Sample records for x-ray analysis electron

  1. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  2. Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis in dermatology--an up-date

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forslind

    1988-01-01

    Dermatological papers comprising scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis data published 1983 through 1986 in international journals are reviewed, as an update to our 1984 paper on Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in dermatology. The present paper not only deals with a review of recent publications in this area but also presents

  3. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  4. X-Ray photonics: X-rays inspire electron movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The advent of high-energy, short-pulse X-ray sources based on free-electron lasers, laser plasmas and high-harmonic generation is now making it possible to probe the dynamics of electrons within molecules.

  5. 12.141 Electron Microprobe Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, January (IAP) 2006

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    Introduction to the theory of x-ray microanalysis through the electron microprobe including ZAF matrix corrections. Techniques to be discussed are wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning backscattered ...

  6. 12.141 Electron Microprobe Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, January IAP 2010

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2010-01-01

    This lab-oriented course introduces the student to the subject of X-ray spectrometry and micro-scale chemical quantitative analysis of solid samples through an intensive series of hands-on laboratory exercises that use the ...

  7. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  8. Application of scanning electron microscopy to x-ray analysis of frozen- hydrated sections. I. Specimen handling techniques

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissue sections permits direct quantitative analysis of diffusible elements in defined cellular compartments. Because the sections are hydrated, elemental concentrations can be defined as wet-weight mass fractions. Use of these techniques should also permit determination of water fraction in cellular compartments. Reliable preparative techniques provide flat, smooth, 0.5 micrometers-thick sections with little elemental and morphological disruption. The specimen support and transfer system described permits hydrated sections to be transferred to the scanning electron microscope cold stage for examination and analysis without contamination or water loss and without introduction of extraneous x- ray radiation. PMID:7204491

  9. Probing Heterogeneous Chemistry of Individual Atmospheric Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J. Krueger; Vicki H. Grassian; Martin J. Iedema; James P. Cowin; Alexander Laskin

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of single-particle analysis to investigate the chemistry of isolated, individual particles of atmospheric relevance such as NaCl, sea salt, CaCO3, and SiO2. A variety of state-of-th-art scanning electron microscopy techniques, including environmental scanning electon microscopy and computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy\\/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, were utilized for monitoring and quantifying phase transitions of individual particles,

  10. Ultrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS)

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ting

    Ultrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS) Guangjun: ultrafast x-rays, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, terawatt lasers, ultrafast reaction dynamics, atomic motion Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 ABSTRACT A laser driven electron x-ray source (LEXS) using a high

  11. Noise analysis of gallium arsenide pixel X-ray detectors coupled to ultra-low noise electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bertuccio; R. Casiraghi; D. Maiocchi; A. Owens; M. Bavdaz; A. Peacock; H. Andersson; S. Nenonen

    2003-01-01

    The X-ray spectroscopic performance and the noise analysis of gallium arsenide pixel detectors coupled to ultra-low noise front-end electronics is presented. The pixel junctions have areas of 200 × 200 ?m2 and they are fabricated on an epitaxial gallium arsenide layer 40 ?m thick. The front-end electronics consists of a forward bias field effect transistor amplifier with an equivalent noise

  12. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF TANK 18 SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; O'Rourke, P.; Ajo, H.

    2012-03-08

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) Performance Assessment (PA) utilizes waste speciation in the waste release model used in the FTF fate and transport modeling. The waste release modeling associated with the residual plutonium in Tank 18 has been identified as a primary contributor to the Tank 18 dose uncertainty. In order to reduce the uncertainty related to plutonium in Tank 18, a better understanding of the plutonium speciation in the Tank 18 waste (including the oxidation state and stoichiometry) is desired. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilized Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to analyze Tank 18 samples to provide information on the speciation of plutonium in the waste material. XRD analysis of the Tank 18 samples did not identify any plutonium mineral phases in the samples. These indicates the crystalline mineral phases of plutonium are below the detection limits of the XRD method or that the plutonium phase(s) lack long range order and are present as amorphous or microcrystalline solids. SEM analysis of the Tank 18 samples did locate particles containing plutonium. The plutonium was found as small particles, usually <1 {micro}m but ranging up to several micrometers in diameter, associated with particles of an iron matrix and at low concentration in other elemental matrices. This suggests the plutonium has an affinity for the iron matrix. Qualitatively, the particles of plutonium found in the SEM analysis do not appear to account for all of the plutonium in the sample based on concentrations determined from the chemical analysis of the Tank 18 samples. This suggests that plutonium is also distributed throughout the solids in low concentrations.

  13. Application of resonant X-ray emissions for molecular\\/electronic structure analysis of boron nitrides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Muramatsu; H. Kouzuki; T. Kaneyoshi; M. Motoyama; A. Agui; S. Shin; H. Kato; J. Kawai

    1997-01-01

    *  –B1s-1 transitions were observed in w-BN composed of four-fold boron atoms and in h-BN composed of three-fold boron atoms, when\\u000a the photon energy of the incident undulator beams coincided with the B1s–B2p?* absorption energy. However, no resonance was observed in c-BN composed of four-fold boron atoms. The resonant X-ray emission\\u000a reflects the electronic structure of unoccupied molecular orbitals which strongly

  14. Effect of electrical charging on scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Sakatoku, Shota; Kawai, Jun

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the conditions under which we can obtain reasonable qualitative results in scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis of trace elements in insulating materials using a diluted ionic liquid (EMI-CH3COO) and changing probe current. Below 100 nA, electrical charging of insulating materials was prevented. The probe current of 10 nA was suitable for qualitative analysis because the intensities of peaks from these materials were strong enough to detect trace elements at the concentration of 0.1 wt.% in the sample without interference by sum peaks. Diluted EMI-CH3COO can also be used for SEM-EDX quantitative analysis of insulating materials as discharging agents. In contrast, when insulating materials were electrically charged, the obtained spectra contained characteristic X-rays of the insulating materials with low energies and of materials other than the samples such as the sample stage and the collimator in the X-ray detector. This is because electrons from the electron beam were decelerated by and deflected from the insulating materials. By coating the insulating materials with the diluted EMI-CH3COO, the deceleration and deflection of the electron beam were prevented.

  15. Stimulated electronic x-ray Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Weninger, Clemens; Purvis, Michael; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A; Bozek, John D; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Brown, Gregory; Rocca, Jorge J; Rohringer, Nina

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate strong stimulated inelastic x-ray scattering by resonantly exciting a dense gas target of neon with femtosecond, high-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). A small number of lower energy XFEL seed photons drive an avalanche of stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering processes that amplify the Raman scattering signal by several orders of magnitude until it reaches saturation. Despite the large overall spectral width, the internal spiky structure of the XFEL spectrum determines the energy resolution of the scattering process in a statistical sense. This is demonstrated by observing a stochastic line shift of the inelastically scattered x-ray radiation. In conjunction with statistical methods, XFELs can be used for stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, with spectral resolution smaller than the natural width of the core-excited, intermediate state. PMID:24476271

  16. X-ray free-electron lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil R. Thompson; Brian W. J. McNeil

    2010-01-01

    With intensities 108–1010 times greater than other laboratory sources, X-ray free-electron lasers are currently opening up new frontiers across many areas of science. In this Review we describe how these unconventional lasers work, discuss the range of new sources being developed worldwide, and consider how such X-ray sources may develop over the coming years.

  17. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, G.E. (ORNL)

    2005-03-28

    X-ray diffraction (see unit 1.1) and x-ray excited fluorescence analysis are powerful techniques for the nondestructive measurement of crystal structure and chemical composition. X-ray fluorescence analysis is inherently nondestructive with orders of magnitude lower power deposited for the same detectable limit as with fluorescence excited by charged particle probes (Sparks, 1980). X-ray diffraction analysis is sensitive to crystal structure with orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to crystallographic strain than electron probes (Rebonato, et al. 1989). When a small-area x-ray microbeam is used as the probe, chemical composition (Z>14), crystal structure, crystalline texture, and crystalline strain distributions can be determined. These distributions can be studied both at the surface of the sample and deep within the sample (Fig. 1). Current state-of-the-art can achieve an {approx}1 mm-D x-ray microprobe and an {approx}0.1 mm-D x-ray microprobe has been demonstrated (Bilderback, et al., 1994). Despite their great chemical and crystallographic sensitivities, x-ray microprobe techniques have until recently been restricted by inefficient x-ray focusing optics and weak x-ray sources; x-ray microbeam analysis was largely superseded by electron techniques in the 50's. However, interest in x-ray microprobe techniques has now been revived (Howells, et al., 1983; Ice & Sparks, 1984; Chevallier, et al., 1997; Riekel 1992; Thompson, el al., 1992; and Making and Using... 1997) by the development of efficient x-ray focusing optics and ultra-high intensity synchrotron x-ray sources (Buras & Tazzari, 1984; Shenoy, et al., 1988). These advances have increased the achievable microbeam flux by more than 11 orders of magnitude (Fig. 2) (Ice, 1997); the flux in a tunable 1 mm-D beam on a 'so called' 3rd-generation synchrotron source such as the APS can exceed the flux in a fixed-energy mm2 beam on a conventional source. These advances make x-ray microfluorescence and x-ray microdiffraction analysis techniques some of the most powerful techniques available for the nondestructive measurement of chemical and crystallographic distributions in materials. This unit reviews the physics, advantages, and scientific applications of hard x-ray (E > 3 keV) microfluorescence and x-ray microdiffraction analysis. Because practical x-ray microbeam instruments are extremely rare, a special emphasis will be placed on instrumentation, accessibility, and experimental needs which justify the use of x-ray microbeam analysis.

  18. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zhang, Wenkai; Robert, Aymeric; Zhu, Diling

    2015-05-01

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus' location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging. PMID:25931074

  19. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; et al

    2015-05-01

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus' location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging.

  20. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zhang, Wenkai; Robert, Aymeric; Zhu, Diling

    2015-01-01

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus’ location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging. PMID:25931074

  1. Single shot speckle and coherence analysis of the hard X-ray free electron laser LCLS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooheyong; Roseker, W; Gutt, C; Fischer, B; Conrad, H; Lehmkühler, F; Steinke, I; Zhu, D; Lemke, H; Cammarata, M; Fritz, D M; Wochner, P; Castro-Colin, M; Hruszkewycz, S O; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Grübel, G; Robert, A

    2013-10-21

    The single shot based coherence properties of hard x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) were measured by analyzing coherent diffraction patterns from nano-particles and gold nanopowder. The intensity histogram of the small angle x-ray scattering ring from nano-particles reveals the fully transversely coherent nature of the LCLS beam with a number of transverse mode ?Ms? = 1.1. On the other hand, the speckle contrasts measured at a large wavevector yields information about the longitudinal coherence of the LCLS radiation after a silicon (111) monochromator. The quantitative agreement between our data and the simulation confirms a mean coherence time of 2.2 fs and a x-ray pulse duration of 29 fs. Finally the observed reduction of the speckle contrast generated by x-rays with pulse duration longer than 30 fs indicates ultrafast dynamics taking place at an atomic length scale prior to the permanent sample damage. PMID:24150309

  2. Electronic structure of MS (M=Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn): X-ray absorption analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsova, A. N.; Stekhin, I. E.; Soldatov, A. V.; Liu, X.; Fleet, M. E.

    2004-04-01

    Experimental x-ray absorption spectra were measured near the sulfur K and L2,3 edges of MgS, CaS, MnS, and FeS. An agreement between full multiple scattering theoretical simulations and experiment is reached for comparatively large clusters (consisting of 9 13 shells) of sulfides with the NaCl-type structure (MgS,CaS,MnS), while a small cluster of four shells appears sufficient for the NiAs-type structure of FeS. It was shown that in the Mg1-xFexS solid solution, iron sulfide changes its structure from NiAs-type (B8) to NaCl-type (B1) under the influence of the MgS matrix. The partial electronic densities of unoccupied states have been calculated for MgS and CaS. It is found that the bottom of the conduction band of MgS is formed by Mg s and S s states and of CaS by Ca d states and S d, s, and p states. A special kind of hybridization has been found: it is shown that the sulfur p states are “squeezed out” of the energy region of the iron d states.

  3. Identification of steel by X-ray fluorescence analysis with a pyroelectric X-ray generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Ida; Jun Kawai

    2004-01-01

    An application of X-ray fluorescence analysis with a pyroelectric X-ray generator is presented. Steel standard samples were identified by X-ray fluorescence analysis with this novel X-ray generator to check its capability for performing qualitative and quantitative analysis as an X-ray source for X-ray fluorescence spectrometers. Cr, Ni, V, Co, and W were detected in steel standard samples. V and Cr

  4. Degradation of spatial resolution in thin-foil x-ray microchemical analysis due to plural scattering of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Twigg, Mark Erickson

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based Monte Carlo simulation of incoherent plural scattering of electrons has been developed in order to estimate the broadening of an electron probe as it propagates through a solid. By applying this approach to modeling the spreading of a fine (50 A) probe focused on a thin foil in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), we have estimated the spatial resolution of the compositional analysis obtainable using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Specifically, an attempt has been made to determine how the apparent microchemistry of a feature of finer dimensions than the broadened beam differs from the actual composition of the given feature. The apparent Ge concentration profile in the vicinity of a 200 A wide Ge platelet in a 5000 A thick Al foil was measured, using STEM and EDS, and compared with the profile predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Results are presented and discussed.

  5. Analysis of sawtooth oscillations using simultaneous measurement of electron cyclotron emission imaging and x-ray tomography on TFTR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nagayama; K. M. McGuire; M. Bitter; A. Cavallo; E. D. Fredrickson; K. W. Hill; H. Hsuan; A. Janos; G. Taylor; M. Yamada

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution electron cyclotron emission and x-ray image reconstructions have been made simultaneously during the sawtooth crash in the fast rotating plasma with neutral beam injection heating on TFTR. The measured x-ray emission is identical as metal impurity radiation. The results suggest that the sawtooth crash is a full reconnection process of the TFTR sawteeth. The crescent shaped ``hot spot'' in

  6. X-ray Topographic Methods and Application to Analysis of Electronic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, W. E.; Liu, H. Y.; Chaudhuri, J.

    1984-01-01

    Three supplementary X-ray techniques new to semiconductor applications are discussed. These are the Computer Aided Rocking Curve Analyzer, the Divergent Beam Method and a new method based on enhanced X-ray flourescence. The first method is used for quantitative mapping of an elastic or plastic strain field while the other two methods are used only to measure elastic strains. The divergent beam method is used for measuring the full strain tensor while the microfluorescence method is useful for monitoring strain uniformity. These methods are discussed in detail and examples of their application is presented. Among these are determination of the full strain ellipsoid in state-of-the-art liquid phase epitaxy deposited III-V epitaxial films; mapping of the plastic strain concentrations in tensile deformed Si; and quantitative determination of damage in V3Si due to ion implantation.

  7. Multivariate analysis of X-ray, ion and electron spectral images: from surface to 3D materials characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2005-02-01

    Spectral imaging where a complete spectrum is collected from each of a series of spatial locations (1D lines, 2D images or 3D volumes) is now available on a wide range of analytical tools - from electron and x-ray to ion beam instruments. With this capability to collect extremely large spectral images comes the need for automated data analysis tools that can rapidly and without bias reduce a large number of raw spectra to a compact, chemically relevant, and easily interpreted representation. It is clear that manual interrogation of individual spectra is impractical even for very small spectral images (< 5000 spectra). More typical spectral images can contain tens of thousands to millions of spectra, which given the constraint of acquisition time may contain between 5 and 300 counts per 1000-channel spectrum. Conventional manual approaches to spectral image analysis such as summing spectra from regions or constructing x-ray maps are prone to bias and possibly error. One way to comprehensively analyze spectral image data, which has been automated, is to utilize an unsupervised self-modeling multivariate statistical analysis method such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR). This approach has proven capable of solving a wide range of analytical problems based upon the counting of x-rays (SEM/STEM-EDX, XRF, PIXE), electrons (EELS, XPS) and ions (TOF-SIMS). As an example of the MCR approach, a STEM x-ray spectral image from a ZrB2-SiC composite was acquired and analyzed. The data were generated in a FEI Tecnai F30-ST TEM/STEM operated at 300kV, equipped with an EDAX SUTW x-ray detector. The spectral image was acquired with the TIA software on the STEM at 128 by 128 pixels (12nm/pixel) for 100msec dwell per pixel (total acquisition time was 30 minutes) with a probe of approximately the same size as each pixel. Each spectrum in the image had, on average, 500 counts. The calculation took 5 seconds on a PC workstation with dual 2.4GHz PentiumIV Xeon processors and 2Gbytes of RAM and resulted in four chemically relevant components, which are shown in Figure 1. The analysis region was at a triple junction of three ZrB2 grains that contained zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide and a glass phase. The power of unbiased statistical methods, such as MCR as applied here, is that no a priori knowledge of the material's chemistry is required. The algorithms, in this case, effectively reduced over 16,000 2000-channel spectra (64Mbytes) to four images and four spectral shapes (72kbytes), which in this case represent chemical phases. This three order of magnitude compression is achieved rapidly with no loss of chemical information. There is also the potential to correlate multiple analytical techniques like, for example, EELS and EDS in the STEM adding sensitivity to light elements as well as bonding information for EELS to the more comprehensive spectral coverage of EDS.

  8. X-ray Free-electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Feldhaus, J.; /DESY; Arthur, J.; Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC

    2007-02-23

    In a free-electron laser (FEL) the lasing medium is a high-energy beam of electrons flying with relativistic speed through a periodic magnetic field. The interaction between the synchrotron radiation that is produced and the electrons in the beam induces a periodic bunching of the electrons, greatly increasing the intensity of radiation produced at a particular wavelength. Depending only on a phase match between the electron energy and the magnetic period, the wavelength of the FEL radiation can be continuously tuned within a wide spectral range. The FEL concept can be adapted to produce radiation wavelengths from millimeters to Angstroms, and can in principle produce hard x-ray beams with unprecedented peak brightness, exceeding that of the brightest synchrotron source by ten orders of magnitude or more. This paper focuses on short-wavelength FELs. It reviews the physics and characteristic properties of single-pass FELs, as well as current technical developments aiming for fully coherent x-ray radiation pulses with pulse durations in the 100 fs to 100 as range. First experimental results at wavelengths around 100 nm and examples of scientific applications planned on the new, emerging x-ray FEL facilities are presented.

  9. X-ray Analysis of Unknown Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this exercise, students use X-ray analysis to identify unknown minerals. They are given two samples to grind up and X-ray, using Jade to identify them. Once the minerals are identified, students make a spreadsheet and do a series of calculations.

  10. Statistical method for efficient determination of electron temperature from pulse height analysis of soft x rays in Heliotron E

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, H.; Tohda, T.; Kondo, K.; Zushi, H.; Iiyoshi, A. (Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Japan (JP))

    1989-09-01

    A pulse-height-analysis (PHA) technique of soft x rays is applied to Heliotron E experiments. The primary interest of this measurement is the determination of the electron temperature. Since the number of photons measured in a PHA system is extremely restricted owing to a finite processing rate of the system, it is most important to use the full amount of information involved in the spectral data. The statistical estimator from the maximum-likelihood method is efficiently used for this purpose. The estimated temperature is in good coincidence with the temperature by the electron-cyclotron-emission measurement, which is calibrated by the laser Thomson scattering. A check of reliability of the estimated electron temperature is developed from a statistical test of goodness of fit. The identification of impurity lines buried in a thermal spectrum is also discussed in the spectra accumulated through several or several tens of plasma discharges. The line emissions from Si, Cl, Ca, and Ti are identified. A systematic error in the estimated temperature due to the impurity lines is evaluated. The contributions from Cl and Ti cannot be neglected in the temperature estimation from a spectrum accumulated through several currentless ECH plasmas in Heliotron E. A removal of those contributions to the temperature estimation is successfully demonstrated. The electron temperature with several percent uncertainty is obtained by PHA every 10 ms during a Heliotron E discharge.

  11. NASA Li/CF(x) cell problem analysis: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    1991-01-01

    An analysis was made of Lithium/carbon fluoride cell parts for possible chloride contamination induced by exposure to thionyl chloride (SOCl2); various samples were submitted for analysis. Only a portion of the analysis which has been conducted is covered, herein, namely analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS). A strip of nickel was exposed to SOCl2 vapors to observe variations in surface concentrations of sulfur and chlorine with time. By detecting chlorine one can not infer contamination by SOCl2 only that contamination is present. Six samples of stainless steel foil were analyzed for chlorine using EDS. Chlorine was not detected on background samples but was detected on the samples which had been handled including those which had been cleaned. Cell covers suspected of being contaminated while in storage and covers which were not exposed to the same storage conditions were analyzed for chlorine. Although no chlorine was found on the covers from cells, it was found on all stored covers. Results are presented with techniques shown for analysis and identification. Relevant photomicrographs are presented.

  12. NASA Li/CF(x) cell problem analysis: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John

    1991-05-01

    An analysis was made of Lithium/carbon fluoride cell parts for possible chloride contamination induced by exposure to thionyl chloride (SOCl2); various samples were submitted for analysis. Only a portion of the analysis which has been conducted is covered, herein, namely analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS). A strip of nickel was exposed to SOCl2 vapors to observe variations in surface concentrations of sulfur and chlorine with time. By detecting chlorine one can not infer contamination by SOCl2 only that contamination is present. Six samples of stainless steel foil were analyzed for chlorine using EDS. Chlorine was not detected on background samples but was detected on the samples which had been handled including those which had been cleaned. Cell covers suspected of being contaminated while in storage and covers which were not exposed to the same storage conditions were analyzed for chlorine. Although no chlorine was found on the covers from cells, it was found on all stored covers. Results are presented with techniques shown for analysis and identification. Relevant photomicrographs are presented.

  13. Evaluation of the acetate buffer attack of a sequential extraction scheme for marine particulate metal speciation studies by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Baffi; C Ianni; M Ravera; F Soggia; E Magi

    1998-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), has been used to evaluate and possibly optimize, the first step (acetate buffer attack for exchangeable and carbonatic fractions) of a sequential selective extraction scheme. The extraction has been performed on two different particulates, a certified reference plankton and a real marine suspended particulate, using an increased acetate concentration and various

  14. ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

    2010-09-01

    Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  15. Studies on x-ray and UV emissions in electron cyclotron resonance x-ray sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S.

    2008-02-01

    A novel electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source is constructed based on the ECR technique. In this paper, the possibility of using the ECR x-ray source for producing UV rays by optimizing the plasma parameters is explored. X-ray and UV emissions from the ECR x-ray source are carried out for argon, nitrogen, and CO2 plasma. The x-ray spectral and dose measurements are carried with NaI(Tl) based spectrometer and dosimeter, respectively. For UV measurement, a quartz window arrangement is made at the exit port and the UV intensity is measured at 5cm from the quartz plate using UV meter. The x-ray and UV emissions are carried out for different microwave power levels and gas pressures. The x-ray emission is observed in the pressure range ?10-5Torr, whereas the UV emission is found to be negligible for the gas pressures <10-5Torr and it starts increasing in the pressure range between 10-5 and 10-3Torr. At high-pressure range, collision frequency of electron-atom is large which leads to the higher UV flux. At low pressure, the electron-atom collision frequency is low and hence the electrons reach high energy and by hitting the cavity wall produces higher x-ray flux. By choosing proper experimental conditions and plasma gas species, the same source can be used as either an x-ray source or an UV source.

  16. X-ray Free-electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, Claudio [UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2009-09-10

    We review the present status and properties of X-ray free-electron lasers in operation or under construction in the nanometer and sub-nanometer wavelength range, and the novel possibilities they offer for the study of atomic and molecular processes. We also discuss recent developments in relativistic electron beam physics that give us the possibility of designing a new generation of X-ray free-electron lasers that: a. are more compact; b. reduce the radiation pulse duration to one femtosecond or below; c. extend the photon energy to the 50 keV region. These results are obtained by reducing the electron bunch charge while at same time maximizing the beam brightness and reducing the bunch length to a value near or smaller than the free-electron laser cooperation length. In the last case the radiation pulse is fully coherent in the longitudinal and transverse space. The increase in beam brightness can also be used to reduce the beam energy needed for a given radiation wavelength, when, at the same time, the undulator period is reduced. The simultaneous decrease in beam energy and undulator period leads to a more compact free-electron laser, while the high beam brightness reduces the gain length and increases the coherent radiation intensity.

  17. Characterization of wood dust from furniture by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez Yepes, Milena Elizabeth; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2011-01-01

    Study characterized and analyzed form factor, elementary composition and particle size of wood dust, in order to understand its harmful health effects on carpenters in Quindío (Colombia). Once particle characteristics (size distributions, aerodynamic equivalent diameter (D(?)), elemental composition and shape factors) were analyzed, particles were then characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXRA). SEM analysis of particulate matter showed: 1) cone-shaped particle ranged from 2.09 to 48.79 µm D(?); 2) rectangular prism-shaped particle from 2.47 to 72.9 µm D(?); 3) cylindrically-shaped particle from 2.5 to 48.79 µm D(?); and 4) spherically-shaped particle from 2.61 to 51.93 µm D(?). EDXRA reveals presence of chemical elements from paints and varnishes such as Ca, K, Na and Cr. SEM/EDXRA contributes in a significant manner to the morphological characterization of wood dust. It is obvious that the type of particles sampled is a complex function of shapes and sizes of particles. Thus, it is important to investigate the influence of particles characteristics, morphology, shapes and D(?) that may affect the health of carpenters in Quindío. PMID:21697619

  18. Synchrotron X-ray analysis of the electron density in HoFe2.

    PubMed

    Streltsov; Ishizawa

    1999-06-01

    Structure factors for a small holmium diiron HoFe(2) Laves crystal were measured with focused lambda = 0.75 Å synchrotron X-radiation using a fast avalanche photodiode (APD) counter. The deformation electron density (Deltarho) maps are remarkable for significant excess electron density midway between the Ho atoms, which is not dissimilar to the peaks attributed to classic 'covalent bonding' in C and Si crystals. These residual electrons accumulate at the centres of the kagomé net hexagons and form, with the Fe atoms, a triangular lattice which is characterized by more stable magnetic order than the kagomé net. Similar peaks occur along the Ho-Fe and Fe-Fe contacts. These results confirm the hypothesis that 5d electrons of the rare-earth atoms are important in the spin-coupling mechanism for HoFe(2)-type compounds. The 5d electrons are far less localized than the 4f electrons, and considerable 5d-5d and 5d-3d orbital overlap occurs between neighbouring atoms. Aspherical electron density near the Ho nuclei can be associated with the Ho 4f subshell electrons. Strong depletions of the Deltarho near the atoms along the Ho-Ho, Ho-Fe and Fe-Fe vectors are indications of exchange repulsion. The effect of anharmonicity on the Deltarho is insignificant. PMID:10927373

  19. Pottery analysis using PIXE, neutron activation, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Brissaud; A. Houdayer; C. JEI-IANNO; A. Sabir

    1985-01-01

    Potsherds were analyzed chemically by four different techniques. Results are compared for many elements. The effect of temper appears as a problem because of the inhomogeneity of the bulk. PIXE and neutron activation are powerful and complementary methods to obtain element concentrations for proveniance studies. Also scanning electron microscopy and the electron microprobe are very useful to detect and analyze

  20. Tissue chemical analysis with muonic x rays.

    PubMed

    Hutson, R L; Reidy, J J; Springer, K; Daniel, H; Knowles, H B

    1976-07-01

    The stopped muon channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility was used as a source of muons for studying the elemental composition of tissue via muonic x rays. The x-ray spectra from several types of tissue were used to determine the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen present. These determinations agree with the results of more conventional chemical analysis. Muonic x rays offer a noninvasive technique for determining the amounts of the more abundant elements in selected regions of the body. PMID:935447

  1. A tunable optical cavity for an x-ray free-electron laser oscillator.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.-J.; Shvyd'ko, Y.

    2009-03-01

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator proposed recently for hard x rays [K. Kim, Y. Shvydko, and S. Reiche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 244802 (2008)] can be made tunable by using an x-ray cavity composed of four crystals, instead of two. The tunability of x-ray energy will significantly enhance the usefulness of an x-ray free-electron laser oscillator. We present a detailed analysis of the four-crystal optical cavity and choice of crystals for several applications: inelastic x-ray scattering, nuclear resonant scattering, bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, other high-energy-resolution ({le} 1 meV) spectroscopic probes, and for imaging with hard x rays at near-atomic resolution ({approx} 1 nm).

  2. An analysis of FtsZ assembly using small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Anuradha; Abdul Rasheed, A S; Narayanan, Janaky; Bellare, Jayesh; Panda, Dulal

    2009-04-01

    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used for the first time to study the self-assembly of the bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ, with three different additives: calcium chloride, monosodium glutamate and DEAE-dextran hydrochloride in solution. The SAXS data were analyzed assuming a model form factor and also by a model-independent analysis using the pair distance distribution function. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for direct observation of the FtsZ filaments. By sectioning and negative staining with glow discharged grids, very high bundling as well as low bundling polymers were observed under different assembly conditions. FtsZ polymers formed different structures in the presence of different additives and these additives were found to increase the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments by different mechanisms. The combined use of SAXS and TEM provided us a significant insight of the assembly of FtsZ and microstructures of the assembled FtsZ polymers. PMID:19708152

  3. Improvement of analysis precision upon the atomic number and electron density measurement by the dual x-ray CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Yukino; Morii, Hisashi; Koike, Akifumi; Okunoyama, Takaharu; Neo, Yoichiro; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru

    2010-08-01

    To identify the factor impairing the material identification parameters, which is provided by the dual-energy X-ray computed tomography method using a conventional X-ray tube and a CdTe detector, linear attenuation coefficient was measured by the radioactivity of radio isotopes and compared with theoretical figure. In our study, the atomic number and the electron density is calculated from the linear attenuation coefficient obtained in CT measurement by 64-channel CdTe line detector. To estimate accuracy of CdTe line sensor, it is needed to obtain the linear attenuation coefficient accurately. Using a single detector, the linear attenuation coefficient is verified for accuracy. The energy resolution of CdTe detectors and the method of reconstruction are discussed.

  4. Electron dynamics in WDM with x-ray pump/x-ray probe at LCLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbrel, Benjamin; Falcone, Roger; Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried; Ravasio, Alessandra; Galtier, Eric; Engelhorn, Kyle; Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Monaco, Giulio; Saunders, Alison; Fletcher, Luke; Hastings, Jerome; Zastrau, Ulf; MacDonald, Mac; Schumaker, Will; Gautier, Maxence; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Gamboa, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Recent machine developments at LCLS have led to the capability for the FEL to deliver two x-ray pulses separated both in time and photon energy. This enables x-ray pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed to study the ultrafast dynamics of electrons in warm dense matter (WDM) plasmas. Such experiments open a window over the first tens of femtoseconds of the time evolution of non-equilibrium electronic distribution in dense plasmas. We recently conducted an LCLS-MEC experiment in which thin metallic foils where irradiated with two x-ray pulses. The first x-ray pulse isochorically heats up the material, and the second one probes the electronics properties of the sample in the first 100 fs of its evolution via x-ray Thomson scattering. In this presentation I will discuss the first results of this experiments as well as the potential of x-ray pump/x-ray probe experiments for WDM science.

  5. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Inubushi, Yuichi; Obara, Yuki; Sato, Takahiro; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Kurahashi, Naoya; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Toshinori; Yabashi, Makina

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (?E/E ˜ 5 × 10-3), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ˜3 × 10-3, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  6. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ogi, Yoshihiro [Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)] [Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshinori [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan) [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (?E/E ? 5 × 10{sup ?3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ?3 × 10{sup ?3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  7. Analysis of a Novel Diffractive Scanning Wire Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for Discriminative Profiling of Electron Vs. X Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-01

    Recent numerical studies of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime indicate a large sensitivity of the gain to the degree of transverse overlap (and associated phase coherence) between the electron and photon beams traveling down the insertion device. Simulations of actual systems imply that accurate detection and correction for this relative loss of overlap, rather than correction for the absolute departure of the electron beam from a fixed axis, is the preferred function of an FEL amplifier's Beam Position Monitor (BPM) and corrector systems. In this note we propose a novel diffractive BPM with the capability of simultaneously detecting and resolving the absolute (and relative) transverse positions and profiles of electron and x-ray beams co-propagating through an undulator. We derive the equations governing the performance of the BPM and examine its predicted performance for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), viz., for profiling multi-GeV electron bunches co-propagating with one-to-several-hundred keV x-ray beams. Selected research and development (r&d) tasks for fabricating and testing the proposed BPM are discussed.

  8. Muscle cell membranes from early degeneration muscle cell fibers in Solenopsis are leaky to lanthanum: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.G.; Davis, W.L.

    1985-06-01

    Lanthanum infusion techniques, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis were utilized to compare the permeability of muscle cell membranes from normal and degenerating muscle fibers of Solenopsis spp. In normal fibers, the electron-dense tracer was limited to components of the sarcotubular system. However, the insemination-induced degeneration of muscle fibers was characterized by the presence of an electron-dense precipitate within the myofibrils and mitochondria as well as in the extramyofibrillar spaces. The electron-dense material was subsequently identified by elemental analysis to be lanthanum. Such data indicate that one of the earliest stages of muscle degeneration involves an alteration in cell membrane permeability.

  9. Analysis of 20 KEV Electron Induced X-Ray Production in Skull, Femur/tibia Bones of Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rahul; Watson, Alec; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2010-04-01

    Hind-limb suspension (HLS) of rats is a NASA validated model of simulated weightlessness. This study examines the effects of microgravity on the skeletal system of rats to assess whether or not exposure of rats to HLS for one week will induce alteration of structural features in selected bones. Four groups of rats were used: two unsuspended controls and two suspended groups. Body weight, food, and water intake were monitored daily before and after suspension. X-rays were measured by a liquid nitrogen cooled Si(li) detector on a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that provided the 20 keV electron beam. X-ray data were collected from square cross sections between 100 ?m2 and 104 ?m2. The bones were measured for elemental levels of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon from both control and HLS rats. The average body weight of all HLS groups decreased compared to their respective unsuspended controls. Food and water intake was also lower in both suspended groups. A correlation among HLS and control samples in terms of the distribution of the primary elements was found in the bone tissue when analyzed as a function of position along the hind-leg and within the cross sections.

  10. MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer Detection of Electron-induced X-ray Fluorescence from Mercury's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, R. D.; Schriver, D.; Nittler, L. R.; Weider, S. Z.; Byrne, P. K.; Ho, G. C.; Rhodes, E. A.; Schlemm, C. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Travnicek, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray emission from solar system bodies has been observed for decades. The surface of planets with no atmosphere may be excited by solar X-rays, solar wind particles (primarily electrons), and ions, producing line emission and bremsstrahlung. Measurement of solar-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from planetary surfaces has been used to infer surface elemental abundances at the Moon and the asteroids 433 Eros and 25143 Itokawa. More recently, the MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) has reported on Mercury's surface composition derived from measurements of solar-flare-induced XRF. The XRS began orbital observations on 23 March 2011 and has observed X-ray fluorescence from the surface of the planet during both "quiet-Sun" and flaring conditions whenever a sunlit portion of Mercury has been within the XRS field of view. XRS can detect the characteristic X-rays of Mg, Al, and Si during quiet-Sun conditions, but solar flares are required to produce measurable signals from the elements of higher atomic number such as S, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Nevertheless, X-ray fluorescence up to the Ca fluorescent line (3.69 keV) has been detected from Mercury's surface at times when the XRS field of view included only unlit portions of the planet or during quiet-Sun illumination. Many such events have been detected and are identified as electron-induced X-ray emission produced by ~1-10 keV electrons interacting with Mercury's surface. Electrons in this energy range were detected by the XRS during the three Mercury flybys, and since the beginning of orbital operations electrons of this same energy range have been detected by XRS during almost every orbit. These electron events last from minutes to tens of minutes. Electron transport models suggest that a large percentage of these quasi-trapped electrons do not complete even a single drift orbit about Mercury before impacting the surface. Knowledge of the precipitating electron distribution at the planet's surface makes it possible to infer surface composition from the measured fluorescent spectra. Elemental compositions for Mg, Al, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe have been derived from these measurements and are in line, to within expected uncertainties, with those inferred from solar-induced XRF. This agreement confirms the value of electron-induced X-ray emission measurements as a tool for geochemical analysis at Mercury.

  11. Fundamental physics with an X-ray free electron laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tajima

    2003-01-01

    Of late, laboratories around the world are considering building X-ray free electron lasers based on high energy electron accelerators\\u000a (with energies exceeding 10 GeV) to produce bright coherent X rays with wavelengths on the order of 1 . Because of the extremely\\u000a small wavelength and high brilliance of these coherent X rays, there is an unprecedented opportunity to explore new

  12. Millimeter, Microwave, Hard X--ray and Soft X--ray Observations of Energetic Electron Populations in Solar Flares

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    Millimeter, Microwave, Hard X--ray and Soft X--ray Observations of Energetic Electron Populations -- 200 keV, microwaves by electrons in the range 100 keV -- 1 MeV, and millimeter--wavelength emission wavelengths are diagnostics of energetic electrons in different energy ranges: soft X--rays are produced

  13. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  14. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  15. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    PubMed

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. PMID:25553413

  16. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    system with 30 take-off angle for quantitative analysis, digital imaging, and X-ray mapping. The EDAXField Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy of objective aperture. Dual SE detectors allow versatile imaging. The FE-SEM is equipped with fully digital

  17. X-ray chemical analysis of YBa2Cu3Ox thin film by total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Usui; Masayuki Kamei; Yuji Aoki; Tadataka Morishita; Shoji Tanaka

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied to X-ray chemical analysis of a 800 Å thick YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) film on an MgO substrate. In this method, the emission efficiency of characeti X-rays, excited by the electron beam of a SEM, from elements composing a thin film is drastically enhanced, as compared to that in the conventional SEM-EDX

  18. X-ray framing camera for pulsed, high current, electron beam x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failor, B. H.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Riordan, J. C.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2007-07-01

    High power x-ray sources built for nuclear weapons effects testing are evolving toward larger overall diameters and smaller anode cathode gaps. We describe a framing camera developed to measure the time-evolution of these 20-50 ns pulsed x-ray sources produced by currents in the 1.5-2.5 MA range and endpoint voltages between 0.2 and 1.5 MV. The camera has up to 4 frames with 5 ns gate widths; the frames are separated by 5 ns. The image data are recorded electronically with a gated intensified CCD camera and the data are available immediately following a shot. A fast plastic scintillator (2.1 ns decay time) converts the x-rays to visible light and, for high sensitivity, a fiber optic imaging bundle carries the light to the CCD input. Examples of image data are shown.

  19. An ultra fast electron beam x-ray tomography scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Fischer; D. Hoppe; E. Schleicher; G. Mattausch; H. Flaske; R. Bartel; U. Hampel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of an ultra fast x-ray tomography scanner based on electron beam technology. The scanner has been developed for two-phase flow studies where frame rates of 1 kHz and higher are required. Its functional principle is similar to that of the electron beam x-ray CT scanners used in cardiac imaging. Thus, the scanner comprises an electron

  20. Structural Analysis of Amorphous Alloys by X-Ray Diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osami Haruyama

    1995-01-01

    The structure of amorphous alloys has been studied by using various techniques, such as x-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction experiments. X-ray diffraction is the most conventional of all the techniques and is based on EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) [1-3] and AXS (anomalous x-ray scattering) [4-5] experiments, which are used for the investigation of the local environment around a

  1. Atmospheric electron-induced x-ray spectrometer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Urgiles, Eduardo; Toda, Risaku; Crisp, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends the work reported at the IEEE Aerospace conference in 2001 and 2003 where the concept and progress in the development of the so called atmospheric Electron X-ray Spectrometer (AEXS) has been described.

  2. RFX x-ray pulse height analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, L.; Valisa, M.

    1990-10-01

    The x-ray pulse height analysis diagnostic designed and built for the RFX reversed field pinch experiment is presented. The system is designed so as to be sensitive over a wide range of RFX operational conditions (100 eV ?Te ? 2 keV). An array of three liquid N2 cooled Si(Li) detectors looks at the plasma through an equatorial port of the torus and can be tilted ±20° off the plane in order to scan over the central half of the minor diameter on a shot-to-shot basis. A second windowless single detector views the plasma along a fixed chord through a second equatorial port and is sensitive to x-ray energies as low as 500 eV. Commercial electronics are mostly used. The throughput is limited only by the shaping amplifier and pulse pileup rejector. Software simulation of the x-ray flux, including the pulse pileup rejection procedure of the electronic chain, was used to dimension the diagnostic, i.e., number of detectors, size of the apertures, and filter combinations. Preliminary tests indicate 20 ms as a realistic target for the electron temperature time resolution, reducible to 5 ms when all of the four detectors are addressed to the same properly chosen x-ray energy region.

  3. Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Fridriksson, Joel Karl

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

  4. Development of miniaturized electron probe X-ray microanalyzer.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Imanishi, Akira; Kawai, Jun

    2011-11-15

    A miniaturized electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) with a small chamber including the electron source and the sample stage was realized using a pyroelectric crystal as an electron source. The EPMA we propose is the smallest reported so far. Performance of the EPMA was evaluated by investigating energy of obtained continuous X-rays and lower detection limits of transition metals (titanium, iron, and nickel). End point energy (Duane-Hunt limit) of continuous X-rays of 45 keV was obtained. However, it is expected that the EPMA can analyze characteristic X-rays with energy less than 20 keV. The EPMA was able to measure titanium, iron, and nickel wires whose projected areas were more than 0.03 mm(2). PMID:22017251

  5. Micro and imaging x-ray analysis by using polycapillary x-ray optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouichi Tsuji; Kazuhiko Nakano; Makoto Yamaguchi; Tasuku Yonehara

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the micro x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and 2D- or 3D-XRF analysis in the laboratory by using polycapillary optics. A confocal 3D micro-XRF instrument was applied for solid\\/liquid interface analysis. 2D elemental maps of x-ray fluorescence for the solid surface of an Fe plate after Cu was deposited by chemical plating were obtained. The 2D images could be taken

  6. Portable pulsed electronic digital X-ray imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yi; Wang Jingjin; Wang Kuilu; Liu Guozhi; Zhu Guofu; Zhang Yuanlin; Du Hongliang

    1999-01-01

    A portable, pulsed electronic digital X-ray imaging device has been developed. The system is intended to be used in explosive ordnance disposal, police and customs baggage inspection and nondestructive testing (NDT). Image acquisition is performed by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) imaging sensors which view the output of an X-ray scintillation screen via an optical system. The construction of the system, its

  7. X-ray Free Electron Laser at SPring8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Ishikawa

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, when linac-based X-ray free electron lasers were discussed as the “next” generation synchrotron light source in the US and Europe, we were in the middle of the commissioning of SPring-8, which was inaugurated in 1997. SPring-8 is a 3 generation X-ray synchrotron radiation facility similar to, but a little larger than, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

  8. Imaging instantaneous electron flow with ultrafast resonant x-ray scattering

    E-print Network

    Popova-Gorelova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel way to image dynamical properties of nonstationary electron systems using ultrafast resonant x-ray scattering. Employing a rigorous theoretical analysis within the framework of quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that a single scattering pattern from a nonstationary electron system encodes the instantaneous interatomic electron current in addition to the structural information usually obtained by resonant x-ray scattering from stationary systems. Thus, inelastic contributions that are indistinguishable from elastic processes induced by a broadband probe pulse, instead of being a concern, serve as an advantage for time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering. Thereby, we propose an approach combining elastic and inelastic resonant x-ray scattering for imaging dynamics of nonstationary electron systems in both real space and real time. In order to illustrate its power, we show how it can be applied to image the electron hole current in an ionized diatomic molecule.

  9. Imaging instantaneous electron flow with ultrafast resonant x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova-Gorelova, Daria; Santra, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We propose a way to image dynamical properties of nonstationary electron systems using ultrafast resonant x-ray scattering. Employing a rigorous theoretical analysis within the framework of quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that a single scattering pattern from a nonstationary electron system encodes the instantaneous interatomic electron current in addition to the structural information usually obtained by resonant x-ray scattering from stationary systems. Thus, inelastic contributions that are indistinguishable from elastic processes induced by a broadband probe pulse, instead of being a concern, serve as an advantage for time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering. Thereby, we propose an approach combining elastic and inelastic resonant x-ray scattering for imaging dynamics of nonstationary electron systems in both real space and real time. In order to illustrate its power, we show how it can be applied to image the electron-hole current in an ionized diatomic molecule.

  10. Lipid Bilayer Structure Determined by the Simultaneous Analysis of Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Data

    E-print Network

    Nagle, John F.

    Lipid Bilayer Structure Determined by the Simultaneous Analysis of Neutron and X-Ray Scattering) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers by simultaneously analyzing x-ray and neutron scattering data. The neutron data electron and neutron scattering density profiles. A key result of the analysis is the molecular surface

  11. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusinski, J.

    2010-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  12. The analysis of primer mixtures and gunshot residues using scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien-Hui Meng; Hsei-Chang Lee; Yu-Liang Chen

    2003-01-01

    Although the analysis of GSR using SEM\\/EDX has been thoroughly studied, no literature on the SEM\\/EDX analysis of primer mixtures of center-fired cartridges has been reported. Thus, not only GSR but also primer mixtures generated from both reference cartridges and confiscated illegal cartridges were analyzed in this work. The aim of this work is to obtain elemental composition data of

  13. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Pr?dki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  14. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Grguraš, I; Behrens, C; Bromberger, H; Costello, J T; Czwalinna, M K; Felber, M; Hoffmann, M C; Ilchen, M; Liu, H Y; Mazza, T; Meyer, M; Pfeiffer, S; Pr?dki, P; Schefer, S; Schmidt, C; Wegner, U; Schlarb, H; Cavalieri, A L

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  15. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Pr?dki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  16. Microstructural Investigation of SexTe100-x Thin Films Deposited on Si(100) Substrates by X-ray Diffractometer and Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun Tae; Lee, Jeong Yong; Kim, Yong Tae

    2007-11-01

    The microstructural properties of SexTe100-x (x=16,29,38) thin films are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. SexTe100-x thin films have a Te hexagonal structure and Te{011} interplanar spacing decreases because some Se atoms occupy Te atomic sites, forming Se helical chains within the Te helical chains. By increasing the Se contents from 16 to 29 at. %, Se5.95Te1.05 monoclinic and Se hexagonal structures coexist in a grain and at 38 at. %, a Se hexagonal structure is observed within the Te hexagonal grain. This means that SexTe100-x thin films maintain the Te hexagonal structure and that phase separation does not occur owing to the short diffusion time.

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis and scanning electron microscopic observation of the lithium surface immersed in nonaqueous solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Kanamura; Soshi Shiraishi; Hiroshi Tamura; Zenichiro Takehara

    1994-01-01

    The lithium surface immersed in various electrolytes for 10 min or 3 days was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The lithium surface was covered with the native film which consists of Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3], LiOH, and Li[sub 2]O. During the immersion of lithium in propylene carbonate or [gamma]-butyrolactone containing 1.0 mol dm[sup [minus]3] LiBF[sub 4] or LiPF[sub 6], the native

  18. Copyright The Discussion Group of X-Ray Analysis,

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    ] EXAFS EXEFS EPMA X-ray spectroscopy X-ray absorption X EXEFS X X XAFS EXEFS EXAFS EXEFS EPMA X X 1. X Structure EXAFS EXEFS X XRF X EPMA X X-ray Absorption Fine Structure XAFS X EPMA Electron Probe Micro 2000 37 2002 38 EXEFS EXEFS 30 31 32 33 EXAFS REX2000 X EXEFS SiO2 EXEFS Fig.4 1.9 Fig.4 Si O 1.61 Urch

  19. Electron yield X-ray absorption spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tourillon; E. Dartyge; A. Fontaine; M. Lemonnier; F. Bartol

    1987-01-01

    The electron yield at atmospheric pressure for X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a new technique able to study the very top surface of thick samples in real environments. A combined detector has been designed at LURE which yields EXAFS spectra in transmission, electron and fluorescence modes. A variable probed thickness is obtained, depending on the polarization. With a positively biased collector

  20. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC; ,

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THE SUN'S X-RAYS. III. ELECTRONIC APPARATUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Vasilev; A. I. Shurigin; I. P. Tindo; Yu. K. Voronko

    1963-01-01

    The electronic portion of an apparatus constructed for the investigation ; of soft x rays being emitted by the sun is described. The apparatus is used in ; geophysical rockets and in cosmic space ships and earth satellites. In the ; geophysical rockets two separate detection channels are employed, one for the ; working counters and the other for the

  2. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawes

    1987-01-01

    This introduction to the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) covers in detail instrumentation, sample preparation, and X-ray microanalysis and instrumentation. Emphasis is on developing an understanding of SEM and becoming proficient at its procedures. Mathematics is kept to a minimum. A chapter on instrumentation covers principles of operation, specimen\\/electrode interactions, detectors, and operating conditions and limitations. The discussion of

  3. Molecular imaging using X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Barty, Anton; Küpper, Jochen; Chapman, Henry N

    2013-01-01

    The opening of hard X-ray free-electron laser facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, has ushered in a new era in structural determination. With X-ray pulse durations down to 10 fs or shorter, and up to 10(13) transversely coherent photons per pulse in a narrow spectral bandwidth, focused irradiances of 10(18) to 10(21) W cm(-2) or higher can be produced at X-ray energies ranging from 500 eV to 10 keV. New techniques for determining the structure of systems that cannot be crystallized and for studying the time-resolved behavior of irreversible reactions at femtosecond timescales are now available. PMID:23331310

  4. Molecular Imaging Using X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, Anton; Küpper, Jochen; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-04-01

    The opening of hard X-ray free-electron laser facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, has ushered in a new era in structural determination. With X-ray pulse durations down to 10 fs or shorter, and up to 1013 transversely coherent photons per pulse in a narrow spectral bandwidth, focused irradiances of 1018 to 1021 W cm-2 or higher can be produced at X-ray energies ranging from 500 eV to 10 keV. New techniques for determining the structure of systems that cannot be crystallized and for studying the time-resolved behavior of irreversible reactions at femtosecond timescales are now available.

  5. Electron-channeling radiation: x-ray source feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. L. Sanford; W. Beezhold; J. R. Lee

    1983-01-01

    Properties of recently observed channeling radiation generated by electrons incident on crystalline axes, and in this case, electrons from a hypothetical 15-40-MeV high-current electron accelerator, are investigated in order to explore the feasibility of using channeling radiation as an intense 10- to 100-keV x-ray source for laboratory weapons effects studies. Under the assumption that the crystal remains intact long enough

  6. ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-08-02

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

  7. Fundamental physics at an X-ray free electron laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ringwald

    2001-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (FELs) have been proposed to be constructed both at SLAC in the form of the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source as well as at DESY, where the so-called XFEL laboratory is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA. In addition to the immediate applications in condensed matter physics, chemistry, material science, and structural

  8. Chemical Shifts in X-ray and Photo-Electron Spectroscopy: A Historical review

    E-print Network

    Lindgren, Ingvar

    Chemical Shifts in X-ray and Photo-Electron Spectroscopy: A Historical review Ingvar Lindgren 1 Introduction 2 2 Chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy 2 2.1 Discovery of the chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Interpretation of the chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy

  9. Correlative Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, Light Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and X-ray Microanalysis for Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Colloidal Gold Spheres in Biological Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyer, Julián F.; Albrecht, Ralph M.

    1998-10-01

    : Colloidal gold, conjugated to ligands or antibodies, is routinely used as a label for the detection of cell structures by light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). To date, several methods to count the number of colloidal gold labels have been employed with limited success. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a physical method for the analysis of the elemental composition of materials, can be used to provide a quantitative index of gold accumulation in bulk specimens. Given that gold is not naturally found in biological specimens in any substantial amount and that colloidal gold and ligand conjugates can be prepared to yield uniform bead sizes, the amount of label can be calculated in bulk biological samples by INAA. Here we describe the use of INAA, LM, transmission EM, and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in a model to determine both distribution (localization) and amount of colloidal gold at the organ, tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels in whole animal systems following administration. In addition, the sensitivity for gold in biological specimens by INAA is compared with that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The correlative use of INAA, LM, TEM, and EDX can be useful, for example, in the quantitative and qualitative tracking of various labeled molecular species following administration in vivo.

  10. Chandra X-ray Analysis of Galaxy Cluster A168

    E-print Network

    Yanbin Yang; Zhiying Huo; Xu Zhou; Suijian Xue; Shude Mao; Jun Ma; Jiansheng Chen

    2004-06-29

    We present Chandra X-ray observations of galaxy cluster A168 (z=0.045). Two X-ray peaks with a projected distance of 676 kpc are found to be located close to two dominant galaxies, respectively. Both peaks are significantly offset from the peak of the number density distribution of galaxies. This suggests that A168 consists of two subclusters, a northern subcluster (A168N) and a southern subcluster (A168S). Further X-ray imaging analysis reveals that (1) the X-ray isophotes surrounding the two X-ray peaks are heavily distorted, (2) an elongated and ontinuous filament connects the two X-ray peaks. These suggest that strong interactions have occurred between the two subclusters. Spectral analysis shows that A168 has a mean temperature of 2.53 +/- 0.09 keV and a mean metallicity of 0.31 +/- 0.04 Z_{solar}. The metallicity is roughly a constant across the cluster but the temperature shows some systematic variations. Most X-ray, optical and radio properties of A168 are consistent with it being an off-axis merger several Gyrs after a core passage, although detailed numerical simulations are required to see whether the observed properties, in particular the significant offset between the optical and X-ray centers, can be reproduced in such a scenario.

  11. X-ray Peltier cooled detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Loupilov; A. Sokolov; V. Gostilo

    2001-01-01

    The recent results on development of X-ray Si(Li), Si-planar and CdTe p-i-n detectors cooled by Peltier coolers for fabrication of laboratory and portable XRF analysers for different applications are discussed.Low detection limits of XRF analysers are provided by increasing of detectors sensitive surface; improvement of their spectrometrical characteristics; decreasing of front-end-electronics noise level; Peltier coolers and vacuum chambers cooling modes

  12. Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in dermatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forslind

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is frequently applied to dermatological problems, as is evident from a review of the recent literature. In this paper, preparation methods and new techniques allowing experimental studies on the integumentary system are emphasized. Quantitative analysis in the electron microscope by use of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) has become an important accessory technique. EDX can, for instance, be

  13. Electronic noise compensation in iterative x-ray CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2008-03-01

    Electronic noise compensation can be important for low-dose x-ray CT applications where severe photon starvation occurs. For clinical x-ray CT systems utilizing energy-integrating detectors, it has been shown that the detected x-ray intensity is compound Poisson distributed, instead of the Poisson distribution that is often studied in the literature. We model the electronic noise contaminated signal Z as the sum of a compound Poisson distributed random variable (r.v.) Y and a Gaussian distributed electronic noise N with known mean and variance. We formulate the iterative x-ray CT reconstruction problem with electronic noise compensation as a maximum-likelihood reconstruction problem. However the likelihood function of Z is not analytically trackable; instead of working with it directly, we formulate the problem in the expectation-maximization (EM) framework, and iteratively maximize the conditional expectation of the complete log-likelihood of Y. We further demonstrate that the conditional expectation of the surrogate function of the complete log-likelihood is a legitimate surrogate for the incomplete surrogate. Under certain linearity conditions on the surrogate function, a reconstruction algorithm with electronic noise compensation can be obtained by some modification of one previously derived without electronic noise considerations; the change incurred is simply replacing the unavailable, uncontaminated measurement Y by its conditional expectation E(Y|Z). The calculation of E(Y|Z) depends on the model of Y, N, and Z. We propose two methods for calculating this conditional expectation when Y follows a special compound Poisson distribution - the exponential dispersion model (ED). Our methods can be regarded as an extension of similar approaches using the Poisson model to the compound Poisson model.

  14. Millimeter, microwave, hard X-ray, and soft X-ray observations of energetic electron populations in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; White, S. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Lim, J.

    1994-01-01

    We present comparisons of multiwavelength data for a number of solar flares observed during the major campaign of 1991 June. The different wavelengths are diagnostics of energetic electrons in different energy ranges: soft X-rays are produced by electrons with energies typically below 10 keV, hard X-rays by electrons with energies in the range 10-200 keV, microwaves by electrons in the range 100 keV-1 MeV, and millimeter-wavelength emission by electrons with energies of 0.5 MeV and above. The flares in the 1991 June active period were remarkable in two ways: all have very high turnover frequencies in their microwave spectra, and very soft hard X-ray spectra. The sensitivity of the microwave and millimeter data permit us to study the more energetic (greater than 0.3 MeV) electrons even in small flares, where their high-energy bremsstrahlung is too weak for present detectors. The millimeter data show delays in the onset of emission with respect to the emissions associated with lower energy electrons and differences in time profiles, energy spectral indices incompatible with those implied by the hard X-ray data, and a range of variability of the peak flux in the impulsive phase when compared with the peak hard X-ray flux which is two orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding variability in the peak microwave flux. All these results suggest that the hard X-ray-emitting electrons and those at higher energies which produce millimeter emission must be regarded as separate populations. This has implications for the well-known 'number problem' found previously when comparing the numbers of non thermal electrons required to produce the hard X-ray and radio emissions.

  15. Electronic structure of Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys: X-ray-absorption fine-structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, A.N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, Code 684, 9500 MacArthur Boulevard, West Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5700 (United States)] [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, Code 684, 9500 MacArthur Boulevard, West Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5700 (United States); Dmitrienko, A.; Soldatov, A.V. [Department of Solid State Physics, Rostov University, Sorge Street 5, Rostov-Don, 344090 (Russia)] [Department of Solid State Physics, Rostov University, Sorge Street 5, Rostov-Don, 344090 (Russia)

    1997-06-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) above the Ni K edge in Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys has been measured and theoretical full multiple-scattering analysis of these data have been done. The theoretical XAFS are found to be in agreement with experimental data. The XAFS of Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys are rather different. Since the dipole transition matrix element is not a very sharp function of the energy the experimental XAFS reflects the averaged in space partial Ni p unoccupied states in the conduction bands of the Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl{sub 3} alloys, showing changes in the electronic structure going from Ni{sub 3}Al to NiAl{sub 3} alloy. Theoretical partial density of states curves calculated along the axis parallel to the c vector differ from the partial density of states curves calculated in the {ital ab} plane for both alloys. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. A case of hut lung: scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of a domestically acquired form of pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Gujral, Manmeet; Abraham, Jerrold L; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Iannuzzi, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Hut lung is a pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to smoke derived from biomass fuels used for cooking in poorly ventilated huts. We report, to our knowledge, the first analysis of the dust deposited in the lungs in hut lung by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). A Bhutanese woman presented with shortness of breath and an abnormal chest radiograph. Chest CT scan showed innumerable tiny bilateral upper lobe centrilobular nodules. Transbronchial biopsy revealed mild interstitial fibrosis with heavy interstitial deposition of black dust. SEM/EDS showed that the dust was carbonaceous, with smaller yet substantial numbers of silica and silicate particles. Additional history revealed use of a wood/coal-fueled stove in a small, poorly ventilated hut for 45 years. The possibility of hut lung should be considered in women from countries where use of biomass-fueled stoves for cooking is common. Our findings support the classification of this condition as a mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. PMID:23880681

  17. Evidence for beamed electrons in a limb X-ray flare observed by Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, Eberhard; Elwert, Gerhard

    1986-01-01

    The limb flare of November 18, 1980, 14:51 UT, was investigated on the basis of X-ray images taken by the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) and of X-ray spectra from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) aboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The impulsive burst was also recorded at microwave frequencies between 2 and 20 GHz whereas no optical flare and no radio event at frequencies below 1 GHz were reported. The flare occurred directly at the SW limb of the solar disk. Taking advantage of the spatial resolution of HXIS images, the time evolution of the X-radiation originating from relatively small source regions can be studied. Using Monte Carlo computations of the energy distribution of energetic electrons traversing the solar plasma, the bremsstrahlung spectra produced by the electrons were derived.

  18. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.P.; Acremann, Y.; Scherz, A.; Burkhardt, M.; Stohr, J.; /SLAC; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W.F.; Beeck, T.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Wurth, W.; Fohlisch, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy on solids by means of femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Our experiments, carried out at the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH), used a special sample geometry, spectrographic energy dispersion, single shot position-sensitive detection and a data normalization procedure that eliminates the severe fluctuations of the incident intensity in space and photon energy. As an example we recorded the {sup 3}D{sub 1} N{sub 4,5}-edge absorption resonance of La{sup 3+}-ions in LaMnO{sub 3}. Our study opens the door for x-ray absorption measurements on future x-ray FEL facilities.

  19. MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer Detection of Electron-induced X-ray Fluorescence from Mercury's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, R. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Weider, S. Z.; Rhodes, E. A.; Schriver, D.; Schlemm, C. E., II; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft measures elemental abundances on the surface of Mercury by detecting fluorescent X-ray emissions induced on the planet's surface by the incident solar X-ray flux. The most prominent fluorescent lines are the K? lines from the elements Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe (1-10 keV). The XRS began orbital observations on 23 March 2011 and has observed X-ray fluorescence from the surface of the planet during both "quiet" Sun and flaring conditions whenever a sunlit portion of Mercury has been within the XRS field of view. XRS can detect the characteristic X-rays of Mg, Al, and Si during quiet-Sun conditions, but solar flares are required to produce measureable signals from the elements of higher atomic number such as S, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Nevertheless, X-ray fluorescence up to the Ca fluorescent line (3.69 keV) has been detected from Mercury's surface at times when the XRS field of view included only unlit portions of the planet or during quiet-Sun illumination. To date, seven such events have been detected and are identified as electron-induced X-ray emission produced by ~1-10 keV electrons interacting with Mercury's surface. Electrons in this energy range were detected by the XRS during the three Mercury flybys, and since the beginning of orbital operations electrons of this same energy range have been detected by XRS during almost every orbit. These electron events last from minutes to tens of minutes. Electron transport models suggest that a large percentage of these quasi-trapped electrons do not complete even a single orbit about Mercury before impacting the surface. Knowledge of the precipitating electron distribution at the planet's surface makes it possible to infer surface composition from the measured fluorescent spectra, providing additional measurement opportunities for the XRS.

  20. Interactions of clusters with X-ray free electron laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Fukuda; Tatsufumi Nakamura; Kengo Moribayashi; Yasuaki Kishimoto

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the damage of a single bio-molecule when it is irradiated by a strong X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulse, time evolution of a single carbon cluster with diameter of 30 nm irradiated with 10-fs XFEL pulse is studied by using particle-in-cell (PIC) code including field-ionization and collisional ionization. The cluster is ionized up to C^4+ within

  1. Sulfur chemical state analysis of diesel emissions of vehicles using X-ray absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoichi; Ishii, Hideshi; Tanabe, Teruo; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Kawai, Jun

    2006-08-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectra of sulfur K edge were measured for diesel exhaust particles from three different vehicles. The X-ray spectra were measured using a synchrotron radiation beamline. The spectra were measured by surface sensitive total electron yield method and bulk sensitive X-ray fluorescence yield method. One vehicle concentrated the S 2- on the surface of the emission particles; the others did not concentrate S 2-. This type of chemical state analysis method is useful for the process analysis such as diesel emissions.

  2. Characterization of AN Electron-Cyclotron - Mirror Plasma as a Soft X-Ray Source for X-Ray Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Timothy Paul

    There exists an international race to reduce the linewidths of integrated circuits to the sub-micron level. The results of this race are likely to have a strong impact on both the economic and military independence of this country as our society relies more and more heavily on highly sophisticated electronic equipment in our daily lives and in the defense of the country. One of the leading technologies in attaining sub-micron linewidths is x-ray lithography. Results from the ECRIAXS computer code have suggested that a laboratory-sized electron-cyclotron-resonance -heated mirror plasma may be a viable source for x-ray lithography. This work attempts to investigate this suggestion. A foil-filtered x-ray PIN diode and an x-ray pinhole camera have been used to measure x-ray intensities from krypton and neon plasma. The spatially resolved spectral density of the negatives from the x-ray pinhole camera has been measured. A film modeling code (FILM) has been written which predicts the film response. The code includes the integrated spectral response of the film to plasma x-ray emission that has been filtered by a beryllium foil filter. The PIN diode also yields electron temperatures for the plasmas (T_{rm e} ~ 1.3-4.0 keV). The intensity measurements are compared to computations from the ECRIAXS code. The measurements of the spectrally integrated x-ray intensity are supplemented by the measurement of plasma parameters that can be directly compared with some of the ECRIAXS code outputs. It has been found that the plasma densities that are predicted by the code (e.g. 1.75 times 10^{12 } cm^{-3}) are significantly higher than the experimental measurements (e.g. 4.5 times 10^ {11} cm^{-3} ). Modifications to the code can explain some of the discrepancies; however, the results are reliable only to within an order of magnitude.

  3. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser HENRY N. CHAPMAN1 of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 × 1013 W cm-2 pulse by one10 . X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expected to permit diffractive imaging at high

  4. Aluminum Alloy X-ray Image Classification Using Texture Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Lu; Qiuqi Ruan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic classification approach to the X-ray image classification issue of aluminum alloy by image texture analysis methods. Different from the common processing methods, the texture-based approach (XTexture) treats the X-ray image as a special texture image for further processing. By extracting self-correlation moment and wavelet-coefficient moments as the basic classification features based on image texture analysis,

  5. X-ray surveys - X-ray spectral analysis of bright Chandra-COSMOS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 405 brightest sources in the Chandra- COSMOS catalog (Elvis et al. 2009) that present at least 70 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. This bright sample has a ~100% completeness in optical-IR identification, with ~73% of the sample having a spectroscopic redshift and ~23% a photometric redshift (with accuracy ?(z)/(1+z)~1.5%). This allow us to accurately determine both the intrinsic absorption distribution and the intrinsic L2-10 of all the sources in the sample, and to study the evolution of X-ray spectral parameters in redshift. We analyze the statistical distribution of X-ray spectral properties in the sample (e.g. NH and L2-10 distribution, fraction of obscured sources) and their correlation with multiwavelength properties. Finally, 294 sources present a detected counterpart in the XMM-COSMOS survey. For this sources we performed a simultaneous spectral fit with the XMM-Newton data, in order to search for systematic differences in the constraint on spectral parameters and, eventually, for variability in the values of flux and obscuration.

  6. A new soft x-ray pulse height analysis array in the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu Yi; Yang, J. W.; Song, X. Y.; Liao, M.; Li, X.; Yuan, G. L.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Pan, C. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A new soft x-ray pulse height analysis (PHA) array including nine independent subsystems, on basis of a nonconventional software multichannel analysis system and a silicon drift detector (SDD) linear array consisting of nine high performance SDD detectors, has been developed in the HL-2A tokamak. The use of SDD has greatly improved the measurement accuracy and the spatiotemporal resolutions of the soft x-ray PHA system. Since the ratio of peak to background counts obtained from the SDD PHA system is very high, p/b{>=}3000, the soft x-ray spectra measured by the SDD PHA system can approximatively be regarded as electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution can be well derived in the pure ohmic and auxiliary heating discharges. The performance of the new soft x-ray PHA array and the first experimental results with some discussions are presented.

  7. HIGH GAIN HARMONIC GENERATION X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER.

    SciTech Connect

    WU, J.; YU, L.H.

    2001-06-18

    We present the calculation on the performance of a High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) based on the high quality electron beam from the proposed Photoinjected Energy Recovery Linac (PERL) at the NSLS. We consider several sets of e-beam parameters. The calculation indicates that it is possible to produce a fully coherent FEL with a wavelength around 10 Angstrom, with a peak power of several GW. The high order harmonics will also be produced with a significant amount of peak power. One further attractive feature is the possibility to produce ultra short radiation pulses of about 10 fs based on such HGHG scheme.

  8. Basic studies on x-ray fluorescence analysis for active x-ray spectrometer on SELENE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Hiroki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kodama, Takuro; Oyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Reiko; Amano, Yoshiharu; Kim, Kyeong J.; Matias Lopes, Josè A.

    2013-09-01

    An active X-ray spectrometer (AXS) is now being developed as a payload candidate for the rover on SELENE-2, the next Japanese lunar exploration mission. The AXS will determine the chemical compositions of lunar rocks and regolith around the landing site. The surface of lunar rock samples will be ground using a rock abrasion tool. Thus, fundamental studies on the X-ray fluorescence analysis for lunar rocks and regolith are required to design and develop the AXS. In this study, we have investigated the X-ray fluorescence analysis in order to evaluate the effects of surface roughness of samples and the angle of incident and emergent X-rays. It was found that the fluorescent X-ray yield for low energy X-rays, i.e. the light elements, decreases at rough surface samples. This effect of surface roughness becomes small for smooth surface samples. It was also found that the fluorescent X-ray yield depends on the incident angle, which is attributed to the fact that the X-ray fluorescence occurs closer to the sample surface at larger incident angles. Since the emergent X-rays are affected by the detection geometry and surface roughness, the incident angle effect also depends on the above conditions.

  9. MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer Detection of Electron-Induced X-Ray Fluorescence from Mercury's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, R. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Weider, S. Z.; Rhodes, E. A.; Schriver, D.; Schlemm, C. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray emissions observed from the dark side of Mercury are the result of ~1-10 keV electrons impinging on the planet’s surface. Knowledge of the precipitating electron distribution makes it possible to infer surface composition from the measured fluorescent spectra.

  10. Hard x-ray or gamma ray laser by a dense electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. [18 Caleb Lane, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Joon Moon, Sung [8 Benjamin Rush Ln., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    A dense electron beam propagating through a laser undulator can radiate a coherent x-ray or gamma ray. This lasing scheme is studied with the Landau damping theory. The analysis suggests that, with currently available physical parameters, coherent gamma rays of up to 50 keV can be generated. The electron quantum diffraction suppresses the free electron laser action, which limits the maximum radiation.

  11. Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers

    E-print Network

    Stern, Stephan; Filsinger, Frank; Rouzée, Arnaud; Rudenko, Artem; Johnsson, Per; Martin, Andrew V; Barty, Anton; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Coffee, Ryan N; Epp, Sascha; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Maurer, Jochen; Messerschmidt, Marc; Rudek, Benedikt; Starodub, Dmitri G; Thøgersen, Jan; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Chapman, Henry N; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 083002 (2014)]. This experiment is the first step toward coherent diffractive imaging of structures and structural dynamics of isolated molecules at atomic resolution, i. e., picometers and femtoseconds, using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  12. Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Stern, S; Holmegaard, L; Filsinger, F; Rouzée, A; Rudenko, A; Johnsson, P; Martin, A V; Barty, A; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J; Coffee, R; Epp, S; Erk, B; Foucar, L; Hartmann, R; Kimmel, N; Kühnel, K-U; Maurer, J; Messerschmidt, M; Rudek, B; Starodub, D; Thøgersen, J; Weidenspointner, G; White, T A; Stapelfeldt, H; Rolles, D; Chapman, H N; Küpper, J

    2014-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an X-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source [Phys. Rev. Lett.112, 083002 (2014)]. This experiment is the first step toward coherent diffractive imaging of structures and structural dynamics of isolated molecules at atomic resolution, i.e., picometers and femtoseconds, using X-ray free-electron lasers. PMID:25415561

  13. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

  14. Food Irradiation Using Electron Beams and X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bruce

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the technology of food irradiation using electron accelerators. Food irradiation has generally come to describe the use of ionizing radiation to decrease the population of, or prevent the growth of, undesirable biological organisms in food. The many beneficial applications include insect disinfestation, sprouting inhibition, delayed ripening, and the enhanced safety and sterilization of fresh and frozen meat products, seafood, and eggs. With special regard to food safety, bacteria such as Salmonella enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 are the primary causes of food poisoning in industrialized countries. Ionizing doses in the range of only 1-5 kilogray (kGy) can virtually eliminate these organisms from food, without affecting the food's sensory and nutritional qualities, and without inducing radioactivity. The key elements of an accelerator-based irradiation facility include the accelerator system, a scanning system, and a material handling system that moves the product through the beam in a precisely controlled manner. Extensive radiation shielding is necessary to reduce the external dose to acceptable levels, and a safety system is necessary to prevent accidental exposure of personnel during accelerator operation. Parameters that affect the dose distribution must be continuously monitored and controlled with process control software. The choice of electron beam vs x-ray depends on the areal density (density times thickness) of the product and the anticipated mass throughput. To eliminate nuclear activation concerns, the maximum kinetic energy of the accelerator is limited by regulation to 10 MeV for electron beams, and 5 MeV for x-rays. From penetration considerations, the largest areal density that can be treated by double-sided electron irradiation at 10 MeV is about 8.8 g/cm2. Products having greater areal densities must be processed using more penetrating x-rays. The mass throughput (dM/dt in kg/s) of an accelerator-based system is proportional to the average beam power (P in kW), and inversely proportional to the minimum required dose (Dm in kGy, with 1 kGy = 1 kJ/kg). The constant of proportionality is the mass throughput efficiency. Throughput efficiencies of 0.4 or better are typical of electron beam installations, but are only 0.025-0.035 for x-ray installations, primarily because of the inefficiency of bremsstrahlung generation at 5 MeV (about 8an axially-coupled, standing-wave, L-band linac with an average power in excess of 100 kW to achieve reasonable throughput rates with x-ray processing. Various design aspects of this new machine will be presented.

  15. Femtosecond Nanocrystallography with X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Henry

    2011-03-01

    The ultrafast pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers have opened up a new form of protein nanocrystallography. The X-ray pulses are of high enough intensity and of sufficiently short duration that individual single-shot diffraction patterns can be obtained from a sample before significant damage occurs. This ``diffraction before destruction'' method may enable the determination of structures of proteins that cannot be grown into large enough crystals or are too radiation sensitive for high- resolution crystallography. Ultrafast pump-probe studies of photoinduced dynamics can also be studied. We have carried out experiments in coherent diffraction from protein nanocrystals, including Photosystem I membrane protein, at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. The crystals are filtered to sizes less than 2 micron, and are delivered to the pulsed X-ray beam in a continuously flowing liquid jet. Millions of diffraction patterns were recorded at the LCLS repetition rate of 60 Hz. Tens of thousands of the single-shot diffraction patterns have been indexed, and combined into a single crystal diffraction pattern, which can be phased for structure determination and analysed for the effects of pulse duration and fluence. Experimental data collection was carried out as part of a large collaboration involving CFEL DESY, Arizona State University, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, University of Uppsala, SLAC, LBNL, LLNL, using the CAMP apparatus which was designed and built by the Max Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL. The LCLS is operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. Simultaneous measurements of X-rays and electrons during a pulsating aurora

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simultaneous measurements of X-rays and electrons during a pulsating aurora N. éstgaard1 , J the electron energy spectrum from X-ray measurements. Comparisons are made between the deduced electron ¯uxes and the directly measured electron ¯uxes on the rocket. We found the shape of the observed and the deduced electron

  17. Electron probe X-ray analysis on human hepatocellular lysosomes with copper deposits: copper binding to a thiol-protein in lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanaichi, T.; Kidokoro, R.; Hayashi, H.; Sakamoto, N.

    1984-11-01

    Livers of eight patients with chronic liver diseases were investigated by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. First, three kinds of preparations (osmium-Epon sections, glutaraldehyde-frozen sections, and unfixed-frozen sections) were compared for element detectability at a subcellular level. The glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were satisfactory as far as copper, sulfur, and phosphorus were concerned. Five patients (one patient with Wilson's disease, one chronic cholestasis, one chronic hepatitis, and two asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis) yielded x-ray images of copper and sulfur consistent with hepatocellular lysosomes. Second, the glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were utilized for a study of copper deposits in the patients' livers. There was a significant correlation between copper and sulfur contents in the lysosomes of all patients studied but no correlation in the remainder of the cytoplasm. Zinc was not detected in the lysosomes. Whatever the content of copper in the lysosomes, the ratio of delta copper to phosphorus (weight/weight) to delta sulfur to phosphorus was 0.60. These data indicate that most lysosomal copper binds to a thiol protein, probably metallothionein, in the liver.

  18. Electronic structure of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 determined by a combined analysis of various polarized x-ray-absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Antonio; Li, Chenxi; Della Longa, Stefano; Pompa, Margherita

    1992-03-01

    The polarized E?c oxygen K-edge x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectrum of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? (Bi 2:2:1:2) has been calculated by a multiple-scattering approach and compared with experimental data. The symmetry of the conduction bands over a range of 15 eV above the Fermi level has been studied by a combined analysis of five different polarized x-ray-absorption spectra at the following edges: O K edge, Cu K edge, and Cu L3 edge. Information on the partial density of states of the conduction bands, scrDX(l,ml), projected on the atomic site X (Cu and O) with selected orbital angular momentum l, and its projection ml along the c axis (scrDCu(2,0), scrDCu(2,+/-1), and scrDCu(2,+/-2) for the Cu site; scrDO(1,0) and scrDO(1,+/-1) for the oxygen site) have been obtained. The symmetry of the itinerant states induced by doping at the Fermi level is deduced to be a mixture of 3d holes with ml=+/-2 and ml=0 orbital angular momenta and holes on planar oxygen in the molecular-orbital combination of local b1 and a1 symmetry [the ligand holes L(b1) and L(a1)].

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis of various alloys. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, J.W. Jr.; Ferguson, M.R.; Eager, M.H.

    1980-02-15

    For a number of years, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been used in the Y-12 Plant Laboratory for the analysis of a wide variety of materials. During the past few years, the technique has been applied to the analysis of a large number of experimental alloys. The general procedure consists of the following steps: (1) ignition of the alloy to oxides, (2) addition of suitable internal standards, (3) dissolution of the oxides and internal standards by sodium tetraborate (borax) fusion, (4) casting a pellet from the fusion in a graphite mold (Figure 1), and (5) determination of the major constituents by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

  20. Hard-X-ray magnetic microscopy and local magnetization analysis using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motohiro

    2014-11-01

    X-ray measurement offers several useful features that are unavailable from other microscopic means including electron-based techniques. By using X-rays, one can observe the internal parts of a thick sample. This technique basically requires no high vacuum environment such that measurements are feasible for wet specimens as well as under strong electric and magnetic fields and even at a high pressure. X-ray spectroscopy using core excitation provides element-selectivity with significant sensitivities to the chemical states and atomic magnetic moments in the matter. Synchrotron radiation sources produce a small and low-divergent X-ray beam, which can be converged to a spot with the size of a micrometer or less using X-ray focusing optics. The recent development in the focusing optics has been driving X-ray microscopy, which has already gone into the era of X-ray nanoscopy. With the use of the most sophisticated focusing devices, an X-ray beam of 7-nm size has successfully been achieved [1]. X-ray microscopy maintains above-mentioned unique features of X-ray technique, being a perfect complement to electron microscopy.In this paper, we present recent studies on magnetic microscopy and local magnetic analysis using hard X-rays. The relevant instrumentation developments are also described. The X-ray nanospectroscopy station of BL39XU at SPring-8 is equipped with a focusing optics consisting of two elliptic mirrors, and a focused X-ray beam with the size of 100 × 100 nm(2) is available [2]. Researchers can perform X-ray absorption spectroscopy: nano-XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) using the X-ray beam as small as 100 nm. The available X-ray energy is from 5 to 16 keV, which allows nano-XAFS study at the K edges of 3d transition metals, L edges of rare-earth elements and 5d noble metals. Another useful capability of the nanoprobe is X-ray polarization tunability, enabling magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy with a sub-micrometer resolution. Scanning XMCD imaging, XMCD measurement in local areas, and element-specific magnetometry for magnetic particles/magnetic devices as small as 100 nm can be performed. Nano-XAFS application includes visualization of the chemical state in a particle catalyst [3] and phase-change memory devices [4]. For magnetic microscopic study, magnetization reversal processes of an individual magnetic CoPt dot in bit-patterned media have directly been observed [2]. Imaging of the chemical distribution and magnetic domain evolution in a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet in demagnetization processes is presented. PMID:25359804

  1. Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C.; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B.; Nilsson, Daniel; Uhlén, Fredrik; Vogt, Ulrich; Hertz, Hans M.; Schroer, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of hard X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enables new insights into many fields of science. These new sources provide short, highly intense, and coherent X-ray pulses. In a variety of scientific applications these pulses need to be strongly focused. In this article, we demonstrate focusing of hard X-ray FEL pulses to 125?nm using refractive x-ray optics. For a quantitative analysis of most experiments, the wave field or at least the intensity distribution illuminating the sample is needed. We report on the full characterization of a nanofocused XFEL beam by ptychographic imaging, giving access to the complex wave field in the nanofocus. From these data, we obtain the full caustic of the beam, identify the aberrations of the optic, and determine the wave field for individual pulses. This information is for example crucial for high-resolution imaging, creating matter in extreme conditions, and nonlinear x-ray optics. PMID:23567281

  2. Data acquisition system for X-ray free-electron laser experiments at SACLA.

    PubMed

    Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Sugimoto, Takashi; Okada, Kensuke; Abe, Toshinori; Furukawa, Yukito; Ohata, Toru; Tanaka, Ryotaro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina

    2015-05-01

    A data acquisition system for X-ray free-electron laser experiments at SACLA has been developed. The system has been designed for reliable shot-to-shot data storage with a high data stream greater than 4?Gbps and massive data analysis. Configuration of the system and examples of prompt data analysis during experiments are presented. Upgrade plans for the system to extend flexibility are described. PMID:25931070

  3. Detection of terrestrial radionuclides with X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Trojek, T; ?echák, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of analytical methods frequently used to identify terrestrial radionuclides in samples. While radioactivity is normally measured through the ionising radiation produced during the spontaneous decay of unstable atoms, selected radionuclides or their chemical elements can be quantified with instrumental techniques based on stimulated emission or counting of atoms. The advantages and disadvantages of these analytical methods are discussed. Particular attention is paid to X-ray fluorescence analysis of materials containing uranium and thorium. It is also possible to determine the area distributions of these chemical elements in samples with the use of scanning X-ray fluorescence systems. PMID:25977354

  4. Hard x-ray or gamma ray laser by a dense electron beam

    E-print Network

    S. Son; S. J. Moon

    2012-02-12

    A coherent x-ray or gamma ray can be created from a dense electron beam propagating through an intense laser undulator. It is analyzed by using the Landau damping theory which suits better than the conventional linear analysis for the free electron laser, as the electron beam energy spread is high. The analysis suggests that the currently available physical parameters would enable the generation of the coherent gamma ray of up to 100 keV. The electron quantum diffraction suppresses the FEL action, by which the maximum radiation energy to be generated is limited.

  5. Simultaneous measurements of X rays and electrons during a pulsating aurora

    E-print Network

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    Simultaneous measurements of X rays and electrons during a pulsating aurora N. Østgaard1 , J-rays. By using models it is possible to deduce the electron energy spectrum from X-ray measurements. Comparisons are made between the deduced electron fluxes and the directly measured electron fluxes on the rocket. We

  6. Soft X-ray Measurement of the Thermal Electron Temperature on the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX)

    E-print Network

    Soft X-ray Measurement of the Thermal Electron Temperature on the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX and measurements of the hot electron temperature have been made the thermal electron temperature profile has not been determined. Preliminary soft X-ray measurements have approximated a thermal electron temperature

  7. PAPER 1Simultaneous measurements of X rays and electrons during a pulsating aurora

    E-print Network

    Østgaard, Nikolai

    PAPER 1Simultaneous measurements of X rays and electrons during a pulsating aurora N. Østgaard1 , J-rays. By using models it is possible to deduce the electron energy spectrum from X-ray measurements. Comparisons are made between the deduced electron fluxes and the directly measured electron fluxes on the rocket. We

  8. Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Young; E. P. Kanter; B. Krässig; Y. Li; A. M. March; S. T. Pratt; R. Santra; S. H. Southworth; N. Rohringer; L. F. Dimauro; G. Doumy; C. A. Roedig; N. Berrah; L. Fang; M. Hoener; P. H. Bucksbaum; J. P. Cryan; S. Ghimire; J. M. Glownia; D. A. Reis; J. D. Bozek; C. Bostedt; M. Messerschmidt

    2010-01-01

    An era of exploring the interactions of high-intensity, hard X-rays with matter has begun with the start-up of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Understanding how electrons in matter respond to ultra-intense X-ray radiation is essential for all applications. Here we reveal the nature of the electronic response in a free atom to unprecedented high-intensity, short-wavelength,

  9. Focusing mirror for x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Takashi; Yamakawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Satoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Morita, Shinya; Uehara, Yoshihiro; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Lin, Weimin [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, 84-4 Tsuchiya-Ebinokuchi Yurihonjo, Akita 015-0055 (Japan); Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tamasaku, Kenji; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a large total-reflection mirror for focusing x-ray free-electron laser beams to nanometer dimensions. We used an elliptical focusing mirror made of silicon that was 400 mm long and had a focal length of 550 mm. Electrolytic in-process dressing grinding was used for initial-step figuring and elastic emission machining was employed for final figuring and surface smoothing. A figure accuracy with a peak-to-valley height of 2 nm was achieved across the entire area. Characterization of the focused beam was performed at BL29XUL of SPring-8. The focused beam size was 75 nm at 15 keV, which is almost equal to the theoretical size.

  10. Observation of Runaway Electrons with Soft X-Ray Camera on HT-7 Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ye-Bin; Chen, Kai-Yun; Xu, Li-Qing; Zhou, Rui-Jie; Hu, Li-Qun

    2014-12-01

    Runaway electrons produced during minor disruptions, which are confirmed by the hard x-ray system and the runaway energy spectrum system, are observed by a soft x-ray camera on the HT-7 Tokamak. In this observation, the soft x-ray system can also provide the size information and the position information of the runaway electron current directly from the signal information on the chord. This observation implies that the soft x-ray system can provide the control system with the physical information of the runaway electron current on future devices to avoid electrons hitting the first wall.

  11. Manganese binding properties of human calprotectin under conditions of high and low calcium: X-ray crystallographic and advanced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Derek M; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bowman, Sarah E J; Stich, Troy A; Drennan, Catherine L; Britt, R David; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial protein calprotectin (CP), a hetero-oligomer of the S100 family members S100A8 and S100A9, is the only identified mammalian Mn(II)-sequestering protein. Human CP uses Ca(II) ions to tune its Mn(II) affinity at a biologically unprecedented hexahistidine site that forms at the S100A8/S100A9 interface, and the molecular basis for this phenomenon requires elucidation. Herein, we investigate the remarkable Mn(II) coordination chemistry of human CP using X-ray crystallography as well as continuous-wave (CW) and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. An X-ray crystallographic structure of Mn(II)-CP containing one Mn(II), two Ca(II), and two Na(I) ions per CP heterodimer is reported. The CW EPR spectrum of Ca(II)- and Mn(II)-bound CP prepared with a 10:0.9:1 Ca(II):Mn(II):CP ratio is characterized by an unusually low zero-field splitting of 485 MHz (E/D = 0.30) for the S = 5/2 Mn(II) ion, consistent with the high symmetry of the His6 binding site observed crystallographically. Results from electron spin-echo envelope modulation and electron-nuclear double resonance experiments reveal that the six Mn(II)-coordinating histidine residues of Ca(II)- and Mn(II)-bound CP are spectroscopically equivalent. The observed (15)N (I = 1/2) hyperfine couplings (A) arise from two distinct classes of nitrogen atoms: the coordinating ?-nitrogen of the imidazole ring of each histidine ligand (A = [3.45, 3.71, 5.91] MHz) and the distal ?-nitrogen (A = [0.11, 0.18, 0.42] MHz). In the absence of Ca(II), the binding affinity of CP for Mn(II) drops by two to three orders of magnitude and coincides with Mn(II) binding at the His6 site as well as other sites. This study demonstrates the role of Ca(II) in enabling high-affinity and specific binding of Mn(II) to the His6 site of human calprotectin. PMID:25597447

  12. Portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the identification of unknown laboratory hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying, E-mail: liu.ying.48r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Imashuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobuharu; Ze, Long; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takano, Shotaro; Sohrin, Yoshiki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Seki, Hiroko; Miyauchi, Hiroya [Kyoto Prefectural Technology Center for Small and Medium Enterprises, Chudojiminami machi, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, a portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer was used to analyze unknown laboratory hazards that precipitated on exterior surfaces of cooling pipes and fume hood pipes in chemical laboratories. With the aim to examine the accuracy of TXRF analysis for the determination of elemental composition, analytical results were compared with those of wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, x-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed comparison of data confirmed that the TXRF method itself was not sufficient to determine all the elements (Z?>?11) contained in the samples. In addition, results suggest that XRD should be combined with XPS in order to accurately determine compound composition. This study demonstrates that at least two analytical methods should be used in order to analyze the composition of unknown real samples.

  13. Few-femtosecond time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C; Decker, F-J; Ding, Y; Dolgashev, V A; Frisch, J; Huang, Z; Krejcik, P; Loos, H; Lutman, A; Maxwell, T J; Turner, J; Wang, J; Wang, M-H; Welch, J; Wu, J

    2014-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers, with pulse durations ranging from a few to several hundred femtoseconds, are uniquely suited for studying atomic, molecular, chemical and biological systems. Characterizing the temporal profiles of these femtosecond X-ray pulses that vary from shot to shot is not only challenging but also important for data interpretation. Here we report the time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers by using an X-band radiofrequency transverse deflector at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We demonstrate this method to be a simple, non-invasive technique with a large dynamic range for single-shot electron and X-ray temporal characterization. A resolution of less than 1 fs root mean square has been achieved for soft X-ray pulses. The lasing evolution along the undulator has been studied with the electron trapping being observed as the X-ray peak power approaches 100 GW. PMID:24781868

  14. PUBLISHED VERSION Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

    E-print Network

    induced during the current quench phase may produce a large number of runaway electrons with energies electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 053509 (2014 current and its profile during disruption. Keywords: Physics of Plasma, Hard X-Rays, Runaway Electrons

  15. Repair of fractured framework: scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh-Fard, Ahmad; Wagner, Warren C

    2004-09-01

    Fractured metal prostheses can be analyzed for possible causes of failure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, fractography is used to determine the cause of the failure and whether repair is practical. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is used to determine composition of the fractured prosthesis so that a repair process can be recommended. The technique is presented for the repair of a titanium framework for an implant-supported overdenture based on the analysis data. PMID:15359153

  16. The identification of burnt matches by scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueh-Hsiang Chen

    This study is first placed on the characterization of various burnt matches by scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM\\/EDS). The morphological and elemental features were used to investigate fire residues and to increase the discriminating effect of burnt matches. To find if there was further discrimination method, the cluster analysis of 74 boxes of matches based on the semi-quantitative

  17. X-ray tomography systems for observations of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using novel position-sensitive X-ray semiconductor-detector arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Numakura; T. Cho; J. Kohagura; M. Hirata; Y. Tomii; S. Kiminami; K. Shimizu; N. Morimoto; Y. Takahashi; T. Imai; S. Miyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray emission from hot electrons having a temperature of several tens of keV and cold electrons having a temperature ranging below 100eV have been carried out by the use of the novel position-sensitive X-ray diagnostic system. The X-ray detection system in the thermal-barrier region of the GAMMA 10 tandem-mirror plasmas consists of a 48-channel silicon semiconductor detector

  18. Macromolecular structures probed by combining single-shot free-electron laser diffraction with synchrotron coherent X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kim, Sunam; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Nam, Daewoong; Kim, Chan; Kim, Yoonhee; Noh, Do Young; Miyashita, Osamu; Tama, Florence; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Tono, Kensuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Yabashi, Makina; Hasnain, S Samar; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Song, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructures formed from biological macromolecular complexes utilizing the self-assembly properties of smaller building blocks such as DNA and RNA hold promise for many applications, including sensing and drug delivery. New tools are required for their structural characterization. Intense, femtosecond X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers enable single-shot imaging allowing for instantaneous views of nanostructures at ambient temperatures. When combined judiciously with synchrotron X-rays of a complimentary nature, suitable for observing steady-state features, it is possible to perform ab initio structural investigation. Here we demonstrate a successful combination of femtosecond X-ray single-shot diffraction with an X-ray free-electron laser and coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron X-rays to provide an insight into the nanostructure formation of a biological macromolecular complex: RNA interference microsponges. This newly introduced multimodal analysis with coherent X-rays can be applied to unveil nano-scale structural motifs from functional nanomaterials or biological nanocomplexes, without requiring a priori knowledge. PMID:24786694

  19. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron buncha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryukou; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons' energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  20. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi [Toyota Technical Development Corporation, 1-21 Imae, Hanamoto-cho, Toyota, Aichi 470-0334 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshicho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kato, Ryukou [The Institute of Science and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  1. Wavelength dispersive analysis with the synchrotron x ray fluorescence microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, M. L.; Thorn, K. S.; Sutton, S. R.; Jones, K. W.; Bajt, S.

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) was tested on the synchrotron x ray fluorescence microprobe at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Compared to WDS spectra using an electron microprobe, the synchrotron WDS spectra have much better sensitivity and, due to the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation, lower backgrounds. The WDS spectrometer was successfully used to resolve REE L fluorescence spectra from standard glasses and transition metal K fluorescence spectra from kamacite.

  2. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Vartanyants, I.A.; /DESY /Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; /DESY; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Williams, G.J.; /SLAC; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; /Melbourne U.; Sinn, H.; /European XFEL, Hamburg; Attwood, D.; /UC, Berkeley; Nugent, K.A.; /Melbourne U.; Weckert, E.; /DESY; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL PARTICULATES IN MUNICIPAL DRINKING-WATER BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY (ANALYSE VON BIOLOGISCHEN PARTIKELN IM TRINKWASSER DURCH RASTERELEKTRONEN-MIKROSKOPIE UND ELEKTRONENSTRAHLMIKROANALYSE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectroscopy (SEM/XES) were used to survey the biological and nonbiological particles in two different municipal drinking-water systems. Microbiological particles could be differentiated from nonbiological by their qualitative element...

  4. fSurface analysis with XRay Photoelectron SpectroscopyX Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    X-rays are generated? Sometimes there is a monochromator before the sample Ultra high vacuum!U a g Analysis chamber (ultra high vacuum) Transfer arm Load lock Transfer arm (high vacuum)(high vacuum) #12 of energies #12;Detector V Avalanche effect: gains of 107-108 electrons #12;XPS spectrum of chromate coating

  5. Remote X ray measurements of the electron beam from the EXCEDE III experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.A.; Rieder, R.J.; Reidy, W.P. [Visidyne, Burlington, MA (United States)] [and others

    1993-11-01

    The EXCEDE III rocket experiment successfully produced an artificial aurora on April 27, 1990, with an injected {approximately}18-A beam of {approximately}2.5-keV electrons. The experiment consisted on an accelerator module and a sensor module in a mother-daughter configuration. The beam was fired along the Earth`s magnetic field lines between the altitudes of {approximately}62 and 115 km during the flight. A major concern prior to the flight was that the injection of such an overdense electron beam into the lower ionosphere would charge the accelerator module to a significant fraction of the beam potential. To monitor the primary electrons remote from the rocket, two X ray proportional counters were included as part of the sensor module. X ray spectra from bremsstrahlung emission yield a direct measure of the primary electron beam energy outside the plasma sheath surrounding the accelerator module. Analysis of these spectra yields a beam energy of 2.2 {+-} 0.5 keV which indicates no substantial charging of the accelerator module for the entire time that the beam was on. The authors also find that the X ray intensity was modulated at the few percent level by firings of the attitude control jets. 121 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Feasibility considerations of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser pumped by an x-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Jean-Michel; Le Guen, Karine; Jonnard, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the feasibility of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser (DFL) pumped by an x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL). The DFL under consideration is a Mg/SiC bi-layered Bragg reflector pumped by a single X-FEL bunch at 57.4?eV, stimulating the Mg L2,3 emission at 49?eV corresponding to the 3s–3d ?2p1/2,3/2 transition. Based on a model developed by Yariv and Yeh and an extended coupled-wave theory, we show that it would be possible to obtain a threshold gain compatible with the pumping provided by available X-FEL facilities.

  7. Distributed X-Ray Data and Distributed Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, D.; Schachter, J.; Elvis, M.; Garcia, M.; Conroy, M.

    X-ray data and analysis packages can now be distributed directly to the desks of the user community using CDROMs and portable, familiar analysis packages (like IRAF/PROS). The Einstein IPC Slew Survey is an example of a complete X-ray data set distributed via CDROMs and is the first to use the new FITS standard for photon event lists (BINTABLE). Users can analyze the Slew data directly off the CDROM using PROS. As an example, we present a recipe for producing a radial profile of the Cygnus Loop using PROS and the Slew Survey CDROM data. CDROMs of the complete Einstein IPC and HRI archive data sets will soon be distributed in BINTABLE format allowing similar analysis with those data.

  8. Numerical simulations of X-rays Free Electron Lasers (XFEL)

    E-print Network

    Paolo Antonelli; Agissilaos Athanassoulis; Zhongyi Huang; Peter A. Markowich

    2014-06-17

    We study a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation which arises as an effective single particle model in X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL). This equation appears as a first-principles model for the beam-matter interactions that would take place in an XFEL molecular imaging experiment in \\cite{frat1}. Since XFEL is more powerful by several orders of magnitude than more conventional lasers, the systematic investigation of many of the standard assumptions and approximations has attracted increased attention. In this model the electrons move under a rapidly oscillating electromagnetic field, and the convergence of the problem to an effective time-averaged one is examined. We use an operator splitting pseudo-spectral method to investigate numerically the behaviour of the model versus its time-averaged version in complex situations, namely the energy subcritical/mass supercritical case, and in the presence of a periodic lattice. We find the time averaged model to be an effective approximation, even close to blowup, for fast enough oscillations of the external field. This work extends previous analytical results for simpler cases \\cite{xfel1}.

  9. Application of transmission electron detection to x-ray mask calibrations and inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Postek; Robert D. Larrabee; William J. Keery; Egon Marx

    1991-01-01

    Masks used for the manufacture of integrated circuits by x-ray lithography can be calibrated and inspected in a scanning electron microscope by using the transmitted electron detection mode. By their nature, these masks present a measurement subject unique from most (if not all) other objects in semiconductor processing because the support membrane is, by design, x-ray transparent. This characteristic can

  10. AugEX: AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY SPECTROMETER ON CHANDRAYAAN-2 ROVER

    E-print Network

    Bapat, Bhas

    AugEX: AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY SPECTROMETER ON CHANDRAYAAN-2 ROVER Acharya, Bapat, Shanmugam ELECTRON AND X-RAY SPECTROMETER ON CHANDRAYAAN-2 ROVER #12;INTRODUCTION One of the objectives on the Rover/Lander). Reliable information about the elemental composition will be useful for understanding

  11. Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles by Using X-ray Reflectivity, EXAFS, and Electron Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Frenkel, Anatoly

    Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles by Using X-ray Reflectivity, EXAFS, and Electron. The particles were also analyzed with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). A cuboctahedral fcc was observed in both one- and two-phase particles by electron diffraction, HRTEM, and EXAFS. At the air

  12. Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    E-print Network

    Boothroyd, Andrew

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Russell A. Ewings 2008 #12;Abstract Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Russell-ray scattering and neutron scattering experiments on several strongly correlated transition metal oxides

  13. Large-area x-ray sensitive video camera: design of electron optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gendi Pang; Randy Luhta; John A. Rowlands

    1997-01-01

    Large-area x-ray sensitive vidicons have the potential to be superior to conventional x-ray image intensifiers for medical fluoroscopy. To build a large-area x-ray vidicon, an electron lens system is necessary to provide perpendicular beam landing. In this paper, we presented the results of the lens design for this purpose. In this paper, we discus in detail the method used in

  14. The vacuum system of the European X-ray free electron laser XFEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zapfe; M. Böhnert; O. Hensler; D. Hoppe; N. Mildner; B. Nagorny; K. Rehlich; H. Remde; A. Wagner; T. Wohlenberg; J. Wojtkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser XFEL, a new international research facility, will be built at DESY\\/Hamburg. The XFEL will generate extremely brilliant and ultra short pulses of spatially coherent X-rays with tuneable wavelengths down to 0.1 nm, and exploit them for revolutionary scientific experiments at various disciplines. The basic process adopted to produce the X-ray pulses is SASE (Self-Amplified

  15. A new principle in plasma electron-temperature diagnostics using a semiconductor x-ray detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Cho; J. Kohagura; M. Hirata; Y. Sakamoto; T. Okamura; T. Numakura; R. Minami; T. Sasuga; H. Nishizawa; T. Tamano; K. Yatsu; S. Miyoshi

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the energy responses of widely utilized seraiconductor X-ray detectors employed in many plasma-confmement devices were found to show contradictory behavior against the predietion from the conventional X-ray-energy-response theory in textbooks employed over the last quarter of the century for the analyses of plasma electron tem-peratures Te. This problem gave serious confusion for plasma researchers, who were utilizing X-ray data

  16. X-ray-line-profile analysis of titanium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Metzbower

    1977-01-01

    X-ray-line-profile analysis has been used to investigate the dislocation structures resulting from severe plastic deformation in a series of titanium alloys. The effect of oxygen level (up to 0.33 wt pct) on the dislocation arrangements in titanium as well as in a series of titanium-aluminum alloys (4, 6, and 9 wt pct Al) was the principal thrust of the investigation.

  17. X-ray-line-profile analysis of titanium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Metzbower

    1977-01-01

    X-ray-line-profile analysis has been used to investigate the dislocation structures resulting from severe plastic deformation\\u000a in a series of titanium alloys. The effect of oxygen level (up to 0.33 wt pct) on the dislocation arrangements in titanium\\u000a as well as in a series of titanium-aluminum alloys (4, 6, and 9 wt pct Al) was the principal thrust of the investigation.

  18. Nuclear Resonance Energy Analysis of Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Chumakov; A. Q. R. Baron; R. Rüffer; H. Grünsteudel; A. Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of x rays by gaseous, liquid, and solid samples was measured using a nuclear transition as a reference for the energy analysis of the scattered radiation. The samples were irradiated by a beam of synchrotron radiation with a bandwidth of 6.4 meV. The scattered radiation was analyzed using a resonance detector with a bandpass of 0.5 mueV. These

  19. Atomic inner-shell X-ray laser at 1.46 nanometres pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Rohringer, Nina; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A; Purvis, Michael; Albert, Felicie; Dunn, James; Bozek, John D; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Hill, Randal; Hau-Riege, Stefan P; Rocca, Jorge J

    2012-01-26

    Since the invention of the laser more than 50 years ago, scientists have striven to achieve amplification on atomic transitions of increasingly shorter wavelength. The introduction of X-ray free-electron lasers makes it possible to pump new atomic X-ray lasers with ultrashort pulse duration, extreme spectral brightness and full temporal coherence. Here we describe the implementation of an X-ray laser in the kiloelectronvolt energy regime, based on atomic population inversion and driven by rapid K-shell photo-ionization using pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser. We established a population inversion of the K? transition in singly ionized neon at 1.46 nanometres (corresponding to a photon energy of 849 electronvolts) in an elongated plasma column created by irradiation of a gas medium. We observed strong amplified spontaneous emission from the end of the excited plasma. This resulted in femtosecond-duration, high-intensity X-ray pulses of much shorter wavelength and greater brilliance than achieved with previous atomic X-ray lasers. Moreover, this scheme provides greatly increased wavelength stability, monochromaticity and improved temporal coherence by comparison with present-day X-ray free-electron lasers. The atomic X-ray lasers realized here may be useful for high-resolution spectroscopy and nonlinear X-ray studies. PMID:22281598

  20. Three-dimensional manipulation of electron beam phase space for seeding soft x-ray free-electron lasers

    E-print Network

    Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao; Zhao, Zhentang

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, a simple technique is proposed to induce strong density modulation into the electron beam with small energy modulation. By using the combination of a transversely dispersed electron beam and a wave-front tilted seed laser, three-dimensional manipulation of the electron beam phase space can be utilized to significantly enhance the micro-bunching of seeded free-electron laser schemes, which will improve the performance and extend the short-wavelength range of a single-stage seeded free-electron laser. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in a soft x-ray free-electron laser.

  1. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy analysis of a bifunctional enzyme fucokinase/L-fucose-1-P-guanylyltransferase from Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chongyun; Gu, Jianhua; Su, Jing; Ding, Wei; Yin, Jie; Liang, Wenguang; Yu, Xiaoxia; Ma, Jun; Wang, Peng George; Xiao, Zhicheng; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2014-09-01

    Fucokinase/L-fucose-1-P-guanylyltransferase (FKP) is a bifunctional enzyme which converts L-fucose to Fuc-1-P and thence to GDP-L-fucose through a salvage pathway. The molecular weights of full-length FKP (F-FKP) and C-terminally truncated FKP (C-FKP, residues 300-949) are 105.7 and 71.7?kDa, respectively. In this study, both recombinant F-FKP and C-FKP were expressed and purified. Size-exclusion chromatography experiments and analytical ultracentrifugation results showed that both F-FKP and C-FKP are trimers. Native F-FKP protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method and the crystals belonged to space group P212121 and diffracted synchrotron X-rays to 3.7?Å resolution. The crystal unit-cell parameters are a = 91.36, b = 172.03, c = 358.86?Å, ? = ? = ? = 90.00°. The three-dimensional features of the F-FKP molecule were observed by cryo-EM (cryo-electron microscopy). The preliminary cryo-EM experiments showed the F-FKP molecules as two parallel disc-shaped objects stacking together. Combining all results together, it is assumed that there are six FKP molecules in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.19?Å(3)?Da(-1) with 43.83% solvent content. These preliminary crystallographic and cryo-EM microscopy analyses provide basic structural information on FKP. PMID:25195892

  2. Soft X-ray bremsstrahlung and fluorescent line production in the atmosphere by low energy electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of low energy quasi-trapped or precipitating electrons which impact on the counter windows of soft X-ray detectors are discussed. The errors caused by X-rays produced in the residual atmosphere above a rocket-borne detector because of the resemblance to X-rays of cosmic origin are examined. The design and development of counter windows which make it possible to identify the atmospherically produced X-rays are described. Curves are presented to show the following: (1) preliminary low energy electron data from Atmospheric Explorer C, (2) X-ray flux in electron-excited nitrogen and oxygen, (3) typical proportional counter response to low energy cosmic rays, and (4) proportional counter response to X-radiation produced by electrons incident upon a gas of oxygen to nitrogen number of 0.4.

  3. Structured x-ray beams from twisted electrons by inverse Compton scattering of laser light

    E-print Network

    D. Seipt; A. Surzhykov; S. Fritzsche

    2014-07-28

    The inverse Compton scattering of laser light on high-energetic twisted electrons is investigated with the aim to construct spatially structured x-ray beams. In particular, we analyze how the properties of the twisted electrons, such as the topological charge and aperture angle of the electron Bessel beam, affects the energy and angular distribution of scattered x-rays. We show that with suitably chosen initial twisted electron states one can synthesize tailor-made x-ray beam profiles with a well-defined spatial structure, in a way not possible with ordinary plane-wave electron beams.

  4. Enabling membrane protein structure and dynamics with X-ray free electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Feld, Geoffrey K; Frank, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Determining the three-dimensional structures and dynamics of membrane proteins remains one of the great challenges of modern biology. The recent availability of X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) light sources has opened the door to a new and revolutionary approach to performing X-ray analysis of these important biomolecules. Recent advances in sample delivery, data reduction, and phasing have enabled the high-resolution structural probing of membrane proteins at room temperature. While considerable challenges remain, the recent developments described in this review may ultimately provide structural biologists with powerful tools for obtaining unprecedented atomic-scale and dynamic visualization of membrane proteins at near-physiological conditions. PMID:24930119

  5. Monte Carlo error analysis in x-ray spectral deconvolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, D.G.; Hoffman, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    The deconvolution of spectral information from sparse x-ray data is a widely encountered problem in data analysis. An often-neglected aspect of this problem is the propagation of random error in the deconvolution process. We have developed a Monte Carlo approach that enables us to attach error bars to unfolded x-ray spectra. Our Monte Carlo error analysis has been incorporated into two specific deconvolution techniques: the first is an iterative convergent weight method; the second is a singular-value-decomposition (SVD) method. These two methods were applied to an x-ray spectral deconvolution problem having m channels of observations with n points in energy space. When m is less than n, this problem has no unique solution. We discuss the systematics of non-unique solutions and energy-dependent error bars for both methods. The Monte Carlo approach has a particular benefit in relation to the SVD method: it allows us to apply the constraint of spectral non-negativity after the SVD deconvolution rather than before. Consequently we can identify inconsistencies between different detector channels. 4 references, 6 figures.

  6. X-Ray Microanalysis and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in the Analytical Electron Microscope: Review and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses future directions in analytical electron microscopy for microchemical analysis using X-ray and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). The technique of X-ray microanalysis, using the ratio method and k(sub AB) factors, is outlined. The X-ray absorption correction is the major barrier to the objective of obtaining I% accuracy and precision in analysis. Spatial resolution and Minimum Detectability Limits (MDL) are considered with present limitations of spatial resolution in the 2 to 3 microns range and of MDL in the 0.1 to 0.2 wt. % range when a Field Emission Gun (FEG) system is used. Future directions of X-ray analysis include improvement in X-ray spatial resolution to the I to 2 microns range and MDL as low as 0.01 wt. %. With these improvements the detection of single atoms in the analysis volume will be possible. Other future improvements include the use of clean room techniques for thin specimen preparation, quantification available at the I% accuracy and precision level with light element analysis quantification available at better than the 10% accuracy and precision level, the incorporation of a compact wavelength dispersive spectrometer to improve X-ray spectral resolution, light element analysis and MDL, and instrument improvements including source stability, on-line probe current measurements, stage stability, and computerized stage control. The paper reviews the EELS technique, recognizing that it has been slow to develop and still remains firmly in research laboratories rather than in applications laboratories. Consideration of microanalysis with core-loss edges is given along with a discussion of the limitations such as specimen thickness. Spatial resolution and MDL are considered, recognizing that single atom detection is already possible. Plasmon loss analysis is discussed as well as fine structure analysis. New techniques for energy-loss imaging are also summarized. Future directions in the EELS technique will be the development of new spectrometers and improvements in thin specimen preparation. The microanalysis technique needs to be simplified and software developed so that the EELS technique approaches the relative simplicity of the X-ray technique. Finally, one can expect major improvements in EELS imaging as data storage and processing improvements occur.

  7. Novel multi-beam X-ray source for vacuum electronics enabled medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neculaes, V. Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    For almost 100 of years, commercial medical X-ray applications have relied heavily on X-ray tube architectures based on the vacuum electronics design developed by William Coolidge at the beginning of the twentieth century. Typically, the Coolidge design employs one hot tungsten filament as the electron source; the output of the tube is one X-ray beam. This X-ray source architecture is the state of the art in today's commercial medical imaging applications, such as Computed Tomography. Recently, GE Global Research has demonstrated the most dramatic extension of the Coolidge vacuum tube design for Computed Tomography (CT) in almost a century: a multi-beam X-ray source containing thirty two cathodes emitting up to 1000 mA, in a cathode grounded - anode at potential architecture (anode up to 140 kV). This talk will present the challenges of the X-ray multi-beam vacuum source design - space charge electron gun design, beam focusing to compression ratios needed in CT medical imaging applications (image resolution is critically dependent on how well the electron beam is focused in vacuum X-ray tubes), electron emitter choice to fit the aggressive beam current requirements, novel electronics for beam control and focusing, high voltage and vacuum solutions, as well as vacuum chamber design to sustain the considerable G forces typically encountered on a CT gantry (an X-ray vacuum tube typically rotates on the CT gantry at less than 0.5 s per revolution). Consideration will be given to various electron emitter technologies available for this application - tungsten emitters, dispenser cathodes and carbon nano tubes (CNT) - and their tradeoffs. The medical benefits potentially enabled by this unique vacuum multi-beam X-ray source are: X-ray dose reduction, reduction of image artifacts and improved image resolution. For almost 100 of years, commercial medical X-ray applications have relied heavily on X-ray tube architectures based on the vacuum electronics design developed by William Coolidge at the beginning of the twentieth century. Typically, the Coolidge design employs one hot tungsten filament as the electron source; the output of the tube is one X-ray beam. This X-ray source architecture is the state of the art in today's commercial medical imaging applications, such as Computed Tomography. Recently, GE Global Research has demonstrated the most dramatic extension of the Coolidge vacuum tube design for Computed Tomography (CT) in almost a century: a multi-beam X-ray source containing thirty two cathodes emitting up to 1000 mA, in a cathode grounded - anode at potential architecture (anode up to 140 kV). This talk will present the challenges of the X-ray multi-beam vacuum source design - space charge electron gun design, beam focusing to compression ratios needed in CT medical imaging applications (image resolution is critically dependent on how well the electron beam is focused in vacuum X-ray tubes), electron emitter choice to fit the aggressive beam current requirements, novel electronics for beam control and focusing, high voltage and vacuum solutions, as well as vacuum chamber design to sustain the considerable G forces typically encountered on a CT gantry (an X-ray vacuum tube typically rotates on the CT gantry at less than 0.5 s per revolution). Consideration will be given to various electron emitter technologies available for this application - tungsten emitters, dispenser cathodes and carbon nano tubes (CNT) - and their tradeoffs. The medical benefits potentially enabled by this unique vacuum multi-beam X-ray source are: X-ray dose reduction, reduction of image artifacts and improved image resolution. This work was funded in part by NIH grant R01EB006837.

  8. Analysis of heterogeneous materials with x-ray microfluorescence and microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.A.; Gorin, A. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); Shor, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The chemistry of heterogeneous materials can be understood only after determining the elements composing the material, the ways in which those elements combine, and the distribution of the resulting phases. The techniques of photon-induced x-ray microfluorescence (XRMF) and x-ray microdiffraction (XRMD) offer several advantages over conventional electron-beam methods for determinations of element and phase distributions. Those advantages include minimal specimen preparation, good element sensitivity, air operation, the capability of wide area coverage, and the availability of sophisticated search/match routines for phase identification. Instruments combining scanning XRMF and XRMD have been described; however, the spatial resolutions for practical analyses were limited to about 30 {mu}m. Recent developments k microbeam laboratory sources and capillary optics have made routine laboratory analysis possible at spatial resolutions less than 30 {mu}m. After delineating the individual phases with XRMF, x-ray diffraction patterns of representative phase regions can be obtained with XRMD for phase identification. We have used a laboratory-based x-ray microprobe with glass capillary optics to produce element maps, some with better than five micrometers resolution. A Rigaku X-ray microdiffractometer was then used to identify inclusions and phase regions. Examples of the complementary uses of these techniques will include specimens from a study of lead chloride Phases, which affect lead volatilization in waste sites, and MgO cements used to stabilize sludge constituents from an industrial waste water treatment plant. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Electron-beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

    2010-01-01

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort X-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons are considered.

  10. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Portable Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    2010-01-01

    Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 © X Portable Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ultra Trace Elemental Determination Shinsuke KUNIMURA and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 29 X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.29-44 (2010) 606-8501 X Portable Total

  11. Characterization of Microstructure of Severely Deformed Titanium by X-ray Diffraction Profile Analysis

    E-print Network

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Characterization of Microstructure of Severely Deformed Titanium by X-ray Diffraction Profile,450000, Russia Keywords: crystallite size distribution, dislocation structure, titanium, plastic deformation, X-ray peak profile analysis. Abstract. Nanocrystalline titanium was produced by equal channel

  12. Properties of solar flare electrons, deduced from hard X-ray and spatially resolved microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Hurford, G. J.; Zirin, H.; Dulk, G. A.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    An important question concerning an understanding of impulsive solar flares is related to the energetic electrons responsible for the microwave and the hard X-ray emission. A description is presented of an investigation in which spatially resolved microwave observations of an impulsive flare and hard X-ray data from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) are used to test the hypothesis that the two types of emission come from the same basic electron population. The considered observations are found to imply that the microwaves and hard X-rays were not produced by a common population of electrons with either a Maxwellian or single power-law energy distribution. It is suggested that the calculations should be repeated when observations of stronger events become available, for which a better determination of the X-ray spectrum is possible. The possibility is considered that microwaves and moderately hard X-rays come from spatially different regions.

  13. Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation,

    E-print Network

    Fadley, Charles

    spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects S.-H. Yang, A. X. Gray, A. M spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects S.-H. Yang,1 A. X. Gray,2,3,4 AMaking use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission

  14. Parametric X-rays from ultrarelativistic electrons in a crystal : theory and possibilities of practical utilization

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    913 Parametric X-rays from ultrarelativistic electrons in a crystal : theory and possibilities également. Abstract. 2014 The detailed theory of parametric X-rays from charged particles in a crystal is considered. It is shown that this radiation is due to the diffraction of the particle's electromagnetic field

  15. Reabsorption of soft x-ray emission at high x-ray free-electron laser fluences.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G; Segtnan, Vegard H; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan P; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2014-10-10

    We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime. PMID:25375708

  16. Plasma X-ray Spectra Analysis Using Genetic Algorithms Igor E. Golovkin

    E-print Network

    Louis, Sushil J.

    Plasma X-ray Spectra Analysis Using Genetic Algorithms Igor E. Golovkin Department of Physics for plasma diagnostics. We use genetic algorithms to automatically analyze experi- mental X-ray line spectra-ray line spectra. 1 INTRODUCTION X-ray spectroscopic analysis is a widely used method for hot dense plasma

  17. Phase contrast: the frontier of x-ray and electron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2013-12-01

    Phase contrast has been a fundamental component of microscopy since the early 1940s. In broad terms, it refers to the formation of images using not the combination of wave intensities but their amplitudes with the corresponding phase factors. The impact on visible microscopy of biological specimens has been major. This contrast mechanism is now playing an increasingly important role in other kinds of microscopy, notably those based on electrons or x-rays. It notably solves the background problem of weak absorption contrast. New breakthroughs and new techniques are continuously produced, unfortunately unknown to most of the scientists that could exploit them. The present special cluster issue of reviews was inspired by this situation. The case of x-rays is very interesting. Phase contrast requires a high degree of longitudinal and lateral coherence. But conventional x-ray sources are not coherent. The progress of synchrotron sources yielded high coherence as a key byproduct—and started a rapid expansion of phase contrast radiology. No review—or cluster of reviews—can possibly cover all the facets of the recent progress. Without trying to be absolutely comprehensive, the present special cluster issue touches a variety of issues, giving a very broad picture. Liu et al review in general terms the different phase-based hard-x-ray techniques, with an interesting variety of examples. Then, Suortti et al and Wang et al present more specialized overviews of crystal and grating based x-ray imaging techniques, very powerful in the analysis of biological specimens. Mokso et al discuss the many facets of tomography using phase effects, expanding the picture of tomographic reconstruction of the three previous reviews. Wu et al treat the rapid progress in hard-x-ray focusing and its impact on radiology and tomography for materials science and biomedical research. The next two reviews deal with special and very interesting classes of applications. Specifically, Lee et al discuss the use of the new radiology techniques in the study of liquids, and Coan et al present the progress in phase-contrast radiology analysis of real patients. Although x-ray imaging is the main focus of the special cluster issue, the picture would not be complete without a view on the parallel and very exciting developments in electron microscopy. The last review, by Wu et al , is dedicated indeed to this broader picture, presenting recent progress in Zernike-related electron phase contrast. We trust that the special cluster issue will not only update readers on the evolution of a very important class of experimental techniques, but also prepare them for the forthcoming developments. We are indeed at the threshold of another revolution. The recently inaugurated first x-ray free electron lasers bring, together with many other record performances, full lateral coherence and excellent longitudinal coherence. The first imaging experiments show in practice their impact, and indicate that this field, far from saturating its progress, is ready for new major breakthroughs.

  18. Comparison of the data of X-ray microtomography and fluorescence analysis in the study of bone-tissue structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadchikov, V. E.; Senin, R. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Buzmakov, A. V.; Gulimova, V. I.; Zolotov, D. A.; Orekhov, A. S.; Osadchaya, A. S.; Podurets, K. M.; Savel'ev, S. V.; Seregin, A. Yu.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Chukalina, M. V.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2012-09-01

    The possibility of localizing clusters of heavy atoms is substantiated by comparing the data of X-ray microtomography at different wavelengths, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The proximal tail vertebrae of Turner's thick-toed gecko ( Chondrodactylus turneri) have been investigated for the first time by both histological and physical methods, including X-ray microtomography at different wavelengths and elemental analysis. This complex methodology of study made it possible to reveal the regions of accumulation of heavy elements in the aforementioned bones of Turner's thick-toed gecko.

  19. Electron correlation effects in x-ray resonance fluorescence and recombination processes with highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Relativistic electron correlation effects greatly determine the excitation and recombination dynamics of highly charged ions, and thus the time evolution of astrophysical and magnetically confined plasmas. An example is the intensity of x-ray emission of highly charged Fe ions excited by photonic or electron collisions in stellar plasmas, playing an important role in astrophysical modeling and in the analysis of spectra recorded by space observatories. Furthermore, in case of inter-shell resonant recombination, we have found that three-body correlation effects may give rise to significant additional reaction channels beyond what is known from the usual two-body theory describing dielectronic recombination. We compare our theoretical results to experimental measurements with electron beam ion traps. Relativistic electron correlation effects greatly determine the excitation and recombination dynamics of highly charged ions, and thus the time evolution of astrophysical and magnetically confined plasmas. An example is the intensity of x-ray emission of highly charged Fe ions excited by photonic or electron collisions in stellar plasmas, playing an important role in astrophysical modeling and in the analysis of spectra recorded by space observatories. Furthermore, in case of inter-shell resonant recombination, we have found that three-body correlation effects may give rise to significant additional reaction channels beyond what is known from the usual two-body theory describing dielectronic recombination. We compare our theoretical results to experimental measurements with electron beam ion traps. Supported by Helmholtz Alliance HA216/EMMI.

  20. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  1. The soft x-ray instrument for materials studies at the linac coherent light source x-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Schlotter, W F; Turner, J J; Rowen, M; Heimann, P; Holmes, M; Krupin, O; Messerschmidt, M; Moeller, S; Krzywinski, J; Soufli, R; Fernández-Perea, M; Kelez, N; Lee, S; Coffee, R; Hays, G; Beye, M; Gerken, N; Sorgenfrei, F; Hau-Riege, S; Juha, L; Chalupsky, J; Hajkova, V; Mancuso, A P; Singer, A; Yefanov, O; Vartanyants, I A; Cadenazzi, G; Abbey, B; Nugent, K A; Sinn, H; Lüning, J; Schaffert, S; Eisebitt, S; Lee, W-S; Scherz, A; Nilsson, A R; Wurth, W

    2012-04-01

    The soft x-ray materials science instrument is the second operational beamline at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser. The instrument operates with a photon energy range of 480-2000 eV and features a grating monochromator as well as bendable refocusing mirrors. A broad range of experimental stations may be installed to study diverse scientific topics such as: ultrafast chemistry, surface science, highly correlated electron systems, matter under extreme conditions, and laboratory astrophysics. Preliminary commissioning results are presented including the first soft x-ray single-shot energy spectrum from a free electron laser. PMID:22559515

  2. Determination of the Pulse Duration of an X-Ray Free Electron Laser Using Highly Resolved Single-Shot Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inubushi, Yuichi; Tono, Kensuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Togawa, Kazuaki; Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yabashi, Makina

    2012-10-01

    We determined the pulse duration of x-ray free electron laser light at 10 keV using highly resolved single-shot spectra, combined with an x-ray free electron laser simulation. Spectral profiles, which were measured with a spectrometer composed of an ultraprecisely figured elliptical mirror and an analyzer flat crystal of silicon (555), changed markedly when we varied the compression strength of the electron bunch. The analysis showed that the pulse durations were reduced from 31 to 4.5 fs for the strongest compression condition. The method, which is readily applicable to evaluate shorter pulse durations, provides a firm basis for the development of femtosecond to attosecond sciences in the x-ray region.

  3. An improved model for ultraviolet-and x-ray-induced electron emission from CsI

    E-print Network

    efficiency QE and x-ray-induced secondary electron emission SEE quantum yield QY from CsI is crucialAn improved model for ultraviolet- and x-ray-induced electron emission from CsI T. Boutboul,a) A and x-ray secondary electron emission induced from CsI photoconverters. This approach is based

  4. Electronic imaging of high-energy nanosecond x-ray pulse accelerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham W. Smith; John D. Bell; Calvin L. G. Seymour

    2003-01-01

    Electronic imaging has been undertaken upon a selection of AWE's high power x-ray pulse accelerators used for radiation effects testing on electronic components and small sub-systems. Principally an experimental configuration, based upon a pinhole scintillator combination, has been implemented to test the feasibility of recording by an electronic imaging system for high energy (3MeV) and high dose (>16krads) x-ray pulse

  5. Near-monochromatic X-ray beams produced by the free electron laser and Compton backscatter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK E. CARROLL; JAMES W. WATERS; RON R. PRICE; CHARLES A. BRAU; CARLTON F. ROOS; NORMAN H. TOLK; DAVID R. PICKENS; W. HOYT STEPHENS

    1990-01-01

    The intense photon output of a free electron laser may be made to collide with its own high energy electron beam to create nearly monochromatic x-rays using Compton backscatter techniques. These x-rays can be used for imaging and non-imaging diagnostic and therapeutic experiments. The initial configuration of the Vanderbilt Medical Free Electron Laser (Sierra Laser Systems, Sunnyvale, CA) produces intense

  6. Noise analysis for X-ray navigation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hanson; Suneel Sheikh; Paul Graven; John Collins

    2008-01-01

    Much as the Global Positioning System has ushered in an era of autonomous navigation on a global scale, X-ray navigation (XNAV) offers the possibility of autonomous navigation anywhere in the solar system. X-ray astronomers have identified a number of X-ray pulsars whose pulsed emissions have stabilities comparable to atomic clocks. X-ray navigation uses phase measurements from these sources to establish

  7. Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sun, L. MacNeil

    2010-05-20

    The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

  8. Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense x-rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.; Kanter, E .P.; Li, Y.; March, A.-M.; Pratt, S. T.; Santra, R.; Southworth, S. H.; Rohringer, N.; DiMauro, L. F.; Doumy, G.; Roedig, C. A.; Berrah, N.; Fang, L.; Hoener, M.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Cryan, J. P .; Ghimire, S.; Glownia, J. M.; Reis, D. A.; Bozek, J. D.; Bostedt, C.; Messerschmidt, M.; Western Michigan Univ.; SLAC National Accelerator Lab.; The Ohio State Univ.; LLNL; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-07-01

    An era of exploring the interactions of high-intensity, hard X-rays with matter has begun with the start-up of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Understanding how electrons in matter respond to ultra-intense X-ray radiation is essential for all applications. Here we reveal the nature of the electronic response in a free atom to unprecedented high-intensity, short-wavelength, high-fluence radiation (respectively 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}, 1.5-0.6 nm, {approx}10{sup 5} X-ray photons per {angstrom}{sup 2}). At this fluence, the neon target inevitably changes during the course of a single femtosecond-duration X-ray pulse - by sequentially ejecting electrons - to produce fully-stripped neon through absorption of six photons. Rapid photoejection of inner-shell electrons produces 'hollow' atoms and an intensity-induced X-ray transparency. Such transparency, due to the presence of inner-shell vacancies, can be induced in all atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems at high intensity. Quantitative comparison with theory allows us to extract LCLS fluence and pulse duration. Our successful modelling of X-ray/atom interactions using a straightforward rate equation approach augurs favourably for extension to complex systems.

  9. ANALYSIS OF ASTM X-RAY SHRINKAGE RATING FOR STEEL CASTINGS

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 ANALYSIS OF ASTM X-RAY SHRINKAGE RATING FOR STEEL CASTINGS Kent Carlson1 , Shouzhu Ou1 , Richard, IA ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of two different studies that examined the ASTM x on 128 x-rays that were each given seven ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings (ratings from five radiographers

  10. Methods development for diffraction and spectroscopy studies of metalloenzymes at X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jan; Hattne, Johan; Tran, Rosalie; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Laksmono, Hartawan; Gul, Sheraz; Sierra, Raymond G; Rehanek, Jens; Erko, Alexei; Mitzner, Rolf; Wernet, Phillip; Bergmann, Uwe; Sauter, Nicholas K; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko

    2014-07-17

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new possibilities for X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples under close to physiological conditions. To facilitate these new X-ray sources, tailored experimental methods and data-processing protocols have to be developed. The highly radiation-sensitive photosystem II (PSII) protein complex is a prime target for XFEL experiments aiming to study the mechanism of light-induced water oxidation taking place at a Mn cluster in this complex. We developed a set of tools for the study of PSII at XFELs, including a new liquid jet based on electrofocusing, an energy dispersive von Hamos X-ray emission spectrometer for the hard X-ray range and a high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometer based on a reflection zone plate. While our immediate focus is on PSII, the methods we describe here are applicable to a wide range of metalloenzymes. These experimental developments were complemented by a new software suite, cctbx.xfel. This software suite allows for near-real-time monitoring of the experimental parameters and detector signals and the detailed analysis of the diffraction and spectroscopy data collected by us at the Linac Coherent Light Source, taking into account the specific characteristics of data measured at an XFEL. PMID:24914169

  11. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  12. Electron Energy Partition in the Above-the-looptop Solar Hard X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Krucker, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.

    2014-12-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray sources in particular 'above-the-looptop' sources have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the- looptop hard X-rays (>~15 keV) observed in four different cases. The combined thermal plus power-law distribution can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to the artifact of its sharp, lower-energy cutoff Ec. In two cases with extreme-ultraviolet data from SDO/AIA, the analysis of differential emission measure (DEM) did not rule out the kappa distribution model. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition. Considering results of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron energization is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection but the non-thermal tail can be suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  13. Single-particle coherent diffractive imaging with a soft x-ray free electron laser: towards soot aerosol morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogan, Michael J.; Starodub, Dmitri; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.

    2010-10-01

    The first of its kind, the Free electron LASer facility in Hamburg, FLASH, produces soft x-ray pulses with unprecedented properties (10 fs, 6.8-47 nm, 1012 photons per pulse, 20 µm diameter). One of the seminal FLASH experiments is single-pulse coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI). CXDI utilizes the ultrafast and ultrabright pulses to overcome resolution limitations in x-ray microscopy imposed by x-ray-induced damage to the sample by 'diffracting before destroying' the sample on sub-picosecond timescales. For many lensless imaging algorithms used for CXDI it is convenient when the data satisfy an oversampling constraint that requires the sample to be an isolated object, i.e. an individual 'free-standing' portion of disordered matter delivered to the centre of the x-ray focus. By definition, this type of matter is an aerosol. This paper will describe the role of aerosol science methodologies used for the validation of the 'diffract before destroy' hypothesis and the execution of the first single-particle CXDI experiments being developed for biological imaging. FLASH CXDI now enables the highest resolution imaging of single micron-sized or smaller airborne particulate matter to date while preserving the native substrate-free state of the aerosol. Electron microscopy offers higher resolution for single-particle analysis but the aerosol must be captured on a substrate, potentially modifying the particle morphology. Thus, FLASH is poised to contribute significant advancements in our knowledge of aerosol morphology and dynamics. As an example, we simulate CXDI of combustion particle (soot) morphology and introduce the concept of extracting radius of gyration of fractal aggregates from single-pulse x-ray diffraction data. Future upgrades to FLASH will enable higher spatially and temporally resolved single-particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science and nanotechnology. Many of the methodologies described for FLASH will directly translate to use at hard x-ray free electron lasers.

  14. Investigation of surface structure with X-ray absorption and electron emission spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Mark Daniel

    The use of electron spectromicroscopy for the study of the chemical composition and electronic properties of surfaces, overlayers, and interfaces has become widely accepted. Improvements to the optics of instruments such as the X-ray photo electron emission microscope have pushed spectroscopic microscopies into the realm of very high spatial resolution, at and below 1 micrometer [1]. Coupled with the high spectral resolution available from third generation synchrotron sources, this spatial resolution allows the measurement of micro-X-ray absorption near-edge spectra in addition to the more typical electron emission spectra and diffraction patterns. Complementary to the experimental developments is the development of improved theoretical methods for computational modeling of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the field of tribochemistry, zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) has long been a topic of much study. ZDDP is widely used as an anti-wear additive in engine oils and there is interest in determining the decomposition products of ZDDP that provide this protection against friction. An analysis of X-ray absorption near-edge spectra of thermal films from ZDDP samples is presented, including a comparison of the Zinc L-edge spectra with model calculations [2]. It was found essential to carry out self-consistent calculations of the electronic structure for the modeling. For the techniques of electron diffraction, a new method for a full multiple-scattering calculation of diffraction patterns from crystals with two-dimensional periodicity parallel to the surface is presented [3]. The calculation makes use of Helmholtz's reciprocity principle to compute the path-reversed process of the back propagation of a photoelectron from the position of a distant detector to that of the emitting atom. Early application is demonstrated with simulations of 64 eV M2,3VV and 914 eV L 2,3VV Auger electron diffraction from a Cu(001) surface. The functionality of the path-reversed calculation is greatly increased by extension to photoelectron diffraction for crystal surfaces with many atoms per unit cell [4]. The results are essentially indistinguishable from those of a conventional forward-path calculation. Application to photoelectron diffraction for 955 eV O 1s emission from a MgO(001) surface shows good agreement with experiment.

  15. Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Gutt, C.; Streit-Nierobisch, S.; Stadler, L.-M.; Faeustlin, R. R.; Treusch, R.; Feldhaus, J.; Weckert, E.; Vartanyants, I. A.; Gruebel, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Pfau, B.; Guenther, C. M.; Koennecke, R.; Eisebitt, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Froemter, R.; Kobs, A.; Stickler, D.; Oepen, H. P. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jungiusstr. 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Grunze, M.; Rosenhahn, A. [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wilhein, T. [Institute for X-ray-Optics, RheinAhr-Campus Remagen, FH Koblenz, Suedallee 2, D-53424 Remagen (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    We report on single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering experiments using soft x-ray pulses generated by the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY. We could record a magnetic diffraction pattern from a Co/Pt multilayer sample at the Co M{sub 2,3} edge with a single 30-fs-long FEL pulse. The analysis of the magnetic small-angle scattering signal for subsequent pulses indicates a threshold energy density below which there is no indication that the magnetic properties of the sample might be altered.

  16. X-ray phase and electron microscopic studies of pyrite-phosphate mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, V.V.; Sheptitskii, S.P.

    1986-06-01

    The reaction in binary pyrite-phosphate mixtures was studied as a function of the temperature of heat treatment by the methods of x-ray phase analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the phase composition is basically represented by crystalline acid iron phosphate, FeH/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/.2.5H/sub 2/O, and an amorphous phase in solidification of the composite at 20 C. An increase in the temperature of the heat treatment results in dehydration of the acid iron phosphate with the formation of neutral phosphate with a characteristic hexagonal lattice. Other phosphates also undergo the corresponding transitions.

  17. Rayleigh x-ray scattering from many-electron atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhykov, A.; Yerokhin, V. A.; Stöhlker, Th; Fritzsche, S.

    2015-07-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the elastic Rayleigh scattering of x-rays by many-electron atoms and ions. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and linear polarization of the scattered photons for the case when the incident light is completely (linearly) polarized. Based on second-order perturbation theory and the independent particle approximation, we found that the Rayleigh angular distribution is strongly affected by the charge state and shell structure of the target ions or atoms. This effect can be observed experimentally at modern synchrotron facilities and might provide further insight into the structure of heavy atomic systems.

  18. Femtosecond X-Ray Free Electron Laser Pulse Duration Measurement from Spectral Correlation Function

    SciTech Connect

    Lutman, A. A

    2012-04-17

    We present a novel method for measuring the duration of femtosecond x-ray pulses from self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron lasers by performing statistical analysis in the spectral domain. Analytical expressions of the spectral correlation function were derived in the linear regime to extract both the pulse duration and the spectrometer resolution. Numerical simulations confirmed that the method can be also used in the nonlinear regime. The method was demonstrated experimentally at the Linac Coherent Light Source by measuring pulse durations down to 13 fs FWHM.

  19. Processing and quantification of x-ray energy dispersive spectra in the Analytical Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1988-08-01

    Spectral processing in x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy deals with the extraction of characteristic signals from experimental data. In this text, the four basic procedures for this methodology are reviewed and their limitations outlined. Quantification, on the other hand, deals with the interpretation of the information obtained from spectral processing. Here the limitations are for the most part instrumental in nature. The prospects of higher voltage operation does not, in theory, present any new problems and may in fact prove to be more desirable assuming that electron damage effects do not preclude analysis. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (?) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of ? with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  1. High-resolution microcalorimeter energy-dispersive spectrometer for x-ray microanalysis and particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wollman, D. A.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Dulcie, L. L.; Bergren, N. F.; Martinis, John M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Newbury, Dale E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Woo, Keung-Shan; Liu, Benjamin Y. H. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Diebold, Alain C. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78731 (United States)

    1998-11-24

    We have developed a high-resolution microcalorimeter energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) at NIST that provides improved x-ray microanalysis of contaminant particles and defects important to the semiconductor industry. Using our microcalorimeter EDS mounted on a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we have analyzed a variety of specific sized particles on Si wafers, including 0.3 {mu}m diameter W particles and 0.1 {mu}m diameter Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. To compare the particle analysis capabilities of microcalorimeter EDS to that of semiconductor EDS and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), we report measurements of the Al-K{alpha}/Si-K{alpha} x-ray peak intensity ratio for 0.3 {mu}m diameter Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles on Si as a function of electron beam energy. We also demonstrate the capability of microcalorimeter EDS for chemical shift measurements.

  2. Fast Electron Spatial Temperature Distribution Studied by X-Ray 2D Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Wen-Tao; Xia, Chang-Quan; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Yi; Li, Wen-Tao; Qi, Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Hong; Yu, Chang-Hai; Leng, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    We present the experimental and numerical results of two-dimensional x-ray imaging due to fast electron transport in a solid target. A 40-?m-thick copper film target is irradiated by a 100 mJ, 50 fs normal incident laser pulse. The full width at half maximum of the x-ray photon dose is 25 ?m, and the divergence angle of fast electrons is 25°-30°, which is detected by the pin-hole x-ray imaging technique. The target surface plasma layer is compressed by a ponderomotive force into a depth of 0.2?. The plasma wave accompanied by fast electrons transporting into the target is studied by dividing the plasma into layers in a radial direction. A narrow fast electron channel, which is approximately 8 ?m-10 ?m in width, mainly contributes to the x-ray dose.

  3. Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy studies of the electronic structure of silicon supersaturated with sulfur

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Joseph Timothy

    We apply soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) to measure the electronic structure of crystalline silicon supersaturated with sulfur (up to 0.7 at. %), a candidate intermediate-band solar cell material. Si L[subscript ...

  4. X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Introduction X-Ray Properties of Elements Electron Binding Energies X-Ray Levels of Few Electron Ions Now Available Order X-Ray Data Booklet http://xdb.lbl.gov/ (1 of 3) [2

  5. Surface reactions and surface analysis of lithium metal and its compounds studied by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burrow, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of analysis techniques necessary for the quantitative, chemical surface analysis of lithium-containing solids important in the construction of high energy density batteries is presented. Electron beam damage is discovered to be the source of apparent lithium metal formation in Li(ls) XPS spectra of lithium salts. Beam Damage thresholds of Li2O, Li2CO3 and Li2SO4 are calculated using time-dependent Auger spectra, and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  6. A simulation of X-ray shielding for a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Yong; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2014-02-01

    It is generally assumed that large amounts of x-rays are emitted from the ion source of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) instrument. The total amount of x-rays should be strictly limited to avoid the extra heat load to the cryostat of the superconducting ECR ion source, since they are partly absorbed by the cold mass into the cryostat. A simulation of x-ray shielding was carried out to determine the effective thickness of the x-ray shield needed via the use of Geant4. X-ray spectra of the 10 GHz Nanogan ECR ion source were measured as a function of the thickness variation in the x-ray shield. The experimental results were compared with Geant4 results to verify the effectiveness of the x-ray shield. Based on the validity in the case of the 10 GHz ECR ion source, the x-ray shielding results are presented by assuming the spectral temperature of the 28 GHz ECR ion source. PMID:24593527

  7. Entangled valence electron-hole dynamics revealed by stimulated attosecond x-ray Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-09-06

    We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by resonant stimulated Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction.

  8. Electron Density Measurements of High Density Plasmas Using Soft X-Ray Laser Interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. da Silva; T. W. Barbee Jr.; R. Cauble; P. Celliers; D. Ciarlo; S. Libby; R. A. London; D. Matthews; S. Mrowka; J. C. Moreno; D. Ress; J. E. Trebes; A. S. Wan; F. Weber

    1995-01-01

    We have developed and used for the first time a soft x-ray interferometer to probe a large laser-produced plasma with micron spatial resolutions. A neonlike yttrium x-ray laser operating at 155 Å was combined with a multilayer coated Mach-Zehnder interferometer to obtain electron density profiles in a plasma produced by laser irradiation of a CH target. The measured electron density

  9. Entangled Valence Electron-Hole Dynamics Revealed by Stimulated Attosecond X-ray Raman Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by stimulated resonant Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction. PMID:23755318

  10. Pair production from vacuum at the focus of an X-ray free electron laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ringwald

    2001-01-01

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron–positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: one could make

  11. An undulator based soft x-ray source for microscopy on the Duke electron storage ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis Elgin Johnson

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation describes the design, development, and installation of an undulator-based soft x-ray source on the Duke Free Electron Laser laboratory electron storage ring. Insertion device and soft x-ray beamline physics and technology are all discussed in detail. The Duke\\/NIST undulator is a 3.64-m long hybrid design constructed by the Brobeck Division of Maxwell Laboratories. Originally built for an FEL

  12. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of galvannealed coatings on steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schmid; K. Uran; F. Macherey; M. Ebert; H.-J. Ullrich; D. Sommer; F. Friedel

    2009-01-01

    The formation of Fe–Zn intermetallic compounds, as relevant in the commercial product galvannealed steel sheet, was investigated\\u000a by scanning electron microscopy and different methods of X-ray diffraction. A scanning electron microscope with high resolution\\u000a was applied to investigate the layers of the galvannealed coating and its topography. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction\\u000a (GID) was preferred over conventional Bragg–Brentano geometry for analysing

  13. Elemental analysis with x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienemann, Peter; Bleiner, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Elemental analysis by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is based on the element-specific electro- magnetic radiation induced as a consequence of inner-shell ionization. XRF spectrometry is ideal for the direct analysis of solid samples, but can also investigate fluid samples. On one side, these methods allow the rapid qualitative screening of unknown samples, without any particular sample preparation. On the other hand, it is possible to perform the fully automated quantitative analysis of large sample sets. Further figures of merit are the 'standard-less' analysis of samples in a non-destructive mode, and detection down to 0.01 %. The availability of portable XRF systems6 is a further advantage for on-site measurements. The fundamentals are discussed to orient the user, and a survey of instrumental capabilities is provided.

  14. Sequential multiphoton multiple ionization of Ar and Xe by X-ray free electron laser pulses at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Son, S.-K.; Mondal, S.; Tachibana, T.; Ito, Y.; Kimura, M.; Nagaya, K.; Sakai, T.; Matsunami, K.; Wada, S.; Hayashita, H.; Kajikawa, J.; Liu, X.-J.; Feifel, R.; Johnsson, P.; Siano, M.; Kukk, E.; Rudek, B.; Erk, B.; Foucar, L.; Robert, E.; Miron, C.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Hatsui, T.; Yabashi, M.; Yao, M.; Santra, R.; Ueda, K.

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated multiphoton multiple ionization of Ar and Xe atoms irradiated by intense X-ray pulses using the new X-ray free electron laser facility SACLA. The experimental results are compared with theoretical results.

  15. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND LOW-ANGLE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE NERVE MYELIN SHEATH

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-morán, H.; Finean, J. B.

    1957-01-01

    1. A close correlation has been obtained between high resolution electron microscopy and low-angle x-ray diffraction studies of the myelin sheath of frog and rat peripheral and central nerves. Extensive studies were performed by application of both techniques to the same specimens, prepared for examination by OsO4 or KMnO4 fixation, and embedding either in methacrylate or in gelatin employing a new procedure. Controlled physical and chemical modifications of the myelin sheath prior to fixation were also investigated. 2. A correspondence was established between the layer spacings observed in electron micrographs and the fundamental radial repeating unit indicated by the low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns. The variations in relative intensities of the low-angle x-ray reflections could be related to the radial density distributions seen in the electron micrographs. 3. An analysis of the preparation procedures revealed that OsO4 fixation introduces a greater shrinkage of the layer spacings and more pronounced changes in the density distribution within the layers than KMnO4 fixation. The effects of methacrylate and gelatin embedding are described, and their relative merits considered in relation to the preservation of myelin structure by OsO4 fixation. 4. The experimental modifications introduced by freezing and thawing of fresh whole nerve are described, particularly the enhancement of the intermediate lines and the dissociation of the layer components in the myelin sheath. A characteristic collapsing of the radial period of the sheath is observed after subjecting fresh nerve trunks to prolonged and intense ultracentrifugation. 5. Controlled extraction of fresh nerve with acetone at 0°C., which preferentially removes cholesterol, produces characteristic, differentiated modifications of the myelin sheath structure. Electron microscopy reveals several types of modifications within a single preparation, including both expanded and collapsed layer systems, and internal rearrangements of the layer components. Alcohol extraction leads to a more extensive structural breakdown, but in certain areas collapsed layer systems can still be observed. The components of the lipide extracts could be identified by means of x-ray diffraction. These modifications emphasize the importance of cholesterol in the myelin structure, and disclose a resistance of the dense osmiophilic lines to lipide solvents. 6. The significance of these structures is discussed in relation to present concepts of the molecular organization of myelin. The available evidence is consistent with the suggestion that the primary site of osmium deposition is at the lipoprotein interfaces and that the light bands probably represent regions occupied by lipide chains. The electron microscope and x-ray diffraction data also indicate the possibility of a regular organization within the plane of the layers, probably involving units of 60 to 80 A. The myelin sheath is regarded as a favourable cell membrane model for detailed analysis by combined application of x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. PMID:13475388

  16. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of galvannealed coatings on steel.

    PubMed

    Schmid, P; Uran, K; Macherey, F; Ebert, M; Ullrich, H-J; Sommer, D; Friedel, F

    2009-04-01

    The formation of Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds, as relevant in the commercial product galvannealed steel sheet, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and different methods of X-ray diffraction. A scanning electron microscope with high resolution was applied to investigate the layers of the galvannealed coating and its topography. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GID) was preferred over conventional Bragg-Brentano geometry for analysing thin crystalline layers because of its lower incidence angle alpha and its lower depth of information. Furthermore, in situ experiments at an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an internal heating plate and at an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a high-temperature chamber were carried out. Thus, it was possible to investigate the phase evolution during heat treatment by X-ray diffraction and to display the growth of the zeta crystals in the ESEM. PMID:19153722

  17. X-ray free-electron lasers--present and future capabilities [Invited

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John N.; Arthur, John; Ratner, Daniel F.; White, William E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is now in operation as an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. It produces coherent pulses of 550-10,000 eV X-rays of duration adjustable from <10 fs to 500 fs. Typical peak power is in excess of 20 GW. The facility will soon be joined by several X-ray FELs under construction around the world. This article will provide an abridged history of free-electron lasers, a description of some basic physics regarding free-electron laser light amplification, and an overview of the rapidly growing list of examples in which lasers will be used in the control and operation of X-ray FELs.

  18. X-ray Free-Electron Lasers - Present and Future Capabilities [Invited

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John; Ratner, John Arthur:a Daniel F.; White, William E.; /SLAC

    2011-11-16

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is now in operation as an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. It produces coherent pulses of 550-10,000 eV X-rays of duration adjustable from <10 fsto500 fs. Typical peak power is in excess of 20 GW. The facility will soon be joined by several X-ray FELs under construction around the world. This article will provide an abridged history of free-electron lasers, a description of some basic physics regarding free-electron laser light amplification, and an overview of the rapidly growing list of examples in which lasers will be used in the control and operation of X-ray FELs.

  19. X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of NLO Crystals: Traditional Applications and More New Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Clark, Ronald D.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis is one of the more important methods for the molecular and crystal structure determination of matter and therefore it has a great importance in material science including design and engineering of different compounds with non-linear optical (NLO) properties. It was shown in our previous publications that this method provides unique information about molecular structure of NLO compounds, their crystal symmetry and crystal packing arrays, molecular conformation and geometries and many other structural and electronic characteristics that are important for understanding the nature of NLO properties of solids. A very new application of the X-ray diffraction method is related to analysis of the electron density distribution p(r) in crystals and some of its characteristics (atomic and group charges, dipole and higher multipole moments, etc.), that may be obtained directly form the diffraction measurements. In the present work, we will discuss our preliminary low temperature high-resolution X-ray data for the m-nitroaniline (mNA) single crystal (VI). This is one of the "classical" organic NLO materials and electron density distribution analysis in this simple compound has a great scientific interest.

  20. Soft X-ray, microwave, and hard X-ray emission from a solar flare - Implications for electron heating and acceleration in current channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The soft X-ray, microwave, and hard X-ray emissions from the solar flare of May 14, 1980 are studied. The flare consists of a gradual component in soft X-rays and microwaves and a superposed impulsive burst accompanied by hard X-ray emission. The impulsive phase of the flare appears in the soft X-ray emission as a temperature spike and as an increased rate of energy dissipation into the plasma. A new, spatially and spectrally distinct, microwave component appears during the impulsive burst. The data are interpreted in terms of Joule heating and the electric field acceleration of electrons in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft X-ray emitting plasma can be heated by a single current sheet only if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity. Conditions are also given for the hard X-ray emission to be from nonthermal electrons with classical resistivity.

  1. Two-colour hard X-ray free-electron laser with wide tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Toru; Inubushi, Yuichi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sato, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Togashi, Tadashi; Togawa, Kazuaki; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-12-01

    Ultrabrilliant, femtosecond X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have promoted the investigation of exotic interactions between intense X-rays and matters, and the observation of minute targets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Although a single X-ray beam has been utilized for these experiments, the use of multiple beams with flexible and optimum beam parameters should drastically enhance the capability and potentiality of XFELs. Here we show a new light source of a two-colour double-pulse (TCDP) XFEL in hard X-rays using variable-gap undulators, which realizes a large and flexible wavelength separation of more than 30% with an ultraprecisely controlled time interval in the attosecond regime. Together with sub-10-fs pulse duration and multi-gigawatt peak powers, the TCDP scheme enables us to elucidate X-ray-induced ultrafast transitions of electronic states and structures, which will significantly contribute to the advancement of ultrafast chemistry, plasma and astronomical physics, and quantum X-ray optics.

  2. A Sealed, UHV Compatible, Soft X-ray Detector Utilizing Gas Electron Multipliers

    SciTech Connect

    Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.

    2009-10-25

    An advanced soft X-ray detector has been designed and fabricated for use in synchrotron experiments that utilize X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the study a wide range of materials properties. Fluorescence X-rays, in particular C{sub K} at 277eV, are converted in a low pressure gas medium, and charge multiplication occurs in two gas electron multipliers, fabricated in-house from glass reinforced laminate, to enable single photon counting. The detector satisfies a number of demanding characteristics often required in synchrotron environments, such as UHV compatibility compactness, long-term stability, and energy resolving capability.

  3. X-ray microtomographic imaging and analysis for basic research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Dunsmuir; S. Bennett; L. Fareria; A. Mingino; M. Sansone

    2006-01-01

    For research facilities with access to synchrotron x-ray sources, X-ray absorption microtomography (XMT) has evolved from an experimental imaging method to a specialized, if not yet routine, microscopy for imaging the 3D distribution of linear attenuation coefficients and, in some cases, elemental concentration with micron spatial resolution(1). Recent advances in source and detector design have produced conventional x-ray source instruments

  4. Analysis of tungsten carbides by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kinson, K; Knott, A C; Belcher, C B

    Five sample presentation techniques were examined for the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of tungsten carbide alloys in powder and cemented forms. Powder samples may be oxidized by air at 600 degrees before fusion (I), or preferably by lithium nitrate during fusion (II); the fusion is effected with lithium-lanthanum tetraborate followed by briquetting with graphite. Powder samples may also be blended with wax and briquetted (III). Cemented carbides are surface-prepared with silicon carbide before analysis (V). Briquettes prepared by blending carbide powder, lithium-lanthanum tetraborate and graphite (IV), give poor reproducibility, however, owing to micro-absorption effects the technique is not recommended. The determination of eight common elements in tungsten carbide is discussed and the relative standard deviations are 0.002-0.004 for major and 0.008-0.01 for minor elements. PMID:18961988

  5. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, A; Ratner, D; Lutman, A A; Turner, J; Welch, J; Decker, F-J; Loos, H; Behrens, C; Gilevich, S; Miahnahri, A A; Vetter, S; Maxwell, T J; Ding, Y; Coffee, R; Wakatsuki, S; Huang, Z

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion. PMID:25744344

  6. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion. PMID:25744344

  7. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A.A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A.A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore »in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  8. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-03-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  9. Observation of X-rays generated by relativistic electrons in waveguide target mounted inside a betatron

    E-print Network

    V. V. Kaplin; V. V. Sohoreva; S. R. Uglov; O. F. Bulaev; A. A. Voronin; M. Piestrup; C. Gary

    2006-05-06

    In this work we have observed x-ray emission from x-ray waveguide radiator excited by relativistic electrons. The experiment carried out at Tomsk betatron B-35. Such new type stratified target was mounted on goniometer head inside the betatron toroid. The target is consisted of the W-C-W layers placed on Si substrate. The photographs of the angular distributions of the radiation generated in the target by 20-33 MeV electrons have shown the waveguide effect of the three-layer structure on x-rays generated in the target. The effect proved in an angular distribution of radiation as an additional narrow peak of guided x-rays intensity inside a wide cone of usual Bremsstrahlung.

  10. Fully Coherent X-ray Pulses from a Regenerative Amplifier Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhirong; Ruth, Ronald D.; ,

    2006-02-17

    We propose and analyze a novel regenerative amplifier free electron laser (FEL) to produce fully coherent x-ray pulses. The method makes use of narrow-bandwidth Bragg crystals to form an x-ray feedback loop around a relatively short undulator. Self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) from the leading electron bunch in a bunch train is spectrally filtered by the Bragg reflectors and is brought back to the beginning of the undulator to interact repeatedly with subsequent bunches in the bunch train. The FEL interaction with these short bunches not only amplifies the radiation intensity but also broadens its spectrum, allowing for effective transmission of the x-rays outside the crystal bandwidth. The spectral brightness of these x-ray pulses is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that from a single-pass SASE FEL.

  11. Use of backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and X-ray microscopy in demonstrating physiological cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, I.D.; Worrill, N.A.; Winters, C.A.; Mullarkey, K.

    1988-09-01

    The cytochemical localization of enzymatic activity by means of backscattered electron imaging (BEI) is reviewed and the application of BEI to changes in acid phosphatase and ATPase distribution during physiological (programmed) cell death in Heliothis midgut is explored. Programmed cell death entails the release of nascent free acid phosphatase as extracisternal hydrolase. This shift can readily be detected by means of the atomic number contrast imparted by BEI of the lead phosphatase reaction product, thus enabling the distribution of dying cells to be mapped. BEI is particularly useful in this context as it allows the examination of bulk specimens at low magnification. Death of cells is also accompanied by a collapse in ATPase activity which shows up as cytochemically negative areas in the X-ray microscope and by means of BEI. Acid phosphatase in normal cells is localized in the apical microvilli and lysosomes. Senescent or dying cells, however, clearly show a basally situated free hydrolase which migrates throughout the cell. Parallel TEM results confirm that this enzyme is ribosomal and extracisternal rather than lysosomal in origin. ATPase activity is largely limited to the apical microvilli, although there is some activity associated with the basal plasma membranes. The apical ATPase, however is partially resistant to ouabain. Young and mature cells are positive although in the latter case some microvilli may be lost as the cells acquire a negative cap or dome. Inhibition by bromotetramizole indicates that apical activity is not to any significant extent contributed to by alkaline phosphatase. Degenerate or dead cells are negative and can be seen as a mozaic of black patches among normal cells when imaged by means of BEI or X-ray microscopy.

  12. Characterization of Carbonitrided and Oxidized Layers on Low-Carbon Steel by Conversion Electron M?ssbauer Spectrometry, X-Ray Diffractometry, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kurosawa; H.-L. Li; K. Nomura; Y. Ujihira

    1999-01-01

    The structures of low-carbon steel oxidized in an aqueous saline bath at 403 K and a fused salt bath at 673 K after carbonitriding were studied using conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometry (CEMS), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). Only a doublet peak caused by poor crystallinity of iron oxyhydroxides (FeOOH) or fine particles of iron oxides such as

  13. Identification of thorium dioxide in human liver cells by electron microscopic x-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, A; Ophus, E M; Larsen, A M

    1978-01-01

    Thirty-two years after injection of thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) for diagnostic x-ray studies in a female patient deposits were found by light microscopy in the liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). They were shown by electron microscopy to be located inside secondary lysosomes, and by autoradiography and x-ray microanalysis they were identified as thorium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:213451

  14. Femtosecond Diffractive Imaging with a Soft-X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogan; Michael James

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus, or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 x

  15. Visualizing a protein quake with time resolved X-ray scattering at a free electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Barty, Anton; Williams, Garth J.; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Milathianaki, Despina; DePonte, Daniel P.; Shoeman, Robert L.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Katona, Gergely; Westenhoff, Sebastian; White, Thomas A.; Aquila, Andrew; Bari, Sadia; Berntsen, Peter; Bogan, Mike; van Driel, Tim Brandt; Doak, R. Bruce; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Henning, Robert; Hunter, Mark S.; Kirian, Richard A.; Kosheleva, Irina; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sjöhamn, Jennie; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Schlichting, Ilme; Boutet, Sébastien; Groenhof, Gerrit; Chapman, Henry N.; Neutze, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A ‘protein quake’ describes the hypothesis that proteins rapidly dissipate energy through quake like structural motions. Here we measure ultrafast structural changes in the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center following multi-photon excitation using time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free electron laser. A global conformational change arises within picoseconds, which precedes the propagation of heat through the protein. This motion is damped within a hundred picoseconds. PMID:25108686

  16. XPCS at the European X-ray free electron laser facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Grübel; G. B. Stephenson; C. Gutt; H. Sinn; Th. Tschentscher; Hasylab

    2007-01-01

    The European X-ray free electron laser source (XFEL) will provide highly brilliant (B>1033ph\\/s\\/mm2\\/mrad2\\/0.1% bw) and coherent X-ray beams. The pulse structure and the unprecedented brightness will allow one for the first time to study fast dynamics in the time domain, thus giving direct access to the dynamic response function S(Q,t), instead of S(Q,?), which is of central importance for a

  17. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry N. Chapman; Anton Barty; Michael J. Bogan; Sébastien Boutet; Matthias Frank; Stefan P. Hau-Riege; Stefano Marchesini; Bruce W. Woods; Sasa Bajt; W. Henry Benner; Richard A. London; Elke Plönjes; Marion Kuhlmann; Rolf Treusch; Stefan Düsterer; Thomas Tschentscher; Jochen R. Schneider; Eberhard Spiller; Thomas Möller; Christoph Bostedt; Matthias Hoener; David A. Shapiro; Keith O. Hodgson; David van der Spoel; Florian Burmeister; Magnus Bergh; Carl Caleman; Gösta Huldt; M. Marvin Seibert; Filipe R. N. C. Maia; Richard W. Lee; Abraham Szöke; Nicusor Timneanu; Janos Hajdu

    2006-01-01

    Theory predicts that, with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25fs, 4×1013Wcm-2 pulse, containing 1012

  18. Accurate macromolecular structures using minimal measurements from X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; Tran, Rosalie; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J; Brewster, Aaron S; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Lampe, Alyssa; Han, Guangye; Gul, Sheraz; DiFiore, Dörte; Milathianaki, Despina; Fry, Alan R; Miahnahri, Alan; White, William E; Schafer, Donald W; Seibert, M Marvin; Koglin, Jason E; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sellberg, Jonas; Latimer, Matthew J; Glatzel, Pieter; Zwart, Petrus H; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Bogan, Michael J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal K; Adams, Paul D; Sauter, Nicholas K

    2014-05-01

    X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources enable the use of crystallography to solve three-dimensional macromolecular structures under native conditions and without radiation damage. Results to date, however, have been limited by the challenge of deriving accurate Bragg intensities from a heterogeneous population of microcrystals, while at the same time modeling the X-ray spectrum and detector geometry. Here we present a computational approach designed to extract meaningful high-resolution signals from fewer diffraction measurements. PMID:24633409

  19. Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for a sub-?m synchrotron X-ray microbeam and its applications to X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Hirano, Keiichi

    1996-06-01

    A synchrotron X-ray microprobe system based on Kirkpatrick-Baez optics has been developed using X-rays from a multipole wiggler at the Photon Factory to achieve a beam size of less than 1 ?m with a sufficient photon flux. Either a double-crystal or a synthetic multilayer monochromator was used for the monochromatization of incident X-rays. The characteristics of the X-ray microprobe were experimentally examined. Though the beam size could be changed from 2 ?m to sub-?m, the minimum beam size obtained was about 0.7 × 0.9 ?m 2 with a photon flux of 2 × 10 8ph/ s/300 mA for 9 keV X-rays by a multilayer monochromator. The capabilities of the X-ray microbeam system have been demonstrated for X-ray fluorescence trace element analysis. The sensitivity was three orders of magnitude higher compared to a similar type of X-ray microbeam system previously developed for X-rays from a bending magnet. An X-ray micro-diffraction experiment has also been performed for the characterization of local layer defects observed in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals.

  20. X-ray beam induced current\\/microprobe x-ray fluorescence: synchrotron radiation based x-ray microprobe techniques for analysis of the recombination activity and chemical nature of metal impurities in silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O F Vyvenko; T Buonassisi; A A Istratov; E R Weber

    2004-01-01

    In this study we report applications of the synchrotron radiation based x-ray microprobe techniques, x-ray beam induced current (XBIC) and microprobe x-ray fluorescence (?-XRF), to the analysis of the recombination activity and spatial distribution of transition metals in silicon. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the elemental nature of defects and impurities and their recombination activity

  1. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Applying Pyroelectric Crystal to Small High Energy X-Ray Source

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    2010-01-01

    Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 © X Applying Pyroelectric Crystal to Small High Energy X-Ray Source Eisuke HIRO, Takashi YAMAMOTO and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 195 X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.195-200 (2010) 606-8501 1-1 770-8502 X Applying Pyroelectric

  2. Prevailing features of x-ray-induced molecular electron spectra revealed with fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Camacho Garibay, Abraham; Saalmann, Ulf; Rost, Jan M

    2014-08-22

    X-ray photoabsorption from intense short pulses by a molecule triggers complicated electron and subsequently ion dynamics, leading to photoelectron spectra, which are difficult to interpret. Illuminating fullerenes offers a way to separate out the electron dynamics since the cage structure confines spatially the origin of photo- and Auger electrons. Together with the sequential nature of the photoprocesses at intensities available at x-ray free-electron lasers, this allows for a remarkably detailed interpretation of the photoelectron spectra, as we will demonstrate. The general features derived can serve as a paradigm for less well-defined situations in other large molecules or clusters. PMID:25192093

  3. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  4. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis to understand the role of tannin-based dyes in the degradation of historical wool textiles.

    PubMed

    Restivo, Annalaura; Degano, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2014-10-01

    An innovative approach, combining field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, is presented to investigate the degradation mechanisms affecting tannin-dyed wool. In fact, tannin-dyed textiles are more sensitive to degradation then those dyed with other dyestuffs, even in the same conservation conditions. FESEM-EDX was first used to study a set of 48 wool specimens (artificially aged) dyed with several raw materials and mordants, and prepared according to historical dyeing recipes. EDX analysis was performed on the surface of wool threads and on their cross-sections. In addition, in order to validate the model formulated by the analysis of reference materials, several samples collected from historical and archaeological textiles were subjected to FESEM-EDX analysis. FESEM-EDX investigations enabled us to reveal the correlation between elemental composition and morphological changes. In addition, aging processes were clarified by studying changes in the elemental composition of wool from the protective cuticle to the fiber core in cross-sections. Morphological and elemental analysis of wool specimens and of archaeological and historical textiles showed that the presence of tannins increases wool damage, primarily by causing a sulfur decrease and fiber oxidation. PMID:24983911

  5. An x-ray microprobe beam line for trace element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Schidlovsky, G.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation to an x-ray microprobe for trace element analysis is a complementary and natural extension of existing microprobe techniques using electrons, protons, and heavier ions as excitation sources for x-ray fluorescence. The ability to focus charged particles leads to electron microprobes with spatial resolutions in the sub-micrometer range and down to 100 ppM detection limits and proton microprobes with micrometer resolution and ppM detection limits. The characteristics of synchrotron radiation that prove useful for microprobe analysis include a broad and continuous energy spectrum, a relatively small amount of radiation damage compared to that deposited by charged particles, a highly polarized source which reduces background scattered radiation in an appropriate counting geometry, and a small vertical divergence angle of approx.0.2 mrad which allows for focussing of the light beam into a small spot with high flux. The features of a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) are described. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  6. X-ray line spectroscopy method for magnetic field and electron beam energy measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Baronova; V. Alexandrov

    1996-01-01

    Certain conditions in high temperature plasma (weak electrical field, temperature gradient, parametric instabilities) can lead to the spontaneous magnetic field and suprathermal electron generation. Suprathermal electrons are of great importance in energy transition processes and in plasma emission spectra formation. Soft X-ray line spectroscopy application for magnetic field and electron beam energy measurements in laser produced plasma are presented.

  7. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    PubMed

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved. PMID:25273730

  8. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kameshima, Takashi [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki, E-mail: hatsui@spring8.or.jp [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan) [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Horigome, Toshio [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)] [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen [XCam, Ltd, 2 Stone Circle Road, Round Spinney Industrial Estate, Northampton NN3 8RF (United Kingdom)] [XCam, Ltd, 2 Stone Circle Road, Round Spinney Industrial Estate, Northampton NN3 8RF (United Kingdom); Burt, David [e2v, 106 Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom)] [e2v, 106 Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom); Murao, Hajime [Meisei Electric Co. Ltd, Naganuma 2223, Isesaki, Gunma 372-8585 (Japan)] [Meisei Electric Co. Ltd, Naganuma 2223, Isesaki, Gunma 372-8585 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 ?m square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

  9. Experimental demonstration of femtosecond two-color x-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Lutman, A A; Coffee, R; Ding, Y; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J; Maxwell, T; Messerschmidt, M; Nuhn, H-D

    2013-03-29

    With an eye toward extending optical wave-mixing techniques to the x-ray regime, we present the first experimental demonstration of a two-color x-ray free-electron laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We combine the emittance-spoiler technique with a magnetic chicane in the undulator section to control the pulse duration and relative delay between two intense x-ray pulses and we use differently tuned canted pole undulators such that the two pulses have different wavelengths as well. Two schemes are shown to produce two-color soft x-ray pulses with a wavelength separation up to ?1.9% and a controllable relative delay up to 40 fs. PMID:23581326

  10. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic structure enables the systematic design of new dyes using less expensive materials.

  11. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  12. Cause of the localized maximum of X-ray emission in the morning sector: A comparison with electron measurements

    E-print Network

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    and electron measurements for both these events. Comparison of measured electron spectra and electron spectra for deriving electron characteristics from the X-ray measurements are described and discussed. We find. The electron spectra measured in the early stage of the localized morning maximum of X-ray emission strongly

  13. Analysis of urinary stone components by x-ray coherent scatter: characterizing composition beyond laboratory x-ray diffractometry.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Melanie T M; Batchelar, Deidre L; Velupillai, Sujeevan; Denstedt, John D; Cunningham, Ian A

    2005-08-21

    Monoenergetic x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is an established standard for the assessment of urinary stone composition. The inherent low energy of x-rays used (8 keV), however, restricts penetration depth and imposes a requirement for small powdered samples. A technique capable of producing detailed information regarding component structural arrangements in calculi non-destructively would provide clearer insights into causes of formation and subsequent growth and allow the selection of more appropriate courses of therapy. We describe a new method based on the detection of coherent scatter (CS) in stone components using polyenergetic x-rays (70 kVp) from diagnostic equipment. While the higher energy allows the analysis of intact calculi, the polyenergetic source causes an angular broadening of measured CS patterns. We show that it is possible to relate the polyenergetic (CS) and monoenergetic (XRD) measurements through a superposition integral of the monoenergetic XRD cross-section with a function representative of the polyenergetic spectrum used in CS. Experimentally acquired diffractometry cross-sections of the seven major urinary stone components were subjected to this operation, revealing good agreement of diffraction features with CS. Therefore, our CS analysis is sensitive to stone component structure, similar to conventional XRD analysis. This indicates that CS analysis can be used as a basis to classify urinary calculi by composition. The potential of identifying stone components non-destructively was demonstrated from a tomographic CS analysis of a stone-mimicking phantom. Tomographic composition maps were generated from CS patterns, showing the structural arrangement of multiple stone components within the phantom. CS analysis has the ability to detect components in the presence of many others. The ability to perform CS measurements in intact calculi would allow for the identification of stone structures critical to patient metaprophylaxis. PMID:16077226

  14. X-ray photoemission electron microscopy for the study of semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, S.; Stammler, T.; Padmore, H.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Terminello, L.J.; Jankowski, A.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Stoehr, J. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Diaz, J. [Departamento de Fisic, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo, 33007 (Spain); Cossy-Favre, A. [EMPA, Duebendorf, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Singh, S. [Center for X-ray Lithography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Photoemission Electron Microscopy using X-rays (X-PEEM) is a novel combination of two established materials analysis techniques{emdash}PEEM using UV light, and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. This combination allows the study of elemental composition and bonding structure of the sample by NEXAFS spectroscopy with a high spatial resolution given by the microscope. A simple, two lens, 10 kV operation voltage PEEM has been used at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley to study various problems including materials of interest for the semiconductor industry. In the present paper we give a short overview over the method and the instrument which was used, and describe in detail a number of applications. These applications include the study of the different phases of titanium disilicide, various phases of boron nitride, and the analysis of small particles. A brief outlook is given on possible new fields of application of the PEEM technique, and the development of new PEEM instruments. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. In situ analysis of electrocrystallization process of metal electrodeposition with confocal energy dispersive X-ray diffraction based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Yang, Chaolin; Sun, Weiyuan; Sun, Xuepeng; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-06-01

    The confocal energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) in excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) in detection channel was presented to study the electrocrystallization process of metal electrodeposition. The input focal spot of the PPXRL and the output focal spot of the PFXRL was adjusted in a confocal configuration, and only the X-rays from the volume overlapped by the two foci could be accordingly detected by the detector. The experimental results demonstrated the confocal EDXRD could be used to in situ real-time analysis of electrochemical crystal growth process.

  16. Uranium Analysis with X-ray Microscopy Research Team: Andrew Duffin, Jesse Ward, Gregory Eiden, Steven Smith, Bruce McNamara, Edgar Buck

    E-print Network

    Uranium Analysis with X-ray Microscopy Research Team: Andrew Duffin, Jesse Ward, Gregory Eiden Chemical fingerprinting of anthropogenic and mineral uranium leading to chemical age dating of reactive uranium samples Develop x-ray and/or electron microscopy protocol for non- destructive uranium sample

  17. Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in dermatology

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is frequently applied to dermatological problems, as is evident from a review of the recent literature. In this paper, preparation methods and new techniques allowing experimental studies on the integumentary system are emphasized. Quantitative analysis in the electron microscope by use of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) has become an important accessory technique. EDX can, for instance, be used to study problems involving physiological changes induced in skin by agents causing contact reactions. Recently, it has been shown that treatment with DNCB, chromate and nickel causes changes in elemental distribution in guinea-pig skin. In addition, elemental uptake in the integumentary system and in pathological inclusions in skin can be analyzed.

  18. Femtosecond X-ray Pulse Temporal Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Transverse Deflector

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; /SLAC; Behrens, C.; /DESY; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Krejcik, P.; Wang, M-H.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    We propose a novel method to characterize the temporal duration and shape of femtosecond x-ray pulses in a free-electron laser (FEL) by measuring the time-resolved electron-beam energy loss and energy spread induced by the FEL process, with a transverse radio-frequency deflector located after the undulator. Its merits are simplicity, high resolution, wide diagnostic range, and non-invasive to user operation. When the system is applied to the Linac Coherent Light Source, the first hard x-ray free-electron laser in the world, it can provide single-shot measurements on the electron beam and x-ray pulses with a resolution on the order of 1-2 femtoseconds rms.

  19. High-gain X-ray free electron laser by beat-wave terahertz undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao; Hei, DongWei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an City 710024 (China) [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an City 710024 (China); Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Pellegrin, Claudio; Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)] [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The THz undulator has a higher gain to realize a much brighter X-ray at saturation, compared with the optical undulator under the same undulator strength and beam quality. In order to fill the high-power THz gap and realize the THz undulator, two superimposed laser pulses at normal incidence to the electron-beam moving direction form an equivalent high-field THz undulator by the frequency difference to realize the high-gain X-ray Free electron laser. The pulse front tilt of lateral fed lasers is used to realize the electron-laser synchronic interaction. By PIC simulation, a higher gain and a larger X-ray radiation power by the beat wave THz undulator could be realized, compared with the optical undulator for the same electron beam parameters.

  20. Femtosecond X-ray Pulses from a Spatially Chirped Electron Bunch in a SASE FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, P.

    2003-01-14

    We propose a simple method to produce short x-ray pulses using a spatially chirped electron bunch in a SASE FEL. The spatial chirp is generated using an rf deflector which produces a transverse offset (in y and/or y') correlated with the longitudinal bunch position. Since the FEL gain is very sensitive to an initial offset in the transverse phase space at the entrance of the undulator, only a small portion of the electron bunch with relatively small transverse offset will interact significantly with the radiation, resulting in an x-ray pulse length much shorter than the electron bunch length. The x-ray pulse is also naturally phase locked to the rf deflector and so allows high precision timing synchronization. We discuss the generation and transport of such a spatially chirped electron beam and show that tens of femtosecond long pulse can be generated for the linac coherent light source (LCLS).

  1. Lipid Bilayer Structure Determined by the Simultaneous Analysis of Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Data

    PubMed Central

    Ku?erka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Sachs, Jonathan N.; Feller, Scott E.; Pencer, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew; Katsaras, John

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative structures were obtained for the fully hydrated fluid phases of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers by simultaneously analyzing x-ray and neutron scattering data. The neutron data for DOPC included two solvent contrasts, 50% and 100% D2O. For DPPC, additional contrast data were obtained with deuterated analogs DPPC_d62, DPPC_d13, and DPPC_d9. For the analysis, we developed a model that is based on volume probability distributions and their spatial conservation. The model's design was guided and tested by a DOPC molecular dynamics simulation. The model consistently captures the salient features found in both electron and neutron scattering density profiles. A key result of the analysis is the molecular surface area, A. For DPPC at 50°C A = 63.0 Å2, whereas for DOPC at 30°C A = 67.4 Å2, with estimated uncertainties of 1 Å2. Although A for DPPC agrees with a recently reported value obtained solely from the analysis of x-ray scattering data, A for DOPC is almost 10% smaller. This improved method for determining lipid areas helps to reconcile long-standing differences in the values of lipid areas obtained from stand-alone x-ray and neutron scattering experiments and poses new challenges for molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:18502796

  2. Rapid qualitative phase analysis in highly textured thin films by x-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Borgia; Sven Olliges; Ralph Spolenak

    2008-01-01

    Phase analysis of highly out-of-plane textured specimens using x-ray diffraction is usually complicated due to the disappearance of most of the x-ray peaks in a common theta\\/2theta diffraction geometry. In this paper, we propose a technique, where powderlike spectra of textured samples are obtained by multiaxial x-ray diffraction scans. This technique is a simple, yet powerful method which allows for

  3. Electron density characterization by use of a broadband x-ray-compatible wave-front sensor.

    PubMed

    Baker, K L; Brase, J; Kartz, M; Olivier, S S; Sawvel, B; Tucker, J

    2003-02-01

    The use of a Hartmann wave-front sensor to accurately measure the line-integrated electron density gradients formed in laser-produced and z-pinch plasma experiments is examined. This wave-front sensor may be used with a soft-x-ray laser as well as with incoherent line emission at multikilovolt x-ray energies. This diagnostic is significantly easier to use than interferometery and moiré deflectometry, both of which have been demonstrated with soft-x-ray lasers. This scheme is experimentally demonstrated in the visible region by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor and a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator to simulate a phase profile that could occur when an x-ray probe passes through a plasma. The merits of using a Hartmann sensor include a wide dynamic range, broadband or low-coherence-length light capability, high x-ray efficiency, two-dimensional gradient determination, multiplexing capability, and experimental simplicity. Hartmann sensors could also be utilized for wavelength testing of extreme-ultraviolet lithography components and x-ray phase imaging of biological specimens. PMID:12656314

  4. X-ray and optical pulse interactions via electron trapping in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Stephen; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Dichiara, Anthony; Henning, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A highly excited state of GaAs is created by the absorption of an extremely intense focused 80 ps pulse of hard x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron. This state is probed by 2 ps laser pulses with photon energies near the semiconducting band gap, which has previously revealed x-ray induced optical transparency. Two unexpected results are found: x-ray induced luminescence is dramatically enhanced when a high intensity laser pulse precedes the x-ray pulse, and the decay of the induced transparency becomes much slower when the intensity of the subsequent probe laser is increased. Both results require that energy be stored in GaAs by the first pulse, and then released by the second pulse. We describe how this can be explained by electron trapping centers in GaAs with trapping lifetimes of a few nanoseconds. We compare these results with lifetime measurements of other excitations produced by ultrafast optical absorption. We also show how minor improvements in focusing will lead to single-pulse x-ray induced temperature jumps of thousands of Kelvin, allowing new x-ray excited dense matter states to be explored. Supported by DOE award DE-SC0004078. The Advanced Photon Source is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. BioCARS is supported by the NIGMS of the NIH under grant number R24GM111072.

  5. Pixel array detector for X-ray free electron laser experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Hromalik, Marianne; Tate, Mark; Koerner, Lucas; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) promise to revolutionize X-ray science with extremely high peak brilliances and femtosecond X-ray pulses. This will require novel detectors to fully realize the potential of these new sources. There are many current detector development projects aimed at the many challenges of meeting the XFEL requirements [1,2]. This paper describes a pixel array detector (PAD) that has been developed for the Coherent X-ray Imaging experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Laboratory [3]. The detector features 14-bit in-pixel digitization; a 2-level in-pixel gain setting that can be used to make an arbitrary 2-D gain pattern that is adaptable to a particular experiment; the ability to handle instantaneous X-ray flux rates of 10 17 photons per second; and continuous frames rates in excess of 120 Hz. The detector uses direct detection of X-rays in a silicon diode. The charge produced by the diode is integrated in a pixilated application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which digitizes collected holes with single X-ray photon capability. Each ASIC is 194×185 pixels, each pixel is 110 ?m×110 ?m on a side. Each pixel can detect up to 2500 X-rays per frame in low-gain mode, yet easily detects single photons at high-gain. Cooled, single-chip detectors have been built and meet all the required specifications. SLAC National Laboratory is engaged in constructing a tiled, multi-chip 1516×1516 pixel detector.

  6. High-Performance X-ray Detection in a New Analytical Electron Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, C. E.; Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Ackland, D. W.; vonHarrach, S.; Nicholls, A. W.; Statham, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray detection by energy-dispersive spectrometry in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) is often limited by low collected X-ray intensity (P), modest peak-to-background (P/B) ratios, and limitations on total counting time (tau) due to specimen drift and contamination. A new AFM has been designed with maximization of P. P/B, and tau as the primary considerations. Maximization of P has been accomplished by employing a field-emission electron gun, X-ray detectors with high collection angles, high-speed beam blanking to allow only one photon into the detector at a time, and simultaneous collection from two detectors. P/B has been maximized by reducing extraneous background signals generated at the specimen holder, the polepieces and the detector collimator. The maximum practical tau has been increased by reducing specimen contamination and employing electronic drift correction. Performance improvments have been measured using the NIST standard Cr thin film. The 0-3 steradian solid angle of X-ray collection is the highest value available. The beam blanking scheme for X-ray detection provides 3-4 times greater throughput of X-rays at high count rates into a recorded spectrum than normal systems employing pulse-pileup rejection circuits. Simultaneous X-ray collection from two detectors allows the highest X-ray intensity yet recorded to be collected from the NIST Cr thin film. The measured P/B of 6300 is the highest level recorded for an AEM. In addition to collected X-ray intensity (cps/nA) and P/B measured on the standard Cr film, the product of these can be used as a figure-of-merit to evaluate instruments. Estimated minimum mass fraction (MMF) for Cr measured on the standard NIST Cr thin film is also proposed as a figure-of-merit for comparing X-ray detection in AEMs. Determinations here of the MMF of Cr detectable show at least a threefold improvement over previous instruments.

  7. PAPER 5Localized maximum of X-ray emission in the morning sector caused by drifting electrons

    E-print Network

    Østgaard, Nikolai

    PAPER 5Localized maximum of X-ray emission in the morning sector caused by drifting electrons N of the patterns of electron precipitation through imaging of the atmospheric X-ray bremsstrahlung. While other-energy electrons (electrons of energy above 3 ke

  8. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hellmich, Julia; Glöckner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G; Schafer, Donald W; Sellberg, Jonas; Kenney, Christopher; Herbst, Ryan; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Latimer, Matthew J; Fry, Alan R; Messerschmidt, Marc M; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M Marvin; Zwart, Petrus H; White, William E; Adams, Paul D; Bogan, Michael J; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Glatzel, Pieter; Sauter, Nicholas K; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

    2012-11-20

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this "probe-before-destroy" approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. K?(1,3) XES spectra of Mn(II) and Mn(2)(III,IV) complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. The technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II. PMID:23129631

  9. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hellmich, Julia; Glöckner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G.; Schafer, Donald W.; Sellberg, Jonas; Kenney, Christopher; Herbst, Ryan; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Latimer, Matthew J.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Glatzel, Pieter; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. K?1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. The technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II. PMID:23129631

  10. Hard x-ray diagnostics for laser fusion plasmas analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miquel, J.; Bourgade, J.; Schirmann, D. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre de Limeil-Valenton, 94195 Villeneuve-Saint-Georges Cedex (France)); Veaux, J.; Gex, J.; Cavailler, C. (CEA, Centre de Vaujours, B.P. 7, 77181 Courtry (France)); de Mascureau, J. (CEA, CESTA, B.P. 2, 33114 Le Barp (France)); Frotte, V.; Trochet, R. (CEA, Centre de Bruyeres-le-chatel, B.P. 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-chatel (France))

    1992-10-01

    Two diagnostics for the study of hard x-ray emission produced by plasmas during inertial confinement fusion experiments, are described: (i) a hard x-ray spectrometer to measure the high-energy tail of the spectrum, with eight spectral bands in the 50--400-keV range, by fluorescence and simple filter techniques; (ii) a time-integrated pinhole imaging device using a microchannel plate converter tube and a 7.5-{mu}m-thick tantalum photocathode adjusted for a mean spectral sensitivity around 200 keV. Adjustment and test of these diagnostics have been performed with a pulsed hard x-ray generator using a plasma focus device. Absolute calibration of the spectrometer detectors (scintillator Photomultiplier) was obtained on an x-ray tube with fluorescent emission lines (10--100 keV) and with a cobalt radioactive source at 1.23 MeV.

  11. IPC two-color analysis of x ray galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1990-01-01

    The mass distributions were determined of several clusters of galaxies by using X ray surface brightness data from the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). Determining cluster mass distributions is important for constraining the nature of the dark matter which dominates the mass of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the Universe. Galaxy clusters are permeated with hot gas in hydrostatic equilibrium with the gravitational potentials of the clusters. Cluster mass distributions can be determined from x ray observations of cluster gas by using the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and knowledge of the density and temperature structure of the gas. The x ray surface brightness at some distance from the cluster is the result of the volume x ray emissivity being integrated along the line of sight in the cluster.

  12. Digital x-ray analysis for monitoring fracture healing 

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray based evaluation of different stages of fracture healing is a well established clinical standard. However, several studies have shown plain radiography alone to be an unreliable method to assess healing. The advent ...

  13. Correlative electron and X-ray microscopy: probing chemistry and bonding with high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Angela E.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; McComb, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Two powerful and complementary techniques for chemical characterisation of nanoscale systems are electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the scanning transmission X-ray microscope. A correlative approach to spectro-microscopy may not only bridge the gaps in spatial and spectral resolution which exist between the two instruments, but also offer unique opportunities for nanoscale characterisation. This review will discuss the similarities of the two spectroscopy techniques and the state of the art for each microscope. Case studies have been selected to illustrate the benefits and limitations of correlative electron and X-ray microscopy techniques. In situ techniques and radiation damage are also discussed.

  14. Correlative electron and X-ray microscopy: probing chemistry and bonding with high spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Goode, Angela E; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary P; McComb, David W

    2015-02-01

    Two powerful and complementary techniques for chemical characterisation of nanoscale systems are electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the scanning transmission X-ray microscope. A correlative approach to spectro-microscopy may not only bridge the gaps in spatial and spectral resolution which exist between the two instruments, but also offer unique opportunities for nanoscale characterisation. This review will discuss the similarities of the two spectroscopy techniques and the state of the art for each microscope. Case studies have been selected to illustrate the benefits and limitations of correlative electron and X-ray microscopy techniques. In situ techniques and radiation damage are also discussed. PMID:25532909

  15. Detecting Electronic Coherence by Multidimensional Broadband Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals

    E-print Network

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Nonstationary molecular states which contain electronic coherences can be impulsively created and manipulated by using recently-developed ultrashort optical and X-ray pulses via photoexcitation, photoionization and Auger processes. We propose several stimulated-Raman detection schemes that can monitor the phase-sensitive electronic and nuclear dynamics. Three detection protocols of an X-ray broadband probe are compared - frequency dispersed transmission, integrated photon number change, and total pulse energy change. In addition each can be either linear or quadratic in the X-ray probe intensity. These various signals offer different gating windows into the molecular response which is described by correlation functions of electronic polarizabilities. Off-resonant and resonant signals are compared.

  16. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Doak, R. Bruce; Kirian, Richard A.; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Andreasson, Jakob; Arnlund, David; Bajt, Saša; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bottin, Hervé; Bozek, John D.; Caleman, Carl; Coppola, Nicola; Davidsson, Jan; DePonte, Daniel P.; Elser, Veit; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Graafsma, Heinz; Grotjohann, Ingo; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Robert; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M.; Hömke, André; Johansson, Linda; Kimmel, Nils; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Krasniqi, Faton; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Liang, Mengning; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V.; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Neutze, Richard; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Carlo; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M. Marvin; Shoeman, Robert L.; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wang, Xiaoyu; Williams, Garth J.; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. PMID:22330507

  17. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S; Doak, R Bruce; Kirian, Richard A; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A; Andreasson, Jakob; Arnlund, David; Bajt, Saša; Barends, Thomas R M; Barthelmess, Miriam; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bottin, Hervé; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coppola, Nicola; Davidsson, Jan; DePonte, Daniel P; Elser, Veit; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Graafsma, Heinz; Grotjohann, Ingo; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Robert; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M; Hömke, André; Johansson, Linda; Kimmel, Nils; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Krasniqi, Faton; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Liang, Mengning; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Maia, Filipe R N C; Messerschmidt, Marc; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Neutze, Richard; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Carlo; Schmidt, Kevin E; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Shoeman, Robert L; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wang, Xiaoyu; Williams, Garth J; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. PMID:22330507

  18. Rod Pinch Electron Beam Diodes as High-Brightness X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstein, G.

    1999-11-01

    Rod-pinch diodes, first reported in 1978( R.A. Mahaffey, J. Golden, Shyke A. Goldstein, and G. Cooperstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33), 795 (1978)., utilize a thin annular cathode surrounding a small-diameter anode rod which can extend through and beyond the plane of the cathode. Extensive experimental data has recently been obtained between 1 and 2 MV at 20-80 kA. Electron-beam propagation has been demonstrated on solid rods tapered from 6-mm to 1-mm diameter. Propagation velocities of up to 1 cm/ns over lengths up to 20 cm are observed. Efficient convergence of the electron current occurs on the anode tip with mm-diameter spot size. Also, a new high-velocity, high-efficiency propagation mode was observed utilizing electron reflexing through a thin hollow anode rod without the need for anode ion production. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that electrode plasma evolution can dominate the time-dependent diode-impedance behavior. When the anode extends well beyond the cathode plane, the geometry-dependent diode impedance is decoupled from the final x-ray spot size. Particle-in-cell numerical simulations are providing a complete picture of the physical processes involved, including space-charge-limited flow, self-magnetic-field limited flow, and ion-induced electron beam propagation( A.E. Blaugrund and G. Cooperstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34), 461 (1975); A.E. Blaugrund, G. Cooperstein, and S.A. Goldstein, Phys. Fluids, 20, 1185 (1977).. A combination of the last two processes results in tight focusing on the tip of the rod. Use of the rod pinch for high-power x-ray radiography can provide substantial improvement over presently available sources.

  19. On emission of Cerenkov X-rays by electrons in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, L A [Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automatics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-30

    Conditions are considered for generating Cerenkov X-rays by an electron beam propagating inside a bundle of carbon nanotubes upon synchronisation of the electron movement with one of the slow spatial harmonics of the electromagnetic field of a crystal tube. (cerenkov radiation)

  20. X-ray spectra from the Cornell Electron-Beam Ion Source (CEBIS I)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Janson, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation emitted from the Cornell electron beam ion source (CEBIS I) has been surveyed with a Si(Li) x-ray detector. These spectra can be used to estimate backgrounds from electron bremsstrahlung and to evaluate the feasibility of atomic physics experiments using the CEBIS I source in this configuration. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  1. Design optimization for an X-ray free electron laser driven by SLAC linac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Xie

    1995-01-01

    I present a design study for an X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) driven by the SLAC linac. The study assumes the FEL is based on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) and lasing is achieved in a single pass of a high current, high brightness electron beam through a long wiggler. Following a brief review of the fundamentals of SASE, I provide

  2. Three-dimensional Radio and X-Ray Modeling and Data Analysis Software: Revealing Flare Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Gary, Dale E.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  3. X-ray comb generation from nuclear-resonance-stabilized x-ray free-electron laser oscillator for fundamental physics and precision metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K.-J.

    2015-03-01

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as 57Fe as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as 181Ta or 45Sc.

  4. Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2010-09-30

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

  5. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.; Rasouli, H.

    2014-05-01

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points - three TLDs per point - to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  6. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  7. Simulations of a Johann/Johansson diffraction spectrometer for x-ray experiments at an electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jab?o?ski, ?.; Jagodzi?ski, P.; Bana?, D.; Pajek, M.

    2013-09-01

    The ray tracing simulations of x-ray spectra for a compact six-crystal Johann/Johansson diffraction spectrometer covering a wide photon energy range (70 eV-15 keV), i.e. from the extended ultraviolet to the hard x-ray region, are discussed in the context of x-ray experiments at an electron beam ion source facility. In particular, the x-ray line profiles and energy resolution for different diffraction crystals and multilayers were studied, and the effects of extension of x-ray source size and misalignment were investigated. The simulations were also performed for x-ray emission from solid targets bombarded by electrons, which will be used for calibration of the x-ray spectrometer.

  8. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  9. [Analysis of pine pollen by using FTIR, SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-min; Wang, Hong-jie; Zhang, Zhuo-yong

    2005-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to analyze nutrients in four pine pollen powder samples. The IR fingerprints showed that each of the samples, pinus massoniana, pinus yunnanensis, pinus tabulaeformis, and pinus densiflora, respectively had its own characteristic infrared spectrum. Based on the difference of the relative intensity of those characteristic absorption peaks, the IR fingerprints can be used for the identification of the four kinds of pine pollen samples. The broken pollen of pinus was more easily to release nutritional components for the distinct difference IR fingerprints of natural and broken masson pine pollen samples. As a result of SEM, four kinds of pollen grains were oblong or subspheroidal in distal face and proximal face. The exine sculpture of the four kinds of samples were granulous and almost the same, but there was some difference of the size of pollen grains. The main morphologic change of the broken pollen was that the air bags were separated from pollen particles, and part of the main body of pollen particles was broken. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis results showed that eleven elements, including Mg, Se, Si, Sr, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, and Fe, existed and the highest content in pollen of pinus was K element. The contents of trace elements were different in different kinds of pollen of pinus. The element intensity in broken masson pine pollen was distinctlyhigher than that innatural masson pine pollen. PMID:16499047

  10. Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, Mary K; Moffet, R.C.; Henn, T.; Laskin, A.

    2011-01-20

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicrometer particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278 to 320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and noncarbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate the application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  11. Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Henn, Tobias R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Marry K.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicron particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278-320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and non-carbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  12. Femtosecond x-ray pulse characterization in free-electron lasers using a cross-correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Decker, F-J; Emma, P; Feng, C; Field, C; Frisch, J; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J; Loos, H; Welch, J; Wu, J; Zhou, F

    2012-12-21

    We report the first measurements of x-ray single-pulse duration and two-pulse separation at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a cross-correlation technique involving x rays and electrons. An emittance-spoiling foil is adopted as a very simple and effective method to control the output x-ray pulse. A minimum pulse duration of about 3 fs full width at half maximum has been measured together with a controllable pulse separation (delay) between two pulses. This technique provides critical temporal diagnostics for x-ray experiments such as x-ray pump-probe studies. PMID:23368472

  13. Macroporous silicon membranes as electron and x-ray transmissive windows

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.; Scherer, A.; Goesele, U.; Kolbe, M. [California Institute of Technology, 391 S. Holliston Avenue, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States); Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-08-16

    Macroporous silicon membranes are fabricated whose pores are terminated with 60 nm thin silicon dioxide shells. The transmission of electrons with energies of 5 kV-25 kV through these membranes was investigated reaching a maximum of 22% for 25 kV. Furthermore, the transmission of electromagnetic radiation ranging from the far-infrared to the x-ray region was determined. The results suggest the application of the membrane as window material for electron optics and energy dispersive x-ray detectors.

  14. Electron diffraction and X-ray investigation of hydrothermally vitrified 5 A zeolite containing trapped gases

    SciTech Connect

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Mertin, W.

    1984-09-01

    The mechanism of gas fixation by hydrothermal treatment of zeolite type 5 A in the presence of densified gas has been examined by electron diffraction and X rays. Gas trapping seems to occur in an X-ray amorphous phase which is formed within a broad spectrum of fixation conditions. The amorphous matrix recrystallizes at 850/sup 0/C regardless of the parameter combination selected for vitrification. The recrystallization product consists essentially of anorthite and nepheline phases. In addition some CaAl/sub 2/Si/sub 2/O/sub 8/ was found. Observations made by X rays and by electron diffraction correlate well with leak rate data. 18 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  15. Dual x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and method for fluid analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Bary W.; Shepard, Chester L.

    2005-02-22

    Disclosed are an X-ray fluorescence (SRF) spectrometer and method for on-site and in-line determination of contaminant elements in lubricating oils and in fuel oils on board a marine vessel. An XRF source block 13 contains two radionuclide sources 16, 17 (e.g. Cd 109 and Fe 55), each oriented 180 degrees from the other to excite separate targets. The Cd 109 source 16 excites sample lube oil flowing through a low molecular weight sample line 18. The Fe 55 source 17 excites fuel oil manually presented to the source beam inside a low molecular weight vial 26 or other container. Two separate detectors A and B are arranged to detect the fluorescent x-rays from the targets, photons from the analyte atoms in the lube oil for example, and sulfur identifying x-rays from bunker fuel oil for example. The system allows both automated in-line and manual on-site analysis using one set of signal processing and multi-channel analyzer electronics 34, 37 as well as one computer 39 and user interface 43.

  16. Multicomponent signal unmixing from nanoheterostructures: overcoming the traditional challenges of nanoscale X-ray analysis via machine learning.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, David; Burdet, Pierre; de la Peña, Francisco; Ducati, Caterina; Knappett, Benjamin R; Wheatley, Andrew E H; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    The chemical composition of core-shell nanoparticle clusters have been determined through principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) of an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum image (SI) acquired in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method blindly decomposes the SI into three components, which are found to accurately represent the isolated and unmixed X-ray signals originating from the supporting carbon film, the shell, and the bimetallic core. The composition of the latter is verified by and is in excellent agreement with the separate quantification of bare bimetallic seed nanoparticles. PMID:25760234

  17. Multicomponent Signal Unmixing from Nanoheterostructures: Overcoming the Traditional Challenges of Nanoscale X-ray Analysis via Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of core–shell nanoparticle clusters have been determined through principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) of an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum image (SI) acquired in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method blindly decomposes the SI into three components, which are found to accurately represent the isolated and unmixed X-ray signals originating from the supporting carbon film, the shell, and the bimetallic core. The composition of the latter is verified by and is in excellent agreement with the separate quantification of bare bimetallic seed nanoparticles. PMID:25760234

  18. New method of comparison for electron temperature measurements in plasmas using X-ray spectra of heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shevelko, A P [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-31

    Conditions and applicability limits of a new X-ray spectroscopy method for electron temperature measurements in plasmas of heavy elements are considered. The method is based on comparison of spectra under study with those of well diagnosed laser-produced plasmas. To apply the method for diagnosing tungsten plasmas a thorough analysis of laser-produced plasma spectra has been performed. The analysis included investigation of spectrum peculiarities and determination of electron temperatures. Quantitative data were obtained for determining electron temperatures in tungsten plasmas using relative intensities of spectral peaks in the spectral range {lambda} = 3 - 6 nm. (laser plasma)

  19. Application of transmission electron detection to x-ray mask calibrations and inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postek, Michael T., Jr.; Larrabee, Robert D.; Keery, William J.; Marx, Egon

    1991-07-01

    Masks used for the manufacture of integrated circuits by x-ray lithography can be calibrated and inspected in a scanning electron microscope by using the transmitted electron detection mode. By their nature, these masks present a measurement subject unique from most (if not all) other objects in semiconductor processing because the support membrane is, by design, x-ray transparent. This characteristic can be used as an advantage in electron beam- based mask metrology since, depending upon the incident electron beam voltages, substrate composition and substrate thickness, the membrane can also be essentially electron transparent. The areas of the mask where the absorber structures are located are essentially x-ray opaque as well as electron opaque. Viewing the sample from a perspective below an x-ray mask can provide excellent electron signal contrast (depending upon the instrument conditions) between the absorber structure and the membrane. Thus, the mask can be viewed in the transmitted electron detection mode of the scanning electron microscope, and precise and potentially accurate dimensional measurements can be made. One unique advantage to this is that in the transmitted electron detection mode, the modeling of the electron beamspecimen interaction becomes far less difficult than in the modeling of typical secondary electron images of opaque objects. The inelastically scattered beam electrons and the low- energy secondary electrons can be excluded from the detector and, therefore, need not be accurately modeled. Therefore, absorber structure width (linewidth) measurement standards can be potentially calibrated with less difficulty and higher accuracy than standards calibrated by more conventional means. The transmitted electron detection mode is also useful, because of the high contrast of the image, for the determination of mask defects and high- density particle detection as well as for registration measurements.

  20. RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS BY HIGH SENSITIVITY DUAL-OPTIC MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and...

  1. Low-emittance Electron Gun for X-ray Free Electron Laser at SPring-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togawa, Kazuaki

    A low-emittance electron gun has been developed for the x-ray free electron laser facility at SPring-8 that was named as SACLA. The gun uses a single-crystal cerium hexaboride (CeB6) cathode as a thermionic emitter to produce a low-emittance electron beam. A pulsed high-voltage of 500 kV is applied on the cathode to obtain more than 1 A peak current without emittance degradation. A normalized emittance of the beam was measured to be 0.6 mm mrad. This value is satisfied with a requirement of SACLA. The CeB6 electron gun is briefly reviewed in this paper.

  2. X-ray analysis of Co-C bond cleavage in the crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Sasada, Y

    1977-05-12

    During serial structure analysis of cobaloxime derivatives, aimed at interpreting the catalytic capability of the asymmetric hydrogenation, we have found that the crystal of R-alpha-cyanoethyl (S-alpha-methylbenzylamine)-cobaloxime changes its unit cell dimensions by X-ray exposure without degradation of a single crystal form. The rate of the change was so slow that it was possible to collect the intensity data for several intermediate stages. We have proved, by calculating electron density in each stage, that the change reflects the racemisation of the cyanoethyl group. PMID:16073420

  3. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis—Digital wavefront development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idir, Mourad; Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sébastien; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Modi, M. H.

    2010-06-01

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  4. Catalyst analysis using synchrotron x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Webb, S.W.; Conner, W.C. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (USA)); Beyerlein, R.A.; Reagan, W.J. (Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (USA)); Dautzenberg, F.M. (Catalytica Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Synchrotron x-ray microscopy techniques have been used to characterize several different types of heterogeneous catalysts. Using a collimator to produce microbeams with a size of less than 10 micrometers, maps of the elemental distributions based on detection of the fluorescent x-rays were made, and computer microtomography (CMT) techniques were applied to produce phase/density contrast'' maps. CMT techniques were also used to determine the distribution of a specific major element by making measurements above and below the K x-ray absorption-edge. The measurements were made using bending magnet radiation and, in one case, radiation from a 4T superconducting wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Examples of applications to the study of polyethylene polymerization particles, fluid catalytic cracking catalysts, and hydrotreating catalysts are given.

  5. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis - Digital wavefront development

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, Mourad [Metrology Beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Potier, Jonathan [Phaseview, Palaiseau (France); Universite Paul Sabatier-Toulouse III, Metrology Beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fricker, Sebastien [Phaseview, Palaiseau (France); Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Modi, M. H. [X-ray Optics Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2010-06-23

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  6. Depth selective chemical state analysis of Pb and S in fly ash in municipal solid waste incinerators using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Jun; Tohno, Susumu; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Raola, Orlando E.; Takaoka, Masaki

    2003-04-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectra of sulfur K edge and lead M 4,5 edges were measured for fly ash samples collected from two types of municipal solid waste incinerators. The X-ray spectra were measured using a synchrotron radiation beam line. The spectra were measured by surface sensitive total electron yield method and bulk sensitive X-ray fluorescence yield method. The instruments to measure the X-ray absorption spectra were an electric current amplifier and a proportional counter. The spectra recorded with these two yield methods were different for one incinerator sample and same for the other incinerator sample. This observation was supported from the X-ray fluorescence quantitative elemental analysis of Pb. One type of incinerator concentrated the lead on the surface of the fly ash particles. The other did not concentrate lead. This type of depth selective chemical state analysis method is useful for the process analysis such as an incinerator.

  7. Resonantly excited betatron hard X-Rays from Ionization Injected Electron Beam in a Laser Plasma Accelerator

    E-print Network

    Huang, K; Li, Y F; Li, D Z; Tao, M Z; Mirzaie, M; Ma, Y; Zhao, J R; Li, M H; Chen, M; Hafz, N; Sokollik, T; Sheng, Z M; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    A new scheme for bright hard x-ray emission from laser wakefield electron accelerator is reported, where pure nitrogen gas is adopted. Intense Betatron x-ray beams are generated from ionization injected K-shell electrons of nitrogen into the accelerating wave bucket. The x-ray radiation shows synchrotron-like spectrum with total photon yield 8$\\times$10$^8$/shot and $10^8$ over 110keV. In particular, the betatron hard x-ray photon yield is 10 times higher compared to the case of helium gas under the same laser parameters. Particle-in-cell simulation suggests that the enhancement of the x-ray yield results from ionization injection, which enables the electrons to be quickly accelerated to the driving laser region for subsequent betatron resonance. Employing the present scheme,the single stage nitrogen gas target could be used to generate stable high brightness betatron hard x-ray beams.

  8. Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging.

    PubMed

    Albertin, F; Astolfo, A; Stampanoni, M; Peccenini, Eva; Hwu, Y; Kaplan, F; Margaritondo, G

    2015-03-01

    Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page `reading'. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project. PMID:25723946

  9. X-ray Mapping of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Materials Using the Electron Microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar samples returned from the Apollo program motivated development of the Bence-Albee algorithm for the rapid and accurate analysis of lunar materials, and established interlaboratory comparability through its common use. In the analysis of mineral and rock fragments it became necessary to combine micro- and macroscopic analysis by coupling electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) with automated stage point counting. A coarse grid that included several thousand points was used, and initially wavelength-dispersive (WDS) and later energydispersive (EDS) data were acquired at discrete stage points using approx. 5 sec count times. A approx 50 micrometer beam diameter was used for WDS and up to 500 micrometer beam diameter for EDS analysis. Average analyses of discretely sampled phases were coupled with the point count data to calculate the bulk composition using matrix algebra. Use of a defocused beam resulted in a contribution from multiple phases to each analytical point, and the analytical data were deconvolved relative to end-member phase chemistry on the fly. Impressive agreement was obtained between WDS and EDS measurements as well as comparison with bulk chemistry obtained by other methods. In the 30 years since these methods were developed, significant improvements in EPMA automation and computer processing have taken place. Digital beam control allows routine collection of x-ray maps by EDS, and stage mapping for WDS is conducted continuously at slew speed and incrementally by sampling at discrete points. Digital pulse processing in EDS systems has significantly increased the throughput for EDS mapping, and the ongoing development of Si-drift detector systems promises mapping capabilities rivaling WDS systems. Spectrum imaging allows a data cube of EDS spectra to be acquired and sophisticated processing of the original data is possible using matrix algebra techniques. The study of lunar and meteoritic materials includes the need to conveniently: (1) Characterize the sample at microscopic and macroscopic scales with relatively high sensitivity, (2) Determine the modal abundance of minerals, and (3) Identify and relocate discrete features of interest in terms of size and chemistry. The coupled substitution of cations in minerals can result in significant variation in mineral chemistry, but at similar average Z, leading to poor backscattered-electron (BSE) contrast discrimination of mineralogy. It is necessary to discriminate phase chemistry at both the trace element level and the major element level. To date, the WDS of microprobe systems is preferred for mapping due to high throughput and the ability to obtain the necessary intensity to discriminate phases at both trace and major element concentrations. It is desirable to produce fully quantitative compositional maps of geological materials, which requires the acquisition of k-ratio maps that are background and dead-time corrected, and which have been corrected by phi(delta z> or an equivalent algorithm at each pixel. To date, turnkey systems do not allow the acquisition of k-ratio maps and the rigorous correction in this manner. X-ray maps of a chondrule from the Ourique meteorite, and a comb-layered xenolith from the San Francisco volcanic field, have been analyzed and processed to extract phase information. The Ourique meteorite presents a challenge due to relatively low BSE contrast, and has been studied using spectrum imaging. X-ray maps for Si, Mg, and FeK(alpha) were used to produce RGB images. The xenolith sample contains sector-zoned augite, olivine, plagioclase, and basaltic glass. X-ray maps were processed using Lispix and ImageJ software to produce mineral phase maps. The x-ray maps for Mg, Ca, and Ti were used with traceback to generate binary images that were converted to RGB images. These approaches are successful in discriminating phases, but it is desirable to achieve the methods that were used on lunar samples 30 years ago on current microprobe systems. Curnt research includes x-ray mapping analysis of the Dalgety Downs chondrite by micro x-ray fluo

  10. Femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid using a hard X-ray free electron laser in a dual-beam dispersive detection method.

    PubMed

    Obara, Yuki; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kurahashi, Naoya; Karashima, Shutaro; Chiba, Yuhei; Isokawa, Yusuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Suzuki, Toshinori; Misawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-13

    We present femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aqueous solution using a hard x-ray free electron laser (SACLA) and a synchronized Ti:sapphire laser. The instrumental response time is 200 fs, and the repetition rate of measurement is 10 Hz. A cylindrical liquid beam 100 ?m in diameter of aqueous ammonium iron(III) oxalate solution is photoexcited at 400 nm, and the transient X-ray absorption spectra are measured in the K-edge region of iron, 7.10 - 7.26 keV, using a dual X-ray beam dispersive detection method. Each of the dual beams has the pulse energy of 1.4 ?J, and pump-induced absorbance change on the order of 10(-3) is successfully detected. The photoexcited iron complex exhibits a red shifted iron K-edge with the appearance time constant of 260 fs. The X-ray absorption difference spectra, with and without the pump pulses, are independent of time delay after 1.5 ps up to 100 ps, indicating that the photoexcited species is long-lived. PMID:24515070

  11. Accurate macromolecular structures using minimal measurements from X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; Tran, Rosalie; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Lampe, Alyssa; Han, Guangye; Gul, Sheraz; DiFiore, Dörte; Milathianaki, Despina; Fry, Alan R.; Miahnahri, Alan; White, William E.; Schafer, Donald W.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Koglin, Jason E.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sellberg, Jonas; Latimer, Matthew J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Zwart, Petrus H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Bogan, Michael J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Adams, Paul D.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources enable the use of crystallography to solve three-dimensional macromolecular structures under native conditions and free from radiation damage. Results to date, however, have been limited by the challenge of deriving accurate Bragg intensities from a heterogeneous population of microcrystals, while at the same time modeling the X-ray spectrum and detector geometry. Here we present a computational approach designed to extract statistically significant high-resolution signals from fewer diffraction measurements. PMID:24633409

  12. A review of x-ray free-electron laser theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    2007-03-01

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are being developed as extremely bright sources for a next-generation x-ray facility. In this paper, we review the basic theory of the start-up, the exponential growth, and the saturation of the high-gain process, emphasizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission. The radiation characteristics of an x-ray FEL, including its transverse coherence, temporal characteristics, and harmonic content, are discussed. FEL performance in the presence of machine errors and undulator wakefields is examined. Various enhancement schemes through seeding and beam manipulations are summarized.

  13. Demonstration of self-seeding in a hard-X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, J.; Berg, W.; Blank, V.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Feng, Y.; Frisch, J.; Fritz, D.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z.; Krzywinski, J.; Lindberg, R.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Ratner, D.; Rzepiela, J.; Shu, D.; Shvyd'Ko, Yu.; Spampinati, S.; Stoupin, S.; Terentyev, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Walz, D.; Welch, J.; Wu, J.; Zholents, A.; Zhu, D.

    2012-10-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an X-ray free-electron laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which has been operating since 2009 for a wide range of scientific research. The free-electron laser process at LCLS is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) where spontaneous emission from the initial electron beam shot noise is amplified by its interaction with the electrons over a long magnetic undulator. Although SASE is very effective, producing tremendously powerful, ultrashort X-ray beams, the start-up from noise leaves poor temporal coherence and a broad, noisy spectrum. We present experimental results of a new method, suggested by colleagues at DESY, allowing self-seeding using X-rays from the first half of the undulator to seed the second half through a diamond-based monochromator, producing near Fourier-transform-limited X-ray pulses with 0.4-0.5 eV bandwidth at 8-9 keV. These results demonstrate self-seeding at ångstrom wavelengths with a relative bandwidth reduction of 40-50 with respect to SASE.

  14. Theoretical studies of the electron scattering effect on developed pattern profiles in x-ray lithography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Murata

    1985-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of the photo and Auger electron production by a monochromatic x ray of Al K? have been performed to study the effect of their diffusion in a 1.0-?m polymethyl methacrylate resist film on replicated patterns both with and without the Si substrate. Based on both the calculated spatial distribution of the absorbed energy density and the solubility

  15. Implications of X-Ray Observations for Electron Acceleration and Propagation in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Aurass, H.; Battaglia, M.; Grigis, P. C.; Kontar, E. P.; Liu, W.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-rays and gamma-rays from solar flares were discovered just over fifty years ago. Since that time, the standard for the interpretation of spatially integrated flare X-ray spectra at energies above several tens of keV has been the collisional thick-target model. After the launch of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in early 2002, X-ray spectra and images have been of sufficient quality to allow a greater focus on the energetic electrons responsible for the X-ray emission, including their origin and their interactions with the flare plasma and magnetic field. The result has been new insights into the flaring process, as well as more quantitative models for both electron acceleration and propagation, and for the flare environment with which the electrons interact. In this article we review our current understanding of electron acceleration, energy loss, and propagation in flares. Implications of these new results for the collisional thick-target model, for general flare models, and for future flare studies are discussed.

  16. The Application of High Energy X Rays and Electron Beams in Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Purdy

    1979-01-01

    It has been more than 25 years since very high energy x rays generated by a betatron were first used in the treatment of cancer. The development of these machines along with linear accelerators quickly led to the use of high energy electrons as an additional modality in cancer management. In the intervening years, the physical and biological aspects of

  17. Characterization of calcium crystals in Abelia using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Localization, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium crystals in leaves and stems of Abelia mosanensis and A. ×grandiflora were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM) equipped with an X-ray diffraction system, low temperature SEM (LT-SEM) and a transmission ...

  18. Implications of X-ray Observations for Electron Acceleration and Propagation in Solar Flares

    E-print Network

    Holman, Gordon D; Aurass, Henry; Battaglia, Marina; Grigis, Paolo C; Kontar, Eduard P; Liu, Wei; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Zharkova, Valentina V

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-rays and gamma-rays from solar flares were discovered just over fifty years ago. Since that time, the standard for the interpretation of spatially integrated flare X-ray spectra at energies above several tens of keV has been the collisional thick-target model. After the launch of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in early 2002, X-ray spectra and images have been of sufficient quality to allow a greater focus on the energetic electrons responsible for the X-ray emission, including their origin and their interactions with the flare plasma and magnetic field. The result has been new insights into the flaring process, as well as more quantitative models for both electron acceleration and propagation, and for the flare environment with which the electrons interact. In this article we review our current understanding of electron acceleration, energy loss, and propagation in flares. Implications of these new results for the collisional thick-target model, for general fla...

  19. Generation of intense coherent soft x-ray with electron microbunches induced and frozen by lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu. L.H.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a new improved version of Transverse Optical Klystron Harmonic Generator that uses three lasers to replace the undulators in the modulator and radiator and freeze the electron microbunching. We show that intense soft x-rays can be generated.

  20. 2014 9 30 XFEL: X-ray Free Electron LaserSACLA[1] X [2

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    1 2014 9 30 X SACLA X X X X X XFEL: X-ray Free Electron LaserSACLA[1] X [2] XFEL [3] X X X X X X X SACLA X [4] 1020 W/cm2 X 2014 4 28 http://www.spring8.or.jp/ja/news_publications/press_release/2014/140428/ X X

  1. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF POST-ABATEMENT DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to characterize post-abatement dust collected with a HEPA filtered vacuum. hree size fractions of resuspended dust (0-30 pm, 2.5-15 pm, and ...

  2. Coherent X-ray radiation generated by a relativistic electron in an artificial periodic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Blazhevich, S. V. [Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Kolosova, I. V.; Noskov, A. V., E-mail: noskovbupk@mail.ru [Belgorod University of Consumer Cooperatives (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    A theory of coherent X-ray radiation from a relativistic electron crossing an artificial periodic layered structure in the Laue scattering geometry is constructed. The expressions describing the spectral-angular radiation parameters are obtained. It is shown that the radiation yield in such a medium may substantially exceed the radiation yield in a crystal under analogous conditions.

  3. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature using an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Botha, Sabine; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Doak, R. Bruce; Gati, Cornelius; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Jogl, Gerwald; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Gregory, Steven T.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution ribosome structures determined by X-ray crystallography have provided important insights into the mechanism of translation. Such studies have thus far relied on large ribosome crystals kept at cryogenic temperatures to reduce radiation damage. Here, the application of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain diffraction data from ribosome microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature is described. 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals diffracted to beyond 6?Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX for ribosome structural studies. The ability to collect diffraction data at near-physiological temperatures promises to provide fundamental insights into the structural dynamics of the ribosome and its functional complexes. PMID:23989164

  4. Emerging opportunities in structural biology with X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Ilme; Miao, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) produce X-ray pulses with extremely brilliant peak intensity and ultrashort pulse duration. It has been proposed that radiation damage can be “outrun” by using an ultra intense and short X-FEL pulse that passes a biological sample before the onset of significant radiation damage. The concept of “diffraction-before-destruction” has been demonstrated recently at the Linac Coherent Light Source, the first operational hard X-ray FEL, for protein nanocrystals and giant virus particles. The continuous diffraction patterns from single particles allow solving the classical “phase problem” by the oversampling method with iterative algorithms. If enough data are collected from many identical copies of a (biological) particle, its three-dimensional structure can be reconstructed. We review the current status and future prospects of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and single-particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with X-FELs. PMID:22922042

  5. A waveguide electron cyclotron resonance source of X-ray emission for low-dose introscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeichev, K. F.; Ionidi, V. Yu.; Karfidov, D. M.; Lukina, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that a "point" target in a conventional evacuated waveguide in the magnetic field of a mirror trap formed by two disk magnets axially magnetized in the direction perpendicular to the electric field vector represents a source of X-ray bremsstrahlung of electrons accelerated in an ECR discharge with a broad range of photon energies up to 0.8 MeV. The dosage rate of the source is ˜1 R/h. The source fed from a conventional microwave oven has small dimensions and a low weight. It is easy-to-use and is suitable as a laboratory tool, in particular, in radiobiology and introscopy. After passing through the object, X-ray emission is recorded by a digital camera with the help of a highly sensitive X-ray fluorescent screen, which converts it into an optical image.

  6. Electron-positron pairs, Compton reflection, and the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; George, Ian M.; Fabian, A. C.; Svensson, Roland; Done, Chris

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that reprocessing of radiation fron nonthermal pair cascades by cold material in the central parts of active galactic nuclei (AGN) gives rise to X-ray and gamma-ray spectra that satisfy current observational constraints. An average 1-30 keV X-ray spectral index alpha(x) of about 0.7 in the compact range 30-300 is obtained for a wide range of Lorentz factors of the injected electrons. The gamma-ray spectra are steep, with alpha(gamma) about two, and satisfy the observational constraints. Radiation from pair cascades exhibits steep power law decreases in soft X-rays similar to those observed in AGN. The overall picture is consistent with AGN having an accretion disk which intercepts and reprocesses a substantial fraction of the nonthermal continuum incident upon it from above and below.

  7. Investigating dynamics of complex system irradiated by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; Jurek, Z.; Osipov, T.; Murphy, B. F.; Santra, R.; Berrah, N.

    2015-04-01

    We carried out experimental and theoretical investigation of the response of a complex molecule, C60, to intense x-ray photon beam from a free-electron-laser. We show good agreement between the modelling and the experiment. Our model, which can be scaled well to larger systems, reveals femotosecond molecular dynamics details, at the level of atomic resolution, which are inaccessible directly by our experiments. Our results illustrate the variety of physical and chemical processes in the interaction between large molecules and intense x- ray pulses, including photoelectric effect, secondary ionization, recombination and inter-atomic Auger decays. The understanding of these processes has a broad impact on research that implements intense x-ray pulses.

  8. Electron temperature measurements of x-ray laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.K.F.; Osterheld, A.L.; Shepherd, R.L.; Shimkaveg, G.M.; Cerjan, C.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Rosen, M.D.; Walling, R.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1992-08-06

    We present results of recent experiments at the NOVA laser to measure the electron temperature of neon-like yttrium X-my laser plasmas. Trace amounts of aluminum were introduced into yttrium exploding-foil targets. Time resolved electron temperatures were determined by comparing the measured aluminum K-shell spectra with detailed quasi-steady state calculations and are compared to 2D LASNEX hydrodynamics simulations.

  9. Soft x-ray spectroscopy studies of novel electronic materials using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, David, Jr.

    Soft x-ray spectroscopy can provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure of solids. In this work, a suite of soft x-ray spectroscopies is applied to organic and inorganic materials with potential applications in electronic and energy generation devices. Using the techniques of x-ray absorption (XAS), x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), the fundamental properties of these different materials are explored. Cycloparaphenylenes (CPPs) are a recently synthesized family of cyclic hydrocarbons with very interesting properties and many potential applications. Unusual UV/Visible fluorescence trends have spurred a number of theoretical investigations into the electronic properties of the CPP family, but thus far no comprehensive electronic structure measurements have been conducted. XPS, XAS, and XES data for two varieties, [8]- and [10]-CPP, are presented here, and compared with the results of relevant DFT calculations. Turning towards more application-centered investigations, similar measurements are applied to two materials commonly used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes: La1-xSrxMnO 3 (LSMO) and La1-xSr1- xCo1-yFe yO3 (LSCF). Both materials are structurally perovskites, but they exhibit strikingly different electronic properties. SOFC systems very efficiently produce electricity by catalyzing reactions between oxygen and petroleum-based hydrocarbons at high temperatures (> 800 C). Such systems are already utilized to great effect in many industries, but more widespread adoption could be had if the cells could operate at lower temperatures. Understanding the electronic structure and operational evolution of the cathode materials is essential for the development of better low-temperature fuel cells. LSCF is a mixed ion-electron conductor which holds promise for low-temperature SOFC applications. XPS spectra of LSCF thin films are collected as the films are heated and gas-dosed in a controlled environment. The surface evolution of these films is discussed, and the effects of different gas environments on oxygen vacancy concentration are elucidated. LSMO is commonly used in commercial fuel cell devices. Here the resonant soft x-ray emission (RIXS) spectrum of LSMO is examined, and it is shown that the inelastic x-ray emission structure of LSMO arises from local atomic multiplet effects.

  10. Electronic structure of advanced materials studied by x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Galakhov, V. R.; Yarmoshenko, Yu. M.; Trofimova, V. A.; Shamin, S. N.; Cherkashenko, V. M.; Poteryaev, A. I.; Anisimov, V. I.

    1997-01-01

    High resolution soft x-ray emission spectroscopy with high spatial resolution is used to study of the electronic structure and characterize advanced materials: high-Tc superconductors, transition metal compounds, porous silicon, solid-solid buried interfaces and hard materials. In high-Tc, the main attention is focused on the analysis of oxygen-cation interactions and the determination of the location of impurity atoms. In transition metal compounds the participation of different electronic states of constitute atoms in the valence band is analyzed and correctness of LDA band structure calculations is estimated. For CuFeO2 an unusual mutual position of the Cu3d and Fe3d bands was found which is attributed to strong electron-electron correlations. In porous silicon the local structure of silicon atoms is found to depend on the type of doping of the initial Si wafer. Solid-solid buried interfaces in thin semiconducting films irradiated by eximer laser are investigated. For the hard materials boron-carbonitride a structure consisting of hexagonal lattice planes of carbon and boron nitride is proposed.

  11. ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

    2011-03-21

    Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Conversion X-Rays from the Electron Beam of PFMA-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Rocchi, F. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); UTFISSM-PRONOC, ENEA, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tartari, A. [Department of Physics, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-12-13

    PFMA-3, a dense Plasma Focus device, is being optimized as an X-ray generator. X-rays are obtained from the conversion of the electron beam emitted in the backward direction and driven to impinge on a 50 {mu}m brass foil. Monte Carlo simulations of the X-ray emission have been conducted with MCNPX. The electron spectrum had been determined experimentally and is used in the present work as input to the simulations. Dose to the brass foil has been determined both from simulations and from measurements with a thermographic camera, and the two results are found in excellent agreement, thus validating further the electron spectrum assumed as well as the simulation set-up. X-ray emission has been predicted both from bremsstrahlung and from characteristic lines. The spectrum has been found to be comprised of two components of which the one at higher energy, 30 divide 70 keV, is most useful for IORT applications. The results are necessary to estimate penetration in and dose to Standard Human Tissue.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF SELECTED SILICATE MINERALS AND THEIR ASBESTIFORM VARIETIES BY ELECTRON OPTICAL AND X-RAY TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Illustrations of electron micrographs showing morphology, electron diffraction patterns, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of selected silicates and their asbestiform varieties are presented as an aid in their identification. A method for preparing r...

  14. X-ray diagnostics for investigating electron distribution functions in the central cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Kohagura, J.; Cho, T.; Hirata, M.; Numakura, T.; Fukai, T.; Tomii, Y.; Kiminami, S.; Morimoto, N.; Ikuno, T.; Namiki, S.; Shimizu, K.; Ito, M.; Miyata, Y.; Minami, R.; Miyoshi, S.; Ogura, K.; Saito, N.; Saito, T.; Kariya, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Toshiba Electron Tubes and Devices, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    The quantum efficiency of an ultralow-energy-sensitive pure-Ge (ULE Ge) detector is investigated using synchrotron radiation from the storage ring at AIST especially for x-ray pulse-height analyses (PHAs), down to a few hundred eV. Several types of x-ray diagnostics such as x-ray PHA, x-ray absorption methods, and x-ray tomography using the ULE Ge detector, a NaI(Tl) detector, as well as a microchannel-plate tomography system are employed for investigating electron distribution functions and electron temperature profiles with preliminary central electron-cyclotron heating in the central cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. These measurements play an important role in studying an essential physics scaling of the electron temperature as a function of electron confining potential in tandem mirror plasmas.

  15. Towards possible opportunities in nuclear materials science and technology at an X-ray free electron laser research facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Froideval; A. Badillo; J. Bertsch; S. Churakov; R. Dähn; C. Degueldre; T. Lind; D. Paladino; B. D. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopy and imaging of condensed matter have benefited greatly from the availability of intense X-ray beams from synchrotron sources, both in terms of spatial resolution and of elemental specificity. The advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-ray FEL) provides the additional features of ultra-short pulses and high transverse coherence, which greatly expand possibilities to study dynamic processes and to

  16. Laser Assisted Emittance Exchange: Downsizing the X-ray Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    A technique is proposed to generate electron beam with ultralow transverse emittance through laser assisted transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange. In the scheme a laser operating in the TEM10 mode is used to interact with the electron beam in a dispersive region and to initiate the emittance exchange. It is shown that with the proposed technique one can significantly downsize an x-ray free electron laser (FEL), which may greatly extend the availability of these light sources. A hard x-ray FEL operating at 1.5 {angstrom} with a saturation length within 30 meters using a 3.8 GeV electron beam is shown to be practically feasible.

  17. Electronic emission of radio-sensitizing gold nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation : experiment and simulations

    E-print Network

    Casta, R; Sence, M; Moretto-Capelle, P; Cafarelli, P; Amsellem, A; Sicard-Roselli, C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present new results on electronic emission of Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and compare them to the gold bulk electron emission. This subject has undergone new interest within the perspective of using GNPs as a radiotherapy enhancer. The experimental results were simulated using various models (Livermore and PENELOPE) of the Geant 4 simulation toolkit dedicated to the calculation of the transportation of particles through the matter. Our results show that the GNPs coating is a key parameter to correctly construe the experimental GNPs electronic emission after X-ray irradiation and point out some limitations of the PENELOPE model. Using XPS spectra and Geant4 Livermore simulations,we propose a method to determine precisely the coating surface density of the GNPs. We also show that the expected intrinsic nano-scale electronic emission enhancement effect - suspected to contribute to the GNPs radio-sensitizing properties - participates at most for a few pe...

  18. Double-core-hole spectroscopy for chemical analysis with an intense X-ray femtosecond laser

    PubMed Central

    Berrah, Nora; Fang, Li; Murphy, Brendan; Osipov, Timur; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Kukk, Edwin; Feifel, Raimund; van der Meulen, Peter; Salen, Peter; Schmidt, Henning T.; Thomas, Richard D.; Larsson, Mats; Richter, Robert; Prince, Kevin C.; Bozek, John D.; Bostedt, Christoph; Wada, Shin-ichi; Piancastelli, Maria N.; Tashiro, Motomichi; Ehara, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that double-core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy can provide a new powerful means of differentiating between similar chemical systems with a sensitivity not hitherto possible. Although DCH ionization on a single site in molecules was recently measured with double- and single-photon absorption, double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites, allowing unambiguous chemical analysis, have remained elusive. Here we report that direct observation of double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites produced via sequential two-photon absorption, using short, intense X-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser and compare it with theoretical modeling. The observation of DCH states, which exhibit a unique signature, and agreement with theory proves the feasibility of the method. Our findings exploit the ultrashort pulse duration of the free-electron laser to eject two core electrons on a time scale comparable to that of Auger decay and demonstrate possible future X-ray control of physical inner-shell processes. PMID:21969540

  19. Surface characterization of oxidized myofibrils using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weizheng; Li, Qingyun; Zhou, Feibai; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-07-30

    The functional properties of myofibrils depend largely on their surface characteristics. Changes in surface characteristics of myofibrils after chemical oxidation were elucidated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy. Myofibrils were oxidized by a hydroxyl radical generating system. Lipid oxidation and phospholipid distribution were altered during the oxidative processing. Results from particle size analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and salt solubility indicated that protein cross-linking and fragmentation occurred during the oxidation of myofibrils. XPS analysis of C 1s, N 1s, and O 1s spectra suggested that surface chemical function concentrations changed significantly because of the modification of amino acid side chains that rendered protein cross-links and fragmentation and phospholipid alteration. Analysis of the correlation between the surface chemical composition and parameters of particle size distributions confirmed that protein carbonylation and phospholipid alteration were involved in protein surface modification. Results of the microstructure analysis were in agreement with those of particle size and XPS analysis. PMID:25005710

  20. Soft-x-ray harmonic comb from relativistic electron spikes.

    PubMed

    Pirozhkov, A S; Kando, M; Esirkepov, T Zh; Gallegos, P; Ahmed, H; Ragozin, E N; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A; Kawachi, T; Sagisaka, A; Koga, J K; Coury, M; Green, J; Foster, P; Brenner, C; Dromey, B; Symes, D R; Mori, M; Kawase, K; Kameshima, T; Fukuda, Y; Chen, L; Daito, I; Ogura, K; Hayashi, Y; Kotaki, H; Kiriyama, H; Okada, H; Nishimori, N; Imazono, T; Kondo, K; Kimura, T; Tajima, T; Daido, H; Rajeev, P; McKenna, P; Borghesi, M; Neely, D; Kato, Y; Bulanov, S V

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrate a new high-order harmonic generation mechanism reaching the "water window" spectral region in experiments with multiterawatt femtosecond lasers irradiating gas jets. A few hundred harmonic orders are resolved, giving ?J/sr pulses. Harmonics are collectively emitted by an oscillating electron spike formed at the joint of the boundaries of a cavity and bow wave created by a relativistically self-focusing laser in underdense plasma. The spike sharpness and stability are explained by catastrophe theory. The mechanism is corroborated by particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:22540709

  1. Sensitivity of electron scattering to valence charge distribution The experimental charge density in materials can be measured using two complementary techniques; X-ray-

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    in materials can be measured using two complementary techniques; X-ray- and electron-diffraction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measures the total density of electrons in solids from the X-ray structure factors, which are the Fourier components of the electron density, while electron diffraction (ED) measures electron structure

  2. Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beam diagnostics at a soft X-ray free-electron laser

    E-print Network

    -ray free-electron laser C. Behrens1 , N. Gerasimova1 , Ch. Gerth1 , B. Schmidt1 , E.A. Schneidmiller1 , S, Ukraine (Dated: February 28, 2012) The successful operation of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), like the Linac Coherent Light Source or the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), makes unprecedented research

  3. Measurement of electron energy distribution from X-rays diagnostics - foil techniques used with the hard X-ray camera on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Goeler, S. von; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Ignat, D. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A half-screen foil technique is used with the Hard X-ray Camera on the PBX-M tokamak to determine the energy distribution of the suprathermal electrons generated during lower hybrid current drive. The ratio of perpendicular to parallel temperature of the suprathermal electrons is deduced from the anisotropy of the bremsstrahlung emission utilizing Abel inversion techniques. Results from lower hybrid current drive discharges are discussed.

  4. [Urinary calculi analysis using X-ray diffraction: selection, use and advantages].

    PubMed

    Asper, R; Schmucki, O

    1981-08-01

    Analysis of urinary calculi by X-ray diffraction: The evaluation of X-ray diffraction for the analysis of urinary calculi led to the substitution of the analysis by qualitative-chemical reactions. This instrumental method is performed in the routine laboratory in Zurich since two years. The interlaboratory quality assurance programme of 100 laboratories showed the advantage of the new method, producing correct results. On the contrary the old fashioned method by qualitative-chemical reactions yields questionable results. PMID:7287486

  5. Micro-column Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray Spectrometer (MSEMS) for Planetary Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ribaya; D. Niemann; J. Makarewicz; H. Clevenson; C. McKenzie; C. Nguyen; D. F. Blake

    2009-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with electron-induced X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) is one of the most powerful techniques for characterizing sub-µm surface morphology and composition. In terrestrial laboratories, SEM-EDX is used to elucidate natural processes such as low-temperature diagenesis, thermal or pressure induced metamorphism, volcanism\\/magmatism, atmosphere\\/crust interaction and biological activity. Such information would be highly useful for investigating the natural history

  6. Interfacial electron density profile in Nb\\/Si bilayer films: an X-ray reflectivity study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Suresh; Rachana Thakur; D. M. Phase; S. M. Chaudhari

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a systematic study of the nature of interfaces involved in a Nb layer deposited on Si (Nb-on-Si) and Si layer deposited on Nb (Si-on-Nb) bilayer films by using a UHV electron beam evaporation technique, having individual layer thickness of 35 and 100Å each. By using Grazing angle X-ray reflectivity and adopting a proper modelling technique the electron

  7. Soft X-ray emission spectra and electronic structure of some copper-beryllium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Kozlenkov; A. I. Shulgin; A. V. Postnikov; A. I. Ivanovskii; V. A. Gubanov

    1985-01-01

    The method of ultrasoft X-ray grating spectroscopy with electron microprobe excitation was used to obtain the Be K emission spectra of pure Be and some Cu-Be alloys. The experimental results are compared with those of electronic structure calculations performed in the cluster approximation. The two-peaked structure of the Be K emission band in alloys is due to the interaction between

  8. Local x-ray structure analysis of optically manipulated biological micro-objects

    SciTech Connect

    Cojoc, Dan; Ferrari, Enrico; Santucci, Silvia C. [Laboratorio TASC, Istituto Officina dei Materiali IOM-CNR, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Amenitsch, Heinz; Sartori, Barbara; Rappolt, Michael; Marmiroli, Benedetta [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystems Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 - Graz (Austria); Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian [ID13 Microfocus Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38043 - Grenoble (France)

    2010-12-13

    X-ray diffraction using micro- and nanofocused beams is well suited for nanostructure analysis at different sites of a biological micro-object. To conduct in vitro studies without mechanical contact, we developed object manipulation by optical tweezers in a microfluidic cell. Here we report x-ray microdiffraction analysis of a micro-object optically trapped in three dimensions. We revealed the nanostructure of a single starch granule at different points and investigated local radiation damage induced by repeated x-ray exposures at the same position, demonstrating high stability and full control of the granule orientation by multiple optical traps.

  9. New approach to breast tumor detection based on fluorescence x-ray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuyama, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    A new technical approach to breast-tumor detection is proposed. The technique is based on fluorescence x-ray analysis, and can identify a miniature malignant tumor within the breast. The primary beam intensity needed in fluorescence x-ray analysis is on a lower order of magnitude than that used in mammography. Thus, the newly-proposed technique would enable detection of a still tiny breast cancer while dramatically lowering the radiation dose. Field-emission x-ray sources might be a key for translating this concept into a medical technique. PMID:20930932

  10. Local x-ray structure analysis of optically manipulated biological micro-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojoc, Dan; Amenitsch, Heinz; Ferrari, Enrico; Santucci, Silvia C.; Sartori, Barbara; Rappolt, Michael; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian

    2010-12-01

    X-ray diffraction using micro- and nanofocused beams is well suited for nanostructure analysis at different sites of a biological micro-object. To conduct in vitro studies without mechanical contact, we developed object manipulation by optical tweezers in a microfluidic cell. Here we report x-ray microdiffraction analysis of a micro-object optically trapped in three dimensions. We revealed the nanostructure of a single starch granule at different points and investigated local radiation damage induced by repeated x-ray exposures at the same position, demonstrating high stability and full control of the granule orientation by multiple optical traps.

  11. Energetic Electrons in Solar Flares - As Viewed in X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2004-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations provide the most direct diagnostic we have of the suprathermal electrons and the hottest thermal plasma present in solar flares. The Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) is obtaining the most comprehensive observations of individual solar flares ever available in hard X-rays. For the first time, high-resolution spectra are available for a large number of flares that accurately display the spectral shape and its evolution and, in many cases, allow us to identify the transition from the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by suprathermal electrons to the bremsstrahlung at lower energies emitted by thermal plasma. Also, for the first time, images can be produced in arbitrary energy bands above 3 keV, and spectra of distinct imaged components can be obtained. I will review what we have learned from RHESSI observations about flare suprathermal electron distributions and their evolution Next, I will present computations of the energy deposited by these suprathermal electrons in individual flares and compare this with the energy contained in the hot thermal plasma. I will point out unsolved problems in deducing both suprathermal electron distributions and the energy content of the thermal plasma, and discuss possible solutions. Finally, I will present evidence that electron acceleration is associated with magnetic reconnection in the corona.

  12. Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS).

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Lakhiari, Hamid; Kerbal, Abdelali; Doumenq, Pierre; Mille, Gilbert; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-02-01

    The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm(-1), assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric CO stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities. PMID:25459630

  13. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 CSI, ICXOM X

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    2010-01-01

    Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 © CSI, ICXOM X Reports on International conferences (CSI at Budapest, ICXOM at Karlsruhe, and 2nd International Conference on X-Ray Analysis in Mongolia) Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 219 CSI ICXOM X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.219

  14. A compact X-ray free-electron laser emitting in the sub-ångström region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Aoyagi, Hideki; Asaka, Takao; Asano, Yoshihiro; Azumi, Noriyoshi; Bizen, Teruhiko; Ego, Hiroyasu; Fukami, Kenji; Fukui, Toru; Furukawa, Yukito; Goto, Shunji; Hanaki, Hirofumi; Hara, Toru; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Hatsui, Takaki; Higashiya, Atsushi; Hirono, Toko; Hosoda, Naoyasu; Ishii, Miho; Inagaki, Takahiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Itoga, Toshiro; Joti, Yasumasa; Kago, Masahiro; Kameshima, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kiyomichi, Akio; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Kondo, Chikara; Kudo, Togo; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Maréchal, Xavier M.; Masuda, Takemasa; Matsubara, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Matsui, Sakuo; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Nariyama, Nobuteru; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohata, Toru; Ohshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Otake, Yuji; Saji, Choji; Sakurai, Tatsuyuki; Sato, Takahiro; Sawada, Kei; Seike, Takamitsu; Shirasawa, Katsutoshi; Sugimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Sunao; Takebe, Hideki; Takeshita, Kunikazu; Tamasaku, Kenji; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Takashi; Togashi, Tadashi; Togawa, Kazuaki; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Tono, Kensuke; Wu, Shukui; Yabashi, Makina; Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Akihiro; Yanagida, Kenichi; Zhang, Chao; Shintake, Tsumoru; Kitamura, Hideo; Kumagai, Noritaka

    2012-08-01

    The free-electron laser, first proposed by Madey in 1971, has significantly reduced laser wavelengths to the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. Recently, an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) was operated at 1.2 Å at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Here, we report the successful generation of sub-ångström laser light using a compact XFEL source, combining a short-period undulator with an 8 GeV electron beam. The shortest wavelength attained--0.634 Å (63.4 pm)--is four orders of magnitude smaller than the 694 nm generated by Maiman's first laser. The maximum power exceeded 10 GW with a pulse duration of 10-14 s. This achievement will contribute to the widespread use of XFEL sources and provide broad opportunities for exploring new fields in science.

  15. Bayesian analysis of X-ray jet features of the high redshift quasar jets observed with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay; Stein, Nathan; Cheung, Chi C.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet's relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. Results from Chandra X-ray and multi-frequency VLA imaging observations of a sample of 11 high- redshift (z > 2) quasars with kilo-parsec scale radio jets are reported. The sample consists of a set of four z ? 3.6 flat-spectrum radio quasars, and seven intermediate redshift (z = 2.1 - 2.9) quasars comprised of four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and three with flat radio spectra.We implement a Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) , to analyze jet features in the X-ray images of the high redshift quasars. Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. Significant detections are based on the upper bound p-value test based on LIRA simulations. The X-ray and radio properties of this sample combined are examined and compared to lower-redshift samples.This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. Work is also supported by the Chandra grant GO4-15099X.

  16. Influence of resonant Raman scattering in the elemental analysis using X-ray emission based techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Gurjeet; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mehta, D.; Singh, Nirmal

    2010-08-01

    A tabulation of characteristic X-ray energies across the periodic table are provided where those X-rays are expected to result in a significant fractional resonant Raman scattering (RRS) contribution to the X-ray attenuation from a particular shell/subshell of the same or another element. The tabulations can be considered as guideline so as to know what can be expected due to RRS in typical photon- and particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry. The RRS contribution is not included in the available theoretical attenuation coefficients, which are generally used in estimation of the matrix corrections in routine quantitative elemental analysis based on various X-ray emission techniques. The radiative RRS peaks can also interfere with normal X-ray spectrum and influence the elemental analysis. The RRS cross-section depends upon the energy difference of the X-ray energy and the shell/subshell ionization threshold taken in the units of the shell/subshell energy width, density of available states near the Fermi level, and the band structure in case the element is in the solid form. Some aspects of the dependence of the RRS contribution on the chemical forms of the elements are also discussed.

  17. Electron Energy Partition in the Above-the-looptop Solar Hard X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (gsim15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff Ec. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 109 cm-3), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>1010 cm-3), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  18. Using the X-ray free-electron laser to drive a photo-pumped helium-like neon X-ray laser at 23 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Joseph; Scott, Howard A.

    2011-03-01

    Nearly four decades ago resonantly photo-pumped laser schemes based on hydrogen-like and helium-like ions were proposed for producing X-ray lasers. These schemes have yet to be demonstrated because of the difficulty of finding a strong pump line with an adequate resonance to pump the laser transition. With the construction of the X-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL) at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) researchers now have a very bright tunable X-ray laser source that can be used to replace the pump line in previously proposed laser schemes and allow one to study the physics and feasibility of photo-pumped laser schemes. In this paper we model the sodium-pumped neon X-ray laser scheme that was proposed and studied many years ago by replacing the Na He-? pump line at 1127 eV with the X-FEL. Using the X-FEL to photo-ionize Ne down to He-like Ne and then photo-pump the He-? line we predict gains greater than 400 cm -1 on the 4f - 3d transition at 23.1 nm in He-like Ne. The 4d - 3p line at 23.16 nm and the 4p - 3s line at 22.27 nm are also predicted to lase strongly.

  19. Hard x-ray tomographic studies of the destruction of an energetic electron ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California - Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    A tomography system was designed and built at the Large Plasma Device to measure the spatial distribution of hard x-ray (100 KeV-3 MeV) emissivity. The x-rays were generated when a hot electron ring was significantly disrupted by a shear Alfven wave. The plasma is pulsed at 1 Hz (1 shot/s). A lead shielded scintillator detector with an acceptance angle defined by a lead pinhole is mounted on a rotary gimbal and used to detect the x-rays. The system measures one chord per plasma shot using only one detector. A data plane usually consists of several hundred chords. A novel Dot by Dot Reconstruction (DDR) method is introduced to calculate the emissivity profile from the line integrated data. In the experiments, there are often physical obstructions, which make measurements at certain angles impossible. The DDR method works well even in this situation. The method was tested with simulated data, and was found to be more effective than previously published methods for the specific geometry of this experiment. The reconstructed x-ray emissivity from experimental data by this method is shown.

  20. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator using a Transverse Gradient Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC; Schroeder, Carl B.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-09-13

    Compact laser-plasma accelerators can produce high energy electron beams with low emittance, high peak current but a rather large energy spread. The large energy spread hinders the potential applications for coherent FEL radiation generation. In this paper, we discuss a method to compensate the effects of beam energy spread by introducing a transverse field variation into the FEL undulator. Such a transverse gradient undulator together with a properly dispersed beam can greatly reduce the effects of electron energy spread and jitter on FEL performance. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for SASE and seeded extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray FELs based on laser plasma accelerators.

  1. Multivariate statistics applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy X-ray spectrum imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Chad M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) fitted with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) system can quickly and easily produce spectrum image (SI) datasets containing so much information (hundreds to thousands of megabytes) that they cannot be comprehensively interrogated by a human analyst. Therefore, advanced mathematical techniques are needed to glean materials science and engineering insight into the processing-structure-properties relationship of the examined material from the SI data. This review will discuss recent advances in the application of multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) methods to STEM-EDS SI experiments. In particular, the fundamental mathematics of principal component analysis (PCA) and related methods are reviewed, and advanced methods such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR) are discussed. The applications of PCA and MCR-based techniques to solve difficult materials science problems, such as the analysis of a particle fully embedded in a matrix phase are discussed, as well as confounding effects such as rank deficiency that can confuse the results of MVSA computations. Possible future advances and areas in need of study are also mentioned.

  2. Combined X-ray and electron microscopy study of MgB2 powders, wires and tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivel, J. C.; Eibl, O.; Birajdar, B.; Andersen, N. H.; Abrahamsen, A.; Pinholt, R.; Grasso, G.; Hässler, W.; Herrmann, M.; Perner, O.; Rodig, C.; Pachla, W.; Ková, P.; Husek, I.; Mikheenko, P.; Abell, S.; Homeyer, J.

    2006-06-01

    MgB2 wires, tapes and bulk samples produced within the EU-funded HIPERMAG project have been studied by a combination of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The reaction layers forming at the interface between the ceramic core and Fe or Ni sheaths can be studied with both methods. The complementary techniques enable to study both the microstructure and the formation kinetics of the interface layers. Grain sizes can be determined either by direct observation or by analysis of the shape of X-ray diffraction peaks. Electron microscopy can detect B-rich secondary phases and phases present in small fractions that are not accessible by x-ray diffraction. On the other hand, synchrotron diffraction provides a fast and non-destructive method for the study of the main phases and their development during in-situ, high-temperature investigations. The combination of the two techniques is a very valuable tool for the optimisation of MgB2-based superconducting material.

  3. An Introduction to the Scope, Potential and Applications of X-ray Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Laing

    This site from Michael Laing at the University of Natal provides an introduction to X-ray crystallography and the applications of various techniques. A discussion of basic crystallography leads into X-ray diffraction and a variety of X-ray techniques, including Laue, powder, and single crystal methods. Other topics include difffractometers, the reciprocal lattice explorer, and moving crystal and moving film methods such as the rotation, precession and Weissenberg methods. A section on applications and analysis of these methods is also included. Diagrams, tables and graphs support the text.

  4. Auger and photoelectron contributions to the electron-yield surface extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stöhr; C. Noguera; T. Kendelewicz

    1984-01-01

    The various electronic excitation channels which contribute to the production of photoelectrons and Auger electrons following x-ray absorption in a solid are discussed. In particular, we outline the contributions of elastic and inelastic photoelectrons and Auger electrons for the different electron-yield detection modes which are commonly used to record the (surface) extended x-ray-absorption fine structure [(S)EXAFS] of a sample. We

  5. Accelerated electrons and hard X-ray emission from X-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Agafonov, A. V.; Romanova, V. M.; Ter-Oganes'yan, A. E.; Tkachenko, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Blesener, I. C.; Mitchell, M. D.; Chandler, K. M.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The generation of accelerated electrons in the X-pinch minidiode is studied experimentally. It is well known that the explosion of an X-pinch consisting of two or more wires is accompanied by the formation of a minidiode, in which electrons are accelerated. The subsequent slowing down of electrons in the products of wire explosion causes the generation of hard X-ray (HXR) emission with photon energies higher than 10 keV. In this work, the spatial and temporal characteristics of X-pinch HXR emission are studied, the specific features of HXR generation are discussed, and the capability of applying this radiation to point-projection X-ray imaging of various plasma and biological objects is considered. The parameters of the electron beam produced in the X-pinch are measured using a Faraday cup and X-ray diagnostics. The experiments were performed with the XP generator (550 kA, 100 ns) at Cornell University (United States) and the BIN generator (270 kA, 150 ns) at the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia).

  6. The cyclotron spectrum of anisotropic ultrarelativistic electrons: interpretation of X-ray pulsar spectra

    E-print Network

    A. N. Baushev

    2008-04-10

    The spectrum of cyclotron radiation produced by electrons with a strongly anisotropic velocity distribution is calculated taking into account higher harmonics. The motion of the electrons is assumed to be ultrarelativistic along the magnetic field and nonrelativistic across the field. One characteristic feature of the resulting spectrum is that harmonics of various orders are not equally spaced. The physical properties and observed spectra of four X-ray pulsars displaying higher cyclotron harmonics are analyzed. The cyclotron features in the spectra of all four pulsars can be interpreted only as emission lines. Moreover, the observed harmonics are not equidistant, and display certain other properties characteristic of emission by strongly anisotropic ultrarelativistic electrons. In addition, there are indirect theoretical arguments that the electrons giving rise to cyclotron features in the spectra of X-ray pulsars are ultrarelativistic and characterized by strongly anisotropic distributions. As a result, estimates of the magnetic fields of X-ray pulsars (which are usually derived from the energies of cyclotron lines) and certain other physical parameters require substantial revision.

  7. X-ray reflectivity analysis of titanium dioxide thin films grown by cathodic arc deposition.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, A; Lamas, D G; Craievich, A F; Márquez, A

    2014-05-01

    TiO2 thin films deposited by a vacuum arc on a glass substrate were characterized by X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Several thin films with different amounts of deposited TiO2 mass and different deposition and annealing temperatures were studied. A qualitative analysis of the XRD patterns indicated the presence of the anatase and/or rutile crystalline phases in most of the studied samples. From the analysis of the experimental XRR curves--which exhibited a wide angular range of oscillatory behavior--the thickness, mass density and interface roughness were determined. All XRR patterns were well fitted by modeled curves that assume the presence of a single and homogeneous TiO2 layer over which a very thin H2O layer is adsorbed. The thickest H2O adsorption layers were developed in films with the highest anatase content. Our overall results of the XRR analyses are consistent with those derived from the imaging techniques (SEM and AFM). PMID:24734661

  8. Measurement of x-ray free-electron-laser pulse energies by photoluminescence in nitrogen gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, S. P.; Bionta, R. M.; Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Krzywinski, J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    We discuss the physics of a photoluminescence-based pulse-energy detector that will be used to characterize hard x-ray free-electron-laser pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We tested the detector in a quasi-steady-state mode of operation at the conventional synchrotron light source Stanford positron electron assymetric ring 3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. We also developed a Monte-Carlo model for the x-ray interaction with the nitrogen gas and the resulting ultraviolet signal and found good agreement with the experimental data. Remaining discrepancies can, to a large extent, be attributed to the varying luminescence behavior of different chamber wall materials.

  9. Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China) [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ma, Y. Y. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-21

    The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ?200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ?160 as pulses in the range of 3–300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ?5 × 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed “attosecond physics.”.

  10. Polarization control of an X-ray free-electron laser with a diamond phase retarder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motohiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    A diamond phase retarder was applied to control the polarization states of a hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) in the photon energy range 5-20 keV. The horizontal polarization of the XFEL beam generated from the planar undulators of the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser (SACLA) was converted into vertical or circular polarization of either helicity by adjusting the angular offset of the diamond crystal from the exact Bragg condition. Using a 1.5 mm-thick crystal, a high degree of circular polarization, 97%, was obtained for 11.56 keV monochromatic X-rays, whereas the degree of vertical polarization was 67%, both of which agreed with the estimations including the energy bandwidth of the Si 111 beamline monochromator. PMID:24763633

  11. Undulator commissioning by characterization of radiation in x-ray free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takashi; Goto, Shunji; Hara, Toru; Hatsui, Takaki; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Togawa, Kazuaki; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2012-11-01

    In x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) where a long undulator composed of many segments is installed, there exist a number of error sources to reduce the FEL gain such as the trajectory error, K value discrepancy, and phase mismatch, which are related to the segmented-undulator structure. Undulator commissioning, which refers to the tuning and alignment processes to eliminate the possible error sources, is thus an important step toward realization of lasing. In the SPring-8 angstrom compact free electron laser (SACLA) facility, the undulator commissioning has been carried out by means of characterization of x-ray radiation, i.e., measurements of the spatial and spectral profiles of monochromatized spontaneous undulator radiation as well as by probing the FEL intensity. The achieved tuning and alignment accuracies estimated from the statistics of actual measurements in SACLA show the effectiveness of this commissioning scheme.

  12. Analysis and interpretation of X-ray pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, Paul E.; Deeter, John E.

    1987-01-01

    By careful measurements of the fluctuations in pulsar pulse periods on time scales of days and longer, researchers determined that these fluctuations are caused by changes in the rotation rate of the stellar crust apparently arising from matter accretion. The study of these fluctuations is a particularly promising way to determine the properties of accreting pulsars, because stellar rotation is relatively simple in comparison to much other X-ray source physics and can be investigated in detail. Rotation rates can be determined precisely.

  13. [Study on spectrum analysis of X-ray based on rotational mass effect in special relativity].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan

    2010-04-01

    Based on special relativity, the formation mechanism of characteristic X-ray has been studied, and the influence of rotational mass effect on X-ray spectrum has been given. A calculation formula of the X-ray wavelength based upon special relativity was derived. Error analysis was carried out systematically for the calculation values of characteristic wavelength, and the rules of relative error were obtained. It is shown that the values of the calculation are very close to the experimental values, and the effect of rotational mass effect on the characteristic wavelength becomes more evident as the atomic number increases. The result of the study has some reference meaning for the spectrum analysis of characteristic X-ray in application. PMID:20545180

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-Ray

    E-print Network

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    on the protein network. The samples were imaged using the novel grating-based X-ray technique, to obtain contrastQuantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-Ray, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark ABSTRACT Using novel X-ray techniques, based on grating

  15. Ionization dynamics of cluster targets irradiated by x-ray free-electron-laser light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsufumi Nakamura; Yuji Fukuda; Yasuaki Kishimoto

    2009-01-01

    Interactions of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light with a single cluster target are numerically investigated by using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The plasma dynamics as well as relevant atomic processes are taken into account, such as photoionization, the Auger effect, collisional ionization and relaxation, and field ionization. It is found that as the XFEL intensity increases to as high as

  16. Real-time secondary electron emission detector for high-rate x-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Chechik, R.; Breskin, A. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)] [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Frumkin, I. [Technion, Haifa (Israel)] [Technion, Haifa (Israel); Gabriel, A. [European Molecular Biology Lab., Grenoble (France)] [European Molecular Biology Lab., Grenoble (France); Kocsis, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)] [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1996-06-01

    The authors present the first results of the application of a novel digital X-ray imaging detector, based on secondary electron emission from a solid converter, to high-rate crystallographic studies. Results from diffraction and small-angle scattering experiments from several crystallized proteins, performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF, Grenoble, are presented and compared with a phosphor-based imaging system. Future developments of this detector system are proposed.

  17. Pair annihilation in laser pulses: Optical versus x-ray free-electron laser regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Ilderton, Anton; Johansson, Petter; Marklund, Mattias [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, 901-87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    We discuss the theory and phenomenology of pair annihilation, within an ultrashort laser pulse, to a single photon. The signature of this process is the unidirectional emission of single photons with a fixed energy. We show that the cross section is significantly larger than for two-photon pair annihilation in vacuum, with x-ray free-electron laser parameters admitting a much clearer signal than optical beams.

  18. Introduction to the new science with X-ray free electron lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Marangos

    2011-01-01

    The arrival of the first hard X-ray free electron laser facilities promises new advances in structural dynamics and nanoscale imaging that will have impact across the sciences. This introductory review is intended to cover the basic physics behind this potential and illustrate the current state-of-the-art by discussing a number of recent findings from the LCLS facility at the Stanford Linear

  19. Time resolved measurement of electron temperatures of exploding foil x-ray laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.K.F.; Osterheld, A.L.; Shimkaveg, G.M.; Shepherd, R.L.; Walling, R.S.; Goldstein, W.H.; Stewart, R.E.

    1993-04-14

    The authors present results of recent experiments to measure the plasma conditions present in a neon-like x-ray laser plasma. They measure the time-resolved K-shell emission spectra of low Z tracer material doped into a yttrium exploding foil target. They determine the plasma conditions by analyzing the K-shell emission spectra assuming a quasi-steady state approximation. Two-dimensional LASNEX hydrodynamics simulations are in reasonable agreement with these time-resolved electron temperatures.

  20. Single-Molecule Imaging with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers: Dream or Reality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fratalocchi; G. Ruocco

    2011-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) are revolutionary photon sources, whose ultrashort, brilliant pulses are expected to allow single-molecule diffraction experiments providing structural information on the atomic length scale of nonperiodic objects. This ultimate goal, however, is currently hampered by several challenging questions basically concerning sample damage, Coulomb explosion, and the role of nonlinearity. By employing an original ab initio approach, we

  1. Molecular imaging with X-ray free electron lasers: dream or reality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Fratalocchi; Giancarlo Ruocco

    2010-01-01

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) are revolutionary photons sources, whose\\u000aultrashort, brilliant pulses are expected to allow single molecule diffraction\\u000aexperiments providing structural information on the atomic length scale. This\\u000aultimate goal, however, is currently hampered by several challenging questions\\u000abasically concerning sample damage, Coulomb explosion and the role of\\u000anonlinearity. By employing an original \\\\emph{ab-initio} approach, as well as

  2. Design optimization for an X-ray free electron laser driven by SLAC LINAC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Xie; Lawrence Berkeley

    1996-01-01

    I present a design study for an X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL)driven by the SLAC linac. The study assumes the FEL is basedon Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) and lasing isachieved in a single pass of a high current, high brightness electronbeam through a long wiggler. Following a brief review ofthe fundamentals of SASE, I will provide without derivation acollection of

  3. Measurement of the electron yield of CsI with polarized x rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hanany; P. S. Shaw; Y. Liu; A. Santangelo; P. Kaaret; R. Novick

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the polarization dependence of photoemission from polycrystalline CsI under excitation by linearly polarized 2.69-keV x rays. We measure the electron pulse yield as a function of polarization state for grazing incidence angles between 5° and 18°. No dependence on the incident polarization is found. We find an upper limit of 1.1%, at the 99.99% statistical confidence level, on

  4. Parametric x-ray radiation along the velocity of relativistic electron in a Bragg scattering geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Blazhevich; A. V. Noskov

    2007-01-01

    Based on the dynamic scattering theory, forward parametric x-ray radiation (FPXR) of a relativistic electron is investigated\\u000a in a single crystal plate in a Bragg scattering geometry. Analytical expressions for the spectral-angular distribution of\\u000a FPXR and transition radiation (TR) including the crystal surface orientation with respect to a system of diffracting atomic\\u000a planes are derived, which allow one to identify

  5. In-situ stoichiometry determination using x-ray fluorescence generated by reflection-high-energy-electron-diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, Cameron; Chandril, Sandeep; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Multifunctional Materials Laboratory, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Myers, T. H. [Department of Physics and Multifunctional Materials Laboratory, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Materials Science, Engineering, and Commercialization Program, Texas State University-San Marcos, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    A major challenge in the stoichiometric growth of complex oxide compounds is the control of the relative compositions of the constituent materials. A potential avenue for compositional analysis during growth is the use of x-ray fluorescence generated during reflection high energy electron diffraction measurements. Using this technique, relative compositions of Y and Mn in molecular beam epitaxy grown YMnO{sub 3} samples were studied. Comparing the results with Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy suggests that the technique has the potential for real-time analysis of elemental fluxes and stoichiometry control during sample growth.

  6. Towards possible opportunities in nuclear materials science and technology at an X-ray free electron laser research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froideval, A.; Badillo, A.; Bertsch, J.; Churakov, S.; Dähn, R.; Degueldre, C.; Lind, T.; Paladino, D.; Patterson, B. D.

    2011-09-01

    Spectroscopy and imaging of condensed matter have benefited greatly from the availability of intense X-ray beams from synchrotron sources, both in terms of spatial resolution and of elemental specificity. The advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-ray FEL) provides the additional features of ultra-short pulses and high transverse coherence, which greatly expand possibilities to study dynamic processes and to image non-crystalline materials. The proposed SwissFEL facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute is one of at present four X-ray FEL projects worldwide and is scheduled to go into operation in the year 2017. This article describes a selection of problems in nuclear materials science and technology that would directly benefit from this and similar X-ray FEL sources. X-ray FEL-based experiments are proposed to be conducted on nuclear energy-related materials using single-shot X-ray spectroscopy, coherent X-ray scattering and/or X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in order to address relevant scientific questions such as the evolution in time of the irradiation-induced damage processes, the deformation processes in nuclear materials, the ion diffusion processes in the barrier systems of geological repositories, the boiling heat transfer in nuclear reactors, as well as the structural characterization of graphite dust in advanced nuclear reactors and clay colloid aggregates in the groundwater near a radioactive waste repository.

  7. Computerized X-ray tomography analysis of sandbox models: Examples of thin-skinned thrust systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Colletta; Jean Letouzey; Roberto Pinedo; Jean François Ballard; Pascal Balé

    1991-01-01

    Computerized X-ray tomography applied to analog sandbox experiments performed in a normal gravity field makes possible the analysis of the kinematic evolution, as well as the three-dimensional geometry, of models that simulate tectonic deformations. Most of the plastic or viscous analog materials generally used in a normal gravity field for such models have X-ray attenuations compatible with medical scanner images.

  8. Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Uschmann, Ingo; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Kämpfer, Tino; Landgraf, Björn; Jäckel, Oliver; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron–betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators. PMID:24026068

  9. Direct electron acceleration in plasma waveguides for compact high-repetition-rate x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.-W.; Jovanovic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous applications in fundamental and applied research, security, and industry require robust, compact sources of x-rays, with a particular recent interest in monochromatic, spatially coherent, and ultrafast x-ray pulses in well-collimated beams. Such x-ray sources usually require production of high-quality electron beams from compact accelerators. Guiding a radially polarized laser pulse in a plasma waveguide has been proposed for realizing direct laser acceleration (DLA), where the electrons are accelerated by the axial electric field of a co-propagating laser pulse (Serafim et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 1190). A moderate laser peak power is required for DLA when compared to laser wakefield acceleration, thus offering the prospect for high repetition rate operation. By using a density-modulated plasma waveguide for DLA, the acceleration distance can be extended with pulse guiding, while the density-modulation with proper axial structure can realize the quasi-phase matching between the laser pulses and electrons for a net gain accumulation (York et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 195001; York et al 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 B137; Palastro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036405). We describe the development and application of a test particle model and particle-in-cell model for DLA. Experimental setups designed for fabrication of optically tailored plasma waveguides via the ignitor-heater scheme, and for generation and characterization of radially polarized short pulses used to drive DLA, are presented.

  10. X-ray-induced electronic structure change in CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Gretarsson, H.; Kim, Young-June [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kim, Jungho; Casa, D.; Gog, T. [CMC-XOR, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Choi, K. R. [l-PEM, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, S. W. [l-PEM, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); R-CEM and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The electronic structure of CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4} is investigated using various bulk-sensitive x-ray spectroscopic methods near the Ir L{sub 3} edge: resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS), x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the partial fluorescence yield mode, and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy. A strong RIXS signal (0.75 eV) resulting from a charge-density-wave gap opening is observed below the metal-insulator transition temperature of 230 K. The resultant modification of electronic structure is consistent with the density functional theory prediction. In the spin- and charge-dimer disordered phase induced by x-ray irradiation below 50 K, we find that a broad peak around 0.4 eV appears in the RIXS spectrum.

  11. fLasHThe Free-Electron Laser new technologies for new science: Soon X-ray free-electron lasers

    E-print Network

    fLasHªThe Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg new technologies for new science: Soon X-ray free-electron to you a new research facility of unprecedented features ­ FLASH, the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg. Time to explore the femtosecond dynamics of nature Soon X-ray free-electron lasers will enable us

  12. MaRIE X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Pre-Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barnes, Cris W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bishofberger, Kip A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duffy, Leanne D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heath, Cynthia E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ryne, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simakov, Evgenya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yampolsky, Nikolai A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory will include a 50-keV X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), a significant extension from planned and existing XFEL facilities. To prevent an unacceptably large energy spread arsing from energy diffusion, the electron beam energy should not exceed 20 GeV, which puts a significant constraint on the beam emittance. A 100-pC baseline design is presented along with advanced technology options to increase the photon flux and to decrease the spectral bandwidth through pre-bunching the electron beam.

  13. Quantitative description of microstructure defects in hexagonal boron nitrides using X-ray diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schimpf, C., E-mail: schimpf@iww.tu-freiberg.de; Motylenko, M.; Rafaja, D.

    2013-12-15

    A routine for simultaneous quantification of turbostratic disorder, amount of puckering and the dislocation and stacking fault density in hexagonal materials was proposed and tested on boron nitride powder samples that were synthesised using different methods. The routine allows the individual microstructure defects to be recognised according to their effect on the anisotropy of the X-ray diffraction line broadening. For quantification of the microstructure defects, the total line broadening is regarded as a linear combination of the contributions from the particular defects. The total line broadening is obtained from the line profile fitting. As testing material, graphitic boron nitride (h-BN) was employed in the form of hot-isostatically pressed h-BN, pyrolytic h-BN or a h-BN, which was chemically vapour deposited at a low temperature. The kind of the dominant microstructure defects determined from the broadening of the X-ray diffraction lines was verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their amount was attempted to be verified by alternative methods. - Highlights: • Reliable method for quantification of microstructure defects in BN was suggested. • The method is based on the analysis of anisotropic XRD line broadening. • This XRD line broadening is unique and characteristic of the respective defect. • Thus, the quantification of coexistent microstructure defects is possible. • The method was tested on hexagonal BN, which was produced by different techniques.

  14. The Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP): X-ray Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-W.; Cameron, R.; Drake, J.; Fruscione, A.; Gaetz, T. J.; Garcia, M.; Green, P. J.; Grimes, J.; Kashyap, V.; Prestwich, A.; Schlegel, E.; Vikhlinin, A.; Virani, S. N.; Wilkes, B.; Tananbaum, H.; Freedman, D.; ChaMP Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    We present step-by-step X-ray data analysis procedures as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project. They consist of additional data corrections and data screening post CXC Standard Data Processing Rev 1 and the determination of sources and their X-ray properties. Using 3 deep ACIS imaging fields (MS 1137.5+6625, CL0848.6+4453 and A0620-00) with exposure times ranging from 50 ks to 190 ks, we discuss in particular gain correction, aspect correction, removing bad pixels and node boundaries, removing ACIS flaring pixels, streak correction for the S4 chip and excluding high background intervals. Optimal parameters for source detection and X-ray source properties such as X-ray colors are also discussed.

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopy by full-field X-ray microscopy of a thin graphite flake: Imaging and electronic structure via the carbon K-edge

    PubMed Central

    Hitchock, Adam P; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ewels, Chris P; Guttmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate that near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectra combined with full-field transmission X-ray microscopy can be used to study the electronic structure of graphite flakes consisting of a few graphene layers. The flake was produced by exfoliation using sodium cholate and then isolated by means of density-gradient ultracentrifugation. An image sequence around the carbon K-edge, analyzed by using reference spectra for the in-plane and out-of-plane regions of the sample, is used to map and spectrally characterize the flat and folded regions of the flake. Additional spectral features in both ? and ? regions are observed, which may be related to the presence of topological defects. Doping by metal impurities that were present in the original exfoliated graphite is indicated by the presence of a pre-edge signal at 284.2 eV. PMID:23016137

  16. Tracking electrons and atoms in a photoexcited metalloporphyrin by x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. X.; Zhang, X.; Wasinger, E. C.; Attenkofer, K.; Jennings, G.; Muresan, A. Z.; Lindsey, J. S.; North Carolina State

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneously tracking electronic and molecular structures of a photoexcited metalloporphyrin, present for only 200 ps in a dilute solution, has been realized using X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy (XTA). Using laser pulses as excitation sources and delayed X-ray pulses as probes, we were able to identify the excited state electronic configuration of a nickel porphyrin as singly occupied 3dx2-y2 and 3dz2 molecular orbitals (MOs) with an energy gap of {approx}2.2 eV, and energy shifts 4pz MOs to 1.5 eV higher relative to that of the ground state, and an expanded porphyrin ring characterized by lengthening of Ni-N and Ni-C bonds. Moreover, kinetic XTA signals at different X-ray photon energies demonstrate the capability for acquiring the correlation and coherence between different optically excited states with the same technique. These results provide guidance for theoretical calculations as well as insightful understanding of optically excited states that play important roles in photochemical processes.

  17. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Cupane, Antonio; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light-induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such 'proteinquake' observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations with a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale. PMID:25832715

  18. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Cupane, Antonio; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-04-02

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such ‘proteinquake’ observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations withmore »a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale.« less

  19. Reconstructing Three-dimensional Helical Structure With an X-Ray Free Electron Laser

    E-print Network

    M. Uddin

    2015-06-29

    Recovery of three-dimensional structure from single particle X-ray scattering of completely randomly oriented diffraction patterns as predicted few decades back has been real due to advent of the new emerging X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology. As the world's first XFEL is in operation starting from June 2009 at SLAC National Lab at Stanford, the very first few experiments being conducted on larger objects such as viruses. Many of the important structures of nature such as helical viruses or deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) consist of helical repetition of biological subunits. Hence development of method for reconstructing helical structure from collected XFEL data has been a top priority research. In this work we have developed a method for solving helical structure such as TMV from a set of randomly oriented simulated diffraction patterns exploiting symmetry and Fourier space constraint of the diffraction volume.

  20. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Cupane, Antonio; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light-induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such ‘proteinquake’ observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations with a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale. PMID:25832715

  1. Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, N.Duane; Starodub, Dimitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y.; Martin, Andrew V.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz

    2014-04-22

    Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10 21 W/m2 can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wave-front sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, the paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging.

  2. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Diling; Cammarata, Marco; Feldkamp, Jan M.; Fritz, David M.; Hastings, Jerome B.; Lee, Sooheyong; Lemke, Henrik T.; Robert, Aymeric; Turner, James L.; Feng Yiping [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2012-07-16

    We report hard x-ray single-shot spectral measurements of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The spectrometer is based on a 10 {mu}m thick cylindrically bent Si single crystal operating in the symmetric Bragg geometry to provide dispersion and high transmission simultaneously. It covers a spectral range >1% using the Si(111) reflection. Using the Si(333) reflection, it reaches a resolving power of better than 42 000 and transmits >83% of the incident flux at 8.3 keV. The high resolution enabled the observation of individual spectral spikes characteristic of a self-amplified spontaneous emission x-ray free electron laser source. Potential applications of the device are discussed.

  3. Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres.

    PubMed

    Loh, N Duane; Starodub, Dmitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y; Martin, Andrew V; Sierra, Raymond G; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz; Kimmel, Nils; Weidenspointner, Georg; Hauser, Guenter; Holl, Peter; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Liang, Mengning; Hunter, Mark S; Gumprecht, Lars; Coppola, Nicola; Wunderer, Cornelia; Graafsma, Heinz; Maia, Filipe R N C; Ekeberg, Tomas; Hantke, Max; Fleckenstein, Holger; Hirsemann, Helmut; Nass, Karol; White, Thomas A; Tobias, Herbert J; Farquar, George R; Benner, W Henry; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Reich, Christian; Hartmann, Andreas; Soltau, Heike; Marchesini, Stefano; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Strueder, Lothar; Ullrich, Joachim; Bucksbaum, Philip; Frank, Matthias; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N; Bogan, Michael J

    2013-05-20

    Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10(21) W/m(2) can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wavefront sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, our paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging. PMID:23736456

  4. Constraints on hot star X-ray source characteristics from combinded analysis of X-ray and UV observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Results from wind ionization calculations are presented which show how the P-Cygni profiles of 'superionized' species such as O VI can provide information about the X-ray source characteristics of early-type stars. Using detailed radiative and atomic physics models, we find that a significant source of X-ray emission from zeta Pup comes from a region in the wind located within rougly 1 to 2 stellar radii of the photosphere. Our results suggest that X-rays sources in which emission occurs exclusively at large radii (r greater than or approximately equal to a few R(sub *)) are inconsistent with UV P-Cygni profiles for O VI. Instead, we find that X-ray emission from shocks distributed throughout the lower regions of the wind (r approximately equal to 1-2 R(sub *)) is consistent with both X-ray and UV data, as well as mass loss rates deduced from radio and H-alpha observations.

  5. Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides.

    PubMed

    Bukreeva, Inna; Pelliccia, Daniele; Cedola, Alessia; Scarinci, Fernando; Ilie, Mihaela; Giannini, Cinzia; De Caro, Liberato; Lagomarsino, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The coupling and propagation of electromagnetic waves through planar X-ray waveguides (WG) with vacuum gap and Si claddings are analyzed in detail, starting from the source and ending at the detector. The general case of linearly tapered WGs (i.e. with the entrance aperture different from the exit one) is considered. Different kinds of sources, i.e. synchrotron radiation and laboratory desk-top sources, have been considered, with the former providing a fully coherent incoming beam and the latter partially coherent beams. It is demonstrated that useful information about the parameters of the WG can be derived, comparing experimental results with computer simulation based on analytical solutions of the Helmholtz equation which take into account the amplitude and phase matching between the standing waves created in front of the WG, and the resonance modes propagating into the WG. PMID:20029112

  6. First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Maxime; Gillon, Béatrice; Claiser, Nicolas; Gillet, Jean-Michel; Lecomte, Claude; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density) and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed. PMID:25075338

  7. Measurement of fast electron distribution using a flexible, high time resolution hard x-ray spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O’Connell; D. J. Den Hartog; C. B. Forest; R. W. Harvey

    2003-01-01

    A 16 spatial channel hard x-ray (HXR) diagnostic using solid state CdZnTe detectors (active area 10 mm×10 mm×2 mm, 50 mm×20 mm×20 mm packaged) has recently been installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch to measure the XR flux from ?10 to 300 keV. Rather than using conventional pulse height analysis, the shaped output pulses from the

  8. Measurement of fast electron distribution using a flexible, high time resolution hard x-ray spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O'Connell; D. J. den Hartog; C. B. Forest; R. W. Harvey

    2003-01-01

    A 16 spatial channel hard x-ray (HXR) diagnostic using solid state CdZnTe detectors (active area 10 mm×10 mm×2 mm, 50 mm×20 mm×20 mm packaged) has recently been installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch to measure the XR flux from ~10 to 300 keV. Rather than using conventional pulse height analysis, the shaped output pulses from the

  9. EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory - DIENCA, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Rocchi, F. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory - DIENCA, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); UTFISSM-PRONOC, ENEA, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tartari, A. [Department of Physics, Ferrara University, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mariotti, F. [ENEA, IRP-DOS, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-09-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {mu}m brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

  10. Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering of CdS: a two-dimensional electronic structure map approach

    SciTech Connect

    Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Fleszar, A.; Bar, M.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Yang, W.; Hanke, W.; Umbach, E.; Heske, C.

    2008-09-24

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) with soft x-rays is uniquely suited to study the elec-tronic structure of a variety of materials, but is currently limited by low (fluorescence yield) count rates. This limitation is overcome with a new high-transmission spectrometer that allows to measure soft x-ray RIXS"maps." The S L2,3 RIXS map of CdS is discussed and compared with density functional calculations. The map allows the extraction of decay channel-specific"absorp-tion spectra," giving detailed insight into the wave functions of occupied and unoccupied elec-tronic states.

  11. Size-dependent ultrafast ionization dynamics of nanoscale samples in intense femtosecond x-ray free-electron-laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Schorb, Sebastian; Rupp, Daniela; Swiggers, Michelle L; Coffee, Ryan N; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth; Bozek, John D; Wada, Shin-Ichi; Kornilov, Oleg; Möller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    All matter exposed to intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser is strongly ionized on time scales competing with the inner-shell vacancy lifetimes. We show that for nanoscale objects the environment, i.e., nanoparticle size, is an important parameter for the time-dependent ionization dynamics. The Auger lifetimes of large Ar clusters are found to be increased compared to small clusters and isolated atoms, due to delocalization of the valence electrons in the x-ray-induced nanoplasma. As a consequence, large nanometer-sized samples absorb intense femtosecond x-ray pulses less efficiently than small ones. PMID:23003953

  12. Electronic Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials with Photon-in/Photon-out Soft-X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jinghua

    2008-09-22

    The applications of resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy on a variety of carbon systems have yielded characteristic fingerprints. With high-resolution monochromatized synchrotron radiation excitation, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has emerged as a new source of information about electronic structure and excitation dynamics. Photon-in/photon-out soft-X-ray spectroscopy is used to study the electronic properties of fundamental materials, nanostructure, and complex hydrides and will offer potential in-depth understanding of chemisorption and/or physisorption mechanisms of hydrogen adsorption/desorption capacity and kinetics.

  13. Variable soft X-ray excesses in active galactic nuclei from nonthermal electron-positron pair cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Coppi, Paolo S.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study of the formation of steep soft X-ray excesses that are superposed on flatter, hard X-ray power-law spectra in nonthermal electron-positron pair cascade sources, the soft excess in pair-cascade AGN models appears as a steep power law superposed on the tail of the UV bump and the flat nonthermal (hard X-ray) power law. The model-parameter space in which an excess in soft X-rays is visible is ascertained, and the time-variability of soft excesses in pair cascade models is examined. It is established that the parameter space in which soft excesses appear encompasses the range of preferred input parameters for a recently development Compton reflection model of UV and X-ray emission from the central engine of an AGN.

  14. Analysis of the PKS0637-752 X-Ray Jet System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. A.; Marshall, H. L.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Piner, B. G.; Tingay, S. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chartas, G.; Elvis, M.; Feigelson, E. D.; Ghosh, K. K.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray jet emitted from the quasar PKS0637-752 is the largest and most luminous detected to date. It extends 10 arcsec west of the nucleus, and is coincident with GHz radio jet emission in this region. If the individual X-ray/optical/radio knots in this jet were detected as isolated objects, they might be classified as BL Lac objects or quasars. We present a detailed analysis of the Chandra observations of this system, including a search for an intra-cluster medium to confine the jet, and limits to X-ray emission from the eastern radio knot and past the bend of the radio jet to the northwest. The projection in the plane of the sky implies that the X-ray jet is an aligned extension of the pc-scale jet, for which VLBI/VSOP observations show super-luminal motion with an apparent velocity of 11c. In this case, the X-ray jet is of order 1 Mpc in length, and explaining the X-ray emission mechanism presents new challenges.

  15. Design and characterization of electron beam focusing for X-ray generation in novel medical imaging architecture.

    PubMed

    Bogdan Neculaes, V; Zou, Yun; Zavodszky, Peter; Inzinna, Louis; Zhang, Xi; Conway, Kenneth; Caiafa, Antonio; Frutschy, Kristopher; Waters, William; De Man, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    A novel electron beam focusing scheme for medical X-ray sources is described in this paper. Most vacuum based medical X-ray sources today employ a tungsten filament operated in temperature limited regime, with electrostatic focusing tabs for limited range beam optics. This paper presents the electron beam optics designed for the first distributed X-ray source in the world for Computed Tomography (CT) applications. This distributed source includes 32 electron beamlets in a common vacuum chamber, with 32 circular dispenser cathodes operated in space charge limited regime, where the initial circular beam is transformed into an elliptical beam before being collected at the anode. The electron beam optics designed and validated here are at the heart of the first Inverse Geometry CT system, with potential benefits in terms of improved image quality and dramatic X-ray dose reduction for the patient. PMID:24826066

  16. Design and characterization of electron beam focusing for X-ray generation in novel medical imaging architecturea

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan Neculaes, V.; Zou, Yun; Zavodszky, Peter; Inzinna, Louis; Zhang, Xi; Conway, Kenneth; Caiafa, Antonio; Frutschy, Kristopher; Waters, William; De Man, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    A novel electron beam focusing scheme for medical X-ray sources is described in this paper. Most vacuum based medical X-ray sources today employ a tungsten filament operated in temperature limited regime, with electrostatic focusing tabs for limited range beam optics. This paper presents the electron beam optics designed for the first distributed X-ray source in the world for Computed Tomography (CT) applications. This distributed source includes 32 electron beamlets in a common vacuum chamber, with 32 circular dispenser cathodes operated in space charge limited regime, where the initial circular beam is transformed into an elliptical beam before being collected at the anode. The electron beam optics designed and validated here are at the heart of the first Inverse Geometry CT system, with potential benefits in terms of improved image quality and dramatic X-ray dose reduction for the patient. PMID:24826066

  17. Separation of hard x-ray synchrotron radiation from electron beam slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, A.; Chubar, O.; Yu, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    In the electron beam slicing scheme1, 2 considered for National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, when a low energy electron bunch crosses from top of a high energy storage ring electron bunch, its coulomb force will kick a short slice (slicing bunch) from the core (core bunch) of the storage ring electron bunch. The short slice bunch and the long core bunch when passing through the 3 m long U20 in-vacuum undulator will radiate X-ray pulses with pulse length ~150 fs and 30 ps respectively. To separate the satellite radiation from the core radiation, we propose a conceptual optical scheme allowing for the separation. To get reliable estimates of the separation performances, we apply the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) physical optics computer code3, 4 to study the wavefront propagation. As calculations show, at 7.8 keV, the separation signal-to-noise ratio can reach 5~12 and the satellite photon flux per pulse at sample can be 5000~20000 photons/0.1%BW with x-ray pulse length 150 ~ 330 fs depending on the separation method and the crossing angle between the low energy electron bunch and the high energy storage ring bunch. Since the repetition rate of the electron beam slicing system can reach 100 kHz, the average flux per second can reach 5 x 108 ` 2 x 109 photons/sec/0.1%BW.

  18. Femtosecond X-ray induced electron kinetics in dielectrics: application for FEL-pulse-duration monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Nikita

    2015-03-01

    Modern X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) provide pulses with photon energies from a few tens of eV up to the tens of keV and durations as short as only a few femtoseconds. Experimental pump-probe scheme with a FEL pump and a visible light probe of a solid-state target can be used for the pulse-duration monitor on a shot-to-shot basis. To study the electron cascading in different materials used for pulse-duration monitor, XCASCADE, a Monte Carlo model of the X-ray-induced electron cascading within an irradiated target is developed. It is shown here that the electron cascade duration is sensitive to a choice of material. An appropriately selected target can significantly shorten the electron relaxation times. The grounds, upon which such a choice of the material can be made, are discussed. The results suggest that for photon energies of 24 keV, one could achieve direct monitoring of the pulse duration of 40 fs. Further deconvolution of the electron density into the contribution from the pulse itself and from the secondary cascading can increase the resolution up to a scale of a femtosecond.

  19. Comparative Study of the Valence Electronic Excitations of N2 by Inelastic X-Ray and Electron Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Bradley; G. T. Seidler; G. Cooper; M. Vos; A. P. Hitchcock; A. P. Sorini; C. Schlimmer; K. P. Nagle

    2010-01-01

    Bound-state, valence electronic excitation spectra of N2 are probed by nonresonant inelastic x-ray and electron scattering. Within usual theoretical treatments, dynamical structure factors derived from the two probes should be identical. However, we find strong disagreements outside the dipole scattering limit, even at high probe energies. This suggests an unexpectedly important contribution from intramolecular multiple scattering of the probe electron

  20. Synchrotron Self-Compton Analysis of TeV X-Ray-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin D.; Dermer, Charles D.; Böttcher, Markus

    2008-10-01

    We introduce a methodology for analysis of multiwavelength data from X-ray-selected BL Lac (XBL) objects detected in the TeV regime. By assuming that the radio-through-X-ray flux from XBLs is nonthermal synchrotron radiation emitted by isotropically distributed electrons in the randomly oriented magnetic field of a relativistic blazar jet, we obtain the electron spectrum. This spectrum is then used to deduce the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) spectrum as a function of the Doppler factor, magnetic field, and variability timescale. The variability timescale is used to infer the comoving blob radius from light-travel time arguments, leaving only two parameters. With this approach, we accurately simulate the synchrotron and SSC spectra of flaring XBLs in the Thomson through Klein-Nishina regimes. Photoabsorption by interactions with internal jet radiation and the intergalactic background light (IBL) is included. Doppler factors, magnetic fields, and absolute jet powers are obtained by fitting the H.E.S.S. and Swift data of the recent giant TeV flare observed from PKS 2155-304. For the H.E.S.S. and Swift data from 2006 July 28 and 30, respectively, Doppler factors >~60 and absolute jet powers >~1046 ergs s-1 are required for a synchrotron/SSC model to give a good fit to the data, for a low intensity of the IBL and a ratio of 10 times more energy in hadrons than nonthermal electrons. Fits are also made to a TeV flare observed in 2001 from Mrk 421 which require Doppler factors >~30 and jet powers >~1045 ergs s-1.

  1. Direct extraction of quantitative structural information from x-ray fluorescence holograms using spherical-harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhao; Bai, Jianming; Tyson, Trevor A.

    2012-06-01

    An x-ray fluorescence holograph contains information on both the amplitude and the phase of the x-ray scattering signal from a crystal structure. X-ray fluorescence holography is potentially a technique to directly extract atomic level structure information from crystal samples. We present here a reconstruction algorithm using a spherical-harmonic analysis that significantly improves the structure-resolving power of x-ray fluorescence holography over the widely used multiple energy Barton transform approach. Compared to the direct method for x-ray diffraction, this direct method has the advantages of full model independence and applicability to crystal systems with a large contrast in atomic numbers.

  2. Attosecond electron bunches accelerated and compressed by radially polarized laser pulses and soft-x-ray pulses from optical undulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, A.; Kärtner, F. X.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of direct laser driven electron acceleration and scaling of attosecond bunch compression in unbound vacuum. Simple analytical expressions and detailed three-dimensional numerical calculations including space charge and non-paraxial laser fields reveal the conditions for compression to attosecond electron sheets. Intermediate emittance minima suitable for brilliant x-ray generation in optical undulators are predicted. We verify a favourable coherent enhancement of the resulting x-ray fields and demonstrate feasibility for realistic laser parameters.

  3. X-ray spectropolarimetry and hot electron effects on high-current X-pinch plasma spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Shlyaptseva; S. B. Hansen; V. L. Kantsyrev; B. S. Bauer; D. A. Fedin; N. Ouart; S. Keely; H. LeBeau; U. I. Safronova

    2001-01-01

    Accurate K-and L-shell spectroscopic modeling of high-temperature and high-density X-pinch plasmas requires the consideration of anisotropic plasma characteristics: non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions and the polarization properties of X-ray lines. Experimental evidence for the existence of strong electron beams in X-pinch plasmas has motivated the development of a new tool, X-ray spectropolarimetry, for investigating the anisotropy of such plasmas. This diagnostic

  4. Two-phase droplet injectors for studies at X-ray free-electron laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Claudiu

    2013-11-01

    Hard X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) such as the recently developed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC deliver pulses with extremely short duration and intensities many orders of magnitude larger than previous sources, to enable visualization of the motion of single atoms within condensed matter. To circumvent X-ray damage, imaging experiments at LCLS are performed serially, with new samples being brought to the vacuum interaction region with X-ray pulses. Continuous liquid microjets in vacuum are currently the best way of carrying and regenerating the samples, but they consume inefficiently scarce samples, such as membrane protein microcrystals. To solve this problem, and to enhance the accuracy of pump-probe experiments, we are developing a two-liquid delivery method in which the sample is carried in disperse-phase drops contained in an immiscible continuous-phase liquid. We will report on (i) the phase-locked generation of sample-carrying droplets with an electrically-assisted axisymmetric flow-focusing device, (ii) methods to reduce the accumulation of phase jitter in the timing of drops during transport, and we will discuss methods for (iii) separating the continuous and disperse phases and (iv) ejection of sample-containing drops into air or vacuum.

  5. Electron density and effective atomic number (Zeff) determination through x-ray Moiré deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Talbot-Lau based Moiré deflectometry is a powerful density diagnostic capable of delivering refraction information and attenuation from a single image, through the accurate detection of X-ray phase-shift and intensity. The technique is able to accurately measure both the real part of the index of refraction ? (directly related to electron density) and the attenuation coefficient ? of an object placed in the x-ray beam. Since the atomic number Z (or Zeff for a composite sample) is proportional to these quantities, an elemental map of the effective atomic number can be obtained with the ratio of the phase and the absorption image. The determination of Zeff from refraction and attenuation measurements with Moiré deflectometry could be of high interest in various fields of HED research such as shocked materials and ICF experiments as Zeff is linked, by definition, to the x-ray absorption properties of a specific material. This work is supported by U.S. DoE/NNSA Grant No. 435 DENA0001835.

  6. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie

    2015-07-01

    Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup. PMID:26144230

  7. Structural biology at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility.

    PubMed

    Altarelli, Massimo; Mancuso, Adrian P

    2014-07-17

    The European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility, under construction in the Hamburg region, will provide high-peak brilliance (greater than 10(33) photons s(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) per 0.1% BW), ultrashort pulses (approx. 10 fs) of X-rays, with a high repetition rate (up to 27 000 pulses s(-1)) from 2016 onwards. The main features of this exceptional X-ray source, and the instrumentation developments necessary to exploit them fully, for application to a variety of scientific disciplines, are briefly summarized. In the case of structural biology, that has a central role in the scientific case of this new facility, the instruments and ancillary laboratories that are being planned and built within the baseline programme of the European XFEL and by consortia of users are also discussed. It is expected that the unique features of the source and the advanced features of the instrumentation will allow operation modes with more efficient use of sample materials, faster acquisition times, and conditions better approaching feasibility of single molecule imaging. PMID:24914145

  8. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory x-ray survey manual

    SciTech Connect

    Olsher, R.H.

    1980-02-01

    A manual has been developed by the Health Physics Group to establish procedures for routine testing of industrial and analytical x-ray equipment for compliance with applicable LASL administrative requirements and technical bulletins. Radiation protection survey procedures were developed for the following types of equipment: x-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis systems, industrial cabinet x-ray systems, industrial noncabinet x-ray systems, and electron microscopes.

  9. Mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.R.; Frederickson, R.G.; Mayes, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Histologic paraffin sections of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-involved skin of forearm and axilla were used for histochemistry and immunohistochemical and analytical electron microscopy to study the progressive mineralization in the dermis of patients with PXE. The von Kossa technique identified mineral deposits throughout the reticular PXE dermis. X-ray analysis revealed patterns of calcium and phosphorus deposition in the von Kossa-positive areas, and the immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies identified increased chondroitin-6-sulfate in these areas when compared with normal skin. Scanning transmission electron microscopy observation combined with X-ray dot mapping show calcium and phosphorus to be codistributed within the mineralized area. This study confirms by new methods the increase in chondroitin-6-sulfate, alterations in elastin and collagen, and a high calcium and phosphorus elemental distribution matching the mineralized area in the PXE dermis.

  10. Examination of clean room aerosol particle composition by total reflection X-ray analysis and electron probe microanalysis 1 This paper was presented at the 6th Conference on “Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Related Methods” (TXRF '96) held in two parts in Eindhoven (The Netherlands) and Dortmund (Germany) in June 1996, and is published in the Special Issue of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, dedicated to that Conference. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ebert; J Dahmen; P Hoffmann; H. M Ortner

    1997-01-01

    Aerosol particles with a minimum diameter of 0.1 ?m were sampled with an impactor at various places in three class 1000 clean-room complexes. The elemental composition of the integral samples was determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis. With this new application and a combination of tried and tested sampling and analysing methods it was possible to detect elements

  11. PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS FOR X-RAYS AND EXPERIMENTS INVOLVING THEIR APPLICATION IN X-RAY SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. I. Narbutt; S. M. Perelman; I. A. Prager; V. A. Kharlakov

    1963-01-01

    Two types of proportional counters for the detection of x rays are ; described. One type has a side entrance window while the other has an aperture ; in the front portion of the counter. All windows are made of beryllium foils ; whose thicknesses are in the range 150 to 200 . The counter with the side ; entrance

  12. On the Statistical Analysis of X-ray Polarization Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, T. E.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles of the form alpha plus beta cosine (exp 2)(phi - phi(sub 0) (0 (is) less than phi is less than pi). We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using both Monte Carlo simulations as well as analytic calculations based on the appropriate probability distributions. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by beta the "number of sigma's" of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude alpha by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle phi (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well known minimum detectable polarization (MDP) it is, on average, detected at the 3sigma level. For the latter case, when one requires a joint measurement at the same confidence level, then more counts are needed, by a factor of approximately equal to 2.2, than that required to achieve the MDP level. We find that the position angle uncertainty at 1sigma confidence is well described by the relation sigma(sub pi) equals 28.5(degrees) divided by beta.

  13. Quantitative analysis of single aerosol particles with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guangfu; Zhu, Guanghua; Xu, Qing; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Liu, Hui; Ding, Xunliang

    2010-10-01

    A laboratory confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer based on polycapillary X-ray optics (PXRO) was proposed to carry out the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles with smaller sizes than that of focal spot of the PXRO. The PXRO in the detection channel can both increase the collecting angle of the detector and lower the minimum detection limits of the XRF spectrometer. In order to reduce the effects of the PXRO on the analysis results, the sensitivities were corrected using a Gaussian function for the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles.

  14. SAVLOC, computer program for automatic control and analysis of X-ray fluorescence experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    A program for a PDP-15 computer is presented which provides for control and analysis of trace element determinations by using X-ray fluorescence. The program simultaneously handles data accumulation for one sample and analysis of data from previous samples. Data accumulation consists of sample changing, timing, and data storage. Analysis requires the locating of peaks in X-ray spectra, determination of intensities of peaks, identification of origins of peaks, and determination of a real density of the element responsible for each peak. The program may be run in either a manual (supervised) mode or an automatic (unsupervised) mode.

  15. Investigation of the pseudospark electron beam and its application for the generation of soft x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Westheide, J. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik] [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik

    1995-06-01

    An investigation on the pseudospark electron beam is presented in this paper. Time-integrated and time-resolved pictures of the X-rays generated by the electron beam are taken with a special X-ray pinhole camera. They show the spatial and temporal development of the pseudospark electron beam. Time-integrated pictures indicate spatial instabilities of the electron beam caused by a bent or broadened electron beam due to space charge effects. The results of the time-resolved measurements show X-ray emission only during two short periods at the very beginning of the discharge before the beam current reaches its maximum. Only during these periods does the electron beam contain high-energy electrons. In between these two periods the energy of the beam electrons decreases because of a space-charge-limited beam transport.

  16. Radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches: Coherent terahertz and femtosecond X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.P.; Esarey, E.; van Tilborg, J.; Michel, P.A.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Shadwick, B.A.

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam based radiation sources provide electromagnetic radiation for countless applications. The properties of the radiation are primarily determined by the properties of the electron beam. Compact laser driven accelerators are being developed that can provide ultra-short electron bunches (femtosecond duration) with relativistic energies reaching towards a GeV. The electron bunches are produced when an intense laser interacts with a dense plasma and excites a large amplitude plasma density modulation (wakefield) that can trap background electrons and accelerate them to high energies. The short pulse nature of the accelerated bunches and high particle energy offer the possibility of generating radiation from one compact source that ranges from coherent terahertz to gamma rays. The intrinsic synchronization to a laser pulse and unique character of the radiation offers a wide range of possibilities for scientific applications. Two particular radiation source regimes are discussed: Coherent terahertz emission and x-ray emission based on betatron oscillations and Thomson scattering.

  17. Nanopaleomagnetism of meteoritic Fe-Ni studied using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, James F. J.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian; Ghidini, Massimo; Redfern, Simon A. T.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Harrison, Richard J.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) enables natural remanent magnetisation to be imaged with ˜30 nm resolution across a field of view of 5-20 ?m. The method is applied to structural features typical of the Widmanstätten microstructure (kamacite - tetrataenite rim - cloudy zone - plessite) in the Tazewell IIICD iron meteorite. Kamacite lamellae and the tetrataenite rim are multidomain, whereas plessite consists of laths of different phases displaying a range of stable magnetisation directions. The cloudy zone (CZ) displays a complex interlocking domain pattern resulting from nanoscale islands of tetrataenite with easy axes distributed along three possible crystallographic directions. Quantitative analysis of the coarse and intermediate CZ was achieved using a combination of image simulations and histogram profile matching. Remanence information was extracted from individual regions of interest ˜400 nm wide, demonstrating for the first time the capability of XPEEM to perform quantitative paleomagnetic analysis at sub-micron length scales. The three tetrataenite easy axis orientations occur with equal probability in the coarse and intermediate CZ, suggesting that spinodal decomposition in these regions was not strongly influenced by internal interaction fields, and that they are suitable candidates for future paleomagnetic studies. The fine CZ shows a strong dominance of one easy axis. This effect is attributed to island-island exchange interactions that render the fine CZ unsuitable for paleomagnetic study. Variations in the relative strength (proportion of dominant easy axis) and direction (direction of dominant easy axis) of a paleomagnetic field can be resolved from different regions of the CZ using XPEEM, raising the prospect of obtaining a time-resolved measurement of the active dynamo period in meteorites originating from the upper unmelted regions of differentiated asteroids (e.g. chondrites, pallasites, mesosiderites).

  18. Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) filter analysis and modeling by Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and X-Ray Standing Wave (XSW)

    PubMed Central

    Borgese, L.; Salmistraro, M.; Gianoncelli, A; Zacco, A.; Lucchini, R.; Zimmerman, N.; Pisani, L.; Siviero, G.; Depero, L. E.; Bontempi, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work is presented as an improvement of a recently introduced method for airborne particulate matter (PM) filter analysis [1]. X-ray Standing Wave (XSW) and Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) were performed with a new dedicated laboratory instrumentation. The main advantage of performing both XSW and TXRF, is the possibility to distinguish the nature of the sample: if it is a small droplet dry residue, a thin film like or a bulk sample; and to select the angle of total reflection to make TXRF measurements. Finally, the possibility to switch the X-ray source allows to measure with more accuracy lighter and heavier elements (with a a change in X-ray anode, for example from Mo to Cu). The aim of the present study is to lay the theoretical foundation of the new proposed method for airborne PM filters quantitative analysis improving the accuracy and efficiency of quantification by means of an external standard. The theoretical model presented and discussed demonstrated that airborne PM filters can be considered as thin layers. A set of reference samples is prepared in laboratory and used to obtain a calibration curve. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method for quantitative analysis of air PM filters is affordable and reliable without the necessity to digest filters to obtain quantitative chemical analysis, and that the use of XRW improve the accuracy of TXRF analysis. PMID:22284465

  19. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellan, John-Paul Adrian

    This thesis is comprised of three original works presented in Chapters 4,5, and 6. The three projects are comprised of three different problems in condensed matter physics, the commonality between the topics is the technique used to study the materials, diffraction. Two of which are in the form of journal articles that have been peer-reviewed and published in Physical Review B, while the third is that of an unpublished work. The unpublished work is presented first and uses neutron scattering techniques, while two published papers were performed using x-ray diffraction. The neutron scattering experiments were performed by myself with the assistance of William J.L. Buyers and B.D. Gaulin. These experiments were performed at Chalk River Laboratories in northern Ontario. The x-ray scattering experiments were carried out on the rotating anode x-ray laboratory at McMaster University and the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne Il. All data analysis was performed by myself under the guidance of B.D. Gaulin.

  20. Electron density measurement of a colliding plasma using soft x-ray laser interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, A.S.; Back, C.A.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Glenzer, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Rambo, P.W.; Stone, G.F.; Trebes, J.E.; Weber, F.

    1996-05-01

    The understanding of the collision and subsequent interaction of counter-streaming high-density plasmas is important for the design of indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums. We have employed a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne- like Y x-ray laser at 155 {angstrom} as the probe source, to study interpenetration and stagnation of two colliding plasmas. We observed a peaked density profile at the symmetry axis with a wide stagnation region with width of order 100 {mu}m. We compare the measured density profile with density profiles calculated by the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX and a multi-specie fluid code which allows for interpenetration. The measured density profile falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations. By using different target materials and irradiation configurations, we can vary the collisionality of the plasma. We hope to use the soft x-ray laser interferometry as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy- density physics experiments.

  1. Nano-modulated electron beams via electron diffraction and emittance exchange for coherent x-ray generation

    E-print Network

    Nanni, Emilio A; Moncton, David E

    2015-01-01

    A new method for generation of relativistic electron beams with current modulations at nanometer scale and below is presented. The current modulation is produced by diffracting relativistic electrons in perfect crystal Si, accelerating the diffracted beam and imaging the crystal structure, then transferring the image into the temporal dimension via emittance exchange. The modulation period can be tuned by adjusting electron optics after diffraction. This tunable longitudinal modulation can have a period as short as a few angstroms, enabling production of coherent hard x-rays from a device based on inverse Compton scattering with total length of a few meters. Electron beam simulations from cathode emission through diffraction, acceleration and image formation with variable magnification are presented along with estimates of the coherent x-ray output properties.

  2. 3D Radio and X-Ray Modeling and Data Analysis Software: Revealing Flare Complexity

    E-print Network

    Nita, Gelu M; Kuznetsov, Alexey A; Kontar, Eduard P; Gary, Dale E

    2014-01-01

    We have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The object-based architecture provides an interactive graphical user interface that allows the user to import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to almost instantly generate 3D magnetic field models, to investigate the magnetic topology of these models by interactively creating magnetic field lines and associated magnetic flux tubes, to populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; to investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model, and to compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The application integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++, soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL, a FORTRAN-based potentia...

  3. Mechanical design of an x-ray pulse-height analysis system for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Moshey, E.A.; Martinez, E.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR X-Ray Pulse-Height Analyzer (PHA) is used to measure the plasma soft x-ray emission in the 1-60 keV region. The time-dependent spatial profiles of the x-ray spectrum provide a measure of the electron temperature and high-Z impurity concentrations. The TFTR system will ultimately consist of 12 Pulse-Height Analyzers viewing vertically upward. The PHA System spans the TFTR Vacuum Vessel radially on five inch to eleven and one-half inch centers. This paper describes the mechanical aspects of a typical, single, PHA assembly which will be part of a 12 assembly system. The paper concentrates on the Day-1 PHA Systems.

  4. Proton-induced X-ray cross sections for selected elements Fe to As and applications of X-ray analysis to semiconductor systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Gray; R. Lear; R. J. Dexter; F. N. Schwettmann; K. C. Wiemer

    1973-01-01

    The use of ion-induced x-rays for elemertal analysis of solids is ; considered. The current state of the theory for both protons and heavy ion ; projectiles is discussed. In particular, the use of correlation diagrams is ; described, and examples are given to illustrate consequent applications. ; Selected practical applications are presented in some detail to elucidate the ;

  5. A vehicle threat detection system using correlation analysis and synthesized x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Elmaghraby, Adel

    2013-06-01

    The goal of the proposed research is to automate the vehicle threat detection with X-ray images when a vehicle crosses the country border or the gateway of a secured facility (military base). The proposed detection system requires two inputs: probe images (from X-ray machine) and gallery images (from database). For each vehicle, the gallery images include the X-ray images of fully-loaded (with typical cargo) and unloaded (empty) vehicle. The proposed system produces two types of outputs for threat detection: the detected anomalies and the synthesized images (e.g., grayscale fusion, color fusion, and differential images). The anomalies are automatically detected with the block-wise correlation analysis between two temporally aligned images (probe versus gallery). The locations of detected anomalies can be marked with small rectangles on the probe X-ray images. The several side-view images can be combined into one fused image in gray scale and in colors (color fusion) that provides more comprehensive information to the operator. The fused images are suitable for human analysis and decision. We analyzed a set of vehicle X-ray images, which consists of 4 images generated from AS and E OmniView Gantry™. The preliminary results of detected anomalies and synthesized images are very promising; meanwhile the processing speed is very fast.

  6. Using Lasers and X-rays to Reveal the Motion of Atoms and Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bob Schoenlein

    2009-07-14

    July 7, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: The ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons lies at the heart of chemical reactions, advanced materials with exotic properties, and biological processes such as the first event in vision. Bob Schoenlein, Deputy Director for Science at the Advanced Light Source, will discuss how such processes are revealed by using laser pulses spanning a millionth of a billionth of a second, and how a new generation of light sources will bring the penetrating power of x-rays to the world of ultrafast science

  7. The detection of sulphur in contamination spots in electron probe X-ray microanalysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, I.; Dwornik, E.J.; Rose, H.J., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    Sulphur has been identified as one of the elements present in the contamination spot which forms under the electron beam in the microprobe. The presence of the sulphur results in a rapid change in intensity measurements causing a loss of observed intensity for elements other than sulphur. The source of sulphur has been traced at least in part to the Apiezon B diffusion pump oil. A comparative X-ray fluorescence study of the Apiezon B and Octoil diffusion pump oils showed substantial amounts of sulphur in the Apiezon B. The Octoil was relatively free of sulphur.

  8. Radiation damage in protein serial femtosecond crystallography using an x-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Lomb, Lukas; Barends, Thomas R M; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Aquila, Andrew; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Rudek, Benedikt; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Shoeman, Robert L; Andreasson, Jakob; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Deponte, Daniel P; Doak, R Bruce; Ekeberg, Tomas; Fleckenstein, Holger; Fromme, Petra; Gebhardt, Maike; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M; Hunter, Mark S; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Liang, Mengning; Maia, Filipe R N C; Meinhart, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Spence, John C H; Steinbrener, Jan; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; White, Thomas A; Wunderer, Cornelia; Chapman, Henry N; Ullrich, Joachim; Strüder, Lothar; Schlichting, Ilme

    2011-12-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers deliver intense femtosecond pulses that promise to yield high resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before the destruction of the sample by radiation damage. Diffraction intensities of lysozyme nanocrystals collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 2 keV photons were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and analyzed for radiation damage as a function of pulse length and fluence. Signatures of radiation damage are observed for pulses as short as 70 fs. Parametric scaling used in conventional crystallography does not account for the observed effects. PMID:24089594

  9. {pi}-Electron Ferromagnetism in Metal-Free Carbon Probed By Soft X-Ray Dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Ohldag, H.; Tyliszczak, T.; Hohne, R.; Spemann, D.; Esquinazi, P.; Ungureanu, M.; Butz, T.

    2007-06-05

    Elemental carbon represents a fundamental building block of matter and the possibility of ferromagnetic order in carbon has attracted widespread attention. However, the origin of magnetic order in such a light element is only poorly understood and has puzzled researchers. We present a spectromicroscopy study at room temperature of proton irradiated metal-free carbon using the elemental and chemical specificity of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We demonstrate that the magnetic order in the investigated system originates only from the carbon {pi}-electron system.

  10. Electronic state interferences in resonant x-ray emission after K-shell excitation in HCl.

    PubMed

    Kavcic, M; Zitnik, M; Bucar, K; Mihelic, A; Carniato, S; Journel, L; Guillemin, R; Simon, M

    2010-09-10

    We have measured a series of high-resolution x-ray spectra emitted upon resonant photoexcitation of HCl. The photon energy was tuned across the dissociative 1s?6?* resonance and the Rydberg states converging to the Cl 1s(-1) threshold, and inelastic photon scattering was observed in the region of KL emission lines. Excellent agreement is found between fully ab initio calculated and measured spectra if interferences between different excitation-emission paths are taken into account. The effect of electronic state interferences is enhanced due to dynamical broadening of the 6?* resonance in HCl. PMID:20867570

  11. Radiation damage in protein serial femtosecond crystallography using an x-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Lomb, Lukas; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Aquila, Andrew; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Rudek, Benedikt; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Shoeman, Robert L.; Andreasson, Jakob; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; DePonte, Daniel P.; Doak, R. Bruce; Ekeberg, Tomas; Fleckenstein, Holger; Fromme, Petra; Gebhardt, Maike; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M.; Hunter, Mark S.; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A.; Liang, Mengning; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Meinhart, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Spence, John C. H.; Steinbrener, Jan; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; White, Thomas A.; Wunderer, Cornelia; Chapman, Henry N.; Ullrich, Joachim; Strüder, Lothar; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers deliver intense femtosecond pulses that promise to yield high resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before the destruction of the sample by radiation damage. Diffraction intensities of lysozyme nanocrystals collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 2 keV photons were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and analyzed for radiation damage as a function of pulse length and fluence. Signatures of radiation damage are observed for pulses as short as 70 fs. Parametric scaling used in conventional crystallography does not account for the observed effects. PMID:24089594

  12. A microelectromechanical load sensor for in situ electron and x-ray microscopy tensile testing of nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    for in situ testing of NWs, CNTs and electron trans- parent films inside scanning electron microscope (SEM MEMS in which the load is electronically measured. It is designed to be placed in scanning and transmission electron microscopes and on x-ray synchrotron stages. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. [DOI

  13. Quantitative Evaluation of Radiation Damage to Polyethylene Terephthalate by Soft X-rays and High-energy Electrons

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Electron beam damage at two different dose rates and a range of doses was performed in an 80 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM). The STXM beam was used.ca/xrm-biblio/xrm_bib.html. Relative to electron energy loss spectroscopy in transmission electron microscopes (TEM- EELS

  14. Energetic electrons in impulsive and extended solar flares as deduced from flux correlations between hard X-rays and microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosugi, Takeo; Dennis, Brian R.; Kai, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    The peak flux relationship between hard X-rays and microwaves from solar flares is studied using about 400 events simultaneously recorded with the hard X-ray burst spectrometer on the SMM satellite and the Nobeyama 17 GHz radiometer. The data indicate that the hard X-ray and microwave peak fluxes correlate best for X-ray energies of less than about 80 keV for impulsive flares and greater than about 360 keV for extended flares. By postulating that electrons responsible for microwave emission at 17 GHz are those emitting hard X-rays at these photon energies, it is concluded that: (1) in impulsive flares, microwaves at about 20 GHz are emitted mainly by electrons of less than about 200 keV from a layer through which the electrons stream down into the thick-target hard X-ray source; and (2) in extended flares, microwaves are emitted mainly by MeV electrons trapped in a coronal loop or loops.

  15. Development of a compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for fast trace elemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, Takafumi; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    A compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (GE-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the laboratory. An Al cylindrical collimator for the primary X-rays was placed just above the sample stage. This collimator also played the role of an exit slit to detect fluorescent X-rays at small grazing exit angles. Therefore, no additional exit slit was used in this setup, leading to a compact design. The entire size of the analysis equipment was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm (horizontal × vertical × height). The maximum exit angle was adjusted to the height of the sample stage. The background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. A calibration curve was obtained using 10 ?L Ga solutions. Accordingly, the detection limit for Ga was evaluated to be 20 ppb.

  16. Correlated single-crystal electronic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography at NSLS beamline X26-C

    SciTech Connect

    Orville, A.M.; Buono, R.; Cowan, M.; Heroux, A.; Shea-McCarthy, G.; Schneider, D. K.; Skinner, J. M.; Skinner, M. J.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R. M.

    2011-05-01

    The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

  17. Correlated Single-Crystal Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Crystallography at NSLS Beamline X26-C

    SciTech Connect

    A Orville; R Buono; M Cowan; A Heroux; G Shea-McCarthy; D Schneider; J Skinner; M Skinner; D Stoner-Ma; R Sweet

    2011-12-31

    The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

  18. Correlated single-crystal electronic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography at NSLS beamline X26-C

    PubMed Central

    Orville, Allen M.; Buono, Richard; Cowan, Matt; Héroux, Annie; Shea-McCarthy, Grace; Schneider, Dieter K.; Skinner, John M.; Skinner, Michael J.; Stoner-Ma, Deborah; Sweet, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population. PMID:21525643

  19. LINAC DESIGN FOR AN ARRAY OF SOFT X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, Alexander A.; Kur, E.; Penn, G.; Qiang, Ji; Venturini, M.; Wells, R. P.

    2008-09-22

    The design of the linac delivering electron bunches into ten independent soft x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) producing light at 1 nm and longer wavelengths is presented. The bunch repetition rate in the linac is 1 MHz and 100 kHz in each of ten FEL beam lines. Various issues regarding machine layout and lattice, bunch compression, collimation, and the beam switch yard are discussed. Particular attention is given to collective effects. A demanding goal is to preserve both a low beam slice emittance and low slice energy spread during acceleration, bunch compression and distribution of the electron bunches into the array of FEL beamlines. Detailed studies of the effect of the electron beam microbunching caused by longitudinal space-charge forces and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) have been carried out and their results are presented.

  20. Performance and design concepts of a free electron laser operating in the x-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.

    1997-03-01

    We report on the Design Study of a Free-Electron-Laser experiment designed to produce coherent radiation at the wavelength of 1.5 {Angstrom} and longer. The proposed experiment utilizes 1/3 of the SLAC linac to accelerate electrons to 15 GeV. The high brightness electron beam interacts with the magnetic field of a long undulator and generates coherent radiation by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The projected output peak power is about, 10 GW. The project presents several challenges in the realization of a high brightness electron beam, in the construction and tolerances of the undulator and in the transport, of the x-ray radiation. The technical solutions adopted for the design are discussed. Numerical simulations are used to show the performance as a function of system parameters.

  1. Time-interleaved multienergy acceleration for an x-ray free-electron laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Toru; Tamasaku, Kenji; Asaka, Takao; Inagaki, Takahiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kondo, Chikara; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Ohshima, Takashi; Otake, Yuji; Sakurai, Tatsuyuki; Sato, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Togashi, Tadashi; Togawa, Kazuaki; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-08-01

    To meet the demand from the growing number of user experiments, multi-beam-line operation with a wide spectral range is seriously considered in x-ray free-electron laser facilities. In a conventional design, the beam line of low photon energies branches off from the middle of the accelerator to take out low energy electron beams. Here in this paper, a novel method is proposed to deliver bunch-to-bunch energy changed electron beams at the end of the accelerator. Since all accelerator components are operated in steady state, this method enables quasisimultaneous operation of multi-beam-line in the same undulator hall without degrading the stability and performance of the electron beam.

  2. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, A.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US). Materials Science Div.

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90{sup o} Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated {approx} 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 {angstrom}) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a means of measuring ultrashort x-ray pulse durations. LAPE may also serve as the basis for a gated x-ray detector.

  3. Mineral analysis of corn leaves by x?ray fluorescence on ground versus unground leaf samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth D. Frank; John Burch; Joseph Denning

    1992-01-01

    Plant tissue analysis for non?mobile nutrients can supplement soil test values or may replace soil analyses in the determination of the soil's ability to supply these nutrients to next year's crop. X?ray fluorescence (XRF) is a rapid technique for determining nutrient concentration in plant tissue. Typically, whole leaves are dried and ground for analysis by XRF or other chemical methods.

  4. Stereochemistry Determination by Powder X-ray Diffraction Analysis and NMR Spectroscopy Residual Dipolar Couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.; Pagola, S; Navarro-Vasquez, A; Phillips, D; Gayathri, C; Krakauer, H; Stephens, P; Nicotra, V; Gil, R

    2009-01-01

    A matter of technique: For a new steroidal lactol, jaborosalactol 24 (1), isolated from Jaborosa parviflora, NMR spectroscopy residual dipolar couplings and powder X-ray diffraction analysis independently gave the same stereochemistry at C23-C26. Conventional NMR spectroscopic techniques, such as NOE and {sup 3}J coupling-constant analysis failed to unambiguously determine this stereochemistry.

  5. Local electronic states of Fe4N films revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Keita; Toko, Kaoru; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Oguchi, Tamio; Suemasu, Takashi; Kimura, Akio

    2015-05-01

    We performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at Fe L2,3 and N K-edges for Fe4N epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In order to clarify the element specific local electronic structure of Fe4N, we compared experimentally obtained XAS and XMCD spectra with those simulated by a combination of a first-principles calculation and Fermi's golden rule. We revealed that the shoulders observed at Fe L2,3-edges in the XAS and XMCD spectra were due to the electric dipole transition from the Fe 2p core-level to the hybridization state generated by ?* anti-bonding between the orbitals of N 2p at the body-centered site and Fe 3d on the face-centered (II) sites. Thus, the observed shoulders were attributed to the local electronic structure of Fe atoms at II sites. As to the N K-edge, the line shape of the obtained spectra was explained by the dipole transition from the N 1s core-level to the hybridization state formed by ?* and ?* anti-bondings between the Fe 3d and N 2p orbitals. This hybridization plays an important role in featuring the electronic structures and physical properties of Fe4N.

  6. Characterization of the Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanoparticles Using X-ray Absorption and Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Vaverka, A M

    2008-07-15

    Resolving open questions regarding transport in nanostructures can have a huge impact on a broad range of future technologies such as light harvesting for energy. Silicon has potential to be used in many of these applications. Understanding how the band edges of nanostructures move as a function of size, surface termination and assembly is of fundamental importance in understanding the transport properties of these materials. In this thesis work I have investigated the change in the electronic structure of silicon nanoparticle assemblies as the surface termination is changed. Nanoparticles are synthesized using a thermal evaporation technique and sizes are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). By passivating the particles with molecules containing alcohol groups we are able to modify the size dependent band edge shifts. Both the valence and conduction bands are measured using synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) techniques. Particles synthesized via recrystallization of amorphous silicon/SiO{sub 2} multilayers of thicknesses below 10 nm are also investigated using the synchrotron techniques. These samples also show quantum confinement effects but the electronic structure is different from those synthesized via evaporation methods. The total bandgap is determined for all samples measured. The origins of these differences in the electronic structures are discussed.

  7. Characterization of the electronic structure of silicon nanoparticles using x-ray absorption and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya Vaverka, April Susan

    Resolving open questions regarding transport in nanostructures can have a huge impact on a broad range of future technologies such as light harvesting for energy. Silicon has potential to be used in many of these applications. Understanding how the band edges of nanostructures move as a function of size, surface termination and assembly is of fundamental importance in understanding the transport properties of these materials. In this thesis work I have investigated the change in the electronic structure of silicon nanoparticle assemblies as the surface termination is changed. Nanoparticles are synthesized using a thermal evaporation technique and sizes are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). By passivating the particles with molecules containing alcohol groups we are able to modify the size dependent band edge shifts. Both the valence and conduction bands are measured using synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) techniques. Particles synthesized via recrystallization of amorphous silicon/SiO2 multilayers of thicknesses below 10 rim are also investigated using the synchrotron techniques. These samples also show quantum confinement effects but the electronic structure is different from those synthesized via evaporation methods. The total bandgap is determined for all samples measured. The origins of these differences in the electronic structures are discussed.

  8. Hard X ray survey of energetic electrons from low-earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W.C.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.; Roussel-Dupre, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Hard X ray and neutron emissions measured in low-Earth orbit are surveyed to develop a global overview of lightning-related energetic-electron precipitation and acceleration process. Comparison of geographic intensity maps shows the dominance of enhanced hard X ray intensities measured when the satellite was above the continental United States and above the southern Indian Ocean between Madagascar and Australia. The emission is most enhanced during the northern summer months. Lesser although significant enhancements are seen between the Middle East and the Tibetan plateau, a stretch of ocean off the east Asian coast between the Phillipines and Korea, a stretch of equatorial Africa from the Ivory Coast to Mozambique, a region of the eastern equatorial Pacific just west of Columbia, and a patch of the Indian Ocean stretching between the southern tip of India and Indonesia. Although emissions from many of these regions are generally enhanced during the northern summer and fall seasons, none show any regularity relative to local time of day. Many but not all of these enhancements support natural interpretations in terms of lightning-induced energetic-electron precipitation from the terrestrial trapped radiation belts. Electron scattering induced by radio waves from VLF transmitters most likely contributes to this precipitation. 46 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Multiedge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Part II: XANES Analysis of Bridging and Terminal Chlorides in Hexachlorodipalladate(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Barton, Rhonda L; Gardenghi, David J; Stolte, Wayne C; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2015-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a unique experimental technique that can provide ground state electronic structure information about transition metal complexes with unoccupied d-manifold. The quantitative treatments of pre-edge and rising-edge features have already been developed for the sulfur- and chlorine-ligand K-edge excitations. The complementarity of using multiple core excitation edges from hard, tender, and soft X-ray energy regions has been defined for the first paper of this series. The given study provides compelling evidence for the transferability of the empirical transition dipole integral from ligand K-edge to metal L-edge and back to ligand K-edge in the tender X-ray energy range. The case study was performed for a series of homoleptic chloropalladium compounds at the chlorine K- and palladium L-edges. We propose the method described here to be generally applicable for other core level excitations, where complementarity of ground state electronic structural information from XANES analysis can provide the complete electronic structure description. PMID:25923832

  10. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Studies of the Electronic Structure of Aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demasi; L. F. J. Piper; Y. Zhang; I. Reid; S. Wang; K. E. Smith; J. Downes; N. Peltekis; C. McGuinness; A. Matsuura

    2008-01-01

    The valence and core level electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) has been measured using synchrotron radiation-excited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples were in the form of thin films, grown in-situ in an organic molecular beam deposition chamber attached to the spectrometer system. The films were found to be highly sensitive

  11. Energy of microwave-emitting electrons and hard X-ray\\/microwave source model in solar flares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nariaki Nitta; Takeo Kosugi

    1986-01-01

    We present a new method of estimating the energy of microwave-emitting electrons from the observed rate of increase of the microwave flux relative to the hard X-ray flux measured at various energies during the rising phase of solar flares. A total of 22 flares observed simultaneously in hard X-rays (20–400 keV) and in microwaves (17 GHz) were analyzed in this

  12. In situ grazing-incidence x-ray-diffraction and electron-microscopic studies of small gold clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Koga; Harutoshi Takeo; Takuji Ikeda; Ken-Ichi Ohshima

    1998-01-01

    Small gold clusters having diameters of 1-3 nm have been studied by using x-ray-diffraction and electron microscopy. Large amounts of small gold clusters generated by the inert-gas vapor-condensation method were deposited on a silicon wafer cooled down to 92 K to avoid coalescence growth and grazing-incidence x-ray-diffraction intensity from the cold cluster deposit was measured in situ. The diffraction pattern

  13. Saturable Absorption of an X-Ray Free-Electron-Laser Heated Solid-Density Aluminum Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackstraw, D. S.; Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S. M.; Barbrel, B.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Cho, B. I.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G. L.; Engelhorn, K.; Hájková, V.; Heimann, P.; Holmes, M.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J. J.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser are used to heat and probe a solid-density aluminum sample. The photon-energy-dependent transmission of the heating beam is studied through the use of a photodiode. Saturable absorption is observed, with the resulting transmission differing significantly from the cold case, in good agreement with atomic-kinetics simulations.

  14. Influence of diffraction in crystals on the coherence properties of X-ray free-electron laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bushuev, V. A., E-mail: vabushuev@yandex.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Samoylova, L. [European XFEL GmbH (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the field of random X-ray femtosecond pulses and their coherent properties upon pulse propagation in free space and under dynamical diffraction in perfect crystals in the Bragg and Laue geometries has been analyzed on the basis of the formalism developed in statistical optics. Particular attention is paid to the influence of large pulse propagation distances, which are characteristic of lengthy channels of X-ray free-electron lasers.

  15. Analysis of Off-Nuclear X-Ray Sources in Galaxy NGC 4945

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah M.; /MIT /SLAC

    2006-09-11

    Recently, X-ray astronomy has been used to investigate objects such as galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), quasars, starburst superbubbles of hot gas, X-ray binary systems, stars, supernova remnants, and interstellar and intergalactic material. By studying the x-ray emission patterns of these objects, we can gain a greater understanding of their structure and evolution. We analyze X-ray emission from the galaxy NGC 4945 using data taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations (CIAO) software package was used to extract and fit energy spectra and to extract light curves for the brightest off-nuclear sources in two different observations of NGC 4945 (January, 2000 and May, 2004). A majority of sources were closely fit by both absorbed power law and absorbed bremsstrahlung models, with a significantly poorer {chi}{sup 2}/dof for the absorbed blackbody model, and most sources had little variability. This indicates that the sources are accreting binary systems with either a neutron star or black hole as the compact object. The calculated luminosities were about 10{sup 38} erg/s, which implies that the mass of the accreting object is close to 10 solar masses and must be a black hole.

  16. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  17. A vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube field-emission electrons.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2013-03-01

    We report on a fully vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube (CNT) field-emission electrons for various radiography applications. The specially designed two-step brazing process enabled us to accomplish a good vacuum level for the stable and reliable operation of the x-ray tube without any active vacuum pump. Also, the integrated focusing electrodes in the field-emission electron gun focused electron beams from the CNT emitters onto the anode target effectively, giving a small focal spot of around 0.3 mm with a large current of above 50 mA. The active-current control through the cathode electrode of the x-ray tube led a fast digital modulation of x-ray dose with a low voltage of below 5 V. The fabricated compact x-ray tube showed a stable and reliable operation, indicating good maintenance of a vacuum level of below 5 × 10(-6) Torr and the possibility of field-emission x-ray tubes in a stand-alone device without an active pumping system. PMID:23376878

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from Allochromatium vinosum

    PubMed Central

    Kellers, Petra; Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase is a unique metalloprotein that is able to catalyze the reversible oxidation of hydrogen to protons and electrons during a complex reaction cycle. The [NiFe] hydrogenase was isolated from the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum and its crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are reported. It was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using sodium citrate and imidazole as crystallization agents. The crystals belong to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 205.00, b = 217.42, c = 120.44?Å. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.5?Å resolution. PMID:18678940

  19. Plasticity and X-ray Line Profile Analysis of the semicrystalline polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieckermann, F.; Wilhelm, H.; Schafler, E.; Kerber, M.; Bernstorff, S.; Zehetbauer, M. J.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of the microstructure during compressive deformation of the biodegradable polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) was investigated in-situ via X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Flow curves were measured in-situ together with X-ray profiles for several degrees of deformation. The profiles were analysed using Multi-Reflection X-ray Line Profile Analysis (MXPA) adapted by the authors for semicrystalline polymers providing lamella thickness, crystallinity, and the presence and density of dislocations as a function of the deformation. In contrast to previous investigations in ? crystallised isotactic polypropylene (?-iPP), P3HB does not exhibit a deformation induced increase of the dislocation density which suggests mechanisms other than dislocations to be involved in plastic deformation of P3HB.

  20. Simple Method to Generate Terawatt-Attosecond X-Ray Free-Electron-Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Eduard; Reiche, Sven

    2015-06-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are cutting-edge research tools that produce almost fully coherent radiation with high power and short-pulse length with applications in multiple science fields. There is a strong demand to achieve even shorter pulses and higher radiation powers than the ones obtained at state-of-the-art XFEL facilities. In this context we propose a novel method to generate terawatt-attosecond XFEL pulses, where an XFEL pulse is pushed through several short good-beam regions of the electron bunch. In addition to the elements of conventional XFEL facilities, the method uses only a multiple-slotted foil and small electron delays between undulator sections. Our scheme is thus simple, compact, and easy to implement both in already operating as well as future XFEL projects. We present numerical simulations that confirm the feasibility and validity of our proposal.

  1. Local structure and electronic state of a photomagnetic material of CoW cyanide studied by x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Kaoru; Ohta, Toshiaki; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2002-02-01

    The local structure and electronic state of a photomagnetic material Cs0.8Co1.1(3-cyanopyridine)1.9W(CN)8.2.1H2O have been investigated by means of x-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The Co K- and W L-edge x-ray-absorption near-edge structure has clarified that upon the transition from the high-temperature (HT) phase to the low-temperature (LT) one, a Co 3d electron is transferred to the W 5d level; the electronic state of Co changes from the high-spin divalent state (d7, spin momentum S=3/2) to the low-spin trivalent state (d6,S=0), while the W state correspondingly varies from the pentavalent state (d1,S=1/2) to the tetravalent one (d2,S=0). Extended XAFS analysis has revealed that the coordination around W and Co is W(CN)8Co4 and Co(NC)4(3-cyanopyridine)2W4, respectively, and that the Co-N distance in the LT phase is decreased by ~0.17 Å compared to that in the HT one, while the structure around W shows little change. We have also found x-ray-induced phase transition of the present material at 30 K. The x-ray-induced phase was found to be structurally and electronically identical to the HT phase.

  2. In vivo crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers: the next generation of structural biology?

    PubMed

    Gallat, François-Xavier; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Coussens, Nathan P; Yagi, Koichiro J; Boudes, Marion; Higashi, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Daisuke; Tatano, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mizohata, Eiichi; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Park, Jaehyun; Song, Changyong; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nango, Eriko; Itoh, Kohji; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Tobe, Stephen; Ramaswamy, S; Stay, Barbara; Iwata, So; Chavas, Leonard M G

    2014-07-17

    The serendipitous discovery of the spontaneous growth of protein crystals inside cells has opened the field of crystallography to chemically unmodified samples directly available from their natural environment. On the one hand, through in vivo crystallography, protocols for protein crystal preparation can be highly simplified, although the technique suffers from difficulties in sampling, particularly in the extraction of the crystals from the cells partly due to their small sizes. On the other hand, the extremely intense X-ray pulses emerging from X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources, along with the appearance of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is a milestone for radiation damage-free protein structural studies but requires micrometre-size crystals. The combination of SFX with in vivo crystallography has the potential to boost the applicability of these techniques, eventually bringing the field to the point where in vitro sample manipulations will no longer be required, and direct imaging of the crystals from within the cells will be achievable. To fully appreciate the diverse aspects of sample characterization, handling and analysis, SFX experiments at the Japanese SPring-8 angstrom compact free-electron laser were scheduled on various types of in vivo grown crystals. The first experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of the approach and suggest that future in vivo crystallography applications at XFELs will be another alternative to nano-crystallography. PMID:24914164

  3. Template assisted self-assembly of iron oxide nanoparticles: An x-ray structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, D. [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Zabel, H. [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Ulyanov, S. V. [St.-Petersburg State University, Ul'yanovskaya ul.1, Petrodvorets, St.-Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); St.-Petersburg University of Commerce and Economics, St.-Petersburg 194018 (Russian Federation); Romanov, V. P. [St.-Petersburg State University, Ul'yanovskaya ul.1, Petrodvorets, St.-Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); Uzdin, V. M. [St.-Petersburg State University, Ul'yanovskaya ul.1, Petrodvorets, St.-Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); St.-Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 49, Kronverkskij, St.-Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-07

    We have fabricated by e-beam lithography periodic arrays of rectangular shaped trenches of different widths into Si substrates. The trenches were filled with iron oxide nanoparticles, 20?nm in diameter, by spin-coating them onto the Si substrate. The trenches have the purpose to assist the self-assembly of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Using x-ray scattering techniques, we have analyzed the structure factor of the trenches before and after filling in order to determine the filling factor. We present a theoretical analysis of the x-ray scattering function within the distorted-wave Born approximation and we present a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment.

  4. X-ray reflectivity analysis of giant-magnetoresistance spin-valve layered structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Huang; J.-P. Nozieres; V. S. Speriosu; H. Lefakis; B. A. Gurney

    1992-01-01

    The amount of intermixing at the interfaces of sputter-deposited spin-valve layered structures, comprising Si\\/Ta (50 A?)\\/NiFe (75 A?)\\/Cu (22.5 A?)\\/NiFe (50 A?)\\/FeMn (110 A?)\\/Ta (50 A?), were obtained from least-squares refinement of x-ray reflectivity data. The observations were modeled by layers of nominal composition with compositional inhomogeneity at the interfaces. Layer thicknesses deduced from x-ray analysis were generally within a

  5. Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Vinko, S M; Ciricosta, O; Cho, B I; Engelhorn, K; Chung, H-K; Brown, C R D; Burian, T; Chalupský, J; Falcone, R W; Graves, C; Hájková, V; Higginbotham, A; Juha, L; Krzywinski, J; Lee, H J; Messerschmidt, M; Murphy, C D; Ping, Y; Scherz, A; Schlotter, W; Toleikis, S; Turner, J J; Vysin, L; Wang, T; Wu, B; Zastrau, U; Zhu, D; Lee, R W; Heimann, P A; Nagler, B; Wark, J S

    2012-02-01

    Matter with a high energy density (>10(5)?joules per cm(3)) is prevalent throughout the Universe, being present in all types of stars and towards the centre of the giant planets; it is also relevant for inertial confinement fusion. Its thermodynamic and transport properties are challenging to measure, requiring the creation of sufficiently long-lived samples at homogeneous temperatures and densities. With the advent of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser, high-intensity radiation (>10(17)?watts per cm(2), previously the domain of optical lasers) can be produced at X-ray wavelengths. The interaction of single atoms with such intense X-rays has recently been investigated. An understanding of the contrasting case of intense X-ray interaction with dense systems is important from a fundamental viewpoint and for applications. Here we report the experimental creation of a solid-density plasma at temperatures in excess of 10(6) kelvin on inertial-confinement timescales using an X-ray free-electron laser. We discuss the pertinent physics of the intense X-ray-matter interactions, and illustrate the importance of electron-ion collisions. Detailed simulations of the interaction process conducted with a radiative-collisional code show good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. We obtain insights into the evolution of the charge state distribution of the system, the electron density and temperature, and the timescales of collisional processes. Our results should inform future high-intensity X-ray experiments involving dense samples, such as X-ray diffractive imaging of biological systems, material science investigations, and the study of matter in extreme conditions. PMID:22278059

  6. Electronic structure of the organic semiconductor Alq3 (aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) from soft x-ray spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demasi; L. F. J. Piper; Y. Zhang; I. Reid; S. Wang; K. E. Smith; J. E. Downes; N. Peltekis; C. McGuinness; A. Matsuura

    2008-01-01

    The element-specific electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) has been studied using a combination of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy were used to measure directly the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 2p partial densities of states in Alq3, and good agreement

  7. Fast electron temperature measurements using a 'multicolor' optical soft x-ray array

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M.; Bell, R.; Hosea, J.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Roquemore, L.; Wilson, J. R. [Plasma Spectroscopy Group, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    A fast ({<=}0.1 ms) and compact 'multicolor' scintillator-based optical soft x-ray (OSXR) array has been developed for time- and space-resolved measurements of the electron temperature [T{sub e}(R,t)] profiles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The 48-channel tangential multicolor OSXR prototype was tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Each sight line views the same plasma volume at the midplane (0{<=}r/a{<=}1), in three distinct energy ranges determined by beryllium foils with different thicknesses. A tangential view of the toroidally (circular) symmetric plasma allows an Abel inversion of the line-integrated SXR brightness to obtain the x-ray emissivity profiles which are then used to constrain the reconstruction of the fast T{sub e}(R,t). The first assessment of the electron temperature is obtained by modeling the slope of the continuum radiation with the ideal double-foil method using both the line-integrated intensity measurements as well as the inverted SXR emissivity profiles.

  8. EDITORIAL: Attosecond and x-ray free-electron laser physics Attosecond and x-ray free-electron laser physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2009-07-01

    Currently, we are witnessing a revolution in photon science, driven by the vision to time-resolve ultra-fast electronic motion in atoms, molecules, and solids as well as by the quest for the characterization of time-dependent structural changes in large molecules and solids. Quantum jumps in the development of light sources are the key technologies for this emerging field of research. Thus, high harmonic radiation bursts now penetrate the attosecond (10-18 s) regime and free-electron lasers (FELs) deliver ultra-brilliant femtosecond, coherent VUV and x-ray pulses. This special issue presents a snapshot of this ongoing revolution and brings together, for the first time, pioneering results in both of these fields that are expected to evolve synergetically in the future. The volume is based on the spirit of the International Conference on Multi-Photon Processes, ICOMP08, which was held at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg in summer 2008. The first contributions include articles that envision tracing electronic motion on an attosecond time scale and its relation to nuclear motion. After more technical papers on the generation of attosecond pulses via high harmonic generation (HHG), molecular and two-electron atomic dynamics in strong optical fields at a typical wavelength of 800 nm are presented pointing to sub-cycle, attosecond features. Making the transition to shorter wavelengths, nonlinear dynamics in atoms and molecules is explored via experimental and theoretical methods, where the present measurements are nearly exclusively performed at FEL sources. A substantial number of articles focus on the investigation of the most simple many- (few-) photon two-electron processes in double ionization of helium at optical and VUV wavelengths, with the goal of characterizing this fundamental reaction, not yet consistently solved theoretically, in spite of huge efforts. Finally, the behaviour of more complex nanoscaled systems, i.e. clusters, is investigated bridging the gap from atoms and molecules to solids introduced to intense FEL radiation. Beyond the basic interest in many-particle dynamics in finite systems, these studies are of enormous practical relevance for upcoming research at X-ray FELs. Here, realizing the dream of coherent imaging of the structure of single bio-molecules in the gas phase with atomic resolution is critically dependent on ultra-fast dynamics initiated by the pulse. In other words, it is reduced to the simple question of whether the molecule is first imaged and then destroyed or vice versa! During the preparation of this Editorial, the first lasing at the Stanford Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was achieved at a photon energy of about 8 keV - a further milestone in this exciting revolution in the science related to light.

  9. X-ray diffraction analysis of a severely plastically deformed aluminum alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Ortiz; L. Shaw

    2004-01-01

    The crystallite size, lattice microstrain, lattice parameter, and formation of solid solutions of a nanocrystalline Al93Fe3Cr2Ti2 alloy prepared via mechanical alloying (MA) starting from elemental powders have been investigated using the Rietveld method of X-ray diffraction (XRD) in conjunction with line-broadening analyses through the variance, Warren–Averbach, and Stokes and Wilson methods. Detailed analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron

  10. Cheetah: software for high-throughput reduction and analysis of serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data

    PubMed Central

    Barty, Anton; Kirian, Richard A.; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Hantke, Max; Yoon, Chun Hong; White, Thomas A.; Chapman, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The emerging technique of serial X-ray diffraction, in which diffraction data are collected from samples flowing across a pulsed X-ray source at repetition rates of 100?Hz or higher, has necessitated the development of new software in order to handle the large data volumes produced. Sorting of data according to different criteria and rapid filtering of events to retain only diffraction patterns of interest results in significant reductions in data volume, thereby simplifying subsequent data analysis and management tasks. Meanwhile the generation of reduced data in the form of virtual powder patterns, radial stacks, histograms and other meta data creates data set summaries for analysis and overall experiment evaluation. Rapid data reduction early in the analysis pipeline is proving to be an essential first step in serial imaging experiments, prompting the authors to make the tool described in this article available to the general community. Originally developed for experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers, the software is based on a modular facility-independent library to promote portability between different experiments and is available under version 3 or later of the GNU General Public License. PMID:24904246

  11. Cheetah: software for high-throughput reduction and analysis of serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Barty, Anton; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Hantke, Max; Yoon, Chun Hong; White, Thomas A; Chapman, Henry

    2014-06-01

    The emerging technique of serial X-ray diffraction, in which diffraction data are collected from samples flowing across a pulsed X-ray source at repetition rates of 100?Hz or higher, has necessitated the development of new software in order to handle the large data volumes produced. Sorting of data according to different criteria and rapid filtering of events to retain only diffraction patterns of interest results in significant reductions in data volume, thereby simplifying subsequent data analysis and management tasks. Meanwhile the generation of reduced data in the form of virtual powder patterns, radial stacks, histograms and other meta data creates data set summaries for analysis and overall experiment evaluation. Rapid data reduction early in the analysis pipeline is proving to be an essential first step in serial imaging experiments, prompting the authors to make the tool described in this article available to the general community. Originally developed for experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers, the software is based on a modular facility-independent library to promote portability between different experiments and is available under version 3 or later of the GNU General Public License. PMID:24904246

  12. X-Ray Synchrotron Emission from 10-100 TeV Cosmic-Ray Electrons in the Supernova Remnant SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. E.; Petre, R.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2001-09-01

    We present the results of a joint spectral analysis of RXTE PCA, ASCA SIS, and ROSAT PSPC data of the supernova remnant SN 1006. This work represents the first attempt to model both the thermal and nonthermal X-ray emission over the entire X-ray energy band from 0.12 to 17 keV. The thermal flux is described by a nonequilibrium ionization model with an electron temperature kTe=0.6 keV, an ionization timescale n0t=9×109 cm-3 s, and a relative elemental abundance of silicon that is 10-18 times larger than the solar abundance. The nonthermal X-ray spectrum is described by a broken power law model with low- and high-energy photon indices ?1=2.1 and ?2=3.0, respectively. Since the nonthermal X-ray spectrum steepens with increasing energy, the results of the present analysis corroborate previous claims that the nonthermal X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation. We argue that the magnetic field strength is significantly larger than previous estimates of about 10 ?G and arbitrarily use a value of 40 ?G to estimate the parameters of the cosmic-ray electron, proton, and helium spectra of the remnant. The results for the ratio of the number densities of protons and electrons (R=160 at 1 GeV), the total energy in cosmic rays (Ecr=1×1050 ergs), and the spectral index of the electrons at 1 GeV (?e=2.14+/-0.12) are consistent with the hypothesis that Galactic cosmic rays are accelerated predominantly in the shocks of supernova remnants. Yet, the remnant may or may not accelerate nuclei to energies as high as the energy of the ``knee,'' depending on the reason why the maximum energy of the electrons is only 10 TeV.

  13. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; et al

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level ofmore »the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.« less

  14. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Störmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

    2014-04-01

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called ``molecular movie'' within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  15. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudin, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, Talence (France); Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea); Fourment, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, Talence (France); Cho, B. I. [Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea); Engelhorn, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Galtier, E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Harmand, M. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Lab. pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Palaiseau (France); Leguay, P. M. [Univ. Bordeaux, Talence (France); Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagler, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nakatsutsumi, M. [European XFEL, Hamburg (Germany); Ozkan, C. [European XFEL, Hamburg (Germany); Störmer, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany); Toleikis, S. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Tschentscher, Th. [European XFEL, Hamburg (Germany); Heimann, P. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dorchies, F. [Univ. Bordeaux, Talence (France)

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  16. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB?SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB–SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non?destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB–SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three?dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  17. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ioni Beam-scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    G Nelson; W Harris; J Lombardo; J Izzo Jr.; W Chiu; P Tanasini; M Cantoni; J Van herle; C Comninellis; et al.

    2011-12-31

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB-SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB-SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  18. Hard x-ray monochromator with milli-electron volt bandwidth for high-resolution diffraction studies of diamond crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Shu Deming; Khachatryan, Ruben; Xiao, Xianghui; DeCarlo, Francesco; Goetze, Kurt; Roberts, Timothy; Roehrig, Christian; Deriy, Alexey [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    We report on design and performance of a high-resolution x-ray monochromator with a spectral bandwidth of {Delta}E{sub X}{approx_equal} 1.5 meV, which operates at x-ray energies in the vicinity of the backscattering (Bragg) energy E{sub H} = 13.903 keV of the (008) reflection in diamond. The monochromator is utilized for high-energy-resolution diffraction characterization of diamond crystals as elements of advanced x-ray crystal optics for synchrotrons and x-ray free-electron lasers. The monochromator and the related controls are made portable such that they can be installed and operated at any appropriate synchrotron beamline equipped with a pre-monochromator.

  19. Demonstration of Feasibility of X-Ray Free Electron Laser Studies of Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Entangled Polymer Melts

    PubMed Central

    Carnis, Jerome; Cha, Wonsuk; Wingert, James; Kang, Jinback; Jiang, Zhang; Song, Sanghoon; Sikorski, Marcin; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Chen, San-Wen; Dai, Yeling; Ma, Yicong; Guo, Hongyu; Lurio, Laurence B.; Shpyrko, Oleg; Narayanan, Suresh; Cui, Mengmeng; Kosif, Irem; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P.; Lee, Hae Cheol; Yu, Chung-Jong; Grübel, Gerhard; Sinha, Sunil K.; Kim, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) opens new areas of science due to their exceptional brightness, coherence, and time structure. In principle, such sources enable studies of dynamics of condensed matter systems over times ranging from femtoseconds to seconds. However, the studies of “slow” dynamics in polymeric materials still remain in question due to the characteristics of the XFEL beam and concerns about sample damage. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the relaxation dynamics of gold nanoparticles suspended in polymer melts using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), while also monitoring eventual X-ray induced damage. In spite of inherently large pulse-to-pulse intensity and position variations of the XFEL beam, measurements can be realized at slow time scales. The X-ray induced damage and heating are less than initially expected for soft matter materials. PMID:25109363

  20. Demonstration of feasibility of X-ray free electron laser studies of dynamics of nanoparticles in entangled polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Carnis, Jerome; Cha, Wonsuk; Wingert, James; Kang, Jinback; Jiang, Zhang; Song, Sanghoon; Sikorski, Marcin; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Chen, San-Wen; Dai, Yeling; Ma, Yicong; Guo, Hongyu; Lurio, Laurence B; Shpyrko, Oleg; Narayanan, Suresh; Cui, Mengmeng; Kosif, Irem; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P; Lee, Hae Cheol; Yu, Chung-Jong; Grübel, Gerhard; Sinha, Sunil K; Kim, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) opens new areas of science due to their exceptional brightness, coherence, and time structure. In principle, such sources enable studies of dynamics of condensed matter systems over times ranging from femtoseconds to seconds. However, the studies of "slow" dynamics in polymeric materials still remain in question due to the characteristics of the XFEL beam and concerns about sample damage. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the relaxation dynamics of gold nanoparticles suspended in polymer melts using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), while also monitoring eventual X-ray induced damage. In spite of inherently large pulse-to-pulse intensity and position variations of the XFEL beam, measurements can be realized at slow time scales. The X-ray induced damage and heating are less than initially expected for soft matter materials. PMID:25109363