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1

Apparent linear attenuation coefficients in phase contrast X-ray tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the inline phase contrast X-ray tomography the reconstructed apparent linear attenuation coefficient values may be greatly larger than sample's linear attenuation coefficients or even be negative. In this work we present a general formula to quantitatively relate the apparent linear attenuation coefficient values in cone-beam phase contrast tomography to sample's linear attenuation coefficients and refractive indices. This formula overcomes the gross inaccuracy of the existing formula in the literature in analyzing high-resolution phase contrast tomography, and it will be useful for correctly interpreting and quantifying the apparent linear attenuation coefficients in cone-beam X-ray phase contrast tomography.

Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng

2011-08-01

2

Uranium Soft X-Ray Total Attenuation Coefficients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall...

N. K. Del Grande A. J. Oliver

1981-01-01

3

A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.  

PubMed

A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 < or = Z < or = 20, and the energy range 30-150 keV, the parameterization utilizes four coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies. PMID:15083673

Midgley, S M

2004-01-21

4

New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z. (La Trobe); (Melbourne)

2012-09-25

5

Beam hardening: Analytical considerations of the effective attenuation coefficient of x-ray tomography  

SciTech Connect

Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water.

Alles, J.; Mudde, R. F. [Kramers Laboratorium voor Fysische Technology, Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Pr. Bernhardlaan 6, 2628 Delft (Netherlands)

2007-07-15

6

New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique.  

PubMed

An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed. PMID:22338654

Chantler, C T; Islam, M T; Rae, N A; Tran, C Q; Glover, J L; Barnea, Z

2012-03-01

7

An improvement to the full-foil mapping technique for high accuracy measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limiting uncertainty in recent high accuracy measurements of the mass attenuation coefficient is the measurement of the integrated column density. An improvement in the design of the absorption foil holder is described which reduces the integrated column density uncertainty. The new design allows the edges of the foil to be more accurately mapped by the X-ray beam by reducing

Nicholas A. Rae; Jack L. Glover; Christopher T. Chantler

2010-01-01

8

X-ray attenuation coefficients and photoelectric cross sections of Cu, Fe and Sn for the energy range 3-29 KeV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains the following two papers: X-ray attenuation coefficient and photoelectric cross sections of Sn for the Energy Range 3.3 KeV to 29.1 KeV - by Wang Dachun, Yang Hua and Luo Pingan. X-ray attenuation coefficients and photoelectric cross...

Wang Dachun Yang Hua Luo Pingan Ding Xunliang Wang Xinfu

1991-01-01

9

Mass Attenuation Coefficient for X Rays. Efficiency of a Semiconducting Diode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical review of usual values given in the literature by tables or by analytical fit to experimental data, for X-ray absorption through different materials, is presented. The materials are those used in plasma physics experiments: Be, C, N, O, A1, Si,...

R. Bardet

1977-01-01

10

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and the imaginary part of the form factor of silicon using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

We used the x-ray extended-range technique to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silicon with an accuracy between 0.27% and 0.5% in the 5 keV-20 keV energy range. Subtraction of the x-ray scattering contribution enabled us to derive the corresponding x-ray photoelectric absorption coefficients and determine the absolute value of the imaginary part of the atomic form factor of silicon. Discrepancies between the experimental values of the mass attenuation coefficients and theoretically calculated values are discussed. New approaches to the theoretical calculation will be required to match the precision and accuracy of the experimental results.

Tran, C.Q.; Chantler, C.T.; Barnea, Z.; Paterson, D.; Cookson, D.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); SRI-CAT, APS, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); ANSTO, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Chem-Mat-CARS-CAT (Sector 15, Building 434D), Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 6043 (United States)

2003-04-01

11

X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 66 X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables (Web, free access)   This database collects tables and graphs of the form factors, the photoabsorption cross section, and the total attenuation coefficient for any element (Z <= 92).

12

Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboards for X-ray in the 16.63-25.30 keV energy range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (?149 ?m, 149-500 ?m and 500-1000 ?m) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.

Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.

2014-10-01

13

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60 keV  

SciTech Connect

We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy [X-Ray Operations and Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron Project, Major Projects Victoria, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); BESSRC-CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2007-03-15

14

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form-factor of tin over the energy range of 29 keV-60 keV.  

SciTech Connect

We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

de Jonge, M. D.; Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Dhal, B. P.; Paterson, D.; Kanter, E. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Beno, M. A.; Linton, J. A.; Jennings, G.; Univ. of Melbourne; Australian Synchrotron Project

2007-01-01

15

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of molybdenum over the 13.5-41.5-keV energy range  

SciTech Connect

We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of molybdenum in the x-ray energy range of 13.5-41.5 keV to 0.02-0.15 % accuracy. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct where necessary a number of experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for molybdenum and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The imaginary component of the atomic form-factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-15 % persist between the calculated and observed values.

Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Cookson, David J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Mashayekhi, Ali [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Chem-Mat-CARS, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); XOR 1-ID, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2005-03-01

16

X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and imaginary components of the atomic form factor of zinc over the energy range of 7.2-15.2 keV  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of zinc are measured in a high-accuracy experiment between 7.2 and 15.2 keV with an absolute accuracy of 0.044% and 0.197%. This is the most accurate determination of any attenuation coefficient on a bending-magnet beamline and reduces the absolute uncertainty by a factor of 3 compared to earlier work by advances in integrated column density determination and the full-foil mapping technique described herein. We define a relative accuracy of 0.006%, which is not the same as either the precision or the absolute accuracy. Relative accuracy is the appropriate parameter for standard implementation of analysis of near-edge spectra. Values of the imaginary components f'' of the x-ray form factor of zinc are derived. Observed differences between the measured mass attenuation coefficients and various theoretical calculations reach a maximum of about 5% at the absorption edge and up to 2% further than 1 keV away from the edge. The measurements invite improvements in the theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients of zinc.

Rae, Nicholas A.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Hester, James R. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, Victoria 3168 (Australia); La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

2010-02-15

17

X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 126 X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest (Web, free access)   Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient and the mass energy-absorption coefficient are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV.

18

Investigation of the use of X-ray CT images for attenuation compensation in SPECT  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the general use of single-beam X-ray computed tomography (CT) images for generating attenuation maps for compensation of photon attenuation in SPECT images. A 3D mathematical thorax phantom is used to simulate both emission and transmission projection data for monoenergetic and polyenergetic sources. Polyenergetic transmission projection data are simulated for a standard X-ray spectrum and fan-beam geometry. The projection data are reconstructed using filtered backprojection to form an X-ray CT image which is then scaled to produce an estimate of the attenuation map at the energy of the emission radionuclide. Emission projection data are simulated for a fan-beam geometry at the energies of [sup 201]Tl and [sup 99m]Tc, two radionuclides commonly used in cardiac SPECT. Detector response and scatter are not included in the model. Noiseless, emission projection data are iteratively reconstructed using the ML-EM algorithm with nonuniform attenuation compensation and attenuation maps derived from both the simulated X-ray CT image and from a simulated monoenergetic transmission CT image. The attenuation maps generated from the X-ray CT images accurately estimate the attenuation coefficient for muscle and lung tissues, but not for bone tissues, which show error in the attenuation coefficient of 21--42% for spinal bone and 34--58% for rib bone. However, despite the inaccurate estimate of bone attenuation, the reconstructed SPECT images provide estimates of myocardial radioactivity concentration to within 9% and show few artifacts.

LaCroix, K.J.; Tsui, B.M.W. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Hasegawa, B.H.; Brown, J.K. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1994-12-01

19

The attenuation of X-rays emitted by supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attenuation of X-rays in Arnett's C-12 detonation supernova model is computed. The attenuation of X-rays in the filaments of the Crab Nebula is computed using a model for the filaments by Woltjer and a model by Davidson and Tucker. An empirical expression by Gorenstein, Kellogg, and Gursky for the optical thickness of the interstellar medium for three supernova remnants is analyzed.

Schocken, K.

1973-01-01

20

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

21

Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards in the 16.59-25.26 keV photon energy range and their density profile using x-ray computed tomography.  

PubMed

The mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard with four different particle sizes (samples A, B, C and D) and natural raw Rhizophora spp. wood (sample E) were determined using single-beam photon transmission in the energy range between 16.59 and 25.26 keV. This was done by determining the attenuation of K(?1) X-ray fluorescent (XRF) photons from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin targets. The results were compared with theoretical values of young-age breast (Breast 1) and water calculated using a XCOM computer program. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards to be close to the calculated XCOM values in water than natural Rhizophora spp. wood. Computed tomography (CT) scans were then used to determine the density profile of the samples. The CT scan results showed that the Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard has uniform density compared to natural Rhizophora spp. wood. In general, the differences in the variability of the profile density decrease as the particle size of the pellet samples decreases. PMID:22304963

Marashdeh, M W; Bauk, S; Tajuddin, A A; Hashim, R

2012-04-01

22

X-ray phase-attenuation duality and phase retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase retrieval is the key to quantitative x-ray phase-contrast imaging. To retrieve the phase image of an x-ray wave field, in general one needs multiple phase-contrast images. We have made a new observation of phase-attenuation duality for soft tissues, and we show how only a single phase-contrast image is needed for successful phase retrieval based on this duality. The phase-retrieval

Xizeng Wu; Hong Liu; Aimin Yan

2005-01-01

23

Effective x-ray attenuation measurements with full field digital mammography  

SciTech Connect

This work shows that effective x-ray attenuation coefficients may be estimated by applying Beer's Law to phantom image data acquired with the General Electric Senographe 2000D full field digital mammography system. Theoretical developments are provided indicating that an approximate form of the Beer's relation holds for polychromatic x-ray beams. The theoretical values were compared with experimentally determined measured values, which were estimated at various detector locations. The measured effective attenuation coefficients are in agreement with those estimated with theoretical developments and numerical integration. The work shows that the measured quantities show little spatial variation. The main ideas are demonstrated with polymethylmethacrylate and breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging experiments. The work suggests that the effective attenuation coefficients may be used as known values for radiometric standardization applications that compensate for the image acquisition influences. The work indicates that it is possible to make quantitative attenuation coefficient measurements from a system designed for clinical purposes.

Heine, John J.; Behera, Madhusmita [The H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612-4799 (United States)

2006-11-15

24

X-Ray Attenuation of Silicon in the Energy Range 25 - 50 KeV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precise measurements of the X-ray attenuation coefficient of crystalline silicon have been made in the energy range 25 to 50 keV. A systematic discrepancy between theory and experiment is observed. The most likely cause of the disagreement is thought to b...

J. F. Mika Z. Barnea

1984-01-01

25

The AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents. X-ray attenuation.  

PubMed

Attenuation is the reduction of the intensity of an x-ray beam as it traverses matter. The reduction may be caused by absorption or by deflection (scatter) of photons from the beam and can be affected by different factors such as beam energy and atomic number of the absorber. An attenuation coefficient is a measure of the quantity of radiation attenuation by a given thickness of absorber. Linear and mass attenuation coefficients are the coefficients used most often. The equation I = Ioe-mu x expresses the exponential relationship between incident primary photons and transmitted photons for a monoenergetic beam with respect to the thickness of the absorber and thus may be used to calculate the attenuation by any thickness of material. The quality or penetrating ability of an x-ray beam is usually described by stating its half-value layer (HVL). Another parameter used to describe the penetrating ability of a beam is the homogeneity coefficient. Among other things, use of added filtration reduces the intensity of the x-ray beam, increases the HVL, decreases patient exposure, and improves image quality for a given radiation dose. PMID:9460114

McKetty, M H

1998-01-01

26

Ultrashort x-ray pulse propagation through resonant attenuating media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of ultrashort x-ray pulses through a resonant attenuating two-level atom medium is investigated on the basis of the temporal point-source (the Green-function) formalism. A general case of the small-area pulse (SAP) approximation of a traveling coherent wave is considered. The patterns of the SAP envelope E(t,z) and energy U(z) evolution within the medium are calculated in the cases

F. N. Chukhovskii; U. Teubner; E. Föautrster

1997-01-01

27

Contribution of near-edge processes to attenuation of the characteristic X-rays in elements with 48 ? Z ? 83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of the characteristic K X-rays in the 48Cd, 50Sn, 52Te, 64Gd, 65Tb, 66Dy, 68Er, 74Ta, 75Re, 79Au, 82Pb and 83Bi elements have been measured with especial emphasis for the X-ray energies ( Ein) in the region of respective K-shell/L i subshell ( i = 1, 2, 3) ionization threshold ( BK/ BLi). The characteristic X-rays were obtained from different fluorescent target elements excited by the X-rays and ?-rays emitted from the 55Fe and 241Am radioisotopes, respectively. The measurements were performed using an energy-dispersive detection set up involving a low-energy Ge detector. The measured attenuation coefficients for the X-rays with energies away from ionization thresholds of the attenuator element are found to be in good agreement with the available theoretical coefficients, which incorporate contributions of the photoionization, and the Rayleigh and Compton scattering processes. However, the measured attenuation coefficients are found to deviate significantly from the theoretical values for the X-rays with energies in vicinity of BK/Li. The observed alteration is attributed to the X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) for negative BK/Li - Ein values, and the K-shell/L i subshell resonant Raman scattering (RRS) process for positive BK/Li - Ein values. Systematic of the K-shell/L i subshell RRS contribution to attenuation of the X-rays are discussed in terms of the respective oscillator density and fraction of electrons available in the K-shell/L i subshell Lorentzian profile of the attenuation element below Ein.

Kumar, Sunil; Alrakabi, Muhanad; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mehta, D.; Bedi, S. C.; Singh, Nirmal

2010-03-01

28

Dual X-ray absorptiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

2012-07-01

29

Investigation of the use of X-ray CT images for attenuation compensation in SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the general use of single-beam X-ray computed tomography (CT) images for generating attenuation maps for compensation of photon attenuation in SPECT images. A 3D mathematical thorax phantom is used to simulate both emission and transmission projection data for monoenergetic (radionuclide) and polyenergetic (X-ray) sources. Polyenergetic transmission projection data are simulated for a standard X-ray spectrum and fan-beam

K. J. LaCroix; B. M. W. Tsui; B. H. Hasegawa; J. K. Brown

1994-01-01

30

Estimating photon interaction coefficients from single energy x-ray CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single energy x-ray analysis is explored in the context of computed tomography (CT), whereby Hounsfield numbers (HN) are used to estimate electron density Ne and parameters that describe composition. We examine measurements with tissue substitute materials and theoretical HN for a broad range of tissues. Results are combined with parametric models for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient ? and energy absorption coefficient ?en to predict values at energies 10 keV to 20 MeV. At photon energies employed for CT, the fractional contribution to ? from composition is 0.1-0.4 for soft tissues to bone respectively, and is responsible for strong correlations between HN and Ne. The atomic density of tissues excluding lung is near constant allowing the models to be re-expressed as a function of Ne alone. The transformed model is subjected to propagation of error analysis and results are presented as the ratio of uncertainties for ? or ?en to those for Ne. For soft tissues to bone the ratios are as follows: at photon energies 20-100 keV the ratio is 5.0-2.0, at intermediate energies it is unity and increases above 4 MeV to reach 1.5-2.0 at 20 MeV. Results are discussed in the context of attenuation correction and dosimetry calculations for the same range of photon energies.

Midgley, S. M.

2012-12-01

31

Estimating photon interaction coefficients from single energy x-ray CT.  

PubMed

Single energy x-ray analysis is explored in the context of computed tomography (CT), whereby Hounsfield numbers (HN) are used to estimate electron density N(e) and parameters that describe composition. We examine measurements with tissue substitute materials and theoretical HN for a broad range of tissues. Results are combined with parametric models for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient ? and energy absorption coefficient ?(en) to predict values at energies 10 keV to 20 MeV. At photon energies employed for CT, the fractional contribution to ? from composition is 0.1-0.4 for soft tissues to bone respectively, and is responsible for strong correlations between HN and N(e). The atomic density of tissues excluding lung is near constant allowing the models to be re-expressed as a function of N(e) alone. The transformed model is subjected to propagation of error analysis and results are presented as the ratio of uncertainties for ? or ?(en) to those for N(e). For soft tissues to bone the ratios are as follows: at photon energies 20-100 keV the ratio is 5.0-2.0, at intermediate energies it is unity and increases above 4 MeV to reach 1.5-2.0 at 20 MeV. Results are discussed in the context of attenuation correction and dosimetry calculations for the same range of photon energies. PMID:23159870

Midgley, S M

2012-12-01

32

NIST: X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation, and Scattering Tables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives the interactions of x-rays with isolated atoms, computed within a self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock framework, across the range from 1-10 eV to 400-1000 keV. A reference paper gives information about the computation. A database of calculation results can be searched.

Chantler, C. T.; Olsen, K.; Dragoset, R. A.; Chang, J.; Kishore, A. R.; Kotochigova, S. A.

2003-10-10

33

Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Attenuation Radiographs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital x-ray radiography and computed tomography methods are commonly used to characterize mesoscale objects (mm size objects with (micro)m size features). However the ability of these methods to provide high spatial resolution images is dependent, in pa...

A. Barty B. J. Kozioziemski D. J. Schneberk H. E. Martz M. B. Aufderheide S. Hau-Riege S. K. Lehman

2005-01-01

34

X-ray-based attenuation correction for positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synergy of positron emission tomography (PET)\\/computed tomography (CT) scanners is the use of the CT data for x-ray-based attenuation correction of the PET emission data. Current methods of measuring transmission use positron sources, gamma-ray sources, or x-ray sources. Each of the types of transmission scans involves different trade-offs of noise versus bias, with positron transmission scans having the highest

Paul E. Kinahan; Bruce H. Hasegawa; Thomas Beyer

2003-01-01

35

Correction for beam attenuation and indirect excitation in x-ray fluorescence holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of beam attenuation (BA) and indirect excitation (IE) processes on atomic resolved imaging with x-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is considered. It is shown that these processes can influence element sensitivity, the key feature of XFH. A model which allows one to correct for BA and IE is proposed and verified experimentally.

Dul, D. T.; Dabrowski, K. M.; Korecki, P.

2013-12-01

36

The X-ray attenuation characteristics and density of human calcaneal marrow do not change significantly during adulthood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in the material characteristics of bone marrow with aging can be a significant source of error in measurements of bone density when using X-ray and ultrasound imaging modalities. In the context of computed tomography, dual-energy computed techniques have been used to correct for changes in marrow composition. However, dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (DE-QCT) protocols, while increasing the accuracy of the measurement, reduce the precision and increase the radiation dose to the patient in comparison to single-energy quantitative computed tomography (SE-QCT) protocols. If the attenuation properties of the marrow for a particular bone can be shown to be relatively constant with age, it should be possible to use single-energy techniques without experiencing errors caused by unknown marrow composition. Marrow was extracted by centrifugation from 10 mm thick frontal sections of 34 adult cadaver calcanei (28 males, 6 females, ages 17-65 years). The density and energy-dependent linear X-ray attenuation coefficient of each marrow sample were determined. For purposes of comparing our results, we then computed an effective CT number at two GE CT/i scan voltages (80 and 120 kVp) for each specimen. The coefficients of variation for the density, CT number at 80 kVp and CT number at 120 kVp were each less than 1%, and the parameters did not change significantly with age (p > 0.2, r2 < 0.02, power > 0.8 where the minimum acceptable r2 = 0.216). We could demonstrate no significant gender-associated differences in these relationships. These data suggest that calcaneal bone marrow X-ray attenuation properties and marrow density are essentially constant from the third through sixth decades of life.

Les, C. M.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Yan, C. H.; Cleek, T. M.; Wills, J. S.

2002-01-01

37

In vivo observing x-ray attenuation of intratumor injection of indocyanine green  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our experimental results of in vivo observing x-ray attenuation of intra-tumor injection of indocyanine green (ICG). An eight- to nine-week-old male BALB/c mouse weighting between 15 and 20 g is used in the experiments, which has been implanted with myeloma cell line (SP2/0) two week before. The system used to monitor the intratumor diffusion of ICG is a digital x-ray imaging system. It works at 33kVp, 0.3mAs, 4 seconds and 1.5×magnification. The objective of this research is to study the x-ray attenuation at different area, which represented by gray-scale value. Compare to the ROI in the tissue without ICG and ROI of black background in the image, there is an obvious change before and after injecting ICG in the tumor, which is the area ICG can diffuse to. It shows the feasibility of using digital x-ray imaging system to dynamically, effectively and noninterventionly monitor the diffusion of the ICG.

Ye, Chang; Luo, Qingming; Liang, Wenxi; Lu, Jinling

2003-12-01

38

The use of X-ray CT to measure diffusion coefficients of heavy ions in water-saturated porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray computerized tomography (CT) was applied for the first time to the measurement of diffusion coefficients of heavy ions in water-saturated clay and rock. The mass absorption coefficient of X-rays is high for heavy elements. Thus the migration of heavy ions in the porous samples was measured by the spatio-temporal change in intensity of X-ray CT images. The measurements of

Yoshito Nakashima

2000-01-01

39

X-ray pulsing methods for reduced-dose computed tomography in PET/CT attenuation correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image quality needed for CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) is significantly lower than what is used currently for diagnostic CT imaging. Consequently, the X-ray dose required for sufficient image quality with CTAC is relatively small, potentially smaller than the lowest X-ray dose clinical CT scanners can provide. Operating modes have been proposed in which the X-rays are periodically turned on and off during the scan in order to reduce X-ray dose. This study reviews the different methods by which X-rays can be modulated in a CT scanner, and assesses their adequacy for lowdose acquisitions as required for CTAC. Calculations and experimental data are provided to exemplify selected X-ray pulsing scenarios. Our analysis shows that low-dose pulsing is possible but challenging with clinically available CT tubes. Alternative X-ray tube designs would lift this restriction.

Wiedmann, Uwe; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Harrison, Dan; Asma, Evren; Kinahan, Paul E.; De Man, Bruno

2014-03-01

40

Research on reducing radiation exposure for clinical applications of X-ray attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed at identifing areas with low radiation exposure where workers could be taken in the examination room in case that they had to hold the patients by estimating the attenuation of primary radiation and measuring the spatial distribution of scattered radiation. The laboratory equipment included on the X-ray generator, a phantom (human phantom), and a dosimeter. The experiment measured the performance of the examination system (dose reproducibility), the dose of primary radiation (X-rays), and the dose of scattered radiation (secondary radiation). Both the primary and the scattered radiation were attenuated by a factor of tube in vacuum experimental tests of the inverse square law. In this study, the attenuation was 2 ˜ 2.246 for primary radiation and 2 ˜ 2.105 for secondary radiation. Natural attenuation occurred as the X-rays passed through air, and an attenuation equation was established in this study. The equation for primary radiation (1st dose) was y = A1* exp(- x/t1)+ y0. The high-intensity contour of the direction for the cathode was wider than that of the direction for the anode, showing a wide range on the rear side of the cathode and on the rear side of the anode. We tried to find the positions where the workers' radiation exposure could be reduced. When the medical radiation workers have to hold the patient for an abdominal examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the left side of the patient. For a lumbar-spine lateral examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and behind the patient, and for a femur AP (anterior-posterior) examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the right side of the patient.

Jeon, Min-Cheol; Han, Man-Seok; So, Woon-Young; Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Seung-Yeol

2014-02-01

41

An empirical model of diagnostic x-ray attenuation under narrow-beam geometry  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a mathematical model to describe narrow-beam attenuation of kilovoltage x-ray beams for the intended applications of half-value layer (HVL) and quarter-value layer (QVL) estimations, patient organ shielding, and computer modeling. Methods: An empirical model, which uses the Lambert W function and represents a generalized Lambert-Beer law, was developed. To validate this model, transmission of diagnostic energy x-ray beams was measured over a wide range of attenuator thicknesses [0.49–33.03 mm Al on a computed tomography (CT) scanner, 0.09–1.93 mm Al on two mammography systems, and 0.1–0.45 mm Cu and 0.49–14.87 mm Al using general radiography]. Exposure measurements were acquired under narrow-beam geometry using standard methods, including the appropriate ionization chamber, for each radiographic system. Nonlinear regression was used to find the best-fit curve of the proposed Lambert W model to each measured transmission versus attenuator thickness data set. In addition to validating the Lambert W model, we also assessed the performance of two-point Lambert W interpolation compared to traditional methods for estimating the HVL and QVL [i.e., semilogarithmic (exponential) and linear interpolation]. Results: The Lambert W model was validated for modeling attenuation versus attenuator thickness with respect to the data collected in this study (R2?>?0.99). Furthermore, Lambert W interpolation was more accurate and less sensitive to the choice of interpolation points used to estimate the HVL and?or QVL than the traditional methods of semilogarithmic and linear interpolation. Conclusions: The proposed Lambert W model accurately describes attenuation of both monoenergetic radiation and (kilovoltage) polyenergetic beams (under narrow-beam geometry).

Mathieu, Kelsey B.; Kappadath, S. Cheenu; White, R. Allen; Atkinson, E. Neely; Cody, Dianna D.

2011-01-01

42

Estimation of effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences for volumetric breast density measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast density has been identified to be a risk factor of developing breast cancer and an indicator of lesion diagnostic obstruction due to masking effect. Volumetric density measurement evaluates fibro-glandular volume, breast volume, and breast volume density measures that have potential advantages over area density measurement in risk assessment. One class of volume density computing methods is based on the finding of the relative fibro-glandular tissue attenuation with regards to the reference fat tissue, and the estimation of the effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences between the fibro-glandular and fat tissue is key to volumetric breast density computing. We have modeled the effective attenuation difference as a function of actual x-ray skin entrance spectrum, breast thickness, fibro-glandular tissue thickness distribution, and detector efficiency. Compared to other approaches, our method has threefold advantages: (1) avoids the system calibration-based creation of effective attenuation differences which may introduce tedious calibrations for each imaging system and may not reflect the spectrum change and scatter induced overestimation or underestimation of breast density; (2) obtains the system specific separate and differential attenuation values of fibroglandular and fat for each mammographic image; and (3) further reduces the impact of breast thickness accuracy to volumetric breast density. A quantitative breast volume phantom with a set of equivalent fibro-glandular thicknesses has been used to evaluate the volume breast density measurement with the proposed method. The experimental results have shown that the method has significantly improved the accuracy of estimating breast density.

Chen, Biao; Ruth, Chris; Jing, Zhenxue; Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andrew; Kshirsagar, Ashwini

2014-03-01

43

Gamma-ray Attenuation in X-ray Binaries: An Application to LSI + 61°303  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray binary LSI + 61°303 consisting of a main-sequence Be star and a compact object has been detected in the TeV range with MAGIC and VERITAS, and showed a clear intensity modulation as a function of the orbital phase. We describe a gamma-ray attenuation model and apply it to this system. Our first result is that interaction of high energy photons with the background radiation produced by the main-sequence star alone does not account for the observed modulation. We then include interactions between very high energy radiation and matter and are able to constrain fundamental parameters of the system such as the mass of the compact object and the density of circumstellar matter around the Be star. In our analysis of the TeV data, we find that the compact object has mass M 2 > 2.5 M sun at the 99% confidence level, implying it is most likely a black hole. However, we find a column density which conflicts with results from X-ray observations, suggesting that attenuation may not play an important role in the modulation.

Nuñez, Paul D.; LeBohec, Stephan; Vincent, Stephane

2011-04-01

44

Materials identification by X-ray and photoneutron transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the method research of materials identification based on X-ray and photoneutron transmission. X-ray is produced by 7MeV LINAC and photoneutron is emitted as the byproduct of X-ray when beryllium convertor is used to convert X-ray to neutron. The different attenuation coefficients of X-ray and neutron in materials are used to form a factor, named V,

Yigang. Yang; Bin Wu; Tiezhu Li; Yuanjing Li

2009-01-01

45

Beamline fast and automatic attenuation system for X-Ray detectors at Synchrotron Soleil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuators are commonly used on beamlines to control incident photon flux. Attenuators are mainly controlled by software. In some experimental cases using various diffraction techniques, this architecture is not fast enough to manage high flux variation. The fast attenuation system inserts and extracts filters quickly, allowing very fast beam attenuation at the maximum rate allowed by the filter mechanism and the beam detector response. To build the solution, we used an off-the-shelf CPCI General Purpose board (GPIO) from TEWS that is based on a SPARTAN-3 Xilinx FPGA: We have developed a daughter board and an embedded VHDL program. The logic is dedicated to maintaining incident detector photon flux within an acceptable range for optimized measurements and protecting the X ray detector against over-exposure. This system is part of a continuous scan process. Some low level process logic is also embedded in order to optimize data exchange. During continuous scanning, this process allows each experimental data item collected to be associated with its corresponding photon flux value. This system is in operation on the SIXS beamline and will be soon installed on the DIFFABS beamline. This paper describes the principle and the results obtained with this solution and the possible improvements and perspectives (interfacing more complex detectors such as XPad).

Renaud, G.; Garreau, Y.; Betinelli, P.; Tournieux, A.; Bisou, J.; Monteiro, P.; Elattaoui, X.

2013-03-01

46

Mean mass energy absorption coefficient ratios for megavoltage x-ray beams.  

PubMed

Mean mass energy absorption coefficient ratios of acrylic, polystyrene, and water to air, were calculated using Monte Carlo generated energy spectra. The energy spectra were calculated for 4- to 50-MV x-ray beams, from machines using flattening filters and scanning beams. The validity of these spectra was verified by comparing the measured ionization ratios with the calculated values. The agreement was found to be within 1.9%. For beams of energy below 6 MV, our estimates of the mean mass energy absorption coefficient ratios agree well with those recommended by the TG-21 protocol. For higher energy beams, the discrepancy increases to about 3%. It was found that the discrepancy is attributable to the different spectra used in these calculations. PMID:7643787

Furhang, E E; Chui, C S; Lovelock, M

1995-05-01

47

Accurate determination of the thickness or mass per unit area of thin foils and single-crystal wafers for x-ray attenuation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the local mass per unit area m/A={integral}{rho}dt and the thickness of a specimen is an important aspect of its characterization and is often required for material quality control in fabrication. We discuss common methods which have been used to determine the local thickness of thin specimens. We then propose an x-ray technique which is capable of determining the local thickness and the x-ray absorption profile of a foil or wafer to high accuracy. This technique provides an accurate integration of the column density which is not affected by the presence of voids and internal defects in the material. The technique is best suited to specimens with thickness substantially greater than the dimensions of the surface and void structure. We also show that the attenuation of an x-ray beam by a nonuniform specimen is significantly different from that calculated by using a simple linear average of the mass per unit area and quantify this effect. For much thinner specimens or in the presence of a very structured surface profile we propose a complementary technique capable of attaining high accuracy by the use of a secondary standard. The technique is demonstrated by absolute measurements of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper and silver.

Tran, C.Q.; Chantler, C.T.; Barnea, Z.; Jonge, M.D. de [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

2004-09-01

48

Region of interest reconstruction in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography for negligible attenuation  

PubMed Central

X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) is a synchrotron-based imaging modality employed for mapping the distribution of elements within slices or volumes of intact specimens. A pencil beam of external radiation is used to stimulate emission of characteristic X-rays from within a sample, which is scanned and rotated through the pencil beam in a first-generation tomographic geometry. One limitation of XFCT is the long image acquisition time required to acquire a complete set of line integrals one-by-one. Typically, even if only a portion of a slice through the object is of interest, measurement lines are acquired spanning the entire object at every projection view over 180 degrees to avoid reconstructing images with so-called truncation artifacts. In this work, we show that when attenuation is negligible, recent developments in tomographic reconstruction theory can be used to reduce the scanning effort required to reconstruct regions of interest within the slice. The new theory provides explicit guidance as to which line integrals must be measured for a given ROI and also provides a backprojection-filtration reconstruction algorithm that averts the truncation artifacts that typically plague filtered backprojection reconstructions from truncated data. This is demonstrated through simulation studies and with real synchrotron-based XFCT data.

La Riviere, Patrick; Vargas, Phillip; Xia, Dan; Pan, Xiaochuan

2010-01-01

49

Attenuation correction for small animal SPECT imaging using x-ray CT data  

SciTech Connect

Photon attenuation in small animal nuclear medicine scans can be significant when using isotopes that emit lower energy photons such as iodine-125. We have developed a method to use microCT data to perform attenuation corrected small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A microCT calibration phantom was first imaged, and the resulting calibration curve was used to convert microCT image values to linear attenuation coefficient values that were then used in an iterative SPECT reconstruction algorithm. This method was applied to reconstruct a SPECT image of a uniform phantom filled with {sup 125}I-NaI. Without attenuation correction, the image suffered a 30% decrease in intensity in the center of the image, which was removed with the addition of attenuation correction. This reduced the relative standard deviation in the region of interest from 10% to 6%.

Hwang, Andrew B.; Hasegawa, Bruce H. [Bioengineering Graduate Group, University of California at Berkeley and University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bioengineering Graduate Group, University of California at Berkeley and University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley, California 94720 and Department of Radiology, University of California, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0943 (United States)

2005-09-15

50

Flat panel X-ray detector with reduced internal scattering for improved attenuation accuracy and dynamic range  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed that has had all unnecessary material removed from the x-ray beam path, and all of the remaining material in the beam path made as light and as low in atomic number as possible. The resulting detector is essentially transparent to x-rays and, thus, has greatly reduced internal scatter. The result of this is that x-ray attenuation data measured for the object under examination are much more accurate and have an increased dynamic range. The benefits of this improvement are that beam hardening corrections can be made accurately, that computed tomography reconstructions can be used for quantitative determination of material properties including density and atomic number, and that lower exposures may be possible as a result of the increased dynamic range.

Smith, Peter D. (Santa Fe, NM); Claytor, Thomas N. (White Rock, NM); Berry, Phillip C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Charles R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-10-12

51

Correction of nonuniform attenuation and image fusion in SPECT imaging by means of separate X-ray CT.  

PubMed

Improvements in image quality and quantitation measurement, and the addition of detailed anatomical structures are important topics for single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). The goal of this study was to develop a practical system enabling both nonuniform attenuation correction and image fusion of SPECT images by means of high-performance X-ray computed tomography (CT). A SPECT system and a helical X-ray CT system were placed next to each other and linked with Ethernet. To avoid positional differences between the SPECT and X-ray CT studies, identical flat patient tables were used for both scans; body distortion was minimized with laser beams from the upper and lateral directions to detect the position of the skin surface. For the raw projection data of SPECT, a scatter correction was performed with the triple energy window method. Image fusion of the X-ray CT and SPECT images was performed automatically by auto-registration of fiducial markers attached to the skin surface. After registration of the X-ray CT and SPECT images, an X-ray CT-derived attenuation map was created with the calibration curve for 99mTc. The SPECT images were then reconstructed with scatter and attenuation correction by means of a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm. This system was evaluated in torso and cylindlical phantoms and in 4 patients referred for myocardial SPECT imaging with Tc-99m tetrofosmin. In the torso phantom study, the SPECT and X-ray CT images overlapped exactly on the computer display. After scatter and attenuation correction, the artifactual activity reduction in the inferior wall of the myocardium improved. Conversely, the incresed activity around the torso surface and the lungs was reduced. In the abdomen, the liver activity, which was originally uniform, had recovered after scatter and attenuation correction processing. The clinical study also showed good overlapping of cardiac and skin surface outlines on the fused SPECT and X-ray CT images. The effectiveness of the scatter and attenuation correction process was similar to that observed in the phantom study. Because the total time required for computer processing was less than 10 minutes, this method of attenuation correction and image fusion for SPECT images is expected to become popular in clinical practice. PMID:12126095

Kashiwagi, Toru; Yutani, Kenji; Fukuchi, Minoru; Naruse, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Yokozuka, Koichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Kondo, Shoji

2002-06-01

52

Mass-energy absorption coefficient and backscatter factor ratios for kilovoltage x-ray beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For low-energy (up to 150 kV) x-rays, the ratio of mass-energy absorption coefficients for water to air, , and the backscatter factor B are used in the conversion of air kerma, measured free-in-air, to water kerma on the surface of a water phantom. For clinical radiotherapy, similar conversion factors are needed for the determination of the absorbed dose to biological tissues on (or near) the surface of a human body. We have computed the ratios and B factor ratios for different biological tissues including muscle, soft tissue, lung, skin and bone relative to water. The ratios were obtained by integrating the respective mass-energy absorption coefficients over the in-air primary photon spectra. We have also calculated the ratios at different depths in a water phantom in order to convert the measured in-phantom water kerma to the absorbed dose to various biological tissues. The EGS4/DOSIMETER Monte Carlo code system has been used for the simulation of the energy fluence at different depths in a water phantom irradiated by a kilovoltage x-ray beam of variable beam quality (HVL: 0.1 mm Al-5 mm Cu), field size and source-surface distance (SSD). The same code was also used in the calculation of the B factor ratios, soft tissue to water and bone to water. The results show that the B factor for bone differs from the B factor for water by up to 20% for a 100 kV beam (HVL: 2.65 mm Al) with a 100 field. On the other hand, the difference in the B factor between water and soft tissue is insignificant (well within 1% generally). This means that the B factors for water may be directly used to convert the `in-air' water kerma to surface kerma for human soft tissues.

Ma, C.-M.; Seuntjens, J. P.

1999-01-01

53

Mass-energy absorption coefficient and backscatter factor ratios for kilovoltage x-ray beams.  

PubMed

For low-energy (up to 150 kV) x-rays, the ratio of mass-energy absorption coefficients for water to air, (mu(en)/rho)w.air, and the backscatter factor B are used in the conversion of air kerma, measured free-in-air, to water kerma on the surface of a water phantom. For clinical radiotherapy, similar conversion factors are needed for the determination of the absorbed dose to biological tissues on (or near) the surface of a human body. We have computed the mu(en)/rho ratios and B factor ratios for different biological tissues including muscle, soft tissue, lung, skin and bone relative to water. The mu(en)/rho ratios were obtained by integrating the respective mass-energy absorption coefficients over the in-air primary photon spectra. We have also calculated the mu(en)/rho ratios at different depths in a water phantom in order to convert the measured in-phantom water kerma to the absorbed dose to various biological tissues. The EGS4/DOSIMETER Monte Carlo code system has been used for the simulation of the energy fluence at different depths in a water phantom irradiated by a kilovoltage x-ray beam of variable beam quality (HVL: 0.1 mm Al-5 mm Cu), field size and source-surface distance (SSD). The same code was also used in the calculation of the B factor ratios, soft tissue to water and bone to water. The results show that the B factor for bone differs from the B factor for water by up to 20% for a 100 kV beam (HVL: 2.65 mm Al) with a 100 cm2 field. On the other hand, the difference in the B factor between water and soft tissue is insignificant (well within 1% generally). This means that the B factors for water may be directly used to convert the 'in-air' water kerma to surface kerma for human soft tissues. PMID:10071880

Ma, C M; Seuntjens, J P

1999-01-01

54

Bibliography of Photon Total Cross Section (Attenuation Coefficient) Measurements 10 eV to 13.5 GeV, 1907-1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bibliography is presented of papers reporting absolute measurements of photon (XUV, x-ray, gamma-ray, bremsstrahlung) total interaction cross sections or attenuation coefficients for the elements and some compounds. The energy range covered is from 10 e...

J. H. Hubbell

1994-01-01

55

A semianalytic model to extract differential linear scattering coefficients of breast tissue from energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to develop a technique to measure the x-ray diffraction signals of breast biopsy specimens. A biomedical x-ray diffraction technology capable of measuring such signals may prove to be of diagnostic use to the medical field. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements coupled with a semianalytical model were used to extract the differential linear scattering coefficients [{mu}{sub s}(x)] of breast tissues on absolute scales. The coefficients describe the probabilities of scatter events occurring per unit length of tissue per unit solid angle of detection. They are a function of the momentum transfer argument, x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}, where {theta}=scatter angle and {lambda}=incident wavelength. The technique was validated by using a 3 mm diameter 50 kV polychromatic x-ray beam incident on a 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick sample of water. Water was used because good x-ray diffraction data are available in the literature. The scatter profiles from 6 deg. to 15 deg. in increments of 1 deg. were measured with a 3 mmx3 mmx2 mm thick cadmium zinc telluride detector. A 2 mm diameter Pb aperture was placed on top of the detector. The target to detector distance was 29 cm and the duration of each measurement was 10 min. Ensemble averages of the results compare well with the gold standard data of A. H. Narten [''X-ray diffraction data on liquid water in the temperature range 4 deg. C-200 deg. C, ORNL Report No. 4578 (1970)]. An average 7.68% difference for which most of the discrepancies can be attributed to the background noise at low angles was obtained. The preliminary measurements of breast tissue are also encouraging.

LeClair, Robert J.; Boileau, Michel M.; Wang Yinkun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

2006-04-15

56

Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

2013-04-01

57

Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.  

PubMed

Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image. PMID:23470559

Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

2013-04-01

58

Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.  

PubMed

Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482

Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

2014-06-17

59

Noninvasive Femur Bone Volume Estimation Based on X-Ray Attenuation of a Single Radiographic Image and Medical Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is an indicator of osteoporosis that is an increasingly serious disease, particularly for the elderly. To calculate BMD, we need to measure the volume of the femur in a noninvasive way. In this paper, we propose a noninvasive bone volume measurement method using x-ray attenuation on radiography and medical knowledge. The absolute thickness at one reference pixel and the relative thickness at all pixels of the bone in the x-ray image are used to calculate the volume and the BMD. First, the absolute bone thickness of one particular pixel is estimated by the known geometric shape of a specific bone part as medical knowledge. The relative bone thicknesses of all pixels are then calculated by x-ray attenuation of each pixel. Finally, given the absolute bone thickness of the reference pixel, the absolute bone thickness of all pixels is mapped. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on 300 subjects were performed. We found that the method provides good estimations of real BMD values of femur bone. Estimates shows a high linear correlation of 0.96 between the volume Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) of CT-SCAN and computed vBMD (all P<0.001). The BMD results reveal 3.23% difference in volume from the BMD of CT-SCAN.

Kiattisin, Supaporn; Chamnongthai, Kosin

60

Robust determination of mass attenuation coefficients of materials with unknown thickness and density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative approach is used to measure normalized mass attenuation coefficients (µ/?) of materials with unknown thickness and density. The adopted procedure is based on the use of simultaneous emission of K? and K? X-ray lines as well as gamma peaks from radioactive sources in transmission geometry. 109Cd and 60Co radioactive sources were used for the purpose of the investigation. It has been observed that using the simultaneous X- and/or gamma rays of different energy allows accurate determination of relative mass attenuation coefficients by eliminating the dependence of µ/? on thickness and density of the material.

Kurudirek, M.; Medhat, M. E.

2014-07-01

61

Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.

2010-09-01

62

Clinical validation of SPECT attenuation correction using x-ray computed tomography—derived attenuation maps: Multicenter clinical trial with angiographic correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nonuniform attenuation artifacts cause suboptimal specificity of stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)\\u000a myocardial perfusion images. In phantoms, normal subjects, and patients suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD),\\u000a we evaluated a new hybrid attenuation correction (AC) system that combines x-ray computed tomography (CT) with conventional\\u000a stress SPECT imaging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  The effect of CT-based AC was evaluated in

Yasmin Masood; Yi-Hwa Liu; Gordon DePuey; Raymond Taillefer; Luis I. Araujo; Steven Allen; Dominique Delbeke; Frank Anstett; Aharon Peretz; Mary-Jo Zito; Vera Tsatkin; Frans J. Th. Wackers

2005-01-01

63

The photon attenuation coefficients of barite, marble and limra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear attenuation coefficients ? (cm?1) and total mass attenuation coefficients ?? (cm2 g?1) of ?-rays for barite, marble and limra have been calculated using the XCOM program (Version 3.1) at energies from 1 keV to 300 MeV. The calculated results were compared with the estimation coefficients ?? based on the measured total linear attenuation coefficients (?).

I. Akkurt; S. Kilincarslan; C. Basyigit

2004-01-01

64

GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION IN X-RAY BINARIES: AN APPLICATION TO LSI + 61{sup 0}303  

SciTech Connect

The X-ray binary LSI + 61{sup 0}303 consisting of a main-sequence Be star and a compact object has been detected in the TeV range with MAGIC and VERITAS, and showed a clear intensity modulation as a function of the orbital phase. We describe a gamma-ray attenuation model and apply it to this system. Our first result is that interaction of high energy photons with the background radiation produced by the main-sequence star alone does not account for the observed modulation. We then include interactions between very high energy radiation and matter and are able to constrain fundamental parameters of the system such as the mass of the compact object and the density of circumstellar matter around the Be star. In our analysis of the TeV data, we find that the compact object has mass M{sub 2} > 2.5 M{sub sun} at the 99% confidence level, implying it is most likely a black hole. However, we find a column density which conflicts with results from X-ray observations, suggesting that attenuation may not play an important role in the modulation.

Nunez, Paul D.; LeBohec, Stephan; Vincent, Stephane [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2011-04-20

65

Statistical X-ray tomography using empirical Besov priors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelet-based Besov space prior models for X-ray tomography are studied using the empirical Bayes approach. The hyperparameters for the prior models are estimated from statistical properties of the wavelet coefficients of measured X-ray projection images (which are related to the smoothness of the attenuation coefficient). Various statistical models for the wavelet coefficients are studied. Experiments using measured in vitro data

Simopekka Vänskä; Matti Lassas; Samuli Siltanen

66

Radiographic least-squares fitting technique accurately measures dimensions and x-ray attenuation  

SciTech Connect

In support of stockpile stewardship and other important nondestructive test (NDT) applications, the authors seek improved methods for rapid evaluation of materials to detect degradation, warping, and shrinkage. Typically, such tests involve manual measurements of dimensions on radiographs. The authors seek to speed the process and reduce the costs of performing NDT by analyzing radiographic data using a least-squares fitting technique for rapid evaluation of industrial parts. In 1985, Whitman, Hanson, and Mueller demonstrated a least-squares fitting technique that very accurately locates the edges of cylindrically symmetrical objects in radiographs. To test the feasibility of applying this technique to a large number of parts, the authors examine whether an automated least squares algorithm can be routinely used for measuring the dimensions and attenuations of materials in two nested cylinders. The proposed technique involves making digital radiographs of the cylinders and analyzing the images. In the authors` preliminary study, however, they use computer simulations of radiographs.

Kelley, T.A.; Stupin, D.M.

1997-10-01

67

Application of CdTe photon-counting x-ray imager to material discriminated x-ray CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed that material discriminated X-ray CT with conventional X-ray tube and energy differentiation type 64ch CdTe radiation line sensor. Distribution of Atomic number was obtained by using dual-energy X-ray CT. In this study, problem of conventional X-ray tube was reduced by the collimator and measurement time. So line attenuation coefficient was obtained depend on theory. Atomic number was calculated with two different methods. We could obtain atomic number within about three error margin.

Nakashima, Takuya; Morii, Hisashi; Neo, Yoichiro; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru

2007-09-01

68

Dual energy CT-based characterization of x-ray attenuation properties of breast equivalent material plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast density is more and more considered as an important risk factor for breast cancer and several quantitative breast density evaluation methods have been proposed. The reference material for simulation of the breast attenuation properties of glandular and adipose breast tissues is manufactured by a single provider. In order to characterize the attenuation properties of these materials, measurements in Hounsfield Units (HU) have been performed using a CT-scanner. Breastequivalent plates have been imaged in different configurations (plates in and orthogonal to image planes), providing consistent results (+/- 1.3 HU). Breast density equivalent plates of different nominal breast density equivalences and sizes were measured, demonstrating both a good homogeneity within the plates (+/- 1.8 HU) and a good consistency between plates of the same nominal breast density equivalence (+/- 1.5 HU). In addition, dual energy CT provided mono-energetic HU from which mono-energetic linear attenuation coefficients of water and glandular and adipose equivalent materials were computed. The values for these coefficients were found in good agreement with results from literature, respectively direct mono-energetic measurements of breast samples, and computation by combining published breast tissue atomic compositions and linear attenuation coefficient tables. In conclusion, CT was found effective for the verification of the breast equivalent material, and the homogeneity and consistency of the plates were found satisfactory. Furthermore, the most recent spectral CT technology allowed demonstrating a good agreement of the attenuation properties of breastequivalent material plates with state-of-the-art knowledge of real breast tissue attenuation.

Geeraert, N.; Klausz, R.; Giudici, P.; Muller, S.; Cockmartin, L.; Bosmans, H.

2012-02-01

69

Prediction of fractures in perimenopausal women: a comparison of dual energy x ray absorptiometry and broadband ultrasound attenuation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To consider whether bone mineral density (BMD) measurements can predict traumatic fractures occurring in perimenopausal women. METHODS: One thousand perimenopausal women called up for screening underwent both dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and hip, and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the heel. Two years later, they were sent a questionnaire to discover those who had since had a fracture, and compare them with those who had not. RESULTS: About 2% of the women had sustained a fracture in the two years since attendance for screening. Fractures in this age group can be predicted weakly, but significantly, by bone mass measurements using DXA and BUA (odds ratios from 1.4 to 2.1). The lumbar spine appeared to be one of the best predictive sites (odds ratio for 1 SD reduction in BMD 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.8)), but no significant differences were found between the areas under the curve in receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. CONCLUSION: In this preliminary study it appeared that bone mass measurements are predictive of perimenopausal traumatic fractures in addition to postmenopausal fractures related to osteoporosis. DXA of the lumbar spine did not perform significantly better than BUA. The number of fractures occurring was low, however, and further long term follow up is required to confirm the finding.

Stewart, A; Torgerson, D J; Reid, D M

1996-01-01

70

Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some building materials.  

PubMed

Some building materials, regularly used in Turkey, such as sand, cement, gas concrete (lightweight, aerated concrete), tile and brick, have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), effective atomic, numbers (Z(eff)), effective electron densities (N(e)) and photon interaction cross section (?(a)) at 14 different energies from 81- to 1332-keV gamma-ray energies. The gamma rays were detected by using gamma-ray spectroscopy, a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The elemental compositions of samples were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Mass attenuation coefficients of these samples have been compared with tabulations based upon the results of WinXcom. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using the mixture rule and the experimental values of investigated parameters were compared with the calculated values. The agreement of measured values of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities and photon interaction cross section with the theory has been found to be quite satisfactory. PMID:22128356

Damla, N; Baltas, H; Celik, A; Kiris, E; Cevik, U

2012-07-01

71

Submicron X-Ray Tomography Using Synchrotron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray microtomography nondestructively generates three-dimensional maps of the x-ray attenuation coefficient inside small samples with a spatial resolution approaching one micron. This thesis shows how, in principle, the spatial resolution of microtomography image reconstructions can be improved by up to an order of magnitude. To accomplish this, a new method of reconstruction is combined with a novel design for a high-resolution x-ray detector. The reconstruction technique is based on a method for processing unevenly spaced rays that interpolates the information missing from the projection measurements. The x-ray detector uses principles from the technology of capillary optics, which uses hollow glass capillaries to efficiently transmit x-ray energy. The feasibility of these techniques is demonstrated through a series of computer simulations. The results are verified with data from synchrotron experiments and data published by the X-Ray Optical Systems research group.

Kalukin, Andrew R.

1995-01-01

72

X-ray attenuation measurements in a cavitating mixing layer for instantaneous two-dimensional void ratio determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this experimental study was to analyze a two-dimensional cavitating shear layer. The global aim of this work was to obtain a better understanding and modeling of cavitation phenomenon in a 2D turbulent sheared flow which can be considered as quite representative of cavitating rocket engine turbopomp inducers. This 2D mixing layer flow provided us a well documented test case which can be used for the characterization of the cavitation effects in sheared flows. The development of a velocity gradient was observed inside a liquid water flow: Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities developed at the interface. Vaporizations and implosions of cavitating structures inside the vortices were observed. X-ray attenuation measurements were performed to estimate the amount of vapor present inside the mixing area. Instantaneous two-dimensional void ratio fields were acquired. The real spatial resolutions are 0.5 mm with 2000 fps and 1.5 mm with 20 000 fps. The effective time resolution is equal to the camera frame rate up to a 19% void ratio variation between two consecutive images. This seems to be sufficient in the context of the present flow configuration. The two-phase structures present inside the mixing area were analyzed at three different cavitation levels and their behaviors were compared to non-cavitating flow dynamic. Convection velocities and vortices shedding frequencies were estimated. Results show that vapor was transported by the turbulent velocity field. Statistical analysis of the void ratio signal was carried out up to the fourth order moment. This study provided a global understanding of the cavitating structure evolution and of the cavitation effects on turbulent sheared flows.

Aeschlimann, Vincent; Barre, Stephane [LEGI, Grenoble-INP, CNRS BP 53, 38041 Grenoble (France); Legoupil, Samuel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), CEA-Saclay, DRT/LIST, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2011-05-15

73

Selection of stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for high-energy x-ray dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

A method for the selection of average stopping-power (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and energy-absorption coefficient ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ ratios has been developed. The quality of the x-ray beam is characterized by the ratio of ionization chamber readings at depths of 20 and 10 cm in water (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/. For convenience, a relationship is established between experimental (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ and the nominal accelerating potential (MV) of the accelerator. Experimental (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ are related to (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ in a three-step process. First, using experimental and theoretical spectra in the range /sup 60/Co to 45 MV, (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ were calculated for primary and first-scatter photons, and a graph of experimental versus calculated (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ for these same spectra was constructed. Second, (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ were calculated for a large number of primary spectra (for most of which experimental (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ were not available) and a graph constructed that related these quantities and (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ calculated as above for this group of spectra. Third, using the graphs from the preceding steps, graphs relating the calculated (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ with experimental (TMR)/sup 20/3exclamation/sub 0/ were constructed. Data are presented for water, polystyrene, acrylic, graphite, A-150, C-552, Bakelite, and nylon for beams with nominal accelerating potentials in the range 2--45 MV.

Cunningham, J.R.; Schulz, R.J.

1984-09-01

74

Attenuation coefficients of body tissues using principal-components analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal-components analysis is used to obtain a set of parameters for dual-energy radiography that completely describes the attenuation coefficient of any tissue over a given energy range. These parameters are the weighted averages of the densities of the elements present in a substance. Principal-components (PC) parameters are calculated for several soft tissues from measured attenuation coefficients published by Phelps et

J. B. Weaver; A. L. Huddleston

2009-01-01

75

X ray attenuation measurements for high-temperature materials characterization and in-situ monitoring of damage accumulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ., 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of this dissertation is to develop and apply x ray attenuation measurement systems that are capable of: (1) characterizing density variations in high-temperature materials, e.g., monolithic ceramics, ceramic and intermetallic matrix composites, and (2) noninvasively monitoring damage accumulation and failure sequences in ceramic matrix composites under room temperature tensile testing. This dissertation results in the development of: (1) a point scan digital radiography system, and (2) an in-situ x ray material testing system. Radiographic evaluation before, during, and after loading shows the effect of preexisting volume flaws on the fracture behavior of composites. Results show that x ray film radiography can monitor damage accumulation during tensile loading. Matrix cracking, fiber matrix debonding, fiber bridging, and fiber pullout are imaged throughout the tensile loading of the specimens. Further in-situ radiography is found to be a practical technique for estimating interfacial shear strength between the silicon carbide fibers and the reaction bonded silicon nitride matrix. It is concluded that pretest, in-situ, and post test x ray imaging can provide for greater understanding of ceramic matrix composite mechanical behavior.

Baaklini, George Y.

1992-01-01

76

Hygrothermal degradation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane films studied by neutron and X-ray reflectivity and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of organosilanes have great technological importance in the areas of adhesion promotion, durability, and corrosion resistance. However, it is well-known that water can degrade organosilane films, particularly at elevated temperatures. In this work, X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XR and NR) were combined with attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to study the chemical and structural changes within thin films of (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPS) after exposure for various periods of time to air saturated with either D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O at 80 C. For NR and XR, ultrathin ({approx}100 {angstrom}) films were prepared by spin-coating. Both D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O provide neutron scattering contrast with GPS. Variations in the neutron scattering length density (SLD) profiles (a function of mass density and atomic composition) with conditioning time were measured after drying the samples out and also swelled with H{sub 2}O or D{sub 2}O vapor at room temperature. For samples that were dried out prior to measurement, little or no change was observed for H{sub 2}O conditioning up to 3.5 days, but large changes were observed after 30 days of conditioning. The range of conditioning time for this structural change was narrowed to between 4 and 10 days with XR. The SLD profiles indicated that the top portion of the GPS film was transformed into a thick low-density layer after conditioning, but the bottom portion showed little structural change. A previous NR study of as-prepared GPS films involving swelling with deuterated nitrobenzene showed that the central portion of the film has much lower cross-link density than the region nearest the substrate. The present data show that the central portion also swells to a much greater extent with water and hydrolyzes more rapidly. The chemical degradation mechanism was identified by IR as hydrolysis of siloxane bonds. For ATR-IR, GPS films were prepared by dip-coating, which resulted in a greater and more variable thickness than for the spin-coated samples. The IR spectra revealed an increase in vicinal silanol generation over the first 3 days of conditioning followed by geminal silanol generation. Thus, the structural change detected by NR and XR roughly coincided with the onset of geminal silanol generation. Finally, little change in the reflectivity data was observed for films conditioned with D{sub 2}O at 80 C for 1 month. This indicates that hydrolysis of Si-O-Si is much slower with D{sub 2}O than with H{sub 2}O.

Tallant, David Robert; Garcia, Manuel Joseph; Majewski, Jaroslaw (Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM); Kent, Michael Stuart; Yim, Hyun

2005-05-01

77

[X-ray radiographic imaging technique with high dynamic range].  

PubMed

In conventional X-ray radiographic imaging system with a fixed energy parameter, the acquired X-ray images are usually overexposed and have no useful information available. It is due to some constraints, like special structure of component, different attenuation coefficients of materials and dynamic range of optoelectronic devices. When maximum of transmitted X-ray luminous exceed capacity limitation of X-ray radiographic imaging system in one scene, the device up to saturate. Also when minimum of transmitted X-ray luminous is below the thermal noise level of imaging system, no useful information is available for imaging. To solve the problem of difficulties in acquiring transmitted X-ray luminous in a wide dynamic range by conventional X-ray radiographic imaging system, we put forward a new X-ray radiographic imaging technique with high dynamic range based on adjusting tube voltage. In the article, the influence by charge capacity of X-ray radiographic imaging system on effective irradiating thickness is analyzed. Through experiments of some standard samples, we gained the relationship between voltage range of X-ray tube and materials or structure of component for best testing sensitivity. Then we put forward an adjusting strategy of tube voltage and effective subgraphs extraction method from acquired raw X-ray images. By the mentioned method, we carried out X-ray radiographic imaging experiments with high dynamic range for components with thickness from 0 to 20 mm. The results show that X-ray radiographic imaging technique with high dynamic range is effective to realize imaging for some components with different thickness. It is available for us to find more detailed projection information from fusion images. PMID:25007638

Liu, Bin; Wang, Li-Ming; Su, Xin-Yan

2014-04-01

78

Performance of GEANT4 in dosimetry applications: Calculation of X-ray spectra and kerma-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to validate the Geant4 toolkit for dosimetry applications, simulations were performed to calculate conversion coefficients h(10, ?) from air kerma free-in-air to personal dose equivalent Hp(10, ?). The simulations consisted of two parts: the production of X-rays with radiation qualities of narrow and wide spectra, and the interaction of radiation with ICRU tissue-equivalent and ISO water slab phantoms.

Carla C. Guimarães; Maurício Moralles; Emico Okuno

2008-01-01

79

Dose reduction in fluoroscopic interventions using a combination of a region of interest (ROI) x-ray attenuator and spatially different, temporally variable temporal filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel dose reduction technique for fluoroscopic interventions involving a combination of a material x-ray region of interest (ROI) attenuator and spatially different, temporally variable ROI temporal recursive filter, was used to guide the catheter to the ROI in three live animal studies, two involving rabbits and one involving a sheep. In the two rabbit studies presented , a catheter was guided to the entrance of the carotid artery. With the added ROI attenuator the image under the high attenuation region is very noisy. By using temporal filtering with a filter weight of 0.6 on previous frames, the noise is reduced. In the sheep study the catheter was guided to the descending aorta of the animal. The sheep offered a relatively higher attenuation to the incident x-rays and thus a higher temporal filter weight of 0.8 on previous frames was used during the procedure to reduce the noise to levels acceptable by the interventionalist. The image sequences from both studies show that significant dose reduction of 5-6 times can be achieved with acceptable image quality outside the ROI by using the above mentioned technique. Even though the temporal filter weighting outside the ROI is higher, the consequent lag does not prevent perception of catheter movement.

Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Pope, Liza; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Titus, A. H.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

2013-03-01

80

Dose Reduction in Fluoroscopic Interventions Using a Combination of a Region of Interest (ROI) X-Ray Attenuator and Spatially-Different, Temporally-Variable Temporal Filtering  

PubMed Central

A novel dose reduction technique for fluoroscopic interventions involving a combination of a material x-ray region of interest (ROI) attenuator and spatially different, temporally variable ROI temporal recursive filter, was used to guide the catheter to the ROI in three live animal studies, two involving rabbits and one involving a sheep. In the two rabbit studies presented, a catheter was guided to the entrance of the carotid artery. With the added ROI attenuator the image under the high attenuation region is very noisy. By using temporal filtering with a filter weight of 0.6 on previous frames, the noise is reduced. In the sheep study the catheter was guided to the descending aorta of the animal. The sheep offered a relatively higher attenuation to the incident x-rays and thus a higher temporal filter weight of 0.8 on previous frames was used during the procedure to reduce the noise to levels acceptable by the interventionalist. The image sequences from both studies show that significant dose reduction of 5–6 times can be achieved with acceptable image quality outside the ROI by using the above mentioned technique. Even though the temporal filter weighting outside the ROI is higher, the consequent lag does not prevent perception of catheter movement.

Vasan, S.N Swetadri; Pope, Liza; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Titus, A.H.; Bednarek, D.R; Rudin, S.

2013-01-01

81

Using Variable Temperature Powder X-Ray Diffraction to Determine the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid MgO  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory exercise was developed by using variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…

Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.

2007-01-01

82

Determination of Dimensionless Attenuation Coefficient in Shaped Resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The value of dimensionless attenuation coefficient is an important factor when numerically predicting high-amplitude acoustic waves in shaped resonators. Both the magnitude of the pressure waveform and the quality factor rely heavily on this dimensionless parameter. Previous authors have stated the values used, but have not completely explained their methods. This work fully describes the methodology used to determine this important parameter. Over a range of frequencies encompassing the fundamental resonance, the pressure waves were experimentally measured at each end of the shaped resonators. At the corresponding dimensionless acceleration, the numerical code modeled the acoustic waveforms generated in the resonator using various dimensionless attenuation coefficients. The dimensionless attenuation coefficient that most closely matched the pressure amplitudes and quality factors of the experimental and numerical results was determined to be the value to be used in subsequent studies.

Daniels, C.; Steinetz, B.; Finkbeiner, J.; Raman, G.; Li, X.

2003-01-01

83

Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers for some natural minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients ( ? m) for SiO 2 {Quartz (1 1 0 1), Quartz (1 1 0 0) and Quartz (0 0 0 1)}, KAlSi 3O 8 {Orthoclase (0 1 0), Orthoclase (1 0 0)}, CaSO 4·2H 2O (gypsum), FeS 2 (pyrite) and Mg 2Si 2O 6 (pyroxene) natural minerals were measured at 22.1, 25.0, 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The ?- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Atomic and electronic cross sections ( ? t and ? e), the effective atomic and electron numbers or electron densities ( Z eff and N eff) were determined using the obtained ? m values for investigated samples.

Han, I.; Demir, L.; ?ahin, M.

2009-09-01

84

X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the monochromaticity of an x-ray source is increasingly important in fundamental experiments and critical applications. The bandwidth of an x-ray beam, selected from a synchrotron radiation spectrum for example, ultimately defines the limiting resolution of the synchrotron source. The development of x-ray technology through the use of characteristic line sources of fixed line shape has impaired the development of understanding of this parameter. The bandwidth is particularly relevant with the modern trend towards the use of synchrotron sources in conjunction with monochromating devices, where the monochromaticity of the x-ray beam is not known a priori. The ability to control the bandwidth of the beam can lead to significant new experiments. We have observed the effect of the x-ray bandwidth on precise but relatively scaled measurements of the mass attenuation coefficient of molybdenum made on the absorption edge. We derive an expression describing the effect of the x-ray bandwidth on these measurements and invert this to determine the bandwidth of a highly monochromatized 20-keV synchrotron x-ray beam to be 1.57 eV{+-}0.03 eV. The technique presented here determines the bandwidth, a parameter critically dependent on the x-ray optical elements in the beam, in such a manner as to require no knowledge of these elements. We demonstrate that the x-ray bandwidth has significant effects upon measured edge energies, mass attenuation coefficients, x-ray anomalous-fine structure and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). In particular, the observed x-ray bandwidth necessitates a correction of up to 1.4% in the measurement of the mass attenuation coefficient of molybdenum on the absorption edge and is shown to shift the observed absorption-edge energy location by up to 0.5 eV.

Jonge, Martin D. de; Barnea, Zwi; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne (Australia)

2004-02-01

85

Measurement of Acoustic Attenuation and Absorption Coefficients using Thermometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of both the attenuation and the absorption coefficient of tissue are required when planning an optimal high intensity focused ultrasound treatment. A novel technique for simple measurement of this parameters has been developed in which a thin-film thermocouple (TFT) is placed between two layers of tissue of different thicknesses. The sample can be rotated about an axis through

Hugh Morris; Ian Rivens; Adam Shaw; Gail Ter Haar

2007-01-01

86

Inferential Procedures for Correlation Coefficients Corrected for Attenuation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model and computation procedure based on classical test score theory are presented for determination of a correlation coefficient corrected for attenuation due to unreliability. Delta and Monte Carlo method applications are discussed. A power analysis revealed no serious loss in efficiency resulting from correction for attentuation. (TJH)

Hakstian, A. Ralph; And Others

1988-01-01

87

Impact of X-ray tube settings and metallic leads on neurological PET imaging when using CT-based attenuation correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of X-ray CT images for CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) of PET data results in the decrease of overall scanning time and creates a noise-free attenuation map (?map). Given that different tube voltages and currents are used in clinical PET/CT scanning protocols depending on patient size and the body region under study, this work was designed to evaluate the effect of tube settings and the presence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) metallic leads on the accuracy of CTAC. A commercial anthropomorphic head phantom and an in-house made polyethylene phantom were used in order to quantitatively measure the effect of the nominated parameters, using quantitative analysis of created ?maps, generated attenuation correction factors and reconstructed neurological PET emission data. A maximum absolute relative difference of 0.9% was observed between average CT numbers of images acquired at 300 mA and those acquired with tube currents from 20 to 280 mA in steps of 20 mA. Slopes equal to 5.79×10 -5, 5.34×10 -5 and 3.92×10 -5 for calibration curves corresponding to CT numbers greater than 0 HU were obtained at tube voltages of 140, 120 and 80 kVp, respectively. A relative difference of 36% and 27% for CT numbers of cortical bone measured at 80 kVp were observed in comparison with images acquired at 140 and 120 kVp, respectively. It was concluded that the attenuation map derivation is independent of tube current used for the settings explored in this work. Likewise, the visual qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of neurological PET emission images is independent of X-ray tube voltage. The DBS metallic leads do not create any visible or quantifiable artifacts in the reconstructed neurological PET images owing to their small size.

Reza Ay, Mohammad; Zaidi, Habib

2007-02-01

88

X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging: Phase Reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical X-ray imaging has always been based on the biological tissue's differences in X-ray attenuation ever since Roentgen discovered X-ray over 100 years ago. However X-ray-tissue interaction causes X-ray phase changes as well. We have identified the four clinically important factors that affect the X-ray phase visibility in clinical imaging. These factors are: body part attenuation, the spatial coherence of

Xizeng Wu; Hong Liu

2005-01-01

89

Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in bismuth borate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass attenuation coefficients of glasses in the system: xBi2O3(1?x)B2O3 (x=0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.55) were determined at 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies using a narrow beam transmission method. Appreciable variations were observed in these coefficients due to changes in the chemical composition of glasses. These coefficients were then used to determine effective atomic numbers of glass

Kulwant Singh; Harvinder Singh; Vishal Sharma; Rohila Nathuram; Atul Khanna; Rajesh Kumar; Surjit Singh Bhatti; Hari Singh Sahota

2002-01-01

90

Flow visualization and void fraction measurement in liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange by X-ray attenuation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One concept being considered for steam generation in particular next generation nuclear reactor designs, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. To optimize the design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. With the development of high performance digital detectors, radiography using X-rays or neutrons maybe a suitable technique to obtain information about that direct-contact interaction; i.e., void volume fractions, length scales and dynamic behavior. Under the basis of previous investigations, a complete methodology of the X-ray radiography for two-phase flow measurement has been developed from the facility and imaging analysis aspects. Through this developed methodology, a high energy X-ray imaging system is optimized for the direct-contact heat exchange experiment. Beside an on-line calibration procedure which practically quantifies the imaging system's performance, the extended linear system theory and Rose's model have also been used to evaluate the imaging system's performance, respectively. The bottleneck of the current imaging system and the future of system improvement direction have been pointed out. With our real-time, large-area high energy X-ray imaging system, the two-phase flow was visualized and stored digitally. An efficient image processing strategy has also been established by combining several optimal digital image processing algorithms. The approach has been implemented into a software computational tool written in MATLAB called T-XIP. Time-dependent heat transfer related variables, such as void fraction (void volume), local heat transfer coefficient, etc., were calculated using this software tool. Finally, an error analysis associated with the void fraction measurement has been given based on two procedures.

Liu, Xin

91

Dual-energy attenuation coefficient decomposition with differential filtration and application to a microCT scanner  

PubMed Central

Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a ?-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F

2010-01-01

92

Revealing the powdering methods of black makeup in Ancient Egypt by fitting microstructure based Fourier coefficients to the whole x-ray diffraction profiles of galena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galena (PbS) is a major ingredient in ancient Egyptian eye makeup. The microstructure of PbS in Egyptian cosmetic powders is used as a fingerprint and is matched with the microstructures produced artificially in geological galena minerals. The microstructure of PbS is determined by x-ray diffraction peak profile analysis in terms of dislocation density, crystallite size, and size distribution. High-resolution powder diffractograms were measured at the ESRF Grenoble synchrotron source with high resolution and high peak-to-background ratios. The Fourier coefficients of the first nine measured reflections of galena are fitted using physically based Fourier coefficients of strain and size functions. Strain anisotropy is accounted for by the dislocation model of the mean square strain. The x-ray data are supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, and are compared with archæological documents. It enables us to describe the procedures of eye makeup manufacturing in the Middle and New Kingdoms of Egypt some 2000 years before Christ.

Ungár, T.; Martinetto, P.; Ribárik, G.; Dooryhée, E.; Walter, Ph.; Anne, M.

2002-02-01

93

X-Ray Data Booklet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The X-Ray Data Booklet is provided by the Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The online publication contains topics such as x-ray properties of elements, mass absorption coefficients, synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, low-energy electron ranges in matter, optics and detectors, specular reflectivities for grazing-incidence mirrors, and other practical information that has been produced and gathered as a result of research at the center. Additional features of the informative site include an interactive periodic table of X-Ray properties and free deliverable hardcopies of the document.

Attwood, David.; Gullikson, Eric.; Howells, Malcolm.; Kim, Kwang-Je.; Kirz, Janos.; Kortright, Jeff.

2000-01-01

94

X-ray Interactions with Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for X-ray Optics offers a concise discussion and many graphs illustrating the primary interactions of low-energy X-rays within matter. Users can find a database of atomic scattering factors which are used to characterize the interactions between X-rays and matter. The website provides the electron level widths, electron binding energies, atomic properties, and material properties for the elements. Visitors can generate plots of refraction indices, attenuation length of a solid, X-ray transmissions for solids and gases, X-ray reflectivity, bend magnet spectrum, and transmission grating efficiency. This website offers an effective means for visualizing X-ray data.

95

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOEpatents

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1996-01-01

96

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOEpatents

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, R.B.

1996-05-21

97

X-ray tube voltage and image quality in adult and pediatric CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how tissue x-ray attenuation coefficients, and their uncertainties, vary with x-ray tube voltage in different sized patients. Anthropomorphic phantoms (newborn, 10 year old, adult) were scanned a GE LightSpeed scanner at four x-ray tube voltages. Measurements were made of tissue attenuation in the head, chest and abdomen regions, as well as the corresponding noise values. Tissue signal to noise ratios (SNR) were obtained by dividing the average attenuation coefficient by the corresponding standard deviation. Soft tissue attenuation coefficients, relative to water, showed little variation with patient location or x-ray voltage (< 0.5%), but increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV reduced bone x-ray attenuation by ~14%. All tissues except adult bone showed a reduction of noise with increasing x-ray tube voltage (kV); the noise was found to be proportional to kV n and the average value of n for all tissues was -1.19 +/- 0.57. In pediatric patients at a constant x-ray tube voltage, SNR values were approximately independent of the body region, but the adult abdomen soft tissue SNR values were ~40% lower than the adult head. SNR values in the newborn were more than double the corresponding SNR soft tissue values in adults. SNR values for lung and bone were generally lower than those for soft tissues. For soft tissues, increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increased the SNR by an average of ~90%. Data in this paper can be used to help design CT imaging protocols that take into account patient size and diagnostic imaging task.

Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Samei, E.

2006-03-01

98

Correction of energy-dependent systematic errors in dual-energy X-ray CT using a basis material coefficients transformation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation results from our previous studies showed that energy dependent systematic errors exist in the values of attenuation coefficient synthesized using the basis material decomposition technique with acrylic and aluminum as the basis materials, especially when a high atomic number element (e.g., iodine from radiographic contrast media) was present in the body. The errors were reduced when a basis

K. L. Goh; S. C. Liew; B. H. Hasegawa

1996-01-01

99

Electrical conductivity anomaly and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of YCr1-xMnxO3 negative temperature coefficient ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical conductivity anomaly of perovskite-type YCr1-xMnxO3 negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been investigated by using defect chemistry theory combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. From the results of the ln?-1/T curves and the XPS analysis, it can be considered that YCr1-xMnxO3 ceramics exhibit the hopping conductivity. The major carriers in YCrO3 are holes, which are compensated by the oxygen vacancies produced due to the introduction of Mn ions. The Mn4+ ion contents increase monotonically in the range of 0.2 ? x ? 0.5. The resistivity increases at first and then decreases with increasing Mn contents, which has the same varying tendency with activation energy. The electrical conductivity anomaly appearing in these ceramics may be due to the variation of Cr4+ and Mn4+ ions concentration as Mn content changes.

Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Qing; Chang, Aimin; Li, Yiyu; Liu, Yin; Wu, Yiquan

2014-03-01

100

Synthesis and characterisation of ion-implanted epoxy composites for X-ray shielding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The epoxy samples were implanted with heavy ions such as tungsten (W), gold (Au) and lead (Pb) to investigate the attenuation characteristics of these composites. Near-surface composition depth profiling of ion-implanted epoxy systems was studied using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). The effect of implanted ions on the X-ray attenuation was studied with a general diagnostic X-ray machine with X-ray tube voltages from 40 to 100 kV at constant exposure 10 mAs. Results show that the threshold of implanted ions above which X-ray mass attenuation coefficient, ?m of the ion-implanted epoxy composite is distinguishably higher than the ?m of the pure epoxy sample is different for W, Au and Pb.

Noor Azman, N. Z.; Siddiqui, S. A.; Ionescu, M.; Low, I. M.

2012-09-01

101

Temporal Variations of Seismic Coda: Attenuation-Coefficient View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When monitoring spatial or temporal variations of the subsurface, it is important to use properties that objectively exist and are insensitive to observational uncertainties. Although the frequency-dependent seismic coda quality factor, Qc is often found to change prior and following relation to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, it does not represent such a property. Qc is strongly dependent on the assumed theoretical models, which are usually insufficiently accurate for constraining the actual relationships between the geometrical spreading, anelastic dissipation, and scattering of seismic waves. This inaccuracy often leads to significant exaggeration of attenuation effects, and particularly to interpretations of temporal variations in Qc as related to changes in lithospheric scattering. To overcome this bias, we use an approach based on the temporal attenuation-coefficient, ?(f), instead of Q(f) for describing coda attenuation. Several attenuation case studies suggest that ?(f) typically linearly depends on f, with both the intercept ? = ?(0) and slope d?(f)/df = ?Qe-1 being sensitive to the physical state of the subsurface. Two published examples of temporal variations of local-earthquake coda Q are revisited: non-volcanic (near Stone Canyon in central California) and volcanic (Mt. St. Helens, Washington). In both cases, linear ?(f) patterns are found, with the effects of geometrical spreading (?) on coda attenuation being significantly stronger than those of Qe-1. At Stone Canyon, ? values ranged from 0.035 to 0.06 s-1 and Qe varies from 3000 to 10000, with ? increasing and Qe decreasing during the winter season. At Mt. St. Helens, ? ? 0.18 s-1, and Qe changed from 400 before the eruption to 750 after it. The observed temporal variations are explained by near-surface effects (seasonal variations in the non-volcanic case and gas-, magma-, and geothermal-system related in the volcanic case),which mostly affect the geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation. Scattering does not appear to be a significant attenuation factor in these areas, or otherwise it may be indistinguishable from the intrinsic attenuation in the data.

Morozov, I. B.

2010-12-01

102

Use of linear correlation equations with theoretical coefficients in the x-ray fluorescence analysis of steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to give a theoretical evaluation of the scope for using linear matrix-correction equations with coefficient optimization or without it in order to correct for matrix effects in determining elements in steels (Al, Si, Ti, V, Cu 0.01-6; Cr, Ni, 0.01-30; Mn 0.01-2.0; Nb 0.1-1.5; Mo 0.1-10, W 0.1-13%). The standard deviation was calculated from

Zhuravlev; Yu. A

1987-01-01

103

Measurements of the hard-x-ray reflectivity of iridium  

SciTech Connect

In connection with the design of a hard-x-ray telescope for the Constellation X-Ray Observatory we measured the reflectivity of an iridium-coated zerodur substrate as a function of angle at 55, 60, 70, and 80 keV at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The optical constants were derived from the reflectivity data. The real component of the index of refraction is in excellent agreement with theoretical values at all four energies. However, the imaginary component, which is related to the mass attenuation coefficient, is 50% to 70% larger at 55, 60, and 70 keV than theoretical values.

Romaine, S.; Bruni, R.; Gorenstein, P.; Zhong, Z

2007-01-10

104

Measurements of the hard-x-ray reflectivity of iridium.  

PubMed

In connection with the design of a hard-x-ray telescope for the Constellation X-Ray Observatory we measured the reflectivity of an iridium-coated zerodur substrate as a function of angle at 55, 60, 70, and 80 keV at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The optical constants were derived from the reflectivity data. The real component of the index of refraction is in excellent agreement with theoretical values at all four energies. However, the imaginary component, which is related to the mass attenuation coefficient, is 50% to 70% larger at 55, 60, and 70 keV than theoretical values. PMID:17268563

Romaine, S; Bruni, R; Gorenstein, P; Zhong, Z

2007-01-10

105

Quantitative 3D petrography using x-ray tomography: Application to Bishop Tuff pumice clasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textures are traditionally studied using the petrographic microscope, which limits observations to 2D sections of 3D objects. Given the difficulty in retrieving information on shapes, sizes and spatial distribution of objects in 3D from random sections, a method that can yield observations in 3D is highly desirable.X-ray tomography yields a 3D map of the linear X-ray attenuation coefficient, which is

Guilherme A. R. Gualda; Mark Rivers

2006-01-01

106

Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interferometric technique for hard X-rays is presented. It is based on two transmission gratings and a phase-stepping technique, and it provides separate radiographs of the phase and absorption profiles of bulk samples. Tomographic reconstruction yields quantitative three-dimensional maps of the X-ray refractive index and of the attenuation coefficient, with a spatial resolution down to a few microns. The method

C. David; T. Weitkamp; F. Pfeiffer; A. Diaz; J. Bruder; T. Rohbeck; A. Groso; O. Bunk; M. Stampanoni; P. Cloetens

2007-01-01

107

Sensitivity of x-ray photoconductors: Charge trapping and absorption-limited universal sensitivity curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct conversion flat panel x-ray sensors that are currently under development are based on stabilized a-Se (a-Se alloyed with a small percentage of As and doped with Cl in the ppm amount). There are also other potential x-ray photoconductors such as PbO, PbI2, HgI2, CdTe, etc. Indeed, good x-ray images have been reported from PbI2, HgI2, and CdTe based x-ray sensors. The present article considers the x-ray sensitivity of photoconductors in terms of the following combined effects: (i) Absorption of x-rays, controlled by the linear attenuation coefficient ?(E) and energy absorption coefficient ?en(E), both x-ray photon energy E dependent. (ii) Electric field F and x-ray photon energy dependent ionization of the medium, that is, in terms of the electron and hole creation energy W+/-(E,F). (iii) The transport and trapping of charges across the photoconductor as they drift to the collecting electrodes. (iv) The electron and hole pairs are generated with an exponentially decaying distribution across the thickness of the photoconductor. We analytically solve the continuity equation by considering the drift of electrons and holes in the presence of deep traps. We derive an expression for the amount of collected charge per unit incident radiation, defined as the x-ray sensitivity S, in terms of W+/-, ?, ?en, and the normalized parameters: normalized attenuation depth and electron and hole schubwegs per unit thickness. We obtain two- and three-dimensional universal sensitivity curves that allow x-ray sensitivity of any potential x-ray photoconductor material to be determined from the normalized parameters.

Zahangir Kabir, M.; Kasap, S. O.

2002-05-01

108

Quantitative x-ray microtomography with a conventional source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1981, Elliott and Dover designed an X-ray microtomography scanner as a means of measuring the local mineral concentration in teeth. Although slow, this first generation system gave accurate measurements of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) due to its use of energy dispersive photon counting apparatus. Attaining such accuracy with integrating detectors in third generation scanners is difficult, but has been the goal of our ongoing development. The current "MuCat 2" system uses a 6cm square CCD chip with a parallel fibre-optic faceplate coupled to a CsI scintillator. Time delay integration readout (with sliding camera) is used to eliminate ring artefacts and enable high dynamic range X-ray projections to be acquired. The beam is collimated with a moving aperture (tracking the camera) to reduce X-ray scatter. Beam hardening is reduced by the use of filtering and corrected using data from an aluminium step wedge to optimise a model of polychromatic X-ray generation, attenuation and detection. Adjustments can be made to the model to allow for known specimen composition. Projections are corrected for distortion and repeatable wobble in the rotation stage. Where high absolute accuracy of the LAC is required, a pure aluminium wire is included in the scan and used to "fine-tune" the grey level after reconstruction.

Davis, Graham; Evershed, Anthony; Elliott, James; Mills, David

2010-08-01

109

PET attenuation coefficients from CT images: experimental evaluation of the transformation of CT into PET 511keV attenuation coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CT data acquired in combined PET\\/CT studies provide a fast and essentially noiseless source for the correction of photon attenuation in PET emission data. To this end, the CT values relating to attenuation of photons in the range of 40-140 keV must be transformed into linear attenuation coefficients at the PET energy of 511 keV. As attenuation depends on

C. Burger; G. Goerres; S. Schoenes; A. Buck; A. Lonn; G. von Schulthess

2002-01-01

110

Cosmic x ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1991-01-01

111

Cosmic x ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1990-01-01

112

X-Rays  

MedlinePLUS

X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat ...

113

Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient  

PubMed Central

With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (2–4?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2–15?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12–15 and 2–4?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study.

Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.

2014-01-01

114

Monitoring macro voids in mortar by X-ray computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was shown to be a capable technique to quantify the evolution of macro voids and to monitor the strength development of mortar specimens. Two-dimensional image analysis was utilized to extract quantitative information from the X-ray CT data. In particular, monitoring and quantifying macro voids were of interest; thus nondestructive X-ray measurements were conducted on the same mortar specimen at different days. X-ray attenuations were then transformed into CT numbers, which was actually a map of linear attenuation coefficients in terms of Hounsfield Units; this map can be presented as a two-dimensional image. Analyses performed on these images revealed that the porosity of the mortar specimen reduced from 3.94% at the beginning to 3.06% at the end of the monitoring period.

Birgul, Recep

2008-11-01

115

On the selection of stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for high-energy x-ray dosimetry.  

PubMed

A method for the selection of average stopping-power (L/rho)medair and energy-absorption coefficient (mu en/rho)medair ratios has been developed. The quality of the x-ray beam is characterized by the ratio of ionization chamber readings at depths of 20 and 10 cm in water (TMR)2010. For convenience, a relationship is established between experimental (TMR)2010 and the nominal accelerating potential (MV) of the accelerator. Experimental (TMR)2010 are related to (L/rho)medair and (mu en/rho)medair in a three-step process. First, using experimental and theoretical spectra in the range 60Co to 45 MV, (TMR)2010 were calculated for primary and first-scatter photons, and a graph of experimental versus calculated (TMR)2010 for these same spectra was constructed. Second, (L/rho)medair and (mu en/rho)medair were calculated for a large number of primary spectra [for most of which experimental (TMR)2010 were not available] and a graph constructed that related these quantities and (TMR)2010 calculated as above for this group of spectra. Third, using the graphs from the preceding steps, graphs relating the calculated (L/rho)medair and (mu en/rho)medair with experimental (TMR)2010 were constructed. Data are presented for water, polystyrene, acrylic, graphite, A-150, C-552, Bakelite, and nylon for beams with nominal accelerating potentials in the range 2-45 MV. PMID:6503876

Cunningham, J R; Schulz, R J

1984-01-01

116

X-Ray Imaging  

Cancer.gov

X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of different tissues. Calcium in bones absorbs X-rays the most, so bones look white on a film recording of the X-ray image,

117

Comparison of two single-image phase-retrieval algorithms for in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging.  

PubMed

The attenuation of x-rays in a material forms the basis of x-ray radiography and tomography. By measuring the transmission of the x-rays over a large amount of raypaths, the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient can be reconstructed in a 3D volume. In x-ray microtomography (?CT), however, the x-ray refraction yields a significant signal in the transmission image and the 3D distribution of the refractive index can be reconstructed in a 3D volume. To do so, several methods exist, on both a hardware and software level. In this paper, we compare two similar software methods, the modified Bronnikov algorithm and the simultaneous phase-and-amplitude retrieval. The first method assumes a pure phase object, whereas the latter assumes a homogeneous object. Although these assumptions seem very restrictive, both methods have proven to yield good results on experimental data. PMID:23455917

Boone, Matthieu N; Devulder, Wouter; Dierick, Manuel; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

2012-12-01

118

X-Ray Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the weak interaction of hard x-rays with matter it is generally difficult to manipulate x-rays by optical components. As a result, there have been many complementary approaches to making x-ray optics, exploiting refraction, reflection, and diffraction of x-rays by matter. In this chapter, we describe the physics that underly x-ray optics and explain the working principles and performances of a variety of x-ray optics, including refractive x-ray lenses, reflective optics, such as mirrors and waveguides, and diffractive optics,such as multilayer and crystal optics and Fresnel zone plates.

Schroer, Christian G.; Lengeler, Bruno

119

Measurement of electron density in dual-energy x-ray CT with monochromatic x rays and evaluation of its accuracy  

SciTech Connect

Information on electron density is important for radiotherapy treatment planning in order to optimize the dose distribution in the target volume of a patient. At present, the electron density is derived from a computed tomography (CT) number measured in x-ray CT scanning; however, there are uncertainties due to the beam hardening effect and the method by which the electron density is converted from the CT number. In order to measure the electron density with an accuracy of {+-}1%, the authors have developed dual-energy x ray CT using monochromatic x rays. They experimentally proved that the measured linear attenuation coefficients were only a few percent lower than the theoretical ones, which led to an accuracy within 2% for the electron density. There were three factors causing inaccuracy in the linear attenuation coefficient and the electron density: the influence of scattered radiation, the nonlinearity in the detector response function, and a theoretical process to derive the electron density from the linear attenuation coefficients. The linear attenuation coefficients of water were experimentally proved to differ by 1%-2% from the theoretical one even when the scattering effect was negligible. The nonlinearity of the response function played an important role in correcting the difference in the linear attenuation coefficient. Furthermore, the theoretical process used for deriving the electron density from the linear attenuation coefficients introduces about 0.6% deviation from the theoretical value into the resultant electron density. This deviation occurs systematically so that it can be corrected. The authors measured the electron densities for seven samples equivalent to soft tissue in dual-energy x-ray CT, and finally obtained them with an accuracy of around {+-}1%.

Tsunoo, Takanori; Torikoshi, Masami; Ohno, Yumiko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2008-11-15

120

X-ray microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen significant advances in both low and high energy X-ray microscopy. The image in X-ray microscopy is usually formed by differences in absorption of X-ray photons. Soft X-ray microscopy (energies below a few thousand eV) uses wavelengths under 10 nm. Since light wavelengths are approximately 500 nm, resolution is much better with X-rays. One can obtain nanoscale

Stanislave I. Rokhlin; Jin-Yeon Kim; B. Zoofan

2003-01-01

121

Electron-Iron Recombination Rate Coefficients and Photoionization Cross Section for S XIV and SXV for X-ray and UV modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse process of photoionization and electron-ion recombination of (h +SXIV SXV+e) and (h +SXV SXVI +e) are studied in details using ab into unified method that provides self-consistent sets of results for these processes. Results are presented for large number of fine structure levels where n 10 and 0 l 9; 98 levels for Li-likes S XIV with 1/2 J 17/2 and 188 levels for He-like S XV with 0 J 10. Photoionization cross section, :PI, of the levels of both S XIV and SXV decay smoothly in the lower region. However, narrow and high peak autoionizing Rhydberg series resonances belonging to various excited core levels appear in the high energy region and enhance the background cross section of the excited levels. The resonance series of n=2 core levels dominate while they become weaker with higher n. The prominent feature is the enhacement of the background cross section at n=2 core thresholds due to K-shell ionization leaving the ion in excited 2p states. PI also show wide PEG (photo-excitation-of-core) resonances at the photon energies that equal to the core excitation energies, Level-specific photoionization cross sections, PI(nSLJ), and recombination rate coefficients, ?RC(nSLJ),are obtained for the first time for these ions. Currently available results correspond to photoionization for 18 terms with missing features and to only total recombination rate coefficients. Present ?Rc(nSLJ) incorporates both the radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR), and show a "bump" or "shoulder" in the high temperature region due to DR dominace. The total unified recombination rate coefficients show good agreement with the available RR, and DR rates. Recombination rates photoelectron energy are presented for the astrophysical and laboratory plasma applications. Total recombination rates for H-like S XVI are given for completeness. The The results should be accurate within 10-15% based on the unified method that includes important atomic effects such as radiation damping, channel couplings, interference of DR and RR, and relativistic fine structure effects. The comprehensive datasets are applicable for various models such as for ionization balance and recombil1ation-cascade for UV and X-ray lines.

Nahar, Sultana N.

2008-03-01

122

Quantitative x-ray dark-field computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic principles of x-ray image formation in radiology have remained essentially unchanged since Röntgen first discovered x-rays over a hundred years ago. The conventional approach relies on x-ray attenuation as the sole source of contrast and draws exclusively on ray or geometrical optics to describe and interpret image formation. Phase-contrast or coherent scatter imaging techniques, which can be understood using wave optics rather than ray optics, offer ways to augment or complement the conventional approach by incorporating the wave-optical interaction of x-rays with the specimen. With a recently developed approach based on x-ray optical gratings, advanced phase-contrast and dark-field scatter imaging modalities are now in reach for routine medical imaging and non-destructive testing applications. To quantitatively assess the new potential of particularly the grating-based dark-field imaging modality, we here introduce a mathematical formalism together with a material-dependent parameter, the so-called linear diffusion coefficient and show that this description can yield quantitative dark-field computed tomography (QDFCT) images of experimental test phantoms.

Bech, M.; Bunk, O.; Donath, T.; Feidenhans'l, R.; David, C.; Pfeiffer, F.

2010-09-01

123

X ray-to-luminous image conversion in x-ray image converter tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classically-designed X-ray image intensifiers, in which the primary converter of X-ray image (X-ray luminescent screen) is placed inside the vacuum space of the X-ray image intensifier, and the photocathode converting light image into electronic one is in optical contact with the primary converter, have decisively displaced a combined systems -- external X-ray luminescent screen, light-transmission optics, image intensifier -- from medical and industrial X-ray diagnostic devices since they possess essentially higher luminance amplification (higher X-ray-to-light image conversion coefficient) and higher signal-to-noise ratio. We have assumed that this conversion coefficient is determined as a ratio of luminance of light image at the output screen of the X-ray image intensifier (measured in cd/sq.m.) to intensity of the X-ray radiation at the input of the X-ray image intensifier, derived from the power of the exposure dose (in R/sec). When we analyzed an X-ray-to-light image conversion dependence, we found out that there is an inconsistency between a method of measuring the efficiency of this conversion and this dependence such that the power of the exposure dose determines absorption of X-ray radiation only in the air and can not be recalculated into absorption in components of the X-ray image intensifier. In order to solve these contradictions, in this paper we have considered spectral X-ray characteristics. We further developed assumptions that the spectral density of the power flow of bremsstrahlung X-ray radiation depends linearly on the quantum power of this radiation. We succeeded in relating this dependence with the power of the radiation exposure dose and in obtaining a family of spectral characteristics of bremsstrahlung X-ray radiation at different anode voltages of the X-ray tube for a certain exposure dose. The paper describes calculations of the total power flow of the bremsstrahlung X-ray radiation at the input of the X-ray image intensifier, calculations of absorption of this flow in the functional assemblies of the X-ray image intensifier -- in the input window made of different materials (glass, aluminum, beryllium, steel, and glass-carbon) and in the X-ray luminescent screen made of iodine cesium. We have calculated values for the conversion coefficient of the X-ray image intensifier on the whole.

Kuklev, S. V.; Zaidel, I. N.

1999-06-01

124

Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiative transfer theory is combined with a bio-optical model of Case 1 waters and an optical model of the atmosphere to simulate the transport of radiation in the ocean-atmosphere system. The results are treated as experimental data to study the downwelling irradiance attenuation coefficient. It is shown that the downwelling irradiance attenuation coefficient just beneath the surface and the mean

HOWARD R. GORDON

1989-01-01

125

The attenuation coefficient of an acoustic wave propagating in a turbulent flow in a long pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experiments on measuring the attenuation coefficient for acoustic waves propagating in long oil and petroleum product pipelines are presented. A comparison of experimental results with theory is performed. An approximate dependence of the attenuation coefficient on the dimensionless parameter of the flow is proposed.

Barabanov, S. A.; Glikman, B. F.

2009-03-01

126

Determination of the attenuation coefficients by visible and ultraviolet radiation in heavy water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-path-length transmission cell has been used to measure the attenuation coefficients of purified HâO and DâO at various wavelengths between 250 and 580 nm. The principles governing the procedures and corrections for various sources of light attenuation in the transmission cell components are discussed. Detailed chemical histories of the HâO and DâO samples are given. The measured attenuation coefficients

L. P. Boivin; W. F. Davidson; R. S. Storey; D. Sinclair; E. D. Earle

1986-01-01

127

Improvement of analysis precision upon the atomic number and electron density measurement by the dual x-ray CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To identify the factor impairing the material identification parameters, which is provided by the dual-energy X-ray computed tomography method using a conventional X-ray tube and a CdTe detector, linear attenuation coefficient was measured by the radioactivity of radio isotopes and compared with theoretical figure. In our study, the atomic number and the electron density is calculated from the linear attenuation coefficient obtained in CT measurement by 64-channel CdTe line detector. To estimate accuracy of CdTe line sensor, it is needed to obtain the linear attenuation coefficient accurately. Using a single detector, the linear attenuation coefficient is verified for accuracy. The energy resolution of CdTe detectors and the method of reconstruction are discussed.

Imura, Yukino; Morii, Hisashi; Koike, Akifumi; Okunoyama, Takaharu; Neo, Yoichiro; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru

2010-08-01

128

X-Ray Lasers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

1975-01-01

129

System design considerations for an x-ray phase-contrast imaging system based on in-line holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Roentgen discovered x-ray and performed the first x-ray imaging more than 100 years ago, x-ray imaging has always been based on the biological tissue's differences in x-ray attenuation. However, x-ray-tissue interaction causes x-ray phase changes as well, and the tissue\\

Xizeng Wu; Hong Liu; Aimin Yan

2005-01-01

130

X-ray properties of an anthropomorphic breast phantom for MRI and x-ray imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to characterize the x-ray properties of a dual-modality, anthropomorphic breast phantom whose MRI properties have been previously evaluated. The goal of this phantom is to provide a platform for optimization and standardization of two- and three-dimensional x-ray and MRI breast imaging modalities for the purpose of lesion detection and discrimination. The phantom is constructed using a mixture of lard and egg whites, resulting in a variable, tissue-mimicking structure with separate adipose- and glandular-mimicking components. The phantom can be produced with either a compressed or uncompressed shape. Mass attenuation coefficients of the phantom materials were estimated using elemental compositions from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference and the atomic interaction models from the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and compared with human values from the literature. The image structure was examined quantitatively by calculating and comparing spatial covariance matrices of the phantom and patient mammography images. Finally, a computerized version of the phantom was created by segmenting a computed tomography scan and used to simulate x-ray scatter of the phantom in a mammography geometry. Mass attenuation coefficients of the phantom materials were within 20% and 15% of the values for adipose and glandular tissues, respectively, which is within the estimation error of these values. Matching was improved at higher energies (>20 keV). Tissue structures in the phantom have a size similar to those in the patient data, but are slightly larger on average. Correlations in the patient data appear to be longer than those in the phantom data in the anterior-posterior direction; however, they are within the error bars of the measurement. Simulated scatter-to-primary ratio values of the phantom images were as high as 85% in some areas and were strongly affected by the heterogeneous nature of the phantom. Key physical x-ray properties of the phantom have been quantitatively evaluated and shown to be comparable to those of breast tissue. Since the MRI properties of the phantom have been previously evaluated, we believe it is a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of two- and three-dimensional x-ray and MRI breast imaging modalities for the purpose of lesion detection and characterization.

Freed, Melanie; Badal, Andreu; Jennings, Robert J.; de las Heras, Hugo; Myers, Kyle J.; Badano, Aldo

2011-06-01

131

X-ray properties of an anthropomorphic breast phantom for MRI and x-ray imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to characterize the x-ray properties of a dual-modality, anthropomorphic breast phantom whose MRI properties have been previously evaluated. The goal of this phantom is to provide a platform for optimization and standardization of two- and three-dimensional x-ray and MRI breast imaging modalities for the purpose of lesion detection and discrimination. The phantom is constructed using a mixture of lard and egg whites, resulting in a variable, tissue-mimicking structure with separate adipose- and glandular-mimicking components. The phantom can be produced with either a compressed or uncompressed shape. Mass attenuation coefficients of the phantom materials were estimated using elemental compositions from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference and the atomic interaction models from the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and compared with human values from the literature. The image structure was examined quantitatively by calculating and comparing spatial covariance matrices of the phantom and patient mammography images. Finally, a computerized version of the phantom was created by segmenting a computed tomography scan and used to simulate x-ray scatter of the phantom in a mammography geometry. Mass attenuation coefficients of the phantom materials were within 20% and 15% of the values for adipose and glandular tissues, respectively, which is within the estimation error of these values. Matching was improved at higher energies (>20 keV). Tissue structures in the phantom have a size similar to those in the patient data, but are slightly larger on average. Correlations in the patient data appear to be longer than those in the phantom data in the anterior-posterior direction; however, they are within the error bars of the measurement. Simulated scatter-to-primary ratio values of the phantom images were as high as 85% in some areas and were strongly affected by the heterogeneous nature of the phantom. Key physical x-ray properties of the phantom have been quantitatively evaluated and shown to be comparable to those of breast tissue. Since the MRI properties of the phantom have been previously evaluated, we believe it is a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of two- and three-dimensional x-ray and MRI breast imaging modalities for the purpose of lesion detection and characterization. PMID:21606556

Freed, Melanie; Badal, Andreu; Jennings, Robert J; de las Heras, Hugo; Myers, Kyle J; Badano, Aldo

2011-06-21

132

X-Rays  

MedlinePLUS

... X-Rays htmProcedureXray X-rays are waves of electromagnetic radiation that are used to form images of structures ... What Is It? X-rays are waves of electromagnetic radiation that are used to create images of organs ...

133

Sinus x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Anslow P. Ear, nose and throat radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, ... Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

134

Pelvis x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

X-ray - pelvis ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie ... The x-ray is used to detect fractures , tumors, or degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and ...

135

Non-destructive observation of meteorite chips using quantitative analysis of optimized X-ray micro-computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the non-destructive observation of extraterrestrial materials using X-ray computed tomography (CT) is discussed. This method allows to image texture of objects in meteorites without destructive methods of sample preparation. Quantitative analysis of X-ray CT data was achieved by measuring X-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LACs). The histogram of the LAC value provides information regarding the meteorite structure, such as the internal components and their chemical composition. The change of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) of CT data is investigated by optimizing the CT measurement conditions. These results form an important baseline for the initial analysis of extraterrestrial materials.

Uesugi, M.; Uesugi, K.; Oka, M.

2010-11-01

136

X-Ray Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use simple materials to simulate the effect of X-rays in a safe way. Learners place a piece of window screen over a box and a cardboard pattern on top of the screen. They sprinkle sand over the area of the box. The sand simulates X-rays passing through the screen to the bottom of the box, except where they are blocked by the cardboard. Use this activity to demonstrate how X-rays create an image, including "soft" and shorter wavelength X-rays as well as X-rays from space.

Fetter, Neil

2007-01-01

137

X-Ray Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of X-ray observations of supernovae. By observing the (char 1260.1-100 keV) X-ray emission from young supernovae, physical key parameters such as the circumstellar matter density, mass-loss rate of the progenitor, and temperature of the outgoing and reverse shocks can be derived as a function of time. Despite intensive search over the last char 12625 years, only 15 supernovae have been detected in X-rays. We review the individual X-ray observations of these supernovae and discuss their implications for our understanding of the physical processes giving rise to the X-ray emission.

Immler, S.; Lewin, W. H. G.

138

A Generalised Porosity Formalism for Isotropic and Anisotropic Effective Opacity and Its Effects on X-ray Line Attenuation in Clumped O Star Winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a generalised formalism for treating the porosity-associated reduction in continuum opacity that occurs when individual clumps in a stochastic medium become optically thick. As in previous work, we concentrate on developing bridging laws between the limits of optically thin and thick clumps. We consider geometries resulting in either isotropic or anisotropic effective opacity, and, in addition to an idealised model in which all clumps have the same local overdensity and scale, we also treat an ensemble of clumps with optical depths set by Markovian statistics. This formalism is then applied to the specific case of bound-free absorption of X- rays in hot star winds, a process not directly affected by clumping in the optically thin limit. We find that the Markov model gives surprisingly similar results to those found previously for the single clump model, suggesting that porous opacity is not very sensitive to details of the assumed clump distribution function. Further, an anisotropic effective opacity favours escape of X-rays emitted in the tangential direction (the venetian blind effect), resulting in a bump of higher flux close to line centre as compared to profiles computed from isotropic porosity models. We demonstrate how this characteristic line shape may be used to diagnose the clump geometry, and we confirm previous results that for optically thick clumping to significantly influence X-ray line profiles, very large porosity lengths, defined as the mean free path between clumps, are required. Moreover, we present the first X-ray line profiles computed directly from line-driven instability simulations using a 3-D patch method, and find that porosity effects from such models also are very small. This further supports the view that porosity has, at most, a marginal effect on X-ray line diagnostics in O stars, and therefore that these diagnostics do indeed provide a good clumping insensitive method for deriving O star mass-loss rates.

Sundqvist, Jon O.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Townsend, Richard H. D.

2002-01-01

139

X-Rays for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... on the goal: Bitewing X-rays (also called cavity-detecting X-rays) — These X-rays are used ... that cannot be seen directly. They show where cavities are starting. These X-rays are needed only ...

140

Factors That Attenuate the Correlation Coefficient and Its Analogs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correlation coefficient is an integral part of many other statistical techniques (analysis of variance, t-tests, etc.), since all analytic methods are actually correlational (G. V. Glass and K. D. Hopkins, 1984). The correlation coefficient is a statistical summary that represents the degree and direction of relationship between two variables.…

Dolenz, Beverly

141

Two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination ((mu) (rho)) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeologica...

R. M. C. Silva

1997-01-01

142

X-ray binaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

1976-01-01

143

Ultrasonic attenuation and kinetic coefficients in pure and random uniaxial ferromagnets with dipolar interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrasonic attenuation and kinetic coefficients in pure and random uniaxial ferromagnets with both short range exchange and long range dipolar interactions are calculated near the critical point using renormalization group theory. The dispersion and temperature dependences found differ logarithmically from classical theory and suggest new experiments. In the pure system a recent phenomenological calculation of the ultrasonic attenuation in

B. Schaub; H. G. Schuster

1978-01-01

144

X-ray Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray interferometry is well on its way to becoming a reality. We present an update on MAXIM, the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission. With the eventual goal of imaging the event horizon of a black hole, MAXIM will require a phased array of x-ray mirrors across a one kilometer aperture. Recent design advances, backed by demonstrations in the laboratory have established that such a mission is not only feasible, but affordable. Soon, x-ray observatories may rise to the standards set by radio astronomers.

Cash, W.

2005-12-01

145

Theoretical Framework for Absorption (Dichroism) and the Resonance-Enhanced Scattering of X-rays by Magnetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scattering length common to the attenuation coefficient and cross-sections for the resonance-enhanced scattering of X-rays suffers from a dependence on a spectrum of virtual, intermediate states which contain next to no useful information about the en...

S. W. Lovesey E. Balcar

1996-01-01

146

Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.

Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

2013-03-01

147

Reduction of anatomical noise in medical X-ray images.  

PubMed

The X-ray pattern of a mass of very fine non-distinguishable anatomical structures alters completely from radiograph to radiograph due to the unavoidable movements of the patient during the exposure. The corresponding image component shows noise-like behaviour and is therefore referred to as the anatomical noise. Reducing this component would enhance the quality of the clinical X-ray image and increase the detectability of radiological signal. We have found that by comparing two X-ray images of the same anatomy acquired under slightly different imaging geometry, it is possible to reduce the anatomical noise in one of the image pair. The proposed method, which allows this, is based on the appropriate attenuation in the wavelet domain. The values of attenuating factors for the wavelet coefficients are proportional to the correlation between the corresponding features of both images. This method was tested for different changes in the imaging geometry. In the case of no geometrical changes, only the quantum and the electronic noise are reduced. An effect of de-noising for the investigated images is obvious. PMID:15933083

Tischenko, Oleg; Hoeschen, Christoph; Buhr, Egbert

2005-01-01

148

XOP v2.4: recent developments of the x-ray optics software toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XOP v2.4 consists of a collection of computer programs for calculation of radiation characteristics of X-ray sources and their interaction with matter. Many of the programs calculate radiation from undulators and wigglers, but others, such as X-ray tube codes, are also available. The computation of the index of refraction and attenuation coefficients of optical elements using user-selectable databases containing optical constants is an important part of the package for calculation of beam propagation. Coupled computations are thus feasible where the output from one program serves as the input to another program. Recent developments including enhancements to existing programs are described.

Sánchez Del Río, Manuel; Dejus, Roger J.

2011-09-01

149

Combining x-ray and photoacoustics for in vivo tumor imaging with gold nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated a new hybrid cancer imaging method combining x-ray and photoacoustic imaging with multifunctional gold nanorods as contrast agents. The two imaging modalities provide complementary contrast mechanisms. X-ray imaging exploits the high attenuation coefficient of gold nanorods, while photoacoustic imaging takes advantage of the strong optical absorption of the nanorods. The fused image has presented both location and vasculature of the tumor. Our experimental results demonstrate that this combined modality has the capability to provide anatomical and functional information of tumor for accurate medical diagnosis and imaging-guided therapy.

Huang, Guojia; Yang, Sihua; Yuan, Yi; Xing, Da

2011-09-01

150

Calculation and validation of the use of effective attenuation coefficient for attenuation correction in In-111 SPECT  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine tracers using {sup 111}In as a radiolabel are increasing in their use, especially in the domain of oncologic imaging. In these applications, it often is critical to have the capability of quantifying radionuclide uptake and being able to relate it to the biological properties of the tumor. However, images from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be degraded by photon attenuation, photon scattering, and collimator blurring; without compensation for these effects, image quality can be degraded, and accurate and precise quantification is impossible. Although attenuation correction for SPECT is becoming more common, most implementations can only model single energy radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I. Thus, attenuation correction for {sup 111}In is challenging because it emits two photons (171 and 245 keV) at nearly equal rates (90.2% and 94% emission probabilities). In this paper, we present a method of calculating a single 'effective' attenuation coefficient for the dual-energy emissions of {sup 111}In, and that can be used to correct for photon attenuation in radionuclide images acquired with this radionuclide. Using this methodology, we can derive an effective linear attenuation coefficient {mu}{sub eff} and an effective photon energy E{sub eff} based on the emission probabilities and linear attenuation coefficients of the {sup 111}In photons. This approach allows us to treat the emissions from {sup 111}In as a single photon with an effective energy of 210 keV. We obtained emission projection data from a tank filled with a uniform solution of {sup 111}In. The projection data were reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm with no attenuation correction, and with attenuation correction assuming photon energies of 171, 245, and 210 keV (the derived E{sub eff}). The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrate that the use of no attenuation correction, or correction assuming photon energies of 171 or 245 keV introduces inaccuracies into the reconstructed radioactivity distribution when compared against the effective energy method. In summary, this work provides both a theoretical framework and experimental methodology of attenuation correction for the dual-energy emissions from {sup 111}In. Although these results are specific to {sup 111}In, the foundation could easily be extended to other multiple-energy isotopes.

Seo, Youngho; Wong, Kenneth H.; Hasegawa, Bruce H. [Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 and Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley, California 94143 (United States); Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley, California 94143 (United States)

2005-12-15

151

Water equivalence of micelle gels for x-ray beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micelle gel is a radiochromic hydrogel with the potential to be used as a three dimensional (3D) radiation dosimeter. Since an ideal dosimeter should present water equivalent properties, in this study the water equivalence of two formulations of micelle gel has been investigated by calculating electron density, effective atomic number, fractional interaction probabilities, mass attenuation coefficient. The depth doses for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams have also modelled using Monte Carlo code. Based on the results of this work, micelle gels can be considered as water equivalent dosimeters.

Gorjiara, T.; Hill, R.; Kuncic, Z.; Bosi, S.; Baldock, C.

2013-06-01

152

Parameters and computer software for the evaluation of mass attenuation and mass energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes  

PubMed Central

The mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients (radiation interaction data), which are widely used in the shielding and dosimetry of X-rays used for medical diagnostic and orthovoltage therapeutic procedures, are strongly dependent on the energy of photons, elements and percentage by weight of elements in body tissues and substitutes. Significant disparities exist in the values of percentage by weight of elements reported in literature for body tissues and substitutes for individuals of different ages, genders and states of health. Often, interested parties are in need of these radiation interaction data for body tissues or substitutes with percentage by weight of elements and intermediate energies that are not tabulated in literature. To provide for the use of more precise values of these radiation interaction data, parameters and computer programs, MUA_T and MUEN_T are presented for the computation of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes of arbitrary percentage-by-weight elemental composition and photon energy ranging between 1 keV (or k-edge) and 400 keV. Results are presented, which show that the values of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients obtained from computer programs are in good agreement with those reported in literature.

Okunade, Akintunde A.

2007-01-01

153

Parameters and computer software for the evaluation of mass attenuation and mass energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes.  

PubMed

The mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients (radiation interaction data), which are widely used in the shielding and dosimetry of X-rays used for medical diagnostic and orthovoltage therapeutic procedures, are strongly dependent on the energy of photons, elements and percentage by weight of elements in body tissues and substitutes. Significant disparities exist in the values of percentage by weight of elements reported in literature for body tissues and substitutes for individuals of different ages, genders and states of health. Often, interested parties are in need of these radiation interaction data for body tissues or substitutes with percentage by weight of elements and intermediate energies that are not tabulated in literature. To provide for the use of more precise values of these radiation interaction data, parameters and computer programs, MUA_T and MUEN_T are presented for the computation of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes of arbitrary percentage-by-weight elemental composition and photon energy ranging between 1 keV (or k-edge) and 400 keV. Results are presented, which show that the values of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients obtained from computer programs are in good agreement with those reported in literature. PMID:21157532

Okunade, Akintunde A

2007-07-01

154

X-ray binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the nuclear astrophysics aspects of accreting neutron stars in\\u000aX-ray binaries. We summarize open astrophysical questions in light of recent\\u000aobservations and their relation to the underlying nuclear physics. Recent\\u000aprogress in the understanding of the nuclear physics, especially of X-ray\\u000abursts, is also discussed.

H. Schatz; K. E. Rehm

2006-01-01

155

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOEpatents

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01

156

FXG mass attenuation coefficient evaluation for radiotherapy routine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of a radioactive beam energy or quality is important in radiotherapy once it is correlated with the type, size, and localization of the tumor. One indicative of the radiation quality is the half-value-layer (HVL), the material thickness which reduces the beam intensity to half. The analysis of a treatment beam spectrum can be inferred through its homogeneity coefficient

M. V. Moreira; A. de Almeida; R. T. Costa; L. A. Perles

2004-01-01

157

Comparison between different spectral models of the diffuse attenuation and absorption coefficients of seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to verify different spectral models of the diffuse attenuation and absorption coefficients of sea water and to work out a recommendation for their use. It is shown that the spectral models of the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd((lambda) ) developed by Austin, Petzold, 1984 and by Volynsky, Sud'bin, 1992 correspond with each other, as well the models of Ivanov, Shemshura, 1973 and of Kopelevich, Shemshura, 1988 for calculation of the spectral absorption coefficient a((lambda) ) on the values of Kd((lambda) ). Theoretical foundation of the relation between a((lambda) ) and Kd((lambda) ) is given. The up-to-date physical model of the sea water light absorption is considered and checked by means of comparison with measured values of the attenuation coefficient at the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges.

Kopelevich, Oleg V.; Filippov, Yuri V.

1994-10-01

158

A patient-equivalent attenuation phantom for estimating patient exposures from automatic exposure controlled x-ray examinations of the abdomen and lumbo-sacral spine  

SciTech Connect

The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires diagnostic radiology facilities to known the approximate amount of radiation received by an average patient during radiographic examinations at the facility. Automatic exposure controlled (AEC) techniques are used for many of these exams, and a standard patient-equivalent phantom is necessary when estimating patient exposure on such systems. This is of particular importance if exposures are to be compared among AEC systems with different entrance x-ray spectra. We have developed a phantom, LucA1 Abdomen, to facilitate determining the average patient exposure from AEC anteroposterior (AP) abdomen and lumbo-sacral (LS) spine radiography. The phantom is relatively lightweight, transportable, sturdy, and made of readily available inexpensive materials (Lucite and aluminum). It accurately simulates the primary and scatter transmission through the soft tissue and L-4 spinal regions of a patient-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom for x-ray spectra typically used in abdomen/LS spine radiography. A clinical evaluation to verify the patient-equivalence of three commercial anthropomorphic phantoms (Humanoid, Rando, 3-M) and two acrylic/aluminum phantoms (ANSI and LucA1 Abdomen) has been conducted. The design and development of the LucA1 Abdomen phantom and the evaluation of all phantoms is described.

Conway, B.J.; Duff, J.E.; Fewell, T.R.; Jennings, R.J.; Rothenberg, L.N.; Fleischman, R.C. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

159

Correlations among hydrogen bonding configuration, structural order and optical coefficients in hydrogenated amorphous germanium obtained by x-ray-activated chemical vapour deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogenated nonstoichiometric germanium materials have been produced by x-ray-activated chemical vapour deposition from germane, GeH4. The optical gap, Tauc slope and Urbach energy have been obtained from UV-Vis spectra and correlated with structural parameters, considered as a measure of short and intermediate order, calculated by Raman spectra. The results show that the structural disorder increases with the irradiation time. Investigation of the hydrogen local bonding configuration demonstrates a correlation between the variation of the relative abundances of GeH, GeH2 and GeH3 groups and both structural parameters and Eopt value. Moreover, evidence of the crucial role played by the increase in the GeH3 group abundance in the determination of the Eopt value was revealed.

Arrais, Aldo; Benzi, Paola; Bottizzo, Elena; Demaria, Chiara

2009-05-01

160

X rays from quasimolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In slow heavy-ion-atom collisions, inner-shell electrons with velocities larger than the projectile velocity form diatomic molecular orbitals around the projectile and target nuclei. If a vacancy exists in one of these orbitals, it can decay at some point during collision, emitting an x ray characteristic of the molecular transition energy at that internuclear distance. Since the projectile-target internuclear distance varies during the collision, x-ray continua are seen, which for 1s? molecular-orbital x rays (transitions to vacancies in the lowest 1s? orbital) stretch toward the united-atom K-shell binding energy. This paper reviews the theory of and the experimental evidence for molecular-orbital x-ray emission. A historical overview of the development of these studies is given, showing how the theory of quasimolecular x-ray emission has evolved from a semiclassical quasistatic model to a general dynamic theory, including the Coriolis coupling between molecular orbitals making up the initial and final states. X-ray cross section, angular distribution, and other measurements are discussed, and their impact on the development of the theory of molecular-orbital x-ray emission is illustrated.

Anholt, R.

1985-10-01

161

X-ray crystallography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

2001-01-01

162

Thoracic spine x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... The test is done in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

163

Lumbosacral spine x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray ...

164

FXG mass attenuation coefficient evaluation for radiotherapy routine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of a radioactive beam energy or quality is important in radiotherapy once it is correlated with the type, size, and localization of the tumor. One indicative of the radiation quality is the half-value-layer (HVL), the material thickness which reduces the beam intensity to half. The analysis of a treatment beam spectrum can be inferred through its homogeneity coefficient (HC, ratio between the first and the second HVL) that for values >= 0.7 has the indication to be adequate for treatments. Another important indicator of radiation quality is the mass absorption coefficient (cm2/g), related to the photons energies absorbed in a particular exposed material. Once that several materials can be used as radiation detectors for X and ? dosimetry, this work has the purpose to verify the ferrous Xylenol gelatin (FXG) material performance, through its ?/? behavior and compare it with the ?/? behavior for soft tissue. The X and ? energies where selected, in the energies normally used in radiotherapy and their spectra were evaluated using the HC coefficient. The ?/?, for the FXG material, were obtained experimentally and from simulation with X-COM and a developed routine using the GEANT4 Library. From the results from all ?/? values obtained for the FXG material, when compared to those from water, one can see similar behaviors, when one considers measurements for energies greater than 78.0 keV. These results indicate that, once the human body is composed with +/-80 % of water, the FXG for the energies used, could also be used as soft tissue simulator.

Moreira, M. V.; de Almeida, A.; Costa, R. T.; Perles, L. A.

2004-01-01

165

X-ray laser  

DOEpatents

An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

166

X-ray grid-detector apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

Boone, John M. (Folsom, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-27

167

X-Ray Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of London presents a tutorial on several methods of X-ray diffraction, including the powder, rotating crystal, and Laue methods Each section includes interactive Java applets, exercises, and links to a glossary of terms.

Matter.org

168

X-Ray Diffraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

1980-01-01

169

Medical X-Rays  

MedlinePLUS

... should be taken in reducing radiation exposure to pediatric patients for all types of X-ray imaging exams ( ... for use with special patient groups (i.e. pediatric patients) when making purchasing decisions. Assure appropriate credentials and ...

170

Radiation transmission of heavyweight and normal-weight concretes containing colemanite for 6 MV and 18 MV X-rays using linear accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate measurements have been made to determine radiation transmission of concretes produced with barite, colemanite and normal aggregate by using beam transmission method for 6 and 18MV X-rays with a linear accelerator (LINAC). Linear attenuation coefficients of thirteen heavy- and four normal-weight concretes were calculated. It was determined that linear attenuation coefficient (?, cm?1) decreased with colemanite concentration and increased

F. Demir; G. Budak; R. Sahin; A. Karabulut; M. Oltulu; K. ?erifo?lu; A. Un

2010-01-01

171

Synoptic water clarity assessment in the Florida Keys using diffuse attenuation coefficient estimated from Landsat imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (m–1), is a measure of the effective attenuation of light in the water column. It characterizes water clarity and is used as a\\u000a proxy for water quality. Mapping of shallow water benthic habitats using optical means, including daytime visible satellite\\u000a imagery, requires knowledge of K to correct for water column effects such as light absorption

D. Palandro; C. Hu; S. Andréfouët; F. E. Muller-Karger

172

Synoptic water clarity assessment in the Florida Keys using diffuse attenuation coefficient estimated from Landsat imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (m? 1), is a measure of the effective attenuation of light in the water column. It characterizes water clarity and is used as a\\u000a proxy for water quality. Mapping of shallow water benthic habitats using optical means, including daytime visible satellite\\u000a imagery, requires knowledge of K to correct for water column effects such as light

D. Palandro; C. Hu; S. Andréfouët; F. E. Muller-Karger

2004-01-01

173

Cosmic x ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1992-01-01

174

X-ray converter  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An X-RAY CONVERTER having a light-proof housing with an X-ray-transparent wall behind which there are fastened an X-ray-to-optical converter, a filter of residual X-radiation, an objective lenses unit, and a photodetector containing at least two optoelectronic converters with partly overlapping fields of view and separated electrical outputs for connection to a system for processing of fragmentary video signals and generating an integral output video signal. For improving the efficiency of suppression of internal interferences in optical channels and the operating reliability, within the housing, parallel to the X-ray-to-optical converter, there is rigidly fastened an additional light- and X-ray-opaque partition with through-holes which in the number and placement correspond to objective lenses and optoelectronic converters and are blocked by washers of the filter of residual X-radiation, and ahead of the washers there are installed blinds, length A of each of which and distance D from the front surface of the X-ray-to-optical converter to the plane of front end faces of objective lenses are related by the ratio A/D=(0.50 . . . 0.95).

2009-02-24

175

Mammogram enhancement using multi-energy x-ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new method to improve contrast of a mammogram using multi-energy x-ray (MEX) images. The x-ray attenuation differences among breast tissues increase as incident photons have lower energy. Thus an image obtained by a narrow low energy spectrum has higher contrast than a full (wide) energy spectrum image. The proposed mammogram enhancement utilizes this fact using MEX images. Lowpass data of a low energy spectrum image and high frequency components of a wide energy spectrum image are combined to have high contrast and low noise. Nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is employed to decompose image data into multi-scale and multidirectional information. The NSCT overcomes the shortage of directions of wavelet transform by expressing smoothness along contours sufficiently. The outcome of the transform is a lowpass subband and multiple bandpass directional subbands. First, the lowpass subband coefficients of a wide energy spectrum image are substituted by those of a low energy spectrum image. Before the coefficient modification, the low energy spectrum image is processed to have high contrast and sharp details. Next, for the bandpass directional subbands, the locally adaptive bivariate shrinkage of contourlet coefficients is applied to suppress noise. The bivariate shrinkage function exploits interscale dependency of coefficients. Local contrast of the resultant mammogram is considerably enhanced and shows clear fibroglandular tissue structures. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method produces a high contrast and low noise level image, as compared to the conventional mammography based on a single energy spectrum image.

Kwon, Jae-Hyun; Oh, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, SungSu; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeungDeok

2012-02-01

176

Fabrication of large area X-ray diffraction grating for X-ray phase imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray lithography, which uses highly directional synchrotron radiation, is one of the technologies that can be used for fabricating micrometer-sized structures. In X-ray lithography, the accuracy of the fabricated structure depends largely on the accuracy of the X-ray mask. Since X-ray radiation is highly directional, a micro-fabrication technology that produces un-tapered and high aspect ratio highly absorbent structures on a low absorbent membrane is required. Conventionally, a resin material is used as the support membrane for large area X-ray masks. However, resin membranes have the disadvantage that they can sag after several cycles of X-ray exposure due to the heat generated by the X-rays. Therefore, we proposed and used thin carbon wafers for the membrane material because carbon has an extremely small thermal expansion coefficient. We fabricated new carbon membrane X-ray masks, and these results of X-ray lithography demonstrate the superior performance.

Noda, Daiji; Tokuoka, Atsushi; Katori, Megumi; Minamiyama, Yasuto; Yamashita, Kenji; Nishida, Satoshi; Hattori, Tadashi

2012-07-01

177

Fabrication of large area X-ray diffraction grating for X-ray phase imaging  

SciTech Connect

X-ray lithography, which uses highly directional synchrotron radiation, is one of the technologies that can be used for fabricating micrometer-sized structures. In X-ray lithography, the accuracy of the fabricated structure depends largely on the accuracy of the X-ray mask. Since X-ray radiation is highly directional, a micro-fabrication technology that produces un-tapered and high aspect ratio highly absorbent structures on a low absorbent membrane is required. Conventionally, a resin material is used as the support membrane for large area X-ray masks. However, resin membranes have the disadvantage that they can sag after several cycles of X-ray exposure due to the heat generated by the X-rays. Therefore, we proposed and used thin carbon wafers for the membrane material because carbon has an extremely small thermal expansion coefficient. We fabricated new carbon membrane X-ray masks, and these results of X-ray lithography demonstrate the superior performance.

Noda, Daiji; Tokuoka, Atsushi; Katori, Megumi; Minamiyama, Yasuto; Yamashita, Kenji; Nishida, Satoshi; Hattori, Tadashi [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Nanocreate Co., Ltd, 9-8-6 Tsujii, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0083 (Japan)

2012-07-31

178

Material Identification from X-Ray Images Made with Energy-Differentiation Type Radiation Line Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was confirmed that linear attenuation coefficient and effective atomic number of objects (carbon, Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), aluminum) could be identified by X-ray 2D and CT images discriminated by different energy. The difference ratio between theoretical and experimental values of linear attenuation coefficient of each object obtained from X-ray images were 0.01-22.6% for carbon, 0.01-23.1% for PMMA at photon energy from 50 to 80 keV, and 0.07-22.1% for aluminum at photon energy from 60 to 100 keV. The effective atomic number of each object from X-ray images was obtained as 6.0±0.3 for carbon (Z=6.0), 6.48±1.38 for PMMA (Z=6.48), and 13.0±0.3 for aluminum (Z=13.0). But, these differences of theoretical and measured effective atomic numbers are large relatively, and it is necessary to perform a further examination for the improvement for practical use of the material identification from X-ray images.

Matsumoto, Masao; Takayama, Naoki

179

Classification-aware dimensionality reduction methods for explosives detection using multi-energy x-ray computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-Energy X-ray Computed Tomography (MECT) is a non-destructive scanning technology in which multiple energyselective measurements of the X-ray attenuation can be obtained. This provides more information about the chemical composition of the scanned materials than single-energy technologies and potential for more reliable detection of explosives. We study the problem of discriminating between explosives and non-explosives using low-dimensional features extracted from the high-dimensional attenuation versus energy curves of materials. We study various linear dimensionality reduction methods and demonstrate that the detection performance can be improved by using more than two features and when using features different than the standard photoelectric and Compton coefficients. This suggests the potential for improved detection performance relative to conventional dual-energy X-ray systems.

Eger, Limor; Ishwar, Prakash; Karl, W. C.; Pien, Homer

2011-02-01

180

Low-voltage electron-probe microanalysis of Fe-Si compounds using soft X-rays.  

PubMed

Conventional electron-probe microanalysis has an X-ray analytical spatial resolution on the order of 1-4 ?m width/depth. Many of the naturally occurring Fe-Si compounds analyzed in this study are smaller than 1 ?m in size, requiring the use of lower accelerating potentials and nonstandard X-ray lines for analysis. Problems with the use of low-energy X-ray lines (soft X-rays) of iron for quantitative analyses are discussed and a review is given of the alternative X-ray lines that may be used for iron at or below 5 keV (i.e., accelerating voltage that allows analysis of areas of interest <1 ?m). Problems include increased sensitivity to surface effects for soft X-rays, peak shifts (induced by chemical bonding, differential self-absorption, and/or buildup of carbon contamination), uncertainties in the mass attenuation coefficient for X-ray lines near absorption edges, and issues with spectral resolution and count rates from the available Bragg diffractors. In addition to the results from the traditionally used Fe L? line, alternative approaches, utilizing Fe L?, and Fe Ll-? lines, are discussed. PMID:23985089

Gopon, Phillip; Fournelle, John; Sobol, Peter E; Llovet, Xavier

2013-12-01

181

Linear attenuation coefficient and build up factor of MCP-96 alloy for radiation shielding and protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Build-up factors and linear attenuation coefficients of MCP-96 alloy are determined for radiation shielding and protection, using ^60Co and ^137Cs gamma emitters. A narrow collimated beam of ?-rays is passed through various thicknesses of MCP-96 alloy and the attenuation in the intensity of the beam is determined. The thickness of the 4 x 4 cm^2 blocks varies from 0.5 cm to 6 cm. Plotting the thickness of the alloy and the corresponding intensity of the beam allowed us to determine its linear attenuation coefficient. The narrow beam geometry is then replaced by broad beam geometry by removing the collimator and the radiation beam is able to interact with the MCP-96 alloy at all possible positions facing the radiation source. Additional radiations obtained by the detector as a result from the scattering of radiation develops the build-up factor. The buildup factor is then calculated using the attenuated beam received by the detector in the broad beam geometry and in the narrow beam geometry. The buildup factor is found to be dependent on the thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator, the beam energy and the source to attenuator distance. These values are providing ways for dose correction in radiation oncology and radiation shielding and protection when MCP-96 is used as tissue compensator or for radiation protection purposes.

Hopkins, Deidre; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed

2009-10-01

182

Comparison of attenuation coefficients for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence with E > 0.5 MeV through a reactor pressure vessel for vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) reactor types measured and/or calculated for mock-up experiments, as well as for operated nuclear power plant (NPP) units. The attenuation coefficient is possible to evaluate directly only by using the retro-dosimetry, based on a combination of the measured activities from the weld sample and concurrent ex-vessel measurement. The available neutron fluence attenuation coefficients (E > 0.5 MeV), calculated and measured at a mock-up experiment simulating the VVER-440-unit conditions, vary from 3.5 to 6.15. A similar situation is used for the calculations and mock-up experiment measurements for the VVER-1000 RPV, where the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence varies from 5.99 to 8.85. Because of the difference in calculations for the real units and the mock-up experiments, the necessity to design and perform calculation benchmarks both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 would be meaningful if the calculation model is designed adequately to a given unit. (authors)

Marek, M.; Rataj, J.; Vandlik, S. [Reactor Physics Dept., Research Centre Rez, Husinec 130, 25068 (Czech Republic)

2011-07-01

183

Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive accurate measurements of tissue optical properties are needed for many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) recently proposed for high-resolution imaging in tissue can potentially be applied for accurate, noninvasive, and high-resolution measurement of tissue total attenuation coefficient. However, confocal function (dependence of OCT sensitivity on the distance of probed site from the focal plane of the

Alexander I. Kholodnykh; Irina Y. Petrova; Massoud Motamedi; Rinat O. Esenaliev

2003-01-01

184

Monte Carlo study of the dependence of the KAP-meter calibration coefficient on beam aperture, x-ray tube voltage and reference plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Carlo method was used to study the dependence of the calibration coefficient on the tube voltage, beam aperture and reference plane in simplified over-couch geometries modelling VacuTec's type 70157 KAP-meter both with and without an additional filter. The MCNP5 code was used to calculate (i) energy imparted to air cavities of the KAP-meter and (ii) spatial distribution of air collision kerma at entrance and exit planes of the KAP-meter and at a plane close to the patient. From these data, the air kerma area product and calibration coefficient were calculated and their dependence on the tube voltage and beam aperture was analysed. It was found that the variation of the calibration coefficient as a function of tube voltage was up to 40% when the additional filter was used. The additional filter placed closely in front of the KAP-meter decreased the calibration coefficient for the patient plane by about 10% compared to the ideal additional filter. The effect of the beam aperture was small at the patient plane and negligible for the exit plane.

Malusek, A.; Larsson, J. P.; Alm Carlsson, G.

2007-02-01

185

Reduction of TGS image reconstruction times using separable attenuation coefficient models  

SciTech Connect

The tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) method for assaying transuranic and low-level waste produces low-resolution {open_quotes}density{close_quotes} images of 208-l waste drums at two or more transmission gamma-ray energies and uses these to make detailed attenuation corrections at neighboring emission gamma-ray energies. For example, we have used the 136-, 285-, and 401-keV lines from a {sup 75}Se transmission source to correct for attenuation of the 129-, 203-, 345-, and 414-keV lines in {sup 239}Pu assays. The list can expand to 20 or more emission energies when performing multiple-isotope assays. Methods for projecting attenuation images from transmission to emission energies were recently discussed with emphasis on the problems encountered when the opacity of a sample leads to poor counting statistics. This report focuses on increases in computational speed that can be attained by using separable attenuation coefficient models.

Estep, R.J.; Prettyman, T.H.; Sheppard, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

186

Magnified hard x-ray image in one dimension  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of magnified x-ray imaging is explored, by the near-field attenuation of a sample intercepting a spherical wave-front, plus the beam profile modulation by Borrmann pyramid based on dynamic x-ray scattering. It is verified by experiments in one dimension as well as numerical simulation.

Britten, James [Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4L8 (Canada); Feng Zhechuan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan (China); Xu Gu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4L7 (Canada)

2010-06-28

187

X-ray fluorescence experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary results from the Sco X-1 and Cyg X-1 obtained from the Apollo 15 X-ray detector data are presented along with preliminary results of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric data of the lunar surface composition. The production of the characteristic X-rays following the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface is described along with the X-ray spectrometer. Preliminary analyses of the astronomical X-ray observation and the X-ray fluorescence data are presented.

Adler, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

1972-01-01

188

Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect

Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using synchrotron x-rays which produces images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. They show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging applied to the same phantoms. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. The diffraction component and the apparent absorption component (absorption plus extinction contrast) can each be determined independently. This imaging method may improve the image quality for medical applications such as mammography.

Thomlinson, W.; Zhong, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Chapman, D. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Johnston, R.E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Sayers, D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-09-01

189

Monte Carlo study of the dependence of the KAP-meter calibration coefficient on beam aperture, x-ray tube voltage and reference plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method was used to study the dependence of the calibration coefficient on the tube voltage, beam aperture and reference plane in simplified over-couch geometries modelling VacuTec's type 70157 KAP-meter both with and without an additional filter. The MCNP5 code was used to calculate (i) energy imparted to air cavities of the KAP-meter and (ii) spatial distribution of

A. Malusek; J. P. Larsson; G. Alm Carlsson

2007-01-01

190

Measurement of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air for x-rays in the range from 3 to 60 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the energy range of 10 to 60 keV has been measured with relative standard uncertainties below 1%, considerably smaller than those of up to 2% assumed for calculated data. For monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring BESSY II both the radiant power and the fraction of power deposited in dry air were measured using a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer and a free air ionization chamber, respectively. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and showed an average deviation of 2% from calculations by Seltzer. However, they agree within 1% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell. In the course of this work, an improvement of the data analysis of a previous experimental determination of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the range of 3 to 10 keV was found to be possible and corrected values of this preceding study are given.

Buhr, H.; Büermann, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Rabus, H.

2012-12-01

191

X-ray radiography for container inspection  

DOEpatents

Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

Katz, Jonathan I. (Clayton, MO) [Clayton, MO; Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2011-06-07

192

X-ray Diffraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of laboratory activities on x-ray diffraction physics using the Teltron Tel-X-Ometer System. Detailed explanations on the production and delivery of the beam is included, as well as a very complete safety protocol for conducting the experiments.

Langan, Shawn

2012-03-08

193

X-Ray Spacing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a collection of single-phase X-ray powder diffraction patterns for the three most intense D values of an extensive list of minerals. The information is presented in the form of tables of interplanar spacings (D), relative intensities, hkl plane. There are also links to more information about each mineral, such as chemical formula, composition, environment, and name origin.

Barthelmy, David

194

21 CFR 1020.40 - Cabinet x-ray systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.40 Cabinet...which remains open during generation of x radiation. (3) Cabinet x-ray system means...a material being irradiated, provide radiation attenuation, and exclude personnel...

2013-04-01

195

Modeling X-Ray Photoionized Plasmas: Ion Storage Ring Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for L-Shell Iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron L-shell ions (Fe XVII to Fe XXIV) play an important role in determining the line emission and thermal and ionization structures of photoionized gases. Existing uncertainties in the theoretical low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for these ions significantly affects our ability to model and interpret observations of photoionized plasmas. To help address this issue, we have initiated a laboratory program to produce reliable low temperature DR rates. Here, we present some of our recent results and discuss some of their astrophysical implications.

Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Bartsch, T.; Brandau, C.; Chen, M. H.; Grieser, M.; Gwinner, G.; Hoffknecht, A.; Kahn, S. M.; Linkemann, J.

2000-01-01

196

Properties of X ray emission from X ray novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some properties of x ray novae, considered to contain a black hole are described. 71% of the black hole candidates belong to x ray novae. From the spectral study of these novae, at the rising phase, the appearance of hard x rays beyond 100 keV is found. The origin of these hard x rays is described. The probability that a black hole candidate is an x ray nova is shown. The observation of a component comptonized by hot electrons around the soft x ray peak indicates the existence of nonthermal energetic phenomena at the early phase of the nova activity. A model including jet phenomena is discussed.

Kitamoto, Shunji

1993-05-01

197

Abnormal breast tissue imaging based on multi-energy x-ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dual or multi-energy x-ray technique facilitates to generate tissue-selective images, by exploiting tissue-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. An abnormal breast is considered to be a mixture of adipose, glandular, and abnormal tissues, but three tissues cannot be selectively decomposed because the total attenuation of a tissue is represented by only two attenuation basis functions at diagnostic energy range. This paper presents a novel method to selectively represent abnormal breast tissue, using polyenergetic multi-energy x-ray. We show that an abnormal tissue can be revealed from the total thickness map, which is virtually constructed by assuming a healthy and compressed breast. Specifically, regression analysis is first performed using the multi-energy images of the prepared calibration phantom that consists of two basis materials. Total thickness map is then constructed by linearly combining thickness maps of basis materials, where the optimal weights for combination are determined so that the uniformity of total breast thickness is maximized. It is noted that the proposed method does not need accurate attenuation coefficients of breast tissues. Simulation results show that the proposed method dramatically improves the detectability of mass that is obscured by normal structures.

Kang, Dong-Goo; Han, Seok-Min; Sung, Younghun; Lee, Seongdeok

2011-03-01

198

Measurement of the x-ray mass energy-absorption coefficient of air using 3 keV to 10 keV synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

For the first time absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficients of air in the energy range 3 keV to 10 keV have been measured with relative standard uncertainties less than 1%, significantly smaller than those of up to 5% assumed hitherto for calculated data. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation was used to measure both the total radiant energy by means of silicon photodiodes calibrated against a cryogenic radiometer and the fraction of radiant energy that is deposited in dry air by means of a free air ionization chamber. The measured ionization charge was converted into energy absorbed in air by calculated effective W values of photons as a function of their energy based on new measurements of the W values in dry air for electron kinetic energies between 1 keV and 7 keV, also presented in this work. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and found to agree within 0.7% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell at energies above 4 keV but were found to differ by values up to 2.1% at 10 keV from more recent calculations of Seltzer. PMID:17019029

Büermann, L; Grosswendt, B; Kramer, H-M; Selbach, H-J; Gerlach, M; Hoffmann, M; Krumrey, M

2006-10-21

199

Fluorescence X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) using a position-sensitive CdTe detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research involved a 3D simulation of a non-destructive test to detect fluorescence X-rays with a position-sensitive CdTe detector. Simulations were performed under various conditions and on different types of phantoms. All simulations were based on fluorescence X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) using a Monte Carlo method. In general, conventional computed tomography (CT) analyzes materials based on their attenuation coefficients, and is highly dependent on the densities of the materials; hence, discriminating between materials of similar density can be difficult, even if their atomic numbers differ. In this research, the material was exposed to an X-ray source, and the characteristic X-ray was measured by using a 2-dimensional (2D) CdTe planar detector array and was then used to reconstruct a 3-dimensional (3D) image. A 2D CdTe pixelated array has a large detection area and operates with a compact cooling device. Because atoms have their own characteristic X-ray energy spectra, our system was even able to discriminate between materials with similar densities, provided the materials were composed of elements with different atomic numbers. In this research, FXCT was applied to distinguish between various materials, and real-world simulations were performed to verify the feasibility of our system for non-destructive inspection applications.

Yoon, Changyeon; Lee, Wonho

2014-01-01

200

CdZnTe detector in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CdZnTe (CZT) detector was utilized in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy under clinical conditions. First, the detector response was investigated using ?-rays from 241Am. The escape of secondary (Compton scattered and K fluorescent) x-rays and tailing due to carrier trapping were minor in the mammographic energy range. In addition, the transmission of primary x-rays was minimal from the results calculated using the mass attenuation coefficients of CZT. Therefore, spectral distortion in this energy range was expected to be negligible. Secondly, x-ray spectroscopy was carried out with the CZT detector. The measured spectra were in good agreement with the spectra obtained with the Compton-scatter method with a high-purity germanium detector. Moreover, the half-value layers (HVLs) calculated from the CZT spectra were consistent with the HVLs measured with an ionization chamber. The results indicate that a CZT detector can be utilized in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy without any corrections.

Miyajima, Satoshi; Imagawa, Kotaro

2002-11-01

201

Quantitative RNFL attenuation coefficient measurements by RPE-normalized OCT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate significantly different scattering coefficients of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between normal and glaucoma subjects. In clinical care, SD-OCT is routinely used to assess the RNFL thickness for glaucoma management. In this way, the full OCT data set is conveniently reduced to an easy to interpret output, matching results from older (non- OCT) instruments. However, OCT provides more data, such as the signal strength itself, which is due to backscattering in the retinal layers. For quantitative analysis, this signal should be normalized to adjust for local differences in the intensity of the beam that reaches the retina. In this paper, we introduce a model that relates the OCT signal to the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The average RNFL signal (within an A-line) was then normalized based on the observed RPE signal, resulting in normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient maps. These maps showed local defects matching those found in thickness data. The average (normalized) RNFL attenuation coefficient of a fixed band around the optic nerve head was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (3.0mm-1 vs. 4.9mm-1, P<0.01, Mann-Whitney test).

Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

2012-02-01

202

Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes.

Scolaro, Loretta; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Klyen, Blake R.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Robbins, Peter D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Jacques, Steven L.; Sampson, David D.

2012-01-01

203

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOEpatents

Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

1997-03-18

204

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOEpatents

Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

Howells, Malcolm S. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1997-01-01

205

X-ray lithography masking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

1998-01-01

206

X-ray Dinosaurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore dinosaur fossils and skeletons. First, learners listen to "Tyrannosaurus Rex" by Daniel Cohen to learn about T. rex dinosaurs specifically. Then, learners make dinosaur tracings and drawings similar to x-rays. Learners can repeat the activity using pictures of other dinosaurs to compare and contrast various dinosaurs. This activity is featured on page 38 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.

2004-01-01

207

X-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

Wu, S. T.

2000-01-01

208

Soft X-ray Imaging  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

Seely, John

1999-05-20

209

Cosmic X-ray physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progress report of research activities carried out in the area of cosmic X-ray physics is presented. The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer DXS which has been flown twice as a rocket payload is described. The observation times proved to be too small for meaningful X-ray data to be obtained. Data collection and reduction activities from the Ultra-Soft X-ray background (UXT) instrument

D. McCammon; D. P. Cox; W. L. Kraushaar; W. T. Sanders

1985-01-01

210

MICROPROJECTION WITH X-RAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties and limitations of the projection x-ray microscope are ; discussed. Descriptions of five types of x-ray microscopes are given. A ; focusing method which works independently of the x rays is described. This has ; been realized by using electrons which are elastically reflected at the target; ; they pass the lens in the opposite direction and give

Poen

1959-01-01

211

X-ray Crystallography Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

2000-01-01

212

Tunable X-ray source  

DOEpatents

A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

2011-02-08

213

Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in some heavy metal oxide borate glasses at 662 keV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear attenuation coefficient (?) and mass attenuation coefficients (??) of glasses in three systems: xPbO(1 ? x)B2O3, 0.25PbO · xCdO(0.75 ? x)B2O3 and xBi2O3(1 ? x)B2O3 were measured at 662 keV. Appreciable variations were noted in the attenuation coefficients due to changes in the chemical composition of glasses. In addition to this, absorption cross-sections per atom were also calculated.

Atul Khanna; S. S. Bhatti; K. J. Singh; K. S. Thind

1996-01-01

214

Resonant X-ray Enhancement of the Auger Effect in High-Z Atoms, Molecules, and Nanoparticles: Potential Biomedical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that X-ray absorption can be considerably enhanced at resonant energies corresponding to K-shell excitation into higher shells with electron vacancies following Auger emissions in high-Z elements and compounds employed in biomedical applications. We calculate Auger resonant probabilities and cross sections to obtain total mass attenuation coefficients with resonant cross sections and detailed resonance structures corresponding to Kalpha,

Anil K. Pradhan; Sultana N. Nahar; Maximiliano Montenegro; Yan Yu; H. L. Zhang; Chiranjib Sur; Michael Mrozik; Russell M. Pitzer

2009-01-01

215

Miniature X-Ray Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature x-ray tubes proposed for use in portable instruments used to analyze minerals. Electrons from field emitter (instead of thermionic emitter) accelerated to target to generate x-rays. Fabricated from silicon wafers, micromachined field emitters (MFEs) not subject to breakage or restrictions on lifetimes, and tolerate vacuums that filaments cannot. Miniature x-ray tubes very robust, immune to shock and vibration, and permanently sealed with getter for continued pumping. Combined with solid-state x-ray detectors for analysis of x-ray fluorescence.

Bearman, Gregory H.

1995-01-01

216

X-Ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme conditions existing in the near vicinity of neutron stars which are the secondaries in close binaries provide a laboratory in which we may observationally confirm or refine many of our basic theories of astrophysics. This program will monitor the photometric and polarimetric light curves of X-ray binaries at several different phases of the binary orbit in several different wavelength bands in the UV. The results will be related to the structure of, and physical conditions existing in, the gas streams (and possibly, the accretion disk) in these systems. Revision History (4036): Prepared for augmentation submission--Dolan 5/8/92;

Bless, Robert

1992-07-01

217

SMM x ray polychromator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

Saba, J. L. R.

1993-01-01

218

Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source.  

PubMed

The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction. PMID:23648397

Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E

2013-06-01

219

Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

Panin, V. Y.; Aykac, M.; Casey, M. E.

2013-06-01

220

Direct three-dimensional coherently scattered x-ray microtomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: It has been shown that coherently scattered x rays can be used to discriminate and identify specific components in a mixture of low atomic weight materials. The authors demonstrated a new method of doing coherently scattered x-ray tomography with a thin sheet of x ray. Methods: A collimated x-ray fan-beam, a parallel polycapillary collimator, and a phantom consisting of several biocompatible materials of low attenuation-based contrast were used to investigate the feasibility of the method. Because of the particular experimental setup, only the phantom translation perpendicular to the x-ray beam is needed and, thus, there is no need of Radon-type tomographic reconstruction, except for the correction of the attenuation to the primary and scattered x rays, which was performed by using a conventional attenuation-based tomographic image data set. The coherent scatter image contrast changes with momentum transfer among component materials in the specimen were investigated with multiple x-ray sources with narrow bandwidth spectra generated with anode and filter combinations of Cu?Ni (8 keV), Mo?Zr (18 keV), and Ag?Pd (22 keV) and at multiple scatter angles by orienting the detector and polycapillary collimator at different angles to the illuminating x ray. Results: The contrast among different materials changes with the x-ray source energy and the angle at which the image was measured. The coherent scatter profiles obtained from the coherent scatter images are consistent with the published results. Conclusions: This method can be used to directly generate the three-dimensional coherent scatter images of small animal, biopsies, or other small objects with low atomic weight biological or similar synthetic materials with low attenuation contrast. With equipment optimized, submillimeter spatial resolution may be achieved.

Cui, Congwu; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Eaker, Diane R.; Ritman, Erik L.

2010-01-01

221

Soft x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs.

Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

1988-12-01

222

Tomographic imaging of coherent x-ray scatter momentum transfer distribution using spectral x-ray detection and polycapillary optic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitation of coherent x-ray scatter traditionally involves measuring the intensity of the scattered x-ray over a range of angles (?) from the illuminating monochromatic x-ray beam. Spectral x-ray imaging produces the same information at a single ? when bremsstrahlung x-ray exposure is used. We used a 200?m thick sheet-illumination of a phantom (lucite cylinder containing holes with water, polyethylene, collagen, polycarbonate, and nylon) and a polycapillary x-ray optic collimator to provide measurements at a fixed ?. A Medipix2 x-ray detection array (2562 (55?m)2 pixels) provided the spectral (E, 10 - 22 keV in 3keV energy bins) spread needed to generate the momentum transfer (q) profile information at one angle. The tungsten x-ray source anode (aluminum filter) was operated at 35kVp at 20mA. The detected scatter intensity was corrected for attenuation of the incident and the scattered x-ray by use of the regular CT image of the phantom generated at the same energy bins. The phantom was translated normal to the plane of the fan beam in 65, 0.2mm, steps to generate the 3D image data. The momentum transfer profiles generated with this approach were compared to published momentum transfer profiles obtained by other methods.

Eaker, Diane R.; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Butler, Anthony P. H.; Ritman, Erik L.

2010-08-01

223

Simulating coronary arteries in x-ray angiograms.  

PubMed

Clinical validation of quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) algorithms is difficult due to the lack of a simple alternative method for accurately measuring in vivo vessel dimensions. We address this problem by embedding simulated coronary artery segments with known geometry in clinical angiograms. Our vessel model accounts for the profile of the vessel, x-ray attenuation in the original background, and noise in the imaging system. We have compared diameter measurements of our computer simulated arteries with measurements of an x-ray Telescopic-Shaped Phantom (XTSP) with the same diameters. The results show that for both uniform and anthropomorphic backgrounds there is good agreement in the measured diameters of XTSP compared to the simulated arteries (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.99). In addition, the difference in accuracy and precision of the true diameter measures compared to the XTSP and simulated artery diameters was small (mean absolute error across all diameters was < or = 0.11 mm +/- 0.09 mm). PMID:11099214

Morioka, C A; Abbey, C K; Eckstein, M; Close, R A; Whiting, J S; LeFree, M

2000-10-01

224

Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of this proposal was to perform an accurate measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum of a neutron-star low-mass x-ray binary found in a hard x-ray state. This goal was accomplished using data obtained under another proposal, which has provided exciting new information on the hard x-ray emission of neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. In "BeppoSAX Observations of the Atoll X-Ray Binary 4U0614+091", we present our analysis of the spectrum of 4U0614+091 over the energy band from 0.3-150 keV. Our data confirm the presence of a hard x-ray tail that can be modeled as thermal Comptonization of low-energy photons on electrons having a very high temperature, greater than 220 keV, or as a non-thermal powerlaw. Such a very hard x-ray spectrum has not been previously seen from neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. We also detected a spectral feature that can be interpreted as reprocessing, via Compton reflection, of the direct emission by an optically-thick disk and found a correlation between the photon index of the power-law tail and the fraction of radiation reflected which is similar to the correlation found for black hole candidate x-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies. A secondary goal was to measure the timing properties of the x-ray emission from neutronstar low-mass x-ray binaries in their low/hard states.

Kaaret, P.

1999-01-01

225

X-Ray Spectrum Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TheX-Ray Spectrum Model shows the effect of varying the high voltage (kVp), added filtration and ripple in the high voltage supply to the X-ray tube. The physical mechanisms by which X-rays are produced are Bremsstrahlung (in which collisions of the cathode electrons convert some of their energy into X-ray photons) and characteristic X-rays (in which the cathode electrons kick an inner shell electron out of an atom, and an X-ray photon is release when one of the atom's outer shell electron transitions to the inner shell). Changing the accelerating voltage of the cathode electrons (i.e. changing kVp) affects both mechanisms of X-ray production. Adding filtration to the X-ray beam reduces its intensity, but does not reduce all energy X-rays equally. The X-Ray Spectrum Model was created by Michael Gallis using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. You can examine and modify this compiled EJS model if you run the model (double click on the model's jar file), right-click within a plot, and select "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu. You must, of course, have EJS installed on your computer. 

Gallis, Michael R.

2014-04-16

226

Contrast imaging with a monochromatic x-ray scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a monochromatic x-ray source for small animal tomographic imaging. This source consists of a conventional cone beam microfocus x-ray tube with a tungsten target coupled to a filter that uses Bragg diffraction to transmit only x-rays within a narrow energy range (~3 keV FWHM). A tissue-equivalent mouse phantom was used to a) evaluate how clearly CT imaging using the quasi-monoenergetic beam is able to differentiate tissue types compared to conventional polyenergetic CT, and b) to test the ability of the source and Bragg filter combination to perform dual energy, iodine contrast enhanced imaging. Single slice CT scans of the phantom were obtained both with polyenergetic (1.8 mm Al filtration) and quasi-monoenergetic beams. Region of interest analysis showed that pixel value variance was signifcantly reduced in the quasi-monochromatic case compared to the polyenergetic case, suggesting a reduction in the variance of the linear attenuation coefficients of the tissue equivalent materials due to the narrower energy spectrum. To test dual energy iodine K-edge imaging, vials containing solutions with a range of iodine contrasts were added to the phantom. Single-slice CT scans were obtained using spectra with maximum values at 30 and 35 keV, respectively. Analysis of the resulting difference images (35 keV image - 30 keV image) shows that the magnitude of the difference signal produced by iodine exceeds that of bone for iodine concentrations above ~20 mg/ml, and that of muscle and fat tissues for iodine concentrations above ~5 mg/ml.

Pole, Donald J.; Popovic, Kosta; Williams, Mark B.

2008-04-01

227

Structural effects of insulin-loading into HII mesophases monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), small angle X-ray spectroscopy (SAXS), and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).  

PubMed

Insulin entrapment within a monoolein-based reverse hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase was investigated under temperature-dependent conditions at acidic (pH 3) and basic (pH 8) conditions. Studying the structure of the host H(II) system and the interactions of insulin under temperature-dependent conditions has great impact on the enhancement of its thermal stabilization and controlled release for the purposes of transdermal delivery. Small angle X-ray spectroscopy (SAXS) measurements show that pH variation and/or insulin entrapment preserve the hexagonal structure and do not influence the lattice parameter. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra indicate that, although insulin interacts with hydroxyl groups of GMO in the interface region, it is not affected by pH variations. Hence different microenvironments within the H(II) mesophase were monitored by a computer-aided electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis using 5-doxylstearic acid (5-DSA) as a pH-dependent probe. The microviscosity, micropolarity, order of systems, and distribution of the probes in different microenvironments were influenced by three factors: temperature, pH, and insulin solubilization. When the temperature is increased, microviscosity and order parameters decreased at both pH 3 and 8, presenting different decrease trends. It was found that, at pH 3, the protein perturbs the lipid structure while "pushing aside" the un-ionized 5-DSA probe to fit into the narrow water cylinders. At the interface region (pH 8), the probe was distributed in two differently structured environments that significantly modifies by increasing temperature. Insulin loading within the H(II) mesophase decreased the order and microviscosity of both the microenvironments and increased their micropolarity. Finally, the EPR analysis also provides information about the unfolding/denaturation of insulin within the channel at high temperatures. PMID:21591776

Mishraki, Tehila; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca; Shames, Alexander I; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

2011-06-30

228

Role of the activator in the performance of scintillators used in X-ray imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate how the activator type affects the performance of X-ray scintillators. To this aim the behavior of scintillator materials was modeled under X-ray excitation conditions, similar to those used in imaging techniques. The model describes the light emission efficiency, the spectral compatibility with optical detectors (films, photodiodes, and photocathodes), and the imaging capabilities of a scintillating layer. Using the model equations the role of the activator type in scintillator performance was examined. Activators affect some important properties of materials, like the intrinsic X-ray to light conversion efficiency, the spectrum of the emitted light, and the light attenuation coefficients. The performances of a high-efficiency material (Gd2O2S) combined with either Tb3+ or Eu3+ activators were compared. Results showed that the terbium-activated material exhibited high emission efficiency (number of emitted photons per incident X-ray) and modulation transfer function (spatial resolution and image contrast) while the europium activated material showed slightly better signal-to-noise ratio properties at low spatial frequencies. Both materials were found to exhibit high spectral compatibility with currently used modern optical detectors. In conclusion, the choice of activator may improve spectral compatibility, but care must be taken because it may also alter emission efficiency and image quality. PMID:11258532

Kandarakis, I; Cavouras, D

2001-05-01

229

Solar X-ray physics  

SciTech Connect

Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

Bornmann, P.L. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

230

Miniature x-ray source  

DOEpatents

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01

231

Characterization and analysis of Porous, Brittle solid structures by X-ray micro computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of porous, brittle solid structures, such as porous rock, foam metal and wallboard, is extremely complex. For example, in the case of wallboard, the air bubble size and the thickness/composition of the wall structure are spatial parameters that vary significantly and influence mechanical, thermal, and acoustical properties. In this regard, the complex geometry and the internal texture of material, such as wallboard, is characterized and analyzed in 3-D using cone beam x-ray micro computed tomography. Geometrical features of the porous brittle structure are quantitatively analyzed based on calibration of the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient, use of a 3-D watershed algorithm, and use of a 3-D skeletonization procedure. Several examples of the 3-D analysis for porous, wallboard structures are presented and the results discussed.

Lin, C. L.; Videla, A. R.; Yu, Q.; Miller, J. D.

2010-12-01

232

Topological X-Rays Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

Lynch, Mark

2012-01-01

233

Swift X-Ray Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer will be launched in 2003 to observe hundreds of gamma-ray bursts per year and study their X-ray and optical afterglows, using a multiwavelength complement of three instruments: a wide-field Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), an X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and a UV\\/Optical Telescope (UVOT). The XRT is designed to study X-ray counterparts of the gamma-ray bursts

David N. Burrows; Joanne E. Hill; John A. Nousek; Alan A. Wells; Alexander D. Short; Richard Willingale; Oberto Citterio; G. Chincarini; G. Tagliaferri

2000-01-01

234

A model for multi-energy x-ray analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-energy x-ray analysis (MEXA) uses measurements of the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient ?, obtained at different photon energies to determine parameters that characterize the density and composition of materials. The key to achieving this goal is an accurate parameterization for ?, allowing measurements to be written as simultaneous equations and then solved. This author has reported such a model where mixtures are characterized by four or more statistical moments that describe the distribution of atomic number. These can be re-expressed as the product of the electron density Ne and four or more compositional ratios Rk with the same 'units' as atomic number (i.e. dimensionless). The model was turned to MEXA where it delivered reliable estimates for Ne and R4 and not the intermediate compositional ratios. This report studies the relationships between compositional ratios for tissues and tissue substitute materials. Correlations are identified leading to a new parameterization that is expressed as a nonlinear function of Ne, R4 and other coefficients. The properties of the transformed parameterizations for ? and the energy absorption coefficient ?en are considered for low atomic number materials at energies 15-100 keV, and for a broader range of materials at energies 5 keV to 20 MeV. The interpretation of the parameters Ne and R4 is explored in terms of basis materials. The general case of three basis materials cannot be solved for all contributions, but the special case of just two basis materials can be fully solved.

Midgley, S. M.

2011-05-01

235

Remote sensing of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water. [coastal zone color scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was devised which uses remotely sensed spectral radiances from the sea to assess the optical diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (lambda) of near-surface ocean water. With spectral image data from a sensor such as the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) carried on NIMBUS-7, it is possible to rapidly compute the K (lambda) fields for large ocean areas and obtain K "images" which show synoptic, spatial distribution of this attenuation coefficient. The technique utilizes a relationship that has been determined between the value of K and the ratio of the upwelling radiances leaving the sea surface at two wavelengths. The relationship was developed to provide an algorithm for inferring K from the radiance images obtained by the CZCS, thus the wavelengths were selected from those used by this sensor, viz., 443, 520, 550 and 670 nm. The majority of the radiance arriving at the spacecraft is the result of scattering in the atmospheric and is unrelated to the radiance signal generated by the water. A necessary step in the processing of the data received by the sensor is, therefore, the effective removal of these atmospheric path radiance signals before the K algorithm is applied. Examples of the efficacy of these removal techniques are given together with examples of the spatial distributions of K in several ocean areas.

Austin, R. W.

1981-01-01

236

Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass attenuation coefficient, ?m , effective atomic number, Zeff, and effective electron density, Nel, were determined experimentally and theoretically for some thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) compounds such as MgSO4, CdSO4, Al2O3, Mg2SiO4, ZnSO4, CaSO4, CaF2, NaSO4, Na4P2O7, Ca5F(PO4)3, SiO2, CaCO3 and BaSO4 at 8.04, 8.91, 13.37, 14.97, 17.44, 19.63, 22.10, 24.90, 30.82, 32.06, 35.40, 36.39, 37.26, 43.74, 44.48, 50.38, 51.70, 53.16, 80.99, 276.40, 302.85, 356.01, 383.85 and 661.66 keV photon energies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all compounds. Good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical values within experimental uncertainties.

Önder, P.; Tur?ucu, A.; Demir, D.; Gürol, A.

2012-12-01

237

Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

2014-05-01

238

Generation of first hard X-ray pulse at Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source (TTX) is the first-of-its-kind dedicated hard X-ray source in China based on the Thomson scattering between a terawatt ultrashort laser and relativistic electron beams. In this paper, we report the experimental generation and characterization of the first hard X-ray pulses (51.7 keV) via head-on collision of an 800 nm laser and 46.7 MeV electron beams. The measured yield is 1.0 × 106 per pulse with an electron bunch charge of 200 pC and laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. The angular intensity distribution and energy spectra of the X-ray pulse are measured with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device using a CsI scintillator and silicon attenuators. These measurements agree well with theoretical and simulation predictions. An imaging test using the X-ray pulse at the TTX is also presented.

Du, Yingchao; Yan, Lixin; Hua, Jianfei; Du, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Renkai; Qian, Houjun; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Huaibi; Tang, Chuanxiang

2013-05-01

239

Generation of first hard X-ray pulse at Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source.  

PubMed

Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source (TTX) is the first-of-its-kind dedicated hard X-ray source in China based on the Thomson scattering between a terawatt ultrashort laser and relativistic electron beams. In this paper, we report the experimental generation and characterization of the first hard X-ray pulses (51.7 keV) via head-on collision of an 800 nm laser and 46.7 MeV electron beams. The measured yield is 1.0 × 10(6) per pulse with an electron bunch charge of 200 pC and laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. The angular intensity distribution and energy spectra of the X-ray pulse are measured with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device using a CsI scintillator and silicon attenuators. These measurements agree well with theoretical and simulation predictions. An imaging test using the X-ray pulse at the TTX is also presented. PMID:23742539

Du, Yingchao; Yan, Lixin; Hua, Jianfei; Du, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Renkai; Qian, Houjun; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Huaibi; Tang, Chuanxiang

2013-05-01

240

Generation of first hard X-ray pulse at Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source  

SciTech Connect

Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source (TTX) is the first-of-its-kind dedicated hard X-ray source in China based on the Thomson scattering between a terawatt ultrashort laser and relativistic electron beams. In this paper, we report the experimental generation and characterization of the first hard X-ray pulses (51.7 keV) via head-on collision of an 800 nm laser and 46.7 MeV electron beams. The measured yield is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} per pulse with an electron bunch charge of 200 pC and laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. The angular intensity distribution and energy spectra of the X-ray pulse are measured with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device using a CsI scintillator and silicon attenuators. These measurements agree well with theoretical and simulation predictions. An imaging test using the X-ray pulse at the TTX is also presented.

Du Yingchao; Yan Lixin; Hua Jianfei; Du Qiang; Zhang Zhen; Li Renkai; Qian Houjun; Huang Wenhui; Chen Huaibi; Tang Chuanxiang [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Radiation Imaging Fundamental Science for National Defense, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-05-15

241

Experimentally Measured Total X-Ray Attenuation Coefficients Extracted from Previously Unprocessed Documents Held by the NIST Photon and Charged Particle Data Center. II. September 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a sequel to report NISTIR 5892 (1996), and similarly lists, annotates and extracts data from the papers which have come into the NIST Photon and Charged Particle Data Center (PCPDC), or have been identified as containing data previously omi...

J. H. Hubbell

2004-01-01

242

Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main results from this investigation were serendipitous. The long observation approved for the study of the hard X-ray emission of X-ray bursters lead, instead, to one of the largest early samples of the behavior of fast quasi-periodic oscillations (Q...

P. Kaaret

1997-01-01

243

X-Rays from Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays from Mars were first detected in July 2001 with the satellite Chandra. The main source of this radiation was fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays in its upper atmosphere. In addition, the presence of an extended X-ray halo was indicated, probably resulting from charge exchange interactions between highly charged heavy ions in the solar wind and neutrals in the Martian exosphere. The statistical significance of the X-ray halo, however, was very low. In November 2003, Mars was observed again in X-rays, this time with the satellite XMM-Newton. This observation, characterized by a considerably higher sensitivity, confirmed the presence of the X-ray halo and proved that charge exchange is indeed the origin of the emission. This was the first definite detection of charge exchange induced X-ray emission from the exosphere of another planet. Previously, this kind of emission had been detected from comets (which are largely exospheres) and from the terrestrial exosphere. Because charge exchange interactions between atmospheric constituents and solar wind ions are considered as an important nonthermal escape mechanism, probably responsible for a significant loss of the Martian atmosphere, X-ray observations may lead to a better understanding of the present state of the Martian atmosphere and its evolution. X-ray images of the Martian exosphere in specific emission lines exhibited a highly anisotropic morphology, varying with individual ions and ionization states. With its capability to trace the X-ray emission out to at least 8 Mars radii, XMM-Newton can explore exospheric regions far beyond those that have been observationally explored to date. Thus, X-ray observations provide a novel method for studying processes in the Martian exosphere on a global scale.

Dennerl, Konrad

244

X-Rays From Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays from Mars were first detected in July 2001 with the satellite Chandra. The main source of this radiation was fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays in its upper atmosphere. In addition, the presence of an extended X-ray halo was indicated, probably resulting from charge exchange interactions between highly charged heavy ions in the solar wind and neutrals in the Martian exosphere. The statistical significance of the X-ray halo, however, was very low. In November 2003, Mars was observed again in X-rays, this time with the satellite XMM-Newton. This observation, characterized by a considerably higher sensitivity, confirmed the presence of the X-ray halo and proved that charge exchange is indeed the origin of the emission. This was the first definite detection of charge exchange induced X-ray emission from the exosphere of another planet. Previously, this kind of emission had been detected from comets (which are largely exospheres) and from the terrestrial exosphere. Because charge exchange interactions between atmospheric constituents and solar wind ions are considered as an important nonthermal escape mechanism, probably responsible for a significant loss of the Martian atmosphere, X-ray observations may lead to a better understanding of the present state of the Martian atmosphere and its evolution. X-ray images of the Martian exosphere in specific emission lines exhibited a highly anisotropic morphology, varying with individual ions and ionization states. With its capability to trace the X-ray emission out to at least 8 Mars radii, XMM-Newton can explore exospheric regions far beyond those that have been observationally explored to date. Thus, X-ray observations provide a novel method for studying processes in the Martian exosphere on a global scale.

Dennerl, Konrad

2006-10-01

245

Soft X-ray Shock Loading and Momentum Coupling in Meteorite and Planetary Materials^1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray momentum coupling coefficients, CM, for planetary materials were determined by measuring stress waveforms produced by impulsive radiation loading from the SNL Z- machine. Targets were iron and stone meteorites, solid and powdered dunite, and Si, Al, and Fe. All samples were ˜ 1 mm thick and, except for Si, backed by LiF single-crystal windows. The x-ray spectra included thermal radiation (blackbody 170 to 237 eV) and line emissions from the pinch material (Cu, Ni, Al, or stainless steel). Target fluences of 0.4 to 1.7 kJ/cm^2 at intensities 43 to 260 GW/cm^2 produced front surface plasma pressures of 2.6 to 12.4 GPa. Stress waves driven into the samples were attenuating due to the short (˜ 5 ns) duration of the drive pulse. CM was determined using the fact that an attenuating wave impulse is constant, and accounted for the mechanical impedance mismatch between samples and window. Related experiments in the literature are discussed. Values ranged from 0.8 to 3.1 x 10-5 s/m. CTH hydrocode modeling of x-ray coupling to porous and fully dense silica supported the experimental measurements and extrapolations to other materials. ^1 Work supported by Sandia National Labs, operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Remo, J. L.; Furnish, M. D.; Lawrence, R. J.

2011-06-01

246

Soft X-ray shock loading and momentum coupling in meteorite and planetary materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray momentum coupling coefficients, CM, were determined by measuring stress waveforms in planetary materials subjected to impulsive radiation loading from the SNL Z-machine. Targets were prepared from iron and stone meteorites, dunite (primarily magnesium rich olivine) in solid and powder forms (~5 - 300 ?m grains), and Si, Al, and Fe. All samples were ~1 mm thick and, except for Si, backed by LiF single-crystal windows. The spectra of the incident x-rays included thermal radiation (blackbody 170 - 237 eV) and line emissions from the pinch material (Cu, Ni, Al, or stainless steel). Target fluences of 0.4 - 1.7 kJ/cm2 at intensities 43 - 260 GW/cm2 produced front surface plasma pressures of 2.6 - 12.4 GPa. Stress waves driven into the samples were attenuating due to the short ~5 ns duration of the drive pulse. CM was determined using the fact that an attenuating wave impulse is constant, and accounted for the mechanical impedance mismatch between samples and window. Values ranged from 0.8 - 3.1 x 10-5 s/m. CTH hydrocode modeling of x-ray coupling to porous and fully dense silica corroborated experimental results and extrapolations to other materials.

Remo, J. L.; Furnish, M. D.; Lawrence, R. J.

2012-03-01

247

X-ray spectra and quality parameters from Monte Carlo simulation and analytical filters.  

PubMed

BEAMnrc was used to derive the X-ray spectra, from which HVL and homogeneity coefficient were determined, for different kVp and filtration settings. Except for the peak at 61 keV, the spectra are in good agreement with the IPEM report 78 data for the case of filtered beams, whereas the unfiltered beams exhibit softer spectra. Although the current attenuation data deviates from the IPEM 78 data by ~±0.5%, this has negligible effects on the calculated HVL values. PMID:22940409

Salehi, Z; Ya Ali, N K; Yusoff, A L

2012-11-01

248

Optical computers for reconstructing objects from their X-ray projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current generation of transaxial tomography scanners uses digital processing to compute the distribution of the X-ray attenuation coefficient in a section of a body from projection data of that section. However, the operations required to reconstruct this distribution from the projection data also appertain to the domain of optical processing. Among the reconstruction algorithms that can be implemented optically are filtered and unfiltered back projection, one-dimensional convolution, circular harmonic transform, and Fourier synthesis. These approaches to transaxial tomography are functionally quite distinct, although mathematically equivalent. This paper presents a review of the research efforts in this area with special emphasis on the practical realization of these diverse formulations.

Gmitro, A. F.; Greivenkamp, J. E.; Swindell, W.; Barrett, H. H.; Chiu, M. Y.; Gordon, S. K.

1980-06-01

249

The effect of scintillator response on signal difference to noise ratio in X-ray medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of scintillator material properties on the signal difference to noise ratio ( SdNR) under X-ray imaging conditions. To this aim, SdNR was modelled in terms of scintillator material properties such as the quantum detection efficiency (QDE), the intrinsic energy conversion efficiency (ICE) and the light transmission efficiency (LTE). Scintillators were assumed to be in the form of scintillator layers (phosphor screens) with various thicknesses ranging from 70 to 110 mg/cm 2. Data on the X-ray absorption and optical properties of the scintillators were either calculated from tabulated data, i.e. X-ray attenuation coefficients for QDE estimation, or were obtained from previous experimental studies. It was found that in a wide range of X-ray tube voltages the Gd 2O 2S:Tb scintillator produced higher SdNR values, while the CsI:Tl scintillator was better at lower voltages (below 65 kVp). It was additionally verified that, in the range of X-ray diagnostic energies, SdNR increases with the thickness of the scintillator layer screen. In conclusion, SdNR may be critically affected by scintillator properties and, hence, it may be significantly improved by appropriately selecting the type and thickness of the phosphor screen to be integrated into an imaging system.

Ninos, K.; Cavouras, D.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.

2010-10-01

250

Measurement of KL and LM resonant Raman scattering cross sections with a proton-induced ? x-ray beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resonant Raman effect has been described as an inelastic scattering process occurring when the energy of the exciting x-ray beam approaches from below the energy of an absorption edge of a target element. It produces a scattered photon with a characteristic maximum energy and the emission of an inner-shell electron. A high monochromatic 0953-4075/30/8/008/img2 x-ray beam produced by protons was utilized for the measurement of the KL type of resonant Raman scattering (RRS) cross sections in V and Cr and of the LM ones in La and Ce. In the case of V and Cr targets, the fluorescence yields of the KL-RRS process were also extracted, while the fine-structure splitting in a LM-RRS spectrum was observed for the first time. The influence of RRS into different topics of x-ray spectrometry, like the quantitative x-ray flourescence analysis, the theoretical calculations of the mass attenuation coefficients or the shape of characteristic x-rays emitted from low Z thick targets, is also discussed.

Karydas, A. G.; Paradellis, T.

1997-04-01

251

X-Ray Conversion Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have performed a series of experiments to study the physics of the conversion of 0.35- mu m laser light to soft x-rays in high-Z materials. The efficiency of soft x-ray and M-band radiation production as a function of laser intensity (5 /times/ 10 sup ...

R. L. Kauffman D. R. Kania S. Langer H. Kornblum F. Ze

1988-01-01

252

Cosmic X-Ray Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A progress report of research activities carried out in the area of cosmic X-ray physics is presented. The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer DXS which has been flown twice as a rocket payload is described. The observation times proved to be too small for meaning...

D. Mccammon D. P. Cox W. L. Kraushaar W. T. Sanders

1985-01-01

253

Proximity X-Ray Nanolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of x-ray lithography in the fabrication of integrated electronics at 0.5 um minimum feature sizes, and its extension to 0.1 um features, is well documented in the technical and popular literature. The primary advantage of x-ray relative to optical...

H. I. Smith M. L. Schattenburg

1992-01-01

254

X-Ray Exam: Wrist  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make an image of a person's wrist. During the examination, an X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through ...

255

X-Ray Exam: Pelvis  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of the pelvic ... surround the hip area. During the examination, an X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through ...

256

X-Ray Exam: Ankle  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make an image of the ankle. ... back part of the foot (tarsal bones). An X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through ...

257

Anisotropy of intrinsic attenuation in the Earth's inner core: quantitative models from normal mode splitting function coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic normal mode and body wave studies find that the Earth's inner core is characterized by strong, large-scale average, cylindrically symmetric velocity anisotropy: compressional waves traversing the inner core in the North-South (polar) direction propagate faster than those travelling in the equatorial plane. Compressional body wave studies also suggest that the inner core exhibit anisotropy of attenuation, finding that compressional waves are also more strongly attenuated in the fast direction. This relationship between anisotropy of velocity and attenuation in the metallic inner core is the reverse of that observed in the silicate mantle; thus far, the existing body wave observations of anisotropic attenuation have been interpreted almost exclusively in terms of anisotropic scattering attenuation. However, body waves cannot distinguish between attenuation by intrinsic (anelastic) mechanisms and by scattering, which prevents us from understanding the physical origin of the attenuation anisotropy. Here, we elucidate attenuation anisotropy using normal modes, the low-frequency free oscillations of the planet as a whole. Due to their very long wavelengths, normal modes are transparent to scattering from small-scale heterogeneities; this makes them a particularly valuable tool for probing the intrinsic component of attenuation, and its possible anisotropy. They are also simultaneously sensitive to both compressional and shear wave properties of the inner core, unlike the various inner core body wave phases. Here, we invert our recently measured anelastic normal mode splitting function coefficients of inner core sensitive normal modes and present a new model of attenuation anisotropy of the Earth's inner core. Our model reveals that the intrinsic attenuation is anisotropic, and confirms that for compressional waves, attenuation anisotropy is indeed correlated with velocity anisotropy, with the fast direction being also more attenuating. Such anisotropy of intrinsic attenuation has the characteristics of anisotropic Zener-like relaxations within single iron crystals due to the reorientation of pairs of solute atoms, and confirms the necessity of incorporating a few per cent of light elements into the solid inner core.

Makinen, A.; Deuss, A. F.; Redfern, S. A.

2013-12-01

258

X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

1996-01-01

259

X-ray shearing interferometer  

DOEpatents

An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

Koch, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

2003-07-08

260

X-ray diagnostics for TFTR  

SciTech Connect

A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment.

von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

1982-12-01

261

Polycapillary X-Ray Optics for X-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-energy x-ray spectrometry from astronomical sources is difficult due to low flux rates and high background. Polycapillary x-ray optics can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio by focusing photons onto a small energy dispersive detector. Two optics, both designed for x-ray astronomy, have been built and tested as collimating optics with a microfocus x-ray source for x-ray energies up to 70 keV and as focusing optics with parallel x-rays up to 50 keV. Results from these tests show that polycapillary x-ray optics have transmission efficiencies ranging from 5% to 40% and signal gains ranging from 5 to over 100 for energies up to 50 keV. Furthermore the results show that these optics have potential for use up to 100 keV. The experimental results as well as simulations for the measured and for optimized optics will be discussed.

Russell, C. H.; Gubarev, M.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Joy, M.; MacDonald, C. A.; Gibson, W. M.

1999-01-01

262

X-ray spectrometry using polycapillary X-ray optics and position sensitive detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycapillary X-ray optics (capillary X-ray lens) are now popular in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Such an X-ray lens can collect X-rays emitted from an X-ray source in a large solid angle and form a very intense X-ray microbeam which is very convenient for microbeam X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) analysis giving low minimum detection limits (MDLs) in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF).

Xunliang Ding; Jingdong Xie; Yejun He; Quili Pan; Yiming Yan

2000-01-01

263

Calculation of solar attenuation coefficient using ACCOS V along a critical scattering path  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appraisal of the optical properties of the AVHRR is made for a proposed orbital trajectory which results in an unexpected solar stray-light path; i.e., bypassing the external scan mirror and Cassegrain telescope and proceeding directly to the inner conical baffle. This stray-light path is directed onto an internal beamsplitter which, in turn, is directly observed by the detectors. Stray-light analysis, as a goal, seeks to remove or minimize the influence of such critical scattering paths. The AVHRR path is evaluated using a standard optical ray-tracing program, ACCOS V. To determine the expected sensor degradation, a calculation of the expected attenuation coefficient of scattered sunlight in the AVHRR sensor is estimated based on this important critical scattering path.

Ames, Alan J.

1989-01-01

264

X-Ray Imaging Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The X-Ray Imaging Model simulates the basic concepts of X-Ray imaging, exploring how different aspects of both the X-Ray source as well as the sample affect the X-Ray image. The simulation has a main window which contains the simulated image and the controls to manipulate the X-Ray characteristics and the physical characteristics of the sample to be imaged. In addition to the main panel, there are two optional windows. The first contains a graph of the X-ray spectrum and a second graph of the simulated exposure level of the film. The second optional window shows the geometry of the sample, which consists of a slab with two embedded cylinders within it. The X-Ray Imaging Model was created by Michael Gallis using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. You can examine and modify this compiled EJS model if you run the model (double click on the model's jar file), right-click within a plot, and select "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu. You must, of course, have EJS installed on your computer. 

Gallis, Michael R.

2014-04-16

265

Applications of x-ray lasers. Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the following topics: Status of x-ray laser research; status of x-ray laser applications; future x-ray laser development; x-ray laser research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; x-ray laser applications workshop: summary of a...

D. Matthews R. London S. Suckewer

1992-01-01

266

X-Ray Imaging System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects. It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc, (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), a NASA licensee, further refined the FluoroScan System. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable.

1986-01-01

267

Dissociative X-ray Lasing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray lasing is predicted to ensue when molecules are pumped into dissociative core-excited states by a free-electron-laser pulse. The lasing is due to the population inversion created in the neutral dissociation product, and the process features self-trapping of the x-ray pulse at the gain ridge. Simulations performed for the HCl molecule pumped at the 2p1/2?6? resonance demonstrate that the scheme can be used to create ultrashort coherent x-ray pulses.

Miao, Q.; Liu, J.-C.; Ågren, H.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Gel'mukhanov, F.

2012-12-01

268

An X-ray diffraction study of titanium oxidation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium specimens of commercial purity were exposed at 1100 to 1400 F to laboratory air for times up to 100 hours. The extent of substrate contamination by interstitial oxygen was was determined by a new X-ray diffraction analysis involving transformation of X-ray diffraction intensity bands. The oxygen solid-solubility at the oxide-metal interfaces and its variation with time at temperature were also determined. Diffusion coefficients are deduced from the oxygen depth profiles.

Wiedemann, K. E.; Unnam, J.

1984-01-01

269

Building X-ray lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source is now the world's brightest source of coherent ångström-wavelength X-rays. Paul Emma, the man who made this achievement possible, spoke to Nature Photonics about the challenges involved.

2010-12-01

270

Miniature x-ray source  

DOEpatents

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01

271

Imaging X-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (inventors)

1984-01-01

272

X-Ray Imaging System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Model 60007A InnerView Real-time X-ray Imaging System, produced by National Imaging Systems, a division of FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc. (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), Northbrook, IL, is a third generation spinoff from x-ray astronomy technology. Goddard Space Flight Center developed the original technology into the Lixiscope, a small, portable, minimal radiation x-ray instrument that could be used at the scene of an accident. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc., adapted this technology to develop the FlouroScan, a low-intensity, x-ray system that could be used without the lead aprons, film badges and lead-lined walls that conventional systems require. The InnerView is a spinoff of non-destructive testing and product inspection.

1991-01-01

273

Flash X-Ray Dosimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Methodology Investigation of dosimetry techniques has been developed and calibrated to provide radiation monitors in a combined fast burst reactor/flash X ray environment. These techniques include improved neutron fluence dosimetry, development of suita...

C. R. Heimbach

1986-01-01

274

New Developments in X-Ray Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction What is or are X-ray optics? The fundamental interaction utilised in X-ray optics The challenge of X-ray optics in astronomy X-Ray Dispersion Theory The classical electromagnetic theory The origin of dispersion - optical constans for X rays The Kramers-Kronig relations- measuring and calculating the refraction - index for X rays EXAFs The Reflection on X Rays Fresnel reflection Reflection from multi-layers Reflection from crystals Reflection and transmission gratings Scattering from surface roughness Geometries for X-Ray Optics The geometric theory of imaging Grazing-incidence telescopes; Walter type I and II and Kirkpatrick-Baez - systems Grating and crystal spectrometers X-Ray Telescopes and Spectrometers Optimization of the design Types of primary X-ray mirror Mirror coatings AXAF and XMM Assessing the performance of X-ray telescopes Future X-ray astronomy missions

Willingale, R.

275

X-ray astronomical spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the X-ray spectroscopy of celestial X-ray sources, ranging from nearby stars to distant quasars, is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of such spectroscopy as a useful and unique tool in the elucidation of the physical parameters of the sources. The spectroscopic analysis of degenerate and nondegenerate stellar systems, galactic clusters and active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants is discussed.

Holt, S. S.

1980-01-01

276

Submicron X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The beam line has a unity magnification toroidal mirror that produces a 50 by

A. A. MacDowell; R. S. Celestre; N. Tamura; R. Spolenak; B. Valek; W. L. Brown; J. C. Bravman; H. A. Padmore; B. W. Batterman; J. R. Patel

2000-01-01

277

Cosmic X-ray physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A progress report of research activities carried out in the area of cosmic X-ray physics is presented. The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer DXS which has been flown twice as a rocket payload is described. The observation times proved to be too small for meaningful X-ray data to be obtained. Data collection and reduction activities from the Ultra-Soft X-ray background (UXT) instrument are described. UXT consists of three mechanically-collimated X-ray gas proportional counters with window/filter combinations which allow measurements in three energy bands, Be (80-110 eV), B (90-187 eV), and O (e84-532 eV). The Be band measurements provide an important constraint on local absorption of X-rays from the hot component of the local interstellar medium. Work has also continued on the development of a calorimetric detector for high-resolution spectroscopy in the 0.1 keV - 8keV energy range.

McCammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1985-06-01

278

Extragalactic X-ray sources  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of the extragalactic X-ray sky based on data obtained from the Uhuru and Ariel V satellites are considered. The X-ray luminosity function of clusters is discussed the total density of X-ray clusters is found to approach that of all Abell clusters at a luminosity of 10 to the 43rd ergs/sec. It is concluded that for cluster X-ray sources, the bulk of the X-rays below about 10 keV result from thermal bremsstrahlung, predominantly from the cores of the clusters the mass of gas in the core is only a few percent of the total core binding mass, and the X-ray data are consistent with an iron abundance in the hot gas which is about half the cosmic value. Attention is also given to the structure of the nearby rich clusters Perseus, Virgo and Coma, to variability in Seyfert X-radiation and to high-excitation narrow emission line galaxies.

Pounds, K.A. (Leicester, University, Leicester, England); Fabian, A.C. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England)

1980-01-01

279

X Rays: Another Form of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Chandra X-ray Observatory website gives a brief history on the discovery of X-rays and how they are produced. There is also information on other forms of light. This website includes illustrations and information on X- ray production, inverse Compton scattering, atomic emission, and synchrotron radiation. There are also links to learn more about the differences between x-ray astronomy and medical x-rays, and to a word search for x-rays and light.

2004-11-17

280

Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

Not Available

1993-08-01

281

Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Downwelling Irradiance: An Evaluation of Remote Sensing Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength lambda from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda). There are two standard methods for the derivation of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) from reflectance has also been developed. In this study, using K(sup -)(sub d)(490) and K(sup -)(sub d)(443) as examples, we compare the K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) values derived from the three methods using data collected in three different regions that cover oceanic and coastal waters, with K(sup -)(sub d)(490) ranging from approximately 0.04 to 4.0 per meter. The derived values are compared with the data calculated from in situ measurements of the vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The comparisons show that the two standard methods produced satisfactory estimates of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in oceanic waters where attenuation is relatively low but resulted in significant errors in coastal waters. The newly developed semianalytical method appears to have no such limitation as it performed well for both oceanic and coastal waters. For all data in this study the average of absolute percentage difference between the in situ measured and the semianalytically derived K(sup -)(sub d) is approximately 14% for lambda = 490 nm and approximately 11% for lambda = 443 nm.

Lee, Zhong-Ping; Darecki, Miroslaw; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Stramski, Dariusz; Rhea, W. Joseph

2005-01-01

282

Linear attenuation coefficient and buildup factor of MCP-96 alloy for dose accuracy, beam collimation, and radiation protection.  

PubMed

The linear attenuation coefficients and buildup factor of MCP-96 alloy were determined for (60)Co, (54)Mn, and (137)Cs gamma emitters and a NaI detector. The thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator was varied from 1 to 4 cm. A collimated beam of gamma rays was allowed to pass through various thicknesses of the MCP-96 alloy. The attenuated beam was detected by a NaI detector, and data were recorded by a multichannel analyzer. The run was repeated without the collimator for broad-beam geometry. For each run, the attenuated beam intensity was normalized by the intensity of the unattenuated incident beam obtained by removing the attenuators. Linear attenuation coefficients were determined by plotting of the intensity of the collimated beam against the attenuator thickness. For every thickness of the alloy, the ratio of the attenuated to the unattenuated beam was found to be higher in broad-beam geometry as compared to the same ratio in narrow-beam geometry. We used the difference in these ratios in broad and narrow-beam geometries to calculate the buildup factor. The buildup factor was found to increase with beam energy and attenuator thickness. Variation in the source-to-detector distance gave a lower value of the buildup factor for a small and a large distance and a higher value for an intermediate distance. The buildup factor was found to be greater than 1 in all cases. We conclude that the buildup factor must be calculated and incorporated for dose correction and precision when the MCP-96 alloy is used for tissue compensation or radiation shielding and protection purposes. PMID:22585280

Hopkins, Deidre N; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed S

2012-07-01

283

X-ray coherent scattering form factors of tissues, water and plastics using energy dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key requirement for the development of the field of medical x-ray scatter imaging is accurate characterization of the differential scattering cross sections of tissues and phantom materials. The coherent x-ray scattering form factors of five tissues (fat, muscle, liver, kidney, and bone) obtained from butcher shops, four plastics (polyethylene, polystyrene, lexan (polycarbonate), nylon), and water have been measured using an energy-dispersive technique. The energy-dispersive technique has several improvements over traditional diffractometer measurements. Most notably, the form factor is measured on an absolute scale with no need for scaling factors. Form factors are reported in terms of the quantity x = ?-1sin (?/2) over the range 0.363-9.25 nm-1. The coherent form factors of muscle, liver, and kidney resemble those of water, while fat has a narrower peak at lower x, and bone is more structured. The linear attenuation coefficients of the ten materials have also been measured over the range 30-110 keV and parameterized using the dual-material approach with the basis functions being the linear attenuation coefficients of polymethylmethacrylate and aluminum.

King, B. W.; Landheer, K. A.; Johns, P. C.

2011-07-01

284

The effects of image acquisition control of digital X-ray system on radiodensity quantification  

PubMed Central

Objectives Aluminum step wedge (ASW) equivalent radiodensity (eRD) has been used to quantify restorative material's radiodensity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of image acquisition control (IAC) of a digital X-ray system on the radiodensity quantification under different exposure time settings. Materials and Methods Three 1-mm thick restorative material samples with various opacities were prepared. Samples were radiographed alongside an ASW using one of three digital radiographic modes (linear mapping (L), nonlinear mapping (N), and nonlinear mapping and automatic exposure control activated (E)) under 3 exposure time settings (underexposure, normal-exposure, and overexposure). The ASW eRD of restorative materials, attenuation coefficients and contrasts of ASW, and the correlation coefficient of linear relationship between logarithms of gray-scale value and thicknesses of ASW were compared under 9 conditions. Results The ASW eRD measurements of restorative materials by three digital radiographic modes were statistically different (p = 0.049) but clinically similar. The relationship between logarithms of background corrected grey scale value and thickness of ASW was highly linear but attenuation coefficients and contrasts varied significantly among 3 radiographic modes. Varying exposure times did not affect ASW eRD significantly. Conclusions Even though different digital radiographic modes induced large variation on attenuation of coefficient and contrast of ASW, E mode improved diagnostic quality of the image significantly under the under-exposure condition by improving contrasts, while maintaining ASW eRDs of restorative materials similar. Under the condition of this study, underexposure time may be acceptable clinically with digital X-ray system using automatic gain control that reduces radiation exposure for patient.

Seong, Wook-Jin; Jeong, Soocheol; Heo, Youngcheul; Song, Woo-Bin; Ahmad, Mansur

2013-01-01

285

[Performance evaluation of X-ray CT using visible scintillation light].  

PubMed

We proposed a new method of performance evaluation for X-ray CT using visible scintillation light and examined its usefulness in this study. When we scanned a plastic scintillator disk in a gantry opening of the X-ray CT, we could observe visible scintillation light. The rotation of the light-emitting area of the disk corresponded to that of the X-ray tube. We were able to record the scintillation light by digital video camera. By analyzing the area of visible scintillation light, the rotation speed of the X-ray tube, angular spread of the X-ray beam, uniformity of the incident X-rays, and change in X-ray energy were measured. No other method is available to obtain the above parameters of X-ray CT during a single CT scan. In the measurements of the uniformity of incident X-rays and change of X-ray energy, our method showed good accuracy in detecting the attenuation caused by the couch between the X-ray tube and the plastic scintillator disc. The proposed method is inexpensive and easy-to-use. We conclude that the method is a useful tool for performance evaluation as well as a maintenance tool for X-ray CT. PMID:15565012

Kodama, Kiyoyuki; Hamada, Minoru; Suzuki, Tamotsu; Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Hanada, Takashi; Ide, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Koichi

2004-10-01

286

X-ray computerized tomography analysis and density estimation using a sediment core from the Challenger Mound area in the Porcupine Seabight, off Western Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray computerized tomography (CT) analysis was used to image a half-round core sample of 50 cm long recovered from near Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off western Ireland during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. This allowed three-dimensional examination of complex shapes of pebbles and ice-rafted debris in sedimentary sequences. X-ray CT analysis was also used for the determination of physical properties; a comparison between bulk density by the mass-volume method and estimated density based on linear attenuation coefficients of X-ray CT images provides insight into a spatially detailed and precise map of density variation in samples through the distribution of CT numbers.

Tanaka, A.; Nakano, T.; Ikehara, K.

2011-02-01

287

X-ray spectra of galactic X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectroscopic properties of the various classes of Galactic X-ray sources are discussed, with particular emphasis on binary sources containing an accreting compact object, where post-emission scattering in an accretion disk often prevents the initially produced X-radiation from being observed directly. Theoretical interpretations and X-ray observations are considered for the cataclysmic variables, binary systems with a white dwarf as the compact object and which suffer relatively less from Thomson scattering, and the similar phenomenological spectral characteristics of the bulge sources, including soft transients, bursters and steady X-ray sources with thermal spectra, thought to represent an accreting neutron star, are pointed out. The spectral characteristics of X-ray pulsars in accreting binary systems (rather than the Crab pulsar, which is losing rotational kinetic energy with time) are then presented and interpreted in terms of accretion in the polar regions, and mechanisms for the newly discovered X-ray emission from late-type RS CVn stars are considered.

Holt, S. S.

1980-01-01

288

Auger Electrons via K? X-Ray Lines of Platinum Compounds for Nanotechnological Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will report study on the K? X-ray lines of platinum. Pt compounds, such as cisplatin, are common in biomedical applications. The active element Pt can emit or absorb hard X-rays. We have obtained the photoionization cross sections from the oscillator strengths of 1s-2p (K?) transitions in Pt ions. We find that these transitions appear as resonances in photoionization in the hard X-ray energy range of 64 - 71 keV (0.18 - 0.17 Å) below the K-shell ionization and with a strength orders of magnitude higher compared to that at the K-shell ionization. This is the focus of our study for possible initiation of an emission cascade of Auger electrons at the resonant energy. We will present the oscillator strengths and attenuation coefficients per unit mass for all the K? transitions in the event platinum cascades through various, namely from fluorine-like to hydrogen like, ionic states. The study is motivated by uur proposed method, Resonant Theranosticsb,C (RT) for biomedical appliations, which aims to find narrow band X-ray energy that corresponds to resonant photo-absorption and leads to emission of Auger electrons. As the next step of the RT method we will also report on experimental results on producing monochromatic X-rays, targeted to the resonant energy, from the wide band Bremstruhlung radiation of a conventional X-ray source. Partially support: DOE, Computational Facility: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, Ohio. "Resonant X-Ray Enhancement of the Auger Effect in High-Z atoms, molecules, and Nanoparticles: Biomedical Applications", A.K. Pradhan, S.N. Nahar, M. Montenegro, Yan Yu, H.L. Zhang, C. Sur, M. Mrozik, R.M. Pitzer, J. of Phys. Chem. A, 113 (2009), 12356. "Monte Carlo Simulations and Atomic Calculations for Auger Processes in Biomedical Nanotheranostics", M. Montenegro, S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, Ke Huang, Yan Yu, J. of Phys. Chem. A, 113 (2009), 12364.

Nahar, Sultana N.; Lim, Sara; Pradhan, A. K.; Pitzer, R. M.

2011-06-01

289

Nonlinear refraction of hard x rays  

SciTech Connect

We study the nonlinear refraction of x rays in highly ionized condensed matter by using a classical model of a cold electron plasma in a lattice of still ions coupled with Maxwell equations. By employing a group-theoretical technique, we reduce the governing equations of the system to an integrable set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, discussing the existence and stability of nonlinear waves. This allows us to define the effective Kerr coefficient n{sub 2} at x rays. With reference to real-world crystalline materials (B, C, Li, and Na), we consider beam self-defocusing and predict that nonlinear processes become comparable to the linear ones for focused beams with powers on the order of mc{sup 3}/r{sub 0} ({approx_equal}10 GW), the classical electron power. As a consequence, nonlinear phenomena are expected to largely affect imaging experiments in currently exploited x-ray free-electron lasers and in their future developments.

Fratalocchi, A. [Research Center Enrico Fermi, Via Panisperna 89/A, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Research Center SOFT INFM-CNR, c/o University of Rome 'Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Conti, C. [Research Center SOFT INFM-CNR, c/o University of Rome 'Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Ruocco, G. [Research Center SOFT INFM-CNR, c/o University of Rome 'Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Rome 'Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Sette, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Boite Postale 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

2008-06-15

290

Radiation dose estimation and mass attenuation coefficients of cement samples used in Turkey.  

PubMed

Different cement samples commonly used in building construction in Turkey have been analyzed for natural radioactivity using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations observed in the cement samples were 52, 40 and 324 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and world average limits. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), gamma index (I(gamma)) and alpha index (I(alpha)) indices as well as terrestrial absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the international data. The Ra(eq) values of cement are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv y(-1). Moreover, the mass attenuation coefficients were determined experimentally and calculated theoretically using XCOM in some cement samples. Also, chemical compositions analyses of the cement samples were investigated. PMID:20018450

Damla, N; Cevik, U; Kobya, A I; Celik, A; Celik, N; Van Grieken, R

2010-04-15

291

X-ray phase-contrast imaging with 2D grating interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and pre-clinical applications but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Recently, based on the Talbot effect, groundbreaking work was reported using 1D gratings for x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a hospital-grade x-ray tube instead of a synchrotron or

Ming Jiang; Christopher Lee Wyatt; Ge Wang

2008-01-01

292

Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays  

DOEpatents

At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

Gleason, Shaun S [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Mullens, James A [Knoxville, TN

2002-04-09

293

Heavy metallic oxide nanoparticles for enhanced sensitivity in semiconducting polymer x-ray detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconducting polymers have previously been used as the transduction material in x-ray dosimeters, but these devices have a rather low detection sensitivity because of the low x-ray attenuation efficiency of the organic active layer. Here, we demonstrate a way to overcome this limitation through the introduction of high density nanoparticles having a high atomic number (Z) to increase the x-ray

A Intaniwet; C A Mills; M Shkunov; P J Sellin; J L Keddie

2012-01-01

294

Water equivalence of NIPAM based polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for x-ray CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new formulations of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) based three dimensional (3D) gel dosimeters have recently been developed with improved sensitivity to x-ray CT readout, one without any co-solvent and the other one with isopropanol co-solvent. The water equivalence of the NIPAM gel dosimeters was investigated using different methods to calculate their radiological properties including: density, electron density, number of electrons per grams, effective atomic number, photon interaction probabilities, mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients, electron collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Monte Carlo modelling was also used to compare the dose response of these gel dosimeters with water for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams and for megavoltage electron beams. We found that the density and electron density of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter are more water equivalent with less than a 2.6% difference compared to a 5.7% difference for the isopropanol gel dosimeter. Both the co-solvent free and isopropanol solvent gel dosimeters have lower effective atomic numbers than water, differing by 2.2% and 6.5%, respectively. As a result, their photoelectric absorption interaction probabilities are up to 6% and 19% different from water, respectively. Compton scattering and pair production interaction probabilities of NIPAM gel with isopropanol differ by up to 10% from water while for the co-solvent free gel, the differences are 3%. Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter and the isopropanol gel dosimeter are up to 7% and 19% lower than water, respectively. Collisional and total mass stopping powers of both gel dosimeters differ by less than 2% from those of water. The dose response of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter is water equivalent (with <1% discrepancy) for dosimetry of x-rays with energies <100 keV while the discrepancy increases (up to 5%) for the isopropanol gel dosimeter over the same energy range. For x-ray beams over the energy range 180 keV-18 MV, both gel dosimeters have less than 2% discrepancy with water. For megavoltage electron beams, the dose differences with water reach 7% and 14% for the co-solvent free gel dosimeter and the isopropanol gel dosimeter, respectively. Our results demonstrate that for x-ray beam dosimetry with photon energies higher than 100 keV and megavoltage electron beams, correction factors are needed for both NIPAM gels to be used as water equivalent dosimeters.

Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Bosi, Stephen; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

2013-10-01

295

Polycapillary x-ray microbeams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As known, Kumakhov optics, or polycapillary optics, is based on the effective passage of X-ray radiation through the bundles of monocapillaries of various configurations; the latter takes place due to the phenomenon of total external reflection of X-rays from the inner capillary walls. In our work the basic characteristics of intense quasi-parallel X-ray polycapillary microbeams from a laboratory source in a scheme of microfocus X-ray tube/polycapillary structure, are investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Experimental studies are carried out by means of a special automated stand. The received experimental data are compared with the results of computer statistical modeling. Modeling includes of the several theoretical models for various types of deviations of a reflection surface from ideal such as the roughness, waviness and bending. The effect of decrease of full divergence of microbeams near the exit end face of polycapillary system (quasi-decrease of divergence) is found out. But, unlike the observable effects of decrease of local divergence, proposed and discovered in works of Dabagov et al. and described on the base of surface channeling, the given effect can be well enough described within the limits of geometrical optics. Now on the base of Kumakhov optics at the Institute for Roentgen Optics the new generation of devices is developed and created: "laboratory synchrotron", fluorescent spectrometers, reflectometers, diffractometers, X-ray microscopes and combinations of several devices in one.

Romanov, A. Yu.

2008-08-01

296

Clocking Femtosecond X-Rays  

SciTech Connect

The Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) produces the brightest ultrafast x-ray pulses in the world, and is the first to employ compressed femtosecond electron bunches for the x-ray source. Both SPPS and future X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL's) will use precise measurements of individual electron bunches to time the arrival of x-ray pulses for time-resolved experiments. At SPPS we use electro-optic sampling (EOS) to perform these measurements. Here we present the first results using this method. An ultrafast laser pulse (135 fs) passes through an electro-optic crystal adjacent to the electron beam. The refractive index of the crystal is distorted by the strong electromagnetic fields of the ultra-relativistic electrons, and this transient birefringence is imprinted on the laser polarization. A polarizer decodes this signal, producing a time-dependent image of the compressed electron bunch. Our measurements yield the relative timing between an ultrafast optical laser and an ultrafast x-ray pulse to within 60 fs, making it possible to use the SPPS to observe atomic-scale ultrafast dynamics initiated by laser-matter interaction.

Cavalieri, A L; Fritz, D M; Lee, S H; Bucksbaum, P H; Reis, D A; Mills, D M; Pahl, R; Rudati, J; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Lowney, D P; MacPhee, A G; Weinstein, D; Falcone, R W; Als-Nielsen, J; Blome, C; Ischebeck, R; Schlarb, H; Tschentscher, T; Schneider, J; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Chapman, H N; Lee, R W; Hansen, T N; Synnergren, O; Larsson, J; Techert, S; Sheppard, J; Wark, J S; Bergh, M; Calleman, C; Huldt, G; der Spoel, D v; Timneanu, N; Hajdu, J; Bong, E; Emma, P; Krejcik, P; Arthur, J; Brennan, S; Gaffney, K J; Lindenberg, A M; Hastings, J B

2004-10-08

297

X-ray diodes for laser fusion plasma diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodiodes with X-ray sensitive photocathodes used as broadband X-ray detectors in fusion plasma diagnostics are discussed. The risetime of the detector system and the quantum efficiency between 1 to 500 A of numerous photocathode materials of practical interest were measured. The materials studied included aluminum, copper, nickel, gold, three forms of carbon, chromium, and cesium iodide. The results of the measurements are compared with Henke's semiempirical model of photoyield. The effects of long-term cathode aging were studied. In addition, the X-ray mass-absorption coefficient of several ultrasoft X-ray windows were measured in energy regions where data were unavailable. Windows studied were made of aluminum, Formvar, polypropylene, and Kimfoil.

Day, R. H.; Lee, P.; Salloman, E. B.; Nagel, D. J.

1981-02-01

298

Quantification of optical attenuation coefficient based on continuous wavelet transform of photoacoustic signals measured by a focused broadband acoustic sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a method of quantifying the effective attenuation coefficients of optical absorbers which uses the continuous wavelet transform to calculate the time-resolved frequency spectra of photoacoustic (PA) signals. In order to apply the method to blood oxygenation monitoring of blood vessels, this study discusses how to reduce the effects of blood vessel diameters, which influences on the time resolved frequency spectra of PA signals. Numerical simulations which calculate the PA signals produced from blood vessel phantoms with various diameters were performed. The simulations revealed that the frequency of PA signal became independent from the vessel diameters by measuring the PA signal from small area. The frequencies of simulated PA signals were proportional to the effective attenuation coefficients with a correlation coefficient of 0.99, and a slope of 0.035 MHz/cm-1 under condition that the measurement area was 4.0 mm at a frequency of 1.5 MHz. Thus we used the focused acoustic sensor of which focusing the foregoing measurement area. It consisted of a P(VDF-TrFE) film, which was characterized by broad frequency band. As results of experiments using the focused acoustic sensor, the frequencies of PA signals produced from blood vessel phantoms were proportional to the effective attenuation coefficients with correlation coefficient of 0.96 although the frequencies were suffered from deviations of 0.135 MHz, which corresponded to the effective attenuation coefficient of 3.46 cm-1. Since the large deviations were caused by experimental factors such as sensor alignment, it is required to improve robustness to the experimental factors.

Hirasawa, T.; Okawa, S.; Fujita, M.; Kushibiki, T.; Ishihara, M.

2014-03-01

299

Measuring mass-loss rates and constraining shock physics for ten OB stars using Chandra X-ray emission line profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray spectral lines provide a powerful diagnostic of massive star winds. An X-ray emission line's characteristic shape is affected by the kinematics of the hot plasma where the X-rays are produced and by the properties of the attenuating bulk material of the wind, so X-rays can be used as a probe of both wind components. Qualitatively, X-ray lines in massive

Emma E. Wollman; David H. Cohen; Maurice A. Leutenegger; Marc Gagne

300

X-ray Timing Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new, extended X-ray timing measurements of the ultra-compact binary candidates V407 Vul and RX J0806.3+1527 (J0806), as well as a summary of the first high resolution X-ray spectra of 50806 obtained with the Chandra/LETG. The temporal baseline for both objects is approximately 12 years, and our measurements confirm the secular spin-up in their X-ray periods. The spin-up rate in 50806 is remarkably uniform at 3.55x10(exp -16)Hz/s, with a measurement precision of 0.2%. We place a limit (90% confidence) on 1 d dot nu < 4x10(exp -26)Hz/sq s. Interestingly, for V407 Vul we find the first evidence that the spin-up rate is slowing, with d dot\

Strohmayer, T.

2008-01-01

301

X-ray Crystallography Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

University of Alabama engineer Stacey Giles briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

1999-01-01

302

X-ray Crystallography Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

University of Alabama engineer Lance Weiss briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

1999-01-01

303

X-ray tensor tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we introduce a new concept for x-ray computed tomography that yields information about the local micro-morphology and its orientation in each voxel of the reconstructed 3D tomogram. Contrary to conventional x-ray CT, which only reconstructs a single scalar value for each point in the 3D image, our approach provides a full scattering tensor with multiple independent structural parameters in each volume element. In the application example shown in this study, we highlight that our method can visualize sub-pixel fiber orientations in a carbon composite sample, hence demonstrating its value for non-destructive testing applications. Moreover, as the method is based on the use of a conventional x-ray tube, we believe that it will also have a great impact in the wider range of material science investigations and in future medical diagnostics. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Malecki, A.; Potdevin, G.; Biernath, T.; Eggl, E.; Willer, K.; Lasser, T.; Maisenbacher, J.; Gibmeier, J.; Wanner, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

2014-02-01

304

Roentgen's Discovery of the x-ray  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The text in this site describes how Roentgen's discovered x-rays, how he created the first x-ray image, and how he investigated x-ray properties. Early medical applications are explained. Also, the site contains a link to a small gallery of historical x-ray images.

2013-06-26

305

A fit method for the determination of inherent filtration with diagnostic x-ray units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of total inherent filtration for clinical x-ray units using attenuation curves was devised. A model for the calculation of x-ray spectra is used to calculate kerma values which are then adjusted to the experimental data in minimizing the sum of the squared relative differences in kerma using a modified simplex fit process. The model considers

K. Meghzifene; H. Aiginger; R. Nowotny

2006-01-01

306

In situ measurements of colloid transport and retention using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physics regarding the retention and mobilization of colloids in saturated and unsaturated conditions remains poorly understood, partially because of the inability to measure colloid concentrations in situ. In this study, we attached Cd+2 ions to clay colloids and used synchrotron X rays to cause the Cd to fluoresce. By measuring the fluorescence and attenuation of the X rays we

David A. DiCarlo; Yuniati Zevi; Annette Dathe; Shree Giri; Bin Gao; Tammo S. Steenhuis

2006-01-01

307

Portable X-Ray Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

1983-01-01

308

Cosmic X-ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of the beryllium-filtered data from Flight 17.020 was completed. The data base provided by the Wisconsin diffuse X-ray sky survey is being analyzed by correlating the B and C band emission with individual velocity components of neutral hydrogen. Work on a solid state detector to be used in high resolution spectroscopy of diffuse or extend X-ray sources is continuing. A series of 21 cm observations was completed. A paper on the effects of process parameter variation on the reflectivity of sputter-deposited tungsten-carvon multilayers was published.

Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1986-01-01

309

Exploring the X-ray Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Birth and childhood of X-ray astronomy; 2. X-ray emission and interaction with matter; 3. Tools and techniques; 4. Solar System X-rays; 5. X-ray absorption and scattering in the interstellar medium; 6. Active stellar coronae; 7. Early-type stars; 8. Supernova explosions and their remnants; 9. Neutron stars, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, more supernova remnants; 10. Cataclysmic variable stars; 11. X-ray binaries; 12. Black-hole X-ray binaries; 13. Normal and starburst galaxies; 14. Active galactic nuclei; 15. Clusters of galaxies; 16. The diffuse X-ray background; 17. Gamma-ray bursts; Index.

Seward, Frederick D.; Charles, Philip A.

2010-08-01

310

Techniques in X-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray astronomy has benefited enormously with the deployment of imaging X-ray telescopes in space, leading to a veritable\\u000a revolution. Such telescopes require distortion free focusing of X-rays and the use of position sensitive X-ray detectors.\\u000a In this article I shall describe the importance of X-ray imaging, the optical principles behind the creation of images and\\u000a the instruments based on these

Kulinder Pal Singh

2005-01-01

311

X-ray Studies of Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I will give a brief history of X-ray astronomy, and discuss the current X-ray observatories and their discoveries. I will then focus on the discovery of X-rays from galaxies and galaxy clusters and why astronomers look at galaxies in X-rays (multiwavelength studies). Finally, I will discuss diffuse emission and X-ray source populations in normal (non-AGN) galaxies.

Brown, Beth A.

2006-01-01

312

Emission lines from X ray binaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emission lines are probes of the conditions in the accretion flows associated with binary X-ray sources. The hard X-ray iron K line, soft X-ray lines, and UV lines, and what they indicate about the conditions in binary X-ray sources are discussed. These lines are interpreted using an X-ray illuminated accretion disk model. The structure and dynamics of the heated disk, its spectral signatures, and the major unsolved theoretical issues surrounding them are investigated.

Kallman, T. R.

1989-01-01

313

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOEpatents

A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

Logan, C.M.

1996-04-16

314

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOEpatents

A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

315

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOEpatents

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12

316

X-Ray Diffractive Optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

2013-01-01

317

X-ray backscatter imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to transmission X-ray imaging systems where inspected objects must pass between source and detector, Compton backscatter imaging allows both the illuminating source as well as the X-ray detector to be on the same side of the target object, enabling the inspection to occur rapidly and in a wide variety of space-constrained situations. A Compton backscatter image is similar to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls, and highlights low atomic number materials such as explosives, drugs, and alcohol, which appear as especially bright objects by virtue of their scattering characteristics. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering will be discussed, along with examples of how these systems are used for both novel security applications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Differences between transmission and backscatter images will also be highlighted. In addition, tradeoffs between Compton backscatter image quality and scan speed, effective penetration, and X-ray source specifications will be discussed.

Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Callerame, J.

2008-05-01

318

Focused X-ray source  

DOEpatents

An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary I. (Sunnyvale, CA); Maccagno, Pierre (Stanford, CA)

1990-01-01

319

Focused X-ray source  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

1990-08-21

320

Cosmic X-ray physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soft X-ray sky survey data are combined with the results from the UXT sounding rocket payload. Very strong constraints can then be placed on models of the origin of the soft diffuse background. Additional observational constraints force more complicated and realistic models. Significant progress was made in the extraction of more detailed spectral information from the UXT data set.

D. McCammon; D. P. Cox; W. L. Kraushaar; W. T. Sanders

1987-01-01

321

Alpha proton x ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

1994-01-01

322

Rontgen's Discovery of X Rays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the story of Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen and presents one view of the extent to which the discovery of the x-ray was an accident. Reconstructs the sequence of events that led to the discovery and includes photographs of the lab where he worked and replicas of apparatus used. (GS)

Thumm, Walter

1975-01-01

323

Soft-x-ray calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A calorimeter for measurement of the total energy of single x-ray pulses at {le} 50 keV is described. A KD103A silicon diode is used as the heat sensor. The sensitivity of the calorimeter is 4.16 {sm_bullet} 10{sup -2} J/m{sup V}. 5 refs., 1 figs.

Pak, V.S.; Chistyakov, S.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic Institute (Russian Federation)

1992-02-01

324

X-Ray Detector: An x-ray radiation detector design code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-Ray Detector (XRD) is an x-ray detector design code. It is intended to aid in the rapid design of x-ray detector packages. The design capabilities of XRD include filters, x-ray mirrors, x-ray diodes, silicon PIN diodes, GaAs PIN diodes, photoconducting ...

R. B. Spielman

1990-01-01

325

Measurement of attenuation coefficients for bone, muscle, fat and water at 140, 364 and 662 keV ?-ray energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The half-value thicknesses, linear and mass attenuation coefficients of biological samples such as bone, muscle, fat and water have been measured at 140, 364 and 662 keV ?-ray energies by using the ATOMLABTM-930 medical spectrometer. The ?-rays were obtained from 99mTc, 131I and 137Cs ?-ray point sources. Also theoretical calculations have been performed in order to obtain the half-value thicknesses and, mass and linear attenuation coefficients at photon energies 0.001 keV 20 MeV for bone, muscle and water samples. The calculated value and the experimental results of this work and the other results in literature are found to be in good agreement.

Akar, A.; Balta?, H.; Çevik, U.; Korkmaz, F.; Okumu?o?lu, N. T.

2006-11-01

326

Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

1981-01-01

327

Determination of mass attenuation coefficients of some boron ores at 59.54keV by using scintillation detector.  

PubMed

The mass attenuation coefficients of the 59.54keV radiation of (241)Am point source in boron ores such as tincal, ulexite and colemanite were determined experimentally by a scintillation detector and theoretically. Since boron ores contain boron, hydrogen, and a lot of elements, they may be used as shielding against neutrons and gammas simultaneously, e.g. for shielding (241)Am/Be neutron sources, as they emit both gammas and neutrons. PMID:19800806

Demir, Faruk

2010-01-01

328

X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging Methods for Biological Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and preclinical imaging but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Different from the conventional method based on the attenuation contrast mechanism, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) is proposed for the study of biological tissues and structures. This technique

Fu Jian; Li Jian; Zhu Jian; Zhou Xingyu; Zhou Zhenggan; Wei Dongbo

2009-01-01

329

Optimized Volumetric Scanning for X-Ray Array Sources  

SciTech Connect

Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is the science and technology of determining non-invasively the internal structure of manufactured parts, objects, and materials. NDE application areas include medicine, industrial manufacturing, military, homeland security, and airport luggage screening. X-ray measurement systems are most widely used because of their ability to image through a wide range of material densities (from human tissue in medical applications to the dense materials of weapon components). Traditional x-ray systems involve a single source and detector system that rotate and/or translate about the object under evaluation. At each angular location, the source projects x-rays through the object. The rays undergo attenuation proportional to the density of the object's constitutive material. The detector records a measure of the attenuation. Mathematical algorithms are used to invert the forward attenuated ray projection process to form images of the object. This is known as computed tomography (CT). In recent years, the single-source x-ray NDE systems have been generalized to arrays of x-ray sources. Array sources permit multiple views of the object with fewer rotations and translations of the source/detector system. The spatially diverse nature of x-ray array sources has the potential of reducing data collection time, reducing imaging artifacts, and increasing the resolution of the resultant images. Most of the existing CT algorithms were not derived from array source models with a spatially diverse set of viewing perspectives. Single-source x-ray CT data collection, processing, and imaging methods and algorithms are not applicable when the source location is expanded from one dimension (a rotating and/or translating point source) to two (a rotating and/or translating array). They must be reformulated. The goal of this project is to determine the applicability of x-ray array sources to problems of interest to LLNL and its customers. It is believed array source data collection will be faster while yielding higher resolution reconstructions with fewer artifacts. There are three tasks in the research: (1) Develop forward array source analytic and computational models; (2) Research and develop array source reconstruction algorithms; and (3) Perform experiments.

Lehman, S K; Foudray, A M; Wang, A; Kallman, J S; Martz, H

2009-09-29

330

Unified imaging theory for x-ray and acoustic computerized tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and acoustic CT are two main medical imaging modalities based on two intrinsically different physical phenomena. X-ray CT is based on x-ray"s attenuation when x-ray passes through medium. It has been well known that the Radon transform is the imaging theory for x-ray CT. Photoacoustic CT is a type of acoustic CT, which is based on differentiating electromagnetic energy absorption among media. In 1998 a new 3D reconstruction concept, the P-transform, was proposed to serve the imaging theory for photoacoustic CT. In this paper it was rigorously proved that both x-ray CT and photoacoustic CT are governed by a unified imaging theory. 3D data acquisition can be completed in 2p stereoangle. This new imaging theory realized, in part, the dream of all physicists, including Albert Einstein, who have long believed that our world is ultimately governed by few simple rules.

Liu, Pingyu; Wang, Ge; Boyer, Arthur

2004-10-01

331

TOPICAL REVIEW: Human soft tissue analysis using x-ray or gamma-ray techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This topical review is intended to describe the x-ray techniques used for human soft tissue analysis. X-ray techniques have been applied to human soft tissue characterization and interesting results have been presented over the last few decades. The motivation behind such studies is to provide improved patient outcome by using the data obtained to better understand a disease process and improve diagnosis. An overview of theoretical background as well as a complete set of references is presented. For each study, a brief summary of the methodology and results is given. The x-ray techniques include x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Compton scattering, Compton to coherent scattering ratio and attenuation measurements. The soft tissues that have been classified using x-rays or gamma rays include brain, breast, colon, fat, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, prostate, skin, thyroid and uterus.

Theodorakou, C.; Farquharson, M. J.

2008-06-01

332

X-ray microdiffraction of biominerals.  

PubMed

Biominerals have complex and heterogeneous architectures, hence diffraction experiments with spatial resolutions between 500 nm and 10 ?m are extremely useful to characterize them. X-ray beams in this size range are now routinely produced at many synchrotrons. This chapter provides a review of the different hard X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques, used in conjunction with efficient, state-of-the-art X-ray focusing optics. These include monochromatic X-ray microdiffraction, polychromatic (Laue) X-ray microdiffraction, and microbeam small-angle X-ray scattering. We present some of the most relevant discoveries made in the field of biomineralization using these approaches. PMID:24188780

Tamura, Nobumichi; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

2013-01-01

333

X-ray holography with high resolution  

SciTech Connect

Some primary factors having effects on the resolution in x-ray holography are discussed. The factors in recording x-ray holograms are the x-ray coherent scattering by the specimen, the recording method and the coherence of the x-ray beam. There are two factors in reconstruction of the hologram. One is that the resolution of the detector may be lower than the spatial frequencies of fringes in x-ray holograms. The other is aberrations. Consequently, some conditions of x-ray holography with high resolution are given.

Chen Jianwen; Zhu Peiping; Xiao Tiqiao; Xu Zhizhan [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 800216, Shanghai, 201800 (China)

1995-05-01

334

X-ray microprobe for micro x-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopies at GSECARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hard x-ray microprobe for x-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy at GeoSoilEnviroCARS is presented. Using focused synchrotron radiation from an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab, the x-ray microprobe provides bright, monochromatic x-rays with typical spot sizes down to 1x1 mum for x-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopies. Quantitative x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis gives precise elemental

M. Newville; S. Sutton; M. Rivers

2002-01-01

335

X-ray imaging with laser-Compton scattering X-ray at AIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray facility with a compact electron linear accelerator via laser-Compton scattering (LCS X-ray) is recently installed at AIST. The LCS X-ray facility in approximately 8-m square consists of a 40-MeV linac, a femtosecond terawatt laser and an X-ray beamline. The LCS X-ray facility produces quasi-monochromatic X-rays with energy in the range of 12 ~ 40 keV which are commonly

M. Yasumoto; R. Kuroda; H. Ikeura-Sekiguchi; H. Toyokawa; N. Sei; H. Ogawa; M. Koike; K. Yamada; K. Mori; F. Sakai; S. Tamura

2009-01-01

336

X-ray gauge measures areal density variations as small as 0. 1%  

SciTech Connect

A gauge measures areal density variations as small as 0.1% in low density plastic foams and other materials. It has a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. This system is safe, portable, easy to use, and is readily automated. The 6 keV x-ray flux from a /sup 55/Fe source is collimated to a 0.5 mm diameter beam and attenuated by the sample. Transmitted x-rays are detected with a proportional gas detector and counted with a scaler-timer. After measuring the x-ray attenuation in two areas of the sample, the areal density variation is calculated using an

Stupin, D.M.

1984-01-01

337

Unfolding X-ray spectra using a flat panel detector.  

PubMed

It is difficult to measure the energy spectrum of X-ray tubes due to the pile up effect produced by the high fluence of photons. Using attenuating materials, appropriate detector devices and the Monte Carlo method, primary X-ray spectrum of these devices can be estimated. In this work, a flat panel detector with a PMMA wedge has been used to obtain a dose curve corresponding to certain working conditions of a radiodiagnostic X-ray tube. The relation between the dose curve recorded by the flat panel and the primary X-ray spectrum is defined by a response function. Normally this function can be approximated by a matrix, which can be obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method. Knowing the measured dose curve and the response matrix, the primary X-ray spectrum can be unfolded. However, there are some problems that strongly affect the applicability of this method: i.e. technical features of the flat panel and inherent characteristics of the involved radiation physics (ill-posed problem). Both aspects are analyzed in this work, concluding that the proposed method can be applied with an acceptable accuracy for spectra without characteristic lines, for instance, tungsten anode in the 50-70 kVp range. PMID:24110205

Gallardo, Sergio; Juste, Belen; Pozuelo, Fausto; Rodenas, Jose; Querol, Andrea; Verdu, Gumersindo

2013-01-01

338

X-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) involves the excitation of core electrons to bound states localized on the photoabsorber and the eventual excitation of the photoelectron to the continuum. The resulting spectra are typically divided into two regions: (1) the edge region which provides electronic structure information and (2) the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region, which provides information about the distance, number, and type of ligands. Here, a basic introduction to XAS theory, the information that can be obtained, and the experimental consideration are presented. The application of XAS to biological systems and the impact this has had on nitrogenase research are briefly highlighted. New experimental advances are described. PMID:21833867

Debeer, Serena

2011-01-01

339

Flash x-ray apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of producing flash x-rays with an average dose exceeding about 5 roentgen per second. It comprises supplying a charging current to a thyratron connected to Blumleins in parallel; charging the middle conductor of each Blumlein to a positive voltage; commutating the input power to each Blumlein at a repetitive rate exceeding 10 Hertz; supplying the power output from the Blumleins in series through a pair of connectors to a pair of spaced-apart electrodes disposed in an evacuated environment; and generating x-ray radiation in the space between the two electrodes having output intensity exceeding 1 {times} 10{sup 5} photons/keV/shot.

Collins, C.B.; Devan Loo, F.; Coogan, J.J.; Bowen, T.S.; Krause, R.K.

1991-08-27

340

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

341

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03

342

An investigation of X-ray fluorescence analysis with an X-ray focusing system (X-ray lens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divergent X-ray radiation has been focused into a small spot (diameter 500 mum) by an X-ray lens made of polycapillaries, increasing the power density by 104 times. The new X-ray lens has been applied to the XRF technique. Limits of detection of 10-9-10-10g have been obtained by means of the new technique with an X-ray tube of 2 W power.

Yan Yiming; Ding Xunliang

1993-01-01

343

X-ray imaging and x-ray source development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a continuing effort to develop both x-ray sources and x-ray sources and x-ray microscopy. This effort includes the ongoing development of: (1) a wide range of x-ray lasers at the Nova Laser Facility, (2) a zone plate lens--multilayer mirror based x-ray microscope (3) three dimensional, high resolution x-ray microscopy (4) short wavelength, normal incidence multilayer x-ray mirrors, (5) compact, high average power lasers for producing x-ray lasers and laser plasma x-ray sources. We have constructed and operated an x-ray laser based transmission x-ray microscope. The advantage offered by the x-ray laser source is the extreme high brightness allows high resolution images to be made on a timescale faster than that for x-ray damage effects to appear. The microscope, consists of: the x-ray laser, a multilayer coated, near normal incidence spherical mirror used as a condenser, a silicon nitride specimen holder, an x-ray zone plate used as an objective lens, and a microchannel plate x-ray detector. The x-ray laser used is the Ni-like Ta x-ray laser operating with a wavelength of 4.48 nm, a pulselength of 200 spec, a divergence of 10 mrad, and an output energy of 10 microjoules.

Trebes, J.; Balhorn, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Anderson, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1993-12-01

344

Revolution in x-ray optics.  

PubMed

In the past half decade or so there has been a technological revolution in our ability to generate, control, manipulate, focus, and detect x rays. The emergence of x-ray lasers and synchrotron insertion devices has increased the brightness of laboratory x-ray sources 8 to 12 orders of magnitude over what was available in the late 1960s. In addition, the past few years have been witness to significant advances in the development of normal incidence x-ray mirrors and beam splitters, diffraction limited x-ray lenses, x-ray microscopy, x-ray holography, x-ray waveguides, and CCD x-ray detector arrays. Utilizing these new capabilities, workers in the field are taking the first steps toward the development of sophisticated soft x-ray optical systems, including soft x-ray interferometers, high-intensity x-ray lasers, and projection optics for x-ray lithography. Details of these developments are discussed, as is the question, Why is this happening now? PMID:21307418

Ceglio, N M

1989-01-01

345

Smart X-ray optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

Michette, A. G.; Pfauntsch, S. J.; Sahraei, S.; Shand, M.; Morrison, G. R.; Hart, D.; Vojnovic, B.; Stevenson, T.; Parkes, W.; Dunare, C.; Willingale, R.; Feldman, C.; Button, T.; Zhang, D.; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D.; Wang, H.

2009-09-01

346

X-ray Thomson scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. A series of experiments have been carried out at the Rutherford-Appleton laboratory to investigate X-ray scattering from laser produced plasmas. Most experiments shave been based on Rayleigh scattering from bound electrons and are sensitive to ion-ion correlations which lead to a scattering structure factor with a peak at a distinct angle of scatter, which

D. Riley; C. L. S. Lewis; F. Y. Khattak; S. Topping; A.-M. McEvoy; J. Angulo; D. Neely

2002-01-01

347

X-Ray Crystallography Reagent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

2003-01-01

348

Material separation in x-ray CT with energy resolved photon-counting detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective of the study was to demonstrate that, in x-ray computed tomography (CT), more than two types of materials can be effectively separated with the use of an energy resolved photon-counting detector and classification methodology. Specifically, this applies to the case when contrast agents that contain K-absorption edges in the energy range of interest are present in the object. This separation is enabled via the use of recently developed energy resolved photon-counting detectors with multiple thresholds, which allow simultaneous measurements of the x-ray attenuation at multiple energies. Methods: To demonstrate this capability, we performed simulations and physical experiments using a six-threshold energy resolved photon-counting detector. We imaged mouse-sized cylindrical phantoms filled with several soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials and with iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The linear attenuation coefficients were reconstructed for each material in each energy window and were visualized as scatter plots between pairs of energy windows. For comparison, a dual-kVp CT was also simulated using the same phantom materials. In this case, the linear attenuation coefficients at the lower kVp were plotted against those at the higher kVp. Results: In both the simulations and the physical experiments, the contrast agents were easily separable from other soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials, thanks to the availability of the attenuation coefficient measurements at more than two energies provided by the energy resolved photon-counting detector. In the simulations, the amount of separation was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the contrast agents; however, this was not observed in the physical experiments due to limitations of the real detector system. We used the angle between pairs of attenuation coefficient vectors in either the 5-D space (for non-contrast-agent materials using energy resolved photon-counting acquisition) or a 2-D space (for contrast agents using energy resolved photon-counting acquisition and all materials using dual-kVp acquisition) as a measure of the degree of separation. Compared to dual-kVp techniques, an energy resolved detector provided a larger separation and the ability to separate different target materials using measurements acquired in different energy window pairs with a single x-ray exposure. Conclusions: We concluded that x-ray CT with an energy resolved photon-counting detector with more than two energy windows allows the separation of more than two types of materials, e.g., soft-tissue-like, bone-like, and one or more materials with K-edges in the energy range of interest. Separating material types using energy resolved photon-counting detectors has a number of advantages over dual-kVp CT in terms of the degree of separation and the number of materials that can be separated simultaneously.

Wang Xiaolan; Meier, Dirk; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Frey, Eric C. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Gamma Medica-Ideas (AS), N-1364 Oslo (Norway); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, California 91324 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

2011-03-15

349

X-ray Photography: Inner Beauty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from TIME features Nick Veasey, an x-ray photographer who combines art and science through his photographs. The short article explains how Veasey started his work and includes a link to more x-ray photographs.

2009-10-15

350

Enhanced stereographic x-ray images.  

PubMed

This project extends previous work on stereographic projection of 2D x-ray images and aims to overcome a number of problems, namely: confusing stereo cues; distortion between stereo pairs; and increased radiation exposure from additional x-ray images. Images are distortion corrected and a polygonal representation of a bone fitted to the x-ray image, to approximate the bone surface. The polygonal representation is rendered and blended with the x-ray image to add surface detail, without obscuring salient features within the original x-ray. A reduction in x-ray exposure by using a stereo pair of computer-generated polygonal bone images blended with a mono x-ray image is investigated. An experiment provides evidence that depth perception is increased with the inclusion of bone surface rendering, and is achievable with a mono x-ray image. PMID:15458149

Viant, Warren J; Ward, James W

2002-01-01

351

Advances in transmission x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in x-ray optics are reviewed. Specific advances in coded aperture imaging, zone plate lens fabrication, time and space resolved spectroscopy, and CCD x-ray detection are discussed.

Ceglio, N.M.

1983-01-01

352

Producing X-rays at the APS  

SciTech Connect

An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

None

2011-01-01

353

Producing X-rays at the APS  

ScienceCinema

An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

None

2013-04-19

354

X-ray microprobe-microscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X rays have a unique interaction with matter that offers many advantages over electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X rays are more efficient in photoejecting inner shell electrons resulting in characteristic X-...

C. J. Sparks G. E. Ice

1990-01-01

355

X-Rays, Pregnancy and You  

MedlinePLUS

... CT) Dental Cone-beam Computed Tomography Fluoroscopy Mammography X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Pregnancy is a time ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most ...

356

Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

357

The Electromagnetic Spectrum: X-Rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provided by NASA contains an introduction to X-rays and their uses in medicine and astronomy. Descriptions of the first X-ray observations, how they are used to visualize parts of the body, and results from X-ray astronomy are provided. The site contains striking astronomical images made with X-rays. Also provided are links to similar sites on the other electromagnetic spectrum regions.

2006-11-25

358

Phase-sensitive X-ray imager  

DOEpatents

X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

Baker, Kevin Louis

2013-01-08

359

Fast Timing of X-Ray Bursters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this proposal was to detect oscillations in X-ray bursts from sources found to be a bursting state. We obtained observations of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+091 during January of 2004 following detection of multiple X-ray bursts from this source with the HETE-II satellite. We analyzed these data to search for X-ray bursts. None were found.

Swank, Jean H. (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, Philip

2005-01-01

360

The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas  

SciTech Connect

A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues, not the design features.

Ryutov,, D.D.

2010-12-07

361

Center for X-ray Optics, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced ligh...

1989-01-01

362

Electron beam parallel X-ray generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broad X ray source produces a highly collimated beam of low energy X rays - a beam with 2 to 5 arc minutes of divergence at energies between 1 and 6 keV in less than 5 feet. The X ray beam is generated by electron bombardment of a target from a large area electron gun.

Payne, P.

1967-01-01

363

X-ray Topography in Protein Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray topography, especially synchrotron X-ray topography, provides a useful tool for the characterization of protein crystals in order to characterize the defects. We observed clear images of dislocations in hen-egg white lysozyme crystals. In this article we overviewed the research on crystal defects, especially dislocations of protein crystals by synchrotron X-ray topography.

Kojima, Kenichi; Tachibana, Masaru

364

Measurements of polycapillary x-ray optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assemblies of hollow capillary tubes, termed ‘‘Kumakhov optics,’’ can be used to control x rays for a large variety of applications. Measurements of x-ray transmission in polycapillary glass tubes were performed for the purpose of understanding their behavior in such devices. X-ray transmission was measured for straight, uniformly curved, and nonuniformly bent fibers. The data agree well with a computer

J. B. Ullrich; V. Kovantsev; C. A. MacDonald

1993-01-01

365

X-Ray Tomography and Laminography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for imaging objects with x-rays using an x-ray tube, refractive x-ray lens and area detector. Cross sectional images of individual planes within an object are achieved through tomographic and laminographic exposure and image processing. The u...

C. K. Gary

2005-01-01

366

Globular Cluster X-ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve of the 147 globular clusters associated with our Galaxy contain a bright (Lx#|gtrsim|#1029 W) x-ray source; many more contain dim (Lx#|lesssim|#1028 W) x-ray sources, of which more than 40 are now known. X-ray sources have also been detected in globular clusters of the ANDROMEDA GALAXY M31....

Verbunt, F.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

367

X-ray Survey of Centaurus A.  

PubMed

An x-ray survey of Centaurus A has given marginal evidence of its x-ray flux. If taken as an upper limit on inverse Compton x-rays generated by scattering interactions between relativistic electrons and cosmological background photons, the observation implies an upper limit of close to 3 degrees K for the background radiation temperature. PMID:17751906

Byram, E T; Chubb, T A; Friedman, H

1970-07-24

368

Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state  

DOEpatents

An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA) [Berkeley, CA; Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA) [Berkeley, CA

2010-10-26

369

Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)  

MedlinePLUS

X-ray (Radiography) - Chest • Overview The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic x-ray examination. A chest x- ... The technologist , an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, will position the patient with hands on ...

370

Multiple wavelength x-ray monochromators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The appara...

P. A. Steinmeyer

1991-01-01

371

A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to

Philippe Duvauchelle; Nicolas Freud; Valérie Kaftandjian; Daniel Babot

2000-01-01

372

The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)  

SciTech Connect

A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.

Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Stefan, P.M.; /SLAC; ,

2011-02-07

373

A whole-system approach to x-ray spectroscopy in cargo inspection systems  

SciTech Connect

The bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrum used in high-energy, high-intensity x-ray cargo inspection systems is attenuated and modified by the materials in the cargo in a Z-dependent way. Therefore, spectroscopy of the detected x rays yields information about the Z of the x-rayed cargo material. It has previously been shown that such ZSpectroscopy (Z-SPEC) is possible under certain circumstances. A statistical approach, Z-SCAN (Z-determination by Statistical Count-rate ANalysis), has also been shown to be effective, and it can be used either by itself or in conjunction with Z-SPEC when the x-ray count rate is too high for individual x-ray spectroscopy. Both techniques require fast x-ray detectors and fast digitization electronics. It is desirable (and possible) to combine all techniques, including x-ray imaging of the cargo, in a single detector array, to reduce costs, weight, and overall complexity. In this paper, we take a whole-system approach to x-ray spectroscopy in x-ray cargo inspection systems, and show how the various parts interact with one another. Faster detectors and read-out electronics are beneficial for both techniques. A higher duty-factor x-ray source allows lower instantaneous count rates at the same overall x-ray intensity, improving the range of applicability of Z-SPEC in particular. Using an intensity-modulated advanced x-ray source (IMAXS) allows reducing the x-ray count rate for cargoes with higher transmission, and a stacked-detector approach may help material discrimination for the lowest attenuations. Image processing and segmentation allow derivation of results for entire objects, and subtraction of backgrounds. We discuss R and D performed under a number of different programs, showing progress made in each of the interacting subsystems. We discuss results of studies into faster scintillation detectors, including ZnO, BaF{sub 2} and PbWO{sub 4}, as well as suitable photo-detectors, read-out and digitization electronics. We discuss high-duty-factor linear-accelerator x-ray sources and their associated requirements, and how such sources improve spectroscopic techniques. We further discuss how image processing techniques help in correcting for backgrounds and overlapping materials. In sum, we present an integrated picture of how to optimize a cargo inspection system for x-ray spectroscopy.

Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Gozani, Tsahi; Ryge, Peter; Sinha, Shrabani; Shaw, Tim; Strellis, Dan [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc. 520 Almanor Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States)

2013-04-19

374

Combined SPECT and x-ray CT medical imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and built a system for correlated x ray CT transmission and SPECT emission imaging with an array of photon counting detectors. The scanner operates in a third generation fan beam geometry by translating a 23 element high purity germanium detector across the fan to image phantoms and small animals. The x ray CT image is used to obtain an object specific, i.e., anatomically accurate, attenuation map for the reconstruction of the SPECT image. SPECT images are reconstructed with an MLEM code and the pixel values are scaled in physical units by determining a scaling factor from a uniform water phantom with homogeneous and known attenuation. Single myocardial slices of several pigs were imaged with a 99mTc sestamibi imaging agent which is taken up in proportion to regional myocardial blood flow. The results show that 99mTc uptake and regional myocardial blood flow, determined in vivo from reconstructed SPECT images, correlate with the measured in vitro data. Furthermore, the correlation is markedly improved by reconstructing the images with an object specific attenuation map obtained from the coregistered x ray CT image. We were also able to restore the 99mTc sestamibi uptake from the reconstructed images to an accuracy between 40% and 90% of the true in vitro value, depending on the selection of maximum or mean pixel values in the regions of interest.

Kalki, Kathrin; Brown, J. Keenan; Blankespoor, Stephen C.; Heanue, Joseph A.; Wu, Xiang; Cann, Christopher E.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Chin, Michael; Stillson, Carol A.; Dae, Michael W.; Carver, James M.

1995-05-01

375

X-Ray Geometrical Smoothing Effect in Indirect X-Ray-Drive Implosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect X-ray drive pellet implosion for inertial confinement fusion has been numerically analyzed. Attainable X-ray driven ablation pressure has been found to be coupled with X-ray irradiation uniformity.

Takayasu Mochizuki; Shuji Sakabe; Chiyoe Yamanaka

1983-01-01

376

X-ray diodes for laser fusion plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Photodiodes with x-ray sensitive photocathodes are commonly used as broadband x-ray detectors in fusion plasma diagnostics. We have measured the risetime of the detector system and have measured the quantum efficiency between 1 to 500 A of numerous photocathode materials of practical interest. The materials studied include aluminum, copper, nickel, gold, three forms of carbon, chromium, and cesium iodide. The results of the measurements are compared with Henke's semiempirical model of photoyield. We have studied the effects of long-term cathode aging and use as a plasma diagnostic on cathode quantum efficiency. In addition, we have measured the x-ray mass-absorption coefficient of several ultrasoft x-ray windows in energy regions where data were unavailable. Windows studied were made of aluminum, Formvar, polypropylene, and Kimfoil. Measurements between 1 to 50 A were performed with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's low-energy x-ray calibration facility, and the measurements between 50 to 550 A were performed at the National Bureau of Standard's synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility.

Day, R.H.; Lee, P.; Saloman, E.B.; Nagel, D.J.

1981-02-01

377

An upgraded x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic on MST  

SciTech Connect

An upgraded x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic is used to measure the distribution of fast electrons in MST and to determine Z{sub eff} and the particle diffusion coefficient D{sub r}. A radial array of 12 CdZnTe hard-x-ray detectors measures 10-150 keV Bremsstrahlung from fast electrons, a signature of reduced stochasticity and improved confinement in the plasma. A new Si soft-x-ray detector measures 2-10 keV Bremsstrahlung from thermal and fast electrons. The shaped output pulses from both detector types are digitized and the resulting waveforms are fit with Gaussians to resolve pileup and provide good time and energy resolution. Lead apertures prevent detector saturation and provide a well-known etendue, while lead shielding prevents pickup from stray x-rays. New Be vacuum windows transmit >2 keV x-rays, and additional Al and Be filters are sometimes used to reduce low energy flux for better resolution at higher energies. Measured spectra are compared to those predicted by the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D to deduce Z{sub eff} and D{sub r}.

Clayton, D. J.; Almagri, A. F.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Kaufman, M. C.; O'Connell, R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2010-10-15

378

Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

379

X-ray holography of biological specimens  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the reasons for x-ray imaging of biological specimens and the techniques presently being used for x-ray microscopy. The author points out the advantages of x-ray holography and the difficulties of obtaining the requisite coherence with conventional sources. The author discusses the problems of radiation damage and the remarkable fact that short pulse x-ray sources circumvent these problems and obtain high-resolution images of specimens in the living state. Finally, the author reviews some of the efforts underway to develop high-intensity coherent x-ray sources for the laboratory. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Solem, J.C.

1984-01-01

380

Measurements of attenuation coefficient for evaluating the hardness of a cataract lens by a high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducer  

PubMed Central

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining that the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to evaluate the hardness of the cataract lens. A 47 MHz high-frequency needle transducer with a diameter of 0.9 mm was fabricated by a polarized PMN-33%PT single crystal in the present study. The attenuation coefficients at different stages of an artificial porcine cataract lens were measured using the spectral shift approach. The hardness of the cataract lens was also evaluated by mechanical measurement of its elastic properties. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was increased from 0.048 ± 0.02 to 0.520 ± 0.06 dB mm?1 MHz?1 corresponding to an increase in Young’s modulus from 6 ± 0.4 to 96 ± 6.2 kPa as the cataract further developed. In order to evaluate the feasibility of combining needle transducer and phacoemulsification probe for real-time measurement during cataract surgery, the needle transducer was mounted on the phacoemulsification probe for a vibration test. The results indicated that there was no apparent damage to the tip of the needle transducer and the pulse–echo test showed that a good performance in sensitivity was maintained after the vibration test.

Chen, Ruimin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Zhou, Qifa; Humayun, Mark S; Shung, K Kirk

2010-01-01

381

X-ray Anomalous Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Washington Web site "is intended to serve both as an introductory tutorial to anomalous scattering and as a general tool for designing experiments based on anomalous scattering." Visitors can find a periodic table and a chart supplying X-ray absorption edge data. Students needing assistance with the concept of anomalous scattering will find the tutorial explaining the interactions of incident photons having relatively high and low energy with scattering electrons very instructive. The site also supplies users with information about Friedel's Law and MAD experiments.

382

Cosmic X-ray physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soft X-ray sky survey data are combined with the results from the UXT sounding rocket payload. Very strong constraints can then be placed on models of the origin of the soft diffuse background. Additional observational constraints force more complicated and realistic models. Significant progress was made in the extraction of more detailed spectral information from the UXT data set. Work was begun on a second generation proportional counter response model. The first flight of the sounding rocket will have a collimator to study the diffuse background.

McCammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1987-07-01

383

Cosmic X-ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The soft X-ray sky survey data are combined with the results from the UXT sounding rocket payload. Very strong constraints can then be placed on models of the origin of the soft diffuse background. Additional observational constraints force more complicated and realistic models. Significant progress was made in the extraction of more detailed spectral information from the UXT data set. Work was begun on a second generation proportional counter response model. The first flight of the sounding rocket will have a collimator to study the diffuse background.

Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1987-01-01

384

Determination of radiation attenuation coefficients of heavyweight and normal-weight concretes containing colemanite and barite for 0.663 MeV ?-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate measurements have been made to determine radiation transmission of concretes produced with barite, colemanite and normal aggregate by using beam transmission method for 0.663MeV ?-rays energy of 137Cs radioactive isotopes by using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Linear and mass attenuation coefficients of thirteen heavy- and four normal-weight concretes were calculated. It was determined that the linear attenuation coefficient (?, cm?1)

F. Demir; G. Budak; R. Sahin; A. Karabulut; M. Oltulu; A. Un

2011-01-01

385

Practical energy response estimation of photon counting detectors for spectral X-ray imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral X-ray imaging is a promising technique to drastically improve the diagnostic quality of radiography and computed tomography (CT), since it enables material decomposition and/or identification based on the energy dependency of material-specific X-ray attenuation. Unlike the charge-integration based X-ray detectors, photon counting X-ray detectors (PCXDs) can discriminate the energies of incident X-ray photons and thereby multi-energy images can be obtained in single exposure. However, the measured data are not accurate since the spectra of incident X-rays are distorted according to the energy response function (ERF) of a PCXD. Thus ERF should be properly estimated in advance for accurate spectral imaging. This paper presents a simple method for ERF estimation based on a polychromatic X-ray source that is widely used for medical imaging. The method consists of three steps: source spectra measurement, detector spectra reconstruction, and ERF inverse estimation. Real spectra of an X-ray tube are first measured at all kVs by using an X-ray spectrometer. The corresponding detector spectra are obtained by threshold scans. The ERF is then estimated by solving the inverse problem. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the concept of the proposed method.

Kang, Dong-Goo; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, Seongdeok

2010-03-01

386

Evolution of X-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of X-ray astronomy up to the launching of the Einstein observatory is presented. The evaluation proceeded through the following major steps: (1) discovery of an extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-1, orders of magnitude stronger than astronomers believed might exist; (2) identification of a strong X-ray source with the Crab Nebula; (3) identification of Sco X-1 with a faint, peculiar optical object; (4) demonstration that X-ray stars are binary systems, each consisting of a collapsed object accreting matter from an ordinary star; (5) discovery of X-ray bursts; (6) discovery of exceedingly strong X-ray emission from active galaxies, quasars and clusters of galaxies; (7) demonstration that the principal X-ray source is a hot gas filling the space between galaxies.

Rossj, B.

1981-01-01

387

Extended range X-ray telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray telescope system is described which is comprised of a tubular mount having a collecting region remote from the one axial end. A soft X-ray/XUV subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively soft, near on-axis X-rays/XUV radiation incident on a first portion of the collecting region into a first detector sensitive to relatively soft X-rays/XUV radiation. A hard X-ray subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively hard near on-axis X-rays incident on a second portion of the collecting region into a second detector sensitive to relatively hard X-rays.

Hoover, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

388

Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

A new wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) imaging spectrometer equipped with a two-dimensional X-ray detector was developed in the laboratory. Straight polycapillary optics was applied instead of a soller slit, which is used in conventional WD-XRF spectrometers. X-rays were guided through the straight polycapillary to the exit of the optics by X-ray external total reflections. X-ray fluorescence was dispersed by an analyzing crystal (LiF(200)), keeping the information of elemental distribution on the surface of the sample. The energy resolution of the developed spectrometer was 130-152 eV at the Zn K? peak. X-ray elemental images of Cu K? and Ni K? were successfully obtained by an X-ray CCD detector at the corresponding diffraction angles. The analytical performance of this technique, and further improvements are discussed. PMID:21749148

Tsuji, Kouichi; Ohmori, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Makoto

2011-08-15

389

Spectral slicing X-ray telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) X-ray optics is investigated as a system for coupling a conventional glancing incidence X-ray mirror to a high sensitivity X-ray detector. It is shown that, by the use of figured LSM optics, it is possible to magnify the X-ray image produced by the primary mirrors so as to maintain their high inherent spatial resolution. The results of theoretical and design analyses of several spectral slicing X-ray telescope systems that utilize LSM mirrors of hyperboloidal, spherical, ellipsoidal, and constant optical path aspheric configurations are presented. It is shown that the spherical LSM optics are the preferred configuration, yielding subarcsecond performance over the entire field. The Stanford/Marshall Space Flight Center Rocket X-ray Telescope, which will utilize normal incidence LSM optics to couple a Wolter-Schwarzschild primary mirror to high resolution detectors for solar X-ray/EUV studies, is discussed. Design diagrams are included.

Hoover, R. B.; Shealy, D.; Chao, S.-H.

1986-01-01

390

Multi-frequency characterization of the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient for longitudinal transmission of freshly excised human skulls  

PubMed Central

For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 ?g resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(±130), 2471(±90), 2504(±120), 2327(±90) and 2053(±40) m s?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(±130), 2300(±100), 2219(±200), 2133(±130) and 1937(±40) m s?1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(±9), 240(±9) and 307(±30) Np m?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(±13), 216(±16) and 375(±30) Np m?1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used.

Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W; Hynynen, Kullervo

2011-01-01

391

Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of

Kouichi Tsuji; Kazuhiko Nakano; Xunliang Ding

2007-01-01

392

Soft x-ray projection lithography using an x-ray reduction camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft x-ray projection lithography can now be realized with recent developments in x-ray optics. Using new x-ray optical components and spherical imaging optics, we have designed an x-ray reduction camera which is capable of projecting with soft x-ray radiation, a 5 x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer. The resolution of this design is \\/similar to\\/00

Andrew M. Hawryluk; L. G. Seppala

1988-01-01

393

X ray-to-luminous image conversion in x-ray image converter tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically-designed X-ray image intensifiers, in which the primary converter of X-ray image (X-ray luminescent screen) is placed inside the vacuum space of the X-ray image intensifier, and the photocathode converting light image into electronic one is in optical contact with the primary converter, have decisively displaced a combined systems -- external X-ray luminescent screen, light-transmission optics, image intensifier -- from

S. V. Kuklev; I. N. Zaidel

1999-01-01

394

Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics  

PubMed Central

A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C. A.

2013-01-01

395

Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C. A.

2013-02-01

396

Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics.  

PubMed

A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens. PMID:23460760

Sun, Tianxi; Macdonald, C A

2013-02-01

397

Differential Phase X-ray Imaging Microscopy with X-ray Talbot Interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of differential phase X-ray imaging microscopy attained by combination of an X-ray imaging microscope and an X-ray Talbot interferometer is described. An X-ray Talbot interferometer was set up so that a moiré-fringe pattern appeared on the image plane of an X-ray imaging microscope. The wavefront inclination (differential phase shift) caused by a weakly absorbing polymer sample was

Yoshihiro Takeda; Wataru Yashiro; Tadashi Hattori; Akihisa Takeuchi; Yoshio Suzuki; Atsushi Momose

2008-01-01

398

Observations of Compact X-Ray Binaries with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Launched on July 23, 1999. The first X-ray photons were detected on August 12 of that same year. Subsequently observations with the Observatory, which features sub-arcsecond angular resolution, have revolutionized our understanding of the X-ray emitting sky providing hosts of spectacular energy-resolved images and high-resolution spectra. Here we present a brief overview of Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of compact X-ray binaries.

Weisskopf, Martin C.

2006-01-01

399

An Empirical Expression to Estimate Specific Attenuation Coefficient due to fog at Frequencies from 100 to 300GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple expression is presented to quickly estimate specific attenuation coefficient due to fog within the ranges of 100~300GHz and -8~20°C based on the Rayleigh approximation which is not very convenient. To evaluate the expression's estimation performance, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and maximal absolute value of the relative errors (MAVRE) are calculated. The maximum value of PCC is 1 and it reflects the fitting performance of an empirical expression. MAVRE denotes the largest deviation between a set of estimated values and corresponding theoretical values. Calculations show the PCC and MAVRE of the proposed expression are 0.99985 and 4.162%, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison analysis shows that the new expression has much better estimation performance than other two empirical expressions: the modified Mao expression and the Zhao expression.

Liu, Yun-Long; Hu, Meng-Hao

2013-08-01

400

Transportable X-ray cart  

SciTech Connect

The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

NONE

1995-12-01

401

X-ray omni microscopy.  

PubMed

The science of wave-field phase retrieval and phase measurement is sufficiently mature to permit the routine reconstruction, over a given plane, of the complex wave-function associated with certain coherent forward-propagating scalar wave-fields. This reconstruction gives total knowledge of the information that has been encoded in the complex wave-field by passage through a sample of interest. Such total knowledge is powerful, because it permits the emulation in software of the subsequent action of an infinite variety of coherent imaging systems. Such 'virtual optics', in which software forms a natural extension of the 'hardware optics' in an imaging system, may be useful in contexts such as quantitative atom and X-ray imaging, in which optical elements such as beam-splitters and lenses can be realized in software rather than optical hardware. Here, we develop the requisite theory to describe such hybrid virtual-physical imaging systems, which we term 'omni optics' because of their infinite flexibility. We then give an experimental demonstration of these ideas by showing that a lensless X-ray point projection microscope can, when equipped with the appropriate software, emulate an infinite variety of optical imaging systems including those which yield interferograms, Zernike phase contrast, Schlieren imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging. PMID:15157198

Paganin, D; Gureyev, T E; Mayo, S C; Stevenson, A W; Nesterets, Ya I; Wilkins, S W

2004-06-01

402

Prospects for in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients using postprocessing dual-energy CT imaging on a commercial scanner: Comparison of analytic and polyenergetic statistical reconstruction algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.

Evans, Joshua D., E-mail: jevans2@mcvh-vcu.edu; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Whiting, Bruce R. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); O’Sullivan, Joseph A. [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Politte, David G. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)] [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Klahr, Paul H. [Philips Healthcare, 595 Miner Rd., Highland Hts., Ohio 44143 (United States)] [Philips Healthcare, 595 Miner Rd., Highland Hts., Ohio 44143 (United States)

2013-12-15

403

X-Ray Radioscopic Visualization of the Solutal Convection during Solidification of a Ga30 Wt Pct In Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capabilities of the X-ray attenuation contrast radioscopy were used to provide a real-time diagnostic technique of the melt\\u000a flow during unidirectional solidification of a Ga-30 wt pct In alloy from the bottom, which is significantly affected by solutal\\u000a convection. The solidification process was visualized using a microfocus X-ray tube. The X-ray facility provided shadow radiographs\\u000a at spatial resolutions of about

S. Boden; S. Eckert; B. Willers; G. Gerbeth

2008-01-01

404

X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping of sea urchin teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two noninvasive X-ray techniques, laboratory X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and X-ray diffraction mapping, were used to study teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT revealed low attenuation regions at near the tooth’s stone part and along the carinar process—central prism boundary; this latter observation appears to be novel. The expected variation of Mg fraction x in the mineral phase

S. R. Stock; J. Barss; T. Dahl; A. Veis; J. D. Almer

2002-01-01

405

Atomic form factors and photoelectric absorption cross-sections near absorption edges in the soft X-ray region  

SciTech Connect

Reliable knowledge of the complex X-ray form factor [Re(f) and Im(f)] and the photoelectric attenuation coefficient ({delta}{sub PE}) is required for crystallography, medical diagnosis, radiation safety and XAFS studies. Key discrepancies in earlier theoretical work are due to the smoothing of edge structure, the use of non-relativistic wave functions, and the lack of appropriate convergence of wave functions. These discrepancies lead to significant corrections for most comprehensive (i.e. all-Z) tabulations. This work has led to a major comprehensive database tabulation [Chantler, C. T. (2000). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29, 597-1048] which serves as a sequel and companion to earlier relativistic Dirac-Fock computations [Chantler, C. T. (1995). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 24, 71-643]. The paper finds that earlier work needs improvement in the near-edge region for soft X-ray energies, and derives new theoretical results of substantially higher accuracy in near-edge soft X-ray regions. Fine grids near edges are tabulated demonstrating the current comparison with alternate theory and with available experimental data. The best experimental data and the observed experimental structure as a function of energy are strong indicators of the validity of the current approach. New developments in experimental measurement hold great promise in making critical comparisons with theory in the near future.

Chantler, C. (Melbourne)

2006-11-09

406

a Laboratory-Based X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging Scanner with Applications in Biomedical and Non-Medical Disciplines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) provides a much higher visibility of low-absorbing details than conventional, attenuation-based radiography. This is due to the fact that image contrast is determined by the unit decrement of the real part of the complex refractive index of an object rather than by its imaginary part (the absorption coefficient), which can be up to 1000 times larger for energies in the X-ray regime. This finds applications in many areas, including medicine, biology, material testing, and homeland security. Until lately, XPCi has been restricted to synchrotron facilities due to its demanding coherence requirements on the radiation source. However, edge illumination XPCi, first developed by one of the authors at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Italy, substantially relaxes these requirements and therefore provides options to overcome this problem. Our group has built a prototype scanner that adapts the edge-illumination concept to standard laboratory conditions and extends it to large fields of view. This is based on X-ray sources and detectors available off the shelf, and its use has led to impressive results in mammography, cartilage imaging, testing of composite materials and security inspection. This article presents the method and the scanner prototype, and reviews its applications in selected biomedical and non-medical disciplines.

Hagen, C. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Munro, P. R. T.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Millard, T. P.; Speller, R.; Olivo, D. A.

2014-02-01

407

Resonant X-ray enhancement of the Auger effect in high-Z atoms, molecules, and nanoparticles: potential biomedical applications.  

PubMed

It is shown that X-ray absorption can be considerably enhanced at resonant energies corresponding to K-shell excitation into higher shells with electron vacancies following Auger emissions in high-Z elements and compounds employed in biomedical applications. We calculate Auger resonant probabilities and cross sections to obtain total mass attenuation coefficients with resonant cross sections and detailed resonance structures corresponding to Kalpha, Kbeta, Kgamma, Kdelta, and Keta complexes lying between 6.4-7.1 keV in iron and 67-80 keV in gold. The basic parameters were computed using the relativistic atomic structure codes and the R-matrix codes. It is found that the average enhancement at resonant energies is up to a factor of 1000 or more for associated K --> L, M, N, O, P transitions. The resonant energies in high-Z elements such as gold are sufficiently high to ensure significant penetration in body tissue, and hence the possibility of achieving X-radiation dose reduction commensurate with resonant enhancements for cancer theranostics using high-Z nanoparticles and molecular radiosensitizing agents embedded in malignant tumors. The in situ deposition of X-ray energy, followed by secondary photon and electron emission, will be localized at the tumor site. We also note the relevance of this work to the development of novel monochromatic or narrow-band X-ray emission sources for medical diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:19888772

Pradhan, Anil K; Nahar, Sultana N; Montenegro, Maximiliano; Yu, Yan; Zhang, H L; Sur, Chiranjib; Mrozik, Michael; Pitzer, Russell M

2009-11-12

408

3D investigation of inclusions in diamonds using X-ray micro-tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of mineral inclusions in diamonds is providing invaluable insights into the geochemistry, geodynamics and geophysics of the Earth's mantle. Over the last two decades, the identification of different inclusion assemblages allowed to recognize diamonds deriving from the deep upper mantle, the transition zone and even the lower mantle. In such research field the in-situ investigation of inclusions using non-destructive techniques is often essential but still remains a challenging task. In particular, conventional 2D imaging techniques (e.g. SEM) are limited to the investigation of surfaces and the lack of access to the third dimension represents a major limitation when trying to extract quantitative information. Another critical aspect is related to sample preparation (cutting, polishing) which is typically very invasive. Nowadays, X-ray computed micro-tomography (X-?CT) allows to overcome such limitations, enabling the internal microstructure of totally undisturbed samples to be visualized in a three-dimensional (3D) manner at the sub-micrometric scale. The final output of a micro-tomography experiment is a greyvalue 3D map of the variations of the X-ray attenuation coefficient (µ) within the studied object. The high X-ray absorption contrast between diamond (almost transparent to X-rays) and the typical inclusion-forming minerals (olivines, garnets, pyroxenes, oxides and sulphides) makes X-?CT a straightforward method for the 3D visualization of inclusions and for the study of their spatial relationships with the diamond host. In this work we applied microfocus X-?CT to investigate silicate inclusions still trapped in diamonds, in order to obtain in-situ information on their exact position, crystal size, shape and X-ray absorption coefficient (which is related to their composition). We selected diamond samples from different deposits containing mainly olivine and garnet inclusions. The investigated samples derived from the Udachnaya pipe (Siberia, Russia), the Jericho Kimberlite (Slave Craton, Canada) and São Luiz-Juina (Brazil). The information obtained by tomographic experiments were combined with X-ray single-crystal diffraction data (see Nestola et al 2011) in order to identify the inclusion parageneses (peridotitic, eclogitic or websteritic) and to finally determine the origin of the studied diamonds. Our results showed that, by combining X-?CT with X-ray diffraction data, it is possible to exactly determine the 3D position of each inclusion together with their crystal size, even though they cannot be detected by using an optical microscope. In addition, such method could have strong crystallographic implications for inclusions still trapped in diamonds as it enables the application of a reliable numerical absorption correction to the 3D intensity data collections. REF. Nestola, F., Nimis, P., Ziberna, L., Longo, M., Marzoli, A., Harris, J.W., Manghnani, M.H., Fedortchouk, Y. (2011): First crystal-structure determination of olivine in diamond: composition and implications for provenance in the Earth's mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 305, 249-255.

Parisatto, M.; Nestola, F.; Artioli, G.; Nimis, P.; Harris, J. W.; Kopylova, M.; Pearson, G. D.

2012-04-01

409

Quantitative measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of cell lines CNE1, CNE2, and NP69 using optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

The radiotherapy-related types of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have been established, which give the most effective treatment for NPC patients using the individual therapy. To diagnose the types of NPC, we assess the general NPC cell lines CNE1, CNE2 and normal nasopharyngeal cell line NP69 using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in two steps: firstly, the OCT images of the three different types of cell pellets are captured. Secondly, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (? t ) of the cells can be extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range) of CNE1, CNE2, and NP69 are 5.58 mm(-1) (IQR 5.55 to 5.65 mm(-1)), 5.91 mm(-1) (IQR 5.82 to 5.88 mm(-1)), and 8.96 mm(-1) (IQR 8.80 to 9.47 mm(-1)), respectively. The distinguishable quantitative OCT analysis (by ? t ) shows that the types of NPC could potentially be differentiated in real time and noninvasive. PMID:22618158

Li, Jianghua; Tu, Ziwei; Shen, Zhiyuan; Xia, Yunfei; He, Yonghong; Liu, Songhao; Chen, Changshui

2013-02-01

410

Assessment of natural radiation exposure levels and mass attenuation coefficients of lime and gypsum samples used in Turkey.  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in lime and gypsum samples used as building materials in Turkey were measured using gamma spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 38±16, 20±9, and 156±54 Bq kg(-1) for lime and found to be 17±6, 13±5, and 429±24 Bq kg(-1) for gypsum, respectively. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in the samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities (Raeq), indoor absorbed dose rate in the air, the annual effective dose, and gamma and alpha indices. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended limits. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients (?/?) of the samples were determined in the energy range 81-1,332 keV. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It is found that the calculated values and the experimental results are in good agreement. PMID:19921450

Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, U?ur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Ahmet; Celik, Necati

2010-11-01

411

Feasibility study for a novel method of dual energy x-ray analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual energy x-ray analysis (DEXA) is investigated using a nonlinear model for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient ? that is expressed as a function of electron density Ne and the fourth compositional ratio R4. Nonlinear simultaneous equations are solved using a least-squares algorithm based upon the method of Levenberg and Marquardt. Measurements of ? for low atomic number materials (containing elements hydrogen to calcium) at energies 32-66 keV are used to study DEXA accuracy as a function of sample composition, photon energy and their separation ?E. Results are presented for ?E = 5-30 keV, for 2% measurement precision, and the doses involved are quantified. The model is subject to propagation of error analysis and results are presented for the relationship between measurement uncertainties and those for Ne and R4. The analysis shows how DEXA accuracy is controlled by the fractional compositional cross-product, which represents the contribution of composition to ?, and how this can be optimized by careful selection of beam energies according to the compositional range of interest. Accurate DEXA is achieved over restricted energy and compositional ranges: soft tissues only at approximately 15-25 keV, all tissues at approximately 30-80 keV and, for situations where a higher dose can be tolerated, all tissues at approximately 4-8 MeV.

Midgley, S. M.

2011-09-01

412

Compact Stellar X-ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Accreting neutron stars and black holes: a decade of discoveries D. Psaltis; 2. Rapid X-ray variability M. van der Klis; 3. New views of thermonuclear bursts T. Strohmayer and L. Bildsten; 4. Black hole binaries J. McClintock and R. Remillard; 5. Optical, ultraviolet and infrared observations of X-ray binaries P. Charles and M. Coe; 6. Fast X-ray transients and X-ray flashes J. Heise and J. in 't Zand; 7. Isolated neutron stars V. Kaspi, M. Roberts and A. Harding; 8. Globular cluster X-ray sources F. Verbunt and W. Lewin; 9. Jets from X-ray binaries R. Fender; 10. X-Rays from cataclysmic variables E. Kuulkers, A. Norton, A. Schwope and B. Warner; 11. Super soft sources P. Kahabka and E. van den Heuvel; 12. Compact stellar X-ray sources in normal galaxies G. Fabbiano and N. White; 13. Accretion in compact binaries A. King; 14. Soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars: magnetar candidates P. Woods and C. Thompson; 15. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts, their afterglows, and their host galaxies K. Hurley, R. Sari and S. Djorgovski; 16. Formation and evolution of compact stellar X-ray sources T. Tauris and E. van den Heuvel.

Lewin, Walter; van der Klis, Michiel

2010-11-01

413

X-ray dynamical diffraction from multilayer Laue lenses with rough interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A modeling approach for x-ray dynamical diffraction from multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) with rough interfaces is developed. Although still based on the principle of the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), this model is formulated from the perspective of the physical scattering process, very different from the conventional DWBA formalism. Using this model, one can study x-ray scattering from rough interfaces in the regime of Fresnel diffraction and in the case of absorptive samples, for example, x-ray dynamical diffraction from MLLs with rough interfaces, which is hard to handle in the framework of the conventional DWBA. Theoretical simulations for various MLLs with rough interfaces are conducted. It is found that interfacial roughness results in a decrease in the local diffraction intensity, where the attenuation factor is a function of the root-mean-square (rms) roughness versus the local zone width ratio. This study shows that if all zones possess an identical rms roughness value that is less than half of the outmost MLL zone width, the focal broadening effect due to roughness is almost unnoticeable, provided that the mean position of the interface does not deviate from the required zone plate law. A further study shows that uncorrelated interfacial roughness can be treated the same as interfacial diffusion, in which case a roughness factor similar to the ''Debye-Waller factor'' can be used, and the pseudo-Fourier coefficients of the susceptibility function for an MLL [H. F. Yan et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007)] have to be multiplied by this factor.

Yan Hanfei [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2009-04-15

414

Bone mineral densitometry with x-ray and radionuclide sources: a theoretical comparison.  

PubMed

Two methods of dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) utilizing an x-ray tube instead of a radionuclide source have recently been introduced. In one method kVp switching is employed and two transmitted intensities at each pixel are determined. In the other method, K-edge filtration combined with a single kVp spectrum is used, but photons in two energy windows are counted. We present a theoretical analysis of the two methods, focusing on a figure of merit which is essentially the exposure efficiency (the precision for a given entrance exposure) and tube loading. We also compare their exposure efficiencies to theoretical limits that no DPA system can exceed. Our study indicates that the K-edge-filtered method is more exposure efficient by about a factor of 2. The switched-kVp method requires less heat units per scan by about a factor of 3. A hybrid K-edge switched-kVp method is suggested which achieves the same exposure efficiency as the K-edge-filtered method at lesser tube loading. Our theoretical model is based on published x-ray spectra and attenuation coefficients and is in good agreement with other simulation work. It is of interest that a point source of Gd-153 would be even more exposure efficient, achieving about 90% of the theoretical limit. However, in practice, the Gd source is of finite size and limited strength, and consequently the radionuclide method cannot achieve as good a precision as either x-ray method in similar scan times. PMID:1961163

Chakraborty, D P; Barnes, G T

1991-01-01

415

Grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of a hazardous metal attached to a plant leaf surface using an X-ray absorber method.  

PubMed

If human beings or animals repeatedly ingest plant leaves contaminated with minute quantities of hazardous metals (Pb, As, Hg, Cd, etc.), the metals will gradually accumulate in their bodies. When the quantities of the metals in the bodies reach toxic levels, they may cause serious symptoms of poisoning. Therefore, it is significant to detect and analyze the minute quantities of hazardous metals that attach to plant leaves in terms of epidemiology and disease prevention. We developed grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (GE-micro-XRF), which was expected to analyze the localized surface of an aqueous plant leaf with a much faster and simpler sample treatment than with conventional analytical methods, to detect Pb attached to a surface of a leaf of Camellia hiemalis. A micro X-ray beam was produced by using a polycapillary X-ray lens. GE-v-XRF is a grazing exit X-ray analysis (GE-XA) method in which X-rays emitted from only the near-surface region of a specimen are selectively detected under a grazing exit angle condition (extremely low exit angle near 0 degrees). In any GE-XA method, X-rays emitted from inside the specimen must be absorbed inside the specimen and attenuated when X-rays pass through the specimen. However, we deduced that X-rays emitted from inside aqueous organic material such as a plant leaf are scarcely absorbed because X-ray absorption in any aqueous organic material is much smaller than that in most metallic and semiconductor materials, which was analyzed with GE-XA methods. Therefore, we have developed a novel GE-micro-XRF method in which a chip of a silicon wafer is placed between the analyzed leaf and an X-ray detector as an absorber of the X-rays emitted from inside the leaf. As a result of GE-XRF analysis of a leaf dipped in Pb standard solution using the X-ray absorber, we have for the first time selectively detected X-rays emitted from the near-surface region of an aqueous plant leaf. Therefore, we have detected X-rays emitted from Pb with much higher peak/background ratios (P/B ratios) as compared to those of conventional XRF analysis. In the analysis, we also found a difference in element distributions between the leaf surface and its interior. Therefore, we observed and analyzed a cross section of the leaf with a SEM-EDX to confirm the validity of this result. The result of the analysis of the cross section has been in excellent agreement with that of the XRF analysis. PMID:19402720

Awane, Tohru; Fukuoka, Shintaro; Nakamachi, Kazuo; Tsuji, Kouichi

2009-05-01

416

Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution.

Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ding, Xunliang

2007-07-01

417

Near optimal energy selective x-ray imaging system performance with simple detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This article describes a method to achieve near optimal performance with low energy resolution detectors. Tapiovaara and Wagner [Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 519-529 (1985)] showed that an energy selective x-ray system using a broad spectrum source can produce images with a larger signal to noise ratio (SNR) than conventional systems using energy integrating or photon counting detectors. They showed that there is an upper limit to the SNR and that it can be achieved by measuring full spectrum information and then using an optimal energy dependent weighting. Methods: A performance measure is derived by applying statistical detection theory to an abstract vector space of the line integrals of the basis set coefficients of the two function approximation to the x-ray attenuation coefficient. The approach produces optimal results that utilize all the available energy dependent data. The method can be used with any energy selective detector and is applied not only to detectors using pulse height analysis (PHA) but also to a detector that simultaneously measures the total photon number and integrated energy, as discussed by Roessl et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 959-966 (2007)]. A generalization of this detector that improves the performance is introduced. A method is described to compute images with the optimal SNR using projections in a ''whitened'' vector space transformed so the noise is uncorrelated and has unit variance in both coordinates. Material canceled images with optimal SNR can also be computed by projections in this space. Results: The performance measure is validated by showing that it provides the Tapiovaara-Wagner optimal results for a detector with full energy information and also a conventional detector. The performance with different types of detectors is compared to the ideal SNR as a function of x-ray tube voltage and subject thickness. A detector that combines two bin PHA with a simultaneous measurement of integrated photon energy provides near ideal performance across a wide range of operating conditions. Conclusions: Low energy resolution detectors can be used in energy selective x-ray imaging systems to produce images with near optimal performance.

Alvarez, Robert E. [Aprend Technology, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States)

2010-02-15

418

Near optimal energy selective x-ray imaging system performance with simple detectors  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This article describes a method to achieve near optimal performance with low energy resolution detectors. Tapiovaara and Wagner [Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 519–529 (1985)] showed that an energy selective x-ray system using a broad spectrum source can produce images with a larger signal to noise ratio (SNR) than conventional systems using energy integrating or photon counting detectors. They showed that there is an upper limit to the SNR and that it can be achieved by measuring full spectrum information and then using an optimal energy dependent weighting. Methods: A performance measure is derived by applying statistical detection theory to an abstract vector space of the line integrals of the basis set coefficients of the two function approximation to the x-ray attenuation coefficient. The approach produces optimal results that utilize all the available energy dependent data. The method can be used with any energy selective detector and is applied not only to detectors using pulse height analysis (PHA) but also to a detector that simultaneously measures the total photon number and integrated energy, as discussed by Roessl et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 959–966 (2007)]. A generalization of this detector that improves the performance is introduced. A method is described to compute images with the optimal SNR using projections in a “whitened” vector space transformed so the noise is uncorrelated and has unit variance in both coordinates. Material canceled images with optimal SNR can also be computed by projections in this space. Results: The performance measure is validated by showing that it provides the Tapiovaara–Wagner optimal results for a detector with full energy information and also a conventional detector. The performance with different types of detectors is compared to the ideal SNR as a function of x-ray tube voltage and subject thickness. A detector that combines two bin PHA with a simultaneous measurement of integrated photon energy provides near ideal performance across a wide range of operating conditions. Conclusions: Low energy resolution detectors can be used in energy selective x-ray imaging systems to produce images with near optimal performance.

Alvarez, Robert E.

2010-01-01

419

Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

Skinner, Gerald K.

2010-01-01

420

Submicron X-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The beam line has a unity magnification toroidal mirror that produces a 50 by 200 micron focus just inside an x-ray hutch at the position of an x-y slit. The beam path in the hutch consists of source defining slits, a four bounce Ge or Si monochromator, followed by elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror pair which focuses the beam from the slits to sub micron dimensions (0.8 x 0.8 microns). An important2048ture of this arrangement is the ability to switch between white and monochromatic beams that are essential for characterizing crystals or crystal grains in the sub-micron range. Since sample rotation is fixed they have facilities for precision translation of the specimen to allow them to scan different crystal regions or grains. The sample stage rests on a state of the art six-circle diffractometer equipped with encoders in the main rotation stages calibrated to a second of arc. The detector is a 4K x 4K CCD (Bruker) with a 9 x 9 cm view area mounted on a detector arm that can be positioned around the sample. The detector itself can also be positioned to better than 1 micron along the detector arm. Using this facility they have been able to measure the orientation structure of single grains of passivated or buried Al interconnect test structures. Such structures or their equivalents are important in connecting individual components on integrated circuits. Their sub-micron dimensions result in very high current densities that can result in interconnect failures. The variation in sub-grain structure in a single grain is rich in detail. They have obtained detailed maps of misorientations in single grains using white beam Laue diffraction patterns From these they have been able to determine the deviatoric part of the strain tensor. Switching to a monochromatic beam they can measure the strain in a single grain. They find that there are large variations in the strain and orientation from grain to grain and even within an individual grain, reflecting the highly strained and confined geometry of passivated metal lines deposited at high temperature. They can also follow quite easily the energy shift of a single reflection as they heat or cool the sample. With the facility to switch between white or monochromatic x-rays combined with sub-micron focusing it is evident that this technique can be applied to a host of problems in Materials Science Technology and the Physics of sub micron crystallites.

MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Tamura, N.; Spolenak, R.; Valek, B.; Brown, W.L.; Bravman, J.C.; Padmore, H.A.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.

2000-02-26

421

Soft x-ray interferometry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

Not Available

1993-09-01

422

An accuracy assessment of photo-ionization cross-section datasets for 1-2 keV x-rays in light elements using PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was used to assess the accuracy of the National Institute of Standards and Technology XCOM and FFAST photo-ionization cross-section databases in the low energy region (1-2 keV) for light elements. Characteristic x-ray yields generated in thick samples of Mg, Al and Si in elemental and oxide form, were compared to fundamental parameters computations of the expected x-ray yields; the database for this computation included XCOM attenuation coefficients. The resultant PIXE instrumental efficiency constant was found to differ by 4-6% between each element and its oxide. This discrepancy was traced to use of the XCOM Hartree-Slater photo-electric cross-sections. Substitution of the FFAST Hartree-Slater cross-sections reduced the effect. This suggests that for 1-2 keV x-rays in light element absorbers, the FFAST predictions of the photo-electric cross-sections are more accurate than the XCOM values.

Heirwegh, C. M.; Pradler, I.; Campbell, J. L.

2013-09-01

423

Stimulated electronic x-ray Raman scattering.  

PubMed

We demonstrate strong stimulated inelastic x-ray scattering by resonantly exciting a dense gas target of neon with femtosecond, high-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). A small number of lower energy XFEL seed photons drive an avalanche of stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering processes that amplify the Raman scattering signal by several orders of magnitude until it reaches saturation. Despite the large overall spectral width, the internal spiky structure of the XFEL spectrum determines the energy resolution of the scattering process in a statistical sense. This is demonstrated by observing a stochastic line shift of the inelastically scattered x-ray radiation. In conjunction with statistical methods, XFELs can be used for stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, with spectral resolution smaller than the natural width of the core-excited, intermediate state. PMID:24476271

Weninger, Clemens; Purvis, Michael; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A; Bozek, John D; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Brown, Gregory; Rocca, Jorge J; Rohringer, Nina

2013-12-01

424

Stimulated Electronic X-Ray Raman Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate strong stimulated inelastic x-ray scattering by resonantly exciting a dense gas target of neon with femtosecond, high-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). A small number of lower energy XFEL seed photons drive an avalanche of stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering processes that amplify the Raman scattering signal by several orders of magnitude until it reaches saturation. Despite the large overall spectral width, the internal spiky structure of the XFEL spectrum determines the energy resolution of the scattering process in a statistical sense. This is demonstrated by observing a stochastic line shift of the inelastically scattered x-ray radiation. In conjunction with statistical methods, XFELs can be used for stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, with spectral resolution smaller than the natural width of the core-excited, intermediate state.

Weninger, Clemens; Purvis, Michael; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A.; Bozek, John D.; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Brown, Gregory; Rocca, Jorge J.; Rohringer, Nina

2013-12-01

425

The X-ray corona of Procyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray emission from the nearby system Procyon A/B (F5 IV + DF) was detected, using the IPC (Imaging Proportional Counter) on board the Einstein Observatory. Analysis of the X-ray pulse height spectrum suggests that the observed X-ray emission originates in Procyon A rather than in the white dwarf companion Procyon B, since the derived X-ray temperature, log T = 6.2, agrees well with temperatures found for quiescent solar X-ray emission. Modeling Procyon's corona with loops characterized by some apex temperature Tmax and emission length scale L, it is found that Tmax is well constrained, but L, and consequently the filling factor of the X-ray emitting gas, are essentially unconstrained even when EUV emission from the transition region is included in the analysis.

Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.; Peres, G.; Serio, S.

1985-01-01

426

Accretion-driven stellar x-ray sources  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on accretion-driven stellar X-ray sources. Topics covered include X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge; X-ray emission from normal galaxies; optical observations of compact galactic X-ray sources; and formation and evolution of X-ray binaries.

Lewin, W.H.G.; Van Del Heuvel, E.P.J.

1983-01-01

427

Robust megavoltage x-ray spectra estimation from transmission measurements.  

PubMed

Megavoltage X-ray sources are commonly used for therapy planning, and knowledge of their spectral distribution is important for accurate dose calculations. There are many methods that could provide reasonable estimations of Megavoltage X-ray spectra, when very accurate attenuation data or at least very good set of initial guesses of the spectra are available. We present here a novel method, which can be used for accurate Megavoltage spectral reconstruction without any prior knowledge of spectral distribution; the method performs well even when the available transmission data are affected by noise. The method is based on a search for a smooth function that minimizes the differences between measured and calculated attenuation data. The algorithm is compared with well-known existing algorithms, using computer simulated data, both error-free and containing added random Gaussian noise. The reconstructed spectra are subsequently used to calculate the transmission through 50 cm of bone, muscle or fat tissue. It is shown that the relative errors in dose calculations, using the spectra reconstructed via this method, are significantly smaller than those obtained via well-established reconstruction algorithms--Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) and Expectation Maximization (EM). These results suggest that the novel algorithm might be practical for routine Megavoltage therapy X-ray source calibration. PMID:19644215

Manciu, Marian; Manciu, Felicia S; Vulcan, Teodor; Nes, Elena; Waggener, Robert G

2009-01-01

428

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOEpatents

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1994-01-01

429

X-ray line emission from Capella  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray emission-line components from Mg, Si, S, and Fe are unambiguously detected from Capella with the solid-state spectrometer onboard the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray spectrum is inconsistent with an isothermal corona, and requires components between 6-million K and at least 24-million K for an adequate fit. An inhomogeneous corona in which the X-ray emitting plasma is confined to magnetically contained loops appears to be reconcilable with all of the experimental evidence.

Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; White, N. E.; Becker, R. H.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Smith, B. W.

1979-01-01

430

A Plethora of X-ray Telescopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This explanation describes the observatories we are currently using to study X-rays from space. Chandra, named for Nobel prize winner Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, was launched from the space shuttle in 1999. Current X-ray observatories include The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), named after astronomer Bruno Rossi, and The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). The site also discusses what observatories we will use in the coming years to explore the structure and evolution of the Universe.

431

Topological X-Rays and MRIs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Let K be a compact subset of the interior of the unit disk D in the plane and suppose one can't see through the boundary of D and identify K. However, assume that one can take "topological X-rays" of D which measure the "density" of K along the lines of the X-rays. By taking these X-rays from all directions, a "topological MRI" is generated for…

Lynch, Mark

2002-01-01

432

The X-ray cluster Abell 744  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present X-ray and optical observations of the cluster of galaxies Abell 744. The X-ray flux (assuming H0 = 100 km s-1Mpc-1) is ?9×1042erg s-1. The X-ray source is extended, but shows no other structure. The authors present photographic photometry (in Kron-Cousins R), calibrated by deep CCD frames, for all galaxies brighter than 19th magnitude within 0.75 Mpc of

M. J. Kurtz; J. P. Huchra; T. C. Beers; M. J. Geller; I. M. Gioia; T. Maccacaro; R. E. Schild; J. R. Stauffer

1985-01-01

433

HEATING THE SOLAR X-RAY CORONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray corona of the Sun consists of the diffuse X-ray background and the bright X-ray loops (107 erg\\/cm2sec) confined in the strong (100 Gauss) bipolar fields of mag- netic active regions. The bipolar fields are rooted in the solar granules which continually intermix the photo- spheric footpoints of the bipolar fields and progressively interlace the field lines. The intermixing

E. N. Parker

434

Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy  

SciTech Connect

We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Czech Technical Universiry in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic); Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A. [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic)

2010-07-15

435

X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

Dabrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wróbel, A.; Korecki, P.

2013-06-01

436

X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

Dabrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wrobel, A.; Korecki, P. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)] [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2013-06-03

437

Measurements of polycapillary x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect

Assemblies of hollow capillary tubes, termed Kumakhov optics,'' can be used to control x rays for a large variety of applications. M