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1

Electron probe x-ray analysis of single ferritin molecules.  

PubMed Central

Single molecules and groups of two or three ferritin molecules were subjected to electron probe x-ray microanalysis in a transmission electron microscope equipped with a liquid nitrogen cooled stage. Significant Fe Kalpha peaks were generated during 100-sec counts when single ferritin molecules were excited with a probe current of 0.35 nA/60 nm spot, less than the maximal current available in a thermionic gun. There was a linear relationship between the number of ferritin molecules analyzed and count rates. The experimental results are compared to the theoretically calculated Fe Kalpha yields and to the results of Isaacson and Johnson [(1975) Ultramicroscopy I, 33-52] with electron energy loss analysis. We conclude that current state of the art electron probe x-ray analysis can realize the theoretically predicted sensitivity of the method, and estimate 0.9 X 10(-19) g of Fe as the minimal mass detectable with maximal (thermionic) probe current during a 100-sec count and with 95% confidence. Images PMID:1063401

Shuman, H; Somlyo, A P

1976-01-01

2

X-ray diffraction-based electronic structure calculations and experimental x-ray analysis for medical and materials applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis includes x-ray experiments for medical and materials applications and the use of x-ray diffraction data in a first-principles study of electronic structures and hyperfine properties of chemical and biological systems. Polycapillary focusing lenses were used to collect divergent x rays emitted from conventional x-ray tubes and redirect them to form an intense focused beam. These lenses are routinely

Dip Narayan Mahato

2009-01-01

3

X-ray diffraction-based electronic structure calculations and experimental x-ray analysis for medical and materials applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis includes x-ray experiments for medical and materials applications and the use of x-ray diffraction data in a first-principles study of electronic structures and hyperfine properties of chemical and biological systems. Polycapillary focusing lenses were used to collect divergent x rays emitted from conventional x-ray tubes and redirect them to form an intense focused beam. These lenses are routinely used in microbeam x-ray fluorescence analysis. In this thesis, their potential application to powder diffraction and focused beam orthovoltage cancer therapy has been investigated. In conventional x-ray therapy, very high energy (˜ MeV) beams are used, partly to reduce the skin dose. For any divergent beam, the dose is necessarily highest at the entry point, and decays exponentially into the tissue. To reduce the skin dose, high energy beams, which have long absorption lengths, are employed, and rotated about the patient to enter from different angles. This necessitates large expensive specialized equipment. A focused beam could concentrate the dose within the patient. Since this is inherently skin dose sparing, lower energy photons could be employed. A primary concern in applying focused beams to therapy is whether the focus would be maintained despite Compton scattering within the tissue. To investigate this, transmission and focal spot sizes as a function of photon energy of two polycapillary focusing lenses were measured. The effects of tissue-equivalent phantoms of different thicknesses on the focal spot size were studied. Scatter fraction and depth dose were calculated. For powder diffraction, the polycapillary optics provide clean Gaussian peaks, which result in angular resolution that is much smaller than the peak width due to the beam convergence. Powder diffraction (also called coherent scatter) without optics can also be used to distinguish between tissue types that, because they have different nanoscale structures, scatter at different angles. Measurements were performed on the development of coherent scatter imaging to provide tissue type information in mammography. Atomic coordinates from x-ray diffraction data were used to study the nuclear quadrupole interactions and nature of molecular binding in DNA/RNA nucleobases and molecular solid BF3 systems.

Mahato, Dip Narayan

4

X-ray-spectroscopy analysis of electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of x-ray spectra emitted by highly charged ions in an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) may be used as a tool to estimate the charge-state distribution (CSD) in the source plasma. For that purpose, knowledge of the electron energy distribution in the plasma, as well as the most important processes leading to the creation and de-excitation of ionic excited states are needed. In this work we present a method to estimate the ion CSD in an ECRIS through the analysis of the x-ray spectra emitted by the plasma. The method is applied to the analysis of a sulfur ECRIS plasma.

Santos, J. P.; Martins, M. C.; Parente, F. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, CFA, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, P-2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Costa, A. M.; Marques, J. P. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, CFA, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, FCUL, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, P-1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Indelicato, P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite P. et M. Curie - Paris 6, Case 74, 4, place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris CEDEX 05 (France)

2010-12-15

5

Calcium measurements with electron probe X-ray and electron energy loss analysis.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a broad survey of the rationale for electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) and the various methods for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information on the distribution and amount of elements, particularly calcium, in cryopreserved cells and tissues. Essential in an introductory consideration of microanalysis in biological cryosections is the physical basis for the instrumentation, fundamentals of X-ray spectrometry, and various analytical modes such as static probing and X-ray imaging. Some common artifacts are beam damage and contamination. Inherent pitfalls of energy dispersive X-ray systems include Si escape peaks, doublets, background, and detector calibration shifts. Quantitative calcium analysis of thin cryosections is carried out in real time using a multiple least squares fitting program on filtered X-ray spectra and normalizing the calcium peak to a portion of the continuum. Recent work includes the development of an X-ray imaging system where quantitative data can be retrieved off-line. The minimum detectable concentration of calcium in biological cryosections is approximately 300 mumole kg dry weight with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 A. The application of electron energy loss (EELS) techniques to the detection of calcium offers the potential for greater sensitivity and spatial resolution in measurement and imaging. Determination of mass thickness with EELS can facilitate accurate calculation of wet weight concentrations from frozen hydrated and freeze-dried specimens. Calcium has multiple effects on cell metabolism, membrane transport and permeability and, thus, on overall cell physiology or pathophysiology. Cells can be rapidly frozen for EPXMA during basal or altered functional conditions to delineate the location and amount of calcium within cells and the changes in location and concentration of cations or anions accompanying calcium redistribution. Recent experiments in our laboratory document that EPXMA in combination with other biochemical and electrophysiological techniques can be used to study, for example, sodium and calcium compartmentation in cultured cardiac cells. Such analyses can also be used to clarify the role of calcium in anoxic renal cell injury and to evaluate proposed ionic defects in cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:2190819

LeFurgey, A; Ingram, P

1990-01-01

6

Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

1993-01-01

7

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Analysis of Light Elements with a Portable Electron Probe  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 © EPMA Analysis of Light IMASHUKU and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;45 191 EPMA Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 45, pp.191-195 (2014) 606-8501 EPMA Analysis of Light Elements with a Portable Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalyzer Using Pyroelectric

Jun, Kawai

8

12.141 Electron Microprobe Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, January (IAP) 2006  

E-print Network

Introduction to the theory of x-ray microanalysis through the electron microprobe including ZAF matrix corrections. Techniques to be discussed are wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning backscattered ...

Chatterjee, Nilanjan

9

12.141 Electron Microprobe Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, January IAP 2010  

E-print Network

This lab-oriented course introduces the student to the subject of X-ray spectrometry and micro-scale chemical quantitative analysis of solid samples through an intensive series of hands-on laboratory exercises that use the ...

Chatterjee, Nilanjan

2010-01-01

10

Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C. (Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium)); Vis, R.D. (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States)); Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Bowen, D.K. (Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom))

1991-01-01

11

Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C. [Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Vis, R.D. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bowen, D.K. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom)

1991-12-31

12

Fast Detection Allows Analysis of the Electronic Structure of Metalloprotein by X-ray Emission Spectroscopy at Room Temperature  

PubMed Central

The paradigm of “detection-before-destruction” was tested for a metalloprotein complex exposed at room temperature to the high x-ray flux typical of third generation synchrotron sources. Following the progression of the x-ray induced damage by Mn K? x-ray emission spectroscopy, we demonstrated the feasibility of collecting room temperature data on the electronic structure of native Photosystem II, a trans-membrane metalloprotein complex containing a Mn4Ca cluster. The determined non-damaging observation timeframe (about 100 milliseconds using continuous monochromatic beam, deposited dose 1*107 photons/µm2 or 1.3*104 Gy, and 66 microseconds in pulsed mode using pink beam, deposited dose 4*107 photons/µm2 or 4.2*104 Gy) is sufficient for the analysis of this protein’s electron dynamics and catalytic mechanism at room temperature. Reported time frames are expected to be representative for other metalloproteins. The described instrumentation, based on the short working distance dispersive spectrometer, and experimental methodology is broadly applicable to time-resolved x-ray emission analysis at synchrotron and x-ray free-electron laser light sources. PMID:22919444

Davis, Katherine M.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Zakharova, Taisiya; Brewe, Dale; Kosheleva, Irina; Henning, Robert W.; Graber, Timothy J.; Heald, Steve M.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Pushkar, Yulia

2012-01-01

13

Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

1992-01-01

14

Application of scanning electron microscopy to x-ray analysis of frozen- hydrated sections. I. Specimen handling techniques  

PubMed Central

X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissue sections permits direct quantitative analysis of diffusible elements in defined cellular compartments. Because the sections are hydrated, elemental concentrations can be defined as wet-weight mass fractions. Use of these techniques should also permit determination of water fraction in cellular compartments. Reliable preparative techniques provide flat, smooth, 0.5 micrometers-thick sections with little elemental and morphological disruption. The specimen support and transfer system described permits hydrated sections to be transferred to the scanning electron microscope cold stage for examination and analysis without contamination or water loss and without introduction of extraneous x- ray radiation. PMID:7204491

1981-01-01

15

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF TANK 18 SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) Performance Assessment (PA) utilizes waste speciation in the waste release model used in the FTF fate and transport modeling. The waste release modeling associated with the residual plutonium in Tank 18 has been identified as a primary contributor to the Tank 18 dose uncertainty. In order to reduce the uncertainty related to plutonium in Tank 18, a better understanding of the plutonium speciation in the Tank 18 waste (including the oxidation state and stoichiometry) is desired. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilized Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to analyze Tank 18 samples to provide information on the speciation of plutonium in the waste material. XRD analysis of the Tank 18 samples did not identify any plutonium mineral phases in the samples. These indicates the crystalline mineral phases of plutonium are below the detection limits of the XRD method or that the plutonium phase(s) lack long range order and are present as amorphous or microcrystalline solids. SEM analysis of the Tank 18 samples did locate particles containing plutonium. The plutonium was found as small particles, usually <1 {micro}m but ranging up to several micrometers in diameter, associated with particles of an iron matrix and at low concentration in other elemental matrices. This suggests the plutonium has an affinity for the iron matrix. Qualitatively, the particles of plutonium found in the SEM analysis do not appear to account for all of the plutonium in the sample based on concentrations determined from the chemical analysis of the Tank 18 samples. This suggests that plutonium is also distributed throughout the solids in low concentrations.

Hay, M.; O'Rourke, P.; Ajo, H.

2012-03-08

16

Comprehensive Study of Hydrated IDPs: X-Ray Diffraction, IR Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopic Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondritic hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) comprise up to 50% of all IDPs collected in the stratosphere(1). Although much is known about the mineralogy, chemistry and carbon abundance of hydrated IDPs (2-4) controversies still exist regarding their formation, history, and relationship to other primitive solar system materials. Hydrated IDPs are generally believed to be derived from asteroidal sources that have undergone some degree of aqueous alteration. However, the high C contents of hydrated IDPs (by 2 to 6X CI levels (3,4) indicate that they are probably not derived from the same parent bodies sampled by the known chondritic meteorites. We report the comprehensive study of individual hydrated IDPs. The strong depletion in Ca (I) has been used as a diagnostic feature of hydrated IDPs. The particles are embedded in elemental sulfur or low viscosity epoxy and ultramicrotomed thin sections are observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) followed by other measurements including: 1) FTIR microspectroscopy to understand the significant constraints on the organic functionality and the nature of the C-bearing phases and 2) powder X-ray difiaction using a synchrotron X-ray source to understand the bulk mineralogy of the particles.

Nakamura, K.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Nozaki, W.; Tomeoka, K.

2003-01-01

17

Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ({mu}-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

Janssens, K.; Adams, F. [Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-10-01

18

Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ([mu]-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

Janssens, K.; Adams, F. (Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry); Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

19

Growth and trends in Auger-electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A perspective is given of the development and use of surface analysis, primarily by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), for solving scientific and technological problems. Information is presented on growth and trends in instrumental capabilities, instrumental measurements with reduced uncertainties, knowledge of surface sensitivity, and knowledge and effects of sample morphology. Available analytical resources are described for AES, XPS, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Finally, the role of the American Vacuum Society in stimulating improved surface analyses is discussed.

Powell, C. J.

2003-09-01

20

X-RAY ANALYSIS BY ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY (*) Groupe de Spectroscopie Electronique,  

E-print Network

carbon film (conver- ter) illuminated by X-rays emitted by an aluminium- magnesium anode. For further spectrum obtained with a carbon converter irradiated by a Mg-Al alloy anode. instead of the classical-ray photoelectron microscopy and spectroscopy (I) : (D aluminium anode (2) spe- cimen ; b) for XAES : (T) specimen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

21

X-ray Analysis of Unknown Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use X-ray analysis to identify unknown minerals. They are given two samples to grind up and X-ray, using Jade to identify them. Once the minerals are identified, students make a spreadsheet and do a series of calculations.

Dexter Perkins

22

ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

2010-09-01

23

Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis  

SciTech Connect

X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-12-31

24

Forensic analysis of soil and sediment traces by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis: An experimental investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a series of experiments carried out to determine the precision of soil trace comparisons based on elemental peak height ratios determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXRA) in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Experiments were conducted on ‘bulk’ soil aggregates, ground powders prepared from the <150?m soil fractions and on smears of both

Kenneth Pye; Debra Croft

2007-01-01

25

STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAX (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSOPY WITH AUTOMATED IMAGE ANALYSIS AND X-RAY ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY) RESULTS FOR RECEPTOR MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hundreds of thousands of individual particle measurements may be accumulated in a receptor model study employing Scanning electron microscopy with Automated image analysis and X-ray energy spectroscopy (SAX). At present, the summaries of these data are utilized in apportionment c...

26

Studies on x-ray and UV emissions in electron cyclotron resonance x-ray sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source is constructed based on the ECR technique. In this paper, the possibility of using the ECR x-ray source for producing UV rays by optimizing the plasma parameters is explored. X-ray and UV emissions from the ECR x-ray source are carried out for argon, nitrogen, and CO2 plasma. The x-ray spectral and dose measurements are carried with NaI(Tl) based spectrometer and dosimeter, respectively. For UV measurement, a quartz window arrangement is made at the exit port and the UV intensity is measured at 5cm from the quartz plate using UV meter. The x-ray and UV emissions are carried out for different microwave power levels and gas pressures. The x-ray emission is observed in the pressure range ?10-5Torr, whereas the UV emission is found to be negligible for the gas pressures <10-5Torr and it starts increasing in the pressure range between 10-5 and 10-3Torr. At high-pressure range, collision frequency of electron-atom is large which leads to the higher UV flux. At low pressure, the electron-atom collision frequency is low and hence the electrons reach high energy and by hitting the cavity wall produces higher x-ray flux. By choosing proper experimental conditions and plasma gas species, the same source can be used as either an x-ray source or an UV source.

Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S.

2008-02-01

27

Advances in X-ray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of X-ray fluorescence are presented in these proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference on Applications of X-Ray Analysis (Denver, Colorado, August 3-7, 1981). The papers are concerned with XRF detectors and XRF instrumentation, XRF applications (mineral and geological), XRF applications (metals, catalysts, oils), XRF environmental applications, XRF search\\/match procedures and automation, XRD methods and instrumentation, and XRD applications.

J. C. Russ; C. S. Barrett; D. C. Leyden; P. K. Predecki

1982-01-01

28

VETA-I x ray test analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This interim report presents some definitive results from our analysis of the VETA-I x-ray testing data. It also provides a description of the hardware and software used in the conduct of the VETA-I x-ray test program performed at the MSFC x-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). These test results also serve to supply data and information to include in the TRW final report required by DPD 692, DR XC04. To provide an authoritative compendium of results, we have taken nine papers as published in the SPIE Symposium, 'Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Projection Lithography' and have reproduced them as the content of this report.

Brissenden, R. J. V.; Chartas, G.; Freeman, M. D.; Hughes, J. P.; Kellogg, E. M.; Podgorski, W. A.; Schwartz, D. A.; Zhao, P.

1992-01-01

29

Proton induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams for soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and selective x-ray fluorescence analysis  

SciTech Connect

We present the analytical features and performance of an x-ray spectroscopy end station of moderate energy resolution operating with proton-induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams. The apparatus was designed, installed and operated at the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG Accelerator Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos,' Athens. The setup includes a two-level ultrahigh vacuum chamber that hosts in the lower level up to six primary targets in a rotatable holder; there, the irradiation of pure element materials-used as primary targets-with few-MeV high current ({approx}{mu}A) proton beams produces intense quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams of selectable energy. In the chamber's upper level, a six-position rotatable sample holder hosts the targets considered for x-ray spectroscopy studies. The proton-induced x-ray beam, after proper collimation, is guided to the sample position whereas various filters can be also inserted along the beam's path to eliminate the backscattered protons or/and to absorb selectively components of the x-ray beam. The apparatus incorporates an ultrathin window Si(Li) spectrometer (FWHM 136 eV at 5.89 keV) coupled with low-noise electronics capable of efficiently detecting photons down to carbon K{alpha}. Exemplary soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and results of selective x-ray fluorescence analysis are presented.

Sokaras, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Zarkadas, Ch. [PANalytical B.V., 7600 AA Almelo (Netherlands); Fliegauf, R.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Karydas, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2012-12-15

30

Muscle cell membranes from early degeneration muscle cell fibers in Solenopsis are leaky to lanthanum: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanum infusion techniques, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis were utilized to compare the permeability of muscle cell membranes from normal and degenerating muscle fibers of Solenopsis spp. In normal fibers, the electron-dense tracer was limited to components of the sarcotubular system. However, the insemination-induced degeneration of muscle fibers was characterized by the presence of an electron-dense precipitate within the myofibrils and mitochondria as well as in the extramyofibrillar spaces. The electron-dense material was subsequently identified by elemental analysis to be lanthanum. Such data indicate that one of the earliest stages of muscle degeneration involves an alteration in cell membrane permeability.

Jones, R.G.; Davis, W.L.

1985-06-01

31

The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey. II. X-ray spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present a spectral analysis of a new, flux-limited sample of 72 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies identified with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite down to a flux limit of ~10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 (SWXCS). We carry out a detailed X-ray spectral analysis with the twofold aim of measuring redshifts and characterizing the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) for the majority of the SWXCS sources. Methods: Optical counterparts and spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for some of the sources are obtained with a cross-correlation with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Additional photometric redshifts are computed with a dedicated follow-up program with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and a cross-correlation with the SDSS. In addition, we also blindly search for the Hydrogen-like and He-like iron K? emission line complex in the X-ray spectrum. We detect the iron emission lines in 35% of the sample, and hence obtain a robust measure of the X-ray redshift zX with typical rms error 1-5%. We use zX whenever the optical redshift is not available. Finally, for all the sources with measured redshift, background-subtracted spectra are fitted with a single-temperature mekal model to measure global temperature, X-ray luminosity and iron abundance of the ICM. We perform extensive spectral simulations to accounts for fitting bias, and to assess the robustness of our results. We derive a criterion to select reliable best-fit models and an empirical formula to account for fitting bias. The bias-corrected values are then used to investigate the scaling properties of the X-ray observables. Results: Overall, we are able to characterize the ICM of 46 sources with redshifts (64% of the sample). The sample is mostly constituted by clusters with temperatures between 3 and 10 keV, plus 14 low-mass clusters and groups with temperatures below 3 keV. The redshift distribution peaks around z ~ 0.25 and extends up to z ~ 1, with 60% of the sample at 0.1 < z < 0.4. We derive the luminosity-temperature relation for these 46 sources, finding good agreement with previous studies. Conclusions: Thanks to the good X-ray spectral quality and the low background of Swift/XRT, we are able to measure ICM temperatures and X-ray luminosities for the 46 sources with redshifts. Once redshifts are available for the remaining 26 sources, this sample will constitute a well-characterized, flux-limited catalog of clusters distributed over a broad redshift range (0.1 ? z ? 1.0) providing a statistically complete view of the cluster population with a selection function that allows a proper treatment of any measurement bias. The quality of the SWXCS sample is comparable to other samples available in the literature and obtained with much larger X-ray telescopes. Our results have interesting implications for the design of future X-ray survey telescopes, characterized by good-quality PSF over the entire field of view and low background. Tables 1 and 2 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgCatalog and data products of SWXCS, constantly updated, are made available to the public through the websites http://www.arcetri.astro.it/SWXCS/ and http://swxcs.ustc.edu.cn/

Tozzi, P.; Moretti, A.; Tundo, E.; Liu, T.; Rosati, P.; Borgani, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; D'Avanzo, P.

2014-07-01

32

Independent Component Analysis for Removing X-ray Scatter in X-ray Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cone beam CT has a capability for the 3-dimensional imaging of large volumes with isotropic resolution. But the main limitation of cone beam CT is a larger amount of X-ray scatter. The X-ray scatter may enhance the noise in the reconstructed images. In this paper, we propose a new method based on independent component analysis (ICA) for removing the X-ray

Yen-Wei Chen; Xianhua Han; Shiro Oikawa; Akinori Fujita

2007-01-01

33

Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.  

PubMed

Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. PMID:25553413

Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

2015-03-01

34

Numerical simulation of electron-impact x-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron-impact x-ray sources will be used to calibrate the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), and models of the source x-ray spectra are necessary in forecasting the calibration performance. We simulate the spectra of x-ray lines and continuum (0.1 - 13 keV) arising from electron impact on solid targets. We use simple models for electron transport, line and continuum emissivities, and radiative transport through the target. The electrons are attenuated in energy in the target but are unscattered in direction. The continuum x-ray emission is modeled as bremsstrahlung, and the characteristic x-ray line emission is modeled by electron collisional ionization followed by radiative decay to form the lines. X-ray attenuation is also included in the radiative transfer through the target. Multilayer or compound targets can be easily treated. We compare the spectra produced by this model to the model of Pella et al. and data from metal targets.

Sulkanen, Martin E.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Chartas, George

1995-06-01

35

Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

Fridriksson, Joel Karl

2011-01-01

36

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Portable X-Ray Reflectometer Using  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 © X X Portable X-Ray Reflectometer Using a Low Power Polychromatic X-Ray Tube Tsunemasa OHNISHI, Susumu IMASHUKU, Koretaka YUGE, Jun KAWAI and Naomi SHIMURA #12;#12;45 211 X X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 45, pp.211-215 (2014) 606

Jun, Kawai

37

Forensic analysis of soil and sediment traces by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis: an experimental investigation.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a series of experiments carried out to determine the precision of soil trace comparisons based on elemental peak height ratios determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXRA) in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Experiments were conducted on 'bulk' soil aggregates, ground powders prepared from the <150 microm soil fractions and on smears of both the bulk soil and <150 microm material placed on cotton cloth. X-ray count data were obtained using area scans and spot analyses at different magnifications. The effects on elemental peak height ratios of varying the SEM chamber pressure, beam spot size, emission current and accelerating voltage were also examined. The peak height ratios for oxygen, silicon, aluminium, potassium, calcium and iron were found to show little variation as a function of chamber pressure, spot size and emission current over the ranges examined, but a strong dependency on accelerating voltage was observed. Within-sample variation in results, expressed by the percentage coefficient of variation, was found to be lowest for area scan analyses of the ground <150 microm fractions and greatest for the spot analyses of the bulk soil aggregates and the <150 microm fractions. We conclude that comparison of elemental peak height ratios determined by EDXRA can be a useful tool for rapid screening of soil samples, especially when combined with investigation of other attributes of the soil traces such as colour, fabric and the composition, shapes and surface textures of individual particles or aggregates within the soil traces. If sufficient material is available and can be readily separated without contamination or loss, higher resolution and more precise elemental data should be obtained by methods such as inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) or mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). PMID:16621381

Pye, Kenneth; Croft, Debra

2007-01-01

38

Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis  

SciTech Connect

The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has led to a significant increase in activity in many areas of science dealing with the interaction of x-rays with matter. Synchrotron radiation provides intense, linearly polarized, naturally collimated, continuously tunable photon beams, which are used to determine not only the elemental composition of a complex, polyatomic, dilute material but also the chemical form of the elements with improved accuracy. Examples of the application of synchrotron radiation include experiments in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. New synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobes for elemental analysis in the parts per billion range are under construction at several laboratories. 76 references, 24 figures.

Chen, J.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

1984-01-01

39

Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33 nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the Nsbnd CH3 functional group about 2850 cm-1 is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field.

Habibi, Neda

2015-02-01

40

Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis.  

PubMed

The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the NCH3 functional group about 2850cm(-1) is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field. PMID:25459705

Habibi, Neda

2014-10-22

41

X-ray atomic orbital analysis of 4f and 5d electron configuration of SmB6 at 100, 165, 230 and 298 K.  

PubMed

Accurate electron-density measurement of SmB(6) at 100, 165, 230 and 298 K, and X-ray atomic orbital (XAO) analysis were carried out. The 4f-electron density around Sm and 5d electron density at approximately 1 A from Sm were analysed by XAO analysis. The 5d electron density is due to the electrons of the 5d(J = 5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals which stem from the e(g) orbitals in the strong field approximation. The change in electron populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals with temperature is similar to that of the resistivity. Since the conduction band consists of 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) and B-2p orbitals according to band theory, this indicates that the larger populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals correspond to the larger number of localized electrons and are correlated to the resistivity of SmB(6). The occupation of the bulky 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals may be the reason for the elongation of the lattice parameter below 150 K. The 4f(7/2)Gamma(6) orbitals are obviously occupied except at 100 K, which seems to be caused by the energy gap between 4f(5/2) and 4f(7/2) states, which begins to exist between 100 and 150 K, and may represent one of the properties of a Kondo insulator. PMID:20484800

Funahashi, Shiro; Tanaka, Kiyoaki; Iga, Fumitoshi

2010-06-01

42

Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating various approaches to minimize the x-ray source size on the Flash X-Ray (FXR) linear induction accelerator in order to improve x-ray flux and increase resolution for hydrodynamic radiography experiments. In order to effectively gauge improvements to final x-ray source size, a fast, robust, and accurate system for measuring the spot size is required. Timely feedback on x-ray source size allows new and improved accelerator tunes to be deployed and optimized within the limited run-time constraints of a production facility with a busy experimental schedule; in addition, time-resolved measurement capability allows the investigation of not only the time-averaged source size, but also the evolution of the source size, centroid position, and x-ray dose throughout the 70 ns beam pulse. Combined with time-resolved measurements of electron beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and current, key limiting factors can be identified, modeled, and optimized for the best possible spot size. Roll-bar techniques are a widely used method for x-ray source size measurement, and have been the method of choice at FXR for many years. A thick bar of tungsten or other dense metal with a sharp edge is inserted into the path of the x-ray beam so as to heavily attenuate the lower half of the beam, resulting in a half-light, half-dark image as seen downstream of the roll-bar; by measuring the width of the transition from light to dark across the edge of the roll-bar, the source size can be deduced. For many years, film has been the imaging medium of choice for roll-bar measurements thanks to its high resolution, linear response, and excellent contrast ratio. Film measurements, however, are fairly cumbersome and require considerable setup and analysis time; moreover, with the continuing trend towards all-electronic measurement systems, film is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to procure. Here, we shall discuss an x-ray source size measurement system which utilizes a traditional roll-bar setup combined with a high resolution gated CCD camera, fast-response organic plastic scintillator, and image processing and analysis software, which is executable on a standard PC running which is executable on a standard PC running LabVIEW and Matlab. Analysis time is reduced from several hours to several minutes, while our experimental results demonstrate good agreement with both traditional film-based roll-bar measurements as well as the entirely unrelated technique of x-ray pinhole camera measurements; in addition, our time-resolved measurements show a significant variation in source size throughout the 70 ns beam pulse, a phenomenon which requires further investigation and indicates the possibility of greatly improving final spot size.

Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

2005-07-21

43

Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser.  

PubMed

Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

Schulz, S; Grguraš, I; Behrens, C; Bromberger, H; Costello, J T; Czwalinna, M K; Felber, M; Hoffmann, M C; Ilchen, M; Liu, H Y; Mazza, T; Meyer, M; Pfeiffer, S; Pr?dki, P; Schefer, S; Schmidt, C; Wegner, U; Schlarb, H; Cavalieri, A L

2015-01-01

44

Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Pr?dki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

2015-01-01

45

Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser  

PubMed Central

Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30?fs r.m.s. for 90?fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Pr?dki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

2015-01-01

46

Structural and electron density changes in dense guest-host systems: Analysis of X-ray diffraction data by the Rietveld and Maximum Entropy Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When studying the high-pressure structural behavior of crystalline materials, it is highly desirable to determine structural changes accurately, preferably at electron density levels. The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) has already proven to be a very powerful tool for extracting the most probable charge density distributions directly from X-ray diffraction data. This thesis presents high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on two distinct, but structurally similar, classes of guest-host materials: gas clathrate hydrates (M8(H2O)46, with M= Kr, Xe) and silicon clathrate (Ba8Si46). In order to characterize the change of crystalline structure and electron distribution resulting from the increase of density due to the application of high pressure, we have used a recently developed approach wherein the classical Rietveld analysis is complemented iteratively with MEM calculations. It is found that charge density distributions derived from probability maps obtained by MEM provide further, in-depth insights into the structural changes induced by pressure in guest-host compounds. Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds, in which guest atoms or molecules are trapped in cages formed by an ice-like host lattice of water molecules. In recent years, large deposits of methane hydrate (a clathrate hydrate) have been found on the oceanic floors, leading to a considerable interest in the physical properties of gas hydrates. In the present study the crystalline structure I of xenon and krypton hydrates was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction at room temperature, over the pressure ranges for which these compounds are stable. Structure I, which has a cubic symmetry with Pm3n space group, is formed by two types of polyhedron, also referred to as small and large cages. The pressure dependence of the structural parameters was determined by applying a Rietveld analysis to the X-ray diffraction data. To further explore the effect of pressure on the guest atoms and the water molecule framework, we used the combined Rietveld/MEM method to derive the most probable charge density distributions at each pressure. Our results show that the charge density distribution of the encaged atoms differs depending on the type of the host cage, small or large, at all pressures. Spherical density distributions were observed for the guest atoms in the small cages, while the atoms in the large cages showed longitudinal elongated electronic distributions. These findings are common to both Kr and Xe hydrates. Along with the observed cage deformations, this is a clear indication that the guest-host interaction differs significantly between the small and large cages at high pressures. A similar behavior has been previously reported in low-temperature studies of methane clathrate hydrate. The combined Rietveld/MEM method was also successfully applied to explore the subtle changes in the electronic density distribution induced in Ba 8Si46 clathrate by the application of high pressure. This compound has been the object of extensive studies since its superconductivity has been discovered. Previous X-ray diffraction, near-edge X-ray absorption, and Raman spectroscopy studies have revealed two iso-structural phase transitions occurring at 5 and 17 GPa in Ba8Si46; their physical origin, however, was still not clearly understood. In our study, the most probable electron density distributions were calculated using the combined Rietveld/MEM method, with the goal to propose possible mechanisms for the two observed transitions. The examination of the electron density maps, and also electron density difference distributions, revealed that the low pressure transition is related to an enhanced charge transfer of Ba atoms to the Si framework, while the 17 GPa transition is a result of a sudden change in the electron density topology of the Si-Si bonds. As the pressure is increased, the electrons in the Si-Si bonds are displaced from the bonding region into the interstitial region, leading to a weakening of the Si-Si bonds, which explains the large volume reduction accompanying thi

Flacau, Roxana Ioana

2007-12-01

47

Bremsstrahlung X-rays from Jovian auroral electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of X-rays from the planet Jupiter is calculated according to an auroral electron beam model. The electrons are assumed to be accelerated by a field-aligned potential drop and penetrate into the atmosphere as a Maxwellian beam of primaries which are scattered, degraded in energy, and merged with a population of ionization secondaries having a power law energy distribution. The soft X-rays observed by the Einstein Observatory satellite are due to bremsstrahlung from the secondary electrons in the H2 atmosphere. The X-ray intensity is best reconciled with a beam of primaries having a characteristic energy 30-100 keV and penetrating the homopause with an auroral energy flux typically of 10-20 ergs/sq cm s but no greater than 50 ergs/sq cm s.

Barbosa, D. D.

1990-09-01

48

fSurface analysis with XRay Photoelectron SpectroscopyX Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

.com) #12;L1 or 2s 2p K or 1s photoelectron X-Rays K or 1s Ek=Eb-h ­ spek b spe Kinetic energy Binding of energies #12;Detector V Avalanche effect: gains of 107-108 electrons #12;XPS spectrum of chromate coatingfSurface analysis with XRay Photoelectron SpectroscopyX Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Marta

Shoubridge, Eric

49

Parametric X-ray radiation along relativistic electron velocity in asymmetric Laue geometry  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of the parametric X-ray radiation emitted by a relativistic electron at a small angle to its velocity as it passes through a single-crystal plate in asymmetric Laue geometry (including symmetric geometry as a particular case). Expressions describing the spectral-angular distributions of parametric X-ray radiation, transition radiation, and their interference are obtained. The effect of asymmetry on the spectral-angular distributions is examined.

Blazhevich, S. V. [Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Noskov, A. V., E-mail: noskovbupk@mail.r [Belgorod University of Consumers' Cooperation (Russian Federation)

2009-12-15

50

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis and scanning electron microscopic observation of the lithium surface immersed in nonaqueous solvents  

SciTech Connect

The lithium surface immersed in various electrolytes for 10 min or 3 days was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The lithium surface was covered with the native film which consists of Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3], LiOH, and Li[sub 2]O. During the immersion of lithium in propylene carbonate or [gamma]-butyrolactone containing 1.0 mol dm[sup [minus]3] LiBF[sub 4] or LiPF[sub 6], the native film reacted with the impurities in the electrolyte to form LiF. However the native film remains after the immersion of lithium in electrolyte for 10 min. The surface film of lithium immersed in propylene carbonate or [gamma]-butyrolactone containing 1.0 mol dm[sup [minus]3] LiPF[sub 6] for 3 days was different from those immersed in propylene carbonate or [gamma]-butyrolactone containing 1.0 mol dm[sup [minus]3] LiBF[sub 4]. The surface film immersed in electrolyte containing LiPF[sub 6] for 3 days has a bilayer structure which consists of LiF and Li[sub 2]O. This surface film seemed to be dense and thin. In the electrolyte containing LiBF[sub 4], the lithium surface was covered with a porous layer of LiF. The morphology of lithium deposited on a lithium surface immersed in electrolyte containing 1.0 mol dm[sup [minus]3] LiPF[sub 6] for 3 days was semi-spherical. Typical dendrites were observed on lithium surfaces immersed in electrolyte containing LiBF[sub 4] for 3 days. Moreover the lithium dendrite was formed on lithium surface immersed in electrolyte for 10 min. From these results, it can be said that the surface state of lithium is strongly related to the morphology of lithium.

Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Shiraishi, Soshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takehara, Zenichiro (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Division of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry)

1994-09-01

51

Molecular imaging using X-ray free-electron lasers.  

PubMed

The opening of hard X-ray free-electron laser facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, has ushered in a new era in structural determination. With X-ray pulse durations down to 10 fs or shorter, and up to 10(13) transversely coherent photons per pulse in a narrow spectral bandwidth, focused irradiances of 10(18) to 10(21) W cm(-2) or higher can be produced at X-ray energies ranging from 500 eV to 10 keV. New techniques for determining the structure of systems that cannot be crystallized and for studying the time-resolved behavior of irreversible reactions at femtosecond timescales are now available. PMID:23331310

Barty, Anton; Küpper, Jochen; Chapman, Henry N

2013-01-01

52

HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA  

SciTech Connect

We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-07-20

53

ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

2004-08-02

54

Remote X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The legacy of planetary X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) began in 1960 when W. Parish proposed an XRD instrument for deployment on the moon. The instrument was built and flight qualified, but the Lunar XRD program was cancelled shortly before the first human landing in 1969. XRF chemical data have been collected in situ by surface landers on Mars (Viking 1 & 2, Pathfinder) and Venus (Venera 13 & 14). These highly successful experiments provide critical constraints on our current understanding of surface processes and planetary evolution. However, the mineralogy, which is more critical to planetary surface science than simple chemical analysis, will remain unknown or will at best be imprecisely constrained until X-ray diffraction (XRD) data are collected. Recent progress in X-ray detector technology allows the consideration of simultaneous XRD (mineralogic analysis) and high-precision XRF (elemental analysis) in systems miniaturized to the point where they can be mounted on fixed landers or small robotic rovers. There is a variety of potential targets for XRD/XRF equipped landers within the solar system, the most compelling of which are the poles of the moon, the southern highlands of Mars and Europa.

Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

55

The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey III: X-ray spectral analysis  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We present a spectral analysis of a new, flux-limited sample of 72 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies identified with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite down to a flux limit of ~10-14 erg/s/cm2 (SWXCS, Tundo et al. 2012). We carry out a detailed X-ray spectral analysis with the twofold aim of measuring redshifts and characterizing the properties of the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM). Optical counterparts and spectroscopic or photometric redshifts are obtained with a cross-correlation with NED. Additional photometric redshifts are computed with a dedicated follow-up program with the TNG and a cross-correlation with the SDSS. We also detect the iron emission lines in 35% of the sample, and hence obtain a robust measure of the X-ray redshift zX. We use zX whenever the optical redshift is not available. Finally, for all the sources with measured redshift, background-subtracted spectra are fitted with a mekal model. We perform extensive spectral simulations to derive an empirical formul...

Tozzi, P; Tundo, E; Liu, T; Rosati, P; Borgani, S; Tagliaferri, G; Campana, S; Fugazza, D; D'Avanzo, P

2014-01-01

56

Chemical Shifts in X-ray and Photo-Electron Spectroscopy: A Historical review  

E-print Network

Chemical Shifts in X-ray and Photo-Electron Spectroscopy: A Historical review Ingvar Lindgren 1 Introduction 2 2 Chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy 2 2.1 Discovery of the chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Interpretation of the chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy

Lindgren, Ingvar

57

A case of hut lung: scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of a domestically acquired form of pneumoconiosis.  

PubMed

Hut lung is a pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to smoke derived from biomass fuels used for cooking in poorly ventilated huts. We report, to our knowledge, the first analysis of the dust deposited in the lungs in hut lung by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). A Bhutanese woman presented with shortness of breath and an abnormal chest radiograph. Chest CT scan showed innumerable tiny bilateral upper lobe centrilobular nodules. Transbronchial biopsy revealed mild interstitial fibrosis with heavy interstitial deposition of black dust. SEM/EDS showed that the dust was carbonaceous, with smaller yet substantial numbers of silica and silicate particles. Additional history revealed use of a wood/coal-fueled stove in a small, poorly ventilated hut for 45 years. The possibility of hut lung should be considered in women from countries where use of biomass-fueled stoves for cooking is common. Our findings support the classification of this condition as a mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. PMID:23880681

Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Gujral, Manmeet; Abraham, Jerrold L; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Iannuzzi, Michael C

2013-07-01

58

Uncertainty estimates for electron probe X-ray microanalysis measurements.  

PubMed

It has been over 60 years since Castaing (Castaing, R. Application of Electron Probes to Local Chemical and Crystallographic Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Paris, Paris, France, 1951; translated by P. Duwez and D. Wittry, California Institute of Technology, 1955) introduced the technique of electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), yet the community remains unable to quantify some of the largest terms in the technique's uncertainty budget. Historically, the EPMA community has assigned uncertainties to its measurements which reflect the measurement precision portion of the uncertainty budget and omitted terms related to the measurement accuracy. Yet, in many cases, the precision represents only a small fraction of the total budget. This paper addresses this shortcoming by considering two significant sources of uncertainty in the quantitative matrix correction models--the mass absorption coefficient, [?/?], and the backscatter coefficient, ?. Understanding the influence of these sources provides insight into the utility of EPMA measurements, and equally important, it allows practitioners to develop strategies to optimize measurement accuracy by minimizing the influence of poorly known model parameters. PMID:23088729

Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E

2012-11-20

59

Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO3 sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

Patt, M.; Wiemann, C.; Weber, N.; Escher, M.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Merkel, M.; Schneider, C. M.

2014-11-01

60

Evidence for beamed electrons in a limb X-ray flare observed by Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limb flare of November 18, 1980, 14:51 UT, was investigated on the basis of X-ray images taken by the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) and of X-ray spectra from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) aboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The impulsive burst was also recorded at microwave frequencies between 2 and 20 GHz whereas no optical flare and no radio event at frequencies below 1 GHz were reported. The flare occurred directly at the SW limb of the solar disk. Taking advantage of the spatial resolution of HXIS images, the time evolution of the X-radiation originating from relatively small source regions can be studied. Using Monte Carlo computations of the energy distribution of energetic electrons traversing the solar plasma, the bremsstrahlung spectra produced by the electrons were derived.

Haug, Eberhard; Elwert, Gerhard

1986-01-01

61

Electron Microscopy and X-ray Analysis of Cr-Containing Precipitates Synthesized by Newly Isolated Actinobacterium, Flexivirga alba ST13(T.).  

PubMed

Chromium(Cr) precipitate synthesized by Cr(VI)-reducing bacterium Flexivirga alba ST13(T) was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The strain showed altered-morphology after exposing to Cr(VI) in minimal medium. The resultant precipitate included bacterial pellet and needle-like structure which was similar to the structure made from Cr(OH)3 precipitate. Cr was observed in bacterial cells using TEM-EDX. Bacteria with high electron density showed the precipitation of Ca in addition to Cr. The isolated strain would be useful to precipitate Cr from Cr(VI)-containing environment. PMID:24891744

Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

2014-09-01

62

Characterization of AN Electron-Cyclotron - Mirror Plasma as a Soft X-Ray Source for X-Ray Lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists an international race to reduce the linewidths of integrated circuits to the sub-micron level. The results of this race are likely to have a strong impact on both the economic and military independence of this country as our society relies more and more heavily on highly sophisticated electronic equipment in our daily lives and in the defense of the country. One of the leading technologies in attaining sub-micron linewidths is x-ray lithography. Results from the ECRIAXS computer code have suggested that a laboratory-sized electron-cyclotron-resonance -heated mirror plasma may be a viable source for x-ray lithography. This work attempts to investigate this suggestion. A foil-filtered x-ray PIN diode and an x-ray pinhole camera have been used to measure x-ray intensities from krypton and neon plasma. The spatially resolved spectral density of the negatives from the x-ray pinhole camera has been measured. A film modeling code (FILM) has been written which predicts the film response. The code includes the integrated spectral response of the film to plasma x-ray emission that has been filtered by a beryllium foil filter. The PIN diode also yields electron temperatures for the plasmas (T_{rm e} ~ 1.3-4.0 keV). The intensity measurements are compared to computations from the ECRIAXS code. The measurements of the spectrally integrated x-ray intensity are supplemented by the measurement of plasma parameters that can be directly compared with some of the ECRIAXS code outputs. It has been found that the plasma densities that are predicted by the code (e.g. 1.75 times 10^{12 } cm^{-3}) are significantly higher than the experimental measurements (e.g. 4.5 times 10^ {11} cm^{-3} ). Modifications to the code can explain some of the discrepancies; however, the results are reliable only to within an order of magnitude.

Goodman, Timothy Paul

63

A technique for calibrating an electron-beam evaporator x-ray source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electron-beam metal evaporator was modified to act as an x-ray source for simulating x-ray lithography induced radiation damage in semiconductor devices. Besides x-rays, such a set-up generates secondary and backscattered electrons. Simulation of radiation damage induced during a typical x-ray lithography processing step requires that secondary and backscattered electrons be removed from the incident radiation. A common method to

Robert J. Kinzig

1991-01-01

64

Corneal silver deposits following Crede's prophylaxis an examination with electron dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX-analysis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)  

SciTech Connect

In a case of silver nitrate injury after Crede's prophylaxis, the cornea of a newborn presented yellow-brown, lime-like plaques on the nasal part of the right eye. A paracentral ulcerating stromal opacification undermined these appositions, when the patient was admitted to the eye-clinic at Aachen. In the material obtained by a lamellar keratectomy scanning electron microscopical examination was able to prove the existence of granules, previously described in light-microscopy. These granules measured 100 to 300 nm in diameter. An earlier chemical analysis of necrotic material showed no silver specific reaction. By means of EDX-analysis these granules could be identified as silver-containing. Injuries by silver nitrate solutions used for Crede's prophylaxis are seldom but still reported. The mechanism of injury in this case of a child, born by sectio remains unknown. Neither the use of an unusual silver nitrate solution, that was taken from a disposable ampoule (Mova-Nitrat R) was reported, nor any corneal injury during sectio mentioned. Nevertheless the method of EDX-analysis and SEM proved the diagnosis of corneal silver deposits, so that the origin of the granullar opacification of the cornea could be determined.

Schirner, G.; Schrage, N.F.; Salla, S.; Teping, C.; Reim, M.; Burchard, W.G.; Schwab, B. (Augenklinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany))

1990-01-01

65

Femtosecond Nanocrystallography with X-ray Free-Electron Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrafast pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers have opened up a new form of protein nanocrystallography. The X-ray pulses are of high enough intensity and of sufficiently short duration that individual single-shot diffraction patterns can be obtained from a sample before significant damage occurs. This "diffraction before destruction" method may enable the determination of structures of proteins that cannot be grown into large enough crystals or are too radiation sensitive for high- resolution crystallography. Ultrafast pump-probe studies of photoinduced dynamics can also be studied. We have carried out experiments in coherent diffraction from protein nanocrystals, including Photosystem I membrane protein, at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. The crystals are filtered to sizes less than 2 micron, and are delivered to the pulsed X-ray beam in a continuously flowing liquid jet. Millions of diffraction patterns were recorded at the LCLS repetition rate of 60 Hz. Tens of thousands of the single-shot diffraction patterns have been indexed, and combined into a single crystal diffraction pattern, which can be phased for structure determination and analysed for the effects of pulse duration and fluence. Experimental data collection was carried out as part of a large collaboration involving CFEL DESY, Arizona State University, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, University of Uppsala, SLAC, LBNL, LLNL, using the CAMP apparatus which was designed and built by the Max Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL.

Chapman, Henry

2011-03-01

66

Coherent electron beam density modulator for driving X-ray free electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new compact scheme for a Free Electron Laser with more coherent properties for the X-ray beam. Higher FEL performance would be achieved using a train of electron bunches initially accelerated in a linear accelerator. Similar to the RF klystron concept, we propose developing an X-ray FEL which consists of two parts: an X-ray self-seeding electron beam density modulator and an output set of undulators. A density modulator consists of a low-Q X-ray cavity and an undulator, which is placed between the cavity mirrors. We use this undulator as a very high gain amplifier, which compensates the amplitude loss due to monochromatic X-ray reflections from the mirrors. Following the X-ray cavity, the density modulated electron beam is separated from the X-ray beam and then enters the output set of undulators. The frequency spectrum of the final X-ray beam is determined mainly by the bandwidth of the reflected elements in the X-ray cavity.

Novokhatski, A.; Decker, F.-J.; Hettel, B.; Nosochkov, Yu.; Sullivan, M.

2015-02-01

67

University of California electron and X-ray experiments on ISEE-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of the University of California solar and interplanetary electron experiment and the solar X-ray experiment is outlined, and the two instruments used are described. The roles of personnel are mentioned and the data analysis projects completed or begun are summarized. A bibliography is included.

Anderson, K. A.

1981-01-01

68

Limitations of ZAF correction factors in the determination of calcium\\/phosphorus ratios: Important forensic science considerations relevant to the analysis of bone fragments using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of calcium phosphate standards having calcium\\/phosphorus (Ca\\/P) molar ratios of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 1.67, respectively, was prepared for bulk specimen analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The standards were mounted on carbon planchettes as either pure crystals or crystals embedded in epoxy resin. Ten different samples of each embedded and non-embedded standard

C. M. Payne; D. W. Cromey

1990-01-01

69

Miniature, low-power X-ray tube using a microchannel electron generator electron source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Embodiments of the invention provide a novel, low-power X-ray tube and X-ray generating system. Embodiments of the invention use a multichannel electron generator as the electron source, thereby increasing reliability and decreasing power consumption of the X-ray tube. Unlike tubes using a conventional filament that must be heated by a current power source, embodiments of the invention require only a voltage power source, use very little current, and have no cooling requirements. The microchannel electron generator comprises one or more microchannel plates (MCPs), Each MCP comprises a honeycomb assembly of a plurality of annular components, which may be stacked to increase electron intensity. The multichannel electron generator used enables directional control of electron flow. In addition, the multichannel electron generator used is more robust than conventional filaments, making the resulting X-ray tube very shock and vibration resistant.

Elam, Wm. Timothy (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Hershyn, William (Inventor); DeLong, David P. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

70

Food Irradiation Using Electron Beams and X-Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we will discuss the technology of food irradiation using electron accelerators. Food irradiation has generally come to describe the use of ionizing radiation to decrease the population of, or prevent the growth of, undesirable biological organisms in food. The many beneficial applications include insect disinfestation, sprouting inhibition, delayed ripening, and the enhanced safety and sterilization of fresh and frozen meat products, seafood, and eggs. With special regard to food safety, bacteria such as Salmonella enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 are the primary causes of food poisoning in industrialized countries. Ionizing doses in the range of only 1-5 kilogray (kGy) can virtually eliminate these organisms from food, without affecting the food's sensory and nutritional qualities, and without inducing radioactivity. The key elements of an accelerator-based irradiation facility include the accelerator system, a scanning system, and a material handling system that moves the product through the beam in a precisely controlled manner. Extensive radiation shielding is necessary to reduce the external dose to acceptable levels, and a safety system is necessary to prevent accidental exposure of personnel during accelerator operation. Parameters that affect the dose distribution must be continuously monitored and controlled with process control software. The choice of electron beam vs x-ray depends on the areal density (density times thickness) of the product and the anticipated mass throughput. To eliminate nuclear activation concerns, the maximum kinetic energy of the accelerator is limited by regulation to 10 MeV for electron beams, and 5 MeV for x-rays. From penetration considerations, the largest areal density that can be treated by double-sided electron irradiation at 10 MeV is about 8.8 g/cm2. Products having greater areal densities must be processed using more penetrating x-rays. The mass throughput (dM/dt in kg/s) of an accelerator-based system is proportional to the average beam power (P in kW), and inversely proportional to the minimum required dose (Dm in kGy, with 1 kGy = 1 kJ/kg). The constant of proportionality is the mass throughput efficiency. Throughput efficiencies of 0.4 or better are typical of electron beam installations, but are only 0.025-0.035 for x-ray installations, primarily because of the inefficiency of bremsstrahlung generation at 5 MeV (about 8an axially-coupled, standing-wave, L-band linac with an average power in excess of 100 kW to achieve reasonable throughput rates with x-ray processing. Various design aspects of this new machine will be presented.

Miller, Bruce

2003-04-01

71

X-ray scattering and spectroscopy in correlated electron systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant x ray scattering is evolving as a very important technique to study the interplay between the atomic structure and the electronic structure of correlated systems like the high Tc superconductors, collossal magneto resistance materials and transition metal compounds in general. The interpretation of the measurements is however far from trivial and reguires approaches which depend strongly on which core levels and valence bands are involved. I will present the basic physics regarding the approximations most suitable for several cases and demonstrate their success with examples from the classes of systems above. It turns out that the transition metal K edge data is not really a direct measure of orbital ordering but rather a measure of the local bond length distortions accompanying the orbital ordering and is well described in density functional band theory. On the other hand soft x ray L edge data is more directly a measure of the orbital as well as spin ordering. These data cannot be described with a band theory approach because of the importance of correlation effects and one must resort to methods like cluster approaches including the strong correlation effects explicitly. In cases where the atom of interest is not at an inversion center new effects in volving dipole and quadrupole channels are important and the experimental studies in these sytems provides direct information on the p-d hybridization in the conduction band. Resonant inelastic scattering in addition provides direct k dependent dispersion relations for a variety of elementary excitations including magnons, phonons and excitons. At soft x ray energies we can expect very strong inelastic scattering for spin flip excitations provided the core state used has a resolved spin orbit coupling.

Sawatzky, George

2002-03-01

72

Electron probe X-ray analysis on human hepatocellular lysosomes with copper deposits: copper binding to a thiol-protein in lysosomes  

SciTech Connect

Livers of eight patients with chronic liver diseases were investigated by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. First, three kinds of preparations (osmium-Epon sections, glutaraldehyde-frozen sections, and unfixed-frozen sections) were compared for element detectability at a subcellular level. The glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were satisfactory as far as copper, sulfur, and phosphorus were concerned. Five patients (one patient with Wilson's disease, one chronic cholestasis, one chronic hepatitis, and two asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis) yielded x-ray images of copper and sulfur consistent with hepatocellular lysosomes. Second, the glutaraldehyde-frozen sections were utilized for a study of copper deposits in the patients' livers. There was a significant correlation between copper and sulfur contents in the lysosomes of all patients studied but no correlation in the remainder of the cytoplasm. Zinc was not detected in the lysosomes. Whatever the content of copper in the lysosomes, the ratio of delta copper to phosphorus (weight/weight) to delta sulfur to phosphorus was 0.60. These data indicate that most lysosomal copper binds to a thiol protein, probably metallothionein, in the liver.

Hanaichi, T.; Kidokoro, R.; Hayashi, H.; Sakamoto, N.

1984-11-01

73

Inelastic X-ray Scattering by Electronic Excitations under High Pressure  

E-print Network

. Implications for geophysics are mentioned. Since the in- cident X-ray energy can easily be tuned to absorption recombination 16 5. Fluorescence 17 C. Narrowing effects 17 1. Resonant X-ray emission 17 2. PartialInelastic X-ray Scattering by Electronic Excitations under High Pressure Jean-Pascal Rueff

Boyer, Edmond

74

Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

Chesick, John P.

1989-01-01

75

Proposal for an x-ray free electron laser oscillator with intermediate energy electron beam.  

PubMed

Harmonic lasing of low-gain free electron laser oscillators has been experimentally demonstrated in the terahertz and infrared regions. Recently, the low-gain oscillator has been reconsidered as a promising candidate for hard x-ray free electron lasers, through the use of high reflectivity, high-resolution x-ray crystals. In this Letter, it is proposed to utilize a crystal-based cavity resonant at a higher harmonic of the undulator radiation, together with phase shifting, to enable harmonic lasing of the x-ray free electron laser oscillator, and hence allow the generation of hard x-ray radiation at a reduced electron beam energy. Results show that fully coherent free electron laser radiation with megawatt peak power, in the spectral region of 10-25 keV, can be generated with a 3.5 GeV electron beam. PMID:22400748

Dai, Jinhua; Deng, Haixiao; Dai, Zhimin

2012-01-20

76

X-ray fluorescence analysis of various alloys. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

For a number of years, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been used in the Y-12 Plant Laboratory for the analysis of a wide variety of materials. During the past few years, the technique has been applied to the analysis of a large number of experimental alloys. The general procedure consists of the following steps: (1) ignition of the alloy to oxides, (2) addition of suitable internal standards, (3) dissolution of the oxides and internal standards by sodium tetraborate (borax) fusion, (4) casting a pellet from the fusion in a graphite mold (Figure 1), and (5) determination of the major constituents by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

Charles, J.W. Jr.; Ferguson, M.R.; Eager, M.H.

1980-02-15

77

Estimation of lattice strain in ZnO nanoparticles: X-ray peak profile analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized from chitosan and zinc chloride by a precipitation method. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the sample was crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase. We have investigated the crystallite development in ZnO nanoparticles by X-ray peak profile analysis. The Williamson-Hall analysis and size-strain plot were used to study the individual contributions of crystallite sizes and lattice strain ? on the peak broadening of ZnO nanoparticles. The parameters including strain, stress and energy density value were calculated for all the reflection peaks of X-ray diffraction corresponding to wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO lying in the range 20°-80° using the modified form of Williamson-Hall plots and size-strain plot. The results showed that the crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's formula, Williamson-Hall plots and size-strain plot, and the particle size estimated from Transmission electron microscopy analysis are very much inter-correlated. Both methods, the X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy, provide less deviation between crystallite size and particle size in the present case.

Bindu, P.; Thomas, Sabu

2014-07-01

78

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Discharge Phenomena during X-Ray Emission from Pyroelectric Crystal  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 © X X Discharge Phenomena during X-Ray Emission from Pyroelectric Crystal and Energy Dependence of X-Ray Intensity Kengo OHIRA, Susumu IMASHUKU and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;45 181 X X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 45, pp.181-190 (2014) 606

Jun, Kawai

79

Hard-X-ray magnetic microscopy and local magnetization analysis using synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

X-ray measurement offers several useful features that are unavailable from other microscopic means including electron-based techniques. By using X-rays, one can observe the internal parts of a thick sample. This technique basically requires no high vacuum environment such that measurements are feasible for wet specimens as well as under strong electric and magnetic fields and even at a high pressure. X-ray spectroscopy using core excitation provides element-selectivity with significant sensitivities to the chemical states and atomic magnetic moments in the matter. Synchrotron radiation sources produce a small and low-divergent X-ray beam, which can be converged to a spot with the size of a micrometer or less using X-ray focusing optics. The recent development in the focusing optics has been driving X-ray microscopy, which has already gone into the era of X-ray nanoscopy. With the use of the most sophisticated focusing devices, an X-ray beam of 7-nm size has successfully been achieved [1]. X-ray microscopy maintains above-mentioned unique features of X-ray technique, being a perfect complement to electron microscopy.In this paper, we present recent studies on magnetic microscopy and local magnetic analysis using hard X-rays. The relevant instrumentation developments are also described. The X-ray nanospectroscopy station of BL39XU at SPring-8 is equipped with a focusing optics consisting of two elliptic mirrors, and a focused X-ray beam with the size of 100 × 100 nm(2) is available [2]. Researchers can perform X-ray absorption spectroscopy: nano-XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) using the X-ray beam as small as 100 nm. The available X-ray energy is from 5 to 16 keV, which allows nano-XAFS study at the K edges of 3d transition metals, L edges of rare-earth elements and 5d noble metals. Another useful capability of the nanoprobe is X-ray polarization tunability, enabling magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy with a sub-micrometer resolution. Scanning XMCD imaging, XMCD measurement in local areas, and element-specific magnetometry for magnetic particles/magnetic devices as small as 100 nm can be performed. Nano-XAFS application includes visualization of the chemical state in a particle catalyst [3] and phase-change memory devices [4]. For magnetic microscopic study, magnetization reversal processes of an individual magnetic CoPt dot in bit-patterned media have directly been observed [2]. Imaging of the chemical distribution and magnetic domain evolution in a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet in demagnetization processes is presented. PMID:25359804

Suzuki, Motohiro

2014-11-01

80

X-RAY EMISSION ANALYSIS: SAMPLE LOSSES DURING EXCITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many samples of atmospheric aerosols and biological materials containing volatile or unstable species are now being examined by X-ray emission analysis, and loss of these species by sample heating is a critical consideration. The amount of heat energy deposited in a sample by the...

81

Focusing mirror for x-ray free-electron lasers.  

PubMed

We present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a large total-reflection mirror for focusing x-ray free-electron laser beams to nanometer dimensions. We used an elliptical focusing mirror made of silicon that was 400 mm long and had a focal length of 550 mm. Electrolytic in-process dressing grinding was used for initial-step figuring and elastic emission machining was employed for final figuring and surface smoothing. A figure accuracy with a peak-to-valley height of 2 nm was achieved across the entire area. Characterization of the focused beam was performed at BL29XUL of SPring-8. The focused beam size was 75 nm at 15 keV, which is almost equal to the theoretical size. PMID:19044333

Mimura, Hidekazu; Morita, Shinya; Kimura, Takashi; Yamakawa, Daisuke; Lin, Weimin; Uehara, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Tamasaku, Kenji; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

2008-08-01

82

X-Ray Free Electron Laser Interaction With Matter  

SciTech Connect

X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) will enable studying new areas of laser-matter interaction. We summarize the current understanding of the interaction of XFEL pulses with matter and describe some of the simulation approaches that are used to design experiments on future XFEL sources. Modified versions of these models have been successful in guiding and analyzing experiments performed at the extreme-ultraviolet FEL FLASH at wavelengths of 6 nm and longer. For photon energies of several keV, no XFEL-matter interaction experiments have been performed yet but data is anticipated to become available in the near future, which will allow to test our understanding of the interaction physics in this wavelength regime.

Hau-Riege, S

2009-05-12

83

X-Ray Free Electron Laser Interaction With Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) will enable studying new areas of laser-matter interaction. We summarize the current understanding of the interaction of XFEL pulses with matter and describe some of the simulation approaches that are used to design experiments on future XFEL sources. Modified versions of these models have been successful in guiding and analyzing experiments performed at the extreme-ultraviolet FEL FLASH at wavelengths of 6 nm and longer. For photon energies of several keV, no XFEL-matter interaction experiments have been performed yet but data is anticipated to become available in the near future, which will allow to test our understanding of the interaction physics in this wavelength regime.

Stefan-Hau-Riege, Stefan-Hau-Riege

2009-09-01

84

Focusing mirror for x-ray free-electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

We present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a large total-reflection mirror for focusing x-ray free-electron laser beams to nanometer dimensions. We used an elliptical focusing mirror made of silicon that was 400 mm long and had a focal length of 550 mm. Electrolytic in-process dressing grinding was used for initial-step figuring and elastic emission machining was employed for final figuring and surface smoothing. A figure accuracy with a peak-to-valley height of 2 nm was achieved across the entire area. Characterization of the focused beam was performed at BL29XUL of SPring-8. The focused beam size was 75 nm at 15 keV, which is almost equal to the theoretical size.

Mimura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Takashi; Yamakawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Satoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Morita, Shinya; Uehara, Yoshihiro; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Lin, Weimin [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, 84-4 Tsuchiya-Ebinokuchi Yurihonjo, Akita 015-0055 (Japan); Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tamasaku, Kenji; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-08-15

85

Quantitative analysis of an enlarged area Solid State X-ray Image Intensifier (SSXII) detector based on Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) technology.  

PubMed

Present day treatment for neurovascular pathological conditions involves the use of devices with very small features such as stents, coils, and balloons; hence, these interventional procedures demand high resolution x-ray imaging under fluoroscopic conditions to provide the capability to guide the deployment of these fine endovascular devices. To address this issue, a high resolution x-ray detector based on EMCCD technology is being developed. The EMCCD field-of-view is enlarged using a fiber-optic taper so that the detector features an effective pixel size of 37 µm giving it a Nyquist frequency of 13.5 lp/mm, which is significantly higher than that of the state of the art Flat Panel Detectors (FPD). Quantitative analysis of the detector, including gain calibration, instrumentation noise equivalent exposure (INEE) and modulation transfer function (MTF) determination, are presented in this work. The gain of the detector is a function of the detector temperature; with the detector cooled to 5° C, the highest relative gain that could be achieved was calculated to be 116 times. At this gain setting, the lowest INEE was measured to be 0.6 µR/frame. The MTF, measured using the edge method, was over 2% up to 7 cycles/ mm. To evaluate the performance of the detector under clinical conditions, an aneurysm model was placed over an anthropomorphic head phantom and a coil was guided into the aneurysm under fluoroscopic guidance using the detector. Image sequences from the procedure are presented demonstrating the high resolution of this SSXII. PMID:24353386

Swetadri, Vasan S N; Sharma, P; Singh, V; Jain, A; Ionita, Ciprian N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

2013-03-01

86

RF Phase Stability and Electron Beam Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-Ray Source  

SciTech Connect

We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. To produce picosecond, high brightness x-ray pulses, picosecond timing, terahertz bandwidth diagnostics, and RF phase control are required. Planned optical, RF, x-ray and electron beam measurements to characterize the dependence of electron beam parameters and synchronization on RF phase stability are presented.

Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T; Le Sage, G P; Barty, C P J; Rosenzweig, J B; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D N; Gibson, D J; Slaughter, D R; Anderson, S

2002-10-16

87

Laboratory x-ray CCD camera electronics: a test bed for the Swift X-Ray Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penn State University Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics has been active in the design of X-ray CCD cameras for astronomy for over two decades, including sounding rocket systems, the CUBIC instrument on the SAC-B satellite and the ACIS camera on the Chandra satellite. Currently the group is designing and building an X-ray telescope (XRT), which will comprise part of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer satellite. The Swift satellite, selected in October 1999 as one of two winners of NASA Explorer contracts, will -- within one minute -- detect, locate, and observe gamma-ray bursts simultaneously in the optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma- ray wavelengths using three co-aligned telescopes. The XRT electronics is required to read out the telescope's CCD sensor in a number of different ways depending on the observing mode selected. Immediately after the satellite re-orients to observe a newly detected burst, the XRT will enter an imaging mode to determine the exact position of the burst. The location will then be transmitted to the ground, and the XRT will autonomously enter other modes as the X-ray intensity of the burst waxes and wanes. This paper will discuss the electronics for a laboratory X-ray CCD camera, which serves as a test bed for development of the Swift XRT camera. It will also touch upon the preliminary design of the flight camera, which is closely related. A major challenge is achieving performance and reliability goals within the cost constraints of an Explorer mission.

Hill, Joanne E.; Zugger, Michael E.; Shoemaker, Jason; Witherite, Mark E.; Koch, T. Scott; Chou, Lester L.; Case, Traci; Burrows, David N.

2000-12-01

88

Observation of Runaway Electrons with Soft X-Ray Camera on HT-7 Tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runaway electrons produced during minor disruptions, which are confirmed by the hard x-ray system and the runaway energy spectrum system, are observed by a soft x-ray camera on the HT-7 Tokamak. In this observation, the soft x-ray system can also provide the size information and the position information of the runaway electron current directly from the signal information on the chord. This observation implies that the soft x-ray system can provide the control system with the physical information of the runaway electron current on future devices to avoid electrons hitting the first wall.

Chen, Ye-Bin; Chen, Kai-Yun; Xu, Li-Qing; Zhou, Rui-Jie; Hu, Li-Qun

2014-12-01

89

X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon  

SciTech Connect

Argon L{sub 2.3}-M{sub 2.3}M{sub 2.3} Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with K{alpha} fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons.

Arp, U. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Electron and Optical Physics Div.; LeBrun, T.; Southworth, S.H.; Jung, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; MacDonald, M.A. [E.P.S.R.C. Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

90

Correlative analysis of hard and soft x ray observations of solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a promising new technique for jointly analyzing BATSE hard X-ray observations of solar flares with simultaneous soft X-ray observations. The technique is based upon a model in which electric currents and associated electric fields are responsible for the respective heating and particle acceleration that occur in solar flares. A useful by-product of this technique is the strength and evolution of the coronal electric field. The latter permits one to derive important flare parameters such as the current density, the number of current filaments composing the loop, and ultimately the hard X-ray spectrum produced by the runaway electrons. We are continuing to explore the technique by applying it to additional flares for which we have joint BATSE/Yohkoh observations. A central assumption of our analysis is the constant of proportionality alpha relating the hard X-ray flux above 50 keV and the rate of electron acceleration. For a thick-target model of hard X-ray production, it can be shown that cv is in fact related to the spectral index and low-energy cutoff of precipitating electrons. The next step in our analysis is to place observational constraints on the latter parameters using the joint BATSE/Yohkoh data.

Zarro, Dominic M.

1994-01-01

91

Portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the identification of unknown laboratory hazards  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer was used to analyze unknown laboratory hazards that precipitated on exterior surfaces of cooling pipes and fume hood pipes in chemical laboratories. With the aim to examine the accuracy of TXRF analysis for the determination of elemental composition, analytical results were compared with those of wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, x-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed comparison of data confirmed that the TXRF method itself was not sufficient to determine all the elements (Z?>?11) contained in the samples. In addition, results suggest that XRD should be combined with XPS in order to accurately determine compound composition. This study demonstrates that at least two analytical methods should be used in order to analyze the composition of unknown real samples.

Liu, Ying, E-mail: liu.ying.48r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Imashuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobuharu; Ze, Long; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takano, Shotaro; Sohrin, Yoshiki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Seki, Hiroko; Miyauchi, Hiroya [Kyoto Prefectural Technology Center for Small and Medium Enterprises, Chudojiminami machi, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813 (Japan)

2014-05-15

92

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy The materials characterization facility is equipped with a Hitachi S-4700 Field Emission Scanning Electron Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). The FE-SEM is equipped with EDAX Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy

Gelfond, Michael

93

Proton induced X-ray analysis of Nd:YAG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is famously effective for revealing trace elements in biological tissue in which the majority elements (H, C, N and O) have low Z. When the majority elements in a compound have high atomic numbers, the yield of K and L X-rays following proton bombardment often mask those of lighter trace elements, or dominate the counting rate to such an extent that the time required to detect a small signal with statistical significance becomes prohibitively long. We have confronted these difficulties with a PIXE analysis of YAG crystals and ceramics with neodymium doping up to nine atomic percent. The K X-rays of aluminum (1.74 keV) and yttrium (15 keV) dominate the PIXE spectrum. The L X-rays from neodymium group near 5 keV provide determination of the neodymium content of Nd:YAG to 1:1000. Clear signals of traces of zinc, nickel and copper were recovered from the spectra of some of the samples by persistent experiments at low counting rates that avoided pile up of the signals from the majority elements. An appropriate polyethylene filter was used to prevent scattered protons from striking the detector and its supporting structure. Double proton beam collimation prevented spurious PIXE from the chamber walls, beam stop and the primary collimator. No material was near the sample except a polyethylene film strip that supported the sample.

Muntele, C.; Zimmerman, R.; Ila, D.; Castillo, V.; Quarles, G.; Johnson, James

2007-08-01

94

A technique for calibrating an electron-beam evaporator x-ray source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electron-beam metal evaporator was modified to act as an x-ray source for simulating x-ray lithography induced radiation\\u000a damage in semiconductor devices. Besides x-rays, such a set-up generates secondary and backscattered electrons. Simulation\\u000a of radiation damage induced during a typical x-ray lithography processing step requires that secondary and backscattered electrons\\u000a be removed from the incident radiation. A common method to

Robert J. Kinzig

1991-01-01

95

Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch  

SciTech Connect

A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi [Toyota Technical Development Corporation, 1-21 Imae, Hanamoto-cho, Toyota, Aichi 470-0334 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshicho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kato, Ryukou [The Institute of Science and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2014-11-15

96

Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch.  

PubMed

A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons' energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons. PMID:25430210

Kojima, Sadaoki; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryukou; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

2014-11-01

97

Intravenous coronary angiography utilizing K-emission and bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by electron bombardment  

SciTech Connect

The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with synchrotron radiation at SSRL and NSLS have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an intense source of monochromatic X-rays. Because of the high cost of an electron synchrotron, theoretical analysis and experiments using inanimate phantoms has been undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of using the spectrum produced by two appropriately chosen anode materials when bombarded with electrons in the 100--500 keV energy range for angiography. By using the X-rays emitted at 120{degree} to the incident electron direction, about 20--30% of the X-ray intensity would be due to K-emission lines. Calculations using the TIGERP Monte Carlo Code, have shown that high quality angiograms of human coronary arteries should be possible with a contrast agent containing ytterbium, if an electron beam pulses of 16 kJ were used for each anode target. The experimental program supported in part by the DOE has consisted of these theoretical calculations and experiments at the Dynamitron Electron Accelerator Facility at BNL.

NONE

1992-12-31

98

ANALYSIS OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL PARTICULATES IN MUNICIPAL DRINKING-WATER BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY (ANALYSE VON BIOLOGISCHEN PARTIKELN IM TRINKWASSER DURCH RASTERELEKTRONEN-MIKROSKOPIE UND ELEKTRONENSTRAHLMIKROANALYSE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectroscopy (SEM/XES) were used to survey the biological and nonbiological particles in two different municipal drinking-water systems. Microbiological particles could be differentiated from nonbiological by their qualitative element...

99

Feasibility considerations of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser pumped by an x-ray free electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the feasibility of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser (DFL) pumped by an x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL). The DFL under consideration is a Mg/SiC bi-layered Bragg reflector pumped by a single X-FEL bunch at 57.4?eV, stimulating the Mg L2,3 emission at 49?eV corresponding to the 3s–3d ?2p1/2,3/2 transition. Based on a model developed by Yariv and Yeh and an extended coupled-wave theory, we show that it would be possible to obtain a threshold gain compatible with the pumping provided by available X-FEL facilities.

André, Jean-Michel; Le Guen, Karine; Jonnard, Philippe

2014-08-01

100

Limitations of ZAF correction factors in the determination of calcium/phosphorus ratios: Important forensic science considerations relevant to the analysis of bone fragments using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis  

SciTech Connect

A series of calcium phosphate standards having calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 1.67, respectively, was prepared for bulk specimen analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The standards were mounted on carbon planchettes as either pure crystals or crystals embedded in epoxy resin. Ten different samples of each embedded and non-embedded standard were analyzed in a JEOL 100 CX electron microscope interfaced with a Kevex 8000 EDXA system using a lithium-drifted silicon detector and a multichannel analyzer. The Ca/P ratios were determined by calculating both net peak intensities without matrix corrections and atomic kappa-ratios using the MAGIC V computer program with ZAF correction factors for quantitative analysis. There was such extensive absorption of phosphorus X-rays in standards embedded in an epoxy matrix that the observed Ca/P ratios were statistically compatible with four different standards ranging in theoretical Ca/P ratios from 1.0 to 1.67. Although the non-embedded crystals showed a greater separation in the Ca/P ratios, both methods of preparation produced serious flaws in analysis. Direct application of the discovery of this caveat to the identification of suspected bone fragments for forensic science purposes is discussed.

Payne, C.M.; Cromey, D.W. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

1990-05-01

101

Limitations of ZAF correction factors in the determination of calcium/phosphorus ratios: important forensic science considerations relevant to the analysis of bone fragments using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis.  

PubMed

A series of calcium phosphate standards having calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 1.67, respectively, was prepared for bulk specimen analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The standards were mounted on carbon planchettes as either pure crystals or crystals embedded in epoxy resin. Ten different samples of each embedded and non-embedded standard were analyzed in a JEOL 100 CX electron microscope interfaced with a Kevex 8000 EDXA system using a lithium-drifted silicon detector and a multichannel analyzer. The Ca/P ratios were determined by calculating both net peak intensities without matrix corrections and atomic kappa-ratios using the MAGIC V computer program with ZAF correction factors for quantitative analysis. There was such extensive absorption of phosphorus X-rays in standards embedded in an epoxy matrix that the observed Ca/P ratios were statistically compatible with four different standards ranging in theoretical Ca/P ratios from 1.0 to 1.67. Although the non-embedded crystals showed a greater separation in the Ca/P ratios, both methods of preparation produced serious flaws in analysis. Direct application of the discovery of this caveat to the identification of suspected bone fragments for forensic science purposes is discussed. PMID:2348174

Payne, C M; Cromey, D W

1990-05-01

102

Is scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) quantitative?  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a widely applied elemental microanalysis method capable of identifying and quantifying all elements in the periodic table except H, He, and Li. By following the "k-ratio" (unknown/standard) measurement protocol development for electron-excited wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), SEM/EDS can achieve accuracy and precision equivalent to WDS and at substantially lower electron dose, even when severe X-ray peak overlaps occur, provided sufficient counts are recorded. Achieving this level of performance is now much more practical with the advent of the high-throughput silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS). However, three measurement issues continue to diminish the impact of SEM/EDS: (1) In the qualitative analysis (i.e., element identification) that must precede quantitative analysis, at least some current and many legacy software systems are vulnerable to occasional misidentification of major constituent peaks, with the frequency of misidentifications rising significantly for minor and trace constituents. (2) The use of standardless analysis, which is subject to much broader systematic errors, leads to quantitative results that, while useful, do not have sufficient accuracy to solve critical problems, e.g. determining the formula of a compound. (3) EDS spectrometers have such a large volume of acceptance that apparently credible spectra can be obtained from specimens with complex topography that introduce uncontrolled geometric factors that modify X-ray generation and propagation, resulting in very large systematic errors, often a factor of ten or more. PMID:22886950

Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

2013-01-01

103

Modeling Electron-Impact X-Ray Spectra for the AXAF Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will provide high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy of astrophysical x-ray sources. A precision calibration of the AXAF telescope and science instruments will be performed by the AXAF Team, using x-ray sources at NASA's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF), located at Marshall Space Flight Center. A tool to model the spectra from electron-impact x-ray sources for a variety of targets is necessary to predict the detected spectra and count rates for various combinations of telescope-detector calibrations. We model the spectra of x-ray lines and continuum (0.1 - 13 keV) arising from electron impact on solid targets. We use simple models for electron transport, line and continuum emissivities, and radiative transport through the target. The electrons are attenuated in energy but not scattered in direction. The continuum x-ray emission is modeled as bremsstrahlung, and the characteristic x-ray line emission is modeled as electron-collisional ionization followed by radiative decay to form the lines. X-ray attenuation is included in the radiative transfer, and multilayer or compound targets can be handled. The x-ray spectra produced by this model are compared to those of the Pella et al./ model, and experimental data from metal targets. A WWW catalog is available of the x-ray source spectra for twenty-one targets, with atomic numbers 4 <= Z <= 79, for various target voltages. Also compiled are the x-ray spectra at the telescope focal plane after passage through the AXAF HRMA, and the detected-photon spectra for the ACIS and HRC.

Sulkanen, M. E.; Elsner, R. F.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.

1995-12-01

104

[Choice of electron equipment for x-ray diagnostic digital scanning system].  

PubMed

The paper deals with the choice of electron equipment for X-ray diagnostic devices with digital image processing which are intended for population-based mass prophylactic examinations of lung. Guidelines for the optimization of the package of electron devices for processing and storing of data and for obtaining hard copies of X-ray films. PMID:9560810

Blinov, N N; Zelikman, M I; Kokuev, A N; Solov'ev, A A

1998-01-01

105

Nuclear Resonance Energy Analysis of Inelastic X-Ray Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inelastic scattering of x rays by gaseous, liquid, and solid samples was measured using a nuclear transition as a reference for the energy analysis of the scattered radiation. The samples were irradiated by a beam of synchrotron radiation with a bandwidth of 6.4 meV. The scattered radiation was analyzed using a resonance detector with a bandpass of 0.5 mueV. These

A. I. Chumakov; A. Q. R. Baron; R. Rüffer; H. Grünsteudel; A. Meyer

1996-01-01

106

Instrumentation and data analysis for hard X ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of hard x ray astronomy is reviewed. The applicability of various hard x ray detectors in such new telescopes are discussed and the current status of hard x ray telescope design is reviewed. Background production mechanisms in hard x ray telescopes are discussed and some techniques for background reduction are also discussed. A simple method for estimating

Shuang Nan Zhang

1989-01-01

107

X-ray emission from relativistically moving electron density cusps  

SciTech Connect

We report on novel methods to generate ultra-short, coherent, X-rays using a laserplasma interaction. Nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma creates stable, specific structures such as electron cusps. For example, wake waves excited in an underdense plasma by an intense, short-pulse laser become dense and propagate along with the laser pulse. This is called a relativistic flying mirror. The flying mirror can reflect a counter-propagating laser pulse and directly convert it into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor of {approx} 4{gamma}{sup 2} and pulse shortening with the same factor. After the proof-of-principle experiments, we observed that the photon number generated in the flying mirror is close to the theoretical estimate. We present the details of the experiment in which a 9 TW laser pulse focused into a He gas jet generated the Flying Mirror, which partly reflected a 1 TW pulse, giving up to {approx} 10{sup 10} photons, 60 nJ (1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} photons/sr) in the XUV spectral region (12.8-22 nm).

Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nakamura, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Kawase, K.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Daito, I.; Kameshima, T.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Daido, H.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Ragozin, E. N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Osaka University (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperature of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries (Japan); Ludwig-Maximilians-University (Germany); and others

2012-07-11

108

Fluctuation of laser-induced x-rays from electron beam and plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a significant progress in the X-ray generation technologies for various laboratory and production application by laser-Compton scheme and laser produced plasma. Femtosecond X-ray generation was performed by Compton scattering through interaction between a 3-ps electron beam and 100-fs laser photons in a 90 degree scattering configuration. The X-ray energy and pulse duration were estimated as 2.3keV and

Akira Endo

2003-01-01

109

X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof  

DOEpatents

An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

Radley, Ian (Glenmont, NY); Bievenue, Thomas J. (Delmar, NY); Burdett, John H. (Charlton, NY); Gallagher, Brian W. (Guilderland, NY); Shakshober, Stuart M. (Hudson, NY); Chen, Zewu (Schenectady, NY); Moore, Michael D. (Alplaus, NY)

2008-06-08

110

Design and analysis of multilayer x ray/XUV microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and analysis of a large number of normal incidence multilayer x ray microscopes based on the spherical mirror Schwarzschild configuration is examined. Design equations for the spherical mirror Schwarzschild microscopes are summarized and used to evaluate mirror parameters for microscopes with magnifications ranging from 2 to 50x. Ray tracing and diffraction analyses are carried out for many microscope configurations to determine image resolution as a function of system parameters. The results are summarized in three publication included herein. A preliminary study of advanced reflecting microscope configurations, where aspherics are used in place of the spherical microscope mirror elements, has indicated that the aspherical elements will improve off-axis image resolution and increase the effective field of view.

Shealy, David L.

1990-01-01

111

Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray topography.  

SciTech Connect

The Topography X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the topography laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the topography process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.

Maj, J.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, X.; Maj, L.; Univ. of Chicago

2008-01-01

112

Structured x-ray beams from twisted electrons by inverse Compton scattering of laser light  

E-print Network

The inverse Compton scattering of laser light on high-energetic twisted electrons is investigated with the aim to construct spatially structured x-ray beams. In particular, we analyze how the properties of the twisted electrons, such as the topological charge and aperture angle of the electron Bessel beam, affects the energy and angular distribution of scattered x-rays. We show that with suitably chosen initial twisted electron states one can synthesize tailor-made x-ray beam profiles with a well-defined spatial structure, in a way not possible with ordinary plane-wave electron beams.

D. Seipt; A. Surzhykov; S. Fritzsche

2014-07-28

113

Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

2014-09-01

114

Analysis of trace Co in synthetic diamonds using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron radiation excited X-ray fluorescence analysis was utilized for characterization of trace impurities in synthetic diamonds. Advantage of the energy tunability was fully utilized to evaluate the attenuation of X-rays through the sample, and the absorption corrected X-ray fluorescence yield was utilized for quantitative analysis. Diamonds grown with several types of metallic solvents were investigated, and quantitative analysis of trace

Shinjiro Hayakawa; Xiao-Peng Jia; Masao Wakatsuki; Yohichi Gohshi; Takeshi Hirokawa

2000-01-01

115

Three-Dimensional X-ray Observation of Atmospheric Biological Samples by Linear-Array Scanning-Electron Generation X-ray Microscope System  

PubMed Central

Recently, we developed a soft X-ray microscope called the scanning-electron generation X-ray microscope (SGXM), which consists of a simple X-ray detection system that detects X-rays emitted from the interaction between a scanning electron beam (EB) and the thin film of the sample mount. We present herein a three-dimensional (3D) X-ray detection system that is based on the SGXM technology and designed for studying atmospheric biological samples. This 3D X-ray detection system contains a linear X-ray photodiode (PD) array. The specimens are placed under a CuZn-coated Si3N4 thin film, which is attached to an atmospheric sample holder. Multiple tilt X-ray images of the samples are detected simultaneously by the linear array of X-ray PDs, and the 3D structure is calculated by a new 3D reconstruction method that uses a simulated-annealing algorithm. The resulting 3D models clearly reveal the inner structure of the bacterium. In addition, the proposed method can easily be used for diverse samples in a broad range of scientific fields. PMID:21731770

Ogura, Toshihiko

2011-01-01

116

Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime.

Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A.; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G.; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F.; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan P.; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J.; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

2014-10-01

117

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Portable Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 © X Portable Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ultra Trace Elemental Determination Shinsuke KUNIMURA and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 29 X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.29-44 (2010) 606-8501 X Portable Total

Jun, Kawai

118

The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

Galayda, John; /SLAC

2012-08-24

119

Modification of diode X-rays by electron multiple backscatter from anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes, a large fraction of the electrons are backscattered, thus changing all diode characteristics: the electron and ion currents, the electron beam spectrum, and, finally, the X-ray spectrum and the X-ray efficiency. The latter problem is very important for intense electron beam radiography. Based on the KARAT and Monte Carlo codes, a hybrid PIC\\/Monte

V. V. Ryzhoc; V. I. Bespalov; A. V. Kirikov; I. Yu. Turchanovsky; V. P. Tarakanov

2001-01-01

120

Phase contrast: the frontier of x-ray and electron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase contrast has been a fundamental component of microscopy since the early 1940s. In broad terms, it refers to the formation of images using not the combination of wave intensities but their amplitudes with the corresponding phase factors. The impact on visible microscopy of biological specimens has been major. This contrast mechanism is now playing an increasingly important role in other kinds of microscopy, notably those based on electrons or x-rays. It notably solves the background problem of weak absorption contrast. New breakthroughs and new techniques are continuously produced, unfortunately unknown to most of the scientists that could exploit them. The present special cluster issue of reviews was inspired by this situation. The case of x-rays is very interesting. Phase contrast requires a high degree of longitudinal and lateral coherence. But conventional x-ray sources are not coherent. The progress of synchrotron sources yielded high coherence as a key byproduct—and started a rapid expansion of phase contrast radiology. No review—or cluster of reviews—can possibly cover all the facets of the recent progress. Without trying to be absolutely comprehensive, the present special cluster issue touches a variety of issues, giving a very broad picture. Liu et al review in general terms the different phase-based hard-x-ray techniques, with an interesting variety of examples. Then, Suortti et al and Wang et al present more specialized overviews of crystal and grating based x-ray imaging techniques, very powerful in the analysis of biological specimens. Mokso et al discuss the many facets of tomography using phase effects, expanding the picture of tomographic reconstruction of the three previous reviews. Wu et al treat the rapid progress in hard-x-ray focusing and its impact on radiology and tomography for materials science and biomedical research. The next two reviews deal with special and very interesting classes of applications. Specifically, Lee et al discuss the use of the new radiology techniques in the study of liquids, and Coan et al present the progress in phase-contrast radiology analysis of real patients. Although x-ray imaging is the main focus of the special cluster issue, the picture would not be complete without a view on the parallel and very exciting developments in electron microscopy. The last review, by Wu et al , is dedicated indeed to this broader picture, presenting recent progress in Zernike-related electron phase contrast. We trust that the special cluster issue will not only update readers on the evolution of a very important class of experimental techniques, but also prepare them for the forthcoming developments. We are indeed at the threshold of another revolution. The recently inaugurated first x-ray free electron lasers bring, together with many other record performances, full lateral coherence and excellent longitudinal coherence. The first imaging experiments show in practice their impact, and indicate that this field, far from saturating its progress, is ready for new major breakthroughs.

Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

2013-12-01

121

Study of titanate nanotubes by X-ray and electron diffraction and electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The structure of titanate nanotubes (Ti-NTs) was studied by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Ti-NTs are prepared by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} powder. The structure is identified by powder X-ray diffraction as the one based on the structure of H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5}·H{sub 2}O phase. The same structure is obtained by projected potential from HRTEM through-focus image series. The structure is verified by simulated PXRD pattern with the aid of the Debye formula. The validity of the model is tested by computing Fourier transformation of a single nanotube which is proportional to measured electron diffraction intensities. A good agreement of this calculation with measured precession electron diffraction data is achieved. - Highlights: • Titanate nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal method. • X-ray powder diffraction indicated their structure based on that of H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5}·H{sub 2}O. • Structural model was created with the aid of high-resolution electron microscopy. • The model was verified with electron diffraction data. • X-ray powder diffraction pattern was calculated with the aid of the Debye formula.

Brunatova, Tereza [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Popelkova, Daniela [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Wan, Wei [Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Oleynikov, Peter [Dept. of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Danis, Stanislav [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Zou, Xiaodong [Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kuzel, Radomir, E-mail: kuzel@karlov.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-01-15

122

Calcium L(III) and L(II) region x-ray and electron emissions for near threshold electron excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An x-ray excitation spectrometer (XRES) was constructed and used to record the Lsb{III} and Lsb{II} region x-ray emissions under near threshold electron excitation for samples of pure calcium metal and samples of calcium in various stages of oxidation. X-ray yield measurements were also made using a lithium-drifted silicon detector. An electron spectrometer was used to observe Auger, electron loss, and

Robert A. Wagner

1997-01-01

123

Use of electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source for nondestructive testing application  

SciTech Connect

Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique is being used for generating x rays in the low-energy region (<150 keV). Recently, the source is used for the calibration of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) badges. In order to qualify the ECR x-ray source for imaging application, the source should give uniform flux over the area under study. Lead collimation arrangement is made to get uniform flux. The flux profile is measured using a teletector at different distance from the port and uniform field region of 10x10 cm{sup 2} has been marked at 20 cm from the x-ray exit port. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuit pack is used for examining the source performance. The required dose for nondestructive testing examination has been estimated using a hospital x-ray machine and it is found to be 0.05 mSv. Our source experimental parameters are tuned and the DAC circuit pack was exposed for nearly 7 min to get the required dose value. The ECR x-ray source operating parameters are argon pressure: 10{sup -5} Torr, microwave power: 350 W, and coil current: 0 A. The effective energy of the x-ray spectrum is nearly 40 keV. The x-ray images obtained from ECR x-ray source and hospital medical radiography machine are compared. It is found that the image obtained from ECR x-ray source is suitable for NDT application.

Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T.S. [Radiological Safety Division, Safety Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

2006-03-15

124

EXSAA: Environmentally-Induced X-ray Spectral Analysis Automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is one of the principal means of compositional analysis in the lab and in the field: it will be a central tool in NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) missions. No currently available XRF software has the generic functionality to provide the basis for XRF experiment design, instrument development, and data interpretation for the suite of prospective EI missions. In response to this need, we have developed EXSAA (Environmentally-induced X-ray Spectral Analysis Automation), a generic, fast, interactive spectral simulation tool which can be used in assessing broadband continuous spectra being generated and detected during reconnaissance missions and field campaigns involving planetary surfaces. The software produces model spectra of detectable environmentally-induced X-ray spectra from fundamental principles for target characteristics and conditions likely to be experienced in remote or in situ planetary missions. Fluorescence is modeled following Jenkins and DeVries (1967); coherent and Compton scattering following Hubbell (1969). The modeling provided is extensible, and a user interface provides for selection of source, detector characteristics, compositional components, and geometry for known targets. An immediate application of the tool is the prediction for mission planning purposes of X-ray flux to be expected for a range of targets and instrumentation. A longer-term application is the model basis for the recovery of surface composition from actual missions, where some parameters (e.g. source flux) will be known, and others obtained from a Bayesian analysis of the observations. Ultimately, EXSAA could function as part of the agent-based SAA Toolkit being developed by a group of physical scientists, systems engineers, and AI practitioners to automate portions of the spectral analysis process. EXSAA could be called on by human or machine agents to provide an understanding of XRF phenomena for tasks including specifically (1) instrument and mission design and planning, or (2) model-based data analysis. Thus EXSAA could support traditional design methods and enable a variety of experiments in automated design and operation. The far term objective is to develop a toolkit for use at the human/robotic interface during exploration of lunar or Martian surfaces.

Fallon, F. W.; Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Truszkowski, W.

2005-05-01

125

Proposal for a pulse-compression scheme in x-ray free-electron lasers to generate a multiterawatt, attosecond x-ray pulse.  

PubMed

A novel scheme to compress the radiation pulse in x-ray free electron lasers is proposed not only to shorten the pulse length but also to enhance the peak power of the radiation, by inducing a periodic current enhancement with an optical laser and applying a temporal shift between the optical and electron beams. Calculations show that a 10-keV x-ray pulse with a peak power of 5 TW and a pulse length of 50 asec can be generated by applying this scheme to an existing x-ray free electron laser facility. PMID:23473154

Tanaka, Takashi

2013-02-22

126

Development of an x-ray generator using a pyroelectric crystal for x-ray fluorescence analysis on planetary landing missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical element abundance on planetary surface is essential for planetary science. We have been developing an active X-ray spectrometer (AXS), which is an in-situ chemical element analyzer based on the X-ray florescence analysis for future planetary landing missions. The AXS consists of an X-ray detector and multiple X-ray sources. Although a pyroelectric X-ray generator is promising for the AXS as an X-ray source, the raise of emission X-ray intensity is necessary for short-time and precise determination of elemental composition. Also, in order to enhance the detection efficiency of light major elements such as Mg, Al, and Si, we have tested the low energy X-ray emission by changing the target material. In this study, the X-ray emission calculation at the target by Monte Carlo simulation and the X-ray emission experiments were carried out. More than 106 cps of the time-averaged X-ray emission rate was achieved in maximum using a LiTaO3 crystal with 4 mm thickness and Cu target with 10 um thickness. The performance of pyroelectric X-ray generator is presented in this paper.

Kusano, Hiroki; Oyama, Yuki; Naito, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kuno, Haruyoshi; Shibamura, Eido; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Amano, Yoshiharu; Kim, Kyeong J.; Matias Lopes, José A.

2014-09-01

127

Determination of the pulse duration of an x-ray free electron laser using highly resolved single-shot spectra.  

PubMed

We determined the pulse duration of x-ray free electron laser light at 10 keV using highly resolved single-shot spectra, combined with an x-ray free electron laser simulation. Spectral profiles, which were measured with a spectrometer composed of an ultraprecisely figured elliptical mirror and an analyzer flat crystal of silicon (555), changed markedly when we varied the compression strength of the electron bunch. The analysis showed that the pulse durations were reduced from 31 to 4.5 fs for the strongest compression condition. The method, which is readily applicable to evaluate shorter pulse durations, provides a firm basis for the development of femtosecond to attosecond sciences in the x-ray region. PMID:23083249

Inubushi, Yuichi; Tono, Kensuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Togawa, Kazuaki; Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yabashi, Makina

2012-10-01

128

77 FR 12226 - Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed...for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed...for the safe use of electron beam and x- ray sources for irradiation of poultry...

2012-02-29

129

Inferring the Energy Distribution of Accelerated Electrons in Solar Flares from X-ray Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the energy distribution of electrons accelerated in solar flares is important for constraining possible acceleration mechanisms and for understanding the relationships between flare X-ray sources, radio sources, and particles observed in space. Solar flare hard X-rays are primarily emitted from dense, thick-target regions in the lower atmosphere, but the electrons are understood to be accelerated higher in the corona. Various processes can distort the X-ray spectrum or the energy distribution of electrons before they reach the thick-target region. After briefly reviewing the processes that affect the X-ray spectrum and the electron distribution, I will describe recent results from a study of flare spectra from RHESSI to determine the importance of these processes in inferring the energy distribution of accelerated electrons.

Holman, Gordon D.; Sui, Linhui; Su, Yang

2008-01-01

130

Combining Electron Microscopic with X-Ray Crystallographic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analgorithm has been developed for placing three-dimensional atomic structures into appropriately scaled cryoelectron microscopy maps. The first stage in this process is to conduct a three-dimensional angular search in which the center of gravity of an X-ray crystallographically determined structure is placed on a selected position in the cryoelectron microscopy map. The quality of the fit is measured by the

Michael G. Rossmann; Ricardo Bernal; Sergei V. Pletnev

2001-01-01

131

Surface roughness analysis of multilayer x-ray optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rigaku Innovative Technologies (RIT) produces x-ray optics based on multilayer mirrors. A multilayer mirror is deposited on a wafer and mounted on a solid backing plate in an elliptical shape to focus x-rays. The wafer surface imperfections, defects from the multilayer deposition, and figure errors induced by the mounting process result in some focal spot widening for the final optics. An AFM is used in the spatial period range 0.1 - 10 microns, and a "ZYGO" interferometric microscope is used in the spatial period range 1 micron - 5 mm, to study these imperfections determining the influence of each technological step on the focal spot quality. AFM analysis shows dramatically different roughness between 1 x 1 micron and 20 x 20 micron field of view on super-polished substrates from some suppliers and only a little difference from others. A smoothing effect of a multilayer coating at spatial periods less than one micron as well as defects in multilayer coatings have been observed with power spectral density analysis. Machining marks on the surface of wafers are clearly seen at ZYGO microscope pictures. Ray-tracing simulations based on the ZYGO data show the focal spot shape changes due to the figure errors introduced at the step of a multilayer coated wafer mounting and only background scattering with no focal spot widening from defects induced at the step of multilayer deposition.

Martynov, Vladimir V.; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

2008-08-01

132

Nonthermal X-rays and related processes. [analysis of hard X-rays associated with solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hard X-rays associated with solar flares represent the bremsstrahlung of nonthermal electron streams. In the initial phase of the flare, the X-rays probably come from a dense region in the chromosphere, as a consequence of precipitation from the lower corona. A gradual nonthermal X-ray burst may occur in a later phase, probably caused by the electrons responsible for the type 4 burst. The bombardment of the chromosphere during the early phase of the flare releases a large amount of energy there. This energy can support many of the observed flash-phase phenomena. We therefore consider this picture of flare energetics: The energy initially goes into fast particles. These interact with the chromosphere, which expands to form the hot region observed in the corona. This hot region then provides energy for many of the main-phase flare phenomena, such as H-alpha emission. The bulk of the energy in the bombardment must reside in the electron component. A clear test of the whole picture lies in its prediction of a strong infrared excess during the flash phase.

Hudson, H. S.

1973-01-01

133

Wavelet Analysis of Solar Flare Hard X-Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a multiresolution analysis to hard X-ray (HXR) time profiles f(t) of solar flares. This method is based on a wavelet transform (with triangle-shaped wavelets), which yields a dynamic decomposition of the power at different timescales T, the scalogram P(T, t). For stationary processes, time-averaged power coefficients, the scalegram S(T), can be calculated. We develop an algorithm to transform these (multiresolution) scalegrams S(T) into a standard distribution function of physical timescales, N(T). We analyze 647 solar flares observed with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), recorded at energies >=25 keV with a time resolution of 64 ms over 4 minutes in each flare. The main findings of our wavelet analysis are: 1. In strong flares, the shortest detected timescales are found in the range Tmin ~ 0.1-0.7 s. These minimum timescales are found to correlate with the flare loop size r (measured from Yohkoh images in 46 flares), according to the relation Tmin(r) ~ 0.5(r/109 cm) s. Moreover, these minimum timescales are subject to a cutoff, Tmin(ne) >~ TDefl(ne), which corresponds to the electron collisional deflection time at the loss-cone site of the flare loops (inferred from energy-dependent time delays in CGRO data). 2. In smoothly varying flares, the shortest detected timescales are found in the range Tmin ~ 0.5-5 s. Because these smoothly varying flares exhibit also large trap delays, the lack of detected fine structure is likely to be caused by the convolution with trapping times. 3. In weak flares, the shortest detected timescales cover a large range, Tmin ~ 0.5-50 s, mostly affected by Poisson noise. 4. The scalegrams S(T) show a power-law behavior with slopes of ?max ~ 1.5-3.2 (for strong flares) over the timescale range of [Tmin, Tpeak]. Dominant peaks in the timescale distribution N(T) are found in the range Tpeak ~ 0.5-102 s, often coinciding with the upper cutoff of N(T). These observational results indicate that the fastest significant HXR time structures detected with wavelets (in strong flares) are related to physical parameters of propagation and collision processes. If the minimum timescale Tmin is associated with an Alfvénic crossing time through elementary acceleration cells, we obtain sizes of racc ~ 75-750 km, which have a scale-invariant ratio racc/r ~ 0.03 to flare loops and are consistent with cell sizes inferred from the frequency bandwidth of decimetric millisecond spikes.

Aschwanden, Markus J.; Kliem, Bernhard; Schwarz, Udo; Kurths, Jürgen; Dennis, Brian R.; Schwartz, Richard A.

1998-10-01

134

A simulation of X-ray shielding for a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.  

PubMed

It is generally assumed that large amounts of x-rays are emitted from the ion source of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) instrument. The total amount of x-rays should be strictly limited to avoid the extra heat load to the cryostat of the superconducting ECR ion source, since they are partly absorbed by the cold mass into the cryostat. A simulation of x-ray shielding was carried out to determine the effective thickness of the x-ray shield needed via the use of Geant4. X-ray spectra of the 10 GHz Nanogan ECR ion source were measured as a function of the thickness variation in the x-ray shield. The experimental results were compared with Geant4 results to verify the effectiveness of the x-ray shield. Based on the validity in the case of the 10 GHz ECR ion source, the x-ray shielding results are presented by assuming the spectral temperature of the 28 GHz ECR ion source. PMID:24593527

Park, Jin Yong; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Byoung-Chul

2014-02-01

135

Multilayers are enabling new science with x-ray free electron lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enable the imaging of high-resolution structure and ultrafast dynamics of samples with the soft X-ray free electron laser, FLASH, at DESY in Hamburg. The FLASH free-electron laser (FEL) produces intense ultrashort soft X-ray pulses with more than 10 times higher peak brightness as compared with the most advanced synchrotron radiation sources. This allows

S Bajt; H N Chapman

2007-01-01

136

Entangled Valence Electron-Hole Dynamics Revealed by Stimulated Attosecond X-ray Raman Scattering  

PubMed Central

We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by stimulated resonant Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction. PMID:23755318

Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan

2012-01-01

137

Development of a hard X-ray delay line for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump–probe experiments at X-ray free-electron laser sources  

PubMed Central

A hard X-ray delay line capable of splitting and delaying single X-ray pulses has been developed with the aim of performing X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and X-ray pump–probe experiments at hard X-ray free-electron laser sources. The performance of the device was tested with 8.39?keV synchrotron radiation. Time delays up to 2.95?ns have been demonstrated. The feasibility of the device for performing XPCS studies was tested by recording static speckle patterns. The achieved speckle contrast of 56% indicates the possibility of performing ultra-fast XPCS studies with the delay line. PMID:21525658

Roseker, Wojciech; Franz, Hermann; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Ehnes, Anita; Leupold, Olaf; Zontone, Federico; Lee, Sooheyong; Robert, Aymeric; Grübel, Gerhard

2011-01-01

138

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND LOW-ANGLE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE NERVE MYELIN SHEATH  

PubMed Central

1. A close correlation has been obtained between high resolution electron microscopy and low-angle x-ray diffraction studies of the myelin sheath of frog and rat peripheral and central nerves. Extensive studies were performed by application of both techniques to the same specimens, prepared for examination by OsO4 or KMnO4 fixation, and embedding either in methacrylate or in gelatin employing a new procedure. Controlled physical and chemical modifications of the myelin sheath prior to fixation were also investigated. 2. A correspondence was established between the layer spacings observed in electron micrographs and the fundamental radial repeating unit indicated by the low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns. The variations in relative intensities of the low-angle x-ray reflections could be related to the radial density distributions seen in the electron micrographs. 3. An analysis of the preparation procedures revealed that OsO4 fixation introduces a greater shrinkage of the layer spacings and more pronounced changes in the density distribution within the layers than KMnO4 fixation. The effects of methacrylate and gelatin embedding are described, and their relative merits considered in relation to the preservation of myelin structure by OsO4 fixation. 4. The experimental modifications introduced by freezing and thawing of fresh whole nerve are described, particularly the enhancement of the intermediate lines and the dissociation of the layer components in the myelin sheath. A characteristic collapsing of the radial period of the sheath is observed after subjecting fresh nerve trunks to prolonged and intense ultracentrifugation. 5. Controlled extraction of fresh nerve with acetone at 0°C., which preferentially removes cholesterol, produces characteristic, differentiated modifications of the myelin sheath structure. Electron microscopy reveals several types of modifications within a single preparation, including both expanded and collapsed layer systems, and internal rearrangements of the layer components. Alcohol extraction leads to a more extensive structural breakdown, but in certain areas collapsed layer systems can still be observed. The components of the lipide extracts could be identified by means of x-ray diffraction. These modifications emphasize the importance of cholesterol in the myelin structure, and disclose a resistance of the dense osmiophilic lines to lipide solvents. 6. The significance of these structures is discussed in relation to present concepts of the molecular organization of myelin. The available evidence is consistent with the suggestion that the primary site of osmium deposition is at the lipoprotein interfaces and that the light bands probably represent regions occupied by lipide chains. The electron microscope and x-ray diffraction data also indicate the possibility of a regular organization within the plane of the layers, probably involving units of 60 to 80 A. The myelin sheath is regarded as a favourable cell membrane model for detailed analysis by combined application of x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. PMID:13475388

Fernández-morán, H.; Finean, J. B.

1957-01-01

139

X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium spectrometer  

E-print Network

X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium spectrometer R. M-resolution germanium detector aboard the MAXIS (MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) balloon payload detected, and M. P. McCarthy, X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium

California at Berkeley, University of

140

Quantitative Evaluation of Radiation Damage to Polyethylene Terephthalate by Soft X-rays and High-energy Electrons  

E-print Network

Quantitative Evaluation of Radiation Damage to Polyethylene Terephthalate by Soft X-rays and High to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) caused by soft X-rays and energetic electrons have been measured using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Electron beam damage at two different dose rates and a range

Hitchcock, Adam P.

141

Observation of pulsed x-ray trains produced by laser-electron Compton scatterings  

SciTech Connect

X-ray generation based on laser-electron Compton scattering is one attractive method to achieve a compact laboratory-sized high-brightness x-ray source. We have designed, built, and tested such a source; it combines a 50 MeV multibunch electron linac with a mode-locked 1064 nm laser stored and amplified in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We directly observed trains of pulsed x rays using a microchannel plate detector; the resultant yield was found to be 1.2x10{sup 5} Hz in good agreement with prediction. We believe that the result has demonstrated good feasibility of linac-based compact x-ray sources via laser-electron Compton scatterings.

Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Araki, Sakae; Fukuda, Masafumi; Higashi, Yasuo; Honda, Yosuke; Omori, Tsunehiko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji [KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sasao, Noboru [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2009-12-15

142

X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET  

E-print Network

X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Introduction X-Ray Properties of Elements Electron Binding Energies X-Ray Levels of Few Electron Ions Now Available Order X-Ray Data Booklet http://xdb.lbl.gov/ (1 of 3) [2

Meagher, Mary

143

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of NLO Crystals: Traditional Applications and More New Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis is one of the more important methods for the molecular and crystal structure determination of matter and therefore it has a great importance in material science including design and engineering of different compounds with non-linear optical (NLO) properties. It was shown in our previous publications that this method provides unique information about molecular structure of NLO compounds, their crystal symmetry and crystal packing arrays, molecular conformation and geometries and many other structural and electronic characteristics that are important for understanding the nature of NLO properties of solids. A very new application of the X-ray diffraction method is related to analysis of the electron density distribution p(r) in crystals and some of its characteristics (atomic and group charges, dipole and higher multipole moments, etc.), that may be obtained directly form the diffraction measurements. In the present work, we will discuss our preliminary low temperature high-resolution X-ray data for the m-nitroaniline (mNA) single crystal (VI). This is one of the "classical" organic NLO materials and electron density distribution analysis in this simple compound has a great scientific interest.

Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Clark, Ronald D.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.

1998-01-01

144

Automated analysis of SEM X-ray spectral images: a powerful new microanalysis tool.  

PubMed

Spectral imaging in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer has the potential to be a powerful tool for chemical phase identification, but the large data sets have, in the past, proved too large to efficiently analyze. In the present work, we describe the application of a new automated, unbiased, multivariate statistical analysis technique to very large X-ray spectral image data sets. The method, based in part on principal components analysis, returns physically accurate (all positive) component spectra and images in a few minutes on a standard personal computer. The efficacy of the technique for microanalysis is illustrated by the analysis of complex multi-phase materials, particulates, a diffusion couple, and a single-pixel-detection problem. PMID:12597783

Kotula, Paul G; Keenan, Michael R; Michael, Joseph R

2003-02-01

145

Magnetic and Electronic Properties of Heusler Alloy Films Investigated by X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the magnetic properties of epitaxial Heusler alloy films using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and\\u000a x-ray magnetic circular dichroism?dex{x-ray!magnetic circular dichroism} (XMCD) in the transmission (TM) and in the surface\\u000a sensitive total electron yield (TEY) mode. We have investigated Ni_2MnGa based shape memory alloys and half-metallic Co2Cro.6Feo.4 films. Single crystalline Ni2MnGa(110)\\/Al2O3(1120) and Ni2MnGa(100)\\/MgO(100) films show a martensitic transition

Hans-Joachim Elmers; Andres Conca; Tobias Eichhorn; Andrei Gloskovskii; Kerstin Hild; Gerhard Jakob; Martin Jourdan; Michael Kallmayer

2009-01-01

146

A Sealed, UHV Compatible, Soft X-ray Detector Utilizing Gas Electron Multipliers  

SciTech Connect

An advanced soft X-ray detector has been designed and fabricated for use in synchrotron experiments that utilize X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the study a wide range of materials properties. Fluorescence X-rays, in particular C{sub K} at 277eV, are converted in a low pressure gas medium, and charge multiplication occurs in two gas electron multipliers, fabricated in-house from glass reinforced laminate, to enable single photon counting. The detector satisfies a number of demanding characteristics often required in synchrotron environments, such as UHV compatibility compactness, long-term stability, and energy resolving capability.

Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.

2009-10-25

147

New X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of long working distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of 300 mm long working distance has been developed at beamline 37XU of SPring-8. A focusing test has been performed in the X-ray energy range 20-37.7 keV. A focused beam size of 1.3 ?m ( V)×1.5 ?m ( H) has been achieved at an X-ray energy of 30 keV, and a total photon flux of the focused beam was about 2.7×10 10 photons/s. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) analysis of eggplant roots has been carried out using the developed microprobe. It is clearly observed in the XRF images that cadmium is highly accumulated in the endodermis, exodermis and epidermis of roots. This study demonstrates the potential of scanning microscopy for heavy elements analysis in the high-energy X-ray region.

Terada, Yasuko; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Uruga, Tomoya

2010-05-01

148

High-precision x-ray spectroscopy in few-electron ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental and spectrum analysis procedures that led to about 15 new, high-precision, relative x-ray line energy measurements are presented. The measured lines may be used as x-ray reference lines in the 2.4-3.1 keV range. Applications also include tests of the atomic theory, and in particular of quantum electrodynamics and of relativistic many-body theory calculations. The lines originate from 2- to 4-electron ions of sulfur (Z=16), chlorine (Z=17) and argon (Z=18). The precision reached for their energy ranges from a few parts per million (ppm) to about 50 ppm. This places the new measurements among the most precise performed in mid-Z highly charged ions (Z is the nuclear charge number). The elements of the experimental setup are described: the ion source (an electron cyclotron resonance ion trap), the spectrometer (a single, spherically bent crystal spectrometer), as well as the spectrum acquisition camera (low-noise, high-efficiency CCD). The spectrum analysis procedure, which is based on a full simulation of the spectrometer response function, is also presented.

LeBigot, E. O.; Boucard, S.; Covita, D. S.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Indelicato, P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Schlesser, S.; Simons, L. M.; Stingelin, L.; Trassinelli, M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Wasser, A.; Zmeskal, J.

2009-05-01

149

X-ray chemical imaging and the electronic structure of a single nanoplatelet Ni/graphene composite.  

PubMed

Chemical imaging and quantitative analysis of a single graphene nanoplatelet grown with Ni nanoparticles (Ni/graphene) has been performed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Local electronic and chemical structure of Ni/graphene has been investigated by spatially resolved C, O K-edges and Ni L-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, revealing the covalent anchoring of Ni(0) on graphene. This study facilitates the understanding of the structure modification of host materials for hydrogen storage and offers a better understanding of interaction between Ni particles and graphene. PMID:24443723

Zhou, Chunyu; Wang, Jian; Szpunar, Jerzy A

2014-03-01

150

Wavelength-dispersive spectrometer for X-ray microfluorescence analysis at the X-ray microscopy beamline ID21 (ESRF)  

PubMed Central

The development of a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer for microfluorescence analysis at the X-ray Microscopy ID21 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is reported. The spectrometer is based on a polycapillary optic for X-ray fluorescence collection and is operated in a flat-crystal geometry. The design considerations as well as operation characteristics of the spectrometer are presented. The achieved performances, in particular the energy resolution, are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Further improvement in the energy resolution, down to ?eV range, by employing a double-crystal geometry is examined. Finally, examples of applications requiring both spatial and spectral resolutions are presented. PMID:20400840

Szlachetko, J.; Cotte, M.; Morse, J.; Salomé, M.; Jagodzinski, P.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Susini, J.

2010-01-01

151

X-RAY NONLINEAR OPTICAL PROCESSES IN ATOMS USING A SELF-AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION FREE-ELECTRON LASER  

SciTech Connect

X-ray free electron lasers (xFEL) will open new avenues to the virtually unexplored territory of non-linear interactions of x rays with matter. Initially xFELs will be based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). Each SASE pulse consists of a number of coherent intensity spikes of random amplitude, i.e. the process is chaotic and pulses are irreproducible. The coherence time of SASE xFELs will be a few femtoseconds for a photon energy near 1 keV. The importance of coherence properties of light in non-linear optical processes was theoretically discovered in the early 1960s. In this contribution we will illustrate the impact of field chaoticity on x-ray non-linear optical processes on neon for photon energies around 1 keV and intensities up to 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Resonant and non-resonant processes are discussed. The first process to be addressed is the formation of a double-core hole in neon by photoionization with x rays above 1.25 keV energy. In contrast to the long-wavelength regime, non-linear optical processes in the x-ray regime are characterized in general by sequential single-photon single-electron interactions. Despite this fact, the sequential absorption of multiple x-ray photons depends on the statistical properties of the radiation field. Treating the x rays generated by a SASE FEL as fully chaotic, a quantum-mechanical analysis of inner-shell two-photon absorption is performed. By solving a system of time-dependent rate equations, we demonstrate that double-core hole formation in neon via x-ray two-photon absorption is enhanced by chaotic photon statistics. At an intensity of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the statistical enhancement is about 30%, much smaller than typical values in the optical regime. The second part of this presentation discusses the resonant Auger effect of atomic neon at the 1s-3p transition (at 867.1 eV). For low X-ray intensity, the excitation process 1s {yields} 3p in Neon can be treated perturbatively. The core-hole excited 1s{sup -1} 3p state is embedded in the continuum and decays via Auger-process on the timescale of approximately 5 fs. Increasing the x-ray intensity above 1.5 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, a peak intensity accessible with xFEL sources in the near future, x-ray induced emission from 3p back to 1s becomes possible, i.e. Rabi oscillations between these two levels can be induced. For the numerical analysis of this process, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. The observation of x-ray-driven atomic populations dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic xFEL pulses. In addition to requiring single-shot measurements, sub-femtosecond temporal resolution would be needed. The Rabi oscillations will, however, be imprinted on the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron (see Fig. 1). Measuring the resonant Auger-electron line profile will provide information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

Rohringer, N

2008-08-08

152

Identification of thorium dioxide in human liver cells by electron microscopic x-ray microanalysis.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two years after injection of thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) for diagnostic x-ray studies in a female patient deposits were found by light microscopy in the liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). They were shown by electron microscopy to be located inside secondary lysosomes, and by autoradiography and x-ray microanalysis they were identified as thorium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:213451

Odegaard, A; Ophus, E M; Larsen, A M

1978-01-01

153

High speed simultaneous X-ray and electron imaging and spectroscopy at synchrotrons and TEMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon is a good detector material for ionizing radiation as it has sufficient stopping power for e.g. particles and X-rays.\\u000a In a standard configuration with 500 µm thick Silicon X-rays up to 25 keV can be efficiently converted into signal charges\\u000a as well as e.g. electrons up to 300 keV. We have developed a variety of position, energy and time

Lothar Strüder

154

Electronic structure of hemin in solution studied by resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations.  

PubMed

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra at the iron L-edge from hemin in dimethyl sulfoxide liquid solution are reported. Our experiments, which are interpreted with the help of electronic structure calculations, support earlier assignments of hemin-solvent interactions, including the iron spin state and the role of the chloride ligand obtained from a total fluorescence yield study. The analysis of the explicit radiative relaxation channels of 2p core-level excited iron, explored in the present work, allows for a rather quantitative assignment of the orbitals involved in the excitation-deexcitation process of the core-excited hemin in solution. We specifically distinguish between contributions of partially and fully occupied valence orbitals to the broad X-ray emission band. In addition, our calculations reveal a detailed picture of the character of these orbitals. PMID:25068599

Atak, Kaan; Golnak, Ronny; Xiao, Jie; Suljoti, Edlira; Pflüger, Mika; Brandenburg, Tim; Winter, Bernd; Aziz, Emad F

2014-08-21

155

Calcium L(III) and L(II) region x-ray and electron emissions for near threshold electron excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An x-ray excitation spectrometer (XRES) was constructed and used to record the Lsb{III} and Lsb{II} region x-ray emissions under near threshold electron excitation for samples of pure calcium metal and samples of calcium in various stages of oxidation. X-ray yield measurements were also made using a lithium-drifted silicon detector. An electron spectrometer was used to observe Auger, electron loss, and secondary electron emissions. The principal threshold region resonance feature seen in the oxidized calcium integrated XRES spectrum agreed well with that obtained from the x-ray yield measurement. No threshold region electron resonance signals were discernable above background for incident electron energies which gave rise to the x-ray resonance signals seen in both the XRES and x-ray yield experiments. The x-ray resonance emission spectrum for threshold electron excitation differed substantially from that of a photo-electron yield spectrum obtained by Barth, et al. The differences are attributed to two bound electron processes similar to those observed in the lanthanides.

Wagner, Robert A.

156

Time-resolved structural studies at synchrotrons and X-ray free electron lasers: opportunities and challenges.  

PubMed

X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are potentially revolutionary X-ray sources because of their very short pulse duration, extreme peak brilliance and high spatial coherence, features that distinguish them from today's synchrotron sources. We review recent time-resolved Laue diffraction and time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) studies at synchrotron sources, and initial static studies at XFELs. XFELs have the potential to transform the field of time-resolved structural biology, yet many challenges arise in devising and adapting hardware, experimental design and data analysis strategies to exploit their unusual properties. Despite these challenges, we are confident that XFEL sources are poised to shed new light on ultrafast protein reaction dynamics. PMID:23021004

Neutze, Richard; Moffat, Keith

2012-10-01

157

Time-resolved structural studies at synchrotrons and X-ray free electron lasers: opportunities and challenges  

PubMed Central

X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are potentially revolutionary X-ray sources because of their very short pulse duration, extreme peak brilliance and high spatial coherence, features that distinguish them from today’s synchrotron sources. We review recent time-resolved Laue diffraction and time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) studies at synchrotron sources, and initial static studies at XFELs. XFELs have the potential to transform the field of time-resolved structural biology, yet many challenges arise in devising and adapting hardware, experimental design and data analysis strategies to exploit their unusual properties. Despite these challenges, we are confident that XFEL sources are poised to shed new light on ultrafast protein reaction dynamics. PMID:23021004

Neutze, Richard; Moffat, Keith

2012-01-01

158

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Applying Pyroelectric Crystal to Small High Energy X-Ray Source  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 © X Applying Pyroelectric Crystal to Small High Energy X-Ray Source Eisuke HIRO, Takashi YAMAMOTO and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 195 X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.195-200 (2010) 606-8501 1-1 770-8502 X Applying Pyroelectric

Jun, Kawai

159

Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

2005-01-01

160

LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Analysis of the applications of the Schwarzschild objective in the soft x-ray and VUV spectral ranges. 2. Diffraction modelling of aberrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is reported of the use of the Schwarzschild objective in soft x-ray and VUV (2-20 nm) microscopy. Estimates are given of the influence of the objective alignment and of the precision of fabrication of spherical mirrors on the resolution of the objective (point spread function, line spread function, and modulation transfer function).

Malyutin, A. A.

1997-02-01

161

Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.  

PubMed

We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved. PMID:25273730

Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

2014-09-01

162

Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 ?m square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

Kameshima, Takashi [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki, E-mail: hatsui@spring8.or.jp [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan) [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Horigome, Toshio [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)] [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen [XCam, Ltd, 2 Stone Circle Road, Round Spinney Industrial Estate, Northampton NN3 8RF (United Kingdom)] [XCam, Ltd, 2 Stone Circle Road, Round Spinney Industrial Estate, Northampton NN3 8RF (United Kingdom); Burt, David [e2v, 106 Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom)] [e2v, 106 Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom); Murao, Hajime [Meisei Electric Co. Ltd, Naganuma 2223, Isesaki, Gunma 372-8585 (Japan)] [Meisei Electric Co. Ltd, Naganuma 2223, Isesaki, Gunma 372-8585 (Japan)

2014-03-15

163

Effect of an electron scattering cloud on X-ray oscillations produced by beaming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a scattering cloud on the amplitude of oscillations produced by a rotating beam of X-rays is investigated using analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The scattering cloud was modeled as a uniform density sphere, and the source was represented as an anistropic distribution of radiation emerging from a point at the center of the scattering cloud. The intensity distribution produced by the source beam is examined as a function of optical depth. The relation between electron scattering optical depth and the forward-backward ratio is studied. It is observed that the scattering in a central corona of various optical depths reduces the amplitude of the oscillation. The data suggest that the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray intensities of some luminous low-mass X-ray binaries are caused by oscillations in the luminosity of the X-ray star.

Brainerd, J.; Lamb, F. K.

1987-01-01

164

Experimental demonstration of femtosecond two-color x-ray free-electron lasers.  

PubMed

With an eye toward extending optical wave-mixing techniques to the x-ray regime, we present the first experimental demonstration of a two-color x-ray free-electron laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We combine the emittance-spoiler technique with a magnetic chicane in the undulator section to control the pulse duration and relative delay between two intense x-ray pulses and we use differently tuned canted pole undulators such that the two pulses have different wavelengths as well. Two schemes are shown to produce two-color soft x-ray pulses with a wavelength separation up to ?1.9% and a controllable relative delay up to 40 fs. PMID:23581326

Lutman, A A; Coffee, R; Ding, Y; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J; Maxwell, T; Messerschmidt, M; Nuhn, H-D

2013-03-29

165

Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic structure enables the systematic design of new dyes using less expensive materials.

Johnson, Phillip S.

166

Compton scattering artifacts in electron excited X-ray spectra measured with a silicon drift detector.  

PubMed

Artifacts are the nemesis of trace element analysis in electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Peaks that result from nonideal behavior in the detector or sample can fool even an experienced microanalyst into believing that they have trace amounts of an element that is not present. Many artifacts, such as the Si escape peak, absorption edges, and coincidence peaks, can be traced to the detector. Others, such as secondary fluorescence peaks and scatter peaks, can be traced to the sample. We have identified a new sample-dependent artifact that we attribute to Compton scattering of energetic X-rays generated in a small feature and subsequently scattered from a low atomic number matrix. It seems likely that this artifact has not previously been reported because it only occurs under specific conditions and represents a relatively small signal. However, with the advent of silicon drift detectors and their utility for trace element analysis, we anticipate that more people will observe it and possibly misidentify it. Though small, the artifact is not inconsequential. Under some conditions, it is possible to mistakenly identify the Compton scatter artifact as approximately 1% of an element that is not present. PMID:22067917

Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E; Lindstrom, Abigail P

2011-12-01

167

Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

2012-05-10

168

Direct observation of unstained wet biological samples by scanning-electron generation X-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Analytical tools of nanometre-scale resolution are indispensable in the fields of biology, physics and chemistry. One suitable tool, the soft X-ray microscope, provides high spatial resolution of visible light for wet specimens. For biological specimens, X-rays of water-window wavelength between carbon (284 eV; 4.3 nm) and oxygen (540 eV; 2.3 nm) absorption edges provide high-contrast imaging of biological samples in water. Among types of X-ray microscope, the transmission X-ray microscope using a synchrotron radiation source with diffractive zone plates offers the highest spatial resolution, approaching 15-10 nm. However, even higher resolution is required to measure proteins and protein complexes in biological specimens; therefore, a new type of X-ray microscope with higher resolution that uses a simple light source is desirable. Here we report a novel scanning-electron generation X-ray microscope (SGXM) that demonstrates direct imaging of unstained wet biological specimens. We deposited wet yeasts in the space between two silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) films. A scanning electron beam of accelerating voltage 5 keV and current 1.6 nA irradiates the titanium (Ti)-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} film, and the soft X-ray signal from it is detected by an X-ray photodiode (PD) placed below the sample. The SGXM can theoretically achieve better than 5 nm resolution. Our method can be utilized easily for various wet biological samples of bacteria, viruses, and protein complexes.

Ogura, Toshihiko, E-mail: t-ogura@aist.go.jp [Neuroscience Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)] [Neuroscience Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2010-01-01

169

Combined x-ray/electron/optical Monte Carlo code based on PENELOPE and DETECT-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe MANTIS (Monte carlo x-rAy electroN opTical Imaging Simulation), a tool for simulating imaging systems that tracks x rays, electrons, and optical photons in the same geometric model. The x-ray and electron transport and involved physics models are from the PENELOPE package and include elastic and inelastic scattering, and bremsstrahlung from 100 eV to 1 GeV. The optical transport and corresponding physics models are from DETECT-II and include Fresnel refraction and reflection at material boundaries, bulk absorption and scattering. X rays are generated using the flexible source description from PENELOPE. When x rays or electrons interact and deposit energy in the scintillator, the code generates a number of optical quanta at that location, according to a model for the conversion process. The optical photons are then tracked until they reach an absorption event that in some cases contributes to the electronic signal. We demonstrate the capabilities of the new tool with respect to x-ray source, object to be imaged, and detector models. Of particular importance is the improved geometric description of structured phosphors that can handle tilted columns in needle-like phosphor screens. Examples of the simulation output with respect to signal blur and pulse-height distributions of the scintillation light are discussed and compared with previously published experimental results.

Badano, Aldo; Sempau, Josep; Boswell, Jonathan S.

2005-04-01

170

High-gain X-ray free electron laser by beat-wave terahertz undulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The THz undulator has a higher gain to realize a much brighter X-ray at saturation, compared with the optical undulator under the same undulator strength and beam quality. In order to fill the high-power THz gap and realize the THz undulator, two superimposed laser pulses at normal incidence to the electron-beam moving direction form an equivalent high-field THz undulator by the frequency difference to realize the high-gain X-ray Free electron laser. The pulse front tilt of lateral fed lasers is used to realize the electron-laser synchronic interaction. By PIC simulation, a higher gain and a larger X-ray radiation power by the beat wave THz undulator could be realized, compared with the optical undulator for the same electron beam parameters.

Chang, Chao; Hei, DongWei; Pellegrin, Claudio; Tantawi, Sami

2013-12-01

171

Efficiency calibration of an HPGe X-ray detector for quantitative PIXE analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an analytical technique, which provides reliably and accurately quantitative results without the need of standards when the efficiency of the X-ray detection system is calibrated. The ion beam microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory at the University of North Texas is equipped with a 100 mm2 high purity germanium X-ray detector (Canberra GUL0110 Ultra-LEGe). In order to calibrate the efficiency of the detector for standard less PIXE analysis we have measured the X-ray yield of a set of commercially available X-ray fluorescence standards. The set contained elements from low atomic number Z = 11 (sodium) to higher atomic numbers to cover the X-ray energy region from 1.25 keV to about 20 keV where the detector is most efficient. The effective charge was obtained from the proton backscattering yield of a calibrated particle detector.

Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob D.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Reinert, Tilo

2014-08-01

172

A simplified description of X-ray free-electron lasers  

PubMed Central

It is shown that an elementary semi-quantitative approach explains essential features of the X-ray free-electron laser mechanism, in particular those of the gain and saturation lengths. Using mathematical methods and derivations simpler than complete theories, this treatment reveals the basic physics that dominates the mechanism and makes it difficult to realise free-electron lasers for short wavelengths. This approach can be specifically useful for teachers at different levels and for colleagues interested in presenting X-ray free-electron lasers to non-specialized audiences. PMID:21335894

Margaritondo, G.; Rebernik Ribic, Primoz

2011-01-01

173

A simplified description of X-ray free-electron lasers.  

PubMed

It is shown that an elementary semi-quantitative approach explains essential features of the X-ray free-electron laser mechanism, in particular those of the gain and saturation lengths. Using mathematical methods and derivations simpler than complete theories, this treatment reveals the basic physics that dominates the mechanism and makes it difficult to realise free-electron lasers for short wavelengths. This approach can be specifically useful for teachers at different levels and for colleagues interested in presenting X-ray free-electron lasers to non-specialized audiences. PMID:21335894

Margaritondo, G; Rebernik Ribic, Primoz

2011-03-01

174

Uranium Analysis with X-ray Microscopy Research Team: Andrew Duffin, Jesse Ward, Gregory Eiden, Steven Smith, Bruce McNamara, Edgar Buck  

E-print Network

Uranium Analysis with X-ray Microscopy Research Team: Andrew Duffin, Jesse Ward, Gregory Eiden Chemical fingerprinting of anthropogenic and mineral uranium leading to chemical age dating of reactive uranium samples Develop x-ray and/or electron microscopy protocol for non- destructive uranium sample

175

Design and analysis of the International X-Ray Observatory mirror modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) modules are the fundamental focusing assemblies on NASA's next major X-ray telescope mission, the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO). The preliminary design and analysis of these assemblies has been completed, addressing the major engineering challenges and leading to an understanding of the factors effecting module performance. Each of the 60 modules in the Flight Mirror Assembly

Ryan S. McClelland; Timothy M. Carnahan; David W. Robinson; Timo T. Saha

2010-01-01

176

High-Performance X-ray Detection in a New Analytical Electron Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray detection by energy-dispersive spectrometry in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) is often limited by low collected X-ray intensity (P), modest peak-to-background (P/B) ratios, and limitations on total counting time (tau) due to specimen drift and contamination. A new AFM has been designed with maximization of P. P/B, and tau as the primary considerations. Maximization of P has been accomplished by employing a field-emission electron gun, X-ray detectors with high collection angles, high-speed beam blanking to allow only one photon into the detector at a time, and simultaneous collection from two detectors. P/B has been maximized by reducing extraneous background signals generated at the specimen holder, the polepieces and the detector collimator. The maximum practical tau has been increased by reducing specimen contamination and employing electronic drift correction. Performance improvments have been measured using the NIST standard Cr thin film. The 0-3 steradian solid angle of X-ray collection is the highest value available. The beam blanking scheme for X-ray detection provides 3-4 times greater throughput of X-rays at high count rates into a recorded spectrum than normal systems employing pulse-pileup rejection circuits. Simultaneous X-ray collection from two detectors allows the highest X-ray intensity yet recorded to be collected from the NIST Cr thin film. The measured P/B of 6300 is the highest level recorded for an AEM. In addition to collected X-ray intensity (cps/nA) and P/B measured on the standard Cr film, the product of these can be used as a figure-of-merit to evaluate instruments. Estimated minimum mass fraction (MMF) for Cr measured on the standard NIST Cr thin film is also proposed as a figure-of-merit for comparing X-ray detection in AEMs. Determinations here of the MMF of Cr detectable show at least a threefold improvement over previous instruments.

Lyman, C. E.; Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Ackland, D. W.; vonHarrach, S.; Nicholls, A. W.; Statham, P. J.

1994-01-01

177

Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode  

PubMed Central

The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. K?1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. The technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II. PMID:23129631

Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hellmich, Julia; Glöckner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G.; Schafer, Donald W.; Sellberg, Jonas; Kenney, Christopher; Herbst, Ryan; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Latimer, Matthew J.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Glatzel, Pieter; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

2012-01-01

178

Correlative electron and X-ray microscopy: probing chemistry and bonding with high spatial resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two powerful and complementary techniques for chemical characterisation of nanoscale systems are electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the scanning transmission X-ray microscope. A correlative approach to spectro-microscopy may not only bridge the gaps in spatial and spectral resolution which exist between the two instruments, but also offer unique opportunities for nanoscale characterisation. This review will discuss the similarities of the two spectroscopy techniques and the state of the art for each microscope. Case studies have been selected to illustrate the benefits and limitations of correlative electron and X-ray microscopy techniques. In situ techniques and radiation damage are also discussed.

Goode, Angela E.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; McComb, David W.

2015-01-01

179

Correlative electron and X-ray microscopy: probing chemistry and bonding with high spatial resolution.  

PubMed

Two powerful and complementary techniques for chemical characterisation of nanoscale systems are electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the scanning transmission X-ray microscope. A correlative approach to spectro-microscopy may not only bridge the gaps in spatial and spectral resolution which exist between the two instruments, but also offer unique opportunities for nanoscale characterisation. This review will discuss the similarities of the two spectroscopy techniques and the state of the art for each microscope. Case studies have been selected to illustrate the benefits and limitations of correlative electron and X-ray microscopy techniques. In situ techniques and radiation damage are also discussed. PMID:25532909

Goode, Angela E; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary P; McComb, David W

2015-01-22

180

Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. PMID:22330507

Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Doak, R. Bruce; Kirian, Richard A.; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Andreasson, Jakob; Arnlund, David; Bajt, Saša; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bottin, Hervé; Bozek, John D.; Caleman, Carl; Coppola, Nicola; Davidsson, Jan; DePonte, Daniel P.; Elser, Veit; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Graafsma, Heinz; Grotjohann, Ingo; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Robert; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M.; Hömke, André; Johansson, Linda; Kimmel, Nils; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Krasniqi, Faton; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Liang, Mengning; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V.; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Neutze, Richard; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Carlo; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M. Marvin; Shoeman, Robert L.; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wang, Xiaoyu; Williams, Garth J.; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.

2012-01-01

181

Electronic structure of molybdenum disulfide and related disulfide species: HR-XPS, hydrogen adsorption, and valence band analysis. [HR-XPS (high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectropscopy)  

SciTech Connect

Experimental valence bands were obtained using high resolution electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (HR-ESCA). Theoretical valence bands were calculated using solid state Extended Heukel theory. Comparison of 2-D MoS[sub 2] theoretical valence bands with the experimental HR-ESCA valence band of polycrystalline MoS[sub 2] led to parametrization of the S3s, S3p and Mo4d atomic ionization potentials, H[sub ii], Slater-type coefficients, c[sub i], and exponents, [zeta][sub i]. The S3s and S3p parameters found for MoS[sub 2] were used to obtain NbS[sub 2] and RuS[sub 2] theoretical valence bands. Curvature and energetic positions of theoretical energy dispersion curves approximated those of experimental curves obtained by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, UPS. A direct gap (K [r arrow] K) was calculated for 2-D MoS[sub 2] while an indirect gap ([Gamma] [r arrow] K) was calculated for 3-D MoS[sub 2]. Theoretical binding enthalpies for hydrogen adsorption on molybdenum and sulfur sites on various molybdenum disulfied systems were calculated. Of the sulfur sites, fully-coordinated basal plane sites were favored over 1-coordinate and 2-coordinate edge sites. Of the molybdenum sites, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-coordinate edge sites were favored in that order over fully-coordinated basal plane sites. Angle resolved HR-ESCA of single crystal MoS[sub 2] showed the existance of forward focusing at a polar angle of ca. 49[degrees] and at azimuthal angles separated by 60[degrees]. Forward focusing of second atomic layer molybdenum photoelectrons by first atomic layer sulfur is shown to occur at the following azimuthal angles: 0[degrees], 120[degrees] and 240[degrees] (arbitary designation of 0[degrees]). Forward focusing of fifth atomic layer molybdenum photoelectrons by fourth atomic layer sulfurs is shown to occur at the following azimuthal angles: 60[degrees], 180[degrees] and 300[degrees].

Richards-Babb, M.

1993-01-01

182

Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

Wyatt, J. Matney

2011-06-01

183

Consequences of Electron Precipitation at Mercury: X-ray Aurorae and Heavy Ion Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have established that a quasi-trapped population of ions and electrons with 1-10 keV energies exists at about 1.5 RM radial distance from the planet center (where RM is Mercury's radius) around much of the planet. Additionally, measurements from MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) have documented numerous cases of nightside X-ray fluorescence, which is likely due to the precipitation of 1-10 keV electrons onto the surface of Mercury. Since Mercury has virtually no ionosphere or atmosphere, particles that precipitate impact the planet's surface directly. Using results from a global kinetic transport model of Mercury's magnetosphere, we find that an auroral oval type of electron precipitation pattern forms at latitudes above and below the geomagnetic equator, which is offset to the north of the geographic equator by about 0.2 RM. The locations of X-ray fluorescence on the planet map almost directly to where the nightside electron precipitation is seen in the global kinetic model, leading to the conclusion that the precipitating 1-10 keV electrons indeed result in an X-ray "aurora" at Mercury. Another consequence of electron precipitation at Mercury is the production of heavy ions, in particular sodium and potassium, through electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). Estimated electron precipitation fluxes and ESD yield rates suggest that this process may be a significant contributor to the exosphere and heavy ion cloud observed around Mercury.

Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Starr, R. D.; Anderson, B. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Baker, D. N.; Benna, M.; Hellinger, P.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McLain, J. L.; McNutt, R. L.; Orlando, T. M.; Raines, J. M.; Richard, R. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.; Zurbuchen, T.

2012-12-01

184

Inner-Shell Excitation Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy of Adhesion Promoters  

E-print Network

Inner-Shell Excitation Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy of Adhesion, and AdVanced Electronic Materials, The Dow Chemical Company, 1712 Building, Midland, Michigan 48674 ReceiVed: January 11, 2005 The C 1s, Si 2p, Si 2s, and O 1s inner-shell excitation spectra of vinyltriethoxysilane

Hitchcock, Adam P.

185

Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard-X-ray spectrometry is a tool widely used for diagnostic of runaway electrons in existing tokamaks. In future machines, ITER and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam current and its profile during disruption.

Shevelev, A.; Kiptily, V.; Chugunov, I.; Khilkevitch, E.; Gin, D.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Plyusnin, V.; EFDA-JET contributors

2014-08-01

186

The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (?-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)\\/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum+quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris

Pu-jun Jin; Wei Huang; Jianhua-Wang; Gang Zhao; Xiao-ling Wang

2010-01-01

187

Three-dimensional Radio and X-Ray Modeling and Data Analysis Software: Revealing Flare Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Gary, Dale E.

2015-02-01

188

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PHASE ANALYSIS OF PROCESS AND POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the application of x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to several samples which show the information available from the technique. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis because it provides very complete information with minimal...

189

TOPICAL REVIEW: Human soft tissue analysis using x-ray or gamma-ray techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This topical review is intended to describe the x-ray techniques used for human soft tissue analysis. X-ray techniques have been applied to human soft tissue characterization and interesting results have been presented over the last few decades. The motivation behind such studies is to provide improved patient outcome by using the data obtained to better understand a disease process and improve diagnosis. An overview of theoretical background as well as a complete set of references is presented. For each study, a brief summary of the methodology and results is given. The x-ray techniques include x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Compton scattering, Compton to coherent scattering ratio and attenuation measurements. The soft tissues that have been classified using x-rays or gamma rays include brain, breast, colon, fat, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, prostate, skin, thyroid and uterus.

Theodorakou, C.; Farquharson, M. J.

2008-06-01

190

Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.  

SciTech Connect

A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2010-09-30

191

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points - three TLDs per point - to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.; Rasouli, H.

2014-05-01

192

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak.  

PubMed

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points--three TLDs per point--to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak. PMID:24880371

Rasouli, C; Pourshahab, B; Hosseini Pooya, S M; Orouji, T; Rasouli, H

2014-05-01

193

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15

194

Scale analysis using X-ray microfluorescence and computed radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scale deposits are the most common and most troublesome damage problems in the oil field and can occur in both production and injection wells. They occur because the minerals in produced water exceed their saturation limit as temperatures and pressures change. Scale can vary in appearance from hard crystalline material to soft, friable material and the deposits can contain other minerals and impurities such as paraffin, salt and iron. In severe conditions, scale creates a significant restriction, or even a plug, in the production tubing. This study was conducted to qualify the elements present in scale samples and quantify the thickness of the scale layer using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR?XRF) and computed radiography (CR) techniques. The SR?XRF results showed that the elements found in the scale samples were strontium, barium, calcium, chromium, sulfur and iron. The CR analysis showed that the thickness of the scale layer was identified and quantified with accuracy. These results can help in the decision making about removing the deposited scale.

Candeias, J. P.; de Oliveira, D. F.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

2014-02-01

195

AMPHIBOLE FIBER CONCENTRATION DETERMINATION FOR A SERIES OF COMMUNITY AIR SAMPLES: USE OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION TO SUPPLEMENT ELECTRON MICROSCOPE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The accurate measurement of annual average mineral fiber concentrations at various air sampling sites provides the best index of non-occupational inhalation exposure to fibers in a community located near an industrial source of airborne amphibole fibers. The transmission electron...

196

An X-ray Analysis Pipeline for the Joint Analysis of Cluster Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining multiwavelength data for a single relaxed cluster of galaxies can yield powerful constraints on its dark matter distribution and on the equation of state of the intracluster plasma. I describe an X-ray analysis pipeline for JACO, a codebase for simultaneous modeling of multi-mission X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich, and weak gravitational lensing data. JACO employs a forward convolution approach that assures the

Thomas Bills; A. Mahdavi; A. Mansheim

2009-01-01

197

Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicrometer particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278 to 320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and noncarbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate the application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

Gilles, Mary K; Moffet, R.C.; Henn, T.; Laskin, A.

2011-01-20

198

Femtosecond x-ray pulse characterization in free-electron lasers using a cross-correlation technique.  

PubMed

We report the first measurements of x-ray single-pulse duration and two-pulse separation at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a cross-correlation technique involving x rays and electrons. An emittance-spoiling foil is adopted as a very simple and effective method to control the output x-ray pulse. A minimum pulse duration of about 3 fs full width at half maximum has been measured together with a controllable pulse separation (delay) between two pulses. This technique provides critical temporal diagnostics for x-ray experiments such as x-ray pump-probe studies. PMID:23368472

Ding, Y; Decker, F-J; Emma, P; Feng, C; Field, C; Frisch, J; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J; Loos, H; Welch, J; Wu, J; Zhou, F

2012-12-21

199

A system for acquiring simultaneous electron energy-loss and X-ray spectrum-images.  

PubMed

A compositional imaging system based on simultaneous scanning electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was developed. This system utilizes the combined power of EELS and EDS for quantitative compositional imaging at nanometre resolution. The system is particularly suitable for, but not limited to, biological research, as it simultaneously provides sensitive maps of an element such as Ca or P from EELS and of many other elements from EDS. Degradation of resolution by specimen drift is prevented by correcting for drift during data acquisition, using image cross-correlation. Several advanced features are implemented for real-time and/or off-line quantitative analysis, and the performance of the system is illustrated with practical applications to compositional imaging of cardiac muscle. PMID:15230880

Feng, J; Somlyo, A V; Somlyo, A P

2004-07-01

200

Performance of the x-ray free-electron laser oscillator with crystal cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator are presented that include the frequency-dependent Bragg crystal reflectivity and the transverse diffraction and focusing using the two-dimensional FEL code GINGER. A review of the physics of Bragg crystal reflectors and the x-ray FEL oscillator is made, followed by a discussion of its numerical implementation in GINGER. The simulation results for a two-crystal cavity and realistic FEL parameters indicate ˜109 photons in a nearly Fourier-limited, ps pulse. Compressing the electron beam to 100 A and 100 fs results in comparable x-ray characteristics for relaxed beam emittance, energy spread, and/or undulator parameters, albeit in a larger radiation bandwidth. Finally, preliminary simulation results indicate that the four-crystal FEL cavity can be tuned in energy over a range of a few percent.

Lindberg, R. R.; Kim, K.-J.; Shvyd'Ko, Yu.; Fawley, W. M.

2011-01-01

201

Elemental composition of strawberry plants inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, assessed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.  

PubMed

The elemental composition of strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa cv. Macarena) inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, and non-inoculated controls, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. This allowed simultaneous semi-quantification of different elements in a small, solid sample. Plants were inoculated and grown hydroponically in 50% or 100% Hoagland solution, corresponding to limited or optimum nutrient medium, respectively. Bacteria-inoculated plants increased the growth index 45% and 80% compared to controls when grown in 100% and 50% Hoagland solution, respectively. Thus, inoculation with A. brasilense REC3 in a nutrient-limited medium had the strongest effect in terms of increasing both shoot and root biomass and growth index, as already described for Azospirillum inoculated into nutrient-poor soils. SEM-EDS spectra and maps showed the elemental composition and relative distribution of nutrients in strawberry tissues. Leaves contained C, O, N, Na, P, K, Ca and Cu, while roots also had Si and Cl. The organic fraction (C, O and N) accounted for over 96.3% of the total chemical composition; of the mineral fraction, Na had higher accumulation in both leaves and roots. Azospirillum-inoculated and control plants had similar elemental quantities; however, in bacteria-inoculated roots, P was significantly increased (34.33%), which constitutes a major benefit for plant nutrition, while Cu content decreased (35.16%). PMID:24148195

Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

2014-07-01

202

High-order harmonic generation enhanced by x rays from free-electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically examine high-order harmonic generation (HHG), by an intense near-infrared (nir) laser, in the light of the emerging, intense x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) which have started to revolutionize x-ray science. We present two theories based on modified three-step models of HHG. Once, we combine HHG with resonant x-ray excitation of a core electron into the transient valence vacancy that is created in the course of the HHG process via tunnel ionization (first step of HHG) by the nir light. When the continuum electron is driven back to the parent ion, a recombination with the valence and the core hole may occur. Modified HHG spectra are determined and analyzed for krypton on the 3d ->4p resonance and for neon on the 1s ->2p resonance. Another time, we examine HHG where tunnel ionization by the nir light is replaced by direct x-ray ionization of a core electron. We use the boosted HHG radiation from 1s electrons of neon to predict single attosecond pulses in the kiloelectronvolt regime. For both presented schemes, we find substantial HHG yield from the recombination of the continuum electron with the core hole. Our research brings the capabilities of HHG-based sources to FELs.

Buth, Christian; Kohler, Markus C.; He, Feng; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Ullrich, Joachim; Keitel, Christoph H.

2012-06-01

203

Modification of diode X-ray radiation by electron multiple back-scatter from anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes a large fraction of the electrons are back-scattered and modify the all diode characteristics: electron and ion currents, the electron beam spectrum and thus the X-ray spectrum and efficiency. The last problem is very important for intense electron beam radiography. A hybrid PIC\\/Monte Carlo code is developed

A. V. Kirikov; V. V. Ryzhov; I. Y. Turchanovsky; V. I. Bespalov; V. P. Tarakanov

2001-01-01

204

Analysis of polychromaticity effects in X-ray Talbot interferometer.  

PubMed

The influence of polychromaticity of the X-ray source on the performance of an X-ray Talbot interferometer applied for phase-contrast imaging is analyzed through numerical simulations based on the Fresnel diffraction theory. The presented simulation results show that the visibility of the self-image is fairly insensitive to the source polychromaticity and explain why the interferometer could be well combined with polychromatic X-ray sources in recent experiments. Furthermore, the self-image with a high visibility can be obtained under polychromatic illumination even at a high-order fractional Talbot distance. This fact implies that the acquired image quality for phase measurements can be improved, since the primary signal for phase measurement is proportional to the inter-grating distance. Finally, we mention that the results are also valid for Talbot-Lau interferometer and scanning double-grating configuration. PMID:20358186

Wang, Zhili; Zhu, Peiping; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Liu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Kai; Hong, Youli; Zhang, Huitao; Ge, Xin; Gao, Kun; Wu, Ziyu

2010-07-01

205

Catalyst analysis using synchrotron X-ray microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron X-ray microscopy techniques have been used to characterize several different types of heterogeneous catalysts. Using a collimator to produce microbeams with a size of less than 10?m, maps of the elemental distributions based on detection of the fluorescent X-rays were made, and computed microtomography (CMT) techniques were applied to produce " phase/density contrast" maps. CMT techniques were also used to determine the distribution of a specific major element by making measurements above and below the K X-ray absorption edge. The measurements were made using bending magnet radiation and, in one case, radiation from a 4 T superconducting wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Examples of applications to the study of polyethylene polymerization particles, fluid catalytic cracking catalysts, and hydrotreating catalysts are given.

Jones, K. W.; Spanne, P.; Webb, S. W.; Conner, W. C.; Beyerlein, R. A.; Reagan, W. J.; Dautzenberg, F. M.

1991-05-01

206

Theory and analysis of soft x-ray laser experiments  

SciTech Connect

The atomic modeling of soft x-ray laser schemes presents a formidable challenge to the theorists - a challenge magnified by the recent successful experiments. A complex plasma environment with many ion species present must be simulated. Effects such as turbulence, time dependence, and radiation transport, which are very difficult to model accurately, may be important. We shall describe our efforts to model the recently demonstrated soft x-ray laser in collisionally pumped neon-like selenium, with emphasis on the ionization balance and excited state kinetics. The relative importance of various atomic processes, such as collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination, on the inversion kinetics will be demonstrated. We shall compare our models with experimental results and evaluate the success of this technique in predicting and analyzing the results of x-ray laser experiments. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Whitten, B.L.; Hazi, A.U.

1985-10-01

207

X-Ray Lines Close to Kll Auger Electron Energies from Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and Copper Monocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By x-ray bombardment of metal monocrystals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu), x-rays of KLL radiative Auger electrons (KLL RAE) can be observed on the low energy side of the Kalpha lines. The energies of the x-rays of the KLL RAE of each monocrystal are the same for different lattice planes and when different kinds of x-ray tubes (Mo, W, and Cu) are used. Therefore, the peak energies detected within the KLL Auger electron energy limit are interpreted as KLL RAE x-rays. The measured intensity ratios of KLL/Kalpha are about 0.3%. Additionally, the ratio of I(Kbeta )/I(Kalpha) and I(Si escape peak)/I(Kalpha) are measured. All of these values agree well with theoretical values. The beam shapes of KLL RAE x-rays are studied by taking pictures of x-ray films. The intensity distribution for Ni and Cu are measured by changing the crystal angle with respect to the incident x-ray beam near the Bragg angles of KLL RAE x-rays. It is shown that the KLL RAE x-rays are very sharp and stimulated when the crystal is set at the Bragg angle of the KLL RAE with respect to the incident beam, which contains both the pumping radiation and Bremsstrahlung of the frequencies in the KLL RAE range in which the KLL x-rays stimulation is achieved.

Koo, Yeon Deog

1990-01-01

208

RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS BY HIGH SENSITIVITY DUAL-OPTIC MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and...

209

Feasibility study of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using a liquid metal jet X-ray tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection X-ray spectroscopy (TXRF) is a powerful analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace and ultratrace elements in a sample with lower limits of detection (LLDs) of pg/g to ng/g in concentration and absolute high fg levels are attainable. Several X-ray sources, from low power (few W), 18 kW rotating anodes to synchrotron radiation, are in use for the excitation and lead accordingly to their photon flux delivered on the sample the detection limits specified. Not only the power, but also the brilliance and focal shape are of importance for TXRF. A microfocus of 50-100 ?m spot size or the line focus of diffraction tubes is best suited. Excillum developed a new approach in the design of a source: the liquid metal jet anode. In this paper the results achieved with this source are described. A versatile TXRF spectrometer with vacuum chamber designed at Atominstitut was used for the experiments. A multilayer monochromator selecting the intensive Ga-K? radiation was taken and the beam was collimated by 50 ?m slits. Excellent results regarding geometric beam stability, high fluorescence intensities and low background were achieved leading to detection limits in the high fg range for Ni. A 100 mm2 silicon drift detector (SDD) collimated to 80 mm2 was used to collect the fluorescence radiation. The results from measurements on single element samples are presented.

Maderitsch, A.; Smolek, S.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Takman, P.

2014-09-01

210

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for high throughput analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples: The benefits of synchrotron X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of trace element mass concentrations in ambient air with a time resolution higher than one day represents an urgent need in atmospheric research. It involves the application of a specific technique both for the aerosol sampling and the subsequent analysis of the collected particles. Beside the intrinsic sensitivity of the analytical method, the sampling interval and thus the quantity of collected material that is available for subsequent analysis is a major factor driving the overall trace element detection power. This is demonstrated for synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) of aerosol samples collected with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) in hourly intervals and three particle size ranges. The total aerosol mass on the 1-h samples is in the range of 10 µg. An experimental detection of the nanogram amounts of trace elements with the help of synchrotron X-rays was only achievable by the design of a fit-for-purpose sample holder system, which considered the boundary conditions both from particle sampling and analysis. A 6-µm polypropylene substrate film has evolved as substrate of choice, due to its practical applicability during sampling and its suitable spectroscopic behavior. In contrast to monochromatic excitation conditions, the application of a 'white' beam led to a better spectral signal-to-background ratio. Despite the low sample mass, a counting time of less than 30 s per 1-h aerosol sample led to sufficient counting statistics. Therefore the RDI-SR-XRF method represents a high-throughput analysis procedure without the need for any sample preparation. The analysis of a multielemental mass standard film by SR-XRF, laboratory-based wavelength-dispersive XRF spectrometry and laboratory-based micro XRF spectrometry showed that the laboratory-based methods were no alternatives to the SR-XRF method with respect to sensitivity and efficiency of analysis.

Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Zwicky, Christoph N.; Furger, Markus; Richard, Agnes; Falkenberg, Gerald; Rickers, Karen; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Hill, Matthias; Gehrig, Robert; Baltensperger, Urs

2008-09-01

211

New method of comparison for electron temperature measurements in plasmas using X-ray spectra of heavy elements  

SciTech Connect

Conditions and applicability limits of a new X-ray spectroscopy method for electron temperature measurements in plasmas of heavy elements are considered. The method is based on comparison of spectra under study with those of well diagnosed laser-produced plasmas. To apply the method for diagnosing tungsten plasmas a thorough analysis of laser-produced plasma spectra has been performed. The analysis included investigation of spectrum peculiarities and determination of electron temperatures. Quantitative data were obtained for determining electron temperatures in tungsten plasmas using relative intensities of spectral peaks in the spectral range {lambda} = 3 - 6 nm. (laser plasma)

Shevelko, A P [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-08-31

212

X-ray micro-analysis of aluminium in pumpkinseed gills.  

PubMed

Energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis was applied to study the (sub-) cellular distribution of aluminium at the gill level of "acid-resistant pumpkinseeds (Lepomis gibbosus) exposed to acidified water (pH = 4.2) and an elevated level of aluminium (1.4 mg Al/l, exposure period = 21 days). Electron dense deposits, located in invaginations as well as inside the gill tissue, were shown to contain elevated levels of aluminium and phosphorus. The micro-analytical findings suggest that the pumpkinseed possesses a defence mechanism, in which the intracellular accumulation of aluminium is limited to restricted sites and to storage in macrophages. PMID:8398556

Eeckhaoudt, S; Jacob, W; Witters, H; Van Grieken, R

1993-01-01

213

X-ray irradiation induced changes in electron transport in stabilized a-Se photoconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the effect of high-dose x-ray irradiation on electron transport in stabilized amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray photoconductive films (of the type used in x-ray image detectors) by measuring the electron lifetime ?e through interrupted-field time-of-flight experiments. X-ray induced effects have been examined through two types of experiments. In recovery experiments, the a-Se was preirradiated with and without an applied field (5 V/?m) during irradiation with sufficient dose (typically ˜20 Gy at 21 °C) to significantly reduce the electron lifetime by ˜50%, and then the recovery of the lifetime was monitored as a function of time at three different temperatures, 10 °C, 21 °C, and 35 °C. The lifetime recovery kinetics was exponential with a relaxation time ?r that is thermally activated with an activation energy of 1.66 eV. ?r is a few hours at 21 °C and only a few minutes at 35 °C. In experiments examining the irradiation induced effects, the a-Se film was repeatedly exposed to x-ray radiation and the changes in the drift mobility and lifetime were monitored as a function of accumulated dose D. There was no observable change in the drift mobility. At 21 °C, the concentration of x-ray induced deep traps (or capture centers), Nd, increases linearly with D (Nd ˜ D) whereas at 35 °C, the recovery process prevents a linear increase in Nd with D, and Nd saturates. In all cases, even under high dose irradiation (˜50 Gy), the lifetime was recoverable to its original equilibrium (pre-exposure) value within a few relaxation times.

Walornyj, M.; Kasap, S. O.

2013-12-01

214

X-ray irradiation induced changes in electron transport in stabilized a-Se photoconductors  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the effect of high-dose x-ray irradiation on electron transport in stabilized amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray photoconductive films (of the type used in x-ray image detectors) by measuring the electron lifetime ?{sub e} through interrupted-field time-of-flight experiments. X-ray induced effects have been examined through two types of experiments. In recovery experiments, the a-Se was preirradiated with and without an applied field (5 V/?m) during irradiation with sufficient dose (typically ?20 Gy at 21 °C) to significantly reduce the electron lifetime by ?50%, and then the recovery of the lifetime was monitored as a function of time at three different temperatures, 10 °C, 21 °C, and 35 °C. The lifetime recovery kinetics was exponential with a relaxation time ?{sub r} that is thermally activated with an activation energy of 1.66 eV. ?{sub r} is a few hours at 21 °C and only a few minutes at 35 °C. In experiments examining the irradiation induced effects, the a-Se film was repeatedly exposed to x-ray radiation and the changes in the drift mobility and lifetime were monitored as a function of accumulated dose D. There was no observable change in the drift mobility. At 21 °C, the concentration of x-ray induced deep traps (or capture centers), N{sub d}, increases linearly with D (N{sub d} ? D) whereas at 35 °C, the recovery process prevents a linear increase in N{sub d} with D, and N{sub d} saturates. In all cases, even under high dose irradiation (?50 Gy), the lifetime was recoverable to its original equilibrium (pre-exposure) value within a few relaxation times.

Walornyj, M.; Kasap, S. O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9 (Canada)

2013-12-07

215

Millimeter, Microwave, Hard X--ray and Soft X--ray Observations of Energetic Electron Populations in Solar Flares  

E-print Network

. of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 2 Solar Astronomy 264--33, Caltech, Pasadena CA 91125 Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 1993 March Presented at IAU Colloquium 142, College Park, 1993 January with those implied by the hard X--ray data, and a range of variability of the peak flux in the impulsive

White, Stephen

216

X-ray Mapping of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Materials Using the Electron Microprobe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar samples returned from the Apollo program motivated development of the Bence-Albee algorithm for the rapid and accurate analysis of lunar materials, and established interlaboratory comparability through its common use. In the analysis of mineral and rock fragments it became necessary to combine micro- and macroscopic analysis by coupling electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) with automated stage point counting. A coarse grid that included several thousand points was used, and initially wavelength-dispersive (WDS) and later energydispersive (EDS) data were acquired at discrete stage points using approx. 5 sec count times. A approx 50 micrometer beam diameter was used for WDS and up to 500 micrometer beam diameter for EDS analysis. Average analyses of discretely sampled phases were coupled with the point count data to calculate the bulk composition using matrix algebra. Use of a defocused beam resulted in a contribution from multiple phases to each analytical point, and the analytical data were deconvolved relative to end-member phase chemistry on the fly. Impressive agreement was obtained between WDS and EDS measurements as well as comparison with bulk chemistry obtained by other methods. In the 30 years since these methods were developed, significant improvements in EPMA automation and computer processing have taken place. Digital beam control allows routine collection of x-ray maps by EDS, and stage mapping for WDS is conducted continuously at slew speed and incrementally by sampling at discrete points. Digital pulse processing in EDS systems has significantly increased the throughput for EDS mapping, and the ongoing development of Si-drift detector systems promises mapping capabilities rivaling WDS systems. Spectrum imaging allows a data cube of EDS spectra to be acquired and sophisticated processing of the original data is possible using matrix algebra techniques. The study of lunar and meteoritic materials includes the need to conveniently: (1) Characterize the sample at microscopic and macroscopic scales with relatively high sensitivity, (2) Determine the modal abundance of minerals, and (3) Identify and relocate discrete features of interest in terms of size and chemistry. The coupled substitution of cations in minerals can result in significant variation in mineral chemistry, but at similar average Z, leading to poor backscattered-electron (BSE) contrast discrimination of mineralogy. It is necessary to discriminate phase chemistry at both the trace element level and the major element level. To date, the WDS of microprobe systems is preferred for mapping due to high throughput and the ability to obtain the necessary intensity to discriminate phases at both trace and major element concentrations. It is desirable to produce fully quantitative compositional maps of geological materials, which requires the acquisition of k-ratio maps that are background and dead-time corrected, and which have been corrected by phi(delta z> or an equivalent algorithm at each pixel. To date, turnkey systems do not allow the acquisition of k-ratio maps and the rigorous correction in this manner. X-ray maps of a chondrule from the Ourique meteorite, and a comb-layered xenolith from the San Francisco volcanic field, have been analyzed and processed to extract phase information. The Ourique meteorite presents a challenge due to relatively low BSE contrast, and has been studied using spectrum imaging. X-ray maps for Si, Mg, and FeK(alpha) were used to produce RGB images. The xenolith sample contains sector-zoned augite, olivine, plagioclase, and basaltic glass. X-ray maps were processed using Lispix and ImageJ software to produce mineral phase maps. The x-ray maps for Mg, Ca, and Ti were used with traceback to generate binary images that were converted to RGB images. These approaches are successful in discriminating phases, but it is desirable to achieve the methods that were used on lunar samples 30 years ago on current microprobe systems. Curnt research includes x-ray mapping analysis of the Dalgety Downs chondrite by micro x-ray fluo

Carpenter, P.

2006-01-01

217

An X-ray Analysis of alpha Cru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The star alpha Cru is an early B type subgiant star recently observed by the Chandra Space Telescope. This star is of particular interest due to the observed x-ray emission produced by shocks that form in the stellar wind. We observe hydrogen like O VIII and helium like O VII spectral lines in the Low Energy Transmission Grating spectrum. The

Mark Gorski; R. Ignace; L. Oskinova

2010-01-01

218

X-RAY ANALYSIS OF TECHNETIUM-MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained from x-ray diffraction studies of 99 phases in Mo-- Tc ; alloys are presented. The following phases were identified: alpha -primary ; solid solution bcc structure, BETA -phase of regular BETA -W structure, sigma -; phase of tetragonal structure, and theta -final solid solution of hcp structure. ; The atomic volumes of the phases were calculated. (M.C.G.);

Niemiec

1963-01-01

219

Accurate macromolecular structures using minimal measurements from X-ray free-electron lasers  

PubMed Central

X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources enable the use of crystallography to solve three-dimensional macromolecular structures under native conditions and free from radiation damage. Results to date, however, have been limited by the challenge of deriving accurate Bragg intensities from a heterogeneous population of microcrystals, while at the same time modeling the X-ray spectrum and detector geometry. Here we present a computational approach designed to extract statistically significant high-resolution signals from fewer diffraction measurements. PMID:24633409

Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; Tran, Rosalie; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Lampe, Alyssa; Han, Guangye; Gul, Sheraz; DiFiore, Dörte; Milathianaki, Despina; Fry, Alan R.; Miahnahri, Alan; White, William E.; Schafer, Donald W.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Koglin, Jason E.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sellberg, Jonas; Latimer, Matthew J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Zwart, Petrus H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Bogan, Michael J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Adams, Paul D.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

2014-01-01

220

A free-electron laser fourth-generation x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

The field of synchrotrons radiation research has grown rapidly over the last 25 years due to both the push of the accelerator and magnet technology that produces the x-ray beams and the pull of the extraordinary scientific research those beams make possible. Three successive generations of synchrotrons radiation facilities have resulted in beam brilliances 11 to 12 orders of magnitude greater than the standard laboratory x-ray tube. However, greater advances can be easily imagined given the fact that x-ray beams from present-day facilities do not exhibit the coherence or time structure so familiar with the.optical laser. Theoretical work over the last ten years or so has pointed to the possibility of generating hard x-ray beams with laser-like characteristics. The concept is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission in free electron lasers. The use of a superconducting linac could produce a major, cost-effective facility that spans wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the hard x-ray regime, simultaneously servicing large numbers experimenters from a wide range of disciplines. As with each past generation of synchrotron facilities, immense new scientific opportunities from fourth-generation sources.

Moncton, D. E.

1999-10-21

221

Fast electron studies using a multichord x-ray spectrometer on MST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic on MST consists of six SXR detectors and six HXR detectors capable of measuring photons in the energy range 3-25 keV and 10-60 keV, respectively. The detectors can be installed on any of 17 ports viewing a poloidal cross-section, with impact parameters from ra=0.87 inboard to ra=0.84 outboard. An updated code processes the digitized signals, providing the time and energy of photons incident on each detector, and is capable of resolving individual photons arriving at the detector less than 50 ns apart. The spatial resolution of the system may allow improved diagnosis of the QSH tearing mode on MST, including the x-ray enhancement and spatial structure. The system may be able to probe electron heating during magnetic reconnection, the counterpart to noncollisional ion heating observed during magnetic reconnection on MST. X-ray flux from multiple view chords are compared with prediction from the kinetic code CQL3D. X-ray measurements can be used to constrain CQL3D in order to estimate Zeff and radial diffusion profiles. Additionally, radially-localized x-ray measurements from lower hybrid current drive experiments are shown.

Lee, J. D.

2012-10-01

222

Enhancing X-Ray Generation by Electron-Beam-Laser Interaction in an Optical Bragg Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that x-ray radiation emitted by relativistic electrons scattered by a counter-propagating laser pulse guided by an adequate Bragg structure surpasses by about 2 orders of magnitude the energy generated by a conventional free-space Gaussian-beam configuration, given the same e beam and injected laser power in both configurations.

Karagodsky, Vadim; Schieber, David; Schächter, Levi

2010-01-01

223

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF POST-ABATEMENT DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to characterize post-abatement dust collected with a HEPA filtered vacuum. hree size fractions of resuspended dust (0-30 pm, 2.5-15 pm, and ...

224

2014 9 30 XFEL: X-ray Free Electron LaserSACLA[1] X [2  

E-print Network

1 2014 9 30 X SACLA X X X X X XFEL: X-ray Free Electron LaserSACLA[1] X [2] XFEL [3] X X X X X X X SACLA X [4] 1020 W/cm2 X 2014 4 28 http://www.spring8.or.jp/ja/news_publications/press_release/2014/140428/ X X

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

225

Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature using an X-ray free-electron laser.  

PubMed

High-resolution ribosome structures determined by X-ray crystallography have provided important insights into the mechanism of translation. Such studies have thus far relied on large ribosome crystals kept at cryogenic temperatures to reduce radiation damage. Here, the application of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain diffraction data from ribosome microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature is described. 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals diffracted to beyond 6?Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX for ribosome structural studies. The ability to collect diffraction data at near-physiological temperatures promises to provide fundamental insights into the structural dynamics of the ribosome and its functional complexes. PMID:23989164

Demirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G; Laksmono, Hartawan; Shoeman, Robert L; Botha, Sabine; Barends, Thomas R M; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Doak, R Bruce; Gati, Cornelius; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Jogl, Gerwald; Dahlberg, Albert E; Gregory, Steven T; Bogan, Michael J

2013-09-01

226

Design and measurement of a Cu L-edge x-ray filter for free electron laser pumped x-ray laser experiments.  

PubMed

An inner-shell photoionized x-ray laser pumped by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser has been proposed recently. The measurement of the on-axis 849 eV Ne?K? laser and protection of the x-ray spectrometer from damage require attenuation of the 1 keV LCLS beam. An Al/Cu foil combination is well suited, serving as a low energy bandpass filter below the Cu L-edge at 933 eV. A high resolution grating spectrometer is used to measure the transmission of a candidate filter with an intense laser-produced x-ray backlighter developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility Janus. The methodology and discussion of the observed fine structure above the Cu L-edge will be presented. PMID:21034028

Dunn, J; London, R A; Cone, K V; Rocca, J J; Rohringer, N

2010-10-01

227

Design and measurement of a Cu L-edge x-ray filter for free electron laser pumped x-ray laser experimentsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inner-shell photoionized x-ray laser pumped by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser has been proposed recently. The measurement of the on-axis 849 eV Ne K? laser and protection of the x-ray spectrometer from damage require attenuation of the 1 keV LCLS beam. An Al/Cu foil combination is well suited, serving as a low energy bandpass filter below the Cu L-edge at 933 eV. A high resolution grating spectrometer is used to measure the transmission of a candidate filter with an intense laser-produced x-ray backlighter developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility Janus. The methodology and discussion of the observed fine structure above the Cu L-edge will be presented.

Dunn, J.; London, R. A.; Cone, K. V.; Rocca, J. J.; Rohringer, N.

2010-10-01

228

Design and measurement of a Cu L-edge x-ray filter for free electron laser pumped x-ray laser experiments  

SciTech Connect

An inner-shell photoionized x-ray laser pumped by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser has been proposed recently. The measurement of the on-axis 849 eV Ne K{alpha} laser and protection of the x-ray spectrometer from damage require attenuation of the 1 keV LCLS beam. An Al/Cu foil combination is well suited, serving as a low energy bandpass filter below the Cu L-edge at 933 eV. A high resolution grating spectrometer is used to measure the transmission of a candidate filter with an intense laser-produced x-ray backlighter developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility Janus. The methodology and discussion of the observed fine structure above the Cu L-edge will be presented.

Dunn, J.; London, R. A.; Rohringer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Cone, K. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Rocca, J. J. [NSF Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

2010-10-15

229

A waveguide electron cyclotron resonance source of X-ray emission for low-dose introscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a "point" target in a conventional evacuated waveguide in the magnetic field of a mirror trap formed by two disk magnets axially magnetized in the direction perpendicular to the electric field vector represents a source of X-ray bremsstrahlung of electrons accelerated in an ECR discharge with a broad range of photon energies up to 0.8 MeV. The dosage rate of the source is ˜1 R/h. The source fed from a conventional microwave oven has small dimensions and a low weight. It is easy-to-use and is suitable as a laboratory tool, in particular, in radiobiology and introscopy. After passing through the object, X-ray emission is recorded by a digital camera with the help of a highly sensitive X-ray fluorescent screen, which converts it into an optical image.

Sergeichev, K. F.; Ionidi, V. Yu.; Karfidov, D. M.; Lukina, N. A.

2013-12-01

230

Emerging opportunities in structural biology with X-ray free-electron lasers.  

PubMed

X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) produce X-ray pulses with extremely brilliant peak intensity and ultrashort pulse duration. It has been proposed that radiation damage can be 'outrun' by using an ultra intense and short X-FEL pulse that passes a biological sample before the onset of significant radiation damage. The concept of 'diffraction-before-destruction' has been demonstrated recently at the Linac Coherent Light Source, the first operational hard X-ray FEL, for protein nanocrystals and giant virus particles. The continuous diffraction patterns from single particles allow solving the classical 'phase problem' by the oversampling method with iterative algorithms. If enough data are collected from many identical copies of a (biological) particle, its three-dimensional structure can be reconstructed. We review the current status and future prospects of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and single-particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with X-FELs. PMID:22922042

Schlichting, Ilme; Miao, Jianwei

2012-10-01

231

Emerging opportunities in structural biology with X-ray free-electron lasers  

PubMed Central

X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) produce X-ray pulses with extremely brilliant peak intensity and ultrashort pulse duration. It has been proposed that radiation damage can be “outrun” by using an ultra intense and short X-FEL pulse that passes a biological sample before the onset of significant radiation damage. The concept of “diffraction-before-destruction” has been demonstrated recently at the Linac Coherent Light Source, the first operational hard X-ray FEL, for protein nanocrystals and giant virus particles. The continuous diffraction patterns from single particles allow solving the classical “phase problem” by the oversampling method with iterative algorithms. If enough data are collected from many identical copies of a (biological) particle, its three-dimensional structure can be reconstructed. We review the current status and future prospects of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and single-particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with X-FELs. PMID:22922042

Schlichting, Ilme; Miao, Jianwei

2012-01-01

232

Food Irradiation Using Electron Beams and X-Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation we will discuss the technology of food irradiation using electron accelerators. Food irradiation has generally come to describe the use of ionizing radiation to decrease the population of, or prevent the growth of, undesirable biological organisms in food. The many beneficial applications include insect disinfestation, sprouting inhibition, delayed ripening, and the enhanced safety and sterilization of fresh

Bruce Miller

2003-01-01

233

X-ray and electron spectroscopy investigation of the core-shell nanowires of ZnO:Mn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO/ZnO:Mn core-shell nanowires were studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Mn K- and L 2,3-edges and electron energy loss spectroscopy of the O K-edge. The combination of conventional X-ray and nanofocused electron spectroscopies together with advanced theoretical analysis turned out to be fruitful for the clear identification of the Mn phase in the volume of the core-shell structures. Theoretical simulations of spectra, performed using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave approach, confirm that the shell of the nanowires, grown by the pulsed laser deposition method, is a real dilute magnetic semiconductor with Mn 2+ atoms at the Zn sites, while the core is pure ZnO.

Guda, A. A.; Smolentsev, N.; Verbeeck, J.; Kaidashev, E. M.; Zubavichus, Y.; Kravtsova, A. N.; Polozhentsev, O. E.; Soldatov, A. V.

2011-10-01

234

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Role of Desktop X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Wakayama  

E-print Network

of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan (Received 25 October widely known but desk-top type X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed for the forensic analysis curry poisoning case, Identification, Forensic analysis, Arsenic 1998 10 7 25 X Si Ca Ba Si Ca X 1. 1998

Jun, Kawai

235

X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electrons during a pericyclic reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved imaging of chemically active valence electron densities is a long-sought goal, as these electrons dictate the course of chemical reactions. However, X-ray scattering is always dominated by the core and inert valence electrons, making time-resolved X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electron densities extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate an effective and robust method, which emphasizes the information encoded in weakly scattered photons, to image chemically active valence electron densities. The degenerate Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, a pericyclic reaction, is used as an example to visually illustrate our approach. Our work also provides experimental access to the long-standing problem of synchronous versus asynchronous bond formation and breaking during pericyclic reactions.

Bredtmann, Timm; Ivanov, Misha; Dixit, Gopal

2014-11-01

236

X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electrons during a pericyclic reaction.  

PubMed

Time-resolved imaging of chemically active valence electron densities is a long-sought goal, as these electrons dictate the course of chemical reactions. However, X-ray scattering is always dominated by the core and inert valence electrons, making time-resolved X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electron densities extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate an effective and robust method, which emphasizes the information encoded in weakly scattered photons, to image chemically active valence electron densities. The degenerate Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, a pericyclic reaction, is used as an example to visually illustrate our approach. Our work also provides experimental access to the long-standing problem of synchronous versus asynchronous bond formation and breaking during pericyclic reactions. PMID:25424639

Bredtmann, Timm; Ivanov, Misha; Dixit, Gopal

2014-01-01

237

Investigation of electron trajectories of an x-ray tube in magnetic fields of MR scanners.  

PubMed

A hybrid x-ray/MR system combining an x-ray fluoroscopic system and an open-bore magnetic resonance (MR) system offers advantages from both powerful imaging modalities and thus can benefit numerous image-guided interventional procedures. In our hybrid system configurations, the x-ray tube and detector are placed in the MR magnet and therefore experience a strong magnetic field. The electron beam inside the x-ray tube can be deflected by a misaligned magnetic field, which may damage the tube. Understanding the deflection process is crucial to predicting the electron beam deflection and avoiding potential damage to the x-ray tube. For this purpose, the motion of an electron in combined electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields was analyzed theoretically to provide general solutions that can be applied to different geometries. For two specific cases, a slightly misaligned strong field and a perpendicular weak field, computer simulations were performed with a finite-element method program. In addition, experiments were conducted using an open MRI magnet and an inserted electromagnet to quantitatively verify the relationship between the deflections and the field misalignment. In a strong (B > E/c; c: speed of light) and slightly misaligned magnetic field, the deflection in the plane of E and B caused by electrons following the magnetic field lines is the dominant component compared to the deflection in the E X B direction due to the drift of electrons. In a weak magnetic field (B < or = E/c), the main deflection is in the E x B direction and is caused by the perpendicular component of the magnetic field. PMID:17654908

Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Conolly, Steven; Pelc, Norbert J

2007-06-01

238

Investigation of electron trajectories of an x-ray tube in magnetic fields of MR scanners  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid x-ray/MR system combining an x-ray fluoroscopic system and an open-bore magnetic resonance (MR) system offers advantages from both powerful imaging modalities and thus can benefit numerous image-guided interventional procedures. In our hybrid system configurations, the x-ray tube and detector are placed in the MR magnet and therefore experience a strong magnetic field. The electron beam inside the x-ray tube can be deflected by a misaligned magnetic field, which may damage the tube. Understanding the deflection process is crucial to predicting the electron beam deflection and avoiding potential damage to the x-ray tube. For this purpose, the motion of an electron in combined electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields was analyzed theoretically to provide general solutions that can be applied to different geometries. For two specific cases, a slightly misaligned strong field and a perpendicular weak field, computer simulations were performed with a finite-element method program. In addition, experiments were conducted using an open MRI magnet and an inserted electromagnet to quantitatively verify the relationship between the deflections and the field misalignment. In a strong (B>>E/c; c: speed of light) and slightly misaligned magnetic field, the deflection in the plane of E and B caused by electrons following the magnetic field lines is the dominant component compared to the deflection in the ExB direction due to the drift of electrons. In a weak magnetic field (B{<=}E/c), the main deflection is in the ExB direction and is caused by the perpendicular component of the magnetic field.

Wen Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Conolly, Steven; Pelc, Norbert J. [Departments of Radiology and Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Departments of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2007-06-15

239

X-ray spectroscopic study of the electronic structure of CuCrO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of the p -type transparent conducting oxide CuCrO2 has been studied by x-ray photoemission, x-ray absorption, and x-ray emission spectroscopies. The upper part of the valence band derives mainly from Cu3d and Cr3d states while the lower valence-band states are of dominant O2p atomic character, but with pronounced mutual hybridization among Cu3d , Cr3d , and O2p states. Site specific electronic excitations have been studied by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the CuL and CrL edges. Inelastic loss at the CuL edge is dominated by on-site interband excitations similar to those found in Cu2O , while at the CrL edge localized excitations arising from ligand field splitting of the Cr3d levels are observed. Mg doping on the Cr sites in CuCrO2 is shown to lead to a pronounced shift in the Fermi level toward the edge of the valence band. The experimental data are compared to electronic structure calculations on CuCrO2 carried out using density-functional methods corrected for onsite Coulomb repulsion.

Arnold, T.; Payne, D. J.; Bourlange, A.; Hu, J. P.; Egdell, R. G.; Piper, L. F. J.; Colakerol, L.; de Masi, A.; Glans, P.-A.; Learmonth, T.; Smith, K. E.; Guo, J.; Scanlon, D. O.; Walsh, A.; Morgan, B. J.; Watson, G. W.

2009-02-01

240

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

2011-03-21

241

Soft-x-ray harmonic comb from relativistic electron spikes.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a new high-order harmonic generation mechanism reaching the "water window" spectral region in experiments with multiterawatt femtosecond lasers irradiating gas jets. A few hundred harmonic orders are resolved, giving ?J/sr pulses. Harmonics are collectively emitted by an oscillating electron spike formed at the joint of the boundaries of a cavity and bow wave created by a relativistically self-focusing laser in underdense plasma. The spike sharpness and stability are explained by catastrophe theory. The mechanism is corroborated by particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:22540709

Pirozhkov, A S; Kando, M; Esirkepov, T Zh; Gallegos, P; Ahmed, H; Ragozin, E N; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A; Kawachi, T; Sagisaka, A; Koga, J K; Coury, M; Green, J; Foster, P; Brenner, C; Dromey, B; Symes, D R; Mori, M; Kawase, K; Kameshima, T; Fukuda, Y; Chen, L; Daito, I; Ogura, K; Hayashi, Y; Kotaki, H; Kiriyama, H; Okada, H; Nishimori, N; Imazono, T; Kondo, K; Kimura, T; Tajima, T; Daido, H; Rajeev, P; McKenna, P; Borghesi, M; Neely, D; Kato, Y; Bulanov, S V

2012-03-30

242

Soft X-ray harmonic comb from relativistic electron spikes  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a new high-order harmonic generation mechanism reaching the `water window' spectral region in experiments with multi-terawatt femtosecond lasers irradiating gas jets. A few hundred harmonic orders are resolved, giving uJ/sr pulses. Harmonics are collectively emitted by an oscillating electron spike formed at the joint of the boundaries of a cavity and bow wave created by a relativistically self-focusing laser in underdense plasma. The spike sharpness and stability are explained by catastrophe theory. The mechanism is corroborated by particle-in-cell simulations.

Pirozhkov, A S; Esirkepov, T Zh; Gallegos, P; Ahmed, H; Ragozin, E N; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A; Kawachi, T; Sagisaka, A; Koga, J K; Coury, M; Green, J; Foster, P; Brenner, C; Dromey, B; Symes, D R; Mori, M; Kawase, K; Kameshima, T; Fukuda, Y; Chen, L; Daito, I; Ogura, K; Hayashi, Y; Kotaki, H; Kiriyama, H; Okada, H; Nishimori, N; Imazono, T; Kondo, K; Kimura, T; Tajima, T; Daido, H; Rajeev, P; McKenna, P; Borghesi, M; Neely, D; Kato, Y; Bulanov, S V

2012-01-01

243

Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-thermal x-ray radiation (E? up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ˜ 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (E? up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (2-3 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

Savrukhin, P. V.; Ermolaeva, A. I.; Shestakov, E. A.; Khramenkov, A. V.

2014-10-01

244

Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Non-thermal x-ray radiation (E{sub ?} up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ? 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (E{sub ?} up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (2–3 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

Savrukhin, P. V., E-mail: p.savrukhin@iterrf.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); ITER RF Domestic Agency, Institution Project Center ITER” 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermolaeva, A. I.; Shestakov, E. A.; Khramenkov, A. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2014-10-15

245

Radio and X-ray Images of Radio Galaxy and Quasar Jets Generated by Moving Source of Relativistic Electron Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarity and difference between the images of jets of extragalactic sources in radio and X-ray bands, created by the same distribution of relativistic electrons due to synchrotron (for radio) and inverse Compton scattering (for X-ray) is discussed. We restrict ourselves to the vicinity of the moving sources of relativistic electrons --- jet knots and hot spots --- with diffusion

E. Yu. Bannikova; V. M. Kontorovich

2005-01-01

246

IDENTIFICATION OF SELECTED SILICATE MINERALS AND THEIR ASBESTIFORM VARIETIES BY ELECTRON OPTICAL AND X-RAY TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Illustrations of electron micrographs showing morphology, electron diffraction patterns, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of selected silicates and their asbestiform varieties are presented as an aid in their identification. A method for preparing r...

247

Electronic structure of Fe/MgO/Fe multilayer stack by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism  

SciTech Connect

The interface properties of Fe/MgO/Fe multilayer stack were investigated by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The magnetic multilayers were deposited by electron beam evaporation method, which exhibits the attributes of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). XAS analysis shows that Fe-layer forms a Fe-O-rich interface region with MgO-layer and a sum-rule analysis of the XMCD estimates the average magnetic moment of 2.31?±?0.1 ?{sub B} per Fe-atom. XAS and XMCD studies indicate the formation of a heterostructure (Fe/FeO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the interface. A phase transition in Fe-O stoichiometry at interface is also observed at low temperature (90?K), which may be useful in magnetic storage technology.

Gautam, Sanjeev, E-mail: sgautam71@kist.re.kr; Hwa Chae, Keun, E-mail: khchae@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Asokan, Kandasami; Pal Singh, Jitendra [Materials Science Division, Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110-067 (India); Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Lin, Hong-Ji [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30 076, Taiwan (China)

2014-05-07

248

Extreme UV and x-ray scattering measurements from a rough LiF crystal surface characterized by electron micrography.  

PubMed

XUV and x-ray scattering by a LiF crystal is measured. The angular distribution of the scattered radiation (ADSR) reveals characteristic features, side peaks or asymmetry. The surface of the sample is statistically characterized by a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs resolving the short spatial wavelengths of the surface roughness. This analysis shows that the surface has a large microroughness with an autocovariance function which is Gaussian in its initial portion. The first-order perturbation vector theory of the roughness-induced scattering leads to an interpretation of the ADSR features in terms of the modulation of the surface power spectral density function associated with the microroughness by an optical factor. The possibility of obtaining short scale roughness characterization from XUV or x-ray measurements is discussed. PMID:20548740

Alehyane, N; Arbaoui, M; Barchewitz, R; André, J M; Christensen, F E; Hornstrup, A; Palmari, J; Rasigni, M; Rivoira, R; Rasigni, G

1989-05-15

249

Electronic structure of Fe/MgO/Fe multilayer stack by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interface properties of Fe/MgO/Fe multilayer stack were investigated by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The magnetic multilayers were deposited by electron beam evaporation method, which exhibits the attributes of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). XAS analysis shows that Fe-layer forms a Fe-O-rich interface region with MgO-layer and a sum-rule analysis of the XMCD estimates the average magnetic moment of 2.31 ± 0.1 ?B per Fe-atom. XAS and XMCD studies indicate the formation of a heterostructure (Fe/FeO/Fe2O3) on the interface. A phase transition in Fe-O stoichiometry at interface is also observed at low temperature (90 K), which may be useful in magnetic storage technology.

Gautam, Sanjeev; Asokan, Kandasami; Pal Singh, Jitendra; Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Lin, Hong-Ji; Hwa Chae, Keun

2014-05-01

250

Analysis of NOAA-MSFC GOES X-ray telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general telescope system was assumed to be a paraboloid-hyperboloid in a Wolter Type 1 configuration. The equations which specify the telescope parameters and the resolution as a function of the collecting area are discussed as well as the spot size and point response function for off-axis rays. The measured resolution of the Goddard ATM X-ray telescope (S-056) is compared to the rms blur circle radius and the full width half maximum of the line spread function. An empirical scaling formula, Eq. 26, which transforms the rms blur circle radius into a more accurate measure of resolution, is introduced. The geometrical imaging properties of the proposed NOAA-MSFC GOES X-ray telescope are considered. Conclusions and alternate mirror designs are included.

Shealy, D. L.

1979-01-01

251

Unveiling Obscured AGN with X-ray Spectral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent advent of physically motivated, self-consistent X-ray models, the circumnuclear medium enshrouding AGN can now be investigated in unprecedented detail. We applied these models to 19 SDSS [OIII] 5007 Angstrom selected Type 2 AGN, where 9 are local Seyfert 2 galaxies and 10 are more luminous and distant Type 2 quasars. For the first time in a sample of AGN, we constrained both the line-of-sight and global column densities, finding that over half (11/19) are heavily obscured or Compton-thick (NH > 10^23 cm^-2). Four objects have different global from line-of-sight column densities. When correcting the observed X-ray luminosities for obscuration, the L_x/L_[OIII] ratio for these Type 2 AGN is essentially identical to the Seyfert 1 (i.e., unabsorbed AGN) value, which is consistent with both parameters cleanly probing AGN emission.

LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Ptak, Andrew; Jia, Jianjun; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Urry, C. Megan

2014-06-01

252

Electronic emission of radio-sensitizing gold nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation : experiment and simulations  

E-print Network

In this paper we present new results on electronic emission of Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and compare them to the gold bulk electron emission. This subject has undergone new interest within the perspective of using GNPs as a radiotherapy enhancer. The experimental results were simulated using various models (Livermore and PENELOPE) of the Geant 4 simulation toolkit dedicated to the calculation of the transportation of particles through the matter. Our results show that the GNPs coating is a key parameter to correctly construe the experimental GNPs electronic emission after X-ray irradiation and point out some limitations of the PENELOPE model. Using XPS spectra and Geant4 Livermore simulations,we propose a method to determine precisely the coating surface density of the GNPs. We also show that the expected intrinsic nano-scale electronic emission enhancement effect - suspected to contribute to the GNPs radio-sensitizing properties - participates at most for a few pe...

Casta, R; Sence, M; Moretto-Capelle, P; Cafarelli, P; Amsellem, A; Sicard-Roselli, C

2014-01-01

253

Laser Assisted Emittance Exchange: Downsizing the X-ray Free Electron Laser  

SciTech Connect

A technique is proposed to generate electron beam with ultralow transverse emittance through laser assisted transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange. In the scheme a laser operating in the TEM10 mode is used to interact with the electron beam in a dispersive region and to initiate the emittance exchange. It is shown that with the proposed technique one can significantly downsize an x-ray free electron laser (FEL), which may greatly extend the availability of these light sources. A hard x-ray FEL operating at 1.5 {angstrom} with a saturation length within 30 meters using a 3.8 GeV electron beam is shown to be practically feasible.

Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

2009-12-11

254

Double-core-hole spectroscopy for chemical analysis with an intense X-ray femtosecond laser.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that double-core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy can provide a new powerful means of differentiating between similar chemical systems with a sensitivity not hitherto possible. Although DCH ionization on a single site in molecules was recently measured with double- and single-photon absorption, double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites, allowing unambiguous chemical analysis, have remained elusive. Here we report that direct observation of double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites produced via sequential two-photon absorption, using short, intense X-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser and compare it with theoretical modeling. The observation of DCH states, which exhibit a unique signature, and agreement with theory proves the feasibility of the method. Our findings exploit the ultrashort pulse duration of the free-electron laser to eject two core electrons on a time scale comparable to that of Auger decay and demonstrate possible future X-ray control of physical inner-shell processes. PMID:21969540

Berrah, Nora; Fang, Li; Murphy, Brendan; Osipov, Timur; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Kukk, Edwin; Feifel, Raimund; van der Meulen, Peter; Salen, Peter; Schmidt, Henning T; Thomas, Richard D; Larsson, Mats; Richter, Robert; Prince, Kevin C; Bozek, John D; Bostedt, Christoph; Wada, Shin-ichi; Piancastelli, Maria N; Tashiro, Motomichi; Ehara, Masahiro

2011-10-11

255

Double-core-hole spectroscopy for chemical analysis with an intense X-ray femtosecond laser  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that double-core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy can provide a new powerful means of differentiating between similar chemical systems with a sensitivity not hitherto possible. Although DCH ionization on a single site in molecules was recently measured with double- and single-photon absorption, double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites, allowing unambiguous chemical analysis, have remained elusive. Here we report that direct observation of double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites produced via sequential two-photon absorption, using short, intense X-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser and compare it with theoretical modeling. The observation of DCH states, which exhibit a unique signature, and agreement with theory proves the feasibility of the method. Our findings exploit the ultrashort pulse duration of the free-electron laser to eject two core electrons on a time scale comparable to that of Auger decay and demonstrate possible future X-ray control of physical inner-shell processes. PMID:21969540

Berrah, Nora; Fang, Li; Murphy, Brendan; Osipov, Timur; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Kukk, Edwin; Feifel, Raimund; van der Meulen, Peter; Salen, Peter; Schmidt, Henning T.; Thomas, Richard D.; Larsson, Mats; Richter, Robert; Prince, Kevin C.; Bozek, John D.; Bostedt, Christoph; Wada, Shin-ichi; Piancastelli, Maria N.; Tashiro, Motomichi; Ehara, Masahiro

2011-01-01

256

Conjugate observation of electron microburst groups by bremsstrahlung X ray and riometer techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first evidence is reported of simultaneous conjugate electron microburst group precipitation. Groups of bremsstrahlung X-ray microbursts (energy greater than 25 keV) were observed during a substorm recovery phase by a balloon-borne scintillation counter over Roberval, Quebec, Canada. The microburst groups were accompanied one-to-one by time-delayed and broadened pulses of ionospheric absorption measured by a high sensitivity 30-MHz riometer at Siple Station, Antarctica (L approximately 4.1). For the interval of highest correlation, the absolute lag between the two data sets was 4 + or - 1 sec to the limit of the relative timing accuracy. Approximately 2 sec of the observed lag had been introduced by a low-pass filter in the riometer data acquisition unit. The remainder was due to the ionospheric recombination process which evidently had a response time (approximately 5 sec) during this event much shorter than that ordinarily associated with the D region of the ionosphere. Model calculations of the ionospheric response to time-varying precipitation, derived from the profile of the measured X-ray flux, provide a consistent picture of simultaneous microburst group precipitation at conjugate points, absolute absorption and the electron spectrum derived from X rays, the degree of variation in absorption and X-ray fluxes, and the characteristic ionospheric time constant at the altitude of maximum energy deposition.

Siren, J. C.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

1980-12-01

257

Fabrication of an x-ray detector based on molecular plastic electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an organic X-ray detector with an active layer deposited from a novel semiconducting ink formulation. The precursor ink consists of blended poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and the organometallic nanostructure copper(II) 2,2'-bipyridine (Cu(II)BPY). The use of ligands like 2,2' byripidine with cationic species such as Cu(II) improves their solubility in organic solvents. The purpose of the organometallic complex Cu(II)BPY is twofold: to achieve a homogeneous semiconducting ink with P3HT:PCBM blends and to enhance the X-ray interaction with the organic layer through the Cu(II) cation. Our X-ray displays consist of several pixels, each with vertical structures comprising a bendable PET/ITO substrate with a spin-coated semiconducting ink of P3HT:PCBM:Cu(II)BPY (60 nm), followed by thermal evaporation of Al (100 nm) contacts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example where an organic X-ray detector includes the organometallic complex Cu(II)BPY in P3HT:PCBM blends, and the electrical characterization of the detector is carried out by impedance spectroscopy (IS). In order to test the devices, each pixel is exposed to X-ray energies ranging from 0 keV to 35 keV and characterized by impedance spectroscopy (IS). Impedance spectra were recorded at frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz and at a modulating signal of 50 mV. Analysis of IS measurements revealed a linear dependence between impedance and X-ray energy. IS analysis is more sensitive compared with standard photocurrent-voltage characteristics.

Paez-Sierra, Beynor A.; Rodríguez, Hernán.; Sánchez, Juan M.; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Pérez, Leon D.

2014-10-01

258

Measurement of electron energy distribution from X-rays diagnostics - foil techniques used with the hard X-ray camera on PBX-M  

SciTech Connect

A half-screen foil technique is used with the Hard X-ray Camera on the PBX-M tokamak to determine the energy distribution of the suprathermal electrons generated during lower hybrid current drive. The ratio of perpendicular to parallel temperature of the suprathermal electrons is deduced from the anisotropy of the bremsstrahlung emission utilizing Abel inversion techniques. Results from lower hybrid current drive discharges are discussed.

Goeler, S. von; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Ignat, D. [and others

1995-12-31

259

Gigavolt-Energy Electrons and Femtosecond-Duration Hard X-Rays Driven by Extreme Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of high-peak power laser light focused to extremely high intensity, or ``extreme light,'' is at the core of high-energy laser-driven electron accelerators, and novel laser-synchrotron x-ray light sources. The hallmark of extreme light is its ability to cause the instantaneous electron quiver motion to become relativistic. We discuss recent progress in understanding the physics of extreme light, and the advanced electron and x-ray technologies that it drives. Through the mechanism of relativistic self-guiding, focused light from our 100-TW Diocles laser was propagated in plasma at relativistic intensity for distance of 1 cm [corresponding to over 15 vacuum diffraction (Rayleigh) ranges]. As a result of this extended propagation length, electrons were accelerated by a laser-wakefield to near GeV energy in a well-collimated beam. The electron beam was measured to be tunable over a wide energy range, 100 -- 800 MeV, with 5-- 25% energy spread, and 1-- 4-mrad divergence angle. The experimental results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the results of numerical simulation, which predict even higher electron energy (multi-GeV) with our recently upgraded peak laser power (>0.5 PW). These characteristics, along with their lack of any measurable amount of dark-current, make these electron beams good candidates for driving synchrotron x-ray sources. The development of one such x-ray source will also be discussed, one driven by inverse Compton scattering of laser light by laser-accelerated electrons. Its small radiation source size (˜ 10 microns) and low angular beam divergence (< 10 mrad) make it quite promising for applications in radiology. By virtue of its ultra-short pulse duration (< 10 fs) and wide energy tunability (10 keV -- 10 MeV), it can also be used to probe matter with atomic-scale spatial and temporal resolution---simultaneously.

Umstadter, Donald

2012-06-01

260

X-ray scattering factors for ionic crystals with complete electron shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions of the X-ray scattering factors were derived for ionic crystals with complete electron shells by using the wave\\u000a functions of free ions. The non-orthogonality of the atomic wave functions in a crystalline state was taken into account by\\u000a means of Löwdin’s orthogonalization method when presenting the electron density of crystals. In the case of a small overlap\\u000a between the

O. Aikala; K. Mansikka

1970-01-01

261

The electronic structure study of titanium-nickel alloys by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the electronic structure changes of titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloys. The electronic structure was correlated with the physical property of shape memory effect demonstrated by 50% atomic nickel concentration Ti-Ni crystalline alloys. Methodology. The technique of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to collect spectra using an ESCA PHI 5100 system.

Michael A. Seabolt

2002-01-01

262

Liberation of Neutrons from Beryllium by X-Rays: Radioactivity Induced by Means of Electron Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been recently reported1 that neutrons are liberated from beryllium by gamma-rays of radium and that these are able to induce radioactivity in iodine. Following up this work, we have attempted to liberate neutrons from beryllium by means of hard X-rays, produced by high-voltage electron tubes. An electron tube, which could conveniently be operated by a high-voltage impulse generator

A. Brasch; F. Lange; A. Waly; T. E. Banks; T. A. Chalmers; Leo Szilard; F. L. Hopwood

1934-01-01

263

Local x-ray structure analysis of optically manipulated biological micro-objects  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diffraction using micro- and nanofocused beams is well suited for nanostructure analysis at different sites of a biological micro-object. To conduct in vitro studies without mechanical contact, we developed object manipulation by optical tweezers in a microfluidic cell. Here we report x-ray microdiffraction analysis of a micro-object optically trapped in three dimensions. We revealed the nanostructure of a single starch granule at different points and investigated local radiation damage induced by repeated x-ray exposures at the same position, demonstrating high stability and full control of the granule orientation by multiple optical traps.

Cojoc, Dan; Ferrari, Enrico; Santucci, Silvia C. [Laboratorio TASC, Istituto Officina dei Materiali IOM-CNR, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Amenitsch, Heinz; Sartori, Barbara; Rappolt, Michael; Marmiroli, Benedetta [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystems Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 - Graz (Austria); Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian [ID13 Microfocus Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38043 - Grenoble (France)

2010-12-13

264

Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS).  

PubMed

The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm(-1), assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric CO stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities. PMID:25459630

Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Lakhiari, Hamid; Kerbal, Abdelali; Doumenq, Pierre; Mille, Gilbert; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

2015-02-01

265

Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm-1, assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric Csbnd O stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities.

Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Lakhiari, Hamid; Kerbal, Abdelali; Doumenq, Pierre; Mille, Gilbert; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

2015-02-01

266

Energetic Electrons in Solar Flares - As Viewed in X-Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hard X-ray observations provide the most direct diagnostic we have of the suprathermal electrons and the hottest thermal plasma present in solar flares. The Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) is obtaining the most comprehensive observations of individual solar flares ever available in hard X-rays. For the first time, high-resolution spectra are available for a large number of flares that accurately display the spectral shape and its evolution and, in many cases, allow us to identify the transition from the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by suprathermal electrons to the bremsstrahlung at lower energies emitted by thermal plasma. Also, for the first time, images can be produced in arbitrary energy bands above 3 keV, and spectra of distinct imaged components can be obtained. I will review what we have learned from RHESSI observations about flare suprathermal electron distributions and their evolution Next, I will present computations of the energy deposited by these suprathermal electrons in individual flares and compare this with the energy contained in the hot thermal plasma. I will point out unsolved problems in deducing both suprathermal electron distributions and the energy content of the thermal plasma, and discuss possible solutions. Finally, I will present evidence that electron acceleration is associated with magnetic reconnection in the corona.

Holman, Gordon D.

2004-01-01

267

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell  

PubMed Central

The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 (SCA-1), a protein obtained from the intramineral part of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell, is reported. PMID:18007058

Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Marín-García, Liliana; Stojanoff, Vivian; Moreno, Abel

2007-01-01

268

Generation of hard X-ray emission by the electron beam in plasma focus facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of measurements of the temporal characteristics of hard X-ray emission generated at plasma focus (PF) facilities are presented. Mechanisms of electron beam generation in the PF pinch are analyzed. On the basis of the known mechanisms and experimental data on the measured temporal characteristics of hard X-ray pulses, a mechanism of fast electron generation that takes into account both the effect of the anomalous pinch resistance and the current redistribution in the near-pinch region is proposed. The processes occurring in the pinch plasma are simulated on the basis of the proposed mechanism by using the MicroCap code. It is shown that only a small fraction of the discharge current (1-10%) can be transformed into the electron beam current.

Dulatov, A. K.; Lemeshko, B. D.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Prokuratov, I. A.; Selifanov, A. N.

2014-11-01

269

Deducing the electron-beam diameter in a laser-plasma accelerator using x-ray betatron radiation.  

PubMed

We investigate the properties of a laser-plasma electron accelerator as a bright source of keV x-ray radiation. During the interaction, the electrons undergo betatron oscillations and from the carefully measured x-ray spectrum the oscillation amplitude of the electrons can be deduced which decreases with increasing electron energies. From the oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8±0.3) ?m we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6±0.3) ?m. PMID:22401215

Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Landgraf, Björn; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Jäckel, Oliver; Peth, Christian; Thiele, Tobias; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Willi, Oswald; Kaluza, Malte C; Spielmann, Christian

2012-02-17

270

Deducing the Electron-Beam Diameter in a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using X-Ray Betatron Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the properties of a laser-plasma electron accelerator as a bright source of keV x-ray radiation. During the interaction, the electrons undergo betatron oscillations and from the carefully measured x-ray spectrum the oscillation amplitude of the electrons can be deduced which decreases with increasing electron energies. From the oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8±0.3)?m we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6±0.3)?m.

Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Landgraf, Björn; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Jäckel, Oliver; Peth, Christian; Thiele, Tobias; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Willi, Oswald; Kaluza, Malte C.; Spielmann, Christian

2012-02-01

271

Theoretical study of Raman chirped adiabatic passage by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: highly excited electronic states and rotational effects.  

PubMed

Raman Chirped Adiabatic Passage (RCAP) is an efficient method to climb the vibrational ladder of molecules. It was shown on the example of fixed-in-space HCl molecule that selective vibrational excitation can thus be achieved by RCAP and that population transfer can be followed by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy [S. Engin, N. Sisourat, P. Selles, R. Taïeb, and S. Carniato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 192-195 (2012)]. Here, in a more detailed analysis of the process, we investigate the effects of highly excited electronic states and of molecular rotation on the efficiency of RCAP. Furthermore, we propose an alternative spectroscopic way to monitor the transfer by means of X-ray absorption spectra. PMID:24952537

Engin, Selma; Sisourat, Nicolas; Selles, Patricia; Taïeb, Richard; Carniato, Stéphane

2014-06-21

272

Electron Energy Partition in the Above-the-looptop Solar Hard X-Ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (gsim15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff Ec. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 109 cm–3), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>1010 cm–3), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

2015-02-01

273

X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy of the structure, reactivity, and electronic structure of semiconductor nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor nanocrystals are a system which has been the focus of interest due to their size dependent properties and their possible use in technological applications. Many chemical and physical properties vary systematically with the size of the nanocrystal and thus their study enables the investigation of scaling laws. Due to the increasing surface to volume ratio as size is decreased, the surfaces of nanocrystals are expected to have a large influence on their electronic, thermodynamic, and chemical behavior. In spite of their importance, nanocrystal surfaces are still relatively uncharacterized in terms of their structure, electronic properties, bonding, and reactivity. Investigation of nanocrystal surfaces is currently limited by what techniques to use, and which methods are suitable for nanocrystals is still being determined. This work presents experiments using x-ray and electronic spectroscopies to explore the structure, reactivity, and electronic properties of semiconductor (CdSe, InAs) nanocrystals and how they vary with size. Specifically, x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) in conjunction with multiple scattering simulations affords information about the structural disorder present at the surface of the nanocrystal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) probe the electronic structure in terms of hole screening, and also give information about band lineups when the nanocrystal is placed in electric contact with a substrate. XPS of the core levels of the nanocrystal as a function of photo-oxidation time yields kinetic data on the oxidation reaction occurring at the surface of the nanocrystal.

Hamad, K.S.

2000-05-01

274

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 CSI, ICXOM X  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 © CSI, ICXOM X Reports on International conferences (CSI at Budapest, ICXOM at Karlsruhe, and 2nd International Conference on X-Ray Analysis in Mongolia) Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 219 CSI ICXOM X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.219

Jun, Kawai

275

An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively

H. Richard Ross

1993-01-01

276

Three-dimensional attosecond resonant stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy of electronic excitations in core-ionized glycine.  

PubMed

We investigate computationally the valence electronic excitations of the amino acid glycine prepared by a sudden nitrogen core ionization induced by an attosecond X-ray pump pulse. The created superposition of cationic excited states is probed by two-dimensional transient X-ray absorption and by three dimensional attosecond stimulated X-ray Raman signals. The latter, generated by applying a second broadband X-ray pulse combined with a narrowband pulse tuned to the carbon K-edge, reveal the complex coupling between valence and core-excited manifolds of the cation. PMID:25297460

Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D; Hua, Weijie; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Mukamel, Shaul

2014-11-28

277

Bayesian analysis of X-ray jet features of the high redshift quasar jets observed with Chandra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet's relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. Results from Chandra X-ray and multi-frequency VLA imaging observations of a sample of 11 high- redshift (z > 2) quasars with kilo-parsec scale radio jets are reported. The sample consists of a set of four z ? 3.6 flat-spectrum radio quasars, and seven intermediate redshift (z = 2.1 - 2.9) quasars comprised of four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and three with flat radio spectra.We implement a Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) , to analyze jet features in the X-ray images of the high redshift quasars. Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. Significant detections are based on the upper bound p-value test based on LIRA simulations. The X-ray and radio properties of this sample combined are examined and compared to lower-redshift samples.This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. Work is also supported by the Chandra grant GO4-15099X.

McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay; Stein, Nathan; Cheung, Chi C.

2015-01-01

278

Hard x-ray tomographic studies of the destruction of an energetic electron ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tomography system was designed and built at the Large Plasma Device to measure the spatial distribution of hard x-ray (100 KeV-3 MeV) emissivity. The x-rays were generated when a hot electron ring was significantly disrupted by a shear Alfvén wave. The plasma is pulsed at 1 Hz (1 shot/s). A lead shielded scintillator detector with an acceptance angle defined by a lead pinhole is mounted on a rotary gimbal and used to detect the x-rays. The system measures one chord per plasma shot using only one detector. A data plane usually consists of several hundred chords. A novel Dot by Dot Reconstruction (DDR) method is introduced to calculate the emissivity profile from the line integrated data. In the experiments, there are often physical obstructions, which make measurements at certain angles impossible. The DDR method works well even in this situation. The method was tested with simulated data, and was found to be more effective than previously published methods for the specific geometry of this experiment. The reconstructed x-ray emissivity from experimental data by this method is shown.

Wang, Y.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.

2013-05-01

279

Femtosecond time-resolved powder diffraction experiments using hard X-ray free-electron lasers.  

PubMed

In the next decade the scientific community expects a strong impact in physics, chemistry, biology, material research and life sciences by the availability of high-brilliance X-ray radiation from free-electron laser (FEL) sources. In particular, in the field of ultrafast science these new sources will allow new types of experiments, enabling new phenomena to be discovered. Whereas today ultrafast X-ray diffraction experiments are strongly restricted by the limited X-ray flux of current sources of sub-picosecond X-ray pulses, FELs will provide short pulses of typically 10(12) photons with a duration of the order of 100 fs and monochromaticity of 10(-3). Here, the feasibility of time-resolved single-shot powder diffraction experiments using these intense pulses, and the requirements of these experiments, are discussed. The detector count rates are estimated for diffraction from a model compound in a wide q-regime under the special consideration of high resolving power. In the case of LCLS radiation parameters, single-shot experiments will be feasible although high-resolution powder diffraction will require a reduction of the intrinsic FEL radiation bandwidth. PMID:16239753

Blome, C; Tschentscher, Th; Davaasambuu, J; Durand, P; Techert, S

2005-11-01

280

Auger Electrons via K? X-Ray Lines of Platinum Compounds for Nanotechnological Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will report study on the K? X-ray lines of platinum. Pt compounds, such as cisplatin, are common in biomedical applications. The active element Pt can emit or absorb hard X-rays. We have obtained the photoionization cross sections from the oscillator strengths of 1s-2p (K?) transitions in Pt ions. We find that these transitions appear as resonances in photoionization in the hard X-ray energy range of 64 - 71 keV (0.18 - 0.17 Å) below the K-shell ionization and with a strength orders of magnitude higher compared to that at the K-shell ionization. This is the focus of our study for possible initiation of an emission cascade of Auger electrons at the resonant energy. We will present the oscillator strengths and attenuation coefficients per unit mass for all the K? transitions in the event platinum cascades through various, namely from fluorine-like to hydrogen like, ionic states. The study is motivated by uur proposed method, Resonant Theranosticsb,C (RT) for biomedical appliations, which aims to find narrow band X-ray energy that corresponds to resonant photo-absorption and leads to emission of Auger electrons. As the next step of the RT method we will also report on experimental results on producing monochromatic X-rays, targeted to the resonant energy, from the wide band Bremstruhlung radiation of a conventional X-ray source. Partially support: DOE, Computational Facility: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, Ohio. "Resonant X-Ray Enhancement of the Auger Effect in High-Z atoms, molecules, and Nanoparticles: Biomedical Applications", A.K. Pradhan, S.N. Nahar, M. Montenegro, Yan Yu, H.L. Zhang, C. Sur, M. Mrozik, R.M. Pitzer, J. of Phys. Chem. A, 113 (2009), 12356. "Monte Carlo Simulations and Atomic Calculations for Auger Processes in Biomedical Nanotheranostics", M. Montenegro, S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, Ke Huang, Yan Yu, J. of Phys. Chem. A, 113 (2009), 12364.

Nahar, Sultana N.; Lim, Sara; Pradhan, A. K.; Pitzer, R. M.

2011-06-01

281

Copyright The Discussion Group of X-Ray Analysis,  

E-print Network

, Accepted 13 January 2006) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was assembled using a Si-PIN detector and an X 5 0.1 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.1 ppm 6 2 X 17 10 ppm 30 ppm ppm X X X PhotoIonizer X Fig.1 Fig.2 X 12 cm 3.8 cm. X PhotoIonizer Fig.2 Fig.2 Fig.1 X X W 9.5 kV X Fig.3 X 15 V X Pb As X X Fig.4 Table 1 Maximum power

Jun, Kawai

282

An Introduction to the Scope, Potential and Applications of X-ray Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Michael Laing at the University of Natal provides an introduction to X-ray crystallography and the applications of various techniques. A discussion of basic crystallography leads into X-ray diffraction and a variety of X-ray techniques, including Laue, powder, and single crystal methods. Other topics include difffractometers, the reciprocal lattice explorer, and moving crystal and moving film methods such as the rotation, precession and Weissenberg methods. A section on applications and analysis of these methods is also included. Diagrams, tables and graphs support the text.

Michael Laing

283

An X-ray Analysis Pipeline for the Joint Analysis of Cluster Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining multiwavelength data for a single relaxed cluster of galaxies can yield powerful constraints on its dark matter distribution and on the equation of state of the intracluster plasma. I describe an X-ray analysis pipeline for JACO, a codebase for simultaneous modeling of multi-mission X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich, and weak gravitational lensing data. JACO employs a forward convolution approach that assures the correct propagation of observational uncertainties into the final errors on the structural properties of the cluster dark matter distribution. JACO also features careful treatment of the Chandra and XMM-Newton point spread functions and of the various sources of the diffuse X-ray background.

Bills, Thomas; Mahdavi, A.; Mansheim, A.

2009-01-01

284

X-Ray Characterization of an Electron Donor-Acceptor Complex that Drives the Photochemical Alkylation of Indoles.  

PubMed

A metal-free, photochemical strategy for the direct alkylation of indoles was developed. The reaction, which occurs at ambient temperature, is driven by the photochemical activity of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes, generated upon association of substituted 1H-indoles with electron-accepting benzyl and phenacyl bromides. Significant mechanistic insights are provided by the X-ray single-crystal analysis of an EDA complex relevant to the photoalkylation and the determination of the quantum yield (?) of the process. PMID:25475488

Kandukuri, Sandeep R; Bahamonde, Ana; Chatterjee, Indranil; Jurberg, Igor D; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Melchiorre, Paolo

2015-01-26

285

Parametric X-Ray Radiation, Transition Radiation and Bremsstrahlung in X-Ray Region. A Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intense monochromatic and tunable X-ray beams are extensively exploited in applied investigations, industry and medicine.\\u000a As a rule, these devices are based on a primary powerful radiation source and crystal monochromator. Different radiation mechanisms\\u000a are used — bremsstrahlung from X-ray tube, synchrotron (SR) and an undulator radiation (UR), or, quite recently, bremsstrahlung\\u000a from linac with energy 15 MeV [1].

A. P. Potylitsyn; I. E. Vnukov

286

A compact wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer for particle-induced X-ray emission analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compact wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer has been developed for our compact high energy ion microprobe system (“mikro-i”). This spectrometer is designed to detect four light elements, boron, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Using two multilayer X-ray analyzers, multilayer benders cut from a single metal block and a gas-proportional counter with a 150 mm × 20 mm wide, 1 ?m thick

Y. Furukawa; K. Yokoyama; K. Inoue; K. Ishibashi; H. Fukuyama

1996-01-01

287

MANTIS: combined x-ray, electron and optical Monte Carlo simulations of indirect radiation imaging systems.  

PubMed

We describe MANTIS (Monte carlo x-rAy electroN opTical Imaging Simulation), a tool for simulating imaging systems that tracks x-rays, electrons and optical photons in arbitrary materials and complex geometries. The x-ray and electron transport and involved physics models are from the PENELOPE package, and the optical transport and corresponding physics models are from DETECT-II and include Fresnel refraction and reflection at material boundaries, bulk absorption and scattering. Complex geometries can be handled with the aid of the geometry routines included in PENELOPE. When x-rays or electrons interact and deposit energy in the scintillator, the code generates a number of optical quanta according to a user-selected model for the conversion process. The optical photons are then tracked until they reach an absorption event, which in some cases contributes to the output signal, or escape from the geometry. We demonstrate the capabilities of this new tool with respect to the statistics of the optical signal detected and to the three-dimensional point-response functions corresponding to columnar phosphor screens. PMID:16510962

Badano, Aldo; Sempau, Josep

2006-03-21

288

Ultrafast structural dynamics with table top femtosecond hard X-ray and electron diffraction setups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following tutorial review is directed to graduate students willing to be part of the emerging field of ultrafast structural dynamics. It provides them with an introduction to the field and all the very basic assumptions and experimental tricks involved in femtosecond (fs) diffraction techniques. The concept of stroboscopic photography and its implication in ultrafast science are introduced. Special attention is paid to the generation of ultrashort electron and hard X-ray pulses in table top setups, and a direct comparison in terms of brightness and temporal resolution between current table top and facility-based methodologies is given for proper calibration. This review is focused on ultrafast X-ray and electron diffraction techniques. The progress in the development of fs-structural probes during the last twenty years has been tremendous. Current ultrafast structural probes provide us with the temporal and spatial resolutions required to observe atoms in motion. Different compression approaches have made it possible the generation of ultrashort and ultrabright electron pulses with an effective brightness close to that of fs-hard X-ray pulses produced by free electron lasers. We now have in hand a variety of ultrafast structural cameras ready to be applied for the study of an endless list of dynamical phenomena at the atomic level of inspection.

Hada, M.; Pichugin, K.; Sciaini, G.

2013-07-01

289

MANTIS: combined x-ray, electron and optical Monte Carlo simulations of indirect radiation imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe MANTIS (Monte carlo x-rAy electroN opTical Imaging Simulation), a tool for simulating imaging systems that tracks x-rays, electrons and optical photons in arbitrary materials and complex geometries. The x-ray and electron transport and involved physics models are from the PENELOPE package, and the optical transport and corresponding physics models are from DETECT-II and include Fresnel refraction and reflection at material boundaries, bulk absorption and scattering. Complex geometries can be handled with the aid of the geometry routines included in PENELOPE. When x-rays or electrons interact and deposit energy in the scintillator, the code generates a number of optical quanta according to a user-selected model for the conversion process. The optical photons are then tracked until they reach an absorption event, which in some cases contributes to the output signal, or escape from the geometry. We demonstrate the capabilities of this new tool with respect to the statistics of the optical signal detected and to the three-dimensional point-response functions corresponding to columnar phosphor screens.

Badano, Aldo; Sempau, Josep

2006-03-01

290

Compositional analysis of Ceramic Glaze by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied for the analysis of Egyptian Islamic glaze ceramic sample. The sample dating back to Fatimid period (969-1169AD), and collected from Al-Fustat excavation store in Cairo. The analysis of contaminated pottery sample has been performed to draw mapping for the elemental compositions by LIBS technique. LIBS measurements have been done by the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of Nd: YAG laser for the elemental analysis and performing the cleaning processes of the pottery sample. In addition, complementary analyses were carried out by scanning electron microscopy linked with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) to obtain verification of chemical results. The morphological surfaces before and after cleaning has been done by Optical Microscopy (OM).

Khedr, A.; Abdel-kareem, O.; Elnabi, S. H.; Harith, M. A.

2011-09-01

291

X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, a tool for the investigation of complex magnetic structures.  

SciTech Connect

X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy unites the chemical specificity and magnetic sensitivity of soft x-ray absorption techniques with the high spatial resolution of electron microscopy. The discussed instrument possesses a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm and is located at a bending magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source, providing linearly and circularly polarized radiation between 250 and 1300 eV. We will present examples which demonstrate the power of this technique applied to problems in the field of thin film magnetism. The chemical and elemental specificity is of particular importance for the study of magnetic exchange coupling because it allows separating the signal of the different layers and interfaces in complex multi-layered structures.

Scholl, Andreas; Ohldag, Hendrik; Nolting, Frithjof; Stohr, Joachim; Padmore, Howard A.

2001-08-30

292

Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ?200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ?160 as pulses in the range of 3–300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ?5 × 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed “attosecond physics.”.

Luo, W. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China) [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ma, Y. Y. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

2013-10-21

293

Design considerations for the magnetic system of a prototype x-ray free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

A number of difficult technical challenges need to be solved in the fields of accelerator and free-electron laser (FEL) technologies in order to build an X-ray FEL. One of the tasks well suited to the Advanced Photon Source Low Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is to take the intermediate step of solving some of the problems of single-pass FEL operation in the ultraviolet range. The existing Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac, in addition to its role of supply positrons for the APS storage ring, will also be used to generate the particle beam for the LEUTL. Here, the design of the magnetic system for the high gain soft x-ray free electron laser is described.

Vinokurov, N.A.; Dejus, R.; Friedsam, H.; Gluskin, E.S.; Maines, J.; Milton, S.V.; Moog, E.R.; Trakhtenberg, E.M.; Vasserman, I.B.

1997-04-01

294

Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats: Electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats was studied using the electron microscope and x-ray microanalyzer. In in-vivo experiments, severe corneal edema occurred in pregnant dams that received intraperitoneal injections of cadmium sulphate for 4 days during gestation, but not in nonpregnant rats. Prominent swelling of mitochondria and the occurrence of intra- and intercellular vacuoles in the corneal endothelium were observed only in pregnant dams. In in-vitro experiments, electron-dense deposits consisting of cadmium-oxine complexes were preferentially found in swollen mitochondria of the endothelial cells. Cadmium peaks were obtained from these deposits with x-ray microanalysis. These data suggest that the corneal edema observed after administration of cadmium may imply the disturbance of pump function and barrier function of the corneal endothelium due to the primary toxic effects of this metal on mitochondria.

Yoshizuka, M.; McCarthy, K.J.; Kaye, G.I.; Fujimoto, S. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu (Japan))

1990-05-01

295

X-ray absorption study of the electronic structure of Mn-doped amorphous Si  

SciTech Connect

The electronic structure of Mn in amorphous Si (a-Mn{sub x}Si{sub 1?x}) is studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn L{sub 3,2} edges for x = 0.005-0.18. Except the x = 0.005 sample, which shows a slight signature of Mn{sup 2+} atomic multiplets associated with a local Mn moment, all samples have broad and featureless L{sub 3,2} absorption peaks, corresponding to an itinerant state for all 3d electrons. The broad X-ray absorption spectra exclude the possibility of a localized 3d moment and explain the unexpectedly quenched Mn moment in this magnetically-doped amorphous semiconductor. Such a fully delocalized d state of Mn dopant in Si has not been previously suggested.

Arenholz, Elke; Zeng, Li; Huegel, A.; Helgren, E.; Hellman, F.; Piamonteze, C.; Arenholz, E.

2008-03-08

296

Electron yield soft X-ray photoabsorption spectroscopy under normal ambient-pressure conditions  

PubMed Central

Ambient-pressure soft X-ray photoabsorption spectroscopy (XAS) was demonstrated to be applicable to the chemical analysis of hydrated transition-metal compounds. For this purpose, even under ambient-pressure conditions, electron yield detection XAS (EY-XAS), based on a simple drain-current set-up, was used to overcome a weakness in fluorescence yield detection XAS (FY-XAS), which does not give a pure soft XAS. The feasibility of EY-XAS was investigated and it was clarified that the EY-XAS under ambient-pressure conditions corresponds to the mixed data of the total EY and conversion EY spectra. Normal ambient-pressure EY-XAS analysis was applied to anhydrous (CoCl2) and to hydrated (CoCl2·6H2O) cobalt chloride at the Co L 23-edge. The present measurements demonstrated the ability to unambiguously distinguish the different chemical states of cobalt ions, relying upon spectral differences that indicate octahedral/quasi-octahedral structural changes as a result of hydration/dehydration reactions. PMID:23592620

Tamenori, Yusuke

2013-01-01

297

Beryllium detection in human lung tissue using electron probe X-ray microanalysis.  

PubMed

Chronic berylliosis is an uncommon disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particles, dust, or fumes. The distinction between chronic berylliosis and sarcoidosis can be difficult both clinically and histologically, as both entities can have similar presentations and exhibit nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the lungs. The diagnosis of chronic berylliosis relies on a history of exposure to beryllium, roentgenographic evidence of diffuse nodular disease, and demonstration of beryllium hypersensitivity by ancillary studies, such as lymphocyte proliferation testing. Additional support may be gained by the demonstration of beryllium in lung tissue. Unlike other exogenous particulates, such as asbestos, detection of beryllium in human lung tissue is problematic. The low atomic number of beryllium usually makes it unsuitable for conventional microprobe analysis. We describe a case of chronic berylliosis in which beryllium was detected in lung tissue using atmospheric thin-window energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (ATW EDXA). A woman with a history of occupational exposure to beryllium at a nuclear weapons testing facility presented with progressive cough and dyspnea and a nodular pattern on chest roentgenograph. Open lung biopsy showed nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation that was histologically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis. Scanning electron microscopy and ATW EDXA demonstrated particulates containing beryllium within the granulomas. This application of EDXA offers significant advantages over existing methods of beryllium detection in that it is nondestructive, more widely available, and can be performed using routine paraffin sections. PMID:14614058

Butnor, Kelly J; Sporn, Thomas A; Ingram, Peter; Gunasegaram, Sue; Pinto, John F; Roggli, Victor L

2003-11-01

298

Analysis and design of grazing incidence x-ray optics for pulsar navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a promising new technology for deep space exploration due to autonomous capability, pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The pulsar navigation accuracy is determined by the measurement accuracy of Time of Arrival (TOA) of X-ray photon, which can be enhanced through design of appropriate optics. The energy band of X-ray suitable for pulsar navigation is 0.1-10keV, the effective focusing of which can be primely and effectively realized by the grazing incidence reflective optics. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. X-ray concentrator, the simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the requirements on aperture, effective area and focal length of the grazing incidence reflective optics were firstly analyzed based on the characteristics, such as high time resolution, large effective area and low angular resolution, of the pulsar navigation. Furthermore, the preliminary design of optical system and overall structure, as well as the diaphragm, was implemented for the X-ray concentrator. Through optical and FEA simulation, system engineering analysis on the X-ray concentrator was finally performed to analyze the effects of environmental factors on the performance, providing basis and guidance for fabrication of the X-ray concentrator grazing incidence optics.

Zuo, Fuchang; Chen, Jianwu; Li, Liansheng; Mei, Zhiwu

2013-10-01

299

An inexpensive x-ray source based on an electron cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X rays have been produced using an electron cyclotron operated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. This cyclotron was designed such that it would operate near the relativistic detuning limit of approximately 150 keV. The design and equipment needed are simple and inexpensive. The accelerator consists of a cylindrical cavity operated in the TE111 mode. This tuned cavity is closely coupled to and powered by a magnetron from a microwave oven.

Garner, H. R.; Ohkawa, T.; Howald, A. M.; Leonard, A. W.; Peranich, L. S.; D'Aoust, J. R.

1990-02-01

300

Parametric x-ray radiation along the velocity of relativistic electron in a Bragg scattering geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the dynamic scattering theory, forward parametric x-ray radiation (FPXR) of a relativistic electron is investigated\\u000a in a single crystal plate in a Bragg scattering geometry. Analytical expressions for the spectral-angular distribution of\\u000a FPXR and transition radiation (TR) including the crystal surface orientation with respect to a system of diffracting atomic\\u000a planes are derived, which allow one to identify

S. V. Blazhevich; A. V. Noskov

2007-01-01

301

Aerosols over the Amazon Rainforest Investigated by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected atmospheric aerosols over the central Amazon Basin near Manaus, Brazil, during the wet season in February 2008, as part of the AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment) campaign. Aerosol samples were analyzed by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) coupled with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX). A newly developed electron microscopic technique revealed the presence of liquid organic material in aerosol particles, which we interpret as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In the coarse fraction, mineral dust particles of transatlantic origin were common, and sometimes were coated with secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Many of these particles showed chemical and morphological evidence of cloud processing. Primary biogenic aerosols in the supermicron size range could be identified by their morphological characteristics. They were quite abundant, and were frequently coated with SOA. NEXAFS revealed characteristic X-ray absorption spectra showing multiple carbon functionalities in these particles. In the fine fraction of the Amazonian aerosol, these SOA particles are the most abundant particle type. They are frequently (but not always) found internally mixed with very small seasalt, dust, and carbonaceous particles. STXM-NEXAFS yielded characteristic spectra for these particles, including alkyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl functionalities. Double-bonded carbon was present at significant, but variable abundance in these particles. A surprising result is the presence of carbonate in many particles of all size classes, even in particle types where carbonates from mineral dust are not expected to be present.

Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P. P.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.; Mikhailov, E.; Moffet, R.; Poeschl, U.; Sinha, B.; Yang, H.

2009-12-01

302

Study of fast electron transport in hot dense matter using x-ray spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental study on energy transport in ultra-high intensity laser plasma was made. X-ray emission from a triple-layer target irradiated at 1019 W cm-2 was observed with x-ray spectrographs, monochromatic imagers and an x-ray polarimeter to provide a temperature profile in the depth of the target, lateral extension of the heated region and the velocity distribution function of hot electrons. For PW plasma, a very shallow region (~0.5 µm from the target surface) was heated up to 650 eV but the temperature of deeper region (up to 5 µm) was around 100 eV. These depths are much shorter than those expected from the classical penetration of the hot electrons. The localized energy deposition is also found for the plasma generated at 1017 W cm-2, and the degree of polarization of the helium-like Cl He? line (1s2 1S0 1s2p 1P1) from the surface region is polarized parallel to the surface direction whereas that from a deeper region is in perpendicular to it. The experimental result is analysed using a two-dimensional Maxwellian distribution function for hot electrons. Beam-like distribution was found in the depth of plasma.

Nishimura, H.; Inubushi, Y.; Ochiai, M.; Kai, T.; Kawamura, T.; Fujioka, S.; Hashida, M.; Simizu, S.; Sakabe, S.; Kodama, R.; Tanaka, K. A.; Kato, S.; Koike, F.; Nakazaki, S.; Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Mima, K.

2005-12-01

303

Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron-betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators.

Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Uschmann, Ingo; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Kämpfer, Tino; Landgraf, Björn; Jäckel, Oliver; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

2013-09-01

304

Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator.  

PubMed

Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron-betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators. PMID:24026068

Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Uschmann, Ingo; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Kämpfer, Tino; Landgraf, Björn; Jäckel, Oliver; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

2013-01-01

305

Direct electron acceleration in plasma waveguides for compact high-repetition-rate x-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous applications in fundamental and applied research, security, and industry require robust, compact sources of x-rays, with a particular recent interest in monochromatic, spatially coherent, and ultrafast x-ray pulses in well-collimated beams. Such x-ray sources usually require production of high-quality electron beams from compact accelerators. Guiding a radially polarized laser pulse in a plasma waveguide has been proposed for realizing direct laser acceleration (DLA), where the electrons are accelerated by the axial electric field of a co-propagating laser pulse (Serafim et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 1190). A moderate laser peak power is required for DLA when compared to laser wakefield acceleration, thus offering the prospect for high repetition rate operation. By using a density-modulated plasma waveguide for DLA, the acceleration distance can be extended with pulse guiding, while the density-modulation with proper axial structure can realize the quasi-phase matching between the laser pulses and electrons for a net gain accumulation (York et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 195001; York et al 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 B137; Palastro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036405). We describe the development and application of a test particle model and particle-in-cell model for DLA. Experimental setups designed for fabrication of optically tailored plasma waveguides via the ignitor-heater scheme, and for generation and characterization of radially polarized short pulses used to drive DLA, are presented.

Lin, M.-W.; Jovanovic, I.

2014-12-01

306

Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator  

PubMed Central

Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron–betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators. PMID:24026068

Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Uschmann, Ingo; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Kämpfer, Tino; Landgraf, Björn; Jäckel, Oliver; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

2013-01-01

307

MaRIE X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Pre-Conceptual Design  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory will include a 50-keV X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), a significant extension from planned and existing XFEL facilities. To prevent an unacceptably large energy spread arsing from energy diffusion, the electron beam energy should not exceed 20 GeV, which puts a significant constraint on the beam emittance. A 100-pC baseline design is presented along with advanced technology options to increase the photon flux and to decrease the spectral bandwidth through pre-bunching the electron beam.

Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barnes, Cris W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bishofberger, Kip A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duffy, Leanne D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heath, Cynthia E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ryne, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simakov, Evgenya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yampolsky, Nikolai A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

308

A flexible and accurate quantification algorithm for electron probe X-ray microanalysis based on thin-film element yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative analysis by means of electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) of low Z materials such as silicate glasses can be hampered by the fact that ice or other contaminants build up on the Si(Li) detector beryllium window or (in the case of a windowless detector) on the Si(Li) crystal itself. These layers act as an additional absorber in front of the detector crystal, decreasing the detection efficiency at low energies (<5 keV). Since the layer thickness gradually changes with time, also the detector efficiency in the low energy region is not constant. Using the normal ZAF approach to quantification of EPXMA data is cumbersome in these conditions, because spectra from reference materials and from unknown samples must be acquired within a fairly short period of time in order to avoid the effect of the change in efficiency. To avoid this problem, an alternative approach to quantification of EPXMA data is proposed, following a philosophy often employed in quantitative analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data. This approach is based on the (experimental) determination of thin-film element yields, rather than starting from infinitely thick and single element calibration standards. These thin-film sensitivity coefficients can also be interpolated to allow quantification of elements for which no suitable standards are available. The change in detector efficiency can be monitored by collecting an X-ray spectrum of one multi-element glass standard. This information is used to adapt the previously determined thin-film sensitivity coefficients to the actual detector efficiency conditions valid on the day that the experiments were carried out. The main advantage of this method is that spectra collected from the standards and from the unknown samples should not be acquired within a short period of time. This new approach is evaluated for glass and metal matrices and is compared with a standard ZAF method.

Schalm, O.; Janssens, K.

2003-04-01

309

Quantitative description of microstructure defects in hexagonal boron nitrides using X-ray diffraction analysis  

SciTech Connect

A routine for simultaneous quantification of turbostratic disorder, amount of puckering and the dislocation and stacking fault density in hexagonal materials was proposed and tested on boron nitride powder samples that were synthesised using different methods. The routine allows the individual microstructure defects to be recognised according to their effect on the anisotropy of the X-ray diffraction line broadening. For quantification of the microstructure defects, the total line broadening is regarded as a linear combination of the contributions from the particular defects. The total line broadening is obtained from the line profile fitting. As testing material, graphitic boron nitride (h-BN) was employed in the form of hot-isostatically pressed h-BN, pyrolytic h-BN or a h-BN, which was chemically vapour deposited at a low temperature. The kind of the dominant microstructure defects determined from the broadening of the X-ray diffraction lines was verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their amount was attempted to be verified by alternative methods. - Highlights: • Reliable method for quantification of microstructure defects in BN was suggested. • The method is based on the analysis of anisotropic XRD line broadening. • This XRD line broadening is unique and characteristic of the respective defect. • Thus, the quantification of coexistent microstructure defects is possible. • The method was tested on hexagonal BN, which was produced by different techniques.

Schimpf, C., E-mail: schimpf@iww.tu-freiberg.de; Motylenko, M.; Rafaja, D.

2013-12-15

310

The MicroAnalysis Toolkit: X-ray Fluorescence Image Processing Software  

SciTech Connect

The MicroAnalysis Toolkit is an analysis suite designed for the processing of x-ray fluorescence microprobe data. The program contains a wide variety of analysis tools, including image maps, correlation plots, simple image math, image filtering, multiple energy image fitting, semi-quantitative elemental analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis, principle component analysis, and tomographic reconstructions. To be as widely useful as possible, data formats from many synchrotron sources can be read by the program with more formats available by request. An overview of the most common features will be presented.

Webb, S. M. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

2011-09-09

311

Electronic structure of individual hybrid colloid particles studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in the X-ray microscope.  

PubMed

The electronic structure of individual hybrid particles was studied by nanoscale near-edge X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy. The colloidal particles consist of a solid polystyrene core and a cross-linked poly-N-(isopropylacrylamide) shell with embedded crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles (d = 6 ± 3 nm). The TiO(2) particles are generated in the carrier network by a sol-gel process at room temperature. The hybrid particles were imaged with photon energy steps of 0.1 eV in their hydrated environment with a cryo transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Ti L(2,3)-edge. By analyzing the image stacks, the obtained near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of our individual hybrid particles show clearly that our synthesis generates TiO(2) in the anastase phase. Additionally, our spectromicroscopy method permits the determination of the density distribution of TiO(2) in single carrier particles. Therefore, NEXAFS spectroscopy combined with TXM presents a unique method to get in-depth insight into the electronic structure of hybrid materials. PMID:23360082

Henzler, Katja; Guttmann, Peter; Lu, Yan; Polzer, Frank; Schneider, Gerd; Ballauff, Matthias

2013-02-13

312

X-ray absorption spectroscopy by full-field X-ray microscopy of a thin graphite flake: Imaging and electronic structure via the carbon K-edge  

PubMed Central

Summary We demonstrate that near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectra combined with full-field transmission X-ray microscopy can be used to study the electronic structure of graphite flakes consisting of a few graphene layers. The flake was produced by exfoliation using sodium cholate and then isolated by means of density-gradient ultracentrifugation. An image sequence around the carbon K-edge, analyzed by using reference spectra for the in-plane and out-of-plane regions of the sample, is used to map and spectrally characterize the flat and folded regions of the flake. Additional spectral features in both ? and ? regions are observed, which may be related to the presence of topological defects. Doping by metal impurities that were present in the original exfoliated graphite is indicated by the presence of a pre-edge signal at 284.2 eV. PMID:23016137

Hitchock, Adam P; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ewels, Chris P; Guttmann, Peter

2012-01-01

313

Energetic electrons and x-ray photons from multiterawatt Ti:sapphire lasers  

SciTech Connect

The energy distribution and yield of electrons and hard x-ray photons were investigated by irradiating tungsten and tantalum targets with {approx} 30 fs pulses in the intensity range 10{sup 18} - 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2} by using the Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee (LOA) as well as the Max Born Institut (MBI) multiterawatt Ti:sapphire lasers. For the measurement of the hard x-ray emission in the energy range from 15 keV to 700 keV at the LOA a 9-channel spectrometer of calibrated thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) was used. The scaling of the hard x-rays was studied by varying the incident laser energy within one order of magnitude and the pulsewidth by a factor of 5. The hot electron output was investigated in the range 300 keV - 1 MeV with the new MBI Ti:sapphire laser by using a time-of-flight spectrometer. The results indicate a sensitive interplay between the temporal laser shape and laser intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Nickles, P V; Kalachnikov, M P; Warwick, P J; Janulewicz, K A; Sandner, W [Max-Born-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Jahnke, U; Hilscher, D [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Schnurer, M [Technische Universitat Wien, Vienna (Austria); Nolte, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Rousse, A [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-Centre del'Yvette, Palaiseau (France)

1999-05-31

314

Simulation Studies of the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator  

SciTech Connect

Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator are presented that include transverse effects and realistic Bragg crystal properties with the two-dimensional code GINGER. In the present cases considered the radiation divergence is much narrower than the crystal acceptance, and the numerical algorithm can be simplified by ignoring the finite angular bandwidth of the crystal. In this regime GINGER shows that the saturated x-ray pulses have 109 photons and are nearly Fourier-limited with peak powers in excess of 1 MW. Wealso include preliminary results for a four-mirror cavity that can be tuned in wavelength over a few percent, with future plans to incorporate the full transverse response of the Bragg crystals into GINGER to more accurately model this tunable source.

Lindberg, R. R.; Shyd'ko, Y.; Kim, K.-J; Fawley, W. M.

2009-08-14

315

Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres  

SciTech Connect

Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10 21 W/m2 can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wave-front sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, the paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging.

Loh, N.Duane; Starodub, Dimitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y.; Martin, Andrew V.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz

2014-04-22

316

Using an electron beam to produce a bright isotropic subsurface x-ray source for back illumination in landmine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why is it so difficult to detect concealed shallow buried landmines while it is relatively easy to image and detect cancers within the human body? One reason is that in medical x-ray imaging, the source is on one side of the body and the detectors are on the other. This is back-illumination, the optimal orientation for x-ray imaging. Can back-illumination be used in landmine detection? That is, is it possible to generate sufficient xrays 10 or more cm below the soil surface so that suitable detectors above ground could be used to image shallow buried objects including landmines? In an x-ray tube, high voltage electron beams produce x-rays by electron deceleration (bremsstrahlung) and induced orbital transitions. It may be possible to produce 1000 amp short pulses of electrons at 30 MeV using an electron gun with multiple field emitters. (This is a section of an antiballistic missile device proposed at SPIE Defense and Security 2004.) Electron beams of such energy have range of approximately 100 m in air and 10-15 cm in soil. This 5-10 m tall device could be carried by balloon, helicopter or land vehicle. X-ray production efficiency at 30 MeV is over 50 fold higher compared to medical x-ray tube efficiency. Such a device would produce a bright isotropic source of x-rays in a subsurface plume that might be usable in landmine detection.

Retsky, Michael W.

2005-06-01

317

The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (?-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

2010-11-01

318

Radiological characterization and water equivalency of genipin gel for x-ray and electron beam dosimetry.  

PubMed

The genipin radiochromic gel offers enormous potential as a three-dimensional dosimeter in advanced radiotherapy techniques. We have used several methods (including Monte Carlo simulation), to investigate the water equivalency of genipin gel by characterizing its radiological properties, including mass and electron densities, photon interaction cross sections, mass energy absorption coefficient, effective atomic number, collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Depth doses were also calculated for clinical kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams as well as megavoltage electron beams. The mass density, electron density and effective atomic number of genipin were found to differ from water by less than 2%. For energies below 150 keV, photoelectric absorption cross sections are more than 3% higher than water due to the strong dependence on atomic number. Compton scattering and pair production interaction cross sections for genipin gel differ from water by less than 1%. The mass energy absorption coefficient is approximately 3% higher than water for energies <60 keV due to the dominance of photoelectric absorption in this energy range. The electron mass stopping power and mass scattering power differ from water by approximately 0.3%. X-ray depth dose curves for genipin gel agree to within 1% with those for water. Our results demonstrate that genipin gel can be considered water equivalent for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beam dosimetry. For megavoltage electron beam dosimetry, however, our results suggest that a correction factor may be needed to convert measured dose in genipin gel to that of water, since differences in some radiological properties of up to 3% compared to water are observed. Our results indicate that genipin gel exhibits greater water equivalency than polymer gels and PRESAGE formulations. PMID:21734335

Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka; Bosi, Stephen; Davies, Justin B; Baldock, Clive

2011-08-01

319

First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments  

PubMed Central

Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density) and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed. PMID:25075338

Deutsch, Maxime; Gillon, Béatrice; Claiser, Nicolas; Gillet, Jean-Michel; Lecomte, Claude; Souhassou, Mohamed

2014-01-01

320

Soft x-ray reflectometry, hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations of the internal structure of TiO2(Ti)/SiO2/Si stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a mathematical analysis method of reflectometry data and used it to characterize the internal structure of TiO2/SiO2/Si and Ti/SiO2/Si stacks. Atomic concentration profiles of all the chemical elements composing the samples were reconstructed from the analysis of the reflectivity curves measured versus the incidence angle at different soft x-ray reflection (SXR) photon energies. The results were confirmed by the conventional techniques of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPES) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The depth variation of the chemical composition, thicknesses and densities of individual layers extracted from SXR and HXPES measurements are in close agreement and correlate well with the HRTEM images.

Filatova, Elena O.; Kozhevnikov, Igor V.; Sokolov, Andrey A.; Ubyivovk, Evgeniy V.; Yulin, Sergey; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Schäfers, Franz

2012-02-01

321

Quantitative coherence analysis with an X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer.  

PubMed

Differential phase-contrast (DPC) X-ray imaging has been performed in the Talbot-Lau configuration, in which the X-ray source was a combination of an absorption grating and a laboratory X-ray generator. We report here quantitative analysis of partial coherence effects on the X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer. Based on the visibility of the self-image, the well-known geometry condition is reproduced. It is shown that effects of partial coherence are determined by the opening ratio of the source grating, and that the effects are independent of the Talbot order and the type of the phase grating, a condition quite different from those in a Talbot interferometer. A possible explanation is discussed from the point of view of the effective spatial coherence length. Taking into account the available X-ray flux and experimental fluctuations, we present the optimum opening ratio. Furthermore, we mention that our results can also be successfully used to discuss the properties of a multiline X-ray source. PMID:20306176

Wang, Zhili; Zhu, Peiping; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Liu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Kai; Hong, Youli; Zhang, Huitao; Ge, Xin; Gao, Kun; Wu, Ziyu

2010-07-01

322

Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect

It is well-known that seeding can be used to produce narrow-bandwidth and fully-coherent x- ray free-electron lasers. Self-seeding, which uses an extra undulator to generate the seed pulse, is perhaps one of the most promising methods to accomplish this. In the hard x-ray regime with high- energy electrons, this method requires a large magnetic chicane to match the path length delay of the x-ray monochromator that selects a narrow bandwidth of radiation. Such a chicane not only takes large footprint to build, but also may degrade the electron beam qualities through incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation. In this paper, we present an alternative two-bunch self-seeding scheme. The two bunches are precisely separated to match the x-ray delay of the monochromator and eliminate the need for a long, complex magnetic chicane. The spectrally filtered SASE x-ray pulse produced by the first bunch is combined with the second electron bunch at the entrance of the second undulator and then amplified to the saturation level. We present start-to-end simulation results based on the LCLS hard x-ray FEL and show that this method can produce a nearly fully coherent x-ray pulse at a few GW power level.

Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; Ruth, Ronald D.; /SLAC

2010-06-04

323

Measurement of the unstained biological sample by a novel scanning electron generation X-ray microscope based on SEM  

SciTech Connect

We introduced a novel X-ray microscope system based on scanning electron microscopy using thin film, which enables the measurement of unstained biological samples without damage. An unstained yeast sample was adsorbed under a titanium (Ti)-coated silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) film 90 nm thick. The X-ray signal from the film was detected by an X-ray photodiode (PD) placed below the sample. With an electron beam at 2.6 kV acceleration and 6.75 nA current, the yeast image is obtained using the X-ray PD. The image is created by soft X-rays from the Ti layer. The Ti layer is effective in generating the characteristic 2.7-nm wavelength X-rays by the irradiation of electrons. Furthermore, we investigated the electron trajectory and the generation of the characteristic X-rays within the Ti-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} film by Monte Carlo simulation. Our system can be easily utilized to observe various unstained biological samples of cells, bacteria, and viruses.

Ogura, Toshihiko, E-mail: t-ogura@aist.go.jp [Neuroscience Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)] [Neuroscience Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2009-08-07

324

An improved model for ultraviolet- and x-ray-induced electron emission from CsI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microscopic theoretical model is proposed for calculating the characteristics of ultraviolet photoemission and x-ray secondary electron emission induced from CsI photoconverters. This approach is based on a realistic picture of the basic interactions of photons and induced electrons within the material. Both differential and integral emission characteristics, such as energy spectra and quantum efficiencies, are estimated according to the model and are found to agree, in general, with experimental data. The model-calculated photoemission enhancement under high external electric fields is also considered and is fairly compatible with measured values. The applicability of the model in the field of radiation detectors incorporating solid photoconverters is discussed.

Boutboul, T.; Akkerman, A.; Gibrekhterman, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.

1999-11-01

325

Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray absorption and electron drift in gaseous xenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed to study the absorption of soft x rays and the subsequent behavior of the resulting electrons under the influence of an applied electric field in gaseous xenon. All relevant physical processes are included from the initial photoionization through the subsequent decay of the residual ion to the scattering and drift of the electrons resulting from the interactions with the background gas. Details are provided for the cross sections and decay rates employed as well as the criteria used to terminate the simulation, depending on the information or results required. Examples of its use in modeling gaseous radiation detectors are included.

Dias, T. H. V. T.; Santos, F. P.; Stauffer, A. D.; Conde, C. A. N.

1993-10-01

326

Soft-x-ray free-electron-laser interaction with materials  

SciTech Connect

Soft-x-ray free-electron lasers have enabled materials studies in which structural information is obtained faster than the relevant probe-induced damage mechanisms. We present a continuum model to describe the damage process based on hot-dense plasma theory, which includes a description of the energy deposition in the samples, the subsequent dynamics of the sample, and the detector signal. We compared the model predictions with experimental data and mostly found reasonable agreement. In view of future free-electron-laser performance, the model was also used to predict damage dynamics of samples and optical elements at shorter wavelengths and larger photon fluences than currently available.

Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; London, Richard A.; Chapman, Henry N.; Bergh, Magnus [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Box 576, SE 75123, Uppsala (Sweden)

2007-10-15

327

A novel spinal kinematic analysis using X-ray imaging and vicon motion analysis: a case study.  

PubMed

This study highlights a novel spinal kinematic analysis method and the feasibility of X-ray imaging measurements to accurately assess thoracic spine motion. The advanced X-ray Nash-Moe method and analysis were used to compute the segmental range of motion in thoracic vertebra pedicles in vivo. This Nash-Moe X-ray imaging method was compared with a standardized method using the Vicon 3-dimensional motion capture system. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent and significant correlation between the two methods (R2 = 0.99, p < 0.05), suggesting that the analysis of spinal segmental range of motion using X-ray imaging measurements was accurate and comparable to the conventional 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Clinically, this novel finding is compelling evidence demonstrating that measurements with X-ray imaging are useful to accurately decipher pathological spinal alignment and movement impairments in idiopathic scoliosis (IS). PMID:24211943

Noh, Dong K; Lee, Nam G; You, Joshua H

2014-01-01

328

Separation of hard x-ray synchrotron radiation from electron beam slices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the electron beam slicing scheme1, 2 considered for National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, when a low energy electron bunch crosses from top of a high energy storage ring electron bunch, its coulomb force will kick a short slice (slicing bunch) from the core (core bunch) of the storage ring electron bunch. The short slice bunch and the long core bunch when passing through the 3 m long U20 in-vacuum undulator will radiate X-ray pulses with pulse length ~150 fs and 30 ps respectively. To separate the satellite radiation from the core radiation, we propose a conceptual optical scheme allowing for the separation. To get reliable estimates of the separation performances, we apply the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) physical optics computer code3, 4 to study the wavefront propagation. As calculations show, at 7.8 keV, the separation signal-to-noise ratio can reach 5~12 and the satellite photon flux per pulse at sample can be 5000~20000 photons/0.1%BW with x-ray pulse length 150 ~ 330 fs depending on the separation method and the crossing angle between the low energy electron bunch and the high energy storage ring bunch. Since the repetition rate of the electron beam slicing system can reach 100 kHz, the average flux per second can reach 5 x 108 ` 2 x 109 photons/sec/0.1%BW.

He, A.; Chubar, O.; Yu, L. H.

2014-09-01

329

A compact light source: Design and technical feasibility study of a laser-electron storage ring X-ray source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson scattering infrared photons off energetic electrons provides a mechanism to produce hard X-rays desirable for applied sciences research. Using a small, modest energy (25 MeV) electron storage ring together with a resonantly-driven optical storage cavity, a narrow spectrum of hard X-rays could be produced with the quality and monochromatic intensity approaching that of beamline sources at large synchrotron radiation laboratories. The general design of this X-ray source as well as its technical feasibility are presented. In particular, the requirements of optical pulse gain enhancement in an external cavity are described and experimentally demonstrated using a CW mode-locked laser.

Loewen, Roderick Jon

330

Size-dependent ultrafast ionization dynamics of nanoscale samples in intense femtosecond x-ray free-electron-laser pulses.  

PubMed

All matter exposed to intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser is strongly ionized on time scales competing with the inner-shell vacancy lifetimes. We show that for nanoscale objects the environment, i.e., nanoparticle size, is an important parameter for the time-dependent ionization dynamics. The Auger lifetimes of large Ar clusters are found to be increased compared to small clusters and isolated atoms, due to delocalization of the valence electrons in the x-ray-induced nanoplasma. As a consequence, large nanometer-sized samples absorb intense femtosecond x-ray pulses less efficiently than small ones. PMID:23003953

Schorb, Sebastian; Rupp, Daniela; Swiggers, Michelle L; Coffee, Ryan N; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth; Bozek, John D; Wada, Shin-Ichi; Kornilov, Oleg; Möller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph

2012-06-01

331

Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering of CdS: a two-dimensional electronic structure map approach  

SciTech Connect

Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) with soft x-rays is uniquely suited to study the elec-tronic structure of a variety of materials, but is currently limited by low (fluorescence yield) count rates. This limitation is overcome with a new high-transmission spectrometer that allows to measure soft x-ray RIXS"maps." The S L2,3 RIXS map of CdS is discussed and compared with density functional calculations. The map allows the extraction of decay channel-specific"absorp-tion spectra," giving detailed insight into the wave functions of occupied and unoccupied elec-tronic states.

Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Fleszar, A.; Bar, M.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Yang, W.; Hanke, W.; Umbach, E.; Heske, C.

2008-09-24

332

Electronic Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials with Photon-in/Photon-out Soft-X-Ray Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The applications of resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy on a variety of carbon systems have yielded characteristic fingerprints. With high-resolution monochromatized synchrotron radiation excitation, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has emerged as a new source of information about electronic structure and excitation dynamics. Photon-in/photon-out soft-X-ray spectroscopy is used to study the electronic properties of fundamental materials, nanostructure, and complex hydrides and will offer potential in-depth understanding of chemisorption and/or physisorption mechanisms of hydrogen adsorption/desorption capacity and kinetics.

Guo, Jinghua

2008-09-22

333

EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {mu}m brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory - DIENCA, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Rocchi, F. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory - DIENCA, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); UTFISSM-PRONOC, ENEA, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tartari, A. [Department of Physics, Ferrara University, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mariotti, F. [ENEA, IRP-DOS, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

2012-09-01

334

Eigen analysis for classifying chest x-ray images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method first employed for face recognition has been employed to analyse a set of chest x-ray images. After marking certain common features on the images, they are registered by means of an affine transformation. The differences between each registered image and the mean of all images in the set are computed and the first K principal components are found, where K is less than or equal to the number of images in the set. These form eigenimages (we have coined the term 'eigenchests') from which an approximation to any one of the original images can be reconstructed. Since the method effectively treats each pixel as a dimension in a hyperspace, the matrices concerned are huge; we employ the method developed by Turk and Pentland for face recognition to make the computations tractable. The K coefficients for the eigenimages encode the variation between images and form the basis for discriminating normal from abnormal. Preliminary results have been obtained for a set of eigenimages formed from a set of normal chests and tested on separate sets of normals and patients with pneumonia. The distributions of coefficients have been observed to be different for the two test sets and work is continuing to determine the most sensitive method for detecting the differences.

Bones, Philip J.; Butler, Anthony P. H.

2004-10-01

335

Design and characterization of electron beam focusing for X-ray generation in novel medical imaging architecture.  

PubMed

A novel electron beam focusing scheme for medical X-ray sources is described in this paper. Most vacuum based medical X-ray sources today employ a tungsten filament operated in temperature limited regime, with electrostatic focusing tabs for limited range beam optics. This paper presents the electron beam optics designed for the first distributed X-ray source in the world for Computed Tomography (CT) applications. This distributed source includes 32 electron beamlets in a common vacuum chamber, with 32 circular dispenser cathodes operated in space charge limited regime, where the initial circular beam is transformed into an elliptical beam before being collected at the anode. The electron beam optics designed and validated here are at the heart of the first Inverse Geometry CT system, with potential benefits in terms of improved image quality and dramatic X-ray dose reduction for the patient. PMID:24826066

Bogdan Neculaes, V; Zou, Yun; Zavodszky, Peter; Inzinna, Louis; Zhang, Xi; Conway, Kenneth; Caiafa, Antonio; Frutschy, Kristopher; Waters, William; De Man, Bruno

2014-05-01

336

Design and characterization of electron beam focusing for X-ray generation in novel medical imaging architecture  

SciTech Connect

A novel electron beam focusing scheme for medical X-ray sources is described in this paper. Most vacuum based medical X-ray sources today employ a tungsten filament operated in temperature limited regime, with electrostatic focusing tabs for limited range beam optics. This paper presents the electron beam optics designed for the first distributed X-ray source in the world for Computed Tomography (CT) applications. This distributed source includes 32 electron beamlets in a common vacuum chamber, with 32 circular dispenser cathodes operated in space charge limited regime, where the initial circular beam is transformed into an elliptical beam before being collected at the anode. The electron beam optics designed and validated here are at the heart of the first Inverse Geometry CT system, with potential benefits in terms of improved image quality and dramatic X-ray dose reduction for the patient.

Bogdan Neculaes, V., E-mail: neculaes@research.ge.com; Zou, Yun; Zavodszky, Peter; Inzinna, Louis; Zhang, Xi; Conway, Kenneth; Caiafa, Antonio; Frutschy, Kristopher; Waters, William; De Man, Bruno [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)] [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)

2014-05-15

337

Statistics of the scintillation output using a combined x-ray/electron/optical Monte Carlo method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of digital imaging systems based on scintillator screens usually employ a Poisson model for the phosphor conversion gain. However, the statistics of the scintillation output are determined by complex phenomena that involve many sources of variability including inhomogeneities in the crystalline and screen structure, variations in the deposited energy for each primary quantum available for excitation, variations in the relationship between radiate and non-radiative decay processes, energy dependencies in the conversion gain variance, and spread of secondary quanta. We use a combined x-ray/electron/optical Monte Carlo code to study the statistics of the scintillation output in columnar phosphors. The simulation code is the result of merging the x-ray transport code PENELOPE and the optical transport code DETECT-II. Using an improved geometric model for the columnar structure, we present results concerning pulse-height spectra of the scintillation output (and corresponding Swank factors) as a function of x-ray energy. This study improves our understanding of the underlying causes of conversion gain variations and should facilitate more accurate simulation efforts for the investigation and optimization of image acquisition systems based on scintillator screens.

Badano, Aldo; Sempau, Josep; Jennings, Robert J.

2005-04-01

338

Structural biology at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility.  

PubMed

The European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility, under construction in the Hamburg region, will provide high-peak brilliance (greater than 10(33) photons s(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) per 0.1% BW), ultrashort pulses (approx. 10 fs) of X-rays, with a high repetition rate (up to 27 000 pulses s(-1)) from 2016 onwards. The main features of this exceptional X-ray source, and the instrumentation developments necessary to exploit them fully, for application to a variety of scientific disciplines, are briefly summarized. In the case of structural biology, that has a central role in the scientific case of this new facility, the instruments and ancillary laboratories that are being planned and built within the baseline programme of the European XFEL and by consortia of users are also discussed. It is expected that the unique features of the source and the advanced features of the instrumentation will allow operation modes with more efficient use of sample materials, faster acquisition times, and conditions better approaching feasibility of single molecule imaging. PMID:24914145

Altarelli, Massimo; Mancuso, Adrian P

2014-07-17

339

Celebrating 40 years of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in electron probe microanalysis: a historic and nostalgic look back into the beginnings.  

PubMed

On February 2, 1968, R. Fitzgerald, K. Keil, and K.F.J. Heinrich published a seminal paper in Science (159, 528-530) in which they described a solid-state Si(Li) energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with, initially, a resolution of 600 eV. This resolution was much improved over previous attempts to use either gas-filled proportional counters or solid-state devices for EDS to detect X-rays and was sufficient, for the first time, to make EDS a practically useful technique. It ushered in a new era not only in EPMA, but also in scanning electron microscopy, analytical transmission electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and X-ray diffraction. EDS offers many advantages over wavelength-dispersive crystal spectrometers, e.g., it has no moving parts, covers the entire X-ray energy range of interest to EPMA, there is no defocusing over relatively large distances across the sample, and, of particular interest to those who analyze complex minerals consisting of many elements, all X-ray lines are detected quickly and simultaneously. PMID:19804655

Keil, Klaus; Fitzgerald, Ray; Heinrich, Kurt F J

2009-12-01

340

Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry fixedbeam or overscan x-ray microanalysis of particles can miss the real structure: x-ray spectrum image mapping reveals the true nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The typical strategy for analysis of a microscopic particle by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry x-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDS) is to use a fixed beam placed at the particle center or to continuously overscan to gather an "averaged" x-ray spectrum. While useful, such strategies inevitably concede any possibility of recognizing microstructure within the particle, and such fine scale structure is often critical for understanding the origins, behavior, and fate of particles. Elemental imaging by x-ray mapping has been a mainstay of SEM/EDS analytical practice for many years, but the time penalty associated with mapping with older EDS technology has discouraged its general use and reserved it more for detailed studies that justified the time investment. The emergence of the high throughput, high peak stability silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) has enabled a more effective particle mapping strategy: "flash" x-ray spectrum image maps can now be recorded in seconds that capture the spatial distribution of major (concentration, C > 0.1 mass fraction) and minor (0.01 <= C <= 0.1) constituents. New SEM/SDD-EDS instrument configurations feature multiple SDDs that view the specimen from widely spaced azimuthal angles. Multiple, simultaneous measurements from different angles enable x-ray spectrometry and mapping that can minimize the strong geometric effects of particles. The NIST DTSA-II software engine is a powerful aid for quantitatively analyzing EDS spectra measured individually as well as for mapping information (available free for Java platforms at: http://www.cstl.nist.gov/div837/837.02/epq/dtsa2/index.html).

Newbury, Dale E.; Ritchie, Nicholas W. M.

2013-05-01

341

Sub-femtosecond precision measurement of relative X-ray arrival time for free-electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's brightest coherent X-ray sources, X-ray free-electron lasers, produce ultrafast X-ray pulses for which full-width at half-maximum durations as short as 3?fs have been measured. There has been a marked increase in the popularity of such short pulses now that optical timing techniques have begun to report an X-ray/optical delay below ?10?fs r.m.s. errors. As a result, sub-10?fs optical pulses have been implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray beamlines, thus warranting a push to reduce the error in X-ray/optical delay measurements to the 1?fs level. Here, we report a unique two-dimensional spectrogram measurement of the relative X-ray/optical delay. This easily scalable relative delay measurement already surpasses previous techniques by an order of magnitude with its sub-1?fs temporal resolution and opens up the prospect of time-resolved X-ray measurements to the attosecond community.

Hartmann, N.; Helml, W.; Galler, A.; Bionta, M. R.; Grünert, J.; L. Molodtsov, S.; Ferguson, K. R.; Schorb, S.; Swiggers, M. L.; Carron, S.; Bostedt, C.; Castagna, J.-C.; Bozek, J.; Glownia, J. M.; Kane, D. J.; Fry, A. R.; White, W. E.; Hauri, C. P.; Feurer, T.; Coffee, R. N.

2014-09-01

342

Multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. 1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of a biomimetic model of FeFe-hydrogenase.  

PubMed

In this work, we demonstrate the potential of multi-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis in completely defining the ground state electronic structure of a prototypical biomimetic complex of the [2Fe]-subcluster of the catalytic H-cluster of FeFe-hydrogenase. The spectral features at the ionization thresholds for Fe, S, C, and O 1s (K-edge) and Fe 2p (L-edge) core electrons were considered simultaneously to obtain the atomic compositions of the unoccupied frontier molecular orbitals. A systematic error analysis was carried out at the most informative S K-edge for spectra collected by multiple detection methods, at various data collection temperatures, and different sample preparation protocols. As expected for the difference in bonding between bridging and terminal Fe-S(thiolate) coordination, the Fe-S bond is more covalent in the [2Fe]-biomimetic complex with formally iron(I) centers (36 ± 2% S character per Fe-S bond) than in the previously described [2Fe-2S] clusters (25 ± 3% S character per Fe-S bond) with formally iron(III) centers. An electron hole-based analysis of the pre-edge features at Fe K-, Fe L-, and S K-edges experimentally defines the composition of the first three frontier unoccupied molecular orbitals to contain 4% Fe 4p, 44% Fe 3d, and 24% S 3p contributions per electron hole, respectively. The complementary CO ligand contribution thus can be defined as 28% per electron hole. These experimental orbital covalency values are important in rationalizing redox properties, electrophilicity of the metals, or nucleophilicity of the ligands, and critically evaluating the absolute accuracy of electronic structure calculations. PMID:23145835

Giles, Logan J; Grigoropoulos, Alexios; Szilagyi, Robert K

2012-12-20

343

Location of Calcium Within Bacillus Spores by Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis1  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic microanalysis of the element-characteristic X rays produced by a scanning electron microprobe was employed to detect calcium and carbon in both intact and thin-sectioned spores of Bacillus cereus T and B. megaterium QM B1551. Linear scan profiles and multilinear scan images of the X-ray emissions for calcium (CaK?) were compared with those for carbon (CK?) as an index of mass. Location was accomplished by stereological comparisons with secondary electron images and conventional transmission electron micrographs. Although the elements could be detected at the attogram level theoretically, spatial resolution was limited to ?500 to 1,000 nm in an intact spore, e.g., by the primary electron beam diameter, the electron-excited spore microvolume, and the type of specimen support. The resolution was improved to ?100 to 200 nm by use of thin-sectioned spores, with precautions to prevent calcium leakage from the specimen during preparations. In both intact and sectioned spores, calcium was distributed throughout the spore, similarly to carbon, and concentrated mainly in a central region corresponding to the spore protoplast. Images PMID:4627927

Scherrer, René; Gerhardt, Philipp

1972-01-01

344

ON THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF X-RAY POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles of the form A + Bcos {sup 2}({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}) (0 < {phi} < {pi}). We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using Monte Carlo simulations and {chi}{sup 2} fitting methods. We compare our results to those derived using the traditional probability density used to characterize polarization measurements and quantify how they deviate as the intrinsic modulation amplitude grows. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by {beta} the ''number of {sigma}'s'' of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude a by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle {phi} (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case, when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well-known minimum detectable polarization, (MDP) it is, on average, detected at the 3{sigma} level. For the latter case, when one requires a joint measurement at the same confidence level, then more counts are needed than what was required to achieve the MDP level. This additional factor is amplitude-dependent, but is Almost-Equal-To 2.2 for intrinsic amplitudes less than about 20%. It decreases slowly with amplitude and is Almost-Equal-To 1.8 when the amplitude is 50%. We find that the position angle uncertainty at 1{sigma} confidence is well described by the relation {sigma}{sub {phi}} = 28. Degree-Sign 5/{beta}.

Strohmayer, T. E.; Kallman, T. R. [X-ray Astrophysics Lab, Astrophysics Science Division, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-08-20

345

SAVLOC, computer program for automatic control and analysis of X-ray fluorescence experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program for a PDP-15 computer is presented which provides for control and analysis of trace element determinations by using X-ray fluorescence. The program simultaneously handles data accumulation for one sample and analysis of data from previous samples. Data accumulation consists of sample changing, timing, and data storage. Analysis requires the locating of peaks in X-ray spectra, determination of intensities of peaks, identification of origins of peaks, and determination of a real density of the element responsible for each peak. The program may be run in either a manual (supervised) mode or an automatic (unsupervised) mode.

Leonard, R. F.

1977-01-01

346

Mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis  

SciTech Connect

Histologic paraffin sections of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-involved skin of forearm and axilla were used for histochemistry and immunohistochemical and analytical electron microscopy to study the progressive mineralization in the dermis of patients with PXE. The von Kossa technique identified mineral deposits throughout the reticular PXE dermis. X-ray analysis revealed patterns of calcium and phosphorus deposition in the von Kossa-positive areas, and the immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies identified increased chondroitin-6-sulfate in these areas when compared with normal skin. Scanning transmission electron microscopy observation combined with X-ray dot mapping show calcium and phosphorus to be codistributed within the mineralized area. This study confirms by new methods the increase in chondroitin-6-sulfate, alterations in elastin and collagen, and a high calcium and phosphorus elemental distribution matching the mineralized area in the PXE dermis.

Walker, E.R.; Frederickson, R.G.; Mayes, M.D.

1989-01-01

347

XSCAN x-ray data acquisition and analysis software for the MATRIX X-18A x-ray scattering beamline at the NSLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile and easy-to-use computer software package has been developed for equipment control, data acquisition and analysis at the MATRIX X-18A x-ray scattering beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The software runs on any IBM-compatible personal computer running under MS-DOS and makes use of the GPIB and AT-Bus interfaces. The menu-driven program is user friendly for a wide range of x-ray experiments through control of all aspects of the x-ray beamline. Equipment interfaces include counter-timer, stepping motor controllers, multichannel analyzer, and temperature controller. Real space and reciprocal space scans are possible, as well as an external file scan, which allows control of up to six diffractometer motions plus the energy simultaneously. Orientation matrix calculations, peak fitting routines, and an extensive help file system are included. Plans are presently underway to upgrade the software to run under Windows NT.

Ehrlich, S. N.; Schwanof, J. A.; Yang, X.; Liedl, G. L.

1996-09-01

348

Support Effects on Electronic Behaviors of Gold Nanoparticles Studied by X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic properties of gold nanoparticles supported on different supports were studied with X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). It was found that the tunability of the d-electron distribution in the nano-sized Au clusters can be realized by selective supporting. The Au atoms in the clusters gain 5d electrons when supported on SiO2, and lose 5d electrons when loaded over MgO, Al2O3, and TiO2. Contractions in bond lengths of between 0.5 and 1.6% from bulk metal values were observed from EXAFS data. This work demonstrates that the important role of the different supports in the 5d-charge distribution of Au nanoparticles and usefulness of XAFS in probing the electronic behavior of noble metal nanoparticles.

Li, Zhong-Rui; Yan, Wensheng; Wei, Shiqiang

2007-02-01

349

Radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches: Coherent terahertz and femtosecond X-rays  

SciTech Connect

Electron beam based radiation sources provide electromagnetic radiation for countless applications. The properties of the radiation are primarily determined by the properties of the electron beam. Compact laser driven accelerators are being developed that can provide ultra-short electron bunches (femtosecond duration) with relativistic energies reaching towards a GeV. The electron bunches are produced when an intense laser interacts with a dense plasma and excites a large amplitude plasma density modulation (wakefield) that can trap background electrons and accelerate them to high energies. The short pulse nature of the accelerated bunches and high particle energy offer the possibility of generating radiation from one compact source that ranges from coherent terahertz to gamma rays. The intrinsic synchronization to a laser pulse and unique character of the radiation offers a wide range of possibilities for scientific applications. Two particular radiation source regimes are discussed: Coherent terahertz emission and x-ray emission based on betatron oscillations and Thomson scattering.

Leemans, W.P.; Esarey, E.; van Tilborg, J.; Michel, P.A.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Shadwick, B.A.

2004-10-01

350

Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis - a new tool in quantitative dermatology.  

PubMed

Proton-Induced X-ray Emission analysis (PIXE) constitutes a method for trace element analysis characterized by multielemental capability, detection limits in the low ppm-range and size resolution down towards a micrometre. In applications where the sensitivity of the Electron-Induced X-ray Emission (EIXE) analysis is not sufficient and where a spatial resolution not better than a few micrometres is required, the PIXE technique provides a powerful tool. In this paper properties of the PIXE method are demonstrated by quantitative results from three different samples of dermatological interest. Firstly, mercury results from a longitudinal scan of a single hair strand from a mercury poisoned person are shown. With a spatial resolution of one or a few millimetres very fast scans may be performed on hair strands giving information on time and magnitude of intoxication or other exposures, as well as deficiencies. Secondly, results are given from a radial scan with a beam width of 4 micron on hair from a person exposed to high amounts of iron. The calcium, iron and zinc distributions but not the sulphur and potassium distributions show narrow peaks of concentration (less than 4 micron) about 15 micron from the surface of the hair. Further investigations have to be performed in order to interpret these data. Thirdly, the depth profiles in skin of some elements were measured with a beam width of 10 micron. The results show significant increases in sulphur, calcium and zinc concentrations and significant decreases in phosphorous and potassium concentrations at the skin surface, i.e. in the stratum corneum. PMID:6669949

Malmqvist, K G; Carlsson, L E; Akselsson, K R; Forslind, B

1983-01-01

351

Radio and Hard X-Ray Images of High-Energy Electrons in an X-Class Solar Flare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first comparison between radio images of high-energy electrons accelerated by a solar flare and images of hard X-rays produced by the same electrons at photon energies above 100 keV. The images indicate that the high-energy X-rays originate at the footpoints of the loops dominating the radio emission. The radio and hard X-ray light curves match each other well and are quantitatively consistent with an origin in a single population of nonthermal electrons with a power-law index of around 4.5-5. The high-frequency radio spectral index suggests a flatter energy spectrum, but this is ruled out by the X-ray spectrum up to 8 MeV.

White, S. M.; Krucker, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Shimojo, M.; Kundu, Mukul R.

2003-01-01

352

Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) filter analysis and modeling by Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and X-Ray Standing Wave (XSW)  

PubMed Central

This work is presented as an improvement of a recently introduced method for airborne particulate matter (PM) filter analysis [1]. X-ray Standing Wave (XSW) and Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) were performed with a new dedicated laboratory instrumentation. The main advantage of performing both XSW and TXRF, is the possibility to distinguish the nature of the sample: if it is a small droplet dry residue, a thin film like or a bulk sample; and to select the angle of total reflection to make TXRF measurements. Finally, the possibility to switch the X-ray source allows to measure with more accuracy lighter and heavier elements (with a a change in X-ray anode, for example from Mo to Cu). The aim of the present study is to lay the theoretical foundation of the new proposed method for airborne PM filters quantitative analysis improving the accuracy and efficiency of quantification by means of an external standard. The theoretical model presented and discussed demonstrated that airborne PM filters can be considered as thin layers. A set of reference samples is prepared in laboratory and used to obtain a calibration curve. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method for quantitative analysis of air PM filters is affordable and reliable without the necessity to digest filters to obtain quantitative chemical analysis, and that the use of XRW improve the accuracy of TXRF analysis. PMID:22284465

Borgese, L.; Salmistraro, M.; Gianoncelli, A; Zacco, A.; Lucchini, R.; Zimmerman, N.; Pisani, L.; Siviero, G.; Depero, L. E.; Bontempi, E.

2011-01-01

353

Study of mineralogical speciation of arsenic in soils using X ray microfluorescence and scanning electronic microscopy.  

PubMed

In this paper we studied the As content in natural contaminated soils, classified as Dystric Leptosol, Chromic Luvisol, Eutric Cambisol and Mollic Leptosol. In soil samples, sieved (<2mm), total As was determined by XRF and chemical speciation by sequential extraction. As-bearing minerals were concentrated from fine sand fraction of soil (200-20 ?m) using heavy liquid. In this fraction, mineralogical speciation was studied by X-ray microfluorescence, XRD with Göbbel mirror and SEM-BEI-EDX. Total As contents ranging from 61.00 to 131.00 mg kg(-1). The results of the sequential extraction showed that As was, mainly, in the residual fraction (52.51-98.76 mg kg(-1)) and in the fraction bound to iron oxyhydroxides (0-36.5 mg kg(-1)). Mapping of As with X-ray microfluorescence show strongly relationship between Fe and As. Iron (III) oxyhydroxides (FeOHs) (lepidocrocite and goethite), scorodite, angelellite, schultenite and dussertite were identified by XRD analysis as most likely mineral phases. The contents of As, Fe, Pb and Ba obtained with EDX-microprobe, confirmed the results of XRD. The results of sequential extraction and X-ray microfluorescence indicate that As is strongly bound to the soils because the identified As-bearing mineral phases are very stable at the pH conditions of studied soils. Consequently, a low mobility of As can be assumed in these soils. PMID:21482293

Gómez-Parrales, Isidoro; Bellinfante, Nicolás; Tejada, Manuel

2011-05-15

354

The electronic structure study of titanium-nickel alloys by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the electronic structure changes of titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloys. The electronic structure was correlated with the physical property of shape memory effect demonstrated by 50% atomic nickel concentration Ti-Ni crystalline alloys. Methodology. The technique of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to collect spectra using an ESCA PHI 5100 system. The spectra were analyzed by measuring binding energies, Auger parameters, Shirley and Tougaard backgrounds, and electronegativity criteria. Changes in the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi level were modeled using binding energy shifts, Auger parameter changes, the intrinsic loss structure modeled from the Shirley and Tougaard background, and the electronegativity criteria. Results. Significant changes in binding energy (BE) were noted for alloys, but changes in BE could not be with electronegativity criteria. The Auger parameter demonstrated positive values for Ti and negative values for Ni with minimum values at the 50% atomic nickel concentration. This was interpreted as a transfer of charge from nickel to titanium. Wagner plots of the Auger parameter indicated Ti and Ni were in different chemical states in each of the alloys with a minimum for the 50% atomic concentration nickel, which correlates to the shape memory effect (SME). Chemical shifts indicated a shift in charge from Ni to Ti, correlating to the results yielded by the Auger parameter. Normalized background analysis (indicative of the intrinsic loss structure) obtained from Shirley and Tougaard methods correlated well with the Auger parameter and chemical shift results, indicating that background analysis is useful for studying changes in chemical state for these materials. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that BE shifts and electronegativity criteria can not be successfully used to model changes in chemical states for Ti-Ni alloys. The results from Auger parameter analysis, chemical shift analysis, and intrinsic loss structure as given by background analysis correlate well with each other and indicate a transfer of charge from Ni to Ti with significant differences in chemical state for the 50% atomic nickel concentration, which corresponds well with the SME.

Seabolt, Michael A.

2002-01-01

355

Application of the X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray diffraction in geochemical studies of the Pleistocene tills from Holy Cross Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence analysis methods (wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (WDXRF) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) have been applied in complementary geochemical studies of the Pleistocene till samples. The XRPD technique gave information about the mineral composition of the analyzed samples while the WDXRF and TXRF studies allowed the fast elemental analysis. The till samples were collected from different regions of Holy Cross Mountains (located in central Poland) which are still not unambiguously described in the context of the geochemical studies of the Quaternary sediments. The analysis was concentrated on the geochemical composition of the till samples both for materials occurring on the surface (characterized by continuous weathering processes) and for samples taken from core borehole. The overriding purpose of these studies is determination of the local lithotype of the tills and its lithologic and petrographic diagnostic properties, including the chemical composition of clay and minerals found in the clay. In the presented work the experimental sets up, sample preparation procedure and measurements programme will be discussed in details. Finally, the elemental and mineral compositions will be presented for studied different groups of the samples.

Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Ludwikowska-K?dzia, M.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Mo?ko, J.

2013-12-01

356

Radiation damage in protein serial femtosecond crystallography using an x-ray free-electron laser  

PubMed Central

X-ray free-electron lasers deliver intense femtosecond pulses that promise to yield high resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before the destruction of the sample by radiation damage. Diffraction intensities of lysozyme nanocrystals collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 2 keV photons were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and analyzed for radiation damage as a function of pulse length and fluence. Signatures of radiation damage are observed for pulses as short as 70 fs. Parametric scaling used in conventional crystallography does not account for the observed effects. PMID:24089594

Lomb, Lukas; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Aquila, Andrew; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Rudek, Benedikt; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Shoeman, Robert L.; Andreasson, Jakob; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; DePonte, Daniel P.; Doak, R. Bruce; Ekeberg, Tomas; Fleckenstein, Holger; Fromme, Petra; Gebhardt, Maike; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M.; Hunter, Mark S.; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A.; Liang, Mengning; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Meinhart, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Spence, John C. H.; Steinbrener, Jan; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; White, Thomas A.; Wunderer, Cornelia; Chapman, Henry N.; Ullrich, Joachim; Strüder, Lothar; Schlichting, Ilme

2013-01-01

357

Radiation damage in protein serial femtosecond crystallography using an x-ray free-electron laser.  

PubMed

X-ray free-electron lasers deliver intense femtosecond pulses that promise to yield high resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before the destruction of the sample by radiation damage. Diffraction intensities of lysozyme nanocrystals collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 2 keV photons were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and analyzed for radiation damage as a function of pulse length and fluence. Signatures of radiation damage are observed for pulses as short as 70 fs. Parametric scaling used in conventional crystallography does not account for the observed effects. PMID:24089594

Lomb, Lukas; Barends, Thomas R M; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Aquila, Andrew; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Rudek, Benedikt; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Shoeman, Robert L; Andreasson, Jakob; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Deponte, Daniel P; Doak, R Bruce; Ekeberg, Tomas; Fleckenstein, Holger; Fromme, Petra; Gebhardt, Maike; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M; Hunter, Mark S; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Liang, Mengning; Maia, Filipe R N C; Meinhart, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Spence, John C H; Steinbrener, Jan; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; White, Thomas A; Wunderer, Cornelia; Chapman, Henry N; Ullrich, Joachim; Strüder, Lothar; Schlichting, Ilme

2011-12-01

358

Fluctuation of laser-induced x-rays from electron beam and plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a significant progress in the X-ray generation technologies for various laboratory and production application by laser-Compton scheme and laser produced plasma. Femtosecond X-ray generation was performed by Compton scattering through interaction between a 3-ps electron beam and 100-fs laser photons in a 90 degree scattering configuration. The X-ray energy and pulse duration were estimated as 2.3keV and 280fs from the observed electron and laser beam parameters. The fluctuation of the X-ray output was measured as 25% rms during a 30-min operation, and analyzed as a function of fluctuations of parameters like timing between the electron and laser beam, electron beam charge, laser beam energy, pulse widths, and spatial stability. Further reduction of the fluctuation is possible by improvement of timing stability down to 100fs region. All optical synchronization scheme was proposed and component technologies are under development. The novel scheme employs optical control of linear accelerator and femtosecond lasers by optical locking of lasing between different laser oscillators. Two mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers of different wavelengths were precisely synchronized by a simple feedback system employing sum frequency generation. The measured rms timing jitter between two lasers was 28fs. Clean EUV light source is strongly demanded for next generation lithography, with 13.5nm, 2%bw, 100W and high pulse stability of less than 1%. The most promising approach is to employ a liquid Xe jet of 10-30 micron-meter diameter as the plasma source with high repetition rate solid state laser. The laser pulse energy usually fluctuates more than a few % and liquid jet fluctuates of the position up to 10% of the diameter. Higher repetition rate plasma generation causes acoustic instability inside the liquid jet. All these obstacles prevent to achieve the desired EUV stability. Discussion will be given on these issues and new architecture is proposed to achieve a clean and stable EUV light source.

Endo, Akira

2003-05-01

359

Electrochemical discharge of nanocrystalline magnetite: structure analysis using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Magnetite (Fe3O4) is an abundant, low cost, environmentally benign material with potential application in batteries. Recently, low temperature coprecipitation methods have enabled preparation of a series of nanocrystalline magnetite samples with a range of crystallite sizes. Electrochemical cells based on Li/Fe3O4 show a linear increase in capacity with decreasing crystallite size at voltages ?1.2 V where a 2× capacity improvement relative to commercial (26.2 nm) magnetite is observed. In this report, a combination of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is used to measure magnetite structural changes occurring upon electrochemical reduction, with parent Fe3O4 crystallite size as a variable. Notably, XAS provides evidence of metallic iron formation at high levels of electrochemical reduction. PMID:24077019

Menard, Melissa C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

2013-11-14

360

Generation of harmonics via multiphoton resonant excitation of hydrogenlike ions in an x-ray free-electron-laser field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coherent radiation spectrum of highly charged hydrogenlike ions in an intense x-ray free-electron-laser field is considered. The spectrum corresponding to harmonic generation in the resonant multiphoton excitation regime is investigated both analytically and numerically, arising from the Dirac Hamiltonian. The obtained analytical results are based on the generalized rotating wave approximation and are in good agreement with performed numerical calculations. Estimations show that one can achieve efficient generation of coherent hard x-ray radiation using multiphoton resonant excitation by appropriate x-ray pulses.

Avetissian, H. K.; Avchyan, B. R.; Mkrtchian, G. F.

2014-11-01

361

Soft X-ray Studies of Pu Electronic Structure: Past Lessons and Future Directions  

SciTech Connect

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, Figure 1) have contributed greatly to our improved understanding of Pu electronic structure. From these and related measurements, the following has been determined: (1) The Pu 5f spin-orbit splitting is large; (2) The number of Pu5f electrons is near 5; and (3) The Pu 5f spin-orbit splitting effect dominates 5f itineracy. Significant questions remain concerning the nature of Pu electronic structure. Perhaps the missing piece of the puzzle is the direct experimental determination of the unoccupied electronic structure using high energy inverse photoelectron spectroscopy or Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS). Past BIS studies of Th and U indicate the feasibility and utility of Pu studies.

Tobin, J G; Yu, S W

2008-02-07

362

Development of a compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for fast trace elemental analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (GE-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the laboratory. An Al cylindrical collimator for the primary X-rays was placed just above the sample stage. This collimator also played the role of an exit slit to detect fluorescent X-rays at small grazing exit angles. Therefore, no additional exit slit was used in this setup, leading to a compact design. The entire size of the analysis equipment was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm (horizontal × vertical × height). The maximum exit angle was adjusted to the height of the sample stage. The background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. A calibration curve was obtained using 10 ?L Ga solutions. Accordingly, the detection limit for Ga was evaluated to be 20 ppb.

Ashida, Takafumi; Tsuji, Kouichi

2014-11-01

363

X-ray fluoresced high-Z (up to Z=82) K x rays produced by LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} pyroelectric crystal electron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

High-energy bremsstrahlung and K x rays were used to produce nearly background-free K x-ray spectra of up to 87 keV (Pb) via x-ray fluorescence. The fluorescing radiation was produced by electron accelerators, consisting of heated and cooled cylindrical LiTaO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3} crystals at mTorr pressures. The process of gas amplification whereby the ambient gas pressure is optimized to maximize the electron energy was used to produce energetic electrons which when incident on a W/Bi target, gave rise to a radiation field consisting of high-energy bremsstrahlung as well as W and Bi K x rays. These photons were used to fluoresce Ta and Pb K x rays.

Brownridge, James D.; Shafroth, Stephen M. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, New York 13902-6000 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

2004-08-16

364

Characterization of the Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanoparticles Using X-ray Absorption and Emission  

SciTech Connect

Resolving open questions regarding transport in nanostructures can have a huge impact on a broad range of future technologies such as light harvesting for energy. Silicon has potential to be used in many of these applications. Understanding how the band edges of nanostructures move as a function of size, surface termination and assembly is of fundamental importance in understanding the transport properties of these materials. In this thesis work I have investigated the change in the electronic structure of silicon nanoparticle assemblies as the surface termination is changed. Nanoparticles are synthesized using a thermal evaporation technique and sizes are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). By passivating the particles with molecules containing alcohol groups we are able to modify the size dependent band edge shifts. Both the valence and conduction bands are measured using synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) techniques. Particles synthesized via recrystallization of amorphous silicon/SiO{sub 2} multilayers of thicknesses below 10 nm are also investigated using the synchrotron techniques. These samples also show quantum confinement effects but the electronic structure is different from those synthesized via evaporation methods. The total bandgap is determined for all samples measured. The origins of these differences in the electronic structures are discussed.

Vaverka, A M

2008-07-15

365

Hard X ray survey of energetic electrons from low-earth orbit  

SciTech Connect

Hard X ray and neutron emissions measured in low-Earth orbit are surveyed to develop a global overview of lightning-related energetic-electron precipitation and acceleration process. Comparison of geographic intensity maps shows the dominance of enhanced hard X ray intensities measured when the satellite was above the continental United States and above the southern Indian Ocean between Madagascar and Australia. The emission is most enhanced during the northern summer months. Lesser although significant enhancements are seen between the Middle East and the Tibetan plateau, a stretch of ocean off the east Asian coast between the Phillipines and Korea, a stretch of equatorial Africa from the Ivory Coast to Mozambique, a region of the eastern equatorial Pacific just west of Columbia, and a patch of the Indian Ocean stretching between the southern tip of India and Indonesia. Although emissions from many of these regions are generally enhanced during the northern summer and fall seasons, none show any regularity relative to local time of day. Many but not all of these enhancements support natural interpretations in terms of lightning-induced energetic-electron precipitation from the terrestrial trapped radiation belts. Electron scattering induced by radio waves from VLF transmitters most likely contributes to this precipitation. 46 refs., 6 figs.

Feldman, W.C.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.; Roussel-Dupre, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1996-03-01

366

Effects of electron beam dynamics on resolution of X-ray radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we link particle in cell (PIC) calculations from the code, MERLIN, with electron-photon Monte Carlo calculations using the code, MCNP, to produce synthetic radiographs. The results are used to examine several factors that may have an effect on the resolution of dynamic x-ray radiography such as done at the DARHT (Dual Axis Radiographic Hydro-Test) facility. Three properties are varied in this study, and the results of those variations are examined. First, the electron beam rise time from the accelerator is altered, and the difference on the temporal x-ray production is examined as well as the overall effects on the resolution of the radiographic image. Next, the effects of thermal velocity and energy spread of the electron beam as it exits the accelerator are studied by varying from a cold beam to a more realistic beam that fits with the expected or measured DARHT beam parameters. Finally, the bremsstrahlung conversion target composition is varied, and the effects of target materials and configurations are examined.

Christenson, P. J.; Kwan, T. J. T.

2000-10-01

367

Dynamics of accelerated electron beams and X rays in solar flares with sub-THz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique measurements by a solar submillimeter radio telescope (SST) have been carried out in the sub-THz radiation at 212 and 405 THz over the past decade. The spectrum of RF radiation in this region increased with frequency for the three flares of November 2 and 4, 2003, and December 6, 2006, and the flux value reached 5 × 103-2 × 104 sfu at 405 GHz (Kaufman et al., 2009). In this work, we consider a set of nonlinear equations for an accelerated electrons beam and the Langmuir wave energy density. The distribution functions of the accelerated electron beam and wave energy density are calculated taking into account Coulomb collisions, electron scattering by waves, and wave scattering by plasma ions. In addition, the source of accelerated particles and the heat level of the Langmuir turbulence are specified. The beam and plasma parameters are chosen based on the aims of a problem. The plasma concentration varies from n = 1013 to 1015 cm-3, the electron plasma frequency f p = (3 × 1010-3 × 1011) Hz in this case. The ratio of plasma and beam concentrations, sufficient to explain the value of the radio flux at a frequency of 300 GHz, is n b/ n = 10-3. The Langmuir turbulence is excited due to the instability of the accelerated electron beam with an initial distribution function of the "bump-in-tail" type. Then, the parameters of radiowaves are calculated in the sub-THz range under the assumption of coalescence of two plasma waves. The calculation results show that a sub-THz radio flux can be obtained under the condition of injection of accelerated electrons. The fine time structure of radio flux observed is easily simulated based on this statement by the pulsed time structure of electron beams and their dynamics in overdense plasma. X-ray and gamma radiation was recorded during the events under study. Hard X-ray radiation is bremsstrahlung radiation from accelerated electron beams.

Vatagin, P. V.; Charikov, Yu. E.; Stepanov, A. V.; Kudryavtsev, I. V.

2012-12-01

368

Skylab ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer: Instrument description, parameter determination, and analysis example (15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Skylab ATM/S-056 X-Ray Event Analyzer, part of an X-ray telescope experiment, is described. The techniques employed in the analysis of its data to determine electron temperatures and emission measures are reviewed. The analysis of a sample event - the 15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare - is performed. Comparison of the X-Ray Event Analyzer data with that of the SolRad 9 observations indicates that the X-Ray Event Analyzer accurately monitored the sun's 2.5 to 7.25 A X-ray emission and to a lesser extent the 6.1 to 20 A emission. A mean average peak temperature of 15 million K at 1,412 UT and a mean average peak electron density (assuming a flare volume of 10 to the 13 power cu km) of 27 million/cu mm at 1,416 to 1,417 UT are deduced for the event. The X-Ray Event Analyzer data, having a 2.5 s time resolution, should be invaluable in comparisons with other high-time resolution data (e.g., radio bursts).

Wilson, R. M.

1976-01-01

369

Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections of Th by electron impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections for element Th were made by electron impact for energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 38 keV. Experimental data were obtained by measuring the X-ray intensity emitted from ultrathin Th films deposited onto self-supporting C backing films. The measurements were conducted with an electron microprobe using high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Recorded intensities were converted into absolute X-ray production cross sections by means of atomic data and estimation of the number of primary electrons, target thickness, and detector efficiency. Our experimental X-ray production cross sections, the first to be reported for the M subshells of Th, are compared with X-ray production cross sections calculated with the mean of ionization cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation. The M? X-ray production cross section calculated is in excellent agreement with the measurements, allowing future use for standardless quantification in electron probe microanalysis.

Moy, A.; Merlet, C.; Dugne, O.

2014-08-01

370

Ultrafast Electron-Optical X-Ray Streak and Framing Cameras.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In this thesis the development of ultrafast electron -optical streak and framing cameras having radiation sensitivities ranging from the visible to soft X-ray are discussed. A framing camera incorporating a vacuum demountable image tube with ultraviolet/soft X-ray sensitivity has been demonstrated to be capable of providing multiple, temporally separated, two-dimensional images with picosecond image exposure times under various operating conditions. Experimental evidence has been presented to show that this camera system can provide up to four high quality temporally separated images with an exposure time of 230 ps (FWHM) and inter-frame times of ~1 ns under UV illumination. In the two-frame operation with soft X-ray illumination (generated using a laser produced plasma) image exposure times of as short as 100 ps (FWHM) and inter-frame times of 400 ps have been achieved. The dynamic spatial resolution of the camera has been shown to be ~8 lp/mm and ~5 lp/mm for the UV and soft X-ray sensitive devices respectively. A visible-sensitivity electron-optical single -shot streak camera possessing a novel travelling-wave deflection structure has been experimentally evaluated using a mode -locked cw ring dye laser. The limiting temporal resolution for this has been measured to be 300 fs and the merits of the travelling-wave deflection structure have been discussed. The implementation of this type of deflector geometry has also been demonstrated in conjunction with the vacuum demountable framing camera system. Computer aided design techniques have been utilised to further optimise the electron-optical framing tube configuration, and modifications have been proposed to enable shorter frame periods to be obtained while maintaining the dynamic spatial resolution. Results from preliminary evaluations of this design using a vacuum demountable UV-sensitive system are included. A novel streak camera design has also been proposed in which very high electrostatic photocathode extraction fields (up to 12 kV/mm) may be employed without danger of structural damage arising from electrostatic breakdown. This has been achieved by the removal of the usual mesh electrode placed in close proximity to the photocathode. Preliminary evaluations of a vacuum demountable UV-sensitive version of this camera geometry have been achieved which demonstrate a static spatial resolution of 80 lp/mm (when referred to the photocathode).

Walker, David R.

371

Electron Bremsstrahlung Hard X-Ray Spectra, Electron Distributions and Energetics in the 2002 July 23 Solar Flare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present and analyze the first high-resolution hard X-ray spectra from a solar flare observed in both X-ray/gamma-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines. The 2002 July 23 flare was observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The spatially integrated photon flux spectra are well fitted between 10 and 300 keV by the combination of an isothermal component and a double power law. The flare plasma temperature peaks at 40 MK around the time of peak hard X-ray emission and remains above 20 MK 37 min later. We derive the evolution of the nonthermal mean electron flux distribution by directly fitting the RHESSI X-ray spectra with the thin-target bremsstrahlung from a double power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff. We also derive the evolution of the electron flux distribution on the assumption that the emission is thick-target bremsstrahlung. We find that the injected nonthermal electrons are well described throughout the flare by this double power-law distribution with a low-energy cutoff that is typically between 20 - 40 keV. Using our thick-target results, we compare the energy contained in the nonthermal electrons with the energy content of the thermal flare plasma observed by RHESSI and GOES. We find that the minimum total energy deposited into the flare plasma by nonthermal electrons, 2.6 x 10(exp 31) erg, is on the order of and possibly less than the energy in the thermal plasma. However, these fits do not rule out the possibility that the energy in nonthermal electrons exceeds the energy in the thermal plasma. This work was supported in part by the RHESSI Project and the NASA Sun-Earth Connection program.

Holman, G. D.; Sui, L.; Schwartz, R. A.; Emslie, A. G.

2003-01-01

372

Electron Bremsstrahlung Hard X-Ray Spectra, Electron Distributions and Energetics in the 2002 July 23 Solar Flare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present and analyze the first high-resolution hard X-ray spectra from a solar flare observed in both X-ray/gamma-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines. The 2002 July 23 flare was observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The spatially integrated photon flux spectra are well fitted between 10 and 300 keV by the combination of an isothermal component and a double power law. The flare plasma temperature peaks at 40 MK around the time of peak hard X-ray emission and remains above 20 MK 37 min later. We derive the evolution of the nonthermal mean electron flux distribution by directly fitting the RHESSI X-ray spectra with the thin-target bremsstrahlung from a double power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff. We also derive the evolution of the electron flux distribution on the assumption that the emission is thick-target bremsstrahlung. We find that the injected nonthermal electrons are well described throughout the flare by this double power-law distribution with a low-energy cutoff that is typically between 20-40 keV. Using our thick-target results, we compare the energy contained in the nonthermal electrons with the energy content of the thermal flare plasma observed by RHESSI and GOES. We find that the minimum total energy deposited into the flare plasma by nonthermal electrons, 2.6 x 10(exp 31)erg, is on the order of and possibly less than the energy in the thermal plasma. However, these fits do not rule out the possibility that the energy in nonthermal electrons exceeds the energy in the thermal plasma.

Holman, Gordon D.; Sui, Lindhui; Schartz, Richard A.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

373

Copyright The Discussion Group of X-Ray Analysis,  

E-print Network

KLL Auger electron spectrum (dots) with the result of the evaluation (lines), including component(upper) and AlPO4 (lower) with sections of the real Auger electron spectrum from sodium polyphosphate as insets, taken from Abrahams et al.35) Fig.7 Radiative Auger spectrum(S KLL) from Li2SO4(upper) and real

Jun, Kawai

374

Correlated Single-Crystal Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Crystallography at NSLS Beamline X26-C  

SciTech Connect

The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

A Orville; R Buono; M Cowan; A Heroux; G Shea-McCarthy; D Schneider; J Skinner; M Skinner; D Stoner-Ma; R Sweet

2011-12-31

375

Correlated single-crystal electronic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography at NSLS beamline X26-C  

SciTech Connect

The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

Orville, A.M.; Buono, R.; Cowan, M.; Heroux, A.; Shea-McCarthy, G.; Schneider, D. K.; Skinner, J. M.; Skinner, M. J.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R. M.

2011-05-01

376

Difference in the relative response of the alanine dosimeter to megavoltage x-ray and electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase the usefulness of the alanine dosimeter as a tool for quality assurance measurements in radiotherapy using MV x-rays, the response with respect to the dose to water needs to be known accurately. This quantity is determined experimentally relative to 60Co for 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 25 MV x-rays from two clinical accelerators. For the calibration, kQ factors for ionization chambers with an uncertainty of 0.31% obtained from calorimetric measurements were used. The results, although not inconsistent with a constant difference in response for all MV x-ray qualities compared to 60Co, suggest a slow decrease from approximately 0.996 at low energies (4-6 MV) to 0.989 at the highest energy, 25 MV. The relative uncertainty achieved for the relative response varies between 0.35% and 0.41%. The results are confirmed by revised experimental data from the NRC as well as by Monte Carlo simulations using a density correction for crystalline alanine. By comparison with simulated and measured data, also for MeV electrons, it is demonstrated that the weak energy dependence can be explained by a transition of the alanine dosimeter (with increasing MV values) from a photon detector to an electron detector. An in-depth description of the calculation of the results and the corresponding uncertainty components is presented in an appendix for the interested reader. With respect to previous publications, the uncertainty budget had to be modified due to new evidence and to changes of the measurement and analysis method used at PTB for alanine/ESR.

Anton, M.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Krauss, A.; von Voigts-Rhetz, P.; Zink, K.; McEwen, M.

2013-05-01

377

High Resolution Triple Axis X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of II-VI Semiconductor Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research program is to develop methods of structural analysis based on high resolution triple axis X-ray diffractometry (HRTXD) and to carry out detailed studies of defect distributions in crystals grown in both microgravity and ground-based environments. HRTXD represents a modification of the widely used double axis X-ray rocking curve method for the characterization of grown-in defects in nearly perfect crystals. In a double axis rocking curve experiment, the sample is illuminated by a monochromatic X-ray beam and the diffracted intensity is recorded by a fixed, wide-open detector. The intensity diffracted by the sample is then monitored as the sample is rotated through the Bragg reflection condition. The breadth of the peak, which is often reported as the full angular width at half the maximum intensity (FWHM), is used as an indicator of the amount of defects in the sample. This work has shown that high resolution triple axis X-ray diffraction is an effective tool for characterizing the defect structure in semiconductor crystals, particularly at high defect densities. Additionally, the technique is complimentary to X-ray topography for defect characterization in crystals.

Volz, H. M.; Matyi, R. J.

1999-01-01

378

Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

2010-01-01

379

Saturable Absorption of an X-Ray Free-Electron-Laser Heated Solid-Density Aluminum Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser are used to heat and probe a solid-density aluminum sample. The photon-energy-dependent transmission of the heating beam is studied through the use of a photodiode. Saturable absorption is observed, with the resulting transmission differing significantly from the cold case, in good agreement with atomic-kinetics simulations.

Rackstraw, D. S.; Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S. M.; Barbrel, B.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Cho, B. I.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G. L.; Engelhorn, K.; Hájková, V.; Heimann, P.; Holmes, M.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J. J.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J. S.

2015-01-01

380

X-ray spectroscopy reveals high symmetry and electronic shell structure of transition-metal-doped silicon clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Size-selected cationic transition-metal-doped silicon clusters have been studied with x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the transition-metal L2,3 edges to investigate the local electronic structure of the dopant atoms. For VSi16+ , the x-ray absorption spectrum is dominated by sharp transitions which directly reveal the formation of a highly symmetric silicon cage around the vanadium atom. In spite of their different number

J. T. Lau; K. Hirsch; Ph. Klar; A. Langenberg; F. Lofink; R. Richter; J. Rittmann; M. Vogel; V. Zamudio-Bayer; T. Möller; B. V. Issendorff

2009-01-01

381

Transitive X-Ray Spectrum and PeV Gamma-Ray Cutoff in the M87 Jet: Electron ``Pevatron''  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a modified version of the X-ray spectral index and an intrinsic cutoff frequency of inverse Compton radiation from the brightest knot of the M87 jet, in conjunction with an application of the new conceptions of injection and diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of electrons in magnetized filamentary plasma to the specified source. The drop of the X-ray flux density

Mitsuru Honda; Yasuko S. Honda

2007-01-01

382

Effect of high pressure-temperature on silicon layered structures as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in the Si layered structures, Si:H(D), prepared by implantation with H2^+\\/D^+, and their changes resulting from the treatment under enhanced pressure (HP), were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Such treatment affects out-diffusion of hydrogen (deuterium) as well as the shape and concentration of the H(D)-filled cavities. The relation between X-ray and XTEM results is discussed.

J. Bak-Misiuk; A. Misiuk; J. Ratajczak; A. Shalimov; I. Antonova; J. Trela

2004-01-01

383

Single-State Electronic Structure Measurements Using Time-Resolved X-Ray Laser Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate single-shot x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy on semiconductor and metal surfaces with picosecond time resolution. The LLNL COMET compact tabletop x-ray laser source provides the necessary high photon flux (>10¹²\\/pulse), monochromaticity, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence for probing ultrafast changes in the city, chemical and electronic structure of these materials. Static valence band and shallow core-level photoemission

A J Nelson; J Dunn; T van Buuren

2004-01-01

384

Saturable absorption of an x-ray free-electron-laser heated solid-density aluminum plasma.  

PubMed

High-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser are used to heat and probe a solid-density aluminum sample. The photon-energy-dependent transmission of the heating beam is studied through the use of a photodiode. Saturable absorption is observed, with the resulting transmission differing significantly from the cold case, in good agreement with atomic-kinetics simulations. PMID:25615475

Rackstraw, D S; Ciricosta, O; Vinko, S M; Barbrel, B; Burian, T; Chalupský, J; Cho, B I; Chung, H-K; Dakovski, G L; Engelhorn, K; Hájková, V; Heimann, P; Holmes, M; Juha, L; Krzywinski, J; Lee, R W; Toleikis, S; Turner, J J; Zastrau, U; Wark, J S

2015-01-01

385

Analysis of eight argonne premium coal samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods were used in the analysis of eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Trace elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, and Ce) in coal ash were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) in coal ash and trace elements (Cl and P) in whole coal were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results of this study will be used in a geochemical database compiled for these materials from various analytical techniques. The experimental XRF methods and procedures used to determine these major and trace elements are described.

Evans, J.R.; Sellers, G.A.; Johnson, R.G.; Vivit, D.V.; Kent, J.

1990-01-01

386

In situ X-ray snapshot analysis of transient molecular adsorption in a crystalline channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular adsorption is a fundamental phenomenon in porous materials and is usually characterized by the efficiency and selectivity of molecular separations and reactions. However, for functional porous materials, analysis of the dynamic behaviour of molecular adsorbents is a major challenge. Here, we use in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction to analyse multi-step molecular adsorption in a crystalline nanochannel of a metal-macrocycle framework. The pore surface of the metal-macrocycle framework crystal contains five different enantiomerically paired binding pockets, to which the adsorption of a (1R)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)ethanol solution was monitored with time. The resulting X-ray snapshot analyses suggest that the guest adsorption process takes a two-step pathway before equilibrium, in which the guest molecule is temporarily trapped by a neighbouring binding site. This demonstrates the potential for using X-ray analyses to visualize a transient state during a non-covalent self-assembly process.

Kubota, Ryou; Tashiro, Shohei; Shiro, Motoo; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

2014-10-01

387

Operando X-ray Scattering and Spectroscopic Analysis of Germanium Nanowire Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries.  

PubMed

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements have been employed to determine structural and bonding changes, as a function of the lithium content/state of charge, of germanium nanowires used as the active anode material within lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Our data, collected throughout the course of battery cycling (operando), indicate that lithium incorporation within the nanostructured germanium occurs heterogeneously, preferentially into amorphous regions over crystalline domains. Maintenance of the molecular structural integrity within the germanium nanowire is dependent on the depth of discharge. Discharging to a shallower cutoff voltage preserves partial crystallinity for several cycles. PMID:25616130

Silberstein, Katharine E; Lowe, Michael A; Richards, Benjamin; Gao, Jie; Hanrath, Tobias; Abruña, Héctor D

2015-02-17

388

Template assisted self-assembly of iron oxide nanoparticles: An x-ray structural analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated by e-beam lithography periodic arrays of rectangular shaped trenches of different widths into Si substrates. The trenches were filled with iron oxide nanoparticles, 20?nm in diameter, by spin-coating them onto the Si substrate. The trenches have the purpose to assist the self-assembly of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Using x-ray scattering techniques, we have analyzed the structure factor of the trenches before and after filling in order to determine the filling factor. We present a theoretical analysis of the x-ray scattering function within the distorted-wave Born approximation and we present a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment.

Mishra, D. [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Zabel, H. [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Ulyanov, S. V. [St.-Petersburg State University, Ul'yanovskaya ul.1, Petrodvorets, St.-Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); St.-Petersburg University of Commerce and Economics, St.-Petersburg 194018 (Russian Federation); Romanov, V. P. [St.-Petersburg State University, Ul'yanovskaya ul.1, Petrodvorets, St.-Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); Uzdin, V. M. [St.-Petersburg State University, Ul'yanovskaya ul.1, Petrodvorets, St.-Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); St.-Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 49, Kronverkskij, St.-Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-07

389

Fast electron temperature measurements using a ``multicolor'' optical soft x-ray array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast (?0.1ms) and compact "multicolor" scintillator-based optical soft x-ray (OSXR) array has been developed for time- and space-resolved measurements of the electron temperature [Te(R,t)] profiles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The 48-channel tangential multicolor OSXR prototype was tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Each sight line views the same plasma volume at the midplane (0?r/a?1), in three distinct energy ranges determined by beryllium foils with different thicknesses. A tangential view of the toroidally (circular) symmetric plasma allows an Abel inversion of the line-integrated SXR brightness to obtain the x-ray emissivity profiles which are then used to constrain the reconstruction of the fast Te(R,t). The first assessment of the electron temperature is obtained by modeling the slope of the continuum radiation with the ideal double-foil method using both the line-integrated intensity measurements as well as the inverted SXR emissivity profiles.

Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M.; Bell, R.; Hosea, J.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Roquemore, L.; Wilson, J. R.

2007-10-01

390

A bunch killer for the NSLS x-ray electron storage ring  

SciTech Connect

In the NSLS x-ray electron storage ring, which operates at a harmonic number of 30, the beam may be stored in many different bunch patterns. The minimum spacing between bunches is approximately 19 nsec. While most of the experimenters are primarily interested in photon flux, some experiments are sensitive to bunch spacing. Time resolved nuclear resonance scattering experiments, for example, need pulses of x-rays spaced of the order of 100 nsec apart and a very low noise floor (10{sup {minus}6}) between pulses. Perhaps even more important than the level of the background is that it be reproducible and homogeneous in time. It has been found in practice that a small number of electrons always get trapped in the ``empty`` rf buckets during injection into the storage ring and remain as low level stray bunches. These extra bunches produce an unacceptable temporally localized, non-reproducible background which is difficult if not impossible to correct for. A ``bunch killer`` system based on the rf knockout technique has been developed and installed on the ring to remove the unwanted bunches. The authors describe the operation of this system and present experimental results to illustrate its effectiveness.

Nawrocky, R.J.; Bergmann, U.; Siddons, D.P.

1993-07-01

391

Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650 nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO2 exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500 nA/W and 11 × 10-6 for 445 nm illumination.

Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu

2014-12-01

392

Ultrashort X-ray pulse science  

SciTech Connect

A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90{sup o} Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated {approx} 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 {angstrom}) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a means of measuring ultrashort x-ray pulse durations. LAPE may also serve as the basis for a gated x-ray detector.

Chin, A.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US). Materials Science Div.

1998-05-01

393

Comparative Study of the Valence Electronic Excitations of N[subscript 2] by Inelastic X-ray and Electron Scattering  

SciTech Connect

Bound-state, valence electronic excitation spectra of N{sub 2} are probed by nonresonant inelastic x-ray and electron scattering. Within usual theoretical treatments, dynamical structure factors derived from the two probes should be identical. However, we find strong disagreements outside the dipole scattering limit, even at high probe energies. This suggests an unexpectedly important contribution from intramolecular multiple scattering of the probe electron from core electrons or the nucleus. These effects should grow progressively stronger as the atomic number of the target species increases.

Bradley, J.A.; Seidler, G.T.; Cooper, G.; Vos, M.; Hitchcock, A.P.; Sorini, A.P.; Schlimmer, C.; Nagle, K.P. (UWASH); (McMaster U.); (ANU)

2010-07-28

394

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 235138 (2014) Inelastic x-ray scattering from valence electrons near absorption edges of FeTe and TiSe2  

E-print Network

cross section [2]. By tuning the incident energy near an x-ray absorption edge a crossPHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 235138 (2014) Inelastic x-ray scattering from valence electrons near 10 June 2014; published 30 June 2014) We study resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) peaks

Boyer, Edmond

395

Ultrafast X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents recent developments and applications of ultrafast X-ray diffraction. These include optical pump\\/X-ray probe experiments for performing ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy, time-resolved X-ray diffraction for the investigation of electronically induced solid-liquid phase transformations in semiconductors, and time-resolved X-ray diffraction for monitoring the rapid changes of the atomic configuration associated with the lattice waves.

D. von der Linde; K. Sokolowski-Tinten

2003-01-01

396

Alcator C-Mod soft X-ray pulse height analysis system  

E-print Network

A pulse height analysis (PHA) system has been installed on the Alcator C-Mod magnetic confinement fusion experiment. The PHA utilizes a Si(Li) detector to measure soft X-rays in the 1-30 keV range with an energy resolution ...

Gamboa, Eliseo (Eliseo J.)

2007-01-01

397

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF FILTER-COLLECTED AEROSOL PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has become an effective technique for determining the elemental content of aerosol samples. For quantitative analysis, the aerosol particles must be collected as uniform deposits on the surface of Teflon membrane filters. An energy dispersive XRF spectrom...

398

Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Detection  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project was to develop a novel dual-optic x-ray fluorescence instrument capable of doing radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford Site.

Ning Gao

2006-05-12

399

Energy Dispersive X Ray Diffraction to identify Explosive Substances : spectra analysis procedure optimization  

E-print Network

Energy Dispersive X Ray Diffraction to identify Explosive Substances : spectra analysis procedure, France tel: 0033472437084 Abstract: To detect the presence of explosives in packages, automated systems for explosive detection and identification. To this end, a database has been constructed, containing measured X

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

THE MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF DRINKING WATER USING PROTON-INDUCED X-RAY EMISSION (PIXE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A new, rapid, and economical method for the multielemental analysis of drinking water samples is described. The concentrations of 76 elements heavier than aluminum are determined using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technology. The concentration of sodium is evaluated using...

401

Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron  

E-print Network

Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron September 2008 A B S T R A C T Several nanometer-thick graphene oxide films deposited on silicon nitride Thin films composed of graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide platelets (such platelets are also

402

Research and analysis of non-coaxial x-ray microscopy working at grazing incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and fabricated a non-coaxial grazing reflective X-ray microscope that is composed of four spherical mirrors for the diagnosis of inertial confinement fusion. The aberrations and imaging quality of the system are analysis and calculated.

Jiasheng Hu; Yuhong Bai

2006-01-01

403

Principal components analysis of multienergy X-ray computed tomography of mineral samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal components analysis (PCA) of X-ray transmission tomography images made at several different energies can produce images that allow individual materials to be distinguished more clearly than in single-energy images. Computer simulations and tests on a five-band mineral data set demonstrate the application of PCA

Andrew R. Kalukin; Maarten Van Geet; Rudy Swennen

2000-01-01

404

Quantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar with x-ray microspectroscopy  

E-print Network

%, respectively.15 Kevlar® 149 and 49 are known to have a radial lateral structure, and radial morphologicalQuantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar® fibers) with x of Kevlar® fibers. © 1996 American Institute of Physics. S0003-6951 96 02951-8 Near edge x-ray absorption

405

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis  

E-print Network

.................................................................................. 5 2.3 Computer System Operations Manager 4.2.5.8 Remote Monitoring System..................................................................................... 14 4.3 Preparation for XRF Analysis-- Computer Room

Fischer, Emily V.

406

Cheetah: software for high-throughput reduction and analysis of serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data  

PubMed Central

The emerging technique of serial X-ray diffraction, in which diffraction data are collected from samples flowing across a pulsed X-ray source at repetition rates of 100?Hz or higher, has necessitated the development of new software in order to handle the large data volumes produced. Sorting of data according to different criteria and rapid filtering of events to retain only diffraction patterns of interest results in significant reductions in data volume, thereby simplifying subsequent data analysis and management tasks. Meanwhile the generation of reduced data in the form of virtual powder patterns, radial stacks, histograms and other meta data creates data set summaries for analysis and overall experiment evaluation. Rapid data reduction early in the analysis pipeline is proving to be an essential first step in serial imaging experiments, prompting the authors to make the tool described in this article available to the general community. Originally developed for experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers, the software is based on a modular facility-independent library to promote portability between different experiments and is available under version 3 or later of the GNU General Public License. PMID:24904246

Barty, Anton; Kirian, Richard A.; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Hantke, Max; Yoon, Chun Hong; White, Thomas A.; Chapman, Henry

2014-01-01

407

Cheetah: software for high-throughput reduction and analysis of serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data.  

PubMed

The emerging technique of serial X-ray diffraction, in which diffraction data are collected from samples flowing across a pulsed X-ray source at repetition rates of 100?Hz or higher, has necessitated the development of new software in order to handle the large data volumes produced. Sorting of data according to different criteria and rapid filtering of events to retain only diffraction patterns of interest results in significant reductions in data volume, thereby simplifying subsequent data analysis and management tasks. Meanwhile the generation of reduced data in the form of virtual powder patterns, radial stacks, histograms and other meta data creates data set summaries for analysis and overall experiment evaluation. Rapid data reduction early in the analysis pipeline is proving to be an essential first step in serial imaging experiments, prompting the authors to make the tool described in this article available to the general community. Originally developed for experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers, the software is based on a modular facility-independent library to promote portability between different experiments and is available under version 3 or later of the GNU General Public License. PMID:24904246

Barty, Anton; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Hantke, Max; Yoon, Chun Hong; White, Thomas A; Chapman, Henry

2014-06-01

408

Iodine Vapor Staining for Atomic Number Contrast in Backscattered Electron and X-ray Imaging  

PubMed Central

Iodine imparts strong contrast to objects imaged with electrons and X-rays due to its high atomic number (53), and is widely used in liquid form as a microscopic stain and clinical contrast agent. We have developed a simple technique which exploits elemental iodine's sublimation-deposition state-change equilibrium to vapor stain specimens with iodine gas. Specimens are enclosed in a gas-tight container along with a small mass of solid I2. The bottle is left at ambient laboratory conditions while staining proceeds until empirically determined completion (typically days to weeks). We demonstrate the utility of iodine vapor staining by applying it to resin-embedded tissue blocks and whole locusts and imaging them with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM) or X-ray microtomography (XMT). Contrast is comparable to that achieved with liquid staining but without the consequent tissue shrinkage, stain pooling, or uneven coverage artefacts associated with immersing the specimen in iodine solutions. Unmineralized tissue histology can be read in BSE SEM images with good discrimination between tissue components. Organs within the locust head are readily distinguished in XMT images with particularly useful contrast in the chitin exoskeleton, muscle and nerves. Here, we have used iodine vapor staining for two imaging modalities in frequent use in our laboratories and on the specimen types with which we work. It is likely to be equally convenient for a wide range of specimens, and for other modalities which generate contrast from electron- and photon-sample interactions, such as transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:1044–1051, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Microscopy Research Technique published by Wiley Periodocals, Inc. PMID:25219801

Boyde, Alan; Mccorkell, Fergus A; Taylor, Graham K; Bomphrey, Richard J; Doube, Michael

2014-01-01

409

Iodine vapor staining for atomic number contrast in backscattered electron and X-ray imaging.  

PubMed

Iodine imparts strong contrast to objects imaged with electrons and X-rays due to its high atomic number (53), and is widely used in liquid form as a microscopic stain and clinical contrast agent. We have developed a simple technique which exploits elemental iodine's sublimation-deposition state-change equilibrium to vapor stain specimens with iodine gas. Specimens are enclosed in a gas-tight container along with a small mass of solid I2 . The bottle is left at ambient laboratory conditions while staining proceeds until empirically determined completion (typically days to weeks). We demonstrate the utility of iodine vapor staining by applying it to resin-embedded tissue blocks and whole locusts and imaging them with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM) or X-ray microtomography (XMT). Contrast is comparable to that achieved with liquid staining but without the consequent tissue shrinkage, stain pooling, or uneven coverage artefacts associated with immersing the specimen in iodine solutions. Unmineralized tissue histology can be read in BSE SEM images with good discrimination between tissue components. Organs within the locust head are readily distinguished in XMT images with particularly useful contrast in the chitin exoskeleton, muscle and nerves. Here, we have used iodine vapor staining for two imaging modalities in frequent use in our laboratories and on the specimen types with which we work. It is likely to be equally convenient for a wide range of specimens, and for other modalities which generate contrast from electron- and photon-sample interactions, such as transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. PMID:25219801

Boyde, Alan; Mccorkell, Fergus A; Taylor, Graham K; Bomphrey, Richard J; Doube, Michael

2014-12-01

410

Electron Acceleration for X-ray Production Using Paired Pyroelectric Crystals Jeffrey Geuther, Yaron Danon, Frank Saglime, Bryndol Sones  

E-print Network

Electron Acceleration for X-ray Production Using Paired Pyroelectric Crystals Jeffrey Geuther-positive face. Literature has shown that this charge is great enough to accelerate electrons to energies of up-rays are produced when the electrons in the ambient gas are accelerated by this field toward a target (when

Danon, Yaron

411

Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB?SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB–SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non?destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB–SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three?dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

2011-01-01

412

X-ray--optical cross correlator for gas-phase experiments at the LCLS free-electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray--optical pump--probe experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have so far been limited to a time resolution of 280,s fwhm due to timing jitter between the accelerator-based free-electron laser (FEL) and optical lasers. We have implemented a single-shot cross-correlator for femtosecond x-ray and infrared pulses. An independent reference experiment relying only on the pulse arrival time information from the cross-correlator shows a time resolution better than 50,s fwhm (22,s rms) and also yields a direct measurement of the maximal x-ray pulse length. The improved time resolution enables ultrafast pump--probe experiments with x-ray pulses from LCLS and other FEL sources. Reference: S. Schorb et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012 in press

Schorb, Sebastian; Gorkhover, T.; Cryan, J. P.; Glownia, J. M.; Bionta, M. R.; Coffee, R. N.; Erk, B.; Boll, R.; Schmidt, C.; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.; Rouzee, A.; Swiggers, M.; Carron, S.; Castagna, J.-C.; Bozek, J. D.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schlotter, W. F.; Bostedt, C.

2012-06-01

413

Demonstration of Feasibility of X-Ray Free Electron Laser Studies of Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Entangled Polymer Melts  

PubMed Central

The recent advent of hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) opens new areas of science due to their exceptional brightness, coherence, and time structure. In principle, such sources enable studies of dynamics of condensed matter systems over times ranging from femtoseconds to seconds. However, the studies of “slow” dynamics in polymeric materials still remain in question due to the characteristics of the XFEL beam and concerns about sample damage. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the relaxation dynamics of gold nanoparticles suspended in polymer melts using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), while also monitoring eventual X-ray induced damage. In spite of inherently large pulse-to-pulse intensity and position variations of the XFEL beam, measurements can be realized at slow time scales. The X-ray induced damage and heating are less than initially expected for soft matter materials. PMID:25109363

Carnis, Jerome; Cha, Wonsuk; Wingert, James; Kang, Jinback; Jiang, Zhang; Song, Sanghoon; Sikorski, Marcin; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Chen, San-Wen; Dai, Yeling; Ma, Yicong; Guo, Hongyu; Lurio, Laurence B.; Shpyrko, Oleg; Narayanan, Suresh; Cui, Mengmeng; Kosif, Irem; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P.; Lee, Hae Cheol; Yu, Chung-Jong; Grübel, Gerhard; Sinha, Sunil K.; Kim, Hyunjung

2014-01-01

414

Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ioni Beam-scanning Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB-SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB-SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

G Nelson; W Harris; J Lombardo; J Izzo Jr.; W Chiu; P Tanasini; M Cantoni; J Van herle; C Comninellis; et al.

2011-12-31

415

Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments.  

PubMed

The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called "molecular movie" within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes. PMID:24740172

Gaudin, J; Fourment, C; Cho, B I; Engelhorn, K; Galtier, E; Harmand, M; Leguay, P M; Lee, H J; Nagler, B; Nakatsutsumi, M; Ozkan, C; Störmer, M; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P A; Dorchies, F

2014-01-01

416

Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments  

PubMed Central

The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes. PMID:24740172

Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Störmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

2014-01-01

417

Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators  

SciTech Connect

While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA ParisTech—CNRS UMR7639—École Polytechnique ParisTech, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA ParisTech—CNRS UMR7639—École Polytechnique ParisTech, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-06-15

418

Preparatory procedure and equipment for the European x-ray free electron laser cavity implementation  

SciTech Connect

The European x-ray free electron laser is under construction at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The electron beam energy of up to 17.5 GeV will be achieved by using superconducting accelerator technology. Final prototyping, industrialization, and new infrastructure are the actual challenges with respect to the accelerating cavities. This paper describes the preparation strategy optimized for the cavity preparation procedure in industry. For the industrial fabrication and preparation, several new hardware components have been already developed at DESY. The design and construction of a semiautomated rf-measurement machine for dumbbells and end groups are described. In a collaboration among FNAL, KEK, and DESY, an automatic cavity tuning machine has been designed and four machines are under construction. The functionality of these machines with special attention to safety aspects is described in this paper. A new high pressure rinsing system has been developed and is operational.

Reschke, D.; Bandelmann, R.; Buettner, T.; Escherich, K.; Goessel, A.; v.d.Horst, B.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; Kreps, G.; Krupka, N.; Lilje, L.; /DESY /Fermilab

2010-07-01

419

Single-molecule imaging with x-ray free-electron lasers: dream or reality?  

PubMed

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) are revolutionary photon sources, whose ultrashort, brilliant pulses are expected to allow single-molecule diffraction experiments providing structural information on the atomic length scale of nonperiodic objects. This ultimate goal, however, is currently hampered by several challenging questions basically concerning sample damage, Coulomb explosion, and the role of nonlinearity. By employing an original ab initio approach, we address these issues showing that XFEL-based single-molecule imaging will be only possible with a few-hundred long attosecond pulses, due to significant radiation damage and the formation of preferred multisoliton clusters which re