented. For each study, a brief summary of the methodology and results is given. The x-ray techniques include x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Compton scattering, Compton to coherent scattering ratio and attenuation measurements. The soft tissues that have been classified using x-rays or gamma rays include brain, breast, colon, fat, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, prostate, skin, thyroid and uterus.

  3. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  4. The application of photon, electron and proton induced X-ray analysis for the identification and characterisation of medieval silver coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linke, R.; Schreiner, M.; Demortier, G.

    2004-11-01

    Photons, electrons and protons beams applied to the scientific investigation of archaeological materials provide complementary information for characterising the state of preservation and the provenance of the objects. Investigations were carried out on medieval silver coins of the "Friesacher Pfennig" and the "Tiroler Kreuzer" from the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna and the Oesterreichische Nationalbank. Techniques employed were EDXRF, SEM/EDX and PIXE. By determining the trace elements of the alloys it was possible to assign coins to their mint. The results outline advantages and disadvantages of EDXRF, SEM/EDX and PIXE when applied to corroded objects.

  5. Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging.

    PubMed

    Albertin, F; Astolfo, A; Stampanoni, M; Peccenini, Eva; Hwu, Y; Kaplan, F; Margaritondo, G

    2015-03-01

    Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page `reading'. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project. PMID:25723946

  6. Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Albertin, F.; Astolfo, A.; Stampanoni, M.; Peccenini, Eva; Hwu, Y.; Kaplan, F.; Margaritondo, G.

    2015-01-01

    Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page ‘reading’. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project. PMID:25723946

  7. Sequential Single Shot X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy at the SACLA Free Electron Laser.

    PubMed

    Lehmkhler, Felix; Kwa?niewski, Pawe?; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Glownia, James; Chollet, Matthieu; Nelson, Silke; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Grbel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shot based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources. PMID:26610328

  8. Performance of the x-ray free-electron laser oscillator with crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Kim, K.-J.; Shvyd'Ko, Yu.; Fawley, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator are presented that include the frequency-dependent Bragg crystal reflectivity and the transverse diffraction and focusing using the two-dimensional FEL code GINGER. A review of the physics of Bragg crystal reflectors and the x-ray FEL oscillator is made, followed by a discussion of its numerical implementation in GINGER. The simulation results for a two-crystal cavity and realistic FEL parameters indicate ˜109 photons in a nearly Fourier-limited, ps pulse. Compressing the electron beam to 100 A and 100 fs results in comparable x-ray characteristics for relaxed beam emittance, energy spread, and/or undulator parameters, albeit in a larger radiation bandwidth. Finally, preliminary simulation results indicate that the four-crystal FEL cavity can be tuned in energy over a range of a few percent.

  9. Sequential single shot X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the SACLA free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Glownia, James; Chollet, Matthieu; Nelson, Silke; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Grübel, Gerhard

    2015-11-27

    In this study, hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shot based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.

  10. Sequential Single Shot X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy at the SACLA Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Glownia, James; Chollet, Matthieu; Nelson, Silke; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Grübel, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    Hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shot based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.

  11. Sequential Single Shot X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy at the SACLA Free Electron Laser

    PubMed Central

    Lehmkhler, Felix; Kwa?niewski, Pawe?; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Glownia, James; Chollet, Matthieu; Nelson, Silke; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Grbel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shot based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources. PMID:26610328

  12. Development of an X-ray tube for irradiation experiments using a field emission electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hidetoshi; O`Rourke, Brian E.; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Wang, Jiayu; Ooi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new X-ray tube using a ring-shaped emitter as a field emission electron source has been developed. By using a ring shaped cathode, X-rays can be extracted along the axial direction through the central hole. This cylindrically symmetrical design allows for the tube to be arranged in the axial direction with the high voltage target at one end and the X-ray beam at the other. The newly developed X-ray tube can operate at a tube voltage of more than 100 kV and at a tube current of more than 4 mA, and can be used for irradiation experiments with an irradiation dose range from mGy up to kGy. The X-ray tube can be used immediately after turning on (i.e. there is no stand-by time). In the experimental model, we demonstrated stable electron emission at a tube voltage of 100 kV and at a tube current of 4 mA during a 560 h continuous test.

  13. Three-dimensional Radio and X-Ray Modeling and Data Analysis Software: Revealing Flare Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Gary, Dale E.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  14. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIO AND X-RAY MODELING AND DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: REVEALING FLARE COMPLEXITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  15. X-RAY DIFFRACTION PHASE ANALYSIS OF PROCESS AND POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the application of x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to several samples which show the information available from the technique. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis because it provides very complete information with minimal...

  16. THE X-RAY DETECTABILITY OF ELECTRON BEAMS ESCAPING FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Saem; Christe, Steven; Lin, Robert P.

    2009-05-01

    We study the detectability and characterization of electron beams as they leave their acceleration site in the low corona toward interplanetary space through their nonthermal X-ray bremsstrahlung emission. We demonstrate that the largest interplanetary electron beams ({approx}>10{sup 35} electrons above 10 keV) can be detected in X-rays with current and future instrumentation, such as RHESSI or the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) onboard Hinode. We make a list of optimal observing conditions and beam characteristics. Amongst others, good imaging (as opposed to mere localization or detection in spatially integrated data) is required for proper characterization, putting the requirement on the number of escaping electrons (above 10 keV) to {approx}>3 x 10{sup 36} for RHESSI, {approx}>3 x 10{sup 35} for Hinode/XRT, and {approx}>10{sup 33} electrons for the FOXSI sounding rocket scheduled to fly in 2011. Moreover, we have found that simple modeling hints at the possibility that coronal soft X-ray jets could be the result of local heating by propagating electron beams.

  17. Electron Spectroscopy: Ultraviolet and X-Ray Excitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, A. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent growth in electron spectroscopy (54 papers cited). Emphasizes advances in instrumentation and interpretation (52); photoionization, cross-sections and angular distributions (22); studies of atoms and small molecules (35); transition, lanthanide and actinide metal complexes (50); organometallic (12) and inorganic compounds (2);

  18. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for high throughput analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples: The benefits of synchrotron X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Zwicky, Christoph N.; Furger, Markus; Richard, Agnes; Falkenberg, Gerald; Rickers, Karen; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Hill, Matthias; Gehrig, Robert; Baltensperger, Urs

    2008-09-01

    The determination of trace element mass concentrations in ambient air with a time resolution higher than one day represents an urgent need in atmospheric research. It involves the application of a specific technique both for the aerosol sampling and the subsequent analysis of the collected particles. Beside the intrinsic sensitivity of the analytical method, the sampling interval and thus the quantity of collected material that is available for subsequent analysis is a major factor driving the overall trace element detection power. This is demonstrated for synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) of aerosol samples collected with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) in hourly intervals and three particle size ranges. The total aerosol mass on the 1-h samples is in the range of 10 g. An experimental detection of the nanogram amounts of trace elements with the help of synchrotron X-rays was only achievable by the design of a fit-for-purpose sample holder system, which considered the boundary conditions both from particle sampling and analysis. A 6-m polypropylene substrate film has evolved as substrate of choice, due to its practical applicability during sampling and its suitable spectroscopic behavior. In contrast to monochromatic excitation conditions, the application of a 'white' beam led to a better spectral signal-to-background ratio. Despite the low sample mass, a counting time of less than 30 s per 1-h aerosol sample led to sufficient counting statistics. Therefore the RDI-SR-XRF method represents a high-throughput analysis procedure without the need for any sample preparation. The analysis of a multielemental mass standard film by SR-XRF, laboratory-based wavelength-dispersive XRF spectrometry and laboratory-based micro XRF spectrometry showed that the laboratory-based methods were no alternatives to the SR-XRF method with respect to sensitivity and efficiency of analysis.

  19. Anisotropic x ray magnetic linear dichroism - Its importance for the analysis of soft x ray spectra of magnetic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    van der Laan, G.; Arenholz, Elke

    2008-07-02

    Using spectroscopic information for x ray magnetometry and magnetic microscopy requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. We have shown unambiguously that--contrary to common belief--spectral shape and magnitude of x ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x ray polarization, but also their orientations relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data.

  20. A different approach to X-ray stress analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Robert E.

    2007-07-01

    A different approach to X-ray stress analysis has been developed. At the outset, it must be noted that the material to be analyzed is assumed homogeneous and isotropic. If a sphere with radius r within a specimen is subjected to a state of stress, the sphere is deformed into an ellipsoid. The semi-axes of the ellipsoid have the values of ( r + ?x), ( r + ?y), and ( r + ?z), which are replaced by dx, dy, and dz, or for the cubic case, ax, ay, and az. In this technique, at a particular ? angle (see Fig. 1), the two-theta position of a high angle (hkl) peak is determined at ? angles of 0, 15, 30, and 45. These measurements are repeated for 3 to 6 ? angles in steps of 30. The d?? or a?? values are then determined from the peak positions. The data is then fitted to the general quadratic equation for an ellipsoid by the method of least squares. From the coefficients of the quadratic equation, the angle between the laboratory and the specimen coordinates (direction of the principle stress) can be determined. Applying the general rotation of axes equations to the quadratic, the equation of the ellipse in the x- y plane is determined. The ax, ay, and az values for the principal axes of the lattice parameter ellipsoid are then evaluated. It is then possible to determine the unstressed a0 value from Hooke's Law using ax, ay, and az. The magnitude of the principal strains/stresses is then determined.

  1. Capillary Optics Based X-Ray Micro-Imaging Elemental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Cappuccio, G.; Longoni, A.; Frizzi, T.; Cibin, G.

    2010-04-01

    A rapidly developed during the last few years micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) is a promising multi-elemental technique for non-destructive analysis. Typically it is rather hard to perform laboratory μXRF analysis because of the difficulty of producing an original small-size X-ray beam as well as its focusing. Recently developed for X-ray beam focusing polycapillary optics offers laboratory X-ray micro probes. The combination of polycapillary lens and fine-focused micro X-ray tube can provide high intensity radiation flux on a sample that is necessary in order to perform the elemental analysis. In comparison to a pinhole, an optimized "X-ray source-op tics" system can result in radiation density gain of more than 3 orders by the value. The most advanced way to get that result is to use the confocal configuration based on two X-ray lenses, one for the fluorescence excitation and the other for the detection of secondary emission from a sample studied. In case of X-ray capillary microfocusing a μXRF instrument designed in the confocal scheme allows us to obtain a 3D elemental mapping. In this work we will show preliminary results obtained with our prototype, a portable X-ray microscope for X-ray both imaging and fluorescence analysis; it enables μXRF elemental mapping simultaneously with X-ray imaging. A prototype of compact XRF spectrometer with a spatial resolution less than 100 μm has been designed.

  2. X-ray irradiation induced changes in electron transport in stabilized a-Se photoconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Walornyj, M.; Kasap, S. O.

    2013-12-07

    We have examined the effect of high-dose x-ray irradiation on electron transport in stabilized amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray photoconductive films (of the type used in x-ray image detectors) by measuring the electron lifetime ?{sub e} through interrupted-field time-of-flight experiments. X-ray induced effects have been examined through two types of experiments. In recovery experiments, the a-Se was preirradiated with and without an applied field (5 V/?m) during irradiation with sufficient dose (typically ?20 Gy at 21 C) to significantly reduce the electron lifetime by ?50%, and then the recovery of the lifetime was monitored as a function of time at three different temperatures, 10 C, 21 C, and 35 C. The lifetime recovery kinetics was exponential with a relaxation time ?{sub r} that is thermally activated with an activation energy of 1.66 eV. ?{sub r} is a few hours at 21 C and only a few minutes at 35 C. In experiments examining the irradiation induced effects, the a-Se film was repeatedly exposed to x-ray radiation and the changes in the drift mobility and lifetime were monitored as a function of accumulated dose D. There was no observable change in the drift mobility. At 21 C, the concentration of x-ray induced deep traps (or capture centers), N{sub d}, increases linearly with D (N{sub d} ? D) whereas at 35 C, the recovery process prevents a linear increase in N{sub d} with D, and N{sub d} saturates. In all cases, even under high dose irradiation (?50 Gy), the lifetime was recoverable to its original equilibrium (pre-exposure) value within a few relaxation times.

  3. Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.-H.; Gray, A. X.; Kaiser, A. M.; Mun, B. S.; Sell, B. C.; Kortright, J. B.; Fadley, C. S.

    2013-02-21

    We present a general theoretical methodology and related open-access computer program for carrying out the calculation of photoelectron, Auger electron, and x-ray emission intensities in the presence of several x-ray optical effects, including total reflection at grazing incidence, excitation with standing-waves produced by reflection from synthetic multilayers and at core-level resonance conditions, and the use of variable polarization to produce magnetic circular dichroism. Calculations illustrating all of these effects are presented, including in some cases comparisons to experimental results. Sample types include both semi-infinite flat surfaces and arbitrary multilayer configurations, with interdiffusion/roughness at their interfaces. These x-ray optical effects can significantly alter observed photoelectron, Auger, and x-ray intensities, and in fact lead to several generally useful techniques for enhancing surface and buried-layer sensitivity, including layer-resolved densities of states and depth profiles of element-specific magnetization. The computer program used in this study should thus be useful for a broad range of studies in which x-ray optical effects are involved or are to be exploited in next-generation surface and interface studies of nanoscale systems.

  4. The XMM Cluster Survey: X-ray analysis methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Davies, E. J.; Romer, A. Kathy; Mehrtens, Nicola; Hosmer, Mark; Davidson, Michael; Sabirli, Kivanc; Mann, Robert G.; Hilton, Matt; Liddle, Andrew R.; Viana, Pedro T. P.; Campbell, Heather C.; Collins, Chris A.; Dubois, E. Naomi; Freeman, Peter; Harrison, Craig D.; Hoyle, Ben; Kay, Scott T.; Kuwertz, Emma; Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Sahln, Martin; Stanford, S. A.; Stott, John P.

    2011-11-01

    The XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) is a serendipitous search for galaxy clusters using all publicly available data in the XMM-Newton Science Archive. Its main aims are to measure cosmological parameters and trace the evolution of X-ray scaling relations. In this paper we describe the data processing methodology applied to the 5776 XMM observations used to construct the current XCS source catalogue. A total of 3675 > 4? cluster candidates with >50 background-subtracted X-ray counts are extracted from a total non-overlapping area suitable for cluster searching of 410 deg2. Of these, 993 candidates are detected with >300 background-subtracted X-ray photon counts, and we demonstrate that robust temperature measurements can be obtained down to this count limit. We describe in detail the automated pipelines used to perform the spectral and surface brightness fitting for these candidates, as well as to estimate redshifts from the X-ray data alone. A total of 587 (122) X-ray temperatures to a typical accuracy of <40 (<10) per cent have been measured to date. We also present the methodology adopted for determining the selection function of the survey, and show that the extended source detection algorithm is robust to a range of cluster morphologies by inserting mock clusters derived from hydrodynamical simulations into real XMMimages. These tests show that the simple isothermal ?-profiles is sufficient to capture the essential details of the cluster population detected in the archival XMM observations. The redshift follow-up of the XCS cluster sample is presented in a companion paper, together with a first data release of 503 optically confirmed clusters.

  5. X-ray analysis of fully depleted CCDs with small pixel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, I. V.; Haupt, J.; Kubanek, P.; O`Connor, P.; Takacs, P.

    2015-07-01

    X-ray frames offer a lot of information about CCD. 55 Fe sources are traditionally being used for CCD gain and charge transfer efficiency (CTE) measurements. In addition X-rays can be used for the system linearity test. We demonstrate how spectral lines of 55Fe and 241Am rad. sources are used for system linearity measurements. The pixel size of modern scientific CCDs is getting smaller. The charge diffusion causes the charge spread among neighboring pixels especially in thick fully depleted sensors. This enables measurement of the charge diffusion using 55Fe X-rays. On the other hand, the usual CTE characterization method based on single pixel X-ray events becomes statistically deficient. A new way of measuring CTE using shape and amplitude analysis of X-ray clusters is presented and discussed. This method requires high statistical samples. Advances in test automation and express analysis technique allow for acquiring such statistical samples in a short period of time. The lateral diffusion measured using e2v CCD250 is presented and implications for X-ray cluster size and expected cluster shape are discussed. The CTE analysis using total X-ray cluster amplitude is presented. This analysis can reveal CTE problems for certain conditions. The statistical analysis of average X-ray cluster shape is presented. The details of our measurement procedure are presented.

  6. Dual x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and method for fluid analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Bary W.; Shepard, Chester L.

    2005-02-22

    Disclosed are an X-ray fluorescence (SRF) spectrometer and method for on-site and in-line determination of contaminant elements in lubricating oils and in fuel oils on board a marine vessel. An XRF source block 13 contains two radionuclide sources 16, 17 (e.g. Cd 109 and Fe 55), each oriented 180 degrees from the other to excite separate targets. The Cd 109 source 16 excites sample lube oil flowing through a low molecular weight sample line 18. The Fe 55 source 17 excites fuel oil manually presented to the source beam inside a low molecular weight vial 26 or other container. Two separate detectors A and B are arranged to detect the fluorescent x-rays from the targets, photons from the analyte atoms in the lube oil for example, and sulfur identifying x-rays from bunker fuel oil for example. The system allows both automated in-line and manual on-site analysis using one set of signal processing and multi-channel analyzer electronics 34, 37 as well as one computer 39 and user interface 43.

  7. Membrane protein structural biology using X-ray free electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Neutze, Richard; Brndn, Gisela; Schertler, Gebhard Fx

    2015-08-01

    Membrane protein structural biology has benefitted tremendously from access to micro-focus crystallography at synchrotron radiation sources. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are linear accelerator driven X-ray sources that deliver a jump in peak X-ray brilliance of nine orders of magnitude and represent a disruptive technology with potential to dramatically change the field. Membrane proteins were amongst the first macromolecules to be studied with XFEL radiation and include proof-of-principle demonstrations of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), the observation that XFEL data can deliver damage free crystallographic structures, initial experiments towards recording structural information from 2D arrays of membrane proteins, and time-resolved SFX, time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering and time-resolved X-ray emission spectroscopy studies. Conversely, serial crystallography methods are now being applied using synchrotron radiation. We believe that a context dependent choice of synchrotron or XFEL radiation will accelerate progress towards novel insights in understanding membrane protein structure and dynamics. PMID:26342349

  8. The Mn4Ca photosynthetic water-oxidation catalyst studied by simultaneous X-ray spectroscopy and crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Rosalie; Kern, Jan; Hattne, Johan; Koroidov, Sergey; Hellmich, Julia; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of photosystem II and the catalytic intermediate states of the Mn4CaO5 cluster involved in water oxidation have been studied intensively over the past several years. An understanding of the sequential chemistry of light absorption and the mechanism of water oxidation, however, requires a new approach beyond the conventional steady-state crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. In this report, we present the preliminary progress using an X-ray free-electron laser to determine simultaneously the light-induced protein dynamics via crystallography and the local chemistry that occurs at the catalytic centre using X-ray spectroscopy under functional conditions at room temperature. PMID:24914152

  9. Investigation of magnetic field manipulated electrons produced from laser-driven ultrafast x-ray sources using x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changju; Davidson, R. Andrew; Guo, Ting

    2015-03-01

    We used x-ray emission spectroscopy to study energetic electrons (10-100?keV) generated at the laser focus of an intense ultrafast laser interacting with a primary thin film tape target. The electrons penetrated the tape and reached a secondary target of thin metal foils as the probe. The trajectories of these electrons were manipulated with an external magnetic field generated from a home-made Halbach magnet. The interaction of these energetic electrons with the probe produced characteristic x-rays, which were used to infer the flux and temperature of the electrons emitted from the laser focus at the primary tape target. A potential application using these energetic electrons is discussed.

  10. Influence of magnetic turbulence on the propagation of accelerated electrons and hard X-ray brightness distribution in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charikov, Yu. E.; Shabalin, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of magnetic turbulence on the hard X-ray brightness distribution in magnetic loops during solar flares was studied. An analysis was perfomed based on the solution of the kinetic equation for relativistic electrons, in which the regular energy loss, Coulomb scattering, magnetic reflection, and the effect of the reverse current and magnetic turbulence are taken into account. It was shown that scattering by magnetic inhomogeneities with parameter ? = ? B/ B = 10-3 results in an increase in hard X-ray brightness at loop footpoints when the distribution of accelerated electrons is isotropic and mostly in the loop coronal part if the electron source is anisotropic. The influence of magnetic turbulence is absent at ? B/ B ? 10-5.

  11. A Review of X-ray Free-Electron Laser Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhirong; Kim, Kwang-Je; /ANL, APS

    2006-12-18

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are being developed as extremely bright sources for a next-generation x-ray facility. In this paper, we review the basic theory of the startup, the exponential growth, and the saturation of the high-gain process, emphasizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The radiation characteristics of an x-ray FEL, including its transverse coherence, temporal characteristics, and harmonic content, are discussed. FEL performance in the presence of machine errors and undulator wakefields is examined. Various enhancement schemes through seeding and beam manipulations are summarized.

  12. Photoelectron diffraction from laser-aligned molecules with X-ray free-electron laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kyo; Teramoto, Takahiro; Akagi, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Majima, Takuya; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Ogawa, Kanade; Sakai, Hirofumi; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Tsuru, Shota; Wada, Ken; Yabashi, Makina; Yagishita, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurement of deep inner-shell 2p X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) patterns from laser-aligned I2 molecules using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses. The XPD patterns of the I2 molecules, aligned parallel to the polarization vector of the XFEL, were well matched with our theoretical calculations. Further, we propose a criterion for applying our molecular-structure-determination methodology to the experimental XPD data. In turn, we have demonstrated that this approach is a significant step toward the time-resolved imaging of molecular structures. PMID:26369428

  13. Characteristics of a contract electron beam and bremsstrahlung (X-ray) irradiation facility of Radia industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki; Saito, Toshio; Takahashi, Thoru; Sato, Yoshishige; Sato, Toshio

    1993-07-01

    A contract electron beam(EB) and bremsstrahlung(X-ray) facility with use of NHV 5 MeV, 30 mA Cock-Croft Walton machine is operational for EB since April 1991, and X-ray commercial irradiation was started in 1992 summer. The facility is consisted of the EB machine, bremsstrahlung target, chain and roller conveyor, and automatic turnover machine for dual sided irradiation. The operation of the system is fully controlled by LAN of personal computers for client's order, EB characteristics, beam current control proportional to the conveyor speed, turnover of product in processing mid point, and output of processing record to clients. The control and recording systems avoid human errors. This paper mainly discusses X-ray processing.

  14. XPCS at the European x-ray free electron laser facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubel, G.; Stephenon, G. B.; Gutt, C.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Hasylab /DESY

    2007-09-01

    The European X-ray free electron laser source (XFEL) will provide highly brilliant (B > 10{sup 33} ph/s/mm{sup 2}mrad{sup 2}/0.1% bw) and coherent X-ray beams. The pulse structure and the unprecedented brightness will allow one for the first time to study fast dynamics in the time domain, thus giving direct access to the dynamic response function S(Q, t), instead of S(Q, {omega}), which is of central importance for a variety of phenomena such as fast non-equilibrium dynamics initiated, e.g. by a short pump pulse. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measures the temporal changes in speckle patterns produced when coherent light is scattered by a disordered system and therefore allows to measure S(Q, t). This paper summarizes important aspects of the scientific case for an XPCS instrument at the planned XFEL. Novel XPCS set-ups are illustrated.

  15. Investigating dynamics of complex system irradiated by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; Jurek, Z.; Osipov, T.; Murphy, B. F.; Santra, R.; Berrah, N.

    2015-04-01

    We carried out experimental and theoretical investigation of the response of a complex molecule, C60, to intense x-ray photon beam from a free-electron-laser. We show good agreement between the modelling and the experiment. Our model, which can be scaled well to larger systems, reveals femotosecond molecular dynamics details, at the level of atomic resolution, which are inaccessible directly by our experiments. Our results illustrate the variety of physical and chemical processes in the interaction between large molecules and intense x- ray pulses, including photoelectric effect, secondary ionization, recombination and inter-atomic Auger decays. The understanding of these processes has a broad impact on research that implements intense x-ray pulses.

  16. X-ray evidence for electron-ion equilibrium and ionization nonequilibrium in young supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Smith, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    The A-2 spectroscopy experiment on HEAO 1 detected X-ray emission up to 25 keV from the supernova remnants Cas A and Tycho. The spectra must include continuum components with effective temperature equivalent or 10 to the 8th power K which could arise from optically thin plasmas in the collisionless shock fronts. This is the first indication of electron-ion temperature equilibrium in the expanding shell of young remnants. Measurements of the equivalent widths of the K alpha and K beta iron line blends in Cas A, show that their ratio is not compatible with the measured X-ray temperature in the collisional ionization equilibrium model. The search for hard X-ray pulsars in both remnants was unsuccessful.

  17. X-ray free-electron laser studies of dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinko, Sam M.

    2015-10-01

    > The high peak brightness of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), coupled with X-ray optics enabling the focusing of pulses down to sub-micron spot sizes, provides an attractive route to generating high energy-density systems on femtosecond time scales, via the isochoric heating of solid samples. Once created, the fundamental properties of these plasmas can be studied with unprecedented accuracy and control, providing essential experimental data needed to test and benchmark commonly used theoretical models and assumptions in the study of matter in extreme conditions, as well as to develop new predictive capabilities. Current advances in isochoric heating and spectroscopic plasma studies on X-ray FELs are reviewed and future research directions and opportunities discussed.

  18. X-ray Mapping of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Materials Using the Electron Microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar samples returned from the Apollo program motivated development of the Bence-Albee algorithm for the rapid and accurate analysis of lunar materials, and established interlaboratory comparability through its common use. In the analysis of mineral and rock fragments it became necessary to combine micro- and macroscopic analysis by coupling electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) with automated stage point counting. A coarse grid that included several thousand points was used, and initially wavelength-dispersive (WDS) and later energydispersive (EDS) data were acquired at discrete stage points using approx. 5 sec count times. A approx 50 micrometer beam diameter was used for WDS and up to 500 micrometer beam diameter for EDS analysis. Average analyses of discretely sampled phases were coupled with the point count data to calculate the bulk composition using matrix algebra. Use of a defocused beam resulted in a contribution from multiple phases to each analytical point, and the analytical data were deconvolved relative to end-member phase chemistry on the fly. Impressive agreement was obtained between WDS and EDS measurements as well as comparison with bulk chemistry obtained by other methods. In the 30 years since these methods were developed, significant improvements in EPMA automation and computer processing have taken place. Digital beam control allows routine collection of x-ray maps by EDS, and stage mapping for WDS is conducted continuously at slew speed and incrementally by sampling at discrete points. Digital pulse processing in EDS systems has significantly increased the throughput for EDS mapping, and the ongoing development of Si-drift detector systems promises mapping capabilities rivaling WDS systems. Spectrum imaging allows a data cube of EDS spectra to be acquired and sophisticated processing of the original data is possible using matrix algebra techniques. The study of lunar and meteoritic materials includes the need to conveniently: (1) Characterize the sample at microscopic and macroscopic scales with relatively high sensitivity, (2) Determine the modal abundance of minerals, and (3) Identify and relocate discrete features of interest in terms of size and chemistry. The coupled substitution of cations in minerals can result in significant variation in mineral chemistry, but at similar average Z, leading to poor backscattered-electron (BSE) contrast discrimination of mineralogy. It is necessary to discriminate phase chemistry at both the trace element level and the major element level. To date, the WDS of microprobe systems is preferred for mapping due to high throughput and the ability to obtain the necessary intensity to discriminate phases at both trace and major element concentrations. It is desirable to produce fully quantitative compositional maps of geological materials, which requires the acquisition of k-ratio maps that are background and dead-time corrected, and which have been corrected by phi(delta z> or an equivalent algorithm at each pixel. To date, turnkey systems do not allow the acquisition of k-ratio maps and the rigorous correction in this manner. X-ray maps of a chondrule from the Ourique meteorite, and a comb-layered xenolith from the San Francisco volcanic field, have been analyzed and processed to extract phase information. The Ourique meteorite presents a challenge due to relatively low BSE contrast, and has been studied using spectrum imaging. X-ray maps for Si, Mg, and FeK(alpha) were used to produce RGB images. The xenolith sample contains sector-zoned augite, olivine, plagioclase, and basaltic glass. X-ray maps were processed using Lispix and ImageJ software to produce mineral phase maps. The x-ray maps for Mg, Ca, and Ti were used with traceback to generate binary images that were converted to RGB images. These approaches are successful in discriminating phases, but it is desirable to achieve the methods that were used on lunar samples 30 years ago on current microprobe systems. Curnt research includes x-ray mapping analysis of the Dalgety Downs chondrite by micro x-ray fluorescence and spectrum imaging, in collaboration with Kenny Witherspoon of IXRF Systems and Dale Newbury of NIST.

  19. Coherent X-ray radiation generated by a relativistic electron in an artificial periodic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Kolosova, I. V.; Noskov, A. V.

    2012-04-15

    A theory of coherent X-ray radiation from a relativistic electron crossing an artificial periodic layered structure in the Laue scattering geometry is constructed. The expressions describing the spectral-angular radiation parameters are obtained. It is shown that the radiation yield in such a medium may substantially exceed the radiation yield in a crystal under analogous conditions.

  20. Soft X-ray contact microscopy and transmission electron microscopy: Comparative study of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongi, T.; Palladino, L.; Bernieri, E.; Tomassetti, G.; Reale, L.; Flora, F.; Cesare, P.; Ercole, C.; Aimola, P.; Ragnelli, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    Isolated cellular organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts) and cultured bacteria were analysed both by soft X-ray contact microscopy (SXCM), and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after negative staining. For each sample, a comparison was performed between images obtained with either technique, with the aim of facilitating the interpretation of SXCM images. The validity and the limits of this comparative approach are discussed.

  1. Implications of X-Ray Observations for Electron Acceleration and Propagation in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Aurass, H.; Battaglia, M.; Grigis, P. C.; Kontar, E. P.; Liu, W.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-rays and gamma-rays from solar flares were discovered just over fifty years ago. Since that time, the standard for the interpretation of spatially integrated flare X-ray spectra at energies above several tens of keV has been the collisional thick-target model. After the launch of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in early 2002, X-ray spectra and images have been of sufficient quality to allow a greater focus on the energetic electrons responsible for the X-ray emission, including their origin and their interactions with the flare plasma and magnetic field. The result has been new insights into the flaring process, as well as more quantitative models for both electron acceleration and propagation, and for the flare environment with which the electrons interact. In this article we review our current understanding of electron acceleration, energy loss, and propagation in flares. Implications of these new results for the collisional thick-target model, for general flare models, and for future flare studies are discussed.

  2. Demonstration of self-seeding in a hard-X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, J.; Berg, W.; Blank, V.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Feng, Y.; Frisch, J.; Fritz, D.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z.; Krzywinski, J.; Lindberg, R.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Ratner, D.; Rzepiela, J.; Shu, D.; Shvyd'Ko, Yu.; Spampinati, S.; Stoupin, S.; Terentyev, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Walz, D.; Welch, J.; Wu, J.; Zholents, A.; Zhu, D.

    2012-10-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an X-ray free-electron laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which has been operating since 2009 for a wide range of scientific research. The free-electron laser process at LCLS is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) where spontaneous emission from the initial electron beam shot noise is amplified by its interaction with the electrons over a long magnetic undulator. Although SASE is very effective, producing tremendously powerful, ultrashort X-ray beams, the start-up from noise leaves poor temporal coherence and a broad, noisy spectrum. We present experimental results of a new method, suggested by colleagues at DESY, allowing self-seeding using X-rays from the first half of the undulator to seed the second half through a diamond-based monochromator, producing near Fourier-transform-limited X-ray pulses with 0.4-0.5 eV bandwidth at 8-9 keV. These results demonstrate self-seeding at ngstrom wavelengths with a relative bandwidth reduction of 40-50 with respect to SASE.

  3. Characterization of calcium crystals in Abelia using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Localization, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium crystals in leaves and stems of Abelia mosanensis and A. grandiflora were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM) equipped with an X-ray diffraction system, low temperature SEM (LT-SEM) and a transmission ...

  4. RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS BY HIGH SENSITIVITY DUAL-OPTIC MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and...

  5. Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Henn, Tobias R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Marry K.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicron particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278-320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and non-carbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  6. Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, Mary K; Moffet, R.C.; Henn, T.; Laskin, A.

    2011-01-20

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicrometer particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278 to 320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and noncarbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate the application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  7. Soft x-ray spectroscopy studies of novel electronic materials using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, David, Jr.

    Soft x-ray spectroscopy can provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure of solids. In this work, a suite of soft x-ray spectroscopies is applied to organic and inorganic materials with potential applications in electronic and energy generation devices. Using the techniques of x-ray absorption (XAS), x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), the fundamental properties of these different materials are explored. Cycloparaphenylenes (CPPs) are a recently synthesized family of cyclic hydrocarbons with very interesting properties and many potential applications. Unusual UV/Visible fluorescence trends have spurred a number of theoretical investigations into the electronic properties of the CPP family, but thus far no comprehensive electronic structure measurements have been conducted. XPS, XAS, and XES data for two varieties, [8]- and [10]-CPP, are presented here, and compared with the results of relevant DFT calculations. Turning towards more application-centered investigations, similar measurements are applied to two materials commonly used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes: La1-xSrxMnO 3 (LSMO) and La1-xSr1- xCo1-yFe yO3 (LSCF). Both materials are structurally perovskites, but they exhibit strikingly different electronic properties. SOFC systems very efficiently produce electricity by catalyzing reactions between oxygen and petroleum-based hydrocarbons at high temperatures (> 800 C). Such systems are already utilized to great effect in many industries, but more widespread adoption could be had if the cells could operate at lower temperatures. Understanding the electronic structure and operational evolution of the cathode materials is essential for the development of better low-temperature fuel cells. LSCF is a mixed ion-electron conductor which holds promise for low-temperature SOFC applications. XPS spectra of LSCF thin films are collected as the films are heated and gas-dosed in a controlled environment. The surface evolution of these films is discussed, and the effects of different gas environments on oxygen vacancy concentration are elucidated. LSMO is commonly used in commercial fuel cell devices. Here the resonant soft x-ray emission (RIXS) spectrum of LSMO is examined, and it is shown that the inelastic x-ray emission structure of LSMO arises from local atomic multiplet effects.

  8. Study of x-ray emission from an intense relativistic electron beam using nuclear emulsions and thermoluminescent detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, E.M.; Grebenshchikov, V.L.; Drygin, V.N.; Kuksov, P.V.; Kushin, V.V.; Lyapidevskii, V.K.; Meshcherin, B.N.; Smirnova, E.A.; Fanchenko, S.D.; Khokhlov, N.B.

    1984-03-01

    It is shown experimentally that nuclear emulsions can be used to determine the x-ray emission spectra of relativistic electron beams with good spatial resolution. X-ray emission spectra were recorded for the first time in different focusing regions of an electron beam produced by the ''Kal'mar-1'' high-current REB generator. The spectra were found to differ: the hardest x-rays were emitted at the center of the focal spot.

  9. M Series Resonant X-Ray Lines of Barium for Near Threshold Electron Excitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Dane Victor

    An investigation of the M series resonant x-ray emission lines of barium for near threshold electron excitation was undertaken with a vacuum double crystal spectrometer equipped with potassium acid phthalate crystals. X-ray continuum isochromats were also obtained for barium samples using the double crystal spectrometer as a monochrometer set to pass 532 eV photons. The rotatable anode allowed the sample to be observed by either the double crystal spectrometer or a soft x-ray appearance potential spectrometer, which was used for monitoring the surface of the barium sample for contamination, and to provide a cross-check for the double crystal spectrometer data. Barium M series characteristic x-ray spectra for 2.0 keV electron excitation were obtained for a variety of samples, and it was discovered that the fluorescent and resonant x-ray emission line energies remained virtually the same, regardless of the chemical condition of the sample. The continuum resonance effect was observed for near-threshold energy electron excitation, but it was significantly weaker than the same effect observed previously for lanthanum or cerium. The electron excitation energy and intensity of this effect were strongly dependent on the chemical condition of the barium sample. X-ray continuum isochromats were observed for pure and contaminated barium samples at a photon energy of 532 eV. For pure metallic barium, a peak associated with 4f electronic states was observed at an energy of about 10.2 eV above the Fermi level. When the sample was exposed to 1.5 times 10^4 Langmuir of air, the 4f structure became more sharply peaked, and shifted to an energy of about 12.0 eV above the Fermi level. A continuum isochromat of barium oxide was also observed. Chemical shifts in barium M_{ rm IV} and M_{rm V} appearance potential spectra are therefore caused solely by shifts in the energy position of the empty 4f electronic states relative to the Fermi level. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the peak in the continuum spectrum was shifted when the sample became contaminated, while the fluorescent and resonant x-ray emission lines remained fixed in energy.

  10. Spatially resolved electron cyclotron heated plasmas using novel matrix-type X-ray semiconductor-detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, R.; Cho, T.; Kohagura, J.; Hirata, M.; Numakura, T.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    2003-11-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved X-ray analyses are carried out by using novel matrix-type X-ray semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has seven "matrix columns" for the measurements of plasma X-ray profiles so as to make X-ray tomographic reconstructions. Further, six "matrix rows" having various dead layer thicknesses are fabricated as "unbreakable ultra-thin X-ray absorption filters" for simultaneous analyses of six different X-ray energy ranges. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens of eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities during a single-plasma discharge alone. Several applications including investigations of electron energy confinement during a period with central-cell electron cyclotron heatings are made with the novel position sensitive semiconductor arrays.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Conversion X-Rays from the Electron Beam of PFMA-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.

    2011-12-13

    PFMA-3, a dense Plasma Focus device, is being optimized as an X-ray generator. X-rays are obtained from the conversion of the electron beam emitted in the backward direction and driven to impinge on a 50 {mu}m brass foil. Monte Carlo simulations of the X-ray emission have been conducted with MCNPX. The electron spectrum had been determined experimentally and is used in the present work as input to the simulations. Dose to the brass foil has been determined both from simulations and from measurements with a thermographic camera, and the two results are found in excellent agreement, thus validating further the electron spectrum assumed as well as the simulation set-up. X-ray emission has been predicted both from bremsstrahlung and from characteristic lines. The spectrum has been found to be comprised of two components of which the one at higher energy, 30 divide 70 keV, is most useful for IORT applications. The results are necessary to estimate penetration in and dose to Standard Human Tissue.

  12. Analysis of NOAA-MSFC GOES X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The general telescope system was assumed to be a paraboloid-hyperboloid in a Wolter Type 1 configuration. The equations which specify the telescope parameters and the resolution as a function of the collecting area are discussed as well as the spot size and point response function for off-axis rays. The measured resolution of the Goddard ATM X-ray telescope (S-056) is compared to the rms blur circle radius and the full width half maximum of the line spread function. An empirical scaling formula, Eq. 26, which transforms the rms blur circle radius into a more accurate measure of resolution, is introduced. The geometrical imaging properties of the proposed NOAA-MSFC GOES X-ray telescope are considered. Conclusions and alternate mirror designs are included.

  13. Data collection strategies for time-resolved X-ray free-electron laser diffraction, and 2-color methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Chufeng; Schmidt, Kevin; Spence, John C

    2015-07-01

    We compare three schemes for time-resolved X-ray diffraction from protein nanocrystals using an X-ray free-electron laser. We find expressions for the errors in structure factor measurement using the Monte Carlo pump-probe method of data analysis with a liquid jet, the fixed sample pump-probe (goniometer) method (both diffract-and-destroy, and below the safe damage dose), and a proposed two-color method. Here, an optical pump pulse arrives between X-ray pulses of slightly different energies which hit the same nanocrystal, using a weak first X-ray pulse which does not damage the sample. (Radiation damage is outrun in the other cases.) This two-color method, in which separated Bragg spots are impressed on the same detector readout, eliminates stochastic fluctuations in crystal size, shape, and orientation and is found to require two orders of magnitude fewer diffraction patterns than the currently used Monte Carlo liquid jet method, for 1% accuracy. Expressions are given for errors in structure factor measurement for the four approaches, and detailed simulations provided for cathepsin B and IC3 crystals. While the error is independent of the number of shots for the dose-limited goniometer method, it falls off inversely as the square root of the number of shots for the two-color and Monte Carlo methods, with a much smaller pre-factor for the two-color mode, when the first shot is below the damage threshold. PMID:26798813

  14. Data collection strategies for time-resolved X-ray free-electron laser diffraction, and 2-color methods

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chufeng; Schmidt, Kevin; Spence, John C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare three schemes for time-resolved X-ray diffraction from protein nanocrystals using an X-ray free-electron laser. We find expressions for the errors in structure factor measurement using the Monte Carlo pump-probe method of data analysis with a liquid jet, the fixed sample pump-probe (goniometer) method (both diffract-and-destroy, and below the safe damage dose), and a proposed two-color method. Here, an optical pump pulse arrives between X-ray pulses of slightly different energies which hit the same nanocrystal, using a weak first X-ray pulse which does not damage the sample. (Radiation damage is outrun in the other cases.) This two-color method, in which separated Bragg spots are impressed on the same detector readout, eliminates stochastic fluctuations in crystal size, shape, and orientation and is found to require two orders of magnitude fewer diffraction patterns than the currently used Monte Carlo liquid jet method, for 1% accuracy. Expressions are given for errors in structure factor measurement for the four approaches, and detailed simulations provided for cathepsin B and IC3 crystals. While the error is independent of the number of shots for the dose-limited goniometer method, it falls off inversely as the square root of the number of shots for the two-color and Monte Carlo methods, with a much smaller pre-factor for the two-color mode, when the first shot is below the damage threshold. PMID:26798813

  15. Measurement of electron density in dual-energy x-ray CT with monochromatic x rays and evaluation of its accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunoo, Takanori; Torikoshi, Masami; Ohno, Yumiko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto

    2008-11-15

    Information on electron density is important for radiotherapy treatment planning in order to optimize the dose distribution in the target volume of a patient. At present, the electron density is derived from a computed tomography (CT) number measured in x-ray CT scanning; however, there are uncertainties due to the beam hardening effect and the method by which the electron density is converted from the CT number. In order to measure the electron density with an accuracy of {+-}1%, the authors have developed dual-energy x ray CT using monochromatic x rays. They experimentally proved that the measured linear attenuation coefficients were only a few percent lower than the theoretical ones, which led to an accuracy within 2% for the electron density. There were three factors causing inaccuracy in the linear attenuation coefficient and the electron density: the influence of scattered radiation, the nonlinearity in the detector response function, and a theoretical process to derive the electron density from the linear attenuation coefficients. The linear attenuation coefficients of water were experimentally proved to differ by 1%-2% from the theoretical one even when the scattering effect was negligible. The nonlinearity of the response function played an important role in correcting the difference in the linear attenuation coefficient. Furthermore, the theoretical process used for deriving the electron density from the linear attenuation coefficients introduces about 0.6% deviation from the theoretical value into the resultant electron density. This deviation occurs systematically so that it can be corrected. The authors measured the electron densities for seven samples equivalent to soft tissue in dual-energy x-ray CT, and finally obtained them with an accuracy of around {+-}1%.

  16. Multicomponent signal unmixing from nanoheterostructures: overcoming the traditional challenges of nanoscale X-ray analysis via machine learning.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, David; Burdet, Pierre; de la Peña, Francisco; Ducati, Caterina; Knappett, Benjamin R; Wheatley, Andrew E H; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    The chemical composition of core-shell nanoparticle clusters have been determined through principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) of an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum image (SI) acquired in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method blindly decomposes the SI into three components, which are found to accurately represent the isolated and unmixed X-ray signals originating from the supporting carbon film, the shell, and the bimetallic core. The composition of the latter is verified by and is in excellent agreement with the separate quantification of bare bimetallic seed nanoparticles. PMID:25760234

  17. Multicomponent Signal Unmixing from Nanoheterostructures: Overcoming the Traditional Challenges of Nanoscale X-ray Analysis via Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of core–shell nanoparticle clusters have been determined through principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) of an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum image (SI) acquired in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method blindly decomposes the SI into three components, which are found to accurately represent the isolated and unmixed X-ray signals originating from the supporting carbon film, the shell, and the bimetallic core. The composition of the latter is verified by and is in excellent agreement with the separate quantification of bare bimetallic seed nanoparticles. PMID:25760234

  18. Auger electron and x-ray photoelectron data processing for the personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    A low cost Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data processing system for IBM compatible personal computers is described. The system has been designed to interface with most computer controlled electron spectrometers. The data system is based on a large software package named PCreverse arrowACSES (Personal Computer Analysis Code for Scanning Electron Spectrometers). This software utilizes a mouse driven interface and provides the user with a wide range of easily accessible data processing options. Features of the system include data manipulation, manual and automatic quantification, flexible annotation and high quality plotter output. In addition, the system can incorporate a 512 x 512 image framestore and powerful digital image processing routines. The image processing capabilities of PCreverse arrowACSES allow the user to optimize both secondary electron (SEM) and elemental images, add color to images with histogram painting, create customized pseudo-color image overlays, and annotate images with variable size fonts and micron markers. This PC (personal computer) based data processing system provides a low cost alternative to high-end commercial systems by combining inexpensive computer hardware with advanced software. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  19. X-ray Radiation and Electron Injection from Beam Envelope Oscillations in Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Experiments at FACET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, K. A.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Clarke, C.; Corde, S.; Delahaye, J. P.; England, J.; Fisher, A.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Hogan, M. J.; Li, S.; Litos, M.; Walz, D.; Wu, Z.; Adli, E.

    2013-10-01

    PWFA experiments at FACET at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have shown a correlation between ionization-injected electrons and the betatron x-ray yield. The PWFA experiments were carried out using a rubidium vapor heat pipe oven. The vapor density was 2.5 1017 cm-3 and was ionized by the 20 GeV electron beam via tunneling ionization. The injected charge and x-ray yield are attributed to the beam envelope oscillations where at the oscillation minima, the field of the beam is strong enough to ionize RbII, and at the electron oscillation maxima, the beam electrons radiate x-rays. In general the x-ray yield scales as r2n2?2 , but for a matched beam the x-ray yield is reduced and scales as r3/2n3/2 ? . The FACET x-ray diagnostic can be used to tune the drive beam parameters for matched propagation by minimizing the x-ray yield. For a matched beam, there is no beam envelope oscillation, thus the x-ray yield and unwanted beam loading are greatly reduced. Injection of plasma electrons into the wake can limit the wake amplitude and deplete the accelerating gradient. Minimizing the x-ray yield should reduce unwanted beam loading. UCLA supported by: DE-FG02-92-ER40727 and PHY-0936266. SLAC supported by DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  20. ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; ,

    2011-03-21

    Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

  1. Conjugate observation of electron microburst groups by Bremsstrahlung X-ray and riometer techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Siren, J.C.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Detrick, D.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1980-12-01

    The first evidence is reported of simultaneous conjugate electron microburst group precipitation. Groups of bremsstrahlung X ray microbursts (E>25 keV) were observed during a substorm recovery phase by a balloon-borne scintillation counter over Roberval, Quebec, Canada. The microburst groups were accompanied one-to-one by time-delayed and broadened pulses of ionospheric absorption measured by a high sensitivity 30-MHz riometer at Siple Station, Antarctica (Lapprox. =4.1). For the interval of highest correlation, the absolute lag between the two data sets was 4 +- 1 s, to the limit of the relative timing accuracy. Approximately 2 s of the observed lag had been introduces by a low-pass filter in the riometer data acquistion unit. The remainder (2 s) was due to the ionospheric recombination process, which evidently had a response time (tauapprox.5 s) during this event much shorter than that ordinarily associated with the D region of the ionosphere. Model calculations of the ionspheric response to time-varying precipitation, derived from the profile of the measurement X ray flux, provide a consistent picture of simultaneous microburst group precipitation at conjugate points, absolute absorption and the electron spectrum derived from X rays, the degree of variation in absorption and X ray fluxes, and the characteristic ionospheric time constant at the altitude of maximum energy deposition.

  2. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  3. Computer-aided distal locking guidance of intramedullary nail by x-ray image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covavisaruch, Nongluk; Simmami, Kamthon; Vatanawood, Wiwat; Ratanachai, Winyou

    2004-05-01

    Distal locking of intramedullary nail inside a patient"s broken bone is a difficult step in an orthopaedic surgery. It is hard not only because surgeons must locate the direction and align two distal holes in a 3D space by using 2D x-ray images, but also because the intramedullary nail can twist in unknown 3D direction and position during an operation. This process normally takes a long time, heavily uses x-ray radiation and hence exposes surgeons and patients to high doses of x-ray radiation. Longer surgical duration also increases the risk of high blood loss and prolonged anesthesia towards the patient. This research proposes a methodology to help reduce the usage of x-ray radiation, and to also simplify the distal locking process, through the utilization of simple devices along with x-ray image analysis.

  4. Gigavolt-Energy Electrons and Femtosecond-Duration Hard X-Rays Driven by Extreme Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umstadter, Donald

    2012-06-01

    The interactions of high-peak power laser light focused to extremely high intensity, or ``extreme light,'' is at the core of high-energy laser-driven electron accelerators, and novel laser-synchrotron x-ray light sources. The hallmark of extreme light is its ability to cause the instantaneous electron quiver motion to become relativistic. We discuss recent progress in understanding the physics of extreme light, and the advanced electron and x-ray technologies that it drives. Through the mechanism of relativistic self-guiding, focused light from our 100-TW Diocles laser was propagated in plasma at relativistic intensity for distance of 1 cm [corresponding to over 15 vacuum diffraction (Rayleigh) ranges]. As a result of this extended propagation length, electrons were accelerated by a laser-wakefield to near GeV energy in a well-collimated beam. The electron beam was measured to be tunable over a wide energy range, 100 -- 800 MeV, with 5-- 25% energy spread, and 1-- 4-mrad divergence angle. The experimental results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the results of numerical simulation, which predict even higher electron energy (multi-GeV) with our recently upgraded peak laser power (>0.5 PW). These characteristics, along with their lack of any measurable amount of dark-current, make these electron beams good candidates for driving synchrotron x-ray sources. The development of one such x-ray source will also be discussed, one driven by inverse Compton scattering of laser light by laser-accelerated electrons. Its small radiation source size ( 10 microns) and low angular beam divergence (< 10 mrad) make it quite promising for applications in radiology. By virtue of its ultra-short pulse duration (< 10 fs) and wide energy tunability (10 keV -- 10 MeV), it can also be used to probe matter with atomic-scale spatial and temporal resolution---simultaneously.

  5. Combining X-ray and electron-microscopy data to solve crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Navaza, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Overview and examples of combined use of X-ray and electron-microscopy data. Low-resolution electron-microscopy reconstructions can be used as search models in molecular replacement or may be combined with existing monomeric structures in order to produce multimeric models suitable for molecular replacement. The technique is described in the case of viral and subviral particles as well as in the case of oligomeric proteins.

  6. Refractive microlens array for wave-front analysis in the medium to hard x-ray range.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Sheridan C; Sexton, Brett

    2004-04-15

    We report an alternative approach to x-ray wave-front analysis that uses a refractive microlens array as a Shack-Hartmann sensor. The sensor was manufactured by self-assembly and electroplating techniques and is suitable for high-resolution wave-front analysis of medium to hard x rays. We demonstrate its effectiveness at an x-ray energy of 3 keV for analysis of x-ray wave-front perturbations caused by microscopic objects. The sensor has potential advantages over other methods for x-ray phase imaging and will also be useful for the characterization of x-ray beams and optics. PMID:15119404

  7. Method of x-ray spectral fluorescence analysis with corrections for the perturbing effect of elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlinskii, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    A new method of x-ray spectral analysis with corrections for the perturbing effects of elements, based on the existing theory of perturbation of x-ray flourescence, has been proved and tested on calculated and experimental intensities. The laborious computational operations are performed at the preliminary stage of analysis, which enables it to be used on analytical assemblies with a low-capacity computer. The investigations carried out enable the proposed method to be recommended for the x-ray spectral analysis of homogeneous material.

  8. [Proposal of a cloud chamber experiment using diagnostic X-ray apparatus and an analysis assisted by a simulation code].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Hanamitsu, Hiroki; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Ueno, Junji; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2013-04-01

    A cloud chamber is a radiation detector that can visualize the tracks of charged particles. In this study, we developed a middle-type cloud chamber for use in practical training using a diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Because our cloud chamber has a heater to vaporize ethanol and features antifogging glass, it is possible to observe the vapor trails for a long time without the need for fine adjustments. X-rays with a tube voltage of 40 kV or of 120 kV (with a 21-mm aluminum filter) were irradiated at the chamber and the various phenomena were observed. We explain these phenomena in terms of the range of electrons and/or interactions between X-rays and matter and conclude that our analysis is consistent with analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation code EGS5. PMID:23609860

  9. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas D; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Ogata, Craig M; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T; Berger, James M

    2015-10-01

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2?l) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10-15?m) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6?) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs. PMID:26457423

  10. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called ‘fixed-target’ sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs. PMID:26457423

  11. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  12. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessarymore » to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.« less

  13. Single-particle structure determination by X-ray free-electron lasers: Possibilities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinizadeh, A.; Dashti, A.; Schwander, P.; Fung, R.; Ourmazd, A.

    2015-01-01

    Single-particle structure recovery without crystals or radiation damage is a revolutionary possibility offered by X-ray free-electron lasers, but it involves formidable experimental and data-analytical challenges. Many of these difficulties were encountered during the development of cryogenic electron microscopy of biological systems. Electron microscopy of biological entities has now reached a spatial resolution of about 0.3?nm, with a rapidly emerging capability to map discrete and continuous conformational changes and the energy landscapes of biomolecular machines. Nonetheless, single-particle imaging by X-ray free-electron lasers remains important for a range of applications, including the study of large electron-opaque objects and time-resolved examination of key biological processes at physiological temperatures. After summarizing the state of the art in the study of structure and conformations by cryogenic electron microscopy, we identify the primary opportunities and challenges facing X-ray-based single-particle approaches, and possible means for circumventing them. PMID:26798800

  14. Electron trapping in evolving coronal structures during a large gradual hard X-ray/radio burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruggmann, G.; Vilmer, N.; Klein, K.-L.; Kane, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gradual hard X-ray/radio bursts are characterized by their long duration, smooth time profile, time delays between peaks at different hard X-ray energies and microwaves, and radiation from extended sources in the low and middle corona. Their characteristic properties have been ascribed to the dynamic evolution of the accelerated electrons in coronal magnetic traps or to the separate acceleration of high-energy electrons in a 'second step' process. The information available so far was drawn from quality considerations of time profiles or even only from the common occurrence of emissions in different spectral ranges. This paper presents model computations of the temporal evolution of hard X-ray and microwave spectra, together with a qualitative discussion of radio lightcurves over a wide spectral range, and metric imaging observations. The basis hypothesis investigated is that the peculiar 'gradual' features can be related to the dynamical evolution of electrons injected over an extended time interval in a coronal trap, with electrons up to relativistic energies being injected simultaneously. The analyzed event (26 April. 1981) is particularly challenging to this hypothesis because of the long time delays between peaks at different X-ray energies and microwave frequencies. The observations are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis, provided that the electrons lose their energy by Coulomb collisions and possibly betatron deceleration. The access of the electrons to different coronal structures varies in the course of the event. The evolution and likely destabilization of part of the coronal plasma-magnetic field configuration is of crucial influence in determining the access to these structures and possibly the dynamical evolution of the trapped electrons through betatron deceleration in the late phase of the event.

  15. Electronic structure of Fe/MgO/Fe multilayer stack by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, Sanjeev Hwa Chae, Keun; Asokan, Kandasami; Pal Singh, Jitendra; Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Lin, Hong-Ji

    2014-05-07

    The interface properties of Fe/MgO/Fe multilayer stack were investigated by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The magnetic multilayers were deposited by electron beam evaporation method, which exhibits the attributes of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). XAS analysis shows that Fe-layer forms a Fe-O-rich interface region with MgO-layer and a sum-rule analysis of the XMCD estimates the average magnetic moment of 2.31 ± 0.1 μ{sub B} per Fe-atom. XAS and XMCD studies indicate the formation of a heterostructure (Fe/FeO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the interface. A phase transition in Fe-O stoichiometry at interface is also observed at low temperature (90 K), which may be useful in magnetic storage technology.

  16. Investigation by simulation of X-ray beams produced via interactions of suitable quasi-monoenergetic electrons with solid targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikzad, Lida; Ehtesami-Sarabi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    X-ray generation by interactions of quasi-monoenergetic electrons with solid lead targets is studied. Various electron energy spectra generated by a laser-plasma accelerator are employed to generate Bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-rays. These X-ray photons are simulated by using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The present work is mainly focused on exploring the influence of two parameters of the electron profile, the peak energy (E p ) and the pulse width (?E), on X-ray generation. If an electron source with higher E p and smaller ?E is used, the efficiency of X-ray creation is found to be increased in thick targets. However, in thin samples, the electron profile with lower E p and larger ?E dominates.

  17. Contour shape analysis of hollow ion x-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Rosmej, F. B.; Angelo, P.; Aouad, Y.

    2008-10-22

    Hollow ion x-ray transitions originating from the configurations K{sup 0}L{sup N} have been studied via relativistic atomic structure and Stark broadening calculations. The broadening of the total contour is largely influenced by the oscillator strengths distribution over wavelengths rather than by Stark broadening alone. Interference effects between the upper and lower levels are shown to result in a considerable contour narrowing as well as in a shift of the total contour which could be either red or blue.

  18. Enhanced harmonic generation in x-ray free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, H. P.; Yampolsky, N. A.; Marksteiner, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic generation becomes increasingly important as x-ray free-electron lasers push to shorter wavelengths. Recent studies have pointed to the possibility of enhancing harmonic generation by detuning the fundamental. In x-ray free-electron lasers, the wiggler line is composed of multiple wiggler segments with magnetic quadrupoles in the gaps to provide for increased focusing. In this paper, we study the effect on harmonic generation in simulation by (1) varying the gap lengths between the wiggler segments and (2) varying the electron beam ? function. In studying the harmonic we find enhanced harmonic generation is periodic in the gap length and peaks are found as the wiggler separation varies by ? /3 (where ? is the fundamental wavelength), which corresponds to a phase shift of 2?/3. As a consequence, enhanced harmonic generation is found both when the fundamental emission is strong by the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism and by linear harmonic generation when the fundamental is detuned.

  19. Boiling the Vacuum with AN X-Ray Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2004-10-01

    X-ray free electron lasers will be constructed in this decade, both at SLAC in the form of the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source as well as at DESY, where the so-called TESLA XFEL laboratory uses techniques developed for the design of the TeV energy superconducting electron-positron linear accelerator TESLA. Such X-ray lasers may allow also for high-field science applications by exploiting the possibility to focus their beams to a spot with a small radius, hopefully in the range of the laser wavelength. Along this route one obtains very large electric fields, much larger than those obtainable with any optical laser of the same power. We consider here the possibility of obtaining an electric field so high that electron-positron pairs are spontaneously produced in vacuum (Schwinger pair production) and review the prospects to verify this non-perturbative production mechanism for the first time in the laboratory.

  20. A compact X-ray free-electron laser emitting in the sub-ngstrm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Aoyagi, Hideki; Asaka, Takao; Asano, Yoshihiro; Azumi, Noriyoshi; Bizen, Teruhiko; Ego, Hiroyasu; Fukami, Kenji; Fukui, Toru; Furukawa, Yukito; Goto, Shunji; Hanaki, Hirofumi; Hara, Toru; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Hatsui, Takaki; Higashiya, Atsushi; Hirono, Toko; Hosoda, Naoyasu; Ishii, Miho; Inagaki, Takahiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Itoga, Toshiro; Joti, Yasumasa; Kago, Masahiro; Kameshima, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kiyomichi, Akio; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Kondo, Chikara; Kudo, Togo; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Marchal, Xavier M.; Masuda, Takemasa; Matsubara, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Matsui, Sakuo; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Nariyama, Nobuteru; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohata, Toru; Ohshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Otake, Yuji; Saji, Choji; Sakurai, Tatsuyuki; Sato, Takahiro; Sawada, Kei; Seike, Takamitsu; Shirasawa, Katsutoshi; Sugimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Sunao; Takebe, Hideki; Takeshita, Kunikazu; Tamasaku, Kenji; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Takashi; Togashi, Tadashi; Togawa, Kazuaki; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Tono, Kensuke; Wu, Shukui; Yabashi, Makina; Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Akihiro; Yanagida, Kenichi; Zhang, Chao; Shintake, Tsumoru; Kitamura, Hideo; Kumagai, Noritaka

    2012-08-01

    The free-electron laser, first proposed by Madey in 1971, has significantly reduced laser wavelengths to the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. Recently, an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) was operated at 1.2 at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Here, we report the successful generation of sub-ngstrm laser light using a compact XFEL source, combining a short-period undulator with an 8 GeV electron beam. The shortest wavelength attained--0.634 (63.4 pm)--is four orders of magnitude smaller than the 694 nm generated by Maiman's first laser. The maximum power exceeded 10 GW with a pulse duration of 10-14 s. This achievement will contribute to the widespread use of XFEL sources and provide broad opportunities for exploring new fields in science.

  1. Unit cell determination in CuZr martensite by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Schryvers, D.; Seo, J.W.; Firstov, G.S.; Koval, Yu.N.; Humbeeck, J. Van

    1997-05-15

    As several other binary alloy compounds, stoichiometric CuZr has a B2 phase with a CsCl type bcc based structure. In the present system this phase appears as a line compound between 715 C and 935 C. Rapid cooling to below 140 C transforms this phase into at least two monoclinic structures which have been shown to have martensitic characteristics, not unusual for B2 phase alloys, including shape memory behavior. Unit cell dimensions for both monoclinic phases, one about twice the size of the other, were previously suggested on the basis of powder X-ray diffractometry and limited electron microscopy results. The aim of the current investigation was to confirm or correct these unit cells by extensive selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and improved fitting procedures of the existing X-ray diffraction data. The crystallographic relation between parent and product phases will also be discussed.

  2. Electronic Structure of AC-Clusters and High-Resolution X-ray Spectra of Actinides in Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, Nicolay Alex

    2007-07-01

    Ab initio calculations using SCF approach for and analysis of results of investigation of the electronic structure of the clusters RAn+:[L]k with rare earths or actinides were carried out for the clusters in solids and liquids. Theoretical results for the electronic structure, radial integrals and energy of X- ray lines are presented for AC ions with unoccupied 5f-shell in the clusters in oxides, chlorides and fluorides environment. Possibility of collapse of nf-shell for the separate clusters and identification of electronic state of ions with unstable nuclei, are discussed, too. (author)

  3. Extended x-ray-absorption fine structureAuger process for surface structure analysis: Theoretical considerations of a proposed experiment

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Uzi; Adams, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A method for surface structure analysis is proposed. The proposed process combines x-ray photoabsorption and Auger electron emission. The extended x-ray-absorption fine structure, occurring for photon energies above an atomic absorption edge, contains structural information of the microscopic environment due to the coupling of the photoelectron final state with the atomic initial state. Measurement of the variations in the intensity of particular Auger lines, as a function of the incident radiation energy, provides a surface sensitive measure of the photoabsorption cross section in the media. Theoretical considerations of the physical processes underlying the proposed experiment and its feasibility, and a discussion of background contributions are presented. PMID:16592339

  4. Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Savrukhin, P. V.; Ermolaeva, A. I.; Shestakov, E. A.; Khramenkov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Non-thermal x-ray radiation (E{sub γ} up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ~ 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (E{sub γ} up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (2–3 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

  5. Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savrukhin, P. V.; Ermolaeva, A. I.; Shestakov, E. A.; Khramenkov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Non-thermal x-ray radiation (E? up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (E? up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (2-3 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

  6. Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak.

    PubMed

    Savrukhin, P V; Ermolaeva, A I; Shestakov, E A; Khramenkov, A V

    2014-10-01

    Non-thermal x-ray radiation (Eγ up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ∼ 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (Eγ up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (2-3 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability. PMID:25362394

  7. Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS).

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Lakhiari, Hamid; Kerbal, Abdelali; Doumenq, Pierre; Mille, Gilbert; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-02-01

    The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm(-1), assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric CO stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities. PMID:25459630

  8. Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Lakhiari, Hamid; Kerbal, Abdelali; Doumenq, Pierre; Mille, Gilbert; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-02-01

    The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm-1, assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric Csbnd O stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities.

  9. Cluster of galaxies & Cosmology - X-ray analysis of fossil group RXJ1720.1+2360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada, Monica

    2012-09-01

    We present the results on the X-ray analysis of fossil group of galaxies RXJ1720.1+2360. Fossil Groups are systems associated to extended emission in X-rays with one single central elliptical galaxy surrounded by very faint companions. This unusual lack of bright galaxies in the group is presumably due to galactic cannibalism. In this study we present for the first time the imaging and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of RXJ1720.1+2360. This work is part of a systematic study to determine the X-ray properties of fossil groups.

  10. New approach to breast tumor detection based on fluorescence x-ray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuyama, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    A new technical approach to breast-tumor detection is proposed. The technique is based on fluorescence x-ray analysis, and can identify a miniature malignant tumor within the breast. The primary beam intensity needed in fluorescence x-ray analysis is on a lower order of magnitude than that used in mammography. Thus, the newly-proposed technique would enable detection of a still tiny breast cancer while dramatically lowering the radiation dose. Field-emission x-ray sources might be a key for translating this concept into a medical technique. PMID:20930932

  11. Local x-ray structure analysis of optically manipulated biological micro-objects

    SciTech Connect

    Cojoc, Dan; Ferrari, Enrico; Santucci, Silvia C.; Amenitsch, Heinz; Sartori, Barbara; Rappolt, Michael; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian

    2010-12-13

    X-ray diffraction using micro- and nanofocused beams is well suited for nanostructure analysis at different sites of a biological micro-object. To conduct in vitro studies without mechanical contact, we developed object manipulation by optical tweezers in a microfluidic cell. Here we report x-ray microdiffraction analysis of a micro-object optically trapped in three dimensions. We revealed the nanostructure of a single starch granule at different points and investigated local radiation damage induced by repeated x-ray exposures at the same position, demonstrating high stability and full control of the granule orientation by multiple optical traps.

  12. Direct and secondary nuclear excitation with x-ray free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunst, Jonas; Wu, Yuanbin; Kumar, Naveen; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    The direct and secondary nuclear excitation produced by an x-ray free electron laser when interacting with a solid-state nuclear target is investigated theoretically. When driven at the resonance energy, the x-ray free electron laser can produce direct photoexcitation. However, the dominant process in that interaction is the photoelectric effect producing a cold and very dense plasma in which also secondary processes such as nuclear excitation by electron capture may occur. We develop a realistic theoretical model to quantify the temporal dynamics of the plasma and the magnitude of the secondary excitation therein. Numerical results show that depending on the nuclear transition energy and the temperature and charge states reached in the plasma, secondary nuclear excitation by electron capture may dominate the direct photoexcitation by several orders of magnitude, as it is the case for the 4.8 keV transition from the isomeric state of 93Mo, or it can be negligible, as it is the case for the 14.4 keV Mössbauer transition in 57Fe. These findings are most relevant for future nuclear quantum optics experiments at x-ray free electron laser facilities.

  13. X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy of the structure, reactivity, and electronic structure of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, K.S.

    2000-05-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are a system which has been the focus of interest due to their size dependent properties and their possible use in technological applications. Many chemical and physical properties vary systematically with the size of the nanocrystal and thus their study enables the investigation of scaling laws. Due to the increasing surface to volume ratio as size is decreased, the surfaces of nanocrystals are expected to have a large influence on their electronic, thermodynamic, and chemical behavior. In spite of their importance, nanocrystal surfaces are still relatively uncharacterized in terms of their structure, electronic properties, bonding, and reactivity. Investigation of nanocrystal surfaces is currently limited by what techniques to use, and which methods are suitable for nanocrystals is still being determined. This work presents experiments using x-ray and electronic spectroscopies to explore the structure, reactivity, and electronic properties of semiconductor (CdSe, InAs) nanocrystals and how they vary with size. Specifically, x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) in conjunction with multiple scattering simulations affords information about the structural disorder present at the surface of the nanocrystal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) probe the electronic structure in terms of hole screening, and also give information about band lineups when the nanocrystal is placed in electric contact with a substrate. XPS of the core levels of the nanocrystal as a function of photo-oxidation time yields kinetic data on the oxidation reaction occurring at the surface of the nanocrystal.

  14. New X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of long working distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Yasuko; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Uruga, Tomoya

    2010-05-01

    A new X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of 300 mm long working distance has been developed at beamline 37XU of SPring-8. A focusing test has been performed in the X-ray energy range 20-37.7 keV. A focused beam size of 1.3 μm ( V)×1.5 μm ( H) has been achieved at an X-ray energy of 30 keV, and a total photon flux of the focused beam was about 2.7×10 10 photons/s. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis of eggplant roots has been carried out using the developed microprobe. It is clearly observed in the XRF images that cadmium is highly accumulated in the endodermis, exodermis and epidermis of roots. This study demonstrates the potential of scanning microscopy for heavy elements analysis in the high-energy X-ray region.

  15. Electron Energy Partition in the Above-the-looptop Solar Hard X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Sm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (gsim15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff Ec. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 109 cm-3), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>1010 cm-3), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  16. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  17. Low electron temperature in ablating materials formed by picosecond soft x-ray laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Pikuz, Tatiana; Skobelev, Igor; Faenov, Anatoly; Inogamov, Nail; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    To study the ablation process induced by the soft x-ray laser pulse, we investigated the electron temperature of the ablating material. Focused soft x-ray laser pulses having a wavelength of 13.9 nm and duration of 7 ps were irradiated onto the LiF, Al, and Cu surfaces, and we observed the optical emission from the surfaces by use of an optical camera. On sample surfaces, we could confirm damage structures, but no emission signal in the visible spectral range during ablation could be observed. Then, we estimated the electron temperature in the ablating matter. To consider the radiation from a heated layer, we supposed a black-body radiator as an object. The calculation result was that the electron temperature was estimated to be lower than 1 eV and the process duration was shorter than 1000 ps. The theoretical model calculation suggests the spallative ablation for the interaction between the soft x-ray laser and materials. The driving force for the spallation is an increasing pressure appearing in the heated layer, and the change of the surface is considered to be due to a splash of a molten layer. The model calculation predicts that the soft x-ray laser with the fluence around the ablation threshold can create an electron temperature around 1 eV in a material. The experimental result is in good accordance with the theoretical prediction. Our investigation implies that the spallative ablation occurs in the low electron temperature region of a non-equilibrium state of warm dense matter.

  18. The XMM-Newton/EPIC X-Ray Light Curve Analysis of WR 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Oskinova, L. M.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-01

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  19. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  20. Three-dimensional attosecond resonant stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy of electronic excitations in core-ionized glycine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D; Hua, Weijie; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-11-28

    We investigate computationally the valence electronic excitations of the amino acid glycine prepared by a sudden nitrogen core ionization induced by an attosecond X-ray pump pulse. The created superposition of cationic excited states is probed by two-dimensional transient X-ray absorption and by three dimensional attosecond stimulated X-ray Raman signals. The latter, generated by applying a second broadband X-ray pulse combined with a narrowband pulse tuned to the carbon K-edge, reveal the complex coupling between valence and core-excited manifolds of the cation. PMID:25297460

  1. Multivariate statistics applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy X-ray spectrum imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Chad M

    2011-01-01

    A modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) fitted with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) system can quickly and easily produce spectrum image (SI) datasets containing so much information (hundreds to thousands of megabytes) that they cannot be comprehensively interrogated by a human analyst. Therefore, advanced mathematical techniques are needed to glean materials science and engineering insight into the processing-structure-properties relationship of the examined material from the SI data. This review will discuss recent advances in the application of multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) methods to STEM-EDS SI experiments. In particular, the fundamental mathematics of principal component analysis (PCA) and related methods are reviewed, and advanced methods such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR) are discussed. The applications of PCA and MCR-based techniques to solve difficult materials science problems, such as the analysis of a particle fully embedded in a matrix phase are discussed, as well as confounding effects such as rank deficiency that can confuse the results of MVSA computations. Possible future advances and areas in need of study are also mentioned.

  2. Characterization of intense laser-produced fast electrons using hard x-rays via bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, H.; Sentoku, Y.; Bass, A.; Griffin, B.; Pandit, R.; Beg, F.; Chen, H.; McLean, H.; Link, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Energy distribution of high-power, short-pulse laser produced fast electrons was experimentally and numerically studied using high-energy bremsstrahlung x-rays. The hard x-ray photons and escaping electrons from various metal foils, irradiated by the 50 TW Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility, were recorded with a differential filter stack spectrometer that is sensitive to photons produced by mainly 0.5-2 MeV electrons and an electron spectrometer measuring >2 MeV electrons. The experimental bremsstrahlung and the slope of the measured escaped electrons were compared with an analytic calculation using an input electron spectrum estimated with the ponderomotive scaling. The result shows that the electron spectrum entering a Cu foil could be continuous single slope with the slope temperature of ˜1.5 MeV in the detector range. The experiment and analytic calculation were then compared with a 2D particle-in-cell code, PICLS, including a newly developed radiation transport module. The simulation shows that a two-temperature electron distribution is generated at the laser interaction region, but only the hot component of the fast electrons flow into the target during the interaction because the low energy electron component is trapped by self-generated magnetic field in the preformed plasma. A significant amount of the photons less than 100 keV observed in the experiment could be attributed to the low energy electrons entering the foil a few picoseconds later after the gating field disappears.

  3. Probing bulk electronic structure with hard X-ray angle-resolved photoemission.

    PubMed

    Gray, A X; Papp, C; Ueda, S; Balke, B; Yamashita, Y; Plucinski, L; Minr, J; Braun, J; Ylvisaker, E R; Schneider, C M; Pickett, W E; Ebert, H; Kobayashi, K; Fadley, C S

    2011-10-01

    Traditional ultraviolet/soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) may in some cases be too strongly influenced by surface effects to be a useful probe of bulk electronic structure. Going to hard X-ray photon energies and thus larger electron inelastic mean-free paths should provide a more accurate picture of bulk electronic structure. We present experimental data for hard X-ray ARPES (HARPES) at energies of 3.2 and 6.0 keV. The systems discussed are W, as a model transition-metal system to illustrate basic principles, and GaAs, as a technologically-relevant material to illustrate the potential broad applicability of this new technique. We have investigated the effects of photon wave vector on wave vector conservation, and assessed methods for the removal of phonon-associated smearing of features and photoelectron diffraction effects. The experimental results are compared to free-electron final-state model calculations and to more precise one-step photoemission theory including matrix element effects. PMID:21841798

  4. Ultrafast structural dynamics with table top femtosecond hard X-ray and electron diffraction setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, M.; Pichugin, K.; Sciaini, G.

    2013-07-01

    The following tutorial review is directed to graduate students willing to be part of the emerging field of ultrafast structural dynamics. It provides them with an introduction to the field and all the very basic assumptions and experimental tricks involved in femtosecond (fs) diffraction techniques. The concept of stroboscopic photography and its implication in ultrafast science are introduced. Special attention is paid to the generation of ultrashort electron and hard X-ray pulses in table top setups, and a direct comparison in terms of brightness and temporal resolution between current table top and facility-based methodologies is given for proper calibration. This review is focused on ultrafast X-ray and electron diffraction techniques. The progress in the development of fs-structural probes during the last twenty years has been tremendous. Current ultrafast structural probes provide us with the temporal and spatial resolutions required to observe atoms in motion. Different compression approaches have made it possible the generation of ultrashort and ultrabright electron pulses with an effective brightness close to that of fs-hard X-ray pulses produced by free electron lasers. We now have in hand a variety of ultrafast structural cameras ready to be applied for the study of an endless list of dynamical phenomena at the atomic level of inspection.

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: Perturbation effects in dosimetry: Part I. Kilovoltage x-rays and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahum, A. E.

    1996-09-01

    Perturbation effects are defined as departures from ideal large-detector or Bragg - Gray cavity behaviour. Such effects are central to the use of practical dosimeters for accurate dose determination, as is required in external-beam radiotherapy. A theoretical framework for treating perturbation effects is established. In this first part of the review, perturbation in kilovoltage x-ray and megavoltage electron beams are treated in detail, with the emphasis on ionization chambers. The displacement factor for ion chambers in kilovoltage x-ray beams is discussed, starting with the early, pioneering work of Lamerton and Lidn. The evidence for the large values of the perturbation factor in medium-energy x-ray beams (between 100 and 300 kV) recommended in the 1987 IAEA dosimetry code is critically examined and revised, smaller values are given. In electron beams the theoretical approaches to the correction for the in-scattering correction in gas-filled cavities is discussed in detail. The evidence for negligible perturbation in low-energy electron beams in plane-parallel chambers with adequate guard-ring widths is critically reviewed, including the suggested correction for perturbation due to backscattering differences between the chamber-wall material and the medium. The various models for the response of thermoluminescent dosimeters in electron beams are discussed. It is concluded that Monte Carlo simulation of dosimeter response is likely to play an even bigger role in the future.

  6. MANTIS: combined x-ray, electron and optical Monte Carlo simulations of indirect radiation imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Badano, Aldo; Sempau, Josep

    2006-03-21

    We describe MANTIS (Monte carlo x-rAy electroN opTical Imaging Simulation), a tool for simulating imaging systems that tracks x-rays, electrons and optical photons in arbitrary materials and complex geometries. The x-ray and electron transport and involved physics models are from the PENELOPE package, and the optical transport and corresponding physics models are from DETECT-II and include Fresnel refraction and reflection at material boundaries, bulk absorption and scattering. Complex geometries can be handled with the aid of the geometry routines included in PENELOPE. When x-rays or electrons interact and deposit energy in the scintillator, the code generates a number of optical quanta according to a user-selected model for the conversion process. The optical photons are then tracked until they reach an absorption event, which in some cases contributes to the output signal, or escape from the geometry. We demonstrate the capabilities of this new tool with respect to the statistics of the optical signal detected and to the three-dimensional point-response functions corresponding to columnar phosphor screens. PMID:16510962

  7. Design considerations for the magnetic system of a prototype x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokurov, N.A.; Dejus, R.; Friedsam, H.; Gluskin, E.S.; Maines, J.; Milton, S.V.; Moog, E.R.; Trakhtenberg, E.M.; Vasserman, I.B.

    1997-04-01

    A number of difficult technical challenges need to be solved in the fields of accelerator and free-electron laser (FEL) technologies in order to build an X-ray FEL. One of the tasks well suited to the Advanced Photon Source Low Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is to take the intermediate step of solving some of the problems of single-pass FEL operation in the ultraviolet range. The existing Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac, in addition to its role of supply positrons for the APS storage ring, will also be used to generate the particle beam for the LEUTL. Here, the design of the magnetic system for the high gain soft x-ray free electron laser is described.

  8. Few-cycle pulse generation in an x-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Dunning, D J; McNeil, B W J; Thompson, N R

    2013-03-01

    A method is proposed to generate trains of few-cycle x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier via a compact "afterburner" extension consisting of several few-period undulator sections separated by electron chicane delays. Simulations show that in the hard x ray (wavelength ~0.1 nm; photon energy ~10 keV) and with peak powers approaching normal FEL saturation (GW) levels, root mean square pulse durations of 700 zs may be obtained. This is approximately two orders of magnitude shorter than that possible for normal FEL amplifier operation. The spectrum is discretely multichromatic with a bandwidth envelope increased by approximately 2 orders of magnitude over unseeded FEL amplifier operation. Such a source would significantly enhance research opportunity in atomic dynamics and push capability toward nuclear dynamics. PMID:23521266

  9. Compression of X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulses to Attosecond Duration

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, James D.; Nathvani, Ricky; Oleśkiewicz, Piotr; Ceurvorst, Luke A.; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F.; Trines, Raoul M. G. M.; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    State of the art X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities currently provide the brightest X-ray pulses available, typically with mJ energy and several hundred femtosecond duration. Here we present one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, utilising the process of stimulated Raman amplification, showing that these pulses are compressed to a temporally coherent, sub-femtosecond pulse at 8% efficiency. Pulses of this type may pave the way for routine time resolution of electrons in nm size potentials. Furthermore, evidence is presented that significant Landau damping and wave-breaking may be beneficial in distorting the rear of the interaction and further reducing the final pulse duration. PMID:26568520

  10. Compression of X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulses to Attosecond Duration.

    PubMed

    Sadler, James D; Nathvani, Ricky; Oleśkiewicz, Piotr; Ceurvorst, Luke A; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F; Trines, Raoul M G M; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    State of the art X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities currently provide the brightest X-ray pulses available, typically with mJ energy and several hundred femtosecond duration. Here we present one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, utilising the process of stimulated Raman amplification, showing that these pulses are compressed to a temporally coherent, sub-femtosecond pulse at 8% efficiency. Pulses of this type may pave the way for routine time resolution of electrons in nm size potentials. Furthermore, evidence is presented that significant Landau damping and wave-breaking may be beneficial in distorting the rear of the interaction and further reducing the final pulse duration. PMID:26568520

  11. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Study of the Electronic Structure of Cu2O

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.P.; Kim, Y.-J.; Yamaguchi, H.; Gog, T.; Casa, D.

    2010-05-15

    A resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of the electronic structure of the semiconductor cuprous oxide, Cu{sub 2}O, is reported. When the incident x-ray energy is tuned to the CuK-absorption edge, large enhancements of the spectral features corresponding to the electronic transitions between the valence band and the conduction band are observed. A feature at 6.5 eV can be well described by an interband transition from occupied states of mostly Cu3d character to unoccupied states with mixed 3d, 4s, and O2p character. In addition, an insulating band gap is observed, and the momentum dependence of the lower bound is measured along the {Gamma}-R direction. This is found to be in good agreement with the valence-band dispersion measured with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  12. Few-Cycle Pulse Generation in an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, D. J.; McNeil, B. W. J.; Thompson, N. R.

    2013-03-01

    A method is proposed to generate trains of few-cycle x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier via a compact “afterburner” extension consisting of several few-period undulator sections separated by electron chicane delays. Simulations show that in the hard x ray (wavelength ˜0.1nm; photon energy ˜10keV) and with peak powers approaching normal FEL saturation (GW) levels, root mean square pulse durations of 700 zs may be obtained. This is approximately two orders of magnitude shorter than that possible for normal FEL amplifier operation. The spectrum is discretely multichromatic with a bandwidth envelope increased by approximately 2 orders of magnitude over unseeded FEL amplifier operation. Such a source would significantly enhance research opportunity in atomic dynamics and push capability toward nuclear dynamics.

  13. Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats: Electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizuka, M.; McCarthy, K.J.; Kaye, G.I.; Fujimoto, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats was studied using the electron microscope and x-ray microanalyzer. In in-vivo experiments, severe corneal edema occurred in pregnant dams that received intraperitoneal injections of cadmium sulphate for 4 days during gestation, but not in nonpregnant rats. Prominent swelling of mitochondria and the occurrence of intra- and intercellular vacuoles in the corneal endothelium were observed only in pregnant dams. In in-vitro experiments, electron-dense deposits consisting of cadmium-oxine complexes were preferentially found in swollen mitochondria of the endothelial cells. Cadmium peaks were obtained from these deposits with x-ray microanalysis. These data suggest that the corneal edema observed after administration of cadmium may imply the disturbance of pump function and barrier function of the corneal endothelium due to the primary toxic effects of this metal on mitochondria.

  14. Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 ; Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ma, Y. Y.; Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 ; Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yu, M. Y.; Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum

    2013-10-21

    The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ?200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ?160 as pulses in the range of 3300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ?5 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed attosecond physics..

  15. Optimization of an electron cold cathode tube for soft X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, J.; Reisel, J.; Flock, J.; Broekaert, J. A. C.

    2000-01-01

    The electron cold cathode tube for soft X-ray spectrometry was optimized. Therefore, the use of different cathode materials (aluminium, titanium and steel) was investigated with respect to the produced plasma and its discharge conditions. The current/voltage characteristics for different materials and electrode distances were measured in dependence of the operating pressure. In addition the intensities and spectral properties of the generated soft X-rays of a steel sample were compared and the sputtered surfaces of the cathodes were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that aluminium cathodes yield high intensities of analytical lines, while the discharge can hardly be kept stable. Titanium cathodes produce a stable discharge over a long period of time and are very suitable for practical work.

  16. Polarization control of an X-ray free-electron laser with a diamond phase retarder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motohiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    A diamond phase retarder was applied to control the polarization states of a hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) in the photon energy range 5-20 keV. The horizontal polarization of the XFEL beam generated from the planar undulators of the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser (SACLA) was converted into vertical or circular polarization of either helicity by adjusting the angular offset of the diamond crystal from the exact Bragg condition. Using a 1.5 mm-thick crystal, a high degree of circular polarization, 97%, was obtained for 11.56 keV monochromatic X-rays, whereas the degree of vertical polarization was 67%, both of which agreed with the estimations including the energy bandwidth of the Si 111 beamline monochromator. PMID:24763633

  17. X-ray absorption study of the electronic structure of Mn-doped amorphous Si

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Zeng, Li; Huegel, A.; Helgren, E.; Hellman, F.; Piamonteze, C.; Arenholz, E.

    2008-03-08

    The electronic structure of Mn in amorphous Si (a-Mn{sub x}Si{sub 1?x}) is studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn L{sub 3,2} edges for x = 0.005-0.18. Except the x = 0.005 sample, which shows a slight signature of Mn{sup 2+} atomic multiplets associated with a local Mn moment, all samples have broad and featureless L{sub 3,2} absorption peaks, corresponding to an itinerant state for all 3d electrons. The broad X-ray absorption spectra exclude the possibility of a localized 3d moment and explain the unexpectedly quenched Mn moment in this magnetically-doped amorphous semiconductor. Such a fully delocalized d state of Mn dopant in Si has not been previously suggested.

  18. Compression of X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulses to Attosecond Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, James D.; Nathvani, Ricky; Ole?kiewicz, Piotr; Ceurvorst, Luke A.; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F.; Trines, Raoul M. G. M.; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A.

    2015-11-01

    State of the art X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities currently provide the brightest X-ray pulses available, typically with mJ energy and several hundred femtosecond duration. Here we present one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, utilising the process of stimulated Raman amplification, showing that these pulses are compressed to a temporally coherent, sub-femtosecond pulse at 8% efficiency. Pulses of this type may pave the way for routine time resolution of electrons in nm size potentials. Furthermore, evidence is presented that significant Landau damping and wave-breaking may be beneficial in distorting the rear of the interaction and further reducing the final pulse duration.

  19. Theoretical study of Raman chirped adiabatic passage by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Highly excited electronic states and rotational effects

    SciTech Connect

    Engin, Selma; Sisourat, Nicolas Selles, Patricia; Taïeb, Richard; Carniato, Stéphane

    2014-06-21

    Raman Chirped Adiabatic Passage (RCAP) is an efficient method to climb the vibrational ladder of molecules. It was shown on the example of fixed-in-space HCl molecule that selective vibrational excitation can thus be achieved by RCAP and that population transfer can be followed by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy [S. Engin, N. Sisourat, P. Selles, R. Taïeb, and S. Carniato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 192–195 (2012)]. Here, in a more detailed analysis of the process, we investigate the effects of highly excited electronic states and of molecular rotation on the efficiency of RCAP. Furthermore, we propose an alternative spectroscopic way to monitor the transfer by means of X-ray absorption spectra.

  20. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; Patthey, L.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Feng, Y.; David, C.

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy of >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.

  1. X-Ray Structural Analysis Of Some Indian Coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Binoy K.; Boruah, Rajani K.

    2010-01-01

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources and has the capability to meet future energy needs with high reliability. The use of coal as an energy source and as a source of organic chemicals feedstock may become more important in the future. It is physically and chemically a heterogeneous and carbonaceous rock which consists of organic and inorganic materials. Assam coal has been, and continuous to be, a valuable energy source, especially for the various industry in India and for liquefactions of coal. The basic chemical structure of coal that has been widely accepted today was built up from the synthesis of results obtained from X-ray diffraction data. The present paper reports a comparative investigation of coals from different collieries/areas of Makum coalfield, Assam viz. Ledo, Tikak, Baragolai, Tipong and Tirap collieries Makum coalfield, Assam with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the coals are amorphous in nature. The present XRD method includes the evaluation of Function of Radial Distribution of Atoms (FRDA) and structural interpretations of the coals from their Radial Distribution Function (RDF) plots after proper corrections for air scatter, absorption by sample and polarization. The curve intensity profiles in FRDA clearly show quite regular molecular packets for these coals. The first maxima in the FRDA curves was obtained at r = 0.4 A° for Ledo, Baragolai and Tipong coals whereas for Tikak coal it was observed at r = 0.5 A°. The first maximum in the pair distribution function plots, G (r) of Ledo, Tikak, and Tipong coals was obtained at r = 0.15 nm whereas for Baragolai and Tirap coals it was observed at r = 0.14 nm and r = 0.12 nm respectively, which relates to the C-C (aliphatic/aromatic) bonds in coal matrix. The Assam coal samples from Ledo, Tikak, Baragolai, Tipong and Tirap collieries of Makum coalfield have almost the same RDF inter-atomic distances except slight differences. This study reveals the absence of graphite like structures in Assam (India) coals.

  2. An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Johnson, Richard W.; Kim, Woo-Hee; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva; Bent, Stacey F.

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO2 and SrTiO3 (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

  3. An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Scott M; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Johnson, Richard W; Kim, Woo-Hee; Van Campen, Douglas G; Metha, Apurva; Bent, Stacey F

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO2 and SrTiO3 (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering. PMID:24880424

  4. Requirements for X-ray structure analysis with modern synchrotron light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laggner, Peter

    2000-11-01

    X-ray diffraction methods, including macromolecular crystallography, small-angle scattering from partly or noncrystalline systems, fiber and surface diffraction, are in the forefront of interest of a broad synchrotron user community from biomedical and technological fields. The main impact comes from the unsurpassed X-ray flux and brilliance of modern third-generation sources, facilitating on the one hand, a dramatic enhancement in sample throughput, and on the other hand, the transformation of X-ray diffraction analysis from a static to a cinematographic technique. In the present article some of the requirements for further development are being discussed.

  5. An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Kim, Woo-Hee; Bent, Stacey F.; Johnson, Richard W.; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva

    2014-05-15

    The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

  6. Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutant Fluxes to the North Sea by X-Ray Emission Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Injuk, Jasna

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate quantitatively from field measurements the atmospheric supply of trace elements into the North Sea and to evaluate the nature of the aerosol particles responsible for this flux. The indirect deposition calculations in this work are based on the measured aerosol concentrations in the lower troposphere of the North Sea. Over a period of five years (1989-1994) aerosols were collected from an aircraft, on board of research vessels, from a platform and at the Belgian coast (pier of Blankenberge, about 100 m from the shore). Different ways of aerosol collection have been invoked; sampling was done on Nuclepore filters and quartz discs, by different types of cascade impactors and by the membrane type of filters. For all ship- and platform-sampling, the sampling equipment was placed in a wind-tunnel, with a forced internal air flow, which orients itself towards the wind by a wind vane, so that particles were collected isokinetically with a high efficiency. Various sensitive multi-element bulk and single particle techniques were implemented to measure the airborne concentrations and size distributions of micro- and trace -elements over the North Sea, namely: energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), anodic stripping voltametry (ASV), electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) and nuclear microprobe (NMP) combined with PIXE. The resulting huge data set was handled by multivariate techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear mapping (NLM). The NMP combined with PIXE was successfully applied to the analysis of individual giant aerosol particles for their elemental composition down to absolute masses of 50 fg for some trace metals. Such single particle analysis combined with multivariate numerical analysis reveals three major particle types: (1) particles dominated by (Na)Cl, S, K and Ca, apparently seasalt, aged seasalt and gypsum, (2) particles with relatively high contents of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, V and Ti, probably fly ash and (3) mixed or aggregated marine/continental particles, which are internally heterogenous and contain e.g. Cr and seasalt elements in separated parts of the same giant particle. Collision of fly ash particles with abundant seaspray might explain the increased deposition velocities during stormy conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  7. Investigating magnetization dynamics in permalloy microstructures using time-resolved x-ray photoemission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksov, A.; Schneider, C. M.; Oelsner, A.; Krasyuk, A.; Neeb, D.; Schönhense, G.; De Nadaï, C.; Brookes, N. B.

    2004-06-01

    We present results of a direct imaging approach to visualize the dynamics of magnetic domains on the nanosecond scale. The experiments are carried out by means of an x-ray photoemission electron microscope (X-PEEM) in a stroboscopic mode and exploit the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation delivered by the storage ring facility ESRF (Grenoble). In this way we combine the high lateral resolution of a PEEM with a subnanosecond time resolution.

  8. Contemporary X-ray electron-density studies using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Jrgensen, Mads R. V.; Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Bindzus, Niels; Wahlberg, Nanna; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has many compelling advantages over conventional radiation sources in the measurement of accurate Bragg diffraction data. The variable photon energy and much higher flux may help to minimize critical systematic effects such as absorption, extinction and anomalous scattering. Based on a survey of selected published results from the last decade, the benefits of using synchrotron radiation in the determination of X-ray electron densities are discussed, and possible future directions of this field are examined. PMID:25295169

  9. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modularmore » and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.« less

  10. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modular and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.

  11. Electronic Feshbach Resonances created in Soft X-ray--Induced O2 dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnone, Etienne; Santra, Robin; Sandhu, Arvinder; Sharma, Vandana; Li, Wen; Ho, Phay; Ranitovic, Predrag; Cocke, Lew; Hogle, Craig; Murnane, Margaret; Kapteyn, Henry

    2009-05-01

    When an atom or molecule is ionized by an x-ray, super-excited states can be created that then decay, or autoionize, by ejecting a second electron from the ion. Here we find that autoionization following soft x-ray photoionization of molecular oxygen follows a complex, multi-step, process[1]. By interrupting the autoionization process using a short laser pulse, we show that autoionization cannot occur until the internuclear separation of the fragments is greater than 30 ngstroms. As the ion and excited neutral atom separate, we directly observe the birth of a new state. We follow the transformation of electronically bound states of the molecular ion into Feshbach resonances of the neutral oxygen atom that are characterized by both positive and negative binding energies. States with negative binding energies have not been predicted or observed in neutral atoms previously. 1. A. Sandhu et al., ``Observing the birth of electronic Feshbach resonances in soft x-ray induced O2 dissociation,'' Science 322, 1081 (2008).

  12. Atomic holography with electrons and x-rays: Theoretical and experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Len, P M

    1997-06-01

    Gabor first proposed holography in 1948 as a means to experimentally record the amplitude and phase of scattered wavefronts, relative to a direct unscattered wave, and to use such a {open_quotes}hologram{close_quotes} to directly image atomic structure. But imaging at atomic resolution has not yet been possible in the way he proposed. Much more recently, Szoeke in 1986 noted that photoexcited atoms can emit photoelectron of fluorescent x-ray wavefronts that are scattered by neighboring atoms, thus yielding the direct and scattered wavefronts as detected in the far field that can then be interpreted as holographic in nature. By now, several algorithms for directly reconstructing three-dimensional atomic images from electron holograms have been proposed (e.g. by Barton) and successfully tested against experiment and theory. Very recently, Tegze and Faigel, and Grog et al. have recorded experimental x-ray fluorescence holograms, and these are found to yield atomic images that are more free of the kinds of aberrations caused by the non-ideal emission or scattering of electrons. The basic principles of these holographic atomic imaging methods are reviewed, including illustrative applications of the reconstruction algorithms to both theoretical and experimental electron and x-ray holograms. The author also discusses the prospects and limitations of these newly emerging atomic structural probes.

  13. Virtual X-Ray and Electron Diffraction Patterns from Atomistic Simulations on Heterogeneous Computing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Shawn; Wang, Yang; Cueva-Parra, Luis; Spearot, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Electron and X-ray diffraction are well-established experimental methods used to explore the atomic scale structure of materials. In this work, a computational algorithm is developed to produce virtual electron and X-ray diffraction patterns directly from atomistic simulations. In this algorithm, the diffraction intensity is computed via the structure factor equation over a 3-dimensional mesh of {hkl} points in reciprocal space. To construct virtual selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns, a thin hemispherical slice of the reciprocal lattice map lying near the surface of the Ewald sphere is isolated and viewed parallel to a specified zone axis. X-ray diffraction 2 ? line profiles are created by virtually rotating the Ewald sphere around the origin of reciprocal space, binning intensities by their associated scattering angle. The diffraction code is parallelized using a heterogeneous mix of MPI and OpenMP. The atom positions are distributed via MPI while the reciprocal space mesh is parallelized using either OpenMP threads launched on regular CPU cores or offloaded to MIC hardware. The complexity of heterogeneous MPI/OpenMP parallelization on mixed hardware will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the NSF under grant 0954505. Simulations were performed on resources supported in part by NSF.

  14. A Computational Algorithm to Produce Virtual X-ray and Electron Diffraction Patterns from Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Sichani, Mehrdad M.; Spearot, Douglas E.

    2014-03-01

    Electron and x-ray diffraction are well-established experimental methods used to explore the atomic scale structure of materials. In this work, a computational algorithm is developed to produce virtual electron and x-ray diffraction patterns directly from atomistic simulations. This algorithm advances beyond previous virtual diffraction methods by using a high-resolution mesh of reciprocal space that eliminates the need for a priori knowledge of the crystal structure being modeled or other assumptions concerning the diffraction conditions. At each point on the reciprocal space mesh, the diffraction intensity is computed via explicit computation of the structure factor equation. To construct virtual selected-area electron diffraction patterns, a hemispherical slice of the reciprocal lattice mesh lying on the surface of the Ewald sphere is isolated and viewed along a specified zone axis. X-ray diffraction line profiles are created by binning the intensity of each reciprocal lattice point by its associated scattering angle, effectively mimicking powder diffraction conditions. The virtual diffraction algorithm is sufficiently generic to be applied to atomistic simulations of any atomic species. In this article, the capability and versatility of the virtual diffraction algorithm is exhibited by presenting findings from atomistic simulations of <100> symmetric tilt Ni grain boundaries, nanocrystalline Cu models, and a heterogeneous interface formed between ?-Al2O3 (0001) and ?-Al2O3 (111).

  15. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially (134)Cs and (137)Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The (134)Cs and (137)Cs levels were 6430 23 and 6820 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 13 and 747 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  16. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134Cs and 137Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134Cs and 137Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134Cs and 137Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  17. Constraints on hot star X-ray source characteristics from combinded analysis of X-ray and UV observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Results from wind ionization calculations are presented which show how the P-Cygni profiles of 'superionized' species such as O VI can provide information about the X-ray source characteristics of early-type stars. Using detailed radiative and atomic physics models, we find that a significant source of X-ray emission from zeta Pup comes from a region in the wind located within rougly 1 to 2 stellar radii of the photosphere. Our results suggest that X-rays sources in which emission occurs exclusively at large radii (r greater than or approximately equal to a few R(sub *)) are inconsistent with UV P-Cygni profiles for O VI. Instead, we find that X-ray emission from shocks distributed throughout the lower regions of the wind (r approximately equal to 1-2 R(sub *)) is consistent with both X-ray and UV data, as well as mass loss rates deduced from radio and H-alpha observations.

  18. DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN STARBURST GALAXIES AS SYNCHROTRON FROM VERY HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse hard X-ray (2-10 keV) emission from starburst galaxies is a long-standing problem. We suggest that synchrotron emission of 10-100 TeV electrons and positrons (e {sup {+-}}) can contribute to this emission, because starbursts have strong magnetic fields. We consider three sources of e {sup {+-}} at these energies: (1) primary electrons directly accelerated by supernova remnants, (2) pionic secondary e {sup {+-}} created by inelastic collisions between cosmic ray (CR) protons and gas nuclei in the dense interstellar medium of starbursts, and (3) pair e {sup {+-}} produced between the interactions between 10 and 100 TeV {gamma}-rays and the intense far-infrared (FIR) radiation fields of starbursts. We create one-zone steady-state models of the CR population in the Galactic center (R {<=} 112 pc), NGC 253, M82, and Arp 220's nuclei, assuming a power-law injection spectrum for electrons and protons. We consider different injection spectral slopes, magnetic field strengths, CR acceleration efficiencies, and diffusive escape times, and include advective escape, radiative cooling processes, and secondary and pair e {sup {+-}}. We compare these models to extant radio and GeV and TeV {gamma}-ray data for these starbursts, and calculate the diffuse synchrotron X-ray and inverse Compton (IC) luminosities of these starbursts in the models which satisfy multiwavelength constraints. If the primary electron spectrum extends to {approx}PeV energies and has a proton/electron injection ratio similar to the Galactic value, we find that synchrotron emission contributes 2%-20% of their unresolved, diffuse hard X-ray emission. However, there is great uncertainty in this conclusion because of the limited information on the CR electron spectrum at these high energies. IC emission is likewise a minority of the unresolved X-ray emission in these starbursts, from 0.1% in the Galactic center to 10% in Arp 220's nuclei, with the main uncertainty being the starbursts' magnetic field. We also model generic starbursts, including submillimeter galaxies, in the context of the FIR-X-ray relation, finding that anywhere between 0% and 16% of the total hard X-ray emission is synchrotron for different parameters, and up to 2% in the densest starbursts assuming an E {sup -2.2} injection spectrum and a diffusive escape time of 10 Myr (E/3 GeV){sup -1/2} (h/100 pc). Neutrino observations by IceCube and TeV {gamma}-ray data from HESS, VERITAS, and CTA can further constrain the synchrotron X-ray emission of starbursts. Our models do not constrain the possibility of hard, second components of primary e {sup {+-}} from sources like pulsars in starbursts, which could enhance the synchrotron X-ray emission further.

  19. Bayesian analysis of X-ray jet features of the high redshift quasar jets observed with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay; Stein, Nathan; Cheung, Chi C.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet's relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. Results from Chandra X-ray and multi-frequency VLA imaging observations of a sample of 11 high- redshift (z > 2) quasars with kilo-parsec scale radio jets are reported. The sample consists of a set of four z ≥ 3.6 flat-spectrum radio quasars, and seven intermediate redshift (z = 2.1 - 2.9) quasars comprised of four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and three with flat radio spectra.We implement a Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) , to analyze jet features in the X-ray images of the high redshift quasars. Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. Significant detections are based on the upper bound p-value test based on LIRA simulations. The X-ray and radio properties of this sample combined are examined and compared to lower-redshift samples.This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. Work is also supported by the Chandra grant GO4-15099X.

  20. Nonlinear delayed symmetry breaking in a solid excited by hard x-ray free electron laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, A.; Johnson, J. A. Mariager, S. O.; Grübel, S.; Staub, U.; Huber, T.; Trant, M.; Johnson, S. L.; Zhu, D.; Chollet, M.; Robinson, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Ingold, G.; Beaud, P.; Milne, C.

    2015-04-13

    We have studied the ultrafast changes of electronic states in bulk ZnO upon intense hard x-ray excitation from a free electron laser. By monitoring the transient anisotropy induced in an optical probe beam, we observe a delayed breaking of the initial c-plane symmetry of the crystal that lasts for several picoseconds. Interaction with the intense x-ray pulses modifies the electronic state filling in a manner inconsistent with a simple increase in electronic temperature. These results may indicate a way to use intense ultrashort x-ray pulses to investigate high-energy carrier dynamics and to control certain properties of solid-state materials.

  1. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator using a Transverse Gradient Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; Schroeder, Carl B.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-09-13

    Compact laser-plasma accelerators can produce high energy electron beams with low emittance, high peak current but a rather large energy spread. The large energy spread hinders the potential applications for coherent FEL radiation generation. In this paper, we discuss a method to compensate the effects of beam energy spread by introducing a transverse field variation into the FEL undulator. Such a transverse gradient undulator together with a properly dispersed beam can greatly reduce the effects of electron energy spread and jitter on FEL performance. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for SASE and seeded extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray FELs based on laser plasma accelerators.

  2. State-of-the-art and problems of X-ray diffraction analysis of biomacromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, N. S.

    2006-12-15

    The state-of-the-art of X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules is briefly characterized, and the challenge imposed by science is discussed. These studies are characterized by a wide scope and extensive use. This field of science is of great interest and is developed in many countries. The main purpose is to solve practical problems in medicine consisting in the design of drugs against various diseases. X-ray diffraction analysis of enzymes brought the pharmaceutical industry to a new level, thus allowing the rational design of drugs against formerly untreatable diseases. Modern X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules laid the basis for a new science called structural biology. This method allows one to solve fundamental problems of physical chemistry for a new state of matter existing in living systems. Here, science poses numerous problems in analysis of X-ray diffraction data on biological macromolecules. Many of theses problems are in their infancy.

  3. [Study on spectrum analysis of X-ray based on rotational mass effect in special relativity].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan

    2010-04-01

    Based on special relativity, the formation mechanism of characteristic X-ray has been studied, and the influence of rotational mass effect on X-ray spectrum has been given. A calculation formula of the X-ray wavelength based upon special relativity was derived. Error analysis was carried out systematically for the calculation values of characteristic wavelength, and the rules of relative error were obtained. It is shown that the values of the calculation are very close to the experimental values, and the effect of rotational mass effect on the characteristic wavelength becomes more evident as the atomic number increases. The result of the study has some reference meaning for the spectrum analysis of characteristic X-ray in application. PMID:20545180

  4. State-of-the-art and problems of X-ray diffraction analysis of biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, N. S.

    2006-12-01

    The state-of-the-art of X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules is briefly characterized, and the challenge imposed by science is discussed. These studies are characterized by a wide scope and extensive use. This field of science is of great interest and is developed in many countries. The main purpose is to solve practical problems in medicine consisting in the design of drugs against various diseases. X-ray diffraction analysis of enzymes brought the pharmaceutical industry to a new level, thus allowing the rational design of drugs against formerly untreatable diseases. Modern X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules laid the basis for a new science called structural biology. This method allows one to solve fundamental problems of physical chemistry for a new state of matter existing in living systems. Here, science poses numerous problems in analysis of X-ray diffraction data on biological macromolecules. Many of theses problems are in their infancy.

  5. X-ray reflectivity analysis of titanium dioxide thin films grown by cathodic arc deposition.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, A; Lamas, D G; Craievich, A F; Márquez, A

    2014-05-01

    TiO2 thin films deposited by a vacuum arc on a glass substrate were characterized by X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Several thin films with different amounts of deposited TiO2 mass and different deposition and annealing temperatures were studied. A qualitative analysis of the XRD patterns indicated the presence of the anatase and/or rutile crystalline phases in most of the studied samples. From the analysis of the experimental XRR curves--which exhibited a wide angular range of oscillatory behavior--the thickness, mass density and interface roughness were determined. All XRR patterns were well fitted by modeled curves that assume the presence of a single and homogeneous TiO2 layer over which a very thin H2O layer is adsorbed. The thickest H2O adsorption layers were developed in films with the highest anatase content. Our overall results of the XRR analyses are consistent with those derived from the imaging techniques (SEM and AFM). PMID:24734661

  6. MaRIE X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Pre-Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, Bruce E.; Barnes, Cris W.; Bishofberger, Kip A.; Duffy, Leanne D.; Heath, Cynthia E.; Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Russell, Steven J.; Ryne, Robert D.; Sheffield, Richard L.; Simakov, Evgenya I.; Yampolsky, Nikolai A.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory will include a 50-keV X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), a significant extension from planned and existing XFEL facilities. To prevent an unacceptably large energy spread arsing from energy diffusion, the electron beam energy should not exceed 20 GeV, which puts a significant constraint on the beam emittance. A 100-pC baseline design is presented along with advanced technology options to increase the photon flux and to decrease the spectral bandwidth through pre-bunching the electron beam.

  7. Towards possible opportunities in nuclear materials science and technology at an X-ray free electron laser research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froideval, A.; Badillo, A.; Bertsch, J.; Churakov, S.; Dhn, R.; Degueldre, C.; Lind, T.; Paladino, D.; Patterson, B. D.

    2011-09-01

    Spectroscopy and imaging of condensed matter have benefited greatly from the availability of intense X-ray beams from synchrotron sources, both in terms of spatial resolution and of elemental specificity. The advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-ray FEL) provides the additional features of ultra-short pulses and high transverse coherence, which greatly expand possibilities to study dynamic processes and to image non-crystalline materials. The proposed SwissFEL facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute is one of at present four X-ray FEL projects worldwide and is scheduled to go into operation in the year 2017. This article describes a selection of problems in nuclear materials science and technology that would directly benefit from this and similar X-ray FEL sources. X-ray FEL-based experiments are proposed to be conducted on nuclear energy-related materials using single-shot X-ray spectroscopy, coherent X-ray scattering and/or X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in order to address relevant scientific questions such as the evolution in time of the irradiation-induced damage processes, the deformation processes in nuclear materials, the ion diffusion processes in the barrier systems of geological repositories, the boiling heat transfer in nuclear reactors, as well as the structural characterization of graphite dust in advanced nuclear reactors and clay colloid aggregates in the groundwater near a radioactive waste repository.

  8. Atmospheric Electron-induced X-Ray Spectrometer (AEXS) Instrument Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urgiles, E.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Toda, R.; Crisp, J.; George, T.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the progress in data acquisition and establishing the observational capability of the AEXS instrument. The AEXS is a miniature instrument[1-4] based on the excitation of characteristic X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and luminescence spectra using a focused electron beam which enables nondestructive evaluation of sample surfaces in planetary ambient atmospheres. In situ operation is obtained through the use of a thin electron transmissive membrane to isolate the vacuum of the AEXS source from the outside ambient atmosphere. Thus eliminating the need for a vacuum pumped sample chamber as is common in all laboratory SEM s. The transmitted electrons impinge on the sample exciting XRF spectra from the irradiated spot on in-situ or collected samples with sub-mm to cm-scale spatial resolution at Mars atmospheric pressure. The AEXS system (Fig 1) consists of a high-energy (>10keV) electron gun encapsulated by the isolation membrane, an XRF detection and analyzer system, and a high voltage power supply. The XRF data are analyzed to determine the elemental abundance for the irradiated spots. The approach to demonstrating a proof of concept of the AEXS has been through 1) demonstrating the viability of microfabricated membranes, 2) assembling AEXS setups with increasingly integrated functional components, and 3) simulating the AEXS observational capabilities. The development of the instrument is described in detail in the poster paper[4] at this conference. This paper focuses on describing the progress of the AEXS instrument to acquire XRF data and using commercially available software to analyze the data streams and determine the accuracy, precision and resolution of the analysis compared to the certified elemental abundance.

  9. A long-lived coronal X-ray arcade. [force-free magnetic field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, J. P.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Krall, K. R.; Wu, S. T.; Smith, J. B., Jr.; Speich, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    A large, long-lived, soft X-ray emitting arch system observed during a Skylab mission is analyzed. The supposition is that these arches owe their stability to the stable coronal magnetic-field configuration. A global constant alpha force-free magnetic field analysis, is used to describe the arches which stayed in the same approximate position for several solar rotations. A marked resemblance is noted between the theoretical magnetic field configuration and the observed X-ray emmitting feature.

  10. Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, N.Duane; Starodub, Dimitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y.; Martin, Andrew V.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz

    2014-04-22

    Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10 21 W/m2 can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wave-front sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, the paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging.

  11. Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres.

    PubMed

    Loh, N Duane; Starodub, Dmitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y; Martin, Andrew V; Sierra, Raymond G; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz; Kimmel, Nils; Weidenspointner, Georg; Hauser, Guenter; Holl, Peter; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Liang, Mengning; Hunter, Mark S; Gumprecht, Lars; Coppola, Nicola; Wunderer, Cornelia; Graafsma, Heinz; Maia, Filipe R N C; Ekeberg, Tomas; Hantke, Max; Fleckenstein, Holger; Hirsemann, Helmut; Nass, Karol; White, Thomas A; Tobias, Herbert J; Farquar, George R; Benner, W Henry; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Reich, Christian; Hartmann, Andreas; Soltau, Heike; Marchesini, Stefano; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Strueder, Lothar; Ullrich, Joachim; Bucksbaum, Philip; Frank, Matthias; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N; Bogan, Michael J

    2013-05-20

    Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10(21) W/m(2) can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wavefront sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, our paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging. PMID:23736456

  12. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Levantino, Matteo; Schir, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Cupane, Antonio; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light-induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such 'proteinquake' observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations with a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale. PMID:25832715

  13. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Levantino, Matteo; Schir, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Cupane, Antonio; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light-induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such proteinquake observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations with a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale. PMID:25832715

  14. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; KAIST, Daejeon; Cupane, Antonio; et al

    2015-04-02

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such ‘proteinquake’ observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations withmore » a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale.« less

  15. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; KAIST, Daejeon; Cupane, Antonio; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-04-02

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such ‘proteinquake’ observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations with a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale.

  16. Simulation Studies of the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, R. R.; Shyd'ko, Y.; Kim, K.-J; Fawley, W. M.

    2009-08-14

    Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator are presented that include transverse effects and realistic Bragg crystal properties with the two-dimensional code GINGER. In the present cases considered the radiation divergence is much narrower than the crystal acceptance, and the numerical algorithm can be simplified by ignoring the finite angular bandwidth of the crystal. In this regime GINGER shows that the saturated x-ray pulses have 109 photons and are nearly Fourier-limited with peak powers in excess of 1 MW. Wealso include preliminary results for a four-mirror cavity that can be tuned in wavelength over a few percent, with future plans to incorporate the full transverse response of the Bragg crystals into GINGER to more accurately model this tunable source.

  17. A Bragg beam splitter for hard x-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Taito; Yabashi, Makina; Sano, Yasuhisa; Tono, Kensuke; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2013-02-11

    We report a Bragg beam splitter developed for utilization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers. The splitter is based on an ultrathin silicon crystal operating in the symmetric Bragg geometry to provide high reflectivity and transmissivity simultaneously. We fabricated frame-shaped Si(511) and (110) crystals with thicknesses below 10 ?m by a reactive dry etching method using atmospheric-pressure plasma. The thickness variation over an illuminated area is less than 300 nm peak-to-valley. High crystalline perfection was verified by topographic and diffractometric measurements. The crystal thickness was evaluated from the period of the Pendellsung beats measured with a highly monochromatic and collimated x-ray probe. The crystals provide two replica pulses with uniform wavefront [(<1/50)?] and low spatial intensity variation (<5%). These Bragg beam splitters will play an important role in innovating XFEL applications. PMID:23481739

  18. Comptonization of X-rays by low-temperature electrons. [photon wavelength redistribution in cosmic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illarionov, A.; Kallman, T.; Mccray, R.; Ross, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for calculating the spectrum that results from the Compton scattering of a monochromatic source of X-rays by low-temperature electrons, both for initial-value relaxation problems and for steady-state spatial diffusion problems. The method gives an exact solution of the inital-value problem for evolution of the spectrum in an infinite homogeneous medium if Klein-Nishina corrections to the Thomson cross section are neglected. This, together with approximate solutions for problems in which Klein-Nishina corrections are significant and/or spatial diffusion occurs, shows spectral structure near the original photon wavelength that may be used to infer physical conditions in cosmic X-ray sources. Explicit results, shown for examples of time relaxation in an infinite medium and spatial diffusion through a uniform sphere, are compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculations and by solving the appropriate Fokker-Planck equation.

  19. X-ray emission and absorption studies of silicides in relation to their electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, P. J. W.; Wiech, G.; Zahorowski, W.; Speier, W.; Goedkoop, J. B.; Czyzyk, M.; van Acker, J. F.; van Leuken, E.; de Groot, R. A.; van der Laan, G.; Sarma, D. D.; Kumar, L.; Buschow, K. H. J.; Fuggle, J. C.

    1990-04-01

    The valence bands and conduction bands of about 30 transition metal silicides (of which we concentrate on 4 here) have been investigated by measurements of Si X-ray emission bandsspectra, X-ray absorption spectra near the Si K (1s) edge, photoemission spectra, and Bremsstrahlung Isochromat spectra. The densities of states have also been calculated for the materials in their real crystal structures. The influence of the core hole on some spectra has been investigated using supercell calculations, a (Greens function) generalized Clogston-Wolff model, and Auger spectroscopy. A selection of results is presented to illustrate the utility of site and selective methods in investigations of the electronic structure of silicides and the nature of the "quasi-gap" of the partial density of Si p states in the region of the transition metal d bands.

  20. Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Uschmann, Ingo; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Kämpfer, Tino; Landgraf, Björn; Jäckel, Oliver; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron–betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators. PMID:24026068

  1. Sequential single shot X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the SACLA free electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; et al

    2015-11-27

    In this study, hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shotmore » based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.« less

  2. X-ray-induced electronic structure change in CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Gretarsson, H.; Kim, Young-June; Kim, Jungho; Casa, D.; Gog, T.; Choi, K. R.; Cheong, S. W.

    2011-09-15

    The electronic structure of CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4} is investigated using various bulk-sensitive x-ray spectroscopic methods near the Ir L{sub 3} edge: resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS), x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the partial fluorescence yield mode, and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy. A strong RIXS signal (0.75 eV) resulting from a charge-density-wave gap opening is observed below the metal-insulator transition temperature of 230 K. The resultant modification of electronic structure is consistent with the density functional theory prediction. In the spin- and charge-dimer disordered phase induced by x-ray irradiation below 50 K, we find that a broad peak around 0.4 eV appears in the RIXS spectrum.

  3. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of residual bodies in aged cultured human glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, E.; Fredriksson, B.A.; Brunk, U.

    1980-01-01

    Secondary lysosomes of the residual body type are frequent in nondividing cells from phase III cultures of human glial cells. These organelles have previously been shown to be analogous to lipofuscin granules of postmitotic cells in vivo. Most recent studies favor the assumption that residual bodies mainly result from incomplete degradation within the lysosomal vacuome of endogenous cellular components such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Since iron occurs in several metalloenzymes produced by such organelles, it should then be possible to demonstrate accumulated iron within residual bodies. X-ray dispersive analysis of sectioned biological material is often hampered by diffusion and dissolution during preparation, as well as by too low a concentration of the elements. In this study we cultured glial cells on Formvar-coated gold grids and studied them unsectioned, after brief glutaraldehyde fixation and freeze-drying, in a transmission electron microscope at 100 kV in TEM and STEM mode. It was then possible to demonstrate iron in residual bodies of aged cells, presumably because the type of preparation utilized does not permit much dissolution.

  4. X-ray free-electron lasers: Scientific goals and machine implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, John

    2001-07-01

    Free electron lasers are now being designed which will operate at wavelengths down to about 1. [1] The physics of the high-gain, single pass FEL process requires extremely bright electron pulses in the 10-20 GeV range. This electron brightness should be achievable using an RF-photocathode source and a linear accelerator, such as the initial acceleration stage of a TeV-range linear electron-positron collider. The x-ray FEL radiation produced will have unique properties. In particular: The FEL peak intensity and peak brightness will be many orders of magnitude higher than can be produced by any other source. The pulse length will be less than 1 picosecond, orders of magnitude shorter than can be achieved with any other bright source such as a synchrotron. The FEL radiation will have full transverse coherence and a degeneracy parameter (photons/coherence volume) equal to 109 or more. No other source can produce hard x-radiation with a degeneracy parameter significantly greater than 1. These properties offer the chance to study chemical, biological, and condensed matter dynamical processes with sub-picosecond time resolution and angstrom spatial resolution. [2] The high peak power of the FEL radiation (greater than 1014W/cm2) could be used to create precisely-controlled chemical and structural modifications inside samples. There is also the possibility that nonlinear x-ray interactions could be used to give increased resolution for spectroscopic studies, to greatly expand the parameter space for atomic physics studies, and to permit new fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. The exploration of these new x-ray techniques will require considerable development, not only in technical areas such as optics and detectors, but also in understanding the basic physics of the interaction of very intense x-radiation with matter. A large collaboration of US institutions is now conducting preliminary research and development in these areas, with the intention of creating an FEL operating at 1.5 in about the year 2006. [3] Germany also has a strong short-wavelength FEL research program, with a soft x-ray FEL under construction and a proposal for a future large facility based at the TESLA linear collider, [4] which would produce a variety of hard and soft x-ray laser beams. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

  5. [Application of Three Dimensional Confocal Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Technology Based on Polycapillary X-Ray Lens in Analysis of Rock and Mineral Samples].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-zuo; Liu, Zhi-guo; Sun, Tian-xi; Yi, Long-tao; Zhao, Wei-gang; He, Jia-lin; Peng, Song; Wang, Li-li; Zhao, Guang-cui; Ding, Xun-liang

    2015-09-01

    Confocal three dimensional (3D) micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) in the excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) in the detection channel was developed. The PFXRL and PPXRL were placed in a confocal configuration. This was helpful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the XRF spectra, and accordingly lowered the detection limitation of the XRF technology. The confocal configuration ensured that only the XRF signal from the confocal micro-volume overlapped by the output focal spot of the PFXRL and the input focal spot of the PPXRL could be detected by the detector. Therefore, the point-to-point information of XRF for samples could be obtained non-destructively by moving the sample located at the confocal position. The magnitude of the gain in power density of the PFXRL was 10(3). This let the low power conventional X-ray source be used in this confocal XRF, and, accordingly, decreased the requirement of high power X-ray source for the confocal XRF based on polycapillary X-ray optics. In this paper, we used the confocal 3D micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to non-destructively analyzed mineral samples and to carry out a 3D point-to-point elemental mapping scanning, which demonstrated the capabilities of confocal 3D micro XRF technology for non-destructive analysis elements composition and distribution for mineral samples. For one mineral sample, the experimental results showed that the area with high density of element of iron had high density of copper. To some extent, this reflected the growth mechanisms of the mineral sample. The confocal 3D micro XRF technology has potential applications in such fields like the analysis identification of ore, jade, lithoid utensils, "gamble stone" and lithoid flooring. PMID:26669153

  6. Eigen analysis for classifying chest x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bones, Philip J.; Butler, Anthony P. H.

    2004-10-01

    A method first employed for face recognition has been employed to analyse a set of chest x-ray images. After marking certain common features on the images, they are registered by means of an affine transformation. The differences between each registered image and the mean of all images in the set are computed and the first K principal components are found, where K is less than or equal to the number of images in the set. These form eigenimages (we have coined the term 'eigenchests') from which an approximation to any one of the original images can be reconstructed. Since the method effectively treats each pixel as a dimension in a hyperspace, the matrices concerned are huge; we employ the method developed by Turk and Pentland for face recognition to make the computations tractable. The K coefficients for the eigenimages encode the variation between images and form the basis for discriminating normal from abnormal. Preliminary results have been obtained for a set of eigenimages formed from a set of normal chests and tested on separate sets of normals and patients with pneumonia. The distributions of coefficients have been observed to be different for the two test sets and work is continuing to determine the most sensitive method for detecting the differences.

  7. On the Statistical Analysis of X-ray Polarization Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, T. E.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles of the form alpha plus beta cosine (exp 2)(phi - phi(sub 0) (0 (is) less than phi is less than pi). We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using both Monte Carlo simulations as well as analytic calculations based on the appropriate probability distributions. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by beta the "number of sigma's" of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude alpha by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle phi (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well known minimum detectable polarization (MDP) it is, on average, detected at the 3sigma level. For the latter case, when one requires a joint measurement at the same confidence level, then more counts are needed, by a factor of approximately equal to 2.2, than that required to achieve the MDP level. We find that the position angle uncertainty at 1sigma confidence is well described by the relation sigma(sub pi) equals 28.5(degrees) divided by beta.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of importin-α from Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Natalia E.; Takeda, Agnes A. S.; Freitas, Fernanda Z.; Bertolini, Maria Célia; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Importin-α recognizes cargo proteins that contain classical nuclear localization sequences (NLS) and, in complex with importin-β, is able to translocate nuclear proteins through the nuclear pore complex. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a well studied organism that has been widely used as a model organism for fundamental aspects of eukaryotic biology, and is important for understanding the specific mechanisms of protein transport to the cell nucleus. In this work, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of importin-α from N. crassa (IMPα-Nc) complexed with a classical NLS peptide (SV40 NLS) are reported. IMPα-Nc–SV40 NLS crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques, leading to a monomeric structure. The observation of the electron-density map indicated the presence of SV40 NLSs interacting at both the minor and major NLS-binding sites of the protein. PMID:24699749

  9. Quantitative description of microstructure defects in hexagonal boron nitrides using X-ray diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schimpf, C. Motylenko, M.; Rafaja, D.

    2013-12-15

    A routine for simultaneous quantification of turbostratic disorder, amount of puckering and the dislocation and stacking fault density in hexagonal materials was proposed and tested on boron nitride powder samples that were synthesised using different methods. The routine allows the individual microstructure defects to be recognised according to their effect on the anisotropy of the X-ray diffraction line broadening. For quantification of the microstructure defects, the total line broadening is regarded as a linear combination of the contributions from the particular defects. The total line broadening is obtained from the line profile fitting. As testing material, graphitic boron nitride (h-BN) was employed in the form of hot-isostatically pressed h-BN, pyrolytic h-BN or a h-BN, which was chemically vapour deposited at a low temperature. The kind of the dominant microstructure defects determined from the broadening of the X-ray diffraction lines was verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their amount was attempted to be verified by alternative methods. - Highlights: • Reliable method for quantification of microstructure defects in BN was suggested. • The method is based on the analysis of anisotropic XRD line broadening. • This XRD line broadening is unique and characteristic of the respective defect. • Thus, the quantification of coexistent microstructure defects is possible. • The method was tested on hexagonal BN, which was produced by different techniques.

  10. Radiological characterization and water equivalency of genipin gel for x-ray and electron beam dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka; Bosi, Stephen; Davies, Justin B.; Baldock, Clive

    2011-08-01

    The genipin radiochromic gel offers enormous potential as a three-dimensional dosimeter in advanced radiotherapy techniques. We have used several methods (including Monte Carlo simulation), to investigate the water equivalency of genipin gel by characterizing its radiological properties, including mass and electron densities, photon interaction cross sections, mass energy absorption coefficient, effective atomic number, collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Depth doses were also calculated for clinical kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams as well as megavoltage electron beams. The mass density, electron density and effective atomic number of genipin were found to differ from water by less than 2%. For energies below 150 keV, photoelectric absorption cross sections are more than 3% higher than water due to the strong dependence on atomic number. Compton scattering and pair production interaction cross sections for genipin gel differ from water by less than 1%. The mass energy absorption coefficient is approximately 3% higher than water for energies <60 keV due to the dominance of photoelectric absorption in this energy range. The electron mass stopping power and mass scattering power differ from water by approximately 0.3%. X-ray depth dose curves for genipin gel agree to within 1% with those for water. Our results demonstrate that genipin gel can be considered water equivalent for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beam dosimetry. For megavoltage electron beam dosimetry, however, our results suggest that a correction factor may be needed to convert measured dose in genipin gel to that of water, since differences in some radiological properties of up to 3% compared to water are observed. Our results indicate that genipin gel exhibits greater water equivalency than polymer gels and PRESAGE formulations.

  11. Using an electron beam to produce a bright isotropic subsurface x-ray source for back illumination in landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2005-06-01

    Why is it so difficult to detect concealed shallow buried landmines while it is relatively easy to image and detect cancers within the human body? One reason is that in medical x-ray imaging, the source is on one side of the body and the detectors are on the other. This is back-illumination, the optimal orientation for x-ray imaging. Can back-illumination be used in landmine detection? That is, is it possible to generate sufficient xrays 10 or more cm below the soil surface so that suitable detectors above ground could be used to image shallow buried objects including landmines? In an x-ray tube, high voltage electron beams produce x-rays by electron deceleration (bremsstrahlung) and induced orbital transitions. It may be possible to produce 1000 amp short pulses of electrons at 30 MeV using an electron gun with multiple field emitters. (This is a section of an antiballistic missile device proposed at SPIE Defense and Security 2004.) Electron beams of such energy have range of approximately 100 m in air and 10-15 cm in soil. This 5-10 m tall device could be carried by balloon, helicopter or land vehicle. X-ray production efficiency at 30 MeV is over 50 fold higher compared to medical x-ray tube efficiency. Such a device would produce a bright isotropic source of x-rays in a subsurface plume that might be usable in landmine detection.

  12. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  13. Detecting vacuum birefringence with x-ray free electron lasers and high-power optical lasers: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Heinzl, Tom; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sauerbrey, Roland

    2016-02-01

    We study the feasibility of measuring vacuum birefringence by probing the focus of a high-intensity optical laser with an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). This amounts to performing a new type of QED precision experiment, employing only laser pulses, hence space- and time-dependent fields. To set the stage, we briefly review the status of QED precision tests and then focus on the example of vacuum birefringence. Adopting a realistic laser beam model in terms of pulsed Gaussian beams we calculate the induced phase shift and translate it into an experimental signal, counting the number of photons with flipped polarization. We carefully design a detailed experiment at the European XFEL operating in self-seeded mode, supplemented by a petawatt class optical laser via the HIBEF project. Assuming all components to represent the current state of the art, in particular the x-ray polarizers, realistic estimates of signal-to-noise ratios plus ensuing acquisition times are provided. This is accompanied by a statistical analysis of the impact of poor laser focus overlap either due to timing and pointing jitter as well as limited alignment accuracy. A number of parasitic effects are analyzed together with appropriate countermeasures. We conclude that vacuum birefringence can indeed be measured upon combining an XFEL with a high-power optical laser if depolarization effects in the x-ray lenses can be controlled.

  14. Detailed model for hot-dense aluminum plasmas generated by an x-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S. M.; Chung, H.-K.; Jackson, C.; Lee, R. W.; Preston, T. R.; Rackstraw, D. S.; Wark, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of creating hot-dense plasma samples by isochoric heating of solid targets with high-intensity femtosecond X-ray lasers has opened up new opportunities in the experimental study of such systems. A study of the X-ray spectra emitted from solid density plasmas has provided significant insight into the X-ray absorption mechanisms, subsequent target heating, and the conditions of temperature, electron density, and ionization stages produced (Vinko et al., Nature 482, 59-62 (2012)). Furthermore, detailed analysis of the spectra has provided new information on the degree of ionization potential depression in these strongly coupled plasmas (Ciricosta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 065002 (2012)). Excellent agreement between experimental and simulated spectra has been obtained, but a full outline of the procedure by which this has been achieved has yet to be documented. We present here the details and approximations concerning the modelling of the experiment described in the above referenced work. We show that it is crucial to take into account the spatial and temporal gradients in simulating the overall emission spectra, and discuss how aspects of the model used affect the interpretation of the data in terms of charge-resolved measurements of the ionization potential depression.

  15. Rotational dephasing of a gold complex probed by anisotropic femtosecond x-ray solution scattering using an x-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Goo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Oang, Key Young; Kim, Tae Wu; Ki, Hosung; Jo, Junbeom; Kim, Jeongho; Sato, Tokushi; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2015-12-01

    The orientational dynamics of a gold trimer complex in a solution are investigated by using anisotropic femtosecond x-ray solution scattering measured by an x-ray free-electron laser. A linearly polarized laser pulse preferentially excites molecules with transition dipoles oriented parallel to the laser polarization, leading to the transient alignment of excited molecules. Such photoselectively aligned molecules give rise to an anisotropic scattering pattern that has different profiles in parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to laser polarization. Anisotropic x-ray scattering patterns obtained from the transiently aligned molecules contain information on the molecular orientation. By monitoring the time evolution of the anisotropic scattering pattern, we probe the rotational dephasing dynamics of [Au(CN)2 ?]3 in a solution. We found that rotational dephasing of [Au(CN)2 ?]3 occurs with a time constant of 13 4 ps. By contrast, time-resolved scattering data on FeCl3 in a water solution, which does not accompany any structural change and gives only the contributions of solvent heating, lacks any anisotropy in the scattering signal.

  16. Soft-x-ray spectra of highly charged Kr ions in an electron beam ion trap.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Beiersdorfer, P; Fournier, K B; Träbert, E

    2002-05-01

    Systematic variation of the electron-beam energy in the EBIT-II electron beam ion trap has been employed to produce soft-x-ray spectra (20-75 A) of Kr with well-defined maximum charge states ranging from Cu- to Al-like ions. Guided by large-scale relativistic atomic structure calculations, the strongest lines have been identified with Delta n=1 (n=3 to n(')=4) transitions from Ni- to P-like ions (Kr(8+)-Kr(21+)), as well as a number of 3p-4d and 3d-5f transitions. PMID:12059709

  17. Soft-x-ray free-electron-laser interaction with materials.

    PubMed

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P; London, Richard A; Chapman, Henry N; Bergh, Magnus

    2007-10-01

    Soft-x-ray free-electron lasers have enabled materials studies in which structural information is obtained faster than the relevant probe-induced damage mechanisms. We present a continuum model to describe the damage process based on hot-dense plasma theory, which includes a description of the energy deposition in the samples, the subsequent dynamics of the sample, and the detector signal. We compared the model predictions with experimental data and mostly found reasonable agreement. In view of future free-electron-laser performance, the model was also used to predict damage dynamics of samples and optical elements at shorter wavelengths and larger photon fluences than currently available. PMID:17995118

  18. [X-ray tubes with ionic indemnification of negative space electronic charge].

    PubMed

    Kanikovski?, V B

    2001-01-01

    How to increase anode current in the fine-focus diagnostic X-ray tubes (XTs) is analyzed. It has been found that there are new three-class XTs that have advantages of both ionic and electronic tubes. The specific feature of the new class XTs is the gaseous atmosphere available in the working volume. Ionizing the gaseous atmosphere with a emission electron flow in the path from the cathode to the anode yields a dot volumetric positively charged ion grid that closely approaches the cathode and can pay a big bonus in anode current output. PMID:11534285

  19. EPR study of electron traps in x-ray-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Azzoni, C.B.; Paleari, A. )

    1989-10-01

    Single crystals of yttria-stabilized zirconia (12 mol % of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been x-ray irradiated at room temperature. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the filled electron traps is analyzed in terms of a single oxygen vacancy type of defect with its symmetry axis along the {l angle}111{r angle} direction. The angular dependence of the linewidth and the asymmetry of the line shape are attributed to the disordered rearrangements of the anion sublattice surrounding the oxygen vacancy. This affects the local crystal fields and the directions of the symmetry axis of the defects.

  20. Theoretical progress in studying the characteristic x-ray emission from heavy few-electron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhykov, Andrey; Fritzsche, Stephan; Kabachnik, Nikolai M.; Sthlker, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Recent theoretical progress in the study of the x-ray characteristic emission from highly-charged, few-electron ions is reviewed. These investigations show that the bound-state radiative transitions in high-Z ions provide a unique tool for better understanding the interplay between the structural and dynamical properties of heavy ions. In order to illustrate such an interplay, detailed calculations are presented for the K?1 decay of the helium-like uranium ions U90+ following radiative electron capture, Coulomb excitation and dielectronic recombination processes.

  1. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Bahige G; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E; Drner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G; Stevenson, Hilary P; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D; Nelson, Garrett; James, Daniel; Calero, Guillermo; Wachter, Rebekka M; Spence, John C H; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10-100?mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600?nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ?4? resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. This method will also permit an analysis of the dependence of crystal quality on crystal size. PMID:26798818

  2. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Drner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; Nelson, Garrett; James, Daniel; Calero, Guillermo; Wachter, Rebekka M.; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10100?mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600?nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ?4? resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. This method will also permit an analysis of the dependence of crystal quality on crystal size. PMID:26798818

  3. THERMAL analysis of high-power x-ray target: scaling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Robinson, Vance S.; Raber, Thomas R.; Frontera, Mark

    2015-08-01

    High resolution x-ray imaging systems require small focal spots ranging from 1 μm to 1 mm. In NDE applications, the demand for small spot sizes for high spatial resolution conflicts with the need for increased x-ray flux for faster scan times. In this paper, a finite element model is developed to compute the temperature of a stationary x-ray target exposed to micrometer-sized high power (10's to 100's of watts) electron beams. Such extremely high power densities at the focal spot are the limiting factor in both performance and life of many x-ray imaging system. This model is used to demonstrate the effect of focal spot size - diameter, on the heat dissipation capability. As the spot size reduces, a higher power density may be sustained by the target. This effect is explained by increased lateral heat conduction. The peak temperature of a small focal spot also becomes more sensitive to the current density distribution of the incident electron beam. The relationship of the peak power and electron beam profile, volumetric power deposition into the x-ray target and focal spot aspect ratio are discussed. Some experimental data demonstrating such scaling effects is included. General design rules for higher-flux capable targets leveraging these scaling effects are also proposed.

  4. Two-phase droplet injectors for studies at X-ray free-electron laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Claudiu

    2013-11-01

    Hard X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) such as the recently developed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC deliver pulses with extremely short duration and intensities many orders of magnitude larger than previous sources, to enable visualization of the motion of single atoms within condensed matter. To circumvent X-ray damage, imaging experiments at LCLS are performed serially, with new samples being brought to the vacuum interaction region with X-ray pulses. Continuous liquid microjets in vacuum are currently the best way of carrying and regenerating the samples, but they consume inefficiently scarce samples, such as membrane protein microcrystals. To solve this problem, and to enhance the accuracy of pump-probe experiments, we are developing a two-liquid delivery method in which the sample is carried in disperse-phase drops contained in an immiscible continuous-phase liquid. We will report on (i) the phase-locked generation of sample-carrying droplets with an electrically-assisted axisymmetric flow-focusing device, (ii) methods to reduce the accumulation of phase jitter in the timing of drops during transport, and we will discuss methods for (iii) separating the continuous and disperse phases and (iv) ejection of sample-containing drops into air or vacuum.

  5. Structural biology at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility.

    PubMed

    Altarelli, Massimo; Mancuso, Adrian P

    2014-07-17

    The European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility, under construction in the Hamburg region, will provide high-peak brilliance (greater than 10(33) photons s(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) per 0.1% BW), ultrashort pulses (approx. 10 fs) of X-rays, with a high repetition rate (up to 27 000 pulses s(-1)) from 2016 onwards. The main features of this exceptional X-ray source, and the instrumentation developments necessary to exploit them fully, for application to a variety of scientific disciplines, are briefly summarized. In the case of structural biology, that has a central role in the scientific case of this new facility, the instruments and ancillary laboratories that are being planned and built within the baseline programme of the European XFEL and by consortia of users are also discussed. It is expected that the unique features of the source and the advanced features of the instrumentation will allow operation modes with more efficient use of sample materials, faster acquisition times, and conditions better approaching feasibility of single molecule imaging. PMID:24914145

  6. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jrg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valrie

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup. PMID:26144230

  7. Structural biology at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility

    PubMed Central

    Altarelli, Massimo; Mancuso, Adrian P.

    2014-01-01

    The European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility, under construction in the Hamburg region, will provide high-peak brilliance (greater than 1033 photons s?1 mm?2 mrad?2 per 0.1% BW), ultrashort pulses (approx. 10 fs) of X-rays, with a high repetition rate (up to 27 000 pulses s?1) from 2016 onwards. The main features of this exceptional X-ray source, and the instrumentation developments necessary to exploit them fully, for application to a variety of scientific disciplines, are briefly summarized. In the case of structural biology, that has a central role in the scientific case of this new facility, the instruments and ancillary laboratories that are being planned and built within the baseline programme of the European XFEL and by consortia of users are also discussed. It is expected that the unique features of the source and the advanced features of the instrumentation will allow operation modes with more efficient use of sample materials, faster acquisition times, and conditions better approaching feasibility of single molecule imaging. PMID:24914145

  8. Femtosecond Diffractive Imaging with a Soft-X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton: AUTHOR = Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sebastian; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Marchesini, Stefano; Woods, Bruce W.; Bajt, Sasa; Benner, W.Henry; London, Richard A.; Plonjes, Elke; Kuhlmann, Marion; Treusch, Rolf; Dusterer, Stefan; Tschentscher, Thomas; Schneider, Jochen R.; Spiller, Eberhard; Moller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph; Hoener, Matthias; Shapiro, David A.; /UC, Davis /SLAC /Uppsala U. /LLNL, Livermore /Uppsala U. /Uppsala U. /SLAC /Uppsala U.

    2010-10-07

    Theory predicts that with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus, or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} pulse, containing 10{sup 12} photons at 32 nm wavelength, produced a coherent diffraction pattern from a nano-structured non-periodic object, before destroying it at 60,000 K. A novel X-ray camera assured single photon detection sensitivity by filtering out parasitic scattering and plasma radiation. The reconstructed image, obtained directly from the coherent pattern by phase retrieval through oversampling, shows no measurable damage, and extends to diffraction-limited resolution. A three-dimensional data set may be assembled from such images when copies of a reproducible sample are exposed to the beam one by one.

  9. Generation of Intense Attosecond X-Ray Pulses Using Ultraviolet Laser Induced Microbunching in Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Huang, Z.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2011-11-29

    We propose a scheme that combines the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique with the bunch compression and allows one to generate harmonic numbers of a few hundred in a microbunched beam through up-conversion of the frequency of an ultraviolet seed laser. A few-cycle intense laser is used to generate the required energy chirp in the beam for bunch compression and for selection of an attosecond x-ray pulse. Sending this beam through a short undulator results in an intense isolated attosecond x-ray pulse. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, we show that 1 nm x-ray pulse with peak power of a few hundred MW and duration as short as 20 attoseconds (FWHM) can be generated from a 200 nm ultraviolet seed laser. The proposed scheme may enable the study of electronic dynamics with a resolution beyond the atomic unit of time ({approx}24 attoseconds) and may open a new regime of ultrafast sciences.

  10. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sbastien; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Marchesini, Stefano; Woods, Bruce W.; Bajt, Saa; Benner, W. Henry; London, Richard A.; Plnjes, Elke; Kuhlmann, Marion; Treusch, Rolf; Dsterer, Stefan; Tschentscher, Thomas; Schneider, Jochen R.; Spiller, Eberhard; Mller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph; Hoener, Matthias; Shapiro, David A.; Hodgson, Keith O.; van der Spoel, David; Burmeister, Florian; Bergh, Magnus; Caleman, Carl; Huldt, Gsta; Seibert, M. Marvin; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Lee, Richard W.; Szke, Abraham; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos

    2006-12-01

    Theory predicts that, with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25fs, 41013Wcm-2 pulse, containing 1012 photons at 32nm wavelength, produced a coherent diffraction pattern from a nanostructured non-periodic object, before destroying it at 60,000K. A novel X-ray camera assured single-photon detection sensitivity by filtering out parasitic scattering and plasma radiation. The reconstructed image, obtained directly from the coherent pattern by phase retrieval through oversampling, shows no measurable damage, and is reconstructed at the diffraction-limited resolution. A three-dimensional data set may be assembled from such images when copies of a reproducible sample are exposed to the beam one by one.

  11. Electron density and effective atomic number (Zeff) determination through x-ray Moir deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Talbot-Lau based Moir deflectometry is a powerful density diagnostic capable of delivering refraction information and attenuation from a single image, through the accurate detection of X-ray phase-shift and intensity. The technique is able to accurately measure both the real part of the index of refraction ? (directly related to electron density) and the attenuation coefficient ? of an object placed in the x-ray beam. Since the atomic number Z (or Zeff for a composite sample) is proportional to these quantities, an elemental map of the effective atomic number can be obtained with the ratio of the phase and the absorption image. The determination of Zeff from refraction and attenuation measurements with Moir deflectometry could be of high interest in various fields of HED research such as shocked materials and ICF experiments as Zeff is linked, by definition, to the x-ray absorption properties of a specific material. This work is supported by U.S. DoE/NNSA Grant No. 435 DENA0001835.

  12. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jrg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valrie

    2015-07-01

    Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup. PMID:26144230

  13. Chirped pulse amplification in x-ray free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacasa, Hugo; Mahieu, Benot; Fajardo, Marta; Le, Thuy T. T.; Li, Lu; Oliva, Eduardo; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are powerful tools for probing matter properties down to sub-nanometer scales with femtosecond time resolution, allowing a growing number of physical, chemical, biological and medical investigations to be carried out. FELs operating in seeding mode intrinsically present enhanced temporal coherence properties with respect to those relying on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process. They are however limited, for the moment, to extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths, or in some cases to soft X-rays, and durations of tens of femtoseconds. We studied how these limits can be overcome by means of X-ray chirped pulse amplification, inspired by infrared lasers. As a matter of fact, the use of a seed enables a fine control of the chirp and a spectro-temporal shaping of the FEL emission. Moreover, ultrashort wavelengths can be envisaged through schemes of high-gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We will present FEL simulations coupled with the study of a compressor in conical diffraction geometry.

  14. Surpassing one x-ray photon per electron in nonlinear Thomson scattering in 180 deg. geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Shihua; Lv Qingzheng; Yuan Suying; Li Yingjun

    2012-01-15

    We have obtained the general analytical expressions of harmonic radiation for Thomson scattering (TS) of arbitrary polarized laser by virtue of generalized Bessel functions and derived the extremum conditions for backscattered harmonics. Especially, for the fundamental backscattered Thomson scattering x-ray yield, we have shown that at the same conditions, the circular polarization reaches maximum while the linear case minimum. This effect is significant when a{sup 2}{>=}1. With the assumption that the x-ray photon yield of a realistic focused pulse of energy E, wavelength {lambda}, and Rayleigh range z{sub R} is equivalent to a plane wave pulse containing N{sub l} cycles via the relation N{sub l}{lambda}=pz{sub R} where the effective factor p is of order one, we applied the plane wave results to realistic laser pulses and deduced that the backscattered x-ray photon number N{sub f} per electron achieves its peak value when the average dimensionless laser intensity a{sup 2}=0.677 and is irrelevant to the value of p. Since N{sub f} and its maximum N{sub fmax} both scale with the square root of E/{lambda}, it is realizable to attain N{sub f}{>=}1 using joule-scale laser pulses while a great challenge for N{sub f}>10.

  15. Synchrotron X-ray diagnostics of cutoff shape of nonthermal electron spectrum at young supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Ohira, Yutaka; Sawada, Makoto; Bamba, Aya

    2014-02-01

    Synchrotron X-rays can be a useful tool to investigate electron acceleration at young supernova remnants (SNRs). At present, since the magnetic field configuration around the shocks of SNRs is uncertain, it is not clear whether electron acceleration is limited by SNR age, synchrotron cooling, or even escape from the acceleration region. We study whether the acceleration mechanism can be constrained by the cutoff shape of the electron spectrum around the maximum energy. We derive analytical formulae of the cutoff shape in each case where the maximum electron energy is determined by SNR age, synchrotron cooling and escape from the shock. They are related to the energy dependence of the electron diffusion coefficient. Next, we discuss whether information on the cutoff shape can be provided by observations in the near future which will simply give the photon indices and the flux ratios in the soft and hard X-ray bands. We find that if the power-law index of the electron spectrum is independently determined by other observations, then we can constrain the cutoff shape by comparing theoretical predictions of the photon indices and/or the flux ratios with observed data which will be measured by NuSTAR and/or ASTRO-H. Such study is helpful in understanding the acceleration mechanism. In particular, it will supply another independent constraint on the magnetic field strength around the shocks of SNRs.

  16. Scattered hard X-ray and γ-ray generation from a chromatic electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. E.; Welch, D. R.; Miller, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    An array of photon diagnostics has been deployed on a high power relativistic electron beam diode. Electrons are extracted through a 17.8 cm diode from the surface discharge of a carbon fiber velvet cathode with a nominal diode voltage of 3.8 MV. <10% of the 100 ns electron pulse is composed of off energy electrons (1-3 MeV) accelerated during the rise and fall of the pulse that impact the stainless steel beam pipe and generate a Bremsstrahlung spectrum of 0.1-3 MeV photons with a total count of 1011. The principal objective of these experiments is to quantify the electron beam dynamics and spatial dynamics of the hard X-ray and γ-ray flux generated in the diode region. A qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results are presented, including time and energy resolved electron beam propagation and scattered photon measurements with X-ray PIN diodes and a photomultiplier tube indicating a dose dependence on the diode voltage >V4 and detected photon counts of nearly 106 at a radial distance of 1 m which corresponds to dose ˜40 μrad at 1 m.

  17. X ray pulse considerations and electron flow in high voltage diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Michael O.

    1993-12-01

    Electrical breakdown in high voltage diodes has been studied since the 1920's, yet it is still not well understood. This study characterizes the electron flow during breakdown in a high voltage vacuum diode. This was accomplished by measuring the x rays produced when electrons strike the anode of the diode. Current measurements taken during the experiment include both the displacement and conduction electron current, so the x-ray signal is the best measure of the conduction current. Knowledge of the electron flow is important in determining the mechanism of breakdown. The currently accepted explosive electron emission (EEE) model for electrical breakdown can not properly account for the energy required to form cathode spots. Schwirzke proposed a new model that involves an ionization process and a subsequent unipolar arc that accounts for the energy to form the spots. Electron flow for the two models is very different. The EEE model requires a large current density for several nanoseconds before plasma formation, whereas the new model predicts a large current density that develops simultaneously with the plasma formation. The results of this experiment support the predictions of the new model.

  18. PROCEEDING OF THE SEEDED X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER WORKSHOP.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG,X.J.; MURPHY,J.B.; YU,L.H.; FAATZ,B.; HUANG,Z.; REICHE,S.; ZOLOTOREV,M.

    2002-12-13

    The underlying theory of a high gain free electron laser (FEL) has existed for two decades [1-2], but it is only in the last few years that these novel radiation sources have been realized experimentally. Several high gain FELs have successfully reached saturation in the infrared, visible and the VUV portion of the spectrum: the High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) free electron lasers [3] at BNL and the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FELs at LEUTL, VISA and TTF [4-6]. The outstanding challenges for future FELs are to extend high gain FELs to the X-ray regime, improve the longitudinal coherence of the radiation using seeded FEL schemes and generate ultrashort pulses (<100 fs). The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) sponsored a Seeded X-ray Free Electron Laser Workshop on December 13-14, 2002 to explore these challenging issues. Representatives from BNL, DESY, LBNL, SLAC and UCLA made presentations on the novel schemes under consideration at their laboratories. Workshop participants had a lively discussion on the feasibility, performance and R&D issues associated with the seeded XFEL schemes. An improvement of the electron beam quality will certainly be necessary to drive the XFEL. Self-seeding SASE, cascaded HGHG, and SASE pulse compression FELs show the most promise for producing short pulse X-rays. Of these, only the self-seeded and HGHG schemes generate longitudinally coherent radiation. While the pulse length in the self-seeded scheme is determined by the electron bunch length ({approx}100 fs), the pulse length in the HGHG scheme is determined by the short pulse seed laser, and so can be much shorter ({approx} 20 fs).

  19. Feasibility study of a gas electron multiplier detector as an X-Ray image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sukyoung; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Soonhyouk

    2015-07-01

    For its ease of manufacture, flexible geometry, and cheap manufacturing cost, the gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector can be used as an X-ray image sensor. For this purpose, we acquired relative detection efficiencies and suggested a method to increase the detection efficiency in order to study the possibility of using a GEM detector as an X-ray image sensor. The GEM detector system is composed of GEM foils, the instrument system, the gas system, and the negative power supply. The instrument system consists of an A225 charge sensitive preamp, an A206 discriminator, and a MCA8000D multichannel analyzer. For the gas system, argon gas was mixed with CO2 in a ratio of 8:2, and for the negative 2,000 volts, a 3106D power supply was used. A CsI-coated GEM foil was used to increase the detection efficiency. Fe-55 was used as an X-ray source, and the relative efficiency was acquired by using the ratio of the efficiency of the GEM detector to that of the CdTe detector. The total count method and the energy spectrum method were used to calculate the relative efficiency. The relative detection efficiency of the GEM detector for Fe-55 by using total count method was 32%, and the relative detection efficiencies were 5, 43, 33, 37, 35, and 36%, respectively, for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7- keV energy spectrum by using the energy spectrum method. In conclusion, we found that the detection efficiency of the two-layered GEM detector is insufficient for use as an X-ray image sensor, so we suggest a CsI-coated GEM foil to increase the efficiency, with resulting value being increased to 41%.

  20. Study of annealing-induced interdiffusion in In2O3/Ag/In2O3 structures by a combined X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caby, Bérenger; Brigidi, Fabio; Ingerle, Dieter; Nolot, Emmanuel; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Streli, Christina; Lutterotti, Luca; André, Agathe; Rodriguez, Guillaume; Gergaud, Patrice; Morales, Magali; Chateigner, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The combination of X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence has been applied to the characterization of an In2O3/Ag/In2O3 stack for advanced photovoltaic applications. X-ray reflectivity is a well-known method for the characterization of multilayered structures by providing information on the thickness and the in-depth electronic density. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence provides information about the elemental depth distribution. As these techniques are based on similar measurement procedures and data evaluation approaches, their combination reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques and provides an accurate depth-resolving analysis of multi-layers. It has been shown that the combination of the techniques give insight into the material composition and the layers structure (thickness, density) as well as modifications induced by a thermal annealing. As X-ray fluorescence signals have been acquired at different excitation energies, the influence of this parameter on the sensitivity of the measurements to the structural properties has been shown.