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Sample records for x-ray diffraction line

  1. EFFECT OF SATELLITE LINES FROM X-RAY SOURCE ON X-RAY DIFFRACTION PEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the development of a method for relating reactivity to crystallite size and strain parameters obtained by the Warren-Averbach technique. PA has been using crystallite size and strain data obtained from x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak profile analysis to predict...

  2. X-Ray Diffraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  3. Line x-ray source for diffraction enhanced imaging in clinical and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    Mammography is one type of imaging modalities that uses a low-dose x-ray or other radiation sources for examination of breasts. It plays a central role in early detection of breast cancers. The material similarity of tumor-cell and health cell, breast implants surgery and other factors, make the breast cancers hard to visualize and detect. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), first proposed and investigated by D. Chapman is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source, which produced images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. It shows dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging when applied to the same phantom. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also on the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. This imaging method may improve image quality of mammography, other medical applications, industrial radiography for non-destructive testing and x-ray computed tomography. However, the size, and cost, of a synchrotron source limits the application of the new modality to be applicable at clinical levels. This research investigates the feasibility of a designed line x-ray source to produce intensity compatible to synchrotron sources. It is composed of a 2-cm in length tungsten filament, installed on a carbon steel filament cup (backing plate), as the cathode and a stationary oxygen-free copper anode with molybdenum coating on the front surface serves as the target. Characteristic properties of the line x-ray source were computationally studied and the prototype was experimentally investigated. SIMIION code was used to computationally study the electron trajectories emanating from the filament towards the molybdenum target. A Faraday cup on the prototype device, proof-of-principle, was used to measure the distribution of electrons on the target, which compares favorably to computational results. The intensities of characteristic x-ray for molybdenum

  4. THE EFFECT OF SATELLITE LINES FROM THE X-RAY SOURCE ON X-RAY DIFFRACTION PEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the development of a method for relating reactivity to crystallite size and strain parameters obtained by the Warren-Averbach technique. EPA has been using crystallite size and strain data obtained from x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak profile analysis to predic...

  5. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis of KBr thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R.; Triloki, Triloki; Singh, B. K.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, the microcrystalline characteristics of KBr thin films have been investigated by evaluating the breadth of diffraction peak. The Williamson-Hall, the Size-Strain plot and the single-line Voigt methods are employed to deconvolute the finite crystallite size and microstrain contribution from the broaden X-ray profile. The texture coefficient and dislocation density have been determined along each diffraction peak. Other relevant physical parameters such as stress, Young's modulus and energy density are also estimated using uniform stress deformation and uniform deformation energy density approximation of Williamson-Hall method.

  6. In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    De Caro, L.; Giannini, C.; Guagliardi, A.; Mocuta, C.; Metzger, T. H.; Cedola, A.; Burkeeva, I.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2008-02-15

    A Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging experiment with hard x rays is here presented, using two planar crossed waveguides as optical elements, leading to a virtual pointlike source. The coherent wave field obtained with this setup is used to illuminate a micrometric single object having the shape of a butterfly. A digital two-dimensional in-line holographic reconstruction of the unknown object at low resolution (200 nm) has been obtained directly via fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the raw data. The object and its twin image are well separated because suitable geometrical conditions are satisfied. A good estimate of the incident wave field phase has been extracted directly from the FFT of the raw data. A partial object reconstruction with 50 nm spatial resolution was achieved by fast iterative phase retrieval, the major limitation for a full reconstruction being the nonideal structure of the guided beam. The method offers a route for fast and reliable phase retrieval in x-ray coherent diffraction.

  7. In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caro, L.; Giannini, C.; Pelliccia, D.; Mocuta, C.; Metzger, T. H.; Guagliardi, A.; Cedola, A.; Burkeeva, I.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2008-02-01

    A Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging experiment with hard x rays is here presented, using two planar crossed waveguides as optical elements, leading to a virtual pointlike source. The coherent wave field obtained with this setup is used to illuminate a micrometric single object having the shape of a butterfly. A digital two-dimensional in-line holographic reconstruction of the unknown object at low resolution (200nm) has been obtained directly via fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the raw data. The object and its twin image are well separated because suitable geometrical conditions are satisfied. A good estimate of the incident wave field phase has been extracted directly from the FFT of the raw data. A partial object reconstruction with 50nm spatial resolution was achieved by fast iterative phase retrieval, the major limitation for a full reconstruction being the nonideal structure of the guided beam. The method offers a route for fast and reliable phase retrieval in x-ray coherent diffraction.

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  9. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-08-17

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample.

  10. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF A SOLID SORBENT WITH CRYSTALLITE SIZE AND STRAIN DATA FROM X-RAY DIFFRACTION LINE BROADENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of a solid sorbent with crystallite size and strain data from x-ray diffraction line broadening, as part of an EPA investigation of the injection of dry Ca(OH)2 into coal-fired electric power plant burners for the control of SO2 emi...

  11. Advanced X-ray diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Comamala, J.; Jefimovs, K.; Pilvi, T.; Ritala, M.; Sarkar, S. S.; Solak, H. H.; Guzenko, V. A.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Raabe, J.; Tzvetkov, G.; Fink, R. H.; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C. N.; Kaulich, B.; David, C.

    2009-09-01

    X-ray microscopy greatly benefits from the advances in x-ray optics. At the Paul Scherrer Institut, developments in x-ray diffractive optics include the manufacture and optimization of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) and diffractive optical elements for both soft and hard x-ray regimes. In particular, we demonstrate here a novel method for the production of ultra-high resolution FZPs. This technique is based on the deposition of a zone plate material (iridium) onto the sidewalls of a prepatterned template structure (silicon) by atomic layer deposition. This approach overcomes the limitations due to electron-beam writing of dense patterns in FZP fabrication and provides a clear route to push the resolution into sub-10 nm regime. A FZP fabricated by this method was used to resolve test structures with 12 nm lines and spaces at the scanning transmission x-ray microscope of the PolLux beamline of the Swiss Light Source at 1.2 keV photon energy.

  12. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  13. Determining fine-structure parameters for tungsten powder and filings by harmonic analysis of x-ray diffraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchik, A.E.; Moshkina, T.I.; Osmakov, A.S.

    1986-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating on determining fine-structure parameters by line shape harmonic analysis (LSHA) although many aspects remain unresolved. In this paper, the authors discuss the interpretations afresh, on-going improvements in x-ray techniques, in recording methods, and in processing the data, as well as in programs for determining the parameters by LSHA. The authors selected tungsten because of its bcc lattice, whose diffraction peaks are widely separated, which almost completely rules out their overlapping even if there is considerable broadening, such as is produced by large plastic strain. The material was produced in two ways: by firing a tungsten single crystal and by grinding VChDK tungsten powder in a laboratory vibration mill for 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 h.

  14. An Implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach for Analysis of X-ray Powder Diffraction Line Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Mullen, Katharine; Cline, James P.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an open implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach (FPA) models for analysis of X-ray powder diffraction line profiles. The original literature describing these models was examined and code was developed to allow for their use within a Python based least squares refinement algorithm. The NIST interest in the FPA method is specific to its ability to account for the optical aberrations of the powder diffraction experiment allowing for an accurate assessment of lattice parameter values. Lattice parameters are one of the primary certified measurands of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for powder diffraction. Lattice parameter values obtained from analysis of data from SRMs 640e and 660c using both the NIST FPA Python code and the proprietary, commercial code Topas, that constitutes the only other actively supported, complete implementation of FPA models within a least-squares data analysis environment, agreed to within 2 fm. This level of agreement demonstrates that both the NIST code and Topas constitute an accurate implementation of published FPA models. PMID:26958448

  15. An Implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach for Analysis of X-ray Powder Diffraction Line Profiles.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Marcus H; Mullen, Katharine; Cline, James P

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an open implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach (FPA) models for analysis of X-ray powder diffraction line profiles. The original literature describing these models was examined and code was developed to allow for their use within a Python based least squares refinement algorithm. The NIST interest in the FPA method is specific to its ability to account for the optical aberrations of the powder diffraction experiment allowing for an accurate assessment of lattice parameter values. Lattice parameters are one of the primary certified measurands of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for powder diffraction. Lattice parameter values obtained from analysis of data from SRMs 640e and 660c using both the NIST FPA Python code and the proprietary, commercial code Topas, that constitutes the only other actively supported, complete implementation of FPA models within a least-squares data analysis environment, agreed to within 2 fm. This level of agreement demonstrates that both the NIST code and Topas constitute an accurate implementation of published FPA models. PMID:26958448

  16. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  17. Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.; Zhong, Z.; Chapman, D.; Johnston, R.E.; Sayers, D.

    1997-09-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using synchrotron x-rays which produces images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. They show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging applied to the same phantoms. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. The diffraction component and the apparent absorption component (absorption plus extinction contrast) can each be determined independently. This imaging method may improve the image quality for medical applications such as mammography.

  18. Beyond hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Simultaneous combination with x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.

    2013-05-15

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful and novel emerging technique for the nondestructive determination of electronic properties and chemical composition of bulk, buried interfaces and surfaces. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons, increasing the information depth up to several tens of nanometers. Complementing HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique (such as x-ray diffraction) opens a new research field with major applications for materials science. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have developed a novel experimental set-up that combines HAXPES and x-ray diffraction (x-ray reflectivity, surface x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space maps). Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a robust 2S + 3D diffractometer hosting a ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with a unique photoelectron spectrometer (few eV < electron kinetic energy < 15 keV), x-ray tube (Mg/Ti), 15 keV electron gun, and auxiliary standard surface facilities (molecular beam epitaxy evaporator, ion gun, low energy electron diffraction, sample heating/cooling system, leak valves, load-lock sample transfer, etc.). This end-station offers the unique possibility of performing simultaneous HAXPES + x-ray diffraction studies. In the present work, we describe the experimental set-up together with two experimental examples that emphasize its outstanding capabilities: (i) nondestructive characterization of the Si/Ge and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interfaces on Ge-based CMOS devices, and (ii) strain study on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ultrathin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate.

  19. Interlaced X-ray diffraction computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Vamvakeros, Antonios; Jacques, Simon D. M.; Di Michiel, Marco; Senecal, Pierre; Middelkoop, Vesna; Cernik, Robert J.; Beale, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction computed tomography data-collection strategy that allows, post experiment, a choice between temporal and spatial resolution is reported. This strategy enables time-resolved studies on comparatively short timescales, or alternatively allows for improved spatial resolution if the system under study, or components within it, appear to be unchanging. The application of the method for studying an Mn–Na–W/SiO2 fixed-bed reactor in situ is demonstrated. Additionally, the opportunities to improve the data-collection strategy further, enabling post-collection tuning between statistical, temporal and spatial resolutions, are discussed. In principle, the interlaced scanning approach can also be applied to other pencil-beam tomographic techniques, like X-ray fluorescence computed tomography, X-ray absorption fine structure computed tomography, pair distribution function computed tomography and tomographic scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. PMID:27047305

  20. Single Particle X-ray Diffractive Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M J; Benner, W H; Boutet, S; Rohner, U; Frank, M; Seibert, M; Maia, F; Barty, A; Bajt, S; Riot, V; Woods, B; Marchesini, S; Hau-Riege, S P; Svenda, M; Marklund, E; Spiller, E; Hajdu, J; Chapman, H N

    2007-10-01

    In nanotechnology, strategies for the creation and manipulation of nanoparticles in the gas phase are critically important for surface modification and substrate-free characterization. Recent coherent diffractive imaging with intense femtosecond X-ray pulses has verified the capability of single-shot imaging of nanoscale objects at sub-optical resolutions beyond the radiation-induced damage threshold. By intercepting electrospray-generated particles with a single 15 femtosecond soft-X-ray pulse, we demonstrate diffractive imaging of a nanoscale specimen in free flight for the first time, an important step toward imaging uncrystallized biomolecules.

  1. The Dynamical Theory of X Ray Diffraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the Darwin theory of x-ray diffraction in thin crystals or crystals with a mosaic texture and its modified application to crystals with three-dimensional electrostatic dipoles. Indicates that the dynamical theory is brought into its present relevance by the improvement of single crystal growth techniques. (CC)

  2. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  3. X-Ray Diffraction on NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, J H; Wark, J

    2012-02-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently a 192 beam, 1.6 MJ laser. NIF Ramp-Compression Experiments have already made the relevant exo-planet pressure range from 1 to 50 Mbar accessible. We Proposed to Study Carbon Phases by X-Ray Diffraction on NIF. Just a few years ago, ultra-high pressure phase diagrams for materials were very 'simple'. New experiments and theories point out surprising and decidedly complex behavior at the highest pressures considered. High pressures phases of aluminum are also predicted to be complex. Recent metadynamics survey of carbon proposed a dynamic pathway among multiple phases. We need to develop diagnostics and techniques to explore this new regime of highly compressed matter science. X-Ray Diffraction - Understand the phase diagram/EOS/strength/texture of materials to 10's of Mbar. Strategy and physics goals: (1) Powder diffraction; (2) Begin with diamond; (3) Continue with metals etc.; (4) Explore phase diagrams; (5) Develop liquid diffraction; and (6) Reduce background/improve resolution.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of the broadening of x-ray diffraction, Raman, and photoluminescence lines by dislocation-induced strain in heteroepitaxial GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganer, Vladimir M.; Jenichen, Bernd; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Jahn, Uwe; Hauswald, Christian; Grosse, Frank; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Brandt, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Experimental x-ray diffraction, Raman, and photoluminescence line profiles from GaN films with different densities of threading dislocations are modeled using Monte Carlo calculations of the strain distribution due to these dislocations. We quantitatively analyze and compare the respective line broadenings predicted by these calculations for different dislocation densities. X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements reveal the strain in the whole volume of the film, due to the large penetration depth of the corresponding radiation, while photoluminescence measurements are sensitive to the strain close to the film surface, in a layer limited by the penetration depth of the radiation used for excitation. This difference in information depths becomes especially important for films in which the threading dislocation density is continuously decreasing during growth, as it can be achieved by vapor phase epitaxy methods. An additional narrowing of photoluminescence lines occurs due to two effects: first, the elastic relaxation of the dislocation strain at the free surface, and second, the suppression of luminescence from the most highly strained regions around the dislocation cores which act as centers of nonradiative recombination.

  5. Optical properties of X-rays--dynamical diffraction.

    PubMed

    Authier, André

    2012-01-01

    The first attempts at measuring the optical properties of X-rays such as refraction, reflection and diffraction are described. The main ideas forming the basis of Ewald's thesis in 1912 are then summarized. The first extension of Ewald's thesis to the X-ray case is the introduction of the reciprocal lattice. In the next step, the principles of the three versions of the dynamical theory of diffraction, by Darwin, Ewald and Laue, are given. It is shown how the comparison of the dynamical and geometrical theories of diffraction led Darwin to propose his extinction theory. The main optical properties of X-ray wavefields at the Bragg incidence are then reviewed: Pendellösung, shift of the Bragg peak, fine structure of Kossel lines, standing waves, anomalous absorption, paths of wavefields inside the crystal, Borrmann fan and double refraction. Lastly, some of the modern applications of the dynamical theory are briefly outlined: X-ray topography, location of adsorbed atoms at crystal surfaces, optical devices for synchrotron radiation and X-ray interferometry. PMID:22186282

  6. X-ray microimaging by diffractive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2001-07-31

    The report summarizes the development of soft x-ray microscopes at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-1A beamline. We have developed a soft x-ray microscopy beamline (X-1A) at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This beamline has been upgraded recently to provide two endstations dedicated to microscopy experiments. One endstation hosts a brand new copy of the redesigned room temperature scanning x-ray microscope (STXM), and the other end station hosts a cryo STXM and the original redesigned room temperature microscope, which has been commissioned and has started operation. Cryo STXM and the new microscope use the same new software package, running under the LINUX operating system. The new microscope is showing improved image resolution and extends spectromicroscopy to the nitrogen, oxygen and iron edges. These microscopes are used by us, and by users of the facility, to image hydrated specimens at 50 nm or better spatial resolution and with 0.1-0.5 eV energy resolution. This allows us to carry out chemical state mapping in biological, materials science, and environmental and colloidal science specimens. In the cryo microscope, we are able to do chemical state mapping and tomography of frozen hydrated specimens, and this is of special importance for radiation-sensitive biological specimens. for spectromicroscopic analysis, and methods for obtaining real-space images from the soft x-ray diffraction patterns of non-crystalline specimens. The user program provides opportunities for collaborators and other groups to exploit the techniques available and to develop them further. We have also developed new techniques such as an automated method for acquiring ''stacks'' of images.

  7. In-line x-ray phase-contrast tomography and diffraction-contrast tomography study of the ferrite-cementite microstructure in steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostenko, Alexander; Sharma, Hemant; Dere, E. Gözde; King, Andrew; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Van Oel, Wim; Offerman, S. Erik; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Vliet, Lucas J. van

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the development of a non-destructive imaging technique for the investigation of the microstructure of cementite grains embedded in a ferrite matrix of medium-carbon steel. The measurements were carried out at the material science beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) ID11. It was shown that in-line X-ray phase-contrast tomography (PCT) can be used for the detection of cementite grains of several microns in size. X-ray PCT of the cementite structure can be achieved by either a `single distance' or a `multiple distance' acquisition protocol. The latter permits quantitative phase retrieval. A second imaging technique, X-ray diffraction-contrast tomography (DCT), was employed to obtain information about the shapes and crystallographic orientations of the distinct ferrite grains surrounding the cementite structures. The initial results demonstrate the feasibility of determining the geometry of the cementite grains after the austenite-ferrite phase-transformation in a non-destructive manner. The results obtained with PCT and DCT are verified with ex-situ optical microscopy studies of the same specimen.

  8. Diffraction grating transmission efficiencies for XUV and soft x rays.

    PubMed

    Schnopper, H W; Van Speybroeck, L P; Delvaille, J P; Epstein, A; Källne, E; Bachrach, R Z; Dijkstra, J; Lantward, L

    1977-04-01

    Efficiencies for diffraction of 45-275-eV x rays into orders by interferometrically formed, electrodeposited, gold transmission gratings have been measured on the 4 degrees beam line at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project (SSRP). Anomalous dispersion affects the observed efficiency since the gold is partially transmitting to x rays. Model calculations which include anomalous dispersion are in good agreement with observations. With a suitable choice of material and thickness, a grating can be optimized for a given wavelength range by reducing the zero order transmission and enhancing the higher orders. Even orders are suppressed for a grating with equal slit and wire sizes. PMID:20168641

  9. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  10. Elimination of X-Ray Diffraction through Stimulated X-Ray Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Wang, T.; Graves, C. E.; Zhu, D.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Hellwig, O.; Chen, Z.; Dürr, H. A.; Scherz, A.; Stöhr, J.

    2016-07-01

    X-ray diffractive imaging with laterally coherent x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses is increasingly utilized to obtain ultrafast snapshots of matter. Here we report the amazing disappearance of single-shot charge and magnetic diffraction patterns recorded with resonantly tuned, narrow bandwidth XFEL pulses. Our experimental results reveal the exquisite sensitivity of single-shot charge and magnetic diffraction patterns of a magnetic film to the onset of field-induced stimulated elastic x-ray forward scattering. The loss in diffraction contrast, measured over 3 orders of magnitude in intensity, is in remarkable quantitative agreement with a recent theory that is extended to include diffraction.

  11. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Oliveira, L. F.

    2001-09-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtained diffraction patterns form the basis of a selective tomography technique. Preliminary images are presented.

  12. Glass transition in ferroic glass K x (ND4)1-x D2PO4: a complete x-ray diffraction line shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Choudhury, Rajul; Chitra, R.; Jayakrishnan, V. B.

    2016-03-01

    Quenching of dynamic disorder in glassy systems is termed as the glass transition. Ferroic glasses belong to the class of paracrystalline materials having crystallographic order in-between that of a perfect crystal and amorphous material, a classic example of ferroic glass is the solid solution of ferroelectric deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate and antiferroelectric deuterated ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. Lowering temperature of this ferroic glass can lead to a glass transition to a quenched disordered state. The subtle atomic rearrangement that takes place at such a glass transition can be revealed by careful examination of the temperature induced changes occurring in the x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of these materials. Hence we report here results of a complete diffraction line shape analysis of the XRD patterns recorded at different temperatures from deuterated mixed crystals DK x A1-x DP with mixing concentration x ranging as 0 < x < 1. Changes observed in diffraction peak shapes have been explained on the basis of structural rearrangements induced by changing O-D-O hydrogen bond dynamics in these paracrystals.

  13. X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, David C.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes research on use of x-ray diffraction to measure stresses in metal conductors of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits exposed to ionizing radiation. Expanding upon report summarized in "X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: I" (NPO-18803), presenting data further suggesting relationship between electrical performances of circuits and stresses and strains in metal conductors.

  14. Scanning CCD Detector for X-ray Powder Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, T.; Baldwin, J.; Von Dreele, R.; Suchomel, M.; Toby, B. H.

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the design, fabrication and use of a custom CCD detector for x-ray powder diffraction measurements. The detector is mounted on a diffractometer arm, where line-by-line readout of the CCD is coupled to continuous motion of the arm. As the arm moves, the data from the CCD detector are accumulated and can be viewed as if it were a "film strip" with partial powder diffraction rings. Because of the unique design of the camera, both high-resolution and rapid measurements can be performed. Powder diffraction patterns are collected with speeds of a few minutes, or less, with many of the advantages of large area position-sensitive detectors, for example amorphous silicon flat panels, such as high sensitivity, direct evidence of grainy samples and freedom from low-angle asymmetry, but with resolution better than linear position-sensitive detectors and nearly as good as the ultimate in resolution, analyser-crystal detection [2,3].

  15. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modularmore » and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.« less

  16. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modular and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.

  17. High-Resolution Detector For X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Withrow, William K.; Pusey, Marc L.; Yost, Vaughn H.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed x-ray-sensitive imaging detector offers superior spatial resolution, counting-rate capacity, and dynamic range. Instrument based on laser-stimulated luminescence and reusable x-ray-sensitive film. Detector scans x-ray film line by line. Extracts latent image in film and simultaneously erases film for reuse. Used primarily for protein crystallography. Principle adapted to imaging detectors for electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy and general use in astronomy, engineering, and medicine.

  18. X-ray diffraction study of lead chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsch, K.; Knížek, K.; Rodová, M.

    1994-08-01

    PbCl 2 was examined by X-ray diffraction in order to test information about polymorphism in this compound. X-ray diffraction patterns of PbCl 2 crystallized from the aqueous solution, as well as of PbCl 2 molten and quenched, are the same. Two modifications in PbCl 2 were not found and polymorphism was not confirmed.

  19. An X-ray diffraction study of titanium oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, K. E.; Unnam, J.

    1984-01-01

    Titanium specimens of commercial purity were exposed at 1100 to 1400 F to laboratory air for times up to 100 hours. The extent of substrate contamination by interstitial oxygen was was determined by a new X-ray diffraction analysis involving transformation of X-ray diffraction intensity bands. The oxygen solid-solubility at the oxide-metal interfaces and its variation with time at temperature were also determined. Diffusion coefficients are deduced from the oxygen depth profiles.

  20. Microbeam X-Ray Standing Wave and High Resolution Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimirov, A.; Bilderback, D.H.; Huang, R.; Sirenko, A.

    2004-05-12

    Post-focusing collimating optics are introduced as a tool to condition X-ray microbeams for the use in high-resolution X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques. As an example, a one-bounce imaging capillary and miniature Si(004) channel-cut crystal were used to produce a microbeam with 10 {mu}m size and an ultimate angular resolution of 2.5 arc sec. This beam was used to measure the strain in semiconductor microstructures by using X-ray high resolution diffraction and standing wave techniques to {delta}d/d < 5x10-4.

  1. Precise rotational alignment of x-ray transmission diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.

    1988-03-28

    Gold transmission diffraction gratings used for x-ray spectroscopy must sometimes be rotationally aligned to the axis of a diagnostic instrument to within sub-milliradian accuracy. We have fabricated transmission diffraction gratings with high line-densities (grating period of 200 and 300 nm) using uv holographic and x-ray lithography. Since the submicron features of the gratings are not optically visible, precision alignment is time consuming and difficult to verify in situ. We have developed a technique to write an optically visible alignment pattern onto these gratings using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). At high magnification (15000 X) several submicron lines of the grating are observable in the SEM, making it possible to write an alignment pattern parallel to the grating lines in an electron-beam-sensitive coating that overlays the grating. We create an alignment pattern by following a 1-cm-long grating line using the SEM's joystick-controlled translation stage. By following the same grating line we are assured the traveled direction of the SEM electron beam is parallel to the grating to better than 10 ..mu..radian. The electron-beam-exposed line-width can be large (5 to 15 ..mu..m wide) depending on the SEM magnification, and is therefore optically visible. The exposed pattern is eventually made a permanent feature of the grating by ion beam etching or gold electroplating. The pattern can be used to accurately align the grating to the axis of a diagnostic instrument. More importantly, the alignment of the grating can be quickly verified in situ.

  2. In-situ mechanical testing during X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Van Swygenhoven, Helena Van Petegem, Steven

    2013-04-15

    Deforming metals during recording X-ray diffraction patterns is a useful tool to get a deeper understanding of the coupling between microstructure and mechanical behaviour. With the advances in flux, detector speed and focussing techniques at synchrotron facilities, in-situ mechanical testing is now possible during powder diffraction and Laue diffraction. The basic principle is explained together with illustrative examples.

  3. X-ray diffraction as a local probe tool.

    PubMed

    Stangl, J; Mocuta, C; Diaz, A; Metzger, T H; Bauer, G

    2009-12-01

    For the structural characterization of nanoscale objects, X-ray diffraction is widely used as a technique complementing local probe analysis methods such as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Details on strain distributions, chemical composition, or size and shape of nanostructures are addressed. X-ray diffraction traditionally obtains very good statistically averaged properties over large ensembles-provided this averaging is meaningful for ensembles with sufficiently small dispersion of properties. In many cases, however, it is desirable to combine different analysis techniques on exactly the same nano-object, for example, to gain a more detailed insight into the interdependence of properties. X-ray beams focused to diameters in the sub-micron range, which are available at third-generation synchrotron sources, allow for such X-ray diffraction studies of individual nano-objects. PMID:19856372

  4. X-ray diffraction topography image materials by molecular probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Manfred P.; Lange, Axel; Schors, Joerg; Wald, Oliver

    2005-05-01

    Crystallinity, composition, homogeneity and anisotropy determine the mechanical properties of materials significantly, but the performance of most non-destructive techniques is too poor for measuring these micro structures as they are optimized for finding individual flaws/defects. X-ray (wide angle) Diffraction Topography by single beam scanning images molecular information at a spatial resolution of several ten micrometers even in three dimensions. Especially for the non-destructive characterization of composite materials, they provide additional capabilities by crystallographic contrast by the molecular/atomic probe. The different material phases of compounds and their molecular orientation can be imaged e.g. fibers or polymer chain orientation in composites: A sample is scanned or rotated, while only part of the scattering pattern is pointing at an X-ray detector area. Three different methods have been developed: i) planar X-ray Scanning Topography at one or more pre-selected scattering angles provides high contrast of different phases of components. ii) X-Ray Rotation Topography reveals the texture angle of composite fibers and chain polymers. iii) X-ray Diffraction Microscopy images the texture and phase distribution of transversal sections of the material. The principles of Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction Topography are explained and examples of investigations will be presented. They combine the advantages of radiographic imaging and crystal structure information. The applied X-ray energies are much lower than in NDT radiography, which recommends preferably the application to light weight materials.

  5. X-ray characterization by energy-resolved powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, G.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    A method for single-shot, nondestructive characterization of broadband x-ray beams, based on energy-resolved powder diffraction, is described. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to simulate data for x-ray beams in the keV range with parameters similar to those generated by betatron oscillations in a laser-driven plasma accelerator. The retrieved x-ray spectra are found to be in excellent agreement with those of the input beams for realistic numbers of incident photons. It is demonstrated that the angular divergence of the x rays can be deduced from the deviation of the detected photons from the Debye-Scherrer rings which would be produced by a parallel beam. It is shown that the angular divergence can be measured as a function of the photon energy, yielding the angularly resolved spectrum of the input x-ray beam.

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.; Lima, E.; Huang, X.; Krupin, O.; Seu, K.; Parks, D.; Kevan, S.; Kisslinger, K.; McNulty, I.; Gambino, R.; Mangin, S.; Roy, S. and Fischer, P.

    2011-07-14

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L{sub 3} edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  7. Spectroscopic imaging, diffraction, and holography with x-ray photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    X-ray probes are capable of determining the spatial structure of an atom in a specific chemical state, over length scales from about a micron all the way down to atomic resolution. Examples of these probes include photoemission microscopy, energy-dependent photoemission diffraction, photoelectron holography, and X-ray absorption microspectroscopy. Although the method of image formation, chemical-state sensitivity, and length scales can be very different, these X-ray techniques share a common goal of combining a capability for structure determination with chemical-state specificity. This workshop will address recent advances in holographic, diffraction, and direct imaging techniques using X-ray photoemission on both theoretical and experimental fronts. A particular emphasis will be on novel structure determinations with atomic resolution using photoelectrons.

  8. Cryogenic X-ray Diffraction Microscopy for Biological Samples

    SciTech Connect

    E Lima; L Wiegart; P Pernot; M Howells; J Timmins; F Zontone; A Madsen

    2011-12-31

    X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is well suited for nondestructive, high-resolution biological imaging, especially for thick samples, with the high penetration power of x rays and without limitations imposed by a lens. We developed nonvacuum, cryogenic (cryo-) XDM with hard x rays at 8 keV and report the first frozen-hydrated imaging by XDM. By preserving samples in amorphous ice, the risk of artifacts associated with dehydration or chemical fixation is avoided, ensuring the imaging condition closest to their natural state. The reconstruction shows internal structures of intact D. radiodurans bacteria in their natural contrast.

  9. Coherent grating x-ray diffraction (CGXD) and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Q.

    1996-09-01

    We show that an x-ray interference phenomenon, coherent grating x-ray diffraction (CGXD), can be used to study lateral nanostructure arrays on crystal surfaces and interfaces. Compared to Fraunhofer grating diffraction of visible light, x-ray grating diffraction contains information not only about geometric profiles of the surface but also about the internal crystalline structures and lattice strain distributions in the grating features. The grating diffraction pattern can also be measured in a white-beam Laue method using highly collimated polychromatic synchrotron radiation, which provides a parallel data collection scheme and may be useful in {ital in} {ital situ} studies on evolution of nanostructure arrays. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. X-ray diffraction investigation of ultrafine boron nitride powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gurov, S.V.; Chukalin, V.I.; Rezchikova, T.V.; Torbov, V.J.; Troitskii, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an x-ray diffraction analysis of ultrafine boron nitride powders of different mean particle sizes. Diffraction spectra of the ultrafine boron nitride powders were obtained using a DRON-1 apparatus. The experimental facts are indicative of a turbostratic character of deformation of the hexagonal lattice of ultrafinely divided boron nitride.

  11. X-Ray Diffraction Wafer Mapping Method for Rhombohedral Super-Hetero-Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yoonjoon; Choi, Sang Hyouk; King, Glen C.; Elliott, James R.; Dimarcantonio, Albert L.

    2010-01-01

    A new X-ray diffraction (XRD) method is provided to acquire XY mapping of the distribution of single crystals, poly-crystals, and twin defects across an entire wafer of rhombohedral super-hetero-epitaxial semiconductor material. In one embodiment, the method is performed with a point or line X-ray source with an X-ray incidence angle approximating a normal angle close to 90 deg, and in which the beam mask is preferably replaced with a crossed slit. While the wafer moves in the X and Y direction, a narrowly defined X-ray source illuminates the sample and the diffracted X-ray beam is monitored by the detector at a predefined angle. Preferably, the untilted, asymmetric scans are of {440} peaks, for twin defect characterization.

  12. Utilizing broadband X-rays in a Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiment.

    PubMed

    Cha, Wonsuk; Liu, Wenjun; Harder, Ross; Xu, Ruqing; Fuoss, Paul H; Hruszkewycz, Stephan O

    2016-09-01

    A method is presented to simplify Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging studies of complex heterogeneous crystalline materials with a two-stage screening/imaging process that utilizes polychromatic and monochromatic coherent X-rays and is compatible with in situ sample environments. Coherent white-beam diffraction is used to identify an individual crystal particle or grain that displays desired properties within a larger population. A three-dimensional reciprocal-space map suitable for diffraction imaging is then measured for the Bragg peak of interest using a monochromatic beam energy scan that requires no sample motion, thus simplifying in situ chamber design. This approach was demonstrated with Au nanoparticles and will enable, for example, individual grains in a polycrystalline material of specific orientation to be selected, then imaged in three dimensions while under load. PMID:27577782

  13. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; Sayre, D.

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  14. High-throughput baggage scanning employing x-ray diffraction for accurate explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael C.; Partain, Larry D.

    2003-07-01

    X-ray systems dominate the installed base of airport baggage scanning systems for explosives detection. The majority are conveyer systems with projection line scanners. These systems can achieve a high throughput but exhibit a high false positive rate and require significant operator involvement. Systems employing computed tomography (CT) are currently being installed at a rapid rate. These can provide good discrimination of levels of xray absorption coefficient and can largely circumvent superimposition effects. Nonetheless CT measures only x-ray absorption coefficient per voxel which does not provide a means of specific material identification resulting in many false positives, and it is relatively straightforward to configure explosive materials so that they are undetectable by CT systems. Diffraction-based x-ray systems present a solution to this problem. They detect and measure atomic layer spacings in crystalline and microcrystalline materials with high sensitivity. This provides a means of specific material identification. The majority of explosive compounds are well crystallized solids at room temperature. X-ray diffraction systems using both conventional wavelength-dispersive diffraction and fixed-angle, multi-wavelength diffraction for improved throughput are described. Large-area, flat-panel x-ray detector technology coupled with an extended x-ray source will permit a full 3D volumetric x-ray diffraction scan of a bag in a single pass, (patent pending).

  15. Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2011-06-01

    Ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy is a lensless imaging technique with a large field of view and high spatial resolution, which is also useful for characterizing the wavefront of an x-ray probe. The performance of this technique is degraded by positioning errors due to the drift between the sample and illumination optics. We propose an experimental approach for correcting the positioning errors and demonstrate success by two-dimensionally reconstructing both the wavefront of the focused x-ray beam and the complex transmissivity of the weakly scattering objects at the pixel resolution of better than 10 nm in the field of view larger than 5 {mu}m. This method is applicable to not only the observation of organelles inside cells or nano-mesoscale structures buried within bulk materials but also the characterization of probe for single-shot imaging with x-ray free electron lasers.

  16. Modern X-ray Diffraction Methods in Mineralogy and Geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lavina, Barbara; Dera, Przemyslaw; Downs, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This section is not intended to be comprehensive or detailed, because diffraction is such a vast subject. The principles of diffraction theory, however, are summarized under the assumption that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of the crystalline state. We will briefly review the basics of diffraction techniques, using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray sources and highlight some of their applications in geoscience.

  17. X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, David C.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray-diffraction tests performed on aluminum conductors in commercial HI1-507A complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit analog multiplexers, both before and after circuits exposed to ionizing radiation from Co(60) source, and after postirradiation annealing at ambient and elevated temperatures. Tests in addition to electrical tests performed to determine effects of irradiation and of postirradiation annealing on electrical operating characteristics of circuits. Investigators sought to determine whether relationship between effects of irradiation on devices and physical stresses within devices. X-ray diffraction potentially useful for nondestructive measurement of stresses.

  18. Remote X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The legacy of planetary X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) began in 1960 when W. Parish proposed an XRD instrument for deployment on the moon. The instrument was built and flight qualified, but the Lunar XRD program was cancelled shortly before the first human landing in 1969. XRF chemical data have been collected in situ by surface landers on Mars (Viking 1 & 2, Pathfinder) and Venus (Venera 13 & 14). These highly successful experiments provide critical constraints on our current understanding of surface processes and planetary evolution. However, the mineralogy, which is more critical to planetary surface science than simple chemical analysis, will remain unknown or will at best be imprecisely constrained until X-ray diffraction (XRD) data are collected. Recent progress in X-ray detector technology allows the consideration of simultaneous XRD (mineralogic analysis) and high-precision XRF (elemental analysis) in systems miniaturized to the point where they can be mounted on fixed landers or small robotic rovers. There is a variety of potential targets for XRD/XRF equipped landers within the solar system, the most compelling of which are the poles of the moon, the southern highlands of Mars and Europa.

  19. Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.A.; Larsson, J.; Chang, Z.

    1997-09-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring time-dependent x-ray diffraction. X-ray pulses from an Advanced Light Source bend magnet are diffracted by a sagittally-focusing Si(111) crystal and then by a sample crystal, presently InSb(111). Laser pulses with 100 fs duration and a repetition rate of 1 KHz irradiate the sample inducing a phase transition. Two types of detectors are being employed: an x-ray streak camera and an avalanche photodiode. The streak camera is driven by a photoconductive switch and has a 2 ps temporal resolution determined by trigger jitter. The avalanche photodiode has high quantum efficiency and sufficient time resolution to detect single x-ray pulses in ALS two bunch or camshaft operation. A beamline is under construction dedicated for time resolved and micro-diffraction experiments. In the new beamline a toroidal mirror collects 3 mrad horizontally and makes a 1:1 image of the bend magnet source in the x-ray hutch. A laser induced phase transition has been observed in InSb occurring within 70 ps.

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Dane V. Morgan

    2006-10-01

    An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments.

  1. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; et al

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffractionmore » microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.« less

  2. Applied possibilities for x-ray diffraction interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raransky, M. D.; Struk, J. M.; Fodchuk, Igor M.; Shafraniuk, V. P.; Raransky, A. M.

    1995-11-01

    Among existing x ray diffraction diagnostics nonperfections of crystals the specific location take methods are based on use of x-ray dynamic diffraction effects. From them the most sensitive are based on interferention. The Pendellosung and Moire fringes methods arise in consequence of coherent dynamic interaction of wave fields in single crystals. One of the main advantages of the Moire method is the extraordinary high sensitivity to insignificant deformations of crystal lattice ((Delta) d/d approximately 10-8) and atomic planes turns ((delta) approximately 0.01'). Created by a method of x-ray diffraction Moire the unique phase magnification permits us to directly observe the nuclear rows of crystal lattice. Until recently the attention of researchers attracted, basically, precise measurements of refraction parameters and dispersion amendments to nuclear scattering amplitudes, measurement of movy with large accuracy and refinement of Avogadro number, and the creation of new multi crystal interferometers. At the same time, little opportunities of x-ray interferometry at research of crystal structure defects were used. For the first time the opportunity of definition by method x-ray diffraction Moire of Burgers vectors of individual dislocation was demonstrated by M. Hart, Christiansen has studied the series of 60 degree(s) dislocation in Si on Moire images. Tensions in Si, caused by Ar ions implantation, were defined in the work. The purpose, which the authors of given reviews pursue consists in demonstration of new opportunities of x-ray three crystal interferometry in the investigation of single and complex defects.

  3. Coherent diffraction imaging using focused hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunam; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Su Yong; Kim, Chan; Kim, Yoonhee; Noh, Do Young; Marathe, Shashidhara; Song, Changyong; Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Kang, Hyon Chol

    2016-05-01

    A quantitative height profile image of a silicon nano-trench structure was obtained via coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) utilizing focused X-rays at a photon energy of 5.5 keV. The ability to optimize the spatial coherence and the photon flux density of a focused X-ray beam was the key technique for achieving such technical progress at a given X-ray photon flux. This was achieved by investigating the tunability of the focused beam's optical properties and performing a CDI experiment with the focused X-rays. The relationship between the focused X-rays' optical properties ( e.g., photon flux density and spatial coherence length) and the incident beam's size, which can be tuned by adjusting the slits in front of the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) was elucidated. We also obtained a quantitative image of a nano-trench sample produced via the reconstruction process of CDI, which utilizes carefully tuned, focused X-rays.

  4. X-ray diffraction at Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhou; Galtier, Eric; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob

    2015-11-01

    Understanding dynamic response at the atomic level under extreme conditions is highly sought after goal to science frontiers studying warm dense matter, high pressure, geoscience, astrophysics, and planetary science. Thus it is of importance to determine the high pressure phases or metastable phases of material under shock compression. In situ X-ray diffraction technique using LCLS free electron laser X-ray is a powerful tool to record structural behavior and microstructure evolution in dense matter. Shock-induced compression and phase transitions of material lead to changes of the lattice spacing or evolution of new X-ray diffraction patterns. In this talk, we describe a platform dedicated for the X-ray diffraction studies at Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC), which can be used to reconstruct a complete diffraction pattern from numerous detectors, optimize detector positioning in a timely manner, extract the lattice spacing profiles and texture features. This platform is available to the user community for real-time analysis. We will also discuss experimental results, using this platform, on the crystalline silicon phase transitions up to 60 GPa.

  5. A Practical Method of Simulating X-Ray Diffraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisse, F.; Sundararajan, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which the beam of X-rays is simulated through the use of a laser as a monochromatic light source and the crystal is replaced by photographically prepared masks. A strong diffraction pattern as large as 20 cm. can be obtained. (GS)

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Using Laser Pointers and Printers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a laser pointer to demonstrate the analogy between optical and X-ray diffraction and a laser printer with 600 or 1200 dot resolution to create and modify arrays, print them on transparencies, and illuminate them with laser pointers. Includes 14 references. (Author/YDS)

  7. Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Wenger, Marco P.E.; Bean, Richard J.; Bozec, Laurent; Horton, Michael A.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2009-09-11

    Coherent X-ray diffraction has been applied in the imaging of inorganic materials with great success. However, its application to biological specimens has been limited to some notable exceptions, due to the induced radiation damage and the extended nature of biological samples, the last limiting the application of most part of the phasing algorithms. X-ray ptychography, still under development, is a good candidate to overcome such difficulties and become a powerful imaging method for biology. We describe herein the feasibility of applying ptychography to the imaging of biological specimens, in particular collagen rich samples. We report here speckles in diffraction patterns from soft animal tissue, obtained with an optimized small angle X-ray setup that exploits the natural coherence of the beam. By phasing these patterns, dark field images of collagen within tendon, skin, bone, or cornea will eventually be obtained with a resolution of 60-70 nm. We present simulations of the contrast mechanism in collagen based on atomic force microscope images of the samples. Simulations confirmed the 'speckled' nature of the obtained diffraction patterns. Once inverted, the patterns will show the disposition and orientation of the fibers within the tissue, by enhancing the phase contrast between protein and no protein regions of the sample. Our work affords the application of the most innovative coherent X-ray diffraction tools to the study of biological specimens, and this approach will have a significant impact in biology and medicine because it overcomes many of the limits of current microscopy techniques.

  8. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry

    2014-03-15

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  9. Diffraction and Imaging Study of Imperfections of Protein Crystals with Coherent X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Z. W.; Thomas, B. R.; Chernov, A. A.; Chu, Y. S.; Lai, B.

    2004-01-01

    High angular-resolution x-ray diffraction and phase contrast x-ray imaging were combined to study defects and perfection of protein crystals. Imperfections including line defects, inclusions and other microdefects were observed in the diffraction images of a uniformly grown lysozyme crystal. The observed line defects carry distinct dislocation features running approximately along the <110> growth front and have been found to originate mostly in a central growth area and occasionally in outer growth regions. Slow dehydration led to the broadening of a fairly symmetric 4 4 0 rocking curve by a factor of approximately 2.6, which was primarily attributed to the dehydration-induced microscopic effects that are clearly shown in diffraction images. X-ray imaging and diffraction characterization of the quality of apoferritin crystals will also be discussed in the presentation.

  10. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis for defect study in Cu-1 wt.% Cr-0.1 wt.% Zr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K. . E-mail: kapoork@nfc.ernet.in; Lahiri, D.; Batra, I.S.; Rao, S.V.R.; Sanyal, T.

    2005-02-15

    X-ray line profile analysis (LPA) has been used for microstructural analysis of a Cu-1 wt.% Cr-0.1 wt.% Zr alloy. Using this technique, the stacking fault probability (SFP) and stacking fault energy (SFE) has been determined for the pure Cu and the Cu-1 wt.% Cr-0.1 wt.% Zr alloy. It is observed that there is an increase in the stacking fault probability (and corresponding decrease in stacking fault energy) in case of the alloy. The increased formation of faulted regions in the Cu-1 wt.% Cr-0.1 wt.% Zr alloy is supported by the observation of extended dislocation nodes and fringe contrast due to staking faults under TEM, and higher work hardening rate in the tension test. The high thermal fatigue resistance of this alloy is attributed to decrease in the stacking fault energy by addition of Cr and Zr to Cu.

  11. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  12. Diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging of mammals crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Hönnicke, M. G.; Safatle, A. M. V.; Cusatis, C.; Moraes Barros, P. S.; Morelhão, S. L.

    2005-08-01

    Crystalline lenses are transparent biological materials where the organization of the lens fibers can also be affected by changes at molecular level, and therefore the structure and morphology of the tissue can be correlated to the loss of transparency of the lens. In this work, internal structure of mammal lenses regarding the long-range ordering of the fibers are investigated by diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI) radiography. Moreover, DEI and absorption X-ray synchrotron radiographs for healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are compared. Significant differences in healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are observed.

  13. Single-pulse x-ray diffraction using polycapillary optics for in situ dynamic diffraction.

    PubMed

    Maddox, B R; Akin, M C; Teruya, A; Hunt, D; Hahn, D; Cradick, J; Morgan, D V

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic use of single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) at pulsed power facilities can be challenging due to factors such as the high flux and brightness requirements for diffraction and the geometric constraints of experimental platforms. By necessity, the x-ray source is usually positioned very close, within a few inches of the sample. On dynamic compression platforms, this puts the x-ray source in the debris field. We coupled x-ray polycapillary optics to a single-shot needle-and-washer x-ray diode source using a laser-based alignment scheme to obtain high-quality x-ray diffraction using a single 16 ns x-ray pulse with the source >1 m from the sample. The system was tested on a Mo sample in reflection geometry using 17 keV x-rays from a Mo anode. We also identified an anode conditioning effect that increased the x-ray intensity by 180%. Quantitative measurements of the x-ray focal spot produced by the polycapillary yielded a total x-ray flux on the sample of 3.3 ± 0.5 × 10(7) molybdenum Kα photons. PMID:27587130

  14. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  15. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  16. X-ray Diffraction from Membrane Protein Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, M.S.; DePonte, D.P.; Shapiro, D.A.; Kirian, R.A.; Wang, X.; Starodub, D.; Marchesini, S.; Weierstall, U.; Doak, R.B.; Spence, J.C.H.; Fromme, P.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane proteins constitute >30% of the proteins in an average cell, and yet the number of currently known structures of unique membrane proteins is <300. To develop new concepts for membrane protein structure determination, we have explored the serial nanocrystallography method, in which fully hydrated protein nanocrystals are delivered to an x-ray beam within a liquid jet at room temperature. As a model system, we have collected x-ray powder diffraction data from the integral membrane protein Photosystem I, which consists of 36 subunits and 381 cofactors. Data were collected from crystals ranging in size from 100 nm to 2 μm. The results demonstrate that there are membrane protein crystals that contain <100 unit cells (200 total molecules) and that 3D crystals of membrane proteins, which contain <200 molecules, may be suitable for structural investigation. Serial nanocrystallography overcomes the problem of x-ray damage, which is currently one of the major limitations for x-ray structure determination of small crystals. By combining serial nanocrystallography with x-ray free-electron laser sources in the future, it may be possible to produce molecular-resolution electron-density maps using membrane protein crystals that contain only a few hundred or thousand unit cells. PMID:21190672

  17. Discovery and development of x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yeuncheol; Yin, Ming; Datta, Timir

    2013-03-01

    In 1912 Max Laue at University of Munich reasoned x-rays to be short wavelength electromagnetic waves and figured interference would occur when scattered off crystals. Arnold Sommerfeld, W. Wien, Ewald and others, raised objections to Laue's idea, but soon Walter Friedrich succeeded in recording x-ray interference patterns off copper sulfate crystals. But the Laue-Ewald's 3-dimensional formula predicted excess spots. Fewer spots were observed. William Lawrence Bragg then 22 year old studying at Cambridge University heard the Munich results from father William Henry Brag, physics professor at Univ of Leeds. Lawrence figured the spots are 2-d interference of x-ray wavelets reflecting off successive atomic planes and derived a simple eponymous equation, the Bragg equation d*sin(theta) = n*lamda. 1913 onward the Braggs dominated the crystallography. Max Laue was awarded the physics Nobel in 1914 and the Braggs shared the same in 1915. Starting with Rontgen's first ever prize in 1901, the importance of x-ray techniques is evident from the four out of a total 16 physics Nobels between 1901-1917. We will outline the historical back ground and importance of x-ray diffraction giving rise to techniques that even in 2013, remain work horses in laboratories all over the globe.

  18. X-ray diffraction from intact tau aggregates in human brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landahl, Eric C.; Antipova, Olga; Bongaarts, Angela; Barrea, Raul; Berry, Robert; Binder, Lester I.; Irving, Thomas; Orgel, Joseph; Vana, Laurel; Rice, Sarah E.

    2011-09-01

    We describe an instrument to record X-ray diffraction patterns from diseased regions of human brain tissue by combining an in-line visible light fluorescence microscope with an X-ray diffraction microprobe. We use thiazine red fluorescence to specifically label and detect the filamentous tau protein pathology associated with Pick's disease, as several laboratories have done previously. We demonstrate that thiazine red-enhanced regions within the tissue show periodic structure in X-ray diffraction, which is not observed in healthy tissue. One observed periodicity (4.2 Å) is characteristic of cross-beta sheet structure, consistent with previous results from powder diffraction studies performed on purified, dried tau protein.

  19. X-ray diffraction from intact tau aggregates in human brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Landahl, Eric C.; Antipova, Olga; Bongaarts, Angela; Barrea, Raul; Berry, Robert; Binder, Lester I.; Irving, Thomas; Orgel, Joseph; Vana, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    We describe an instrument to record x-ray diffraction patterns from diseased regions of human brain tissue by combining an in-line visible light fluorescence microscope with an x-ray diffraction microprobe. We use thiazine red fluorescence to specifically label and detect the filamentous tau protein pathology associated with Pick’s disease, as several labs have done previously. We demonstrate that thiazine red-enhanced regions within the tissue show periodic structure in x-ray diffraction that is not observed in healthy tissue. One observed periodicity (4.2 Å) is characteristic of cross-beta sheet structure, consistent with previous results from powder diffraction studies performed on purified, dried tau protein. PMID:21876609

  20. X-ray diffraction from intact tau aggregates in human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Landahl, Eric C; Antipova, Olga; Bongaarts, Angela; Barrea, Raul; Berry, Robert; Binder, Lester I; Irving, Thomas; Orgel, Joseph; Vana, Laurel; Rice, Sarah E

    2011-09-01

    We describe an instrument to record x-ray diffraction patterns from diseased regions of human brain tissue by combining an in-line visible light fluorescence microscope with an x-ray diffraction microprobe. We use thiazine red fluorescence to specifically label and detect the filamentous tau protein pathology associated with Pick's disease, as several labs have done previously. We demonstrate that thiazine red-enhanced regions within the tissue show periodic structure in x-ray diffraction that is not observed in healthy tissue. One observed periodicity (4.2 Å) is characteristic of cross-beta sheet structure, consistent with previous results from powder diffraction studies performed on purified, dried tau protein. PMID:21876609

  1. X-ray diffraction from intact tau aggregates in human brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Landahl, Eric C.; Antipova, Olga; Bongaarts, Angela; Barrea, Raul; Berry, Robert; Binder, Lester I.; Irving, Thomas; Orgel, Joseph; Vana, Laurel; Rice, Sarah E.

    2011-09-15

    We describe an instrument to record X-ray diffraction patterns from diseased regions of human brain tissue by combining an in-line visible light fluorescence microscope with an X-ray diffraction microprobe. We use thiazine red fluorescence to specifically label and detect the filamentous tau protein pathology associated with Pick's disease, as several laboratories have done previously. We demonstrate that thiazine red-enhanced regions within the tissue show periodic structure in X-ray diffraction, which is not observed in healthy tissue. One observed periodicity (4.2 {angstrom}) is characteristic of cross-beta sheet structure, consistent with previous results from powder diffraction studies performed on purified, dried tau protein.

  2. Anomalous X-ray diffraction with soft X-ray synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, P; Berthet-Colominas, C; Capitan, M; Chesne, M L; Fanchon, E; Lequien, S; Stuhrmann, H; Thiaudière, D; Vicat, J; Zielinski, P; Kahn, R

    2000-07-01

    Anomalous diffraction with soft X-ray synchrotron radiation opens new possibilities in protein crystallography and materials science. Low-Z elements like silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine become accessible as new labels in structural studies. Some of the heavy elements like uranium exhibit an unusually strong dispersion at their M(V) absorption edge (lambdaMV = 3.497 A, E(MV) = 3545 eV) and so does thorium. Two different test experiments are reported here showing the feasibility of anomalous X-ray diffraction at long wavelengths with a protein containing uranium and with a salt containing chlorine atoms. With 110 electrons the anomalous scattering amplitude of uranium exceeds by a factor of 4 the resonance scattering of other strong anomalous scatterers like that of the lanthanides at their L(III) edge. The resulting exceptional phasing power of uranium is most attractive in protein crystallography using the multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method. The anomalous dispersion of an uranium derivative of asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (hexagonal unit cell; a = 123.4 A, c = 124.4 A) has been measured for the first time at 4 wavelengths near the M(V) edge using the beamline ID1 of ESRF (Grenoble, France). The present set up allowed to measure only 30% of the possible reflections at a resolution of 4 A, mainly because of the low sensitivity of the CCD detector. In the second experiment, the dispersion of the intensity of 5 X-ray diffraction peaks from pentakismethylammonium undecachlorodibismuthate (PMACB, orthorhombic unit cell; a = 13.003 A, b = 14.038 A, c = 15.450 A) has been measured at 30 wavelengths near the K absorption edge of chlorine (lambdaK = 4.397 A, EK= 2819.6 eV). All reflections within the resolution range from 6.4 A to 3.4 A expected in the 20 degree scan were observed. The chemical state varies between different chlorine atoms of PMACB, and so does the dispersion of different Bragg peaks near the K-edge of chlorine. The results reflect

  3. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-14

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis. PMID:26979685

  4. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-01

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis.

  5. Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues

    PubMed Central

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Wenger, Marco P. E.; Bean, Richard J.; Bozec, Laurent; Horton, Michael A.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction has been applied in the imaging of inorganic materials with great success. However, its application to biological specimens has been limited to some notable exceptions, due to the induced radiation damage and the extended nature of biological samples, the last limiting the application of most part of the phasing algorithms. X-ray ptychography, still under development, is a good candidate to overcome such difficulties and become a powerful imaging method for biology. We describe herein the feasibility of applying ptychography to the imaging of biological specimens, in particular collagen rich samples. We report here speckles in diffraction patterns from soft animal tissue, obtained with an optimized small angle X-ray setup that exploits the natural coherence of the beam. By phasing these patterns, dark field images of collagen within tendon, skin, bone, or cornea will eventually be obtained with a resolution of 60–70 nm. We present simulations of the contrast mechanism in collagen based on atomic force microscope images of the samples. Simulations confirmed the ‘speckled’ nature of the obtained diffraction patterns. Once inverted, the patterns will show the disposition and orientation of the fibers within the tissue, by enhancing the phase contrast between protein and no protein regions of the sample. Our work affords the application of the most innovative coherent X-ray diffraction tools to the study of biological specimens, and this approach will have a significant impact in biology and medicine because it overcomes many of the limits of current microscopy techniques. PMID:19706395

  6. Fabricating Blazed Diffraction Gratings by X-Ray Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Hartley, Frank; Wilson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Gray-scale x-ray lithography is undergoing development as a technique for fabricating blazed diffraction gratings. As such, gray-scale x-ray lithography now complements such other grating-fabrication techniques as mechanical ruling, holography, ion etching, laser ablation, laser writing, and electron-beam lithography. Each of these techniques offers advantages and disadvantages for implementing specific grating designs; no single one of these techniques can satisfy the design requirements for all applications. Gray-scale x-ray lithography is expected to be advantageous for making gratings on steeper substrates than those that can be made by electron-beam lithography. This technique is not limited to sawtooth groove profiles and flat substrates: various groove profiles can be generated on arbitrarily shaped (including highly curved) substrates with the same ease as sawtooth profiles can be generated on flat substrates. Moreover, the gratings fabricated by this technique can be made free of ghosts (spurious diffraction components attributable to small spurious periodicities in the locations of grooves). The first step in gray-scale x-ray lithography is to conformally coat a substrate with a suitable photoresist. An x-ray mask (see Figure 1) is generated, placed between the substrate and a source of collimated x-rays, and scanned over the substrate so as to create a spatial modulation in the exposure of the photoresist. Development of the exposed photoresist results in a surface corrugation that corresponds to the spatial modulation and that defines the grating surface. The grating pattern is generated by scanning an appropriately shaped x-ray area mask along the substrate. The mask example of Figure 1 would generate a blazed grating profile when scanned in the perpendicular direction at constant speed, assuming the photoresist responds linearly to incident radiation. If the resist response is nonlinear, then the mask shape can be modified to account for the

  7. The effect of silica on polymorphic precipitation of calcium carbonate: an on-line energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Glaab, Fabian; Klein, Regina; Melero-García, Emilio; Kunz, Werner; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Calcium carbonate is the most abundant biomineral and a compound of great industrial importance. Its precipitation from solution has been studied extensively and was often shown to proceed via distinct intermediate phases, which undergo sequential transformations before eventually yielding the stable crystalline polymorph, calcite. In the present work, we have investigated the crystallisation of calcium carbonate in a time-resolved and non-invasive manner by means of energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) using synchrotron radiation. In particular, the role of silica as a soluble additive during the crystallisation process was examined. Measurements were carried out at different temperatures (20, 50 and 80 °C) and various silica concentrations. Experiments conducted in the absence of silica reflect the continuous conversion of kinetically formed metastable polymorphs (vaterite and aragonite) to calcite and allow for quantifying the progress of transformation. Addition of silica induced remarkable changes in the temporal evolution of polymorphic fractions existing in the system. Essentially, the formation of calcite was found to be accelerated at 20 °C, whereas marked retardation or complete inhibition of phase transitions was observed at higher temperatures. These findings are explained in terms of a competition between the promotional effect of silica on calcite growth rates and kinetic stabilisation of vaterite and aragonite due to adsorption (or precipitation) of silica on their surfaces, along with temperature-dependent variations of silica condensation rates. Data collected at high silica concentrations indicate the presence of an amorphous phase over extended frames of time, suggesting that initially generated ACC particles are progressively stabilised by silica. Our results may have important implications for CaCO3 precipitation scenarios in both geochemical and industrial settings, where solution silicate is omnipresent, as well as for CO2

  8. Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I. K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.

    2005-06-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is a new experimental method for studying perfect and imperfect crystals. Instead of incoherent averaging, a coherent sum of amplitudes produces a coherent diffraction pattern originating from the real space arrangement of the sample. We applied this method for studying quantum dot samples that were specially fabricated GeSi islands of nanometer size and in a regular array embedded into a Si substrate. A coherent beam was focused by special Kirkpatric-Baez optics to a micrometer size. In the experiment it was observed that such a microfocused coherent beam produced coherent diffraction pattern with Bragg spots and broad diffuse maxima. The diffuse peak breaks up into a fine speckle pattern. The grazing incidence diffraction pattern has a typical shape resulting from the periodic array of identical islands. We used this diffraction pattern to reconstruct the average shape of the islands using a model independent approach.

  9. X-ray diffraction computed tomography: a survey and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleuker, Ulf

    1997-10-01

    Coherently scattered x-rays are mainly confined to a forward peaked cone, which exhibits, due to their coherence, structural information of the atomic arrangement in the sample. Coherent scattering in amorphous materials, which are of random short range order, therefore results in board diffraction ring patter, whereas crystalline substance show more confined diffraction rings or even Brag spots. X-ray diffraction computed tomography (XRDCT) reconstructs the intensities diffracted from extended objects on a square image grid and thus retrieves the local structure. A short survey is presented about what information can be extracted from diffraction experiments. Hereby a new method is proposed to use the Rietveld refinement for quantitative XRDCT. Also the possible use of XRDCT to reconstruct the spatial distribution of preferred orientation axis is suggested. An imaging system for XRDCT, consisting of a medical image intensifier tube and CCD readout system, is presented, which includes a modified beam stop for recording the intensity of the transmitted beam. Depending on the application this imaging system cam work in first generation or second generation tomography mode. Furthermore a new approach for the reconstruction of the differential coherent cross-section is proposed. It includes an absorption correction based on weighted sinograms. The introduced reconstruction strategy is elucidated by experimental result from a simple phantom. The measured data also validate the simulation program, written to study more complex phantoms under different experimental conditions. Finally possible applications in medical and material science are discussed. A design for a mammography setup using x-ray diffraction is presented.

  10. Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction and radiography system for archaeometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Perez Gravie, Homero

    2011-03-01

    Starting on a laboratory developed portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer; three different analytical results can be performed: analysis of chemical elements, analysis of major chemical crystalline phase and structural analysis, which represents a contribution to a new, low cost development of portable X-ray analyzer; since these results are respectively obtained with independent equipments for X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and radiography. Detection limits of PXRF were characterized using standard reference materials for ceramics, glass, bronze and bones, which are the main materials requiring quantitative analysis in art and archeological objects. A setup for simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and diffraction (ED (XRF-XRD)) in the reflection mode has been tested for in situ and non-destructive analysis according to the requirements of art objects inspection. The system uses a single low power X-ray tube and an X-ray energy dispersive detector to measure X-ray diffraction spectrum at a fixed angle. Application to the identification of jadeite-jade mineral in archeological objects by XRD is presented. A local high resolution radiography image obtained with the same low power X-ray tube allows for studies in painting and archeological bones.

  11. X-ray diffraction of strained muscle fibers in rigor.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, G R; Podolsky, R J

    1981-01-01

    The effect of strain on the equatorial x-ray diffraction pattern of glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers was studied in the rigor (ATP free) state. Strains between 30 and 100 A per half sarcomere, measured directly by laser diffraction, did not change the intensity ratio, (10)/ . (11). Because the intensity ratio depends on the distribution of mass within the myofilament lattice, the negative result indicates that strain does not change the angle of attachment of the subfragment 1 (S1) moiety of the myosin molecule to the actin filament. The effect of strain on the ordering of the actin filaments also was considered and judged to be negligible. Images PMID:6946493

  12. Quantum-dot-array diffraction grating with single order diffraction property for soft x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Longyu; Wang, Chuanke; Wang, Zhebin; Cao, Leifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Xie, Changqing; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2010-07-01

    A gold transmission grating is used routinely to disperse the x-ray spectrum at the Z soft x-ray facility to measure the spectrum and temporal history of the absolute soft x-ray power emitted from z-pinch and hohlraum radiation sources. A quantum-dot-array diffraction grating (QDADG) of 250 lines/mm for soft x-ray is designed and fabricated for the first time according to the principle of binary sinusoidal transmission grating. The diffraction efficiencies of the grating are measured in the 150-300 eV photon energy range on the Beamline 3W1B of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. This article describes the basic concept and calibration techniques and presents calibration results. It is shown that the 250 lines/mm QDADG can be used to disperse light without higher-order diffractions in soft x-ray range, and the diffraction efficiencies of this grating are nearly constant (about 25%), which is beneficial in the spectrum analysis.

  13. Quantum-dot-array diffraction grating with single order diffraction property for soft x-ray region.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Longyu; Wang, Chuanke; Wang, Zhebin; Cao, Leifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Xie, Changqing; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2010-07-01

    A gold transmission grating is used routinely to disperse the x-ray spectrum at the Z soft x-ray facility to measure the spectrum and temporal history of the absolute soft x-ray power emitted from z-pinch and hohlraum radiation sources. A quantum-dot-array diffraction grating (QDADG) of 250 lines/mm for soft x-ray is designed and fabricated for the first time according to the principle of binary sinusoidal transmission grating. The diffraction efficiencies of the grating are measured in the 150-300 eV photon energy range on the Beamline 3W1B of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. This article describes the basic concept and calibration techniques and presents calibration results. It is shown that the 250 lines/mm QDADG can be used to disperse light without higher-order diffractions in soft x-ray range, and the diffraction efficiencies of this grating are nearly constant (about 25%), which is beneficial in the spectrum analysis. PMID:20687723

  14. Quantum-dot-array diffraction grating with single order diffraction property for soft x-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Longyu; Wang Chuanke; Wang Zhebin; Cao Leifeng; Liu Shenye; Ding Yongkun; Zhu Xiaoli; Xie Changqing

    2010-07-15

    A gold transmission grating is used routinely to disperse the x-ray spectrum at the Z soft x-ray facility to measure the spectrum and temporal history of the absolute soft x-ray power emitted from z-pinch and hohlraum radiation sources. A quantum-dot-array diffraction grating (QDADG) of 250 lines/mm for soft x-ray is designed and fabricated for the first time according to the principle of binary sinusoidal transmission grating. The diffraction efficiencies of the grating are measured in the 150-300 eV photon energy range on the Beamline 3W1B of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. This article describes the basic concept and calibration techniques and presents calibration results. It is shown that the 250 lines/mm QDADG can be used to disperse light without higher-order diffractions in soft x-ray range, and the diffraction efficiencies of this grating are nearly constant (about 25%), which is beneficial in the spectrum analysis.

  15. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sébastien; Coe, Jesse; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Fromme, Petra; Cherezov, Vadim; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses. PMID:26798819

  16. Line-Source Based X-Ray Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bharkhada, Deepak; Yu, Hengyong; Liu, Hong; Plemmons, Robert; Wang, Ge

    2009-01-01

    Current computed tomography (CT) scanners, including micro-CT scanners, utilize a point x-ray source. As we target higher and higher spatial resolutions, the reduced x-ray focal spot size limits the temporal and contrast resolutions achievable. To overcome this limitation, in this paper we propose to use a line-shaped x-ray source so that many more photons can be generated, given a data acquisition interval. In reference to the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) algorithm for image reconstruction from projection data generated by an x-ray point source, here we develop a generalized SART algorithm for image reconstruction from projection data generated by an x-ray line source. Our numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of our novel line-source based x-ray CT approach and the proposed generalized SART algorithm. PMID:19436708

  17. X-ray topography using the forward transmitted beam under multiple-beam diffraction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsusaka, Y.; Takeda, S.; Takano, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Kagoshima, Y.; Matsui, J.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray topographs are taken for a sapphire wafer with the [0001] surface normal, as an example, by forward transmitted synchrotron x-ray beams combined with two-dimensional electronic arrays in the x-ray detector having a spatial resolution of 1 μm. They exhibit no shape deformation and no position shift of the dislocation lines on the topographs. Since the topography is performed under multiple-beam diffraction conditions, the topographic images of a single diffraction (two-wave approximation condition) or plural diffractions (six-wave approximation condition) can be recorded without large specimen position changes. As usual Lang topographs, it is possible to determine the Burgers vector of each dislocation line. Because of high parallelism of the incoming x-rays and linear sensitivity of the electronic arrays to the incident x-rays, the present technique can be used to visualize individual dislocations in single crystals of the dislocation density as high as 1 × 105 cm-2.

  18. Diffraction imaging of crystals with focused x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimirov, A.; Kohn, V. G.; Cai, Z.-H.

    2010-06-01

    We describe an imaging technique based on diffraction of a focused x-ray beam in crystals. A focused beam is formed by a zone plate and Bragg diffracted from a crystalline sample positioned between the zone plate and the focus. The intensity pattern is recorded by a high-resolution charge-coupled-device detector placed in the focus. Diffraction images recorded from perfect Si and GaAs crystals for various reflections demonstrate the broadening of the focused beam due to a finite scattering length. The images from semiconductor epitaxial films and heterostructures show additional peaks originating from the interfaces with their spatial position corresponding to the depth from the surface. Diffraction images from isolated defects in Si crystal demonstrate capabilities to study bulk defects. Theoretical simulations for perfect crystals show excellent agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the new imaging technique is depth sensitive and combines structural sensitivity of traditional x-ray topography methods with spatial in-plane resolution provided by focusing.

  19. A Computational Algorithm to Produce Virtual X-ray and Electron Diffraction Patterns from Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Sichani, Mehrdad M.; Spearot, Douglas E.

    2014-03-01

    Electron and x-ray diffraction are well-established experimental methods used to explore the atomic scale structure of materials. In this work, a computational algorithm is developed to produce virtual electron and x-ray diffraction patterns directly from atomistic simulations. This algorithm advances beyond previous virtual diffraction methods by using a high-resolution mesh of reciprocal space that eliminates the need for a priori knowledge of the crystal structure being modeled or other assumptions concerning the diffraction conditions. At each point on the reciprocal space mesh, the diffraction intensity is computed via explicit computation of the structure factor equation. To construct virtual selected-area electron diffraction patterns, a hemispherical slice of the reciprocal lattice mesh lying on the surface of the Ewald sphere is isolated and viewed along a specified zone axis. X-ray diffraction line profiles are created by binning the intensity of each reciprocal lattice point by its associated scattering angle, effectively mimicking powder diffraction conditions. The virtual diffraction algorithm is sufficiently generic to be applied to atomistic simulations of any atomic species. In this article, the capability and versatility of the virtual diffraction algorithm is exhibited by presenting findings from atomistic simulations of <100> symmetric tilt Ni grain boundaries, nanocrystalline Cu models, and a heterogeneous interface formed between α-Al2O3 (0001) and γ-Al2O3 (111).

  20. Identifications studies of Lauha Bhasma by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, S. C.; Reddy, K. R. C; Sastry, G. V. S

    2012-01-01

    Procedures for preparation of Lauha Bhasma are described in ancient texts of Ayurveda. These procedures also begin with different source material for iron such as Teekshna Lauha and Kanta Lauha etc. In the present study, we have selected different source materials viz. magnetite iron ore for Kanta Lauha and pure (Armco grade) iron turnings for Teekshna Lauha. The standard procedures of preparation of Lauha Bhasma are carried out in identical conditions for these two raw materials. The final product from the Puta are characterized by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to understanding the crystallographic form or forms of iron oxides and their composition at the end of each Puta. The iron content at the end of repeated Putas (18 for Kanta Lauha and 20 for Teekshna Lauha) have shown a decrease in case of Teekshna Lauha since the starting material is pure iron while it showed only marginal decreases in the case of Kanta Lauha because the Fe3O4 of magnetite is undergoing oxidation to Fe2O3. The trace elements remain within the Bhasma in the form of various oxides of Si, Al, Ca, etc. PMID:23049200

  1. Identifications studies of Lauha Bhasma by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, S C; Reddy, K R C; Sastry, G V S

    2012-01-01

    Procedures for preparation of Lauha Bhasma are described in ancient texts of Ayurveda. These procedures also begin with different source material for iron such as Teekshna Lauha and Kanta Lauha etc. In the present study, we have selected different source materials viz. magnetite iron ore for Kanta Lauha and pure (Armco grade) iron turnings for Teekshna Lauha. The standard procedures of preparation of Lauha Bhasma are carried out in identical conditions for these two raw materials. The final product from the Puta are characterized by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to understanding the crystallographic form or forms of iron oxides and their composition at the end of each Puta. The iron content at the end of repeated Putas (18 for Kanta Lauha and 20 for Teekshna Lauha) have shown a decrease in case of Teekshna Lauha since the starting material is pure iron while it showed only marginal decreases in the case of Kanta Lauha because the Fe(3)O(4) of magnetite is undergoing oxidation to Fe(2)O(3). The trace elements remain within the Bhasma in the form of various oxides of Si, Al, Ca, etc. PMID:23049200

  2. Quasi-sinusoidal single-order diffraction transmission grating used in x-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Longyu; Cao, Leifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wu, Shunchao; Wang, Zhebin; Wang, Chuanke; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Yang, Jiamin; Ding, Yongkun; Xie, Changqing; Zheng, Jian

    2011-10-15

    A novel design of quasi-sinusoidal single-order diffraction transmission grating (QSTG) is proposed, which can achieve a line density up to thousands line/millimeter as that of traditional transmission gratings with the current level of nanofabrication technique. We fabricate a 1000 line/mm QSTG using the new design approach, and display the calibration results of such QSTG on the soft x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. PMID:22002350

  3. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Liu

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefly introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10875142, 11079040, and 11075175). The 4W2 beamline of BSRF was supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N20, KJCX2-SW-N03, and SYGNS04).

  4. Soft x-ray coherent diffraction imaging on magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaowen; Lee, James; Mishra, Shrawan; Parks, Daniel; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Shapiro, David; Roy, Sujoy; Kevan, Steve; Stxm Team At Als Collaboration; Soft X-Ray Microscopy Group At Als Collaboration; Soft X-ray scattering at ALS, LBL Team

    2014-03-01

    Coherent soft X-rays diffraction imaging enable coherent magnetic resonance scattering at transition metal L-edge to be probed so that magnetic domains could be imaged with very high spatial resolution with phase contrast, reaching sub-10nm. One of the overwhelming advantages of using coherent X-rays is the ability to resolve phase contrast images with linearly polarized light with both phase and absorption contrast comparing to real-space imaging, which can only be studied with circularly polarized light with absorption contrast only. Here we report our first results on high-resolution of magnetic domains imaging of CoPd multilayer thin film with coherent soft X-ray ptychography method. We are aiming to resolve and understand magnetic domain wall structures with the highest obtainable resolution here at Advanced Light Source. In principle types of magnetic domain walls could be studied so that Neel or Bloch walls can be distinguished by imaging. This work at LBNL was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the US Department of Energy (contract no. DE-AC02- 05CH11231).

  5. X-ray diffraction from hexagonal dislocation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Viktor S.; Kaganer, Vladimir M.

    2014-10-01

    We built the honeycomb networks of misfit dislocations by combining angular dislocations. Two different models of the disorder in the dislocation network are explored, the random shifts of nodes and random sources of distortion. The displacement fields of disturbed dislocation networks are used to simulate the X-ray diffraction patterns by Monte Carlo method. We find that substantial disorder is needed for random shifts to be experimentally observable as diffuse scattering. The model of random distortion sources produces comparable diffuse scattering with the dislocation network looking closer to the initial perfect structure. The diffraction patterns due to distorted honeycomb dislocation networks are compared with the ones due to triangular networks of straight dislocations. The disorder parameters of the latter networks can be chosen to produce diffraction patterns similar to the former.

  6. A curved razor-blade proportional counter for x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Duijn, J.H.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Hollander, R.W.; Marx, R.

    1986-02-01

    A curved one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional detector (PSD) has been developed for powder diffraction studies. A curved ''razor-blade'' functions as anode. Cathode-strip readout gives position sensitivity. With individual strip readout, XeCO/sub 2/ and Cu k..cap alpha.. X-rays the authors obtained for the width of a diffraction line (FWHM) 200 ..mu..m.

  7. X-ray Mirage Diffraction and Its Interference Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukamachi, Tomoe; Kawamura, Takaaki

    When the dispersion angle of X-rays in a perfect crystal is large, interference fringes are observed between the beams in the Bragg-Laue mode and Bragg-Bragg-Laue mode in the emitted beams from the lateral surface. If the crystal is weakly bent, X-rays propagate along a path of hyperbolic form and are diffracted from the incident surface, which is called mirage diffraction. Under the condition, mirage interference fringes between two mirage diffraction beams are observed not only from the incident surface but also from the lateral surface. Two approaches are proposed to determine strain parameters in the bent crystal by using the mirage interference fringes from the incident surface or the lateral surface. In one approach, the third peak of the mirage interference fringes is used. In the other, the region is used where no direct beam reaches to the lateral surface. The resultant strain parameters determined by the two approaches show excellent agreement. Some characteristics and advantages of using mirage interference fringes are discussed.

  8. The three dimensional X-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D. Juul; Poulsen, H.F.

    2012-10-24

    This introductory tutorial describes the so called 3 dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) technique, which allows bulk non-destructive structural characterizations of crystalline materials. The motivations and history behind the development of this technique are described and its potentials are sketched. Examples of the use of the technique are given and future trends and developments are suggested. The primary aim of the paper is to give 3DXRD novices an easy introduction to the technique and to describe a way from a dream to reality and new results.

  9. The three dimensional X-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D. Juul; Poulsen, H.F.

    2012-10-15

    This introductory tutorial describes the so called 3 dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) technique, which allows bulk non-destructive structural characterizations of crystalline materials. The motivations and history behind the development of this technique are described and its potentials are sketched. Examples of the use of the technique are given and future trends and developments are suggested. The primary aim of the paper is to give 3DXRD novices an easy introduction to the technique and to describe a way from a dream to reality and new results.

  10. High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study of Potassium Azide

    SciTech Connect

    C Ji; F Zhang; D Hong; H Zhu; J Wu; M Chyu; V Levitas; Y Ma

    2011-12-31

    Crystal structure and compressibility of potassium azide was investigated by in-situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature up to 37.7 GPa. In the body-centered tetragonal (bct) phase, an anisotropic compressibility was observed with greater compressibility in the direction perpendicular to the plane containing N{sub 3}{sup -} ions than directions within that plane. The bulk modulus of the bct phase was determined to be 18.6(7) GPa. A pressure-induced phase transition may occur at 15.5 GPa.

  11. X-ray diffraction studies of shocked lunar analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanss, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction experiments on shocked rock and mineral analogs of particular significance to lunar geology are described. Materials naturally shocked by meteorite impact, nuclear-shocked, or artificially shocked in a flat plate accelerator were utilized. Four areas were outlined for investigation: powder diffractometer studies of shocked single crystal silicate minerals (quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, pyroxene), powder diffractometer studies of shocked polycrystalline monomineralic samples (dunite), Debye-Scherrer studies of single grains of shocked granodiorite, and powder diffractometer studies of shocked whole rock samples. Quantitative interpretation of peak shock pressures experienced by materials found in lunar or terrestrial impact structures is presented.

  12. X-Ray Diffraction of Heterogeneous Solid Hydrogen - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Levitan, Abraham

    2015-08-24

    Angularly resolved x-ray diffraction at 5.5 keV establishes the structure of a 5 μm diameter solid hydrogen jet, providing a foundation for analysis of hydrogen in a warm dense matter state. The jet was composed of approximately 65% ± 5% HCP and 35% ± 5% FCC by volume with an average crystallite size on the order of hundreds of nanometers. Broadening in the angularly resolved spectrum provided strong evidence for anisotropic strain up to approximately 3 % in the HCP lattice. Finally, we found no evidence for orientational ordering of the crystal domains.

  13. Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction of Heterogeneous Solid Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Levitan, Abraham

    2015-08-19

    Angularly resolved x-ray diffraction at 5.5 keV establishes the structure of a 5 µm diameter solid hydrogen jet, providing a foundation for analysis of hydrogen in a warm dense matter state. The jet was composed of approximately 65 % ± 5% HCP and 35 % ± 5% FCC by volume with an average crystallite size on the order of hundreds of nanometers. Broadening in the angularly resolved spectrum provided strong evidence for anisotropic strain up to approximately 3 % in the HCP lattice. Finally, we found no evidence for orientational ordering of the crystal domains.

  14. Volumetric measurement of residual stress using high energy x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesell, R.; McKenna, A.; Wendt, S.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    We present results and recent developments from our laboratory, bench-top high energy x-ray diffraction system (HEXRD), between diffraction energies 50 and 150 KeV, to measure internal strain of moderately sized objects. Traditional x-ray strain measurements are limited to a few microns depth due to the use of Cu Kα1 Mo Kα1 radiation. The use of high energy x-rays for volumetric measurements of strain is typically the domain of synchrotron sources. We discuss the use of industrial 320kVp tube sources to generate a brighter x-ray beam along with a method using the intrinsic 43 eV width of the Kα1 characteristic peak of tungsten to measure volumetric strains in a number of industrially relevant materials. We will present volumetric strain measurements from two examples, first, additive manufacturing (AM) parts with various build configurations and, secondly, residual strain depth profiles from shot peened surface treatments. The spatial resolution of these depth profiles is ˜75 microns. The development of a faster method as compared to energy dispersive or θ-2θ scans is based on the intensity variation measurement of the strain using the aforementioned 43 eV characteristic tungsten kα line. We will present recent results on the development of this new tool and on x-ray diffraction measurements at high energy.

  15. Anomalous X-ray Diffraction Studies for Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    Anomalous X-ray Diffraction (AXRD) has become a useful technique in characterizing bulk and nanomaterials as it provides specific information about the crystal structure of materials. In this project we present the results of AXRD applied to materials for photovoltaic applications: ZnO loaded with Ga and ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The X-ray diffraction data collected for various energies were plotted in Origin software. The peaks were fitted using different functions including Pseudo Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian. This fitting provided the integrated intensity data (peaks area values), which when plotted as a function of X-ray energies determined the material structure. For the first analyzed sample, Ga was not incorporated into the ZnO crystal structure. For the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel Co was found in one or both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The use of anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) provides element and site specific information for the crystal structure of a material. This technique lets us correlate the structure to the electronic properties of the materials as it allows us to probe precise locations of cations in the spinel structure. What makes it possible is that in AXRD the diffraction pattern is measured at a number of energies near an X-ray absorption edge of an element of interest. The atomic scattering strength of an element varies near its absorption edge and hence the total intensity of the diffraction peak changes by changing the X-ray energy. Thus AXRD provides element specific structural information. This method can be applied to both crystalline and liquid materials. One of the advantages of AXRD in crystallography experiments is its sensitivity to neighboring elements in the periodic tables. This method is also sensitive to specific crystallographic phases and to a specific site in a phase. The main use of AXRD in this study is for transparent conductors (TCs) analysis. TCs are considered to be important materials because of their

  16. DiffractX: A Simulation Toolbox for Diffractive X-ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selin, M.; Bertilson, M.; Nilsson, D.; von Hofsten, O.; Hertz, H. M.; Vogt, U.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray wavefront propagation is a powerful technique when simulating the performance of x-ray optical components. Using various numerical methods, interesting parameters such as focusing capability and efficiency can be investigated. Here we present the toolbox DiffractX, implemented in MATLAB. It contains many different wave propagation methods for the simulation of diffractive x-ray optics, including Fresnel propagation, the finite difference method (FDM), the thin object approximation, the rigorous coupled wave theory (RCWT), and the finite element method (FEM). All tools are accessed through a graphical interface, making the design of simulations fast and intuitive, even for users with little or no programming experience. The tools have been utilized to characterize realistic as well as idealized optical components. This will aid further developments of diffractive x-ray optics.

  17. X-ray Diffraction Studies of Striated Muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.M.; Knupp, C.; Roessle, M.; Al-Khayat, H.A.; Irving, T.C.; Eakins, F.; Mok, N.-S.; Harford, J.J.; Reedy, M.K.

    2006-04-24

    In this short review a number of recent X-ray diffraction results on the highly ordered striated muscles in insects and in bony fish have been briefly described. What is clear is that this technique applied to muscles which are amenable to rigorous analysis, taken together with related data from other sources (e.g. protein crystallography, biochemistry, mechanics, computer modelling) can provide not only the best descriptions yet available on the myosin head organisations on different myosin filaments in the relaxed state, but can also show the sequence of molecular events that occurs in the contractile cycle, and may also help to explain such phenomena as stretch-activation. X-ray diffraction is clearly an enormously powerful tool in studies of muscle. It has already provided a wealth of detail on muscle ultrastructure; it is providing ever more fascinating insights into molecular events in the 50-year old sliding filament mechanism, and there remains a great deal more potential that is as yet untapped.

  18. New HMI hard X-ray Diffraction Beamlines at BESSY

    SciTech Connect

    Denks, I. A.; Genzel, C.; Dudzik, E.; Feyerherm, R.; Klaus, M.; Wagener, G.

    2007-01-19

    Since April 2005 the Hahn-Meitner-Institute is operating two new beamlines for energy dispersive diffraction experiments (EDDI) and for (resonant) magnetic scattering (MAGS) at BESSY. The source for both beamlines is a superconducting 7 T multipole wiggler which provides hard X-ray photons with energies between 4 and 150 keV. The EDDI beamline uses the white beam and is intended for residual stress measurements on small samples as well as heavy engineering parts. The MAGS beamline delivers a focussed monochromatic beam with photon fluxes in the 1012 (s 100 mA 0.1 % bandwidth)-1 range at energies from 4 to 30 keV. It is equipped for single crystal diffraction and resonant (magnetic) scattering experiments as well as for the study of thin films, micro-, and nanostructures in materials science.

  19. New HMI hard X-ray Diffraction Beamlines at BESSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denks, I. A.; Genzel, C.; Dudzik, E.; Feyerherm, R.; Klaus, M.; Wagener, G.

    2007-01-01

    Since April 2005 the Hahn-Meitner-Institute is operating two new beamlines for energy dispersive diffraction experiments (EDDI) and for (resonant) magnetic scattering (MAGS) at BESSY. The source for both beamlines is a superconducting 7 T multipole wiggler which provides hard X-ray photons with energies between 4 and 150 keV. The EDDI beamline uses the white beam and is intended for residual stress measurements on small samples as well as heavy engineering parts. The MAGS beamline delivers a focussed monochromatic beam with photon fluxes in the 1012 (s 100 mA 0.1 % bandwidth)-1 range at energies from 4 to 30 keV. It is equipped for single crystal diffraction and resonant (magnetic) scattering experiments as well as for the study of thin films, micro-, and nanostructures in materials science.

  20. An image focusing means by using an opaque object to diffract x-rays

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.; Weaver, H. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for focusing and imaging x-rays. An opaque sphere is used as a diffractive imaging element to diffract x-rays from an object so that the divergent x-ray wavefronts are transformed into convergent wavefronts and are brought to focus to form an image of the object with a large depth of field.

  1. Characterization of X-Ray Diffraction System with a Microfocus X-Ray Source and a Polycapillary Optic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Marshall, Joy K.; Ciszak, Ewa; Ponomarev, Igor

    2000-01-01

    We present here an optimized microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary optic system designed for diffraction of small protein crystals. The x-ray beam is formed by a 5.5mm focal length capillary collimator coupled with a 40 micron x-ray source operating at 46Watts. Measurements of the x-ray flux, the divergence and the spectral characteristics of the beam are presented, This optimized system provides a seven fold greater flux than our recently reported configuration [M. Gubarev, et al., J. of Applied Crystallography (2000) 33, in press]. We now make a comparison with a 5kWatts rotating anode generator (Rigaku) coupled with confocal multilayer focusing mirrors (Osmic, CMF12- 38Cu6). The microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary collimator system delivers 60% of the x-ray flux from the rotating anode system. Additional ways to improve our microfocus x-ray system, and thus increase the x-ray flux will be discussed.

  2. Simultaneous X-ray fluorescence and scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy at the Australian Synchrotron XFM beamline.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael W M; Phillips, Nicholas W; van Riessen, Grant A; Abbey, Brian; Vine, David J; Nashed, Youssef S G; Mudie, Stephen T; Afshar, Nader; Kirkham, Robin; Chen, Bo; Balaur, Eugeniu; de Jonge, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    Owing to its extreme sensitivity, quantitative mapping of elemental distributions via X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) has become a key microanalytical technique. The recent realisation of scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy (SXDM) meanwhile provides an avenue for quantitative super-resolved ultra-structural visualization. The similarity of their experimental geometries indicates excellent prospects for simultaneous acquisition. Here, in both step- and fly-scanning modes, robust, simultaneous XFM-SXDM is demonstrated. PMID:27577770

  3. (Diffraction gratings used in x-ray spectroscopy): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.I.

    1988-11-01

    This subcontract was initiated in order to facilitate the development at MIT of technologies for fabricating the very fine diffraction grating required in x-ray spectroscopy at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). These gratings are generally gold transmission gratings with spatial periods of 200 nm or less. The major focus of our efforts was to develop a means of fabricating gratings of 100 nm period. We explored two approaches: e-beam fabrication of x-ray lithography masks, and achromatic holographic lithography. This work was pursued by Erik Anderson as a major component of his Ph.D. thesis. Erik was successful in both the e-beam and holographic approaches. However, the e-beam method proved to be highly impractical: exposure times of about 115 days would be required to cover an area of 1 cm/sup 2/. The achromatic holography, on the other hand, should be capable of exposing areas well in excess of 1 cm/sup 2/ in times under 1 hour. Moreover, 100 nm-period gratings produced by achromatic holography are coherent over their entire area whereas gratings produced by e-beam lithography are coherent only over areas /approximately/100 ..mu..m. The remainder of this report consists of portions excerpted from Erik Anderson's thesis. These contain all the details of our work on 100 nm period gratings. 26 refs., 17 figs.

  4. X-ray diffraction characterization of thin superconductive films

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Book, G.W.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The physical and mechanical properties of thin films are often different from the properties of bulk material and are dictated by the film/substrate orientation relationship, crystal anisotropy and crystalgraphic texture of the film. X-ray diffraction texture analysis provides information about preferential film growth and can be used for optimization of deposition parameters and prediction of properties of thin films. An x-ray back reflection technique using the Braga-Brentano geometry with experimental corrections for absorption and defocusing was used to study thin ceramic films deposited by combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). The film/substrate orientation relationships of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) superconducting thin films deposited via CCVD on single crystal MgO and polycrystalline silver substrates were studied. The as-deposited films on single crystal (100) MgO substrates showed strong preferential growth with the basal plane parallel to the substrate surface (c-axis up growth). Texture analysis showed two in-plane alignment orientations of the film with respect to the substrate, with YBCO [100] and [110] aligned with the [100] MgO substrate. YBCO films deposited on cold-rolled polycrystalline silver displayed c-axis up growth indicating that the orientation of the polycrystalline substrate (brass type texture) did not induce detectable in-plane preferential growth of the YBCO.

  5. The first X-ray diffraction measurements on Mars.

    PubMed

    Bish, David; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Bristow, Thomas; Achilles, Cherie; Dera, Przemyslaw; Chipera, Steve; Crisp, Joy; Downs, R T; Farmer, Jack; Gailhanou, Marc; Ming, Doug; Morookian, John Michael; Morris, Richard; Morrison, Shaunna; Rampe, Elizabeth; Treiman, Allan; Yen, Albert

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory landed in Gale crater on Mars in August 2012, and the Curiosity rover then began field studies on its drive toward Mount Sharp, a central peak made of ancient sediments. CheMin is one of ten instruments on or inside the rover, all designed to provide detailed information on the rocks, soils and atmosphere in this region. CheMin is a miniaturized X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that uses transmission geometry with an energy-discriminating CCD detector. CheMin uses onboard standards for XRD and XRF calibration, and beryl:quartz mixtures constitute the primary XRD standards. Four samples have been analysed by CheMin, namely a soil sample, two samples drilled from mudstones and a sample drilled from a sandstone. Rietveld and full-pattern analysis of the XRD data reveal a complex mineralogy, with contributions from parent igneous rocks, amorphous components and several minerals relating to aqueous alteration. In particular, the mudstone samples all contain one or more phyllosilicates consistent with alteration in liquid water. In addition to quantitative mineralogy, Rietveld refinements also provide unit-cell parameters for the major phases, which can be used to infer the chemical compositions of individual minerals and, by difference, the composition of the amorphous component. PMID:25485131

  6. The first X-ray diffraction measurements on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Bish, David; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Bristow, Thomas; Achilles, Cherie; Dera, Przemyslaw; Chipera, Steve; Crisp, Joy; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, Jack; Gailhanou, Marc; Ming, Doug; Morookian, John Michael; Morris, Richard; Morrison, Shaunna; Rampe, Elizabeth; Treiman, Allan; Yen, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory landed in Gale crater on Mars in August 2012, and the Curiosity rover then began field studies on its drive toward Mount Sharp, a central peak made of ancient sediments. CheMin is one of ten instruments on or inside the rover, all designed to provide detailed information on the rocks, soils and atmosphere in this region. CheMin is a miniaturized X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that uses transmission geometry with an energy-discriminating CCD detector. CheMin uses onboard standards for XRD and XRF calibration, and beryl:quartz mixtures constitute the primary XRD standards. Four samples have been analysed by CheMin, namely a soil sample, two samples drilled from mudstones and a sample drilled from a sandstone. Rietveld and full-pattern analysis of the XRD data reveal a complex mineralogy, with contributions from parent igneous rocks, amorphous components and several minerals relating to aqueous alteration. In particular, the mudstone samples all contain one or more phyllosilicates consistent with alteration in liquid water. In addition to quantitative mineralogy, Rietveld refinements also provide unit-cell parameters for the major phases, which can be used to infer the chemical compositions of individual minerals and, by difference, the composition of the amorphous component. PMID:25485131

  7. Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, David

    We have developed a microscope for soft x-ray diffraction imaging of dry or frozen hydrated biological specimens. This lensless imaging system does not suffer from the resolution or specimen thickness limitations that other short wavelength microscopes experience. The microscope, currently situated at beamline 9.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source, can collect diffraction data to 12 nm resolution with 750 eV photons and 17 nm resolution with 520 eV photons. The specimen can be rotated with a precision goniometer through an angle of 160 degrees allowing for the collection of nearly complete three-dimensional diffraction data. The microscope is fully computer controlled through a graphical user interface and a scripting language automates the collection of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional data. Diffraction data from a freeze-dried dwarf yeast cell, Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying the CLN3-1 mutation, was collected to 12 run resolution from 8 specimen orientations spanning a total rotation of 8 degrees. The diffraction data was phased using the difference map algorithm and the reconstructions provide real space images of the cell to 30 nm resolution from each of the orientations. The agreement of the different reconstructions provides confidence in the recovered, and previously unknown, structure and indicates the three dimensionality of the cell. This work represents the first imaging of the natural complex refractive contrast from a whole unstained cell by the diffraction microscopy method and has achieved a resolution superior to lens based x-ray tomographic reconstructions of similar specimens. Studies of the effects of exposure to large radiation doses were also carried out. It was determined that the freeze-dried cell suffers from an initial collapse, which is followed by a uniform, but slow, shrinkage. This structural damage to the cell is not accompanied by a diminished ability to see small features in the specimen. Preliminary measurements on frozen

  8. X-Ray Diffraction and Imaging Study of Imperfections of Crystallized Lysozyme with Coherent X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Zheng-Wei; Chu, Y. S.; Lai, B.; Cai, Z.; Thomas, B. R.; Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Phase-sensitive x-ray diffraction imaging and high angular-resolution diffraction combined with phase contrast radiographic imaging are employed to characterize defects and perfection of a uniformly grown tetragonal lysozyme crystal in symmetric Laue case. The fill width at half-maximum (FWHM) of a 4 4 0 rocking curve measured from the original crystal is approximately 16.7 arcseconds, and defects, which include point defects, line defects, and microscopic domains, have been clearly observed in the diffraction images of the crystal. The observed line defects carry distinct dislocation features running approximately along the <110> growth front, and they have been found to originate mostly at a central growth area and occasionally at outer growth regions. Individual point defects trapped at a crystal nucleus are resolved in the images of high sensitivity to defects. Slow dehydration has led to the broadening of the 4 4 0 rocking curve by a factor of approximately 2.4. A significant change of the defect structure and configuration with drying has been revealed, which suggests the dehydration induced migration and evolution of dislocations and lattice rearrangements to reduce overall strain energy. The sufficient details of the observed defects shed light upon perfection, nucleation and growth, and properties of protein crystals.

  9. X-ray diffraction of actively shortening muscle.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, R J; St Onge, H; Yu, L; Lymn, R W

    1976-03-01

    Low angle x-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from resting and activated frog sartorius muscles by means of a position-sensitive detector. Although the intensity ratio I10/I11 decreased many-fold upon activation, it was nearly the same during isometric and isotonic contraction. Thus, motion has a much smaller effect on the low order equatorial pattern than the transition from rest to activity. Analysis of the 10 and 11 reflections separately showed that I10 and I11 change reciprocally upon activation, and that they both increase by a small amount in the transition from isometric to isotonic contraction. If the intensity ratio can be taken as a measure of cross-bridge number, the results provide evidence that the drop in force in an actively shortening muscle is due primarily to the influence of motion on the configuration, rather than the number, of cross-bridges. PMID:1062793

  10. Preparation and X-ray diffraction studies of curium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. K.; Haire, R. G.

    1985-10-01

    Curium hydrides were prepared by reaction of curium-248 metal with hydrogen and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Several of the syntheses resulted in a hexagonal compound with average lattice parameters of a0 = 0.3769(8) nm and c0 = 0.6732(12) nm. These products are considered to be CmH 3-δ by analogy with the behavior of lanthanide-hydrogen and lighter actinide-hydrogen systems. Face-centered cubic products with an average lattice parameter of a0 = 0.5322(4) nm were obtained from other curium hydride preparations. This parameter is slightly smaller than that reported previously for cubic curium dihydride, CmH 2+ x (B. M. Bansal and D. Damien, Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 6, 603, 1970). The present results established a continuation of typical heavy trivalent lanthanide-like behavior of the transuranium actinide-hydrogen systems through curium.

  11. Point diffraction interferometry at soft x-ray wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, G.E.; Hostetler, R.

    1993-07-01

    To achieve the image performance necessary for soft x-ray projection lithography, interferometric testing at the design wavelength is required to accurately characterize the wavefront of the imaging system. The wavefront depends not only on the surface figure of the individual optics and on their relative alignment, but also on aperture dependent phase shifts induced by the resonant multilayer coatings on the optical surfaces. This paper describes the design and lithographic fabrication of an array of point diffraction interferometers on a silicon nitride membrane that has been over-coated with a spatially graded partially transmitting film to provide fringe contrast control. Experimental results using a visible light analogue (larger pinholes and different transmission gradient) will be shown.

  12. Powder X-ray diffraction laboratory, Reston, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Dulong, Frank T.; Jackson, John C.; Folger, Helen W.

    2014-01-01

    The powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) laboratory is managed jointly by the Eastern Mineral and Environmental Resources and Eastern Energy Resources Science Centers. Laboratory scientists collaborate on a wide variety of research problems involving other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science centers and government agencies, universities, and industry. Capabilities include identification and quantification of crystalline and amorphous phases, and crystallographic and atomic structure analysis for a wide variety of sample media. Customized laboratory procedures and analyses commonly are used to characterize non-routine samples including, but not limited to, organic and inorganic components in petroleum source rocks, ore and mine waste, clay minerals, and glassy phases. Procedures can be adapted to meet a variety of research objectives.

  13. Special properties of X-ray diffraction on carbon onions

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrebov, S. G. Ivanov-Omskii, V. I.

    2007-12-15

    The kinematic theory of X-ray diffraction was applied to the study of the most intense Bragg's reflection observed for carbon onions. It was shown that the agreement with experimental data was attained using a convolution of a Lorentzian contour with regard to the distribution of onion sizes and of an asymmetric contour taking into account the fluctuations of intershell distances inside the particle. It can be assumed that the observed scatter in intershell distances indicates a nonequilibrium state of the internal configuration of onion shells. It appeared to be possible to estimate not only the average onion size, which exceeds the average size of pristine nanodiamonds that are used for onion preparation by annealing, but their size distribution function as well.

  14. X-ray diffraction diagnostic design for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Maryum F.; House, Allen; Smith, R. F.; Ayers, Jay; Lamb, Zachary S.; Swift, David W.

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the design considerations for Target Diffraction In-Situ (TARDIS), an x-ray diffraction diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility. A crystal sample is ramp-compressed to peak pressures between 10 and 30 Mbar and, during a pressure hold period, is probed with quasi-monochromatic x-rays emanating from a backlighter source foil. The crystal spectrography diffraction lines are recorded onto image plates. The crystal sample, filter, and image plates are packaged into one assembly, allowing for accurate and repeatable target to image plate registration. Unconverted laser light impinges upon the device, generating debris, the effects of which have been mitigated. Dimpled blast shields, high strength steel alloy, and high-z tungsten are used to shield and protect the image plates. A tapered opening was designed to provide adequate thickness of shielding materials without blocking the drive beams or x-ray source from reaching the crystal target. The high strength steel unit serves as a mount for the crystal target and x-ray source foil. A tungsten body contains the imaging components. Inside this sub-assembly, there are three image plates: a 160 degree field of view curved plate directly opposite the target opening and two flat plates for the top and bottom. A polycarbonate frame, coated with the appropriate filter material and embedded with registration features for image plate location, is inserted into the diagnostic body. The target assembly is metrologized and then the diagnostic assembly is attached.

  15. A new theory for X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Fewster, Paul F.

    2014-05-01

    By considering the scattering distributed throughout space, there is an intensity enhancement at the Bragg angle even when the Bragg condition is not satisfied. This leads to an alternative explanation for the diffraction from powders and small crystals. This article proposes a new theory of X-ray scattering that has particular relevance to powder diffraction. The underlying concept of this theory is that the scattering from a crystal or crystallite is distributed throughout space: this leads to the effect that enhanced scatter can be observed at the ‘Bragg position’ even if the ‘Bragg condition’ is not satisfied. The scatter from a single crystal or crystallite, in any fixed orientation, has the fascinating property of contributing simultaneously to many ‘Bragg positions’. It also explains why diffraction peaks are obtained from samples with very few crystallites, which cannot be explained with the conventional theory. The intensity ratios for an Si powder sample are predicted with greater accuracy and the temperature factors are more realistic. Another consequence is that this new theory predicts a reliability in the intensity measurements which agrees much more closely with experimental observations compared to conventional theory that is based on ‘Bragg-type’ scatter. The role of dynamical effects (extinction etc.) is discussed and how they are suppressed with diffuse scattering. An alternative explanation for the Lorentz factor is presented that is more general and based on the capture volume in diffraction space. This theory, when applied to the scattering from powders, will evaluate the full scattering profile, including peak widths and the ‘background’. The theory should provide an increased understanding of the reliability of powder diffraction measurements, and may also have wider implications for the analysis of powder diffraction data, by increasing the accuracy of intensities predicted from structural models.

  16. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  17. Development of Coherent X-ray Diffraction Apparatus with Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Tsutsumi, R.; Mimura, H.; Matsuyama, S.; Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamauchi, K.

    2011-09-09

    To realize coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy with higher spatial resolution, it is necessary to increase the density of x-ray photons illuminated onto the sample. In this study, we developed a coherent x-ray diffraction apparatus with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics. By using mirrors fabricated by elastic emission machining, a high-density coherent x-ray beam was produced. In a demonstration experiment using a silver nanocube as a sample, a high-contrast coherent x-ray diffraction pattern was observed over a wide-q range. This proves that both the density and the degree of coherence of the focused beam were high.

  18. X-ray Diffraction Spectra in Cu-Implanted SiO{sub 2} Films on Si(100) Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokoff, J.; Lewis, J. Courtenay

    2010-10-29

    Cu-implanted SiO{sub 2} films on Si(100) have been studied using x-ray methods and x-ray diffraction pattern processing. The x-ray results indicate the presence of a preferred orientation for Cu {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes parallel to the substrate surface without directional orientation for Cu-implanted SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) and nano-crystalline-Cu/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100)(ie. after implanted and annealed Cu). The x-ray diffraction spectra of the Cu-implanted and nano-crystalline-Cu phases were analyzed (ie. in terms of peak search, profile fit, crystallite size) and compared to data from complimentary techniques (RBS, TEM). Results are discussed with respect to x-ray spectral lines shapes derived from XRD spectra processing and the nanostructure problem.

  19. Nanostructured diffractive optical devices for soft X-ray microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, D.; Peuker, M.; Schneider, G.

    2001-07-01

    The new transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) installed at the BESSY II electron storage ring uses an off-axis transmission zone plate (OTZ) as diffractive and focusing element of the condenser-monochromator setup. A high resolution micro-zone plate (MZP) forms a magnified image on a CCD-detector. Both, the OTZ with an active area of up to 24 mm2 and the MZP with zone widths as small as 25 nm are generated by a process including electron beam lithography (EBL), dry etching and subsequent electroplating of nickel on top of silicon membrane substrates with about 100- 150 nm thickness. The combination of a larger zone width and the usage of nickel zone structures allows to increase the diffraction efficiency of the condenser element at least by a factor of 3 compared to the earlier used KZP7 condenser zone plate in the TXM at BESSY I. Groove diffraction efficiencies of 21.6% and 14.7% were measured for MZP objectives with 40 and 25 nm outermost zone width, respectively.

  20. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru; Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku; Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Yagi, Naoto

    2013-10-15

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10–20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  1. Elimination of higher-order diffraction using zigzag transmission grating in soft x-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, H. P.; Wang, C. K.; Gao, Y. L.; Zhou, W. M.; Kuang, L. Y.; Wei, L.; Fan, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Cao, L. F.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.; Jiang, G.; Zhu, X. L.; Xie, C. Q.; Zhao, Y. D.; Cui, M. Q.

    2012-03-12

    We present a realization of the sinusoidal transmission function using a series of zigzag-profiled strips where the transmission takes on the binary values 0 and 1 in a two-dimensional distribution. A zigzag transmission grating of 1000 line/mm has been fabricated and demonstrated on the soft x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. The axial single-order diffraction indicates that the zigzag transmission grating is adequate for spectroscopic application.

  2. Elimination of higher-order diffraction using zigzag transmission grating in soft x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, H. P.; Wang, C. K.; Gao, Y. L.; Zhou, W. M.; Kuang, L. Y.; Wei, L.; Fan, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Cao, L. F.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.; Jiang, G.; Zhu, X. L.; Xie, C. Q.; Zhao, Y. D.; Cui, M. Q.

    2012-03-01

    We present a realization of the sinusoidal transmission function using a series of zigzag-profiled strips where the transmission takes on the binary values 0 and 1 in a two-dimensional distribution. A zigzag transmission grating of 1000 line/mm has been fabricated and demonstrated on the soft x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. The axial single-order diffraction indicates that the zigzag transmission grating is adequate for spectroscopic application.

  3. Hard X-ray nanoimaging method using local diffraction from metal wire

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Hidekazu Konishi, Shigeki; Shimomura, Sho; Azuma, Hiroaki; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2014-01-13

    A simple hard X-ray imaging method achieving a high spatial resolution is proposed. Images are obtained by scanning a metal wire through the wave field to be measured and rotating the sample to collect data for back projection calculations; the local diffraction occurring at the edges of the metal wire operates as a narrow line probe. In-line holograms of a test sample were obtained with a spatial resolution of better than 100 nm. The potential high spatial resolution of this method is shown by calculations using diffraction theory.

  4. D-25 OBSERVATIONS OF SHOCKED METALLIC SURFACES WITH SINGLE-PULSE X-RAY DIFFRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D. V.; Grover, M.; Macy, D.; Madlener, M.; Stevens, G.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L.

    2009-01-01

    A single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic has been developed for the investigation of shocked material properties on a very short time scale. The diagnostic, which consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, produces line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 40-ns pulse. A selected anode of either silver or molybdenum produces characteristic K lines used for diffraction. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 2-mm by 5-mm spot and 1° full-width-half-maximum angular divergence. Coherent scattering from the sample produces a Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern on an image plate 75 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. An experimental study of the polycrystalline structures of zirconium and tin under high-pressure shock loading has been conducted with single-pulse XRD. The experimental targets were 0.1-mm-thick foils of zirconium and tin using 0.4-mm-thick vitreous carbon back windows for shock-loading, and the shocks were produced by either Detasheet or PBX-9501 high explosives buffered by 1-mm-thick 6061-T6 aluminum. The diffraction patterns from both shocked zirconium and tin indicated a phase transition into a polymorphic mix of amorphous and new solid phases.

  5. A new theory for X-ray diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Fewster, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a new theory of X-ray scattering that has particular relevance to powder diffraction. The underlying concept of this theory is that the scattering from a crystal or crystallite is distributed throughout space: this leads to the effect that enhanced scatter can be observed at the ‘Bragg position’ even if the ‘Bragg condition’ is not satisfied. The scatter from a single crystal or crystallite, in any fixed orientation, has the fascinating property of contributing simultaneously to many ‘Bragg positions’. It also explains why diffraction peaks are obtained from samples with very few crystallites, which cannot be explained with the conventional theory. The intensity ratios for an Si powder sample are predicted with greater accuracy and the temperature factors are more realistic. Another consequence is that this new theory predicts a reliability in the intensity measurements which agrees much more closely with experimental observations compared to conventional theory that is based on ‘Bragg-type’ scatter. The role of dynamical effects (extinction etc.) is discussed and how they are suppressed with diffuse scattering. An alternative explanation for the Lorentz factor is presented that is more general and based on the capture volume in diffraction space. This theory, when applied to the scattering from powders, will evaluate the full scattering profile, including peak widths and the ‘background’. The theory should provide an increased understanding of the reliability of powder diffraction measurements, and may also have wider implications for the analysis of powder diffraction data, by increasing the accuracy of intensities predicted from structural models. PMID:24815975

  6. X-ray Weak Broad-line Qquasars: Absorption or Intrinsic X-ray Weakness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Risaliti, Guida

    2005-01-01

    XMM observations of X-ray weak quasars have been performed during 2003 and 2004. The data for all the observations have become available in 2004 (there has been a delay of several months on the initial schedule, due to high background flares which contaminated the observations: as a consequence, most of them had to be rescheduled). We have reduced and analyzed all the data, and obtained interesting scientific results. Out of the eight sources, 4 are confirmed to be extremely X-ray weak, in agreement with the results of previous Chandra observations. 3 sources are confined to be highly variable both in flux (by factor 20-50) and in spectral properties (dramatic changes in spectral index). For both these groups of objects we are completing a publication: 1) For the X-ray weak sources, a paper is submitted with a complete analysis of the X-ray spectra both from Chandra and XMM-Newton, and a comparison with optical and near-IR photometry obtained from all-sky surveys. Possible models for the unusual spectral energy distribution of these sources are also presented. 2) For the variable sources, a paper is being finalized where the X-ray spectra obtained with XMM-Newton are compared with previous X-ray observations and with observations at other wavelengths. It is shown that these sources are high luminosity and extreme cases of the highly variable class of narrow-line Seyfert Is. In order to further understand the nature of these X-ray weak quasars, we submitted proposals for spectroscopy at optical and infrared telescopes. We obtained time at the TNG 4 meter telescope for near-IR observations and at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for optical high-resolution spectroscopy. These observations have been performed in early 2004. They will complement the XMM data and will lead to understanding of whether the X-ray weakness of these sources is an intrinsic property or is due to absorption by circum-nuclear material. The infrared spectra of the variable sources have been already

  7. Eta Carinae: X-ray Line Variations during the 2003 X-ray Minimum, and the Orbit Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Henley, D.; Hamaguchi, K.; Khibashi, K.; Pittard, J. M.; Stevens, I. R.; Gull, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    The future evolution of Eta Carinae will be as a supernova (or hypernova) and black hole. The evolution is highly contingent on mass and angular momentum changes and instabilities. The presence of a companion can serve to trigger instabilities and provide pathways for mass and angular momentum exchange loss. X-rays can be used a a key diagnostic tool: x-ray temperatures trace pre-shock wind velocities, periodic x-ray variability traces the orbit, and x-ray line variations traces the flow and orientation of shocked gas. This brief presentation highlights x-ray line variations from the HETG and presents a model of the colliding wind flow.

  8. Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giewekemeyer, Klaus; Thibault, Pierre; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Beerlink, André; Kewish, Cameron M.; Dierolf, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Salditt, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in coherent x-ray diffractive imaging have paved the way to reliable and quantitative imaging of noncompact specimens at the nanometer scale. Introduced a year ago, an advanced implementation of ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging has removed much of the previous limitations regarding sample preparation and illumination conditions. Here, we apply this recent approach toward structure determination at the nanoscale to biological microscopy. We show that the projected electron density of unstained and unsliced freeze-dried cells of the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can be derived from the reconstructed phase in a straightforward and reproducible way, with quantified and small errors. Thus, the approach may contribute in the future to the understanding of the highly disputed nucleoid structure of bacterial cells. In the present study, the estimated resolution for the cells was 85 nm (half-period length), whereas 50-nm resolution was demonstrated for lithographic test structures. With respect to the diameter of the pinhole used to illuminate the samples, a superresolution of about 15 was achieved for the cells and 30 for the test structures, respectively. These values should be assessed in view of the low dose applied on the order of ≃1.3·105 Gy, and were shown to scale with photon fluence. PMID:20018650

  9. X-Ray Absorbed, Broad-Lined, Red AGN and the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Wilkes, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained XMM spectra for five red, 2MASS AGN, selected from a sample observed by Chandra to be X-ray bright and to cover a range of hardness ratios. Our results confirm the presence of substantial absorbing material in three sources which have optical classifications ranging from Type 1 to Type 2, with an intrinsically flat (hard) power law continuum indicated in the other two. The presence of both X-ray absorption and broad optical emission lines with the usual strength suggests either a small (nuclear) absorber or a favored viewing angle so as to cover the X-ray source but not the broad emission line region (BELR). A soft excess is detected in all three Type 1 sources. We speculate that this soft X-ray emission may arise in an extended region of ionized gas, perhaps linked with the polarized (scattered) light which is a feature of these sources. The spectral complexity revealed by XMM emphasizes the limitations of the low S/N Chandra data. Overall, the new XMM results strengthen our conclusions (Wilkes et al. 2002) that the observed X-ray continua of red AGN are unusually hard at energies greater than 2 keV. Whether due to substantial line-of-sight absorption or to an intrinsically hard or reflection-dominated spectrum, these 'red' AGN have an observed spectral form consistent with contributing significantly to the missing had absorbed population of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXRB). When absorption and or reflection is taken into account, all these AGN have power law slopes typical of broad-line (Type 1) AGN (Gamma approximately 1.9). This appears to resolve the spectral paradox which for so long has existed between the CXRB and the AGN thought to be the dominant contributors. It also suggests two scenarios whereby Type 1 AGN/QSOs may be responsible for a significant fraction of the CXRB at energies above 2 keV: 1) X-ray absorbed AGN/QSOs with visible broad emission lines; 2) AGN/QSOs with complex spectra whose hardness greater than 2 keV is not

  10. Very High Resolution Solar X-ray Imaging Using Diffractive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Skinner, G. K.; Li, M. J.; Shih, A. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of X-ray diffractive optics for imaging solar flares with better than 0.1 arcsec angular resolution. X-ray images with this resolution of the greater than or equal to 10 MK plasma in solar active regions and solar flares would allow the cross-sectional area of magnetic loops to be resolved and the coronal flare energy release region itself to be probed. The objective of this work is to obtain X-ray images in the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV observed during solar flares with an angular resolution as fine as 0.1 arcsec - over an order of magnitude finer than is now possible. This line emission is from highly ionized iron atoms, primarily Fe xxv, in the hottest flare plasma at temperatures in excess of approximately equal to 10 MK. It provides information on the flare morphology, the iron abundance, and the distribution of the hot plasma. Studying how this plasma is heated to such high temperatures in such short times during solar flares is of critical importance in understanding these powerful transient events, one of the major objectives of solar physics.We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of phase zone plate X-ray lenses with focal lengths of approximately equal to 100 m at these energies that would be capable of achieving these objectives. We show how such lenses could be included on a two-spacecraft formation-flying mission with the lenses on the spacecraft closest to the Sun and an X-ray imaging array on the second spacecraft in the focal plane approximately equal to 100 m away. High resolution X-ray images could be obtained when the two spacecraft are aligned with the region of interest on the Sun. Requirements and constraints for the control of the two spacecraft are discussed together with the overall feasibility of such a formation-flying mission.

  11. Setup for in situ x-ray diffraction study of swift heavy ion irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kulriya, P. K.; Singh, F.; Tripathi, A.; Ahuja, R.; Kothari, A.; Dutt, R. N.; Mishra, Y. K.; Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D. K.

    2007-11-15

    An in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of the Pelletron accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre for in situ studies of phase change in swift heavy ion irradiated materials. A high vacuum chamber with suitable windows for incident and diffracted X-rays is integrated with the goniometer and the beamline. Indigenously made liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) temperature sample cooling unit is installed. The snapshots of growth of particles with fluence of 90 MeV Ni ions were recorded using in situ XRD experiment, illustrating the potential of this in situ facility. A thin film of C{sub 60} was used to test the sample cooling unit. It shows that the phase of the C{sub 60} film transforms from a cubic lattice (at room temperature) to a fcc lattice at around T=255 K.

  12. X-ray Diffraction Study of Molybdenum to 900 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Coppari, F.; Smith, R.; Eggert, J.; Boehly, T.; Collins, G. W.; Duffy, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a transition metal that is important as a high-pressure standard. Its equation of state, structure, and melting behavior have been explored extensively in both experimental and theoretical studies. Melting data up to the Mbar pressure region from static compression experiments in the diamond anvil cell [Errandonea et al. 2004] are inconsistent with shock wave sound velocity measurements [Hixson et al., 1989]. There are also conflicting reports as to whether body-centered cubic (BCC) Mo transforms to a face-centered cubic (FCC), hexagonal close packed (HCP) or double hexagonal close packed (DHCP) structure at either high pressure or high pressure and temperature conditions [Belonoshko et al. 2008, Mikhaylushkin et al., 2008 and Cazorla et al., 2008]. Recently, a phase transition from BCC to the DHCP phase at 660 GPa and 0 K was predicted using the particle swam optimization (PSO) method (Wang et al, 2013). Here we report an x-ray diffraction study of dynamically compressed molybdenum. Experiments were conducted using the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Mo targets were either ramp or shock compressed using a laser drive. In ramp loading, the sample is compressed sufficiently slowly that a shock wave does not form. This results in lower temperatures, keeping the sample in the solid state to higher pressures. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed using quasi-monochromatic x-rays from a highly ionized He-α Cu source and image plate detectors. Upon ramp compression, we found no evidence of phase transition in solid Mo up to 900 GPa. The observed peaks can be assigned to the (110) and (200) or (220) reflections of BCC Mo up to the highest pressure, indicating that Mo does not melt under ramp loading to maximum pressure reached. Under shock loading, we did not observe any evidence for the solid-solid phase transformation around 210 GPa as reported in previous work (Hixson et al, 1989). The BCC

  13. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystalsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Wu, M.; Jacoby, K. D.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  14. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J. Jacoby, K. D.; Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  15. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J.; Wu, M.; Jacoby, K. D.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a dual goniometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  16. Flash X-Ray Diffraction System for Fast, Single-PulseTemperature and Phase Transition Measurements (Pre-print)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Madlener; Dane V. Morgan

    2007-06-12

    A new, fast, single-pulse diagnostic for determining phase transitions and measuring the bulk temperature of polycrystalline metal objects has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank with a cable-coupled X-ray diode that produces a 35-ns pulse of mostly 0.71-{angstrom} monochromatic X rays and a P-43 fluor coupled to a cooled, charge-coupled device camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle for detection of scattered X rays. The X-ray beam is collimated to a 1{sup o} divergence in the scattering plane with the combination of a 1.5-mm tungsten pinhole and a 1.5-mm-diameter molybdenum anode. X rays are produced by a high-energy electron beam transiting inward from the cathode to the anode in a needle-and-washer configuration. The anode's characteristic K-{alpha} X-ray emission lines are utilized for this diffraction system. The X-ray anode is heavily shielded in all directions other than the collimated beam. The X-ray diode has a sealed reentrant system, allowing X rays to be produced inside a vacuum containment vessel, close to the sample under study.

  17. Atomic calculations for the Fe XX X-ray lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, H. E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The atomic data presented here and in Bhatia and Mason (1980) allow the calculation of theoretical intensity ratios for all the EUV, UV, and X-ray lines from Fe XX. Tabulations are presently given for the transitions between levels in the 2s2 2p3, 2s2 2p2 3s, and 2s2 2p2 3d configurations of Fe(19+), and electron collision strengths are calculated by means of the 'distorted wave' approximation. In addition to the theoretical X-ray line intensity ratios, new spectral line identifications from a solar flare are presented.

  18. Lattice Misfit Measurement in Inconel 625 BY X-Ray Diffraction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Barat, P.; Jayakumar, T.; Mahadevan, S.; Rai, Sanjay K.

    Determination of lattice misfit and microstructural parameters of the coherent precipitates in Ni based alloy Inconel-625 is a challenging problem as the diffraction peaks of the precipitate and the matrix are completely overlapping. X-ray Diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRDLPA) has been used to characterize the bulk samples of Inconel 625 at different heat-treated conditions to determine the lattice parameters of the parent phase and also the coherent precipitates by the separation of the overlapping peaks. The lattice misfits of the coherent precipitates with the matrix and their microstructural parameters like size and strain have also been determined.

  19. Spectral feature variations in x-ray diffraction imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Scott D.; Greenberg, Joel A.

    2016-05-01

    Materials with different atomic or molecular structures give rise to unique scatter spectra when measured by X-ray diffraction. The details of these spectra, though, can vary based on both intrinsic (e.g., degree of crystallinity or doping) and extrinsic (e.g., pressure or temperature) conditions. While this sensitivity is useful for detailed characterizations of the material properties, these dependences make it difficult to perform more general classification tasks, such as explosives threat detection in aviation security. A number of challenges, therefore, currently exist for reliable substance detection including the similarity in spectral features among some categories of materials combined with spectral feature variations from materials processing and environmental factors. These factors complicate the creation of a material dictionary and the implementation of conventional classification and detection algorithms. Herein, we report on two prominent factors that lead to variations in spectral features: crystalline texture and temperature variations. Spectral feature comparisons between materials categories will be described for solid metallic sheet, aqueous liquids, polymer sheet, and metallic, organic, and inorganic powder specimens. While liquids are largely immune to texture effects, they are susceptible to temperature changes that can modify their density or produce phase changes. We will describe in situ temperature-dependent measurement of aqueous-based commercial goods in the temperature range of -20°C to 35°C.

  20. Federated repositories of X-ray diffraction images.

    PubMed

    Androulakis, Steve; Schmidberger, Jason; Bate, Mark A; DeGori, Ross; Beitz, Anthony; Keong, Cyrus; Cameron, Bob; McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Harrison, Andrew; Hunter, Jane; Martin, Jennifer L; Kobe, Bostjan; Dobson, Renwick C J; Parker, Michael W; Whisstock, James C; Gray, Joan; Treloar, Andrew; Groenewegen, David; Dickson, Neil; Buckle, Ashley M

    2008-07-01

    There is a pressing need for the archiving and curation of raw X-ray diffraction data. This information is critical for validation, methods development and improvement of archived structures. However, the relatively large size of these data sets has presented challenges for storage in a single worldwide repository such as the Protein Data Bank archive. This problem can be avoided by using a federated approach, where each institution utilizes its institutional repository for storage, with a discovery service overlaid. Institutional repositories are relatively stable and adequately funded, ensuring persistence. Here, a simple repository solution is described, utilizing Fedora open-source database software and data-annotation and deposition tools that can be deployed at any site cheaply and easily. Data sets and associated metadata from federated repositories are given a unique and persistent handle, providing a simple mechanism for search and retrieval via web interfaces. In addition to ensuring that valuable data is not lost, the provision of raw data has several uses for the crystallographic community. Most importantly, structure determination can only be truly repeated or verified when the raw data are available. Moreover, the availability of raw data is extremely useful for the development of improved methods of image analysis and data processing. PMID:18566516

  1. X-ray diffraction study of crystalline barium titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zali, Nurazila Mat; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohamad, Siti Mariam; Foo, Choo Thye; Murshidi, Julie Adrianny

    2014-02-12

    In this study, BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics have been prepared via solid-state reaction method. The powders were calcined for 2 hours at different temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1200°C. Using X-ray diffraction with a Rietveld analysis, the phase formation and crystal structure of the BaTiO{sub 3} powders were studied. Change in crystallite size and tetragonality as a function of calcination temperature were also discussed. It has been found that the formation of pure perovskite phase of BaTiO{sub 3} began at calcination condition of 1000 °C for 2 hours. The crystal structure of BaTiO{sub 3} formed is in the tetragonal structure. The second phases of BaCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} existed with calcination temperature below 1000 °C. Purity, crystallite size and tetragonality of BaTiO{sub 3} powders were found to increase with increasing calcination temperature.

  2. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron M.; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below −170 °C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics. PMID:20365955

  3. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron M.; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; et al

    2009-11-01

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 °C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  4. Taking X-ray Diffraction to the Limit: Macromolecular Structures from Femtosecond X-ray Pulses and Diffraction Microscopy of Cells with Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H N; Miao, J; Kirz, J; Sayre, D; Hodgson, K O

    2003-10-01

    The methodology of X-ray crystallography has recently been successfully extended to the structure determination of non-crystalline specimens. The phase problem was solved by using the oversampling method, which takes advantage of ''continuous'' diffraction pattern from non-crystalline specimens. Here we review the principle of this newly developed technique and discuss the ongoing experiments of imaging non-periodic objects, like cells and cellular structures using coherent and bright X-rays from the 3rd generation synchrotron radiation. In the longer run, the technique may be applied to image single biomolecules by using the anticipated X-ray free electron lasers. Computer simulations have so far demonstrated two important steps: (1) by using an extremely intense femtosecond X-ray pulse, a diffraction pattern can be recorded from a macromolecule before radiation damage manifests itself, and (2) the phase information can be ab initio retrieved from a set of calculated noisy diffraction patterns of single protein molecules.

  5. TYPING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS USING X-RAY LINE EMISSION MORPHOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, L. A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Badenes, C.; Huppenkothen, D.; Jeltema, T. E.

    2009-11-20

    We present a new observational method to type the explosions of young supernova remnants (SNRs). By measuring the morphology of the Chandra X-ray line emission in 17 Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs with a multipole expansion analysis (using power ratios), we find that the core-collapse SNRs are statistically more asymmetric than the Type Ia SNRs. We show that the two classes of supernovae can be separated naturally using this technique because X-ray line morphologies reflect the distinct explosion mechanisms and structure of the circumstellar material. These findings are consistent with recent spectropolarimetry results showing that core-collapse supernovae explosions are intrinsically more asymmetric.

  6. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 ..mu.. x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10/sup 4/) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail.

  7. Combined synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction using a fluorescing metal foil

    SciTech Connect

    Kappen, P.; Arhatari, B. D.; Luu, M. B.; Balaur, E.; Caradoc-Davies, T.

    2013-06-15

    This study realizes the concept of simultaneous micro-X-ray computed tomography and X-ray powder diffraction using a synchrotron beamline. A thin zinc metal foil was placed in the primary, monochromatic synchrotron beam to generate a divergent wave to propagate through the samples of interest onto a CCD detector for tomographic imaging, thus removing the need for large beam illumination and high spatial resolution detection. Both low density materials (kapton tubing and a piece of plant) and higher density materials (Egyptian faience) were investigated, and elemental contrast was explored for the example of Cu and Ni meshes. The viability of parallel powder diffraction using the direct beam transmitted through the foil was demonstrated. The outcomes of this study enable further development of the technique towards in situ tomography/diffraction studies combining micrometer and crystallographic length scales, and towards elemental contrast imaging and reconstruction methods using well defined fluorescence outputs from combinations of known fluorescence targets (elements).

  8. Soft X-ray Excesses and X-ray Line Variability in Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlotta, Angelo; McCollough, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Cygnus X-3 is an X-ray binary (XRB) system containing a stellar-mass compact object, most likely a black hole, and a Wolf-Rayet companion star, which produces collimated, relativistic jets, placing it in the sub-class of XRBs known as microquasars. During a Swift/XRT monitoring program of Cygnus X-3, a soft X-ray excess (below 1 keV) was observed at certain states and phases of activity. This soft excess appears to be similar to the variable soft emission observed in Seyfert galaxies. The presence of these features in Cygnus X-3 would argue for a greater support of the black-hole nature of the compact object and serve to better highlight the similarities of microquasars and AGN. We present the results of our investigations of these soft excesses, as well as the variations of the X-ray Fe line region (6.4-7.0 keV) as a function of the state activity and orbital phase.

  9. A Computer Program for Calculation of Calibration Curves for Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Frank N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a FORTRAN IV program written to supplement a laboratory exercise dealing with quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis of mixtures of polycrystalline phases in an introductory course in x-ray diffraction. Gives an example of the use of the program and compares calculated and observed calibration data. (Author/GS)

  10. X-Ray Diffraction and the Discovery of the Structure of DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, David T.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described for teaching the analysis of X-ray diffraction of DNA through a series of steps utilizing the original methods used by James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. The X-ray diffraction pattern led to the conclusion of the basic helical structure of DNA and its dimensions while basic chemical principles…

  11. Strain measurement of pure titanium covered with soft tissue using X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Tadano, Shigeru

    2010-03-01

    Measurement of the stress and strain applied to implants and bone tissue in the human body are important for fracture prediction and evaluations of implant adaptation. The strain of titanium (Ti) materials can be measuring by X-ray diffraction techniques. This study applied X-ray diffraction to the skin tissue-covered Ti. Characteristic X-rays of Mo Kalpha were used and the X-rays diffracted from the Ti were detected through the covering skin tissue. The X-ray absorption by skin tissue is large under the diffracted X-rays detected in low angles because the length of penetration depends on the angle of inclination, equal to the Bragg angle. The effects of skin tissue to detect the diffracted X-rays were investigated in the experiments. And the strain measurements were conducted under bending loads applied to the Ti specimen. The effect of skin tissue was absorption of X-rays as well as the X-rays scattered from the physiological saline contained in the tissue. The X-rays scattered by the physiological saline creates a specific background pattern near the peaks from the (002) and (011) lattice planes of Ti in the X-ray diffraction profile. Diffracted X-rays from the Ti were detected after being transmitted through 1 mm thick skin tissue by Mo Kalpha. Individual peaks such as (010), (002), (011), and (110) were clearly established by using a parallel beam arrangement. The strains of (110) lattice planes were measured with or without the tissue cover were very similar. The strain of the (110) lattice planes of Ti could be measured by Mo Kalpha when the Ti specimen was located under the skin tissue. PMID:20459192

  12. Diffraction grating transmission efficiencies for XUV and soft X rays. [for HEAO-B extrasolar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.; Delvaille, J. P.; Epstein, A.; Kaellne, E.; Bachrach, R. Z.; Dijkstra, J.; Lantward, L.

    1977-01-01

    The manufacture and properties of a grating intended for extrasolar X-ray studies are described. The manufacturing process uses a split laser beam exposing an interference pattern on the photoresist-coated glass plated with a nickel parting layer. The grating, supporting structure, and mounting frame are electrodeposited on the nickel parting layer, and the final product is lifted from the glass substrate by selective etching of the nickel. A model was derived which relates the number of counts received in a given order m as a function of photon wavenumber. A 4-deg beam line was used to measure the efficiencies of gold transmission gratings for diffraction of X-rays in the range of 45 to 275 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  13. Diffraction and imaging study of imperfections of crystallized lysozyme with coherent X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Z. W.; Chu, Y. S.; Lai, B.; Thomas, B. R.; Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray diffraction imaging and high-angular-resolution diffraction combined with phase-contrast radiographic imaging were employed to characterize defects and perfection of a uniformly grown tetragonal lysozyme crystal in the symmetric Laue case. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of a 4 4 0 rocking curve measured from the original crystal was approximately 16.7 arcsec and imperfections including line defects, inclusions and other microdefects were observed in the diffraction images of the crystal. The observed line defects carry distinct dislocation features running approximately along the <1 1 0> growth front and have been found to originate mostly in a central growth area and occasionally in outer growth regions. Inclusions of impurities or formations of foreign particles in the central growth region are resolved in the images with high sensitivity to defects. Slow dehydration led to the broadening of a fairly symmetric 4 4 0 rocking curve by a factor of approximately 2.6, which was primarily attributed to the dehydration-induced microscopic effects that are clearly shown in X-ray diffraction images. The details of the observed defects and the significant change in the revealed microstructures with drying provide insight into the nature of imperfections, nucleation and growth, and the properties of protein crystals.

  14. Capability of X-ray diffraction for the study of microstructure of metastable thin films.

    PubMed

    Rafaja, David; Wüstefeld, Christina; Dopita, Milan; Motylenko, Mykhaylo; Baehtz, Carsten

    2014-11-01

    Metastable phases are often used to design materials with outstanding properties, which cannot be achieved with thermodynamically stable compounds. In many cases, the metastable phases are employed as precursors for controlled formation of nanocomposites. This contribution shows how the microstructure of crystalline metastable phases and the formation of nanocomposites can be concluded from X-ray diffraction experiments by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of X-ray diffraction to macroscopic and microscopic lattice deformations and to the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction. The lattice deformations were determined from the positions and from the widths of the diffraction lines, the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction from the anisotropy of the line shift and the line broadening. As an example of the metastable system, the supersaturated solid solution of titanium nitride and aluminium nitride was investigated, which was prepared in the form of thin films by using cathodic arc evaporation of titanium and aluminium in a nitrogen atmosphere. The microstructure of the (Ti,Al)N samples under study was tailored by modifying the [Al]/[Ti] ratio in the thin films and the surface mobility of the deposited species. PMID:25485125

  15. Note: Electrochemical cell for in operando X-ray diffraction measurements on a conventional X-ray diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Bucher, Ramona; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical in operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful method to analyze structural changes of energy storage materials while inserting/de-inserting charge carriers, such as Li- or Na-ions, into/from a host structure. The design of an XRD in operando cell is presented, which enables the use of thin (6 μm) aluminum foil as X-ray window as a non-toxic alternative to conventional beryllium windows. Owing to the reduced thickness, diffraction patterns and their changes during cycling can be observed with excellent quality, which was demonstrated for two cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries in a half-cell set-up, P2-Na0.7MnO2 and Na2.55V6O16 ṡ 0.6H2O.

  16. Note: Electrochemical cell for in operando X-ray diffraction measurements on a conventional X-ray diffractometer.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Bucher, Ramona; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical in operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful method to analyze structural changes of energy storage materials while inserting/de-inserting charge carriers, such as Li- or Na-ions, into/from a host structure. The design of an XRD in operando cell is presented, which enables the use of thin (6 μm) aluminum foil as X-ray window as a non-toxic alternative to conventional beryllium windows. Owing to the reduced thickness, diffraction patterns and their changes during cycling can be observed with excellent quality, which was demonstrated for two cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries in a half-cell set-up, P2-Na(0.7)MnO2 and Na(2.55)V6O16 ⋅ 0.6H2O. PMID:26329242

  17. Note: Electrochemical cell for in operando X-ray diffraction measurements on a conventional X-ray diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Bucher, Ramona; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2015-08-15

    Electrochemical in operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful method to analyze structural changes of energy storage materials while inserting/de-inserting charge carriers, such as Li- or Na-ions, into/from a host structure. The design of an XRD in operando cell is presented, which enables the use of thin (6 μm) aluminum foil as X-ray window as a non-toxic alternative to conventional beryllium windows. Owing to the reduced thickness, diffraction patterns and their changes during cycling can be observed with excellent quality, which was demonstrated for two cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries in a half-cell set-up, P2-Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2} and Na{sub 2.55}V{sub 6}O{sub 16} ⋅ 0.6H{sub 2}O.

  18. Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging of Chloroplasts from Cyanidioschyzon merolae by Using X-Ray Free Electron Laser.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuki; Inui, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a lens-less technique for visualizing the structures of non-crystalline particles with the dimensions of submicrometer to micrometer at a resolution of several tens of nanometers. We conducted cryogenic CXDI experiments at 66 K to visualize the internal structures of frozen-hydrated chloroplasts of Cyanidioschyzon merolae using X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) as a coherent X-ray source. Chloroplast dispersed specimen disks at a number density of 7/(10×10 µm(2)) were flash-cooled with liquid ethane without staining, sectioning or chemical labeling. Chloroplasts are destroyed at atomic level immediately after the diffraction by XFEL pulses. Thus, diffraction patterns with a good signal-to-noise ratio from single chloroplasts were selected from many diffraction patterns collected through scanning specimen disks to provide fresh specimens into the irradiation area. The electron density maps of single chloroplasts projected along the direction of the incident X-ray beam were reconstructed by using the iterative phase-retrieval method and multivariate analyses. The electron density map at a resolution of 70 nm appeared as a C-shape. In addition, the fluorescence image of proteins stained with Flamingo™ dye also appeared as a C-shape as did the autofluorescence from Chl. The similar images suggest that the thylakoid membranes with an abundance of proteins distribute along the outer membranes of chloroplasts. To confirm the present results statistically, a number of projection structures must be accumulated through high-throughput data collection in the near future. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of XFEL-CXDI experiments in the structural analyses of cellular organelles. PMID:25745031

  19. Lensless Diffractive Imaging Using Tabletop Coherent High-Harmonic Soft-X-Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, Richard L.; Paul, Ariel; Raymondson, Daisy A.; Haedrich, Steffen; Gaudiosi, David M.; Holtsnider, Jim; Tobey, Ra'anan I.; Cohen, Oren; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Song, Changyong; Miao Jianwei; Liu Yanwei; Salmassi, Farhad

    2007-08-31

    We present the first experimental demonstration of lensless diffractive imaging using coherent soft x rays generated by a tabletop soft-x-ray source. A 29 nm high harmonic beam illuminates an object, and the subsequent diffraction is collected on an x-ray CCD camera. High dynamic range diffraction patterns are obtained by taking multiple exposures while blocking small-angle diffraction using beam blocks of varying size. These patterns reconstruct to images with 214 nm resolution. This work demonstrates a practical tabletop lensless microscope that promises to find applications in materials science, nanoscience, and biology.

  20. High-resolution projection image reconstruction of thick objects by hard x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    Hard x-ray diffraction microscopy enables us to observe thick objects at high spatial resolution. The resolution of this method is limited, in principle, by only the x-ray wavelength and the largest scattering angle recorded. As the resolution approaches the wavelength, the thickness effect of objects plays a significant role in x-ray diffraction microscopy. In this paper, we report high-resolution hard x-ray diffraction microscopy for thick objects. We used highly focused coherent x rays with a wavelength of {approx}0.1 nm as an incident beam and measured the diffraction patterns of a {approx}150-nm-thick silver nanocube at the scattering angle of {approx}3 deg. We observed a characteristic contrast of the coherent diffraction pattern due to only the thickness effect and collected the diffraction patterns at nine incident angles so as to obtain information on a cross section of Fourier space. We reconstructed a pure projection image by the iterative phasing method from the patched diffraction pattern. The edge resolution of the reconstructed image was {approx}2 nm, which was the highest resolution so far achieved by x-ray microscopy. The present study provides us with a method for quantitatively observing thick samples at high resolution by hard x-ray diffraction microscopy.

  1. Real-time x-ray diffraction measurements of shocked polycrystalline tin and aluminum.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dane V; Macy, Don; Stevens, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35 ns pulse. The characteristic K(alpha) lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic K(beta) line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3 x 6 mm(2) spot and 1 degrees full width half maximum angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5 degrees . A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device camera through a coherent fiber-optic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1 mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic aluminum lattice with no phase transformation. PMID:19045900

  2. Real-time X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Shocked Polycrystalline Tin and Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Dane V. Morgan, Don Macy, Gerald Stevens

    2008-11-22

    A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35-ns pulse. The characteristic Kα lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic Kβ line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3-mm by 6-mm spot and 1° full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5°. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through a coherent fiberoptic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1-mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

  3. X-ray test facility for diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, Randall L.; Hearty, Fred R.; Gleeson, Brian; Cash, Webster C.

    2004-02-01

    The University of Colorado maintains a grating evaluation facility to characterize optics from the far ultraviolet to the X-ray. The newest addition to this facility is a novel X-ray monochromator. Light is generated by a Manson electron impact X-ray source and passes through a monochromator which incorporates a grating in the off-plane mount at grazing incidence followed by an aluminum filter. From here, the light enters another vacuum chamber to illuminate the test grating, which disperses light onto a resistive anode MCP. This monochromator is characterized utilizing a variety of source anodes and voltages. Preliminary results from a high density test grating, also in the off-plane mount, display that this system is a highly effective tool for determining grating efficiencies.

  4. Single order X-ray diffraction with binary sinusoidal transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Leifeng

    2013-10-01

    All existing x-ray dispersive devices including crystals, multilayers and diffraction gratings generate spectra in multiple orders, whereas soft x-ray spectroscopy applications usually require only the first order spectrum. The other diffraction orders can overlap and contaminate the first order spectrum of interest. In this letter we describe how an axis-symmetrically-distributed sinusoidal-shaped aperture with binary transmittance values can be used to disperse x-rays and with a superior diffraction pattern where, along its symmetry axis, all higher-order diffractions can be effectively suppressed. Hence this sophisticated dispersive element generates pure soft x-ray spectra in the first diffraction order, free from interference from higher diffraction orders.

  5. Detectors for X-ray diffraction and scattering: a user's overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügemann, Lutz; Gerndt, Ekkehard K. E.

    2004-09-01

    An overview of the applications of X-ray detectors to material research is given. Four experimental techniques and their specific detector requirements are described. Detector types are classified and critical parameters described in the framework of X-ray diffraction and X-ray scattering experiments. The article aims at building a bridge between detector end-users and detector developers. It gives limits of critical detector parameters, like angular resolution, energy resolution, dynamic range, and active area.

  6. DIIS: A cross-platform program for the reduction of X-ray diffraction data from a cylindrical area detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrus, J. A.; Ross, K. C.; McDonald, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    A new program capable of rapidly and accurately reducing a two-dimensional X-ray diffraction pattern obtained from a Debye-Scherrer or Gandolfi camera to a quantitative digital diffractogram is described. By implementing geometric optimization routines based on the symmetry and sharpness of diffraction lines, the optimal configuration of the camera, X-ray path, and sample can be determined, thus providing the best possible set of integration parameters. Results for NIST standard reference materials 640c (Si) and 676 (Al 2O 3) are included to illustrate program functionality.

  7. X-Ray Spectrum of a Narrow-Line QSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1998-01-01

    During the reporting period, seven papers using ASCA data, supported in whole or in part by this grant, were published or submitted to refereed journals. Their abstracts are given in this report, and the complete bibliographic references are listed in the Appendix. Titles include (1) A Broad-Band X-ray Study of the Geminga Pulsar; (2) ASCA Observations of PSR 1920+10 and PSR 0950+08; (3) X-ray and Optical Spectroscopy of IRAS 20181-2244: Not a Type 2 QSO, but a I Zw I Object; (4) Models for X-ray Emission from Isolated Pulsars; (5) Optical and X-ray Spectroscopy of 1E 0449.4-1823: Demise of the Original Type 2 QSO; (6) The ASCA Spectrum of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy Pictor A: A Simple Power Law with No Fe Ka Line; and (7) ASCA Spectra of NGC 4388 and ESO 103-G35: Absorption, Reflection, and Variability in Intermediate Type Seyfert Galaxies.

  8. (X-ray diffraction experiments with condenser matter)

    SciTech Connect

    Coppens, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics: high-{Tc} superconductors; The response of crystal to an applied electric field; quasicrystals; surface structure and kinetics of surface layer formation; EXAFS studies of superconductors and heterostructures; effect of iron on the crystal structure of perovskite; x-ray detector development; and SAXS experiments. (LSP)

  9. Setup for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellmer, K.; Mientus, R.; Weiß, V.; Rossner, H.

    2001-07-01

    A novel method is described for the in situ-investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron light is used for the structural analysis during film growth. An in situ-magnetron sputtering chamber was constructed and installed at a synchrotron radiation beam line with a bending magnet. The white synchrotron light (1-70 keV) passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits one of the substrates on a four-fold sample holder. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle between 3° and 10°, is energy analyzed by a high purity Ge-detector. The in situ-EDXRD setup is demonstrated for the growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic target.

  10. A Bayesian Approach to Surface X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, Paul F.; Saldin, Dilano K.

    2006-11-17

    We report on the development of an iterative method to directly invert surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) data and thereby provide a map of electron density in the near-surface region of a solid. We have termed this method PARADIGM, which stands for Phase and Amplitude Recovery And Diffraction Image Generation Method. Significant advances in the PARADIGM theory were made during the grant period, and experimental milestones have also been achieved. The two components of the research program worked in concert, each spurring progress in the other. The method works by iteratively recovering the phases of surface scattering factors. Initially, random phases are assigned to the structure factors. After subtracting off the known bulk component, a Fourier transform converts these factors into an estimate of the real-space electron density map. This map is subjected to a support constraint, which holds that the electron density may only be non-zero near the solid surface. The modified electron density is then subjected to an inverse Fourier transform, and the bulk contributions are added back in. This renders an improved estimate of the phases of the surface structure factors. A constraint in reciprocal space is then applied, namely, the amplitudes of the scattering factors are set equal to the experimentally observed ones. This cycle is repeated, transforming between real and reciprocal space and applying constraints in each, until convergence is reached. The result renders a good initial model of the unknown surface structure. Such a direct method is important because conventional structural refinement methods rely on having a guess of the starting structure that sufficiently good that it may be refined into a model with the correct atomic positions. If the starting model has, for example, the wrong number or identity of atoms in the surface unit cell, it can never refine to the correct model. Even in cases where the starting model contains the correct number and identity

  11. Hard X-ray imaging of bacterial cells: nano-diffraction and ptychographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wilke, R N; Priebe, M; Bartels, M; Giewekemeyer, K; Diaz, A; Karvinen, P; Salditt, T

    2012-08-13

    Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging (PCDI) has been combined with nano-focus X-ray diffraction to study the structure and density distribution of unstained and unsliced bacterial cells, using a hard X-ray beam of 6.2keV photon energy, focused to about 90nm by a Fresnel zone plate lens. While PCDI provides images of the bacteria with quantitative contrast in real space with a resolution well below the beam size at the sample, spatially resolved small angle X-ray scattering using the same Fresnel zone plate (cellular nano-diffraction) provides structural information at highest resolution in reciprocal space up to 2nm(-1). We show how the real and reciprocal space approach can be used synergistically on the same sample and with the same setup. In addition, we present 3D hard X-ray imaging of unstained bacterial cells by a combination of ptychography and tomography. PMID:23038565

  12. X-ray Diffraction Crystal Calibration and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Haugh; Richard Stewart; Nathan Kugland

    2009-06-05

    National Security Technologies’ X-ray Laboratory is comprised of a multi-anode Manson type source and a Henke type source that incorporates a dual goniometer and XYZ translation stage. The first goniometer is used to isolate a particular spectral band. The Manson operates up to 10 kV and the Henke up to 20 kV. The Henke rotation stages and translation stages are automated. Procedures have been developed to characterize and calibrate various NIF diagnostics and their components. The diagnostics include X-ray cameras, gated imagers, streak cameras, and other X-ray imaging systems. Components that have been analyzed include filters, filter arrays, grazing incidence mirrors, and various crystals, both flat and curved. Recent efforts on the Henke system are aimed at characterizing and calibrating imaging crystals and curved crystals used as the major component of an X-ray spectrometer. The presentation will concentrate on these results. The work has been done at energies ranging from 3 keV to 16 keV. The major goal was to evaluate the performance quality of the crystal for its intended application. For the imaging crystals we measured the laser beam reflection offset from the X-ray beam and the reflectivity curves. For the curved spectrometer crystal, which was a natural crystal, resolving power was critical. It was first necessary to find sources of crystals that had sufficiently narrow reflectivity curves. It was then necessary to determine which crystals retained their resolving power after being thinned and glued to a curved substrate.

  13. Observing soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium with X-ray calorimeter on a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Mccammon, D.; Skinner, M.; Kelley, R.; Moseley, H.; Schoelkopf, R.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    For an X-ray calorimeter working at 0.1 K, the energy resolution ideally can be as good as one eV for a practical detector. A detector with a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 6 keV has been constructed. It is expected that this can be improved by a factor of two or more. With X-ray calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket, it should be possible to observe soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV. Here, a preliminary design for an X-ray calorimeter rocket experiment and the spectrum which might be observed from an equilibrium plasma are presented. For later X-ray calorimeter sounding rocket experiments, it is planned to add an aluminum foil mirror with collecting area of about 400 sq cm to observe line features from bright supernova remnants.

  14. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

  15. Nanoscale Imaging of Buried Structures with Elemental Specificity Using Resonant X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Changyong; Bergstrom, Raymond; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Jiang, Huaidong; Miao, Jianwei; Paterson, David; Jonge, Martin D. de; McNulty, Ian; Lee, Jooyoung; Wang, Kang L.

    2008-01-18

    We report the first demonstration of resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy for element specific imaging of buried structures with a pixel resolution of {approx}15 nm by exploiting the abrupt change in the scattering cross section near electronic resonances. We performed nondestructive and quantitative imaging of buried Bi structures inside a Si crystal by directly phasing coherent x-ray diffraction patterns acquired below and above the Bi M{sub 5} edge. We anticipate that resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy will be applied to element and chemical state specific imaging of a broad range of systems including magnetic materials, semiconductors, organic materials, biominerals, and biological specimens.

  16. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction of Macromolecules with Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Boggon, Titus; Helliwell, John R.; Judge, Russell; Olczak, Alex; Snell, Edward H.; Siddons, D. Peter; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We recently combined synchrotron-based monochromatic X-ray diffraction topography methods with triple axis diffractometry and rocking curve measurements: high resolution X-ray diffraction imaging techniques, to better understand the quality of protein crystals. We discuss these methods in the light of results obtained on crystals grown under different conditions. These non destructive techniques are powerful tools in the characterization of the protein crystals and ultimately will allow to improve, develop, and understand protein crystal growth. High resolution X-ray diffraction imaging methods will be discussed in detail in light of recent results obtained on Hen Egg White Lysozyme crystals and other proteins.

  17. Temperature-dependent vibrational spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction investigation of nanosized nickel chromite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulková, Irena; Holec, Petr; Němec, Ivan; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Furubayashi, Takao; Vejpravová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    The nanocrystalline nickel chromite (NiCr2O4) with particle size of ∼20 nm was prepared by auto-combustion method. The nanocrystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The expected structural phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-orthorhombic) were studied by methods of temperature-dependent X-ray powder diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. The evolution of the Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns collected from 350 K down to 4 K confirmed the cubic-to-tetragonal distortion at ∼250 K, whereas the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition was not confirmed in the nanocrystalline sample.

  18. Influence of conversion material morphology on electrochemistry studied with operando X-ray tomography and diffraction.

    PubMed

    Villevieille, Claire; Ebner, Martin; Gómez-Cámer, Juan Luis; Marone, Federica; Novák, Petr; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-03-11

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray tomography are performed on intermetallic particles undergoing lithiation in a porous electrode. Differences between ensemble phase evolution and that at a single-particle level are explored. It is found that all particles evidence core-shell lithiation; however, particles with internal porosity are more mechanically robust and exhibit less fracture. PMID:25619158

  19. Nanofabrication of diffractive optics for soft X-ray and atom beam focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, S.

    2003-03-01

    Nanostructuring processes are described for manufacturing diffractive optics for the condensermonochromator set-up of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) and for the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the BESSY II electron storage ring in Berlin. Furthermore, a process for manufacturing freestanding nickel zone plates for helium atom beam focusing experiments is presented.

  20. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The expected flux of K alpha line emission from sulfur, argon, calcium, and iron is calculated during both thermal and nonthermal solar X-ray events. Such emission is shown to be weak during the course of most of the nonthermal hard X-ray bursts that Kane and Anderson (1970) have observed. If Compton backscattering is significant at high energies, the flux is reduced still further for disk flares, but it is noted that the strong, near-limb burst of June 26 would have produced about 100 photons /sq cm/sec of sulfur and iron K alpha emission. The impulsive hard X-ray bursts may in general be too short-lived for much K alpha emission. It may be noted that sulfur K alpha emission in particular depends sensitively on the lower-energy limit of the nonthermal electron spectrum, assuming such a sharply defined boundary exists. During soft X-ray bursts, when temperatures of a few 10 to the 7th power K are obtained, K alpha emission from certain iron ions, specifically Fe XVIII-XXIII, may be important.

  1. On-Line Mirror Surfacing Monitored by X-ray Shearing Interferometry and X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, E.; Peverini, L.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Weitkamp, T.; David, C.

    2007-01-19

    We propose a novel fabrication scheme combining a mirror surfacing tool and an on-line metrology instrument, the latter capable of controlling both figure and finish of an X-ray mirror with an accuracy matching the challenging specifications of nanofocusing reflective optics for synchrotron and FEL X-ray beams. This approach will be complementary to the present technologies. The paper reviews some recent achievements and presents pertinent examples of on-line diagnostics performed at the ESRF BM05 beamline for which X-rays prove to be a unique probe.

  2. Equation of state of solid neon from x-ray diffraction measurements to 110 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Hemley, R.J.; Jephcoat, A.P.; Zha, C.S.; Mao, H.K.; Finger, L.W.; Cox, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the pressure-volume properties of condensed neon. X-ray diffraction techniques are used to determine solid neon equation of state and crystal structure. 16 refs., 2 figs. (LSP)

  3. State-of-the-art and problems of X-ray diffraction analysis of biomacromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, N. S.

    2006-12-15

    The state-of-the-art of X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules is briefly characterized, and the challenge imposed by science is discussed. These studies are characterized by a wide scope and extensive use. This field of science is of great interest and is developed in many countries. The main purpose is to solve practical problems in medicine consisting in the design of drugs against various diseases. X-ray diffraction analysis of enzymes brought the pharmaceutical industry to a new level, thus allowing the rational design of drugs against formerly untreatable diseases. Modern X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules laid the basis for a new science called structural biology. This method allows one to solve fundamental problems of physical chemistry for a new state of matter existing in living systems. Here, science poses numerous problems in analysis of X-ray diffraction data on biological macromolecules. Many of theses problems are in their infancy.

  4. [Research on the silk aging with x-ray diffraction spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Si-xun

    2010-01-01

    The present paper did some researches on the deterioration mechanism and the changes in crystallinity of silk fabrics by means of the X-ray diffraction analysis. The samples artificially aged and excavated from Hubei, Innermongolia, Shaanxi and Qinghai provinces were analyzed. The artificial aging was done by simulating three main natural aging factors: light, heat and hydrolysis. The analytical results show that X-ray diffraction analysis could reveal the aging process and characteristic of silk, as well as the changes in crystallinity during silk aging. The X-ray diffraction analysis is of practical value for the conservation state and aging mechanism studies of ancient silk. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis could also provide important information on ancient technology of textile and apparel. PMID:20302128

  5. X-Ray Diffraction Powder Patterns and Thin Section Observations from the Sierra Madera Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huson, S. A.; Foit, F. F.; Watkinson, A. J.; Pope, M. C.

    2006-03-01

    X-Ray powder diffraction analysis and thin section observations of carbonate and siliciclastic samples from the Sierra Madera impact structure indicate moderate shock pressures (8 to 30 GPa) were generated during the formation of this crater.

  6. Electrochemical in-situ reaction cell for X-ray scattering, diffraction and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Artur; Granlund, Eric; Cairns, Elton J.

    2003-01-27

    An electrochemical in-situ reaction cell for hard X-ray experiments with battery electrodes is described. Applications include the small angle scattering, diffraction, and near-edge spectroscopy of lithium manganese oxide electrodes.

  7. State-of-the-art and problems of X-ray diffraction analysis of biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, N. S.

    2006-12-01

    The state-of-the-art of X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules is briefly characterized, and the challenge imposed by science is discussed. These studies are characterized by a wide scope and extensive use. This field of science is of great interest and is developed in many countries. The main purpose is to solve practical problems in medicine consisting in the design of drugs against various diseases. X-ray diffraction analysis of enzymes brought the pharmaceutical industry to a new level, thus allowing the rational design of drugs against formerly untreatable diseases. Modern X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules laid the basis for a new science called structural biology. This method allows one to solve fundamental problems of physical chemistry for a new state of matter existing in living systems. Here, science poses numerous problems in analysis of X-ray diffraction data on biological macromolecules. Many of theses problems are in their infancy.

  8. Method for improve x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Robert M.; Cohen, Isadore

    1990-01-01

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys which comprises covering part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy with a dispersion, exposing the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample.

  9. Method for improving x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOEpatents

    Berman, R.M.; Cohen, I.

    1988-04-26

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys is discussed. Part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy is covered with a dispersion. This exposes the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose, since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample. 2 figs.

  10. X-ray diffraction observations of chemically skinned frog skeletal muscle processed by an improved method.

    PubMed Central

    Magid, A; Reedy, M K

    1980-01-01

    Whole frog sartorius muscles can be chemically skinned in approximately 2 h by relaxing solutions containing 0.5% Triton X-100. The intensity and order of the X-ray diffraction pattern from living muscle is largely retained after such skinning, indicating good retention of native structure in fibrils and filaments. Best X-ray results were obtained using a solution with (mM): 75 K acetate; 5 Mg acetate; 5 ATP; 5 EGTA; 15 K phosphate, 2% PVP, pH 7.0. Equatorial X-ray patterns showed that myofibrils swell after detergent skinning, as also observed after mechanical skinning. This swelling could be reversed by adding high molecular weight colloids (PVP or dextran) to the extracting solution. By finding the colloid osmotic pressure needed to restore the in vivo interfilament spacing (3% PVP, 4 X 10(4) mol wt) the swelling pressure was estimated as 35 Torr in a standard KCl-based relaxing solution. The swelling pressure and the extent of swelling were less than acetate replaced chloride as the major anion. Detergent-skinned muscle lost the constant-volume relation between sarcomere length and lattice spacing seen in intact muscle. Changes in A band spacing were paralleled by changes in I and band-Z line spacing at a constant sarcomere length. After detergent skinning, I1,0 rose while I1,1 fell, a change in the relaxing direction. Since raising the calcium ion concentrations from pCa 9 to PCa 6.7 was without effect on equatorial or axial X-ray patterns, we concluded that these intensity changes were not due to calcium-dependent cross-bridge movement but rather to disordering of thin filaments in the A band. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 1 PMID:6973364

  11. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of photostimulated purple membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, R D; Forsyth, J M

    1985-01-01

    A nanosecond resolution laser-driven x-ray source has been used to perform a time-resolved, x-ray diffraction study of the purple membrane of the Halobacterium halobium. Alterations in diffraction patterns have been observed 1 ms after photostimulation, and are interpreted to show disorder of bacteriorhodopsin packing in the plane of the membrane with little bacteriorhodopsin structural change. PMID:3978209

  12. Measurement of piezoelectric constants of lanthanum-gallium tantalate crystal by X-ray diffraction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Blagov, A. E.; Marchenkov, N. V. Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-01-15

    A method for measuring piezoelectric constants of crystals of intermediate systems by X-ray quasi-multiple-wave diffraction is proposed and implemented. This technique makes it possible to determine the piezoelectric coefficient by measuring variations in the lattice parameter under an external electric field. This method has been approved, its potential is evaluated, and a comparison with high-resolution X-ray diffraction data is performed.

  13. X-ray diffraction characterization of suspended structures forMEMS applications

    SciTech Connect

    Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Lavelle, B.; Rigo, S.; Masri, T.; Bosseboeuf, A.; Sarnet, T.; Petit, J.-A.; Desmarres, J.-M.

    2005-09-15

    Mechanical stress control is becoming one of the major challenges for the future of micro and nanotechnologies. Micro scanning X-ray diffraction is one of the promising techniques that allows stress characterization in such complex structures at sub micron scales. Two types of MEMS structure have been studied: a bilayer cantilever composed of a gold film deposited on poly-silicon and a boron doped silicon bridge. X-ray diffraction results are discussed in view of numerical simulation experiments.

  14. A portable X-ray diffraction apparatus for in situ analyses of masters' paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveno, Myriam; Duran, Adrian; Castaing, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    It is rare that the analyses of materials in paintings can be carried out by taking micro-samples. Valuable works of art are best studied in situ by non-invasive techniques. For that purpose, a portable X-ray diffraction and fluorescence apparatus has been designed and constructed at the C2RMF. This apparatus has been used for paintings of Rembrandt, Leonardo da Vinci, Van Gogh, Mantegna, etc. Results are given to illustrate the performance of X-ray diffraction, especially when X-ray fluorescence does not bring sufficient information to conclude.

  15. An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Kim, Woo-Hee; Bent, Stacey F.; Johnson, Richard W.; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva

    2014-05-15

    The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

  16. Three-Dimensional Visualization of a Human Chromosome Using Coherent X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yukio; Imamoto, Naoko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-09

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a lensless phase-contrast imaging technique with high image contrast. Although electron tomography allows intensive study of the three-dimensional structure of cellular organelles, it has inherent difficulty with thick objects. X rays have the unique benefit of allowing noninvasive analysis of thicker objects and high spatial resolution. We observed an unstained human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction. The reconstructed images in two or three dimensions show an axial structure, which has not been observed under unstained conditions.

  17. Reactive sputter magnetron reactor for preparation of thin films and simultaneous in situ structural study by X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Bürgi, J; Neuenschwander, R; Kellermann, G; García Molleja, J; Craievich, A F; Feugeas, J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the designed reactor is (i) to obtain polycrystalline and∕or amorphous thin films by controlled deposition induced by a reactive sputtering magnetron and (ii) to perform a parallel in situ structural study of the deposited thin films by X-ray diffraction, in real time, during the whole growth process. The designed reactor allows for the control and precise variation of the relevant processing parameters, namely, magnetron target-to-sample distance, dc magnetron voltage, and nature of the gas mixture, gas pressure and temperature of the substrate. On the other hand, the chamber can be used in different X-ray diffraction scanning modes, namely, θ-2θ scanning, fixed α-2θ scanning, and also low angle techniques such as grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray reflectivity. The chamber was mounted on a standard four-circle diffractometer located in a synchrotron beam line and first used for a preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AlN thin films during their growth on the surface of a (100) silicon wafer. PMID:23387690

  18. Reactive sputter magnetron reactor for preparation of thin films and simultaneous in situ structural study by X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Buergi, J.; Molleja, J. Garcia; Feugeas, J.; Neuenschwander, R.; Kellermann, G.; Craievich, A. F.

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of the designed reactor is (i) to obtain polycrystalline and/or amorphous thin films by controlled deposition induced by a reactive sputtering magnetron and (ii) to perform a parallel in situ structural study of the deposited thin films by X-ray diffraction, in real time, during the whole growth process. The designed reactor allows for the control and precise variation of the relevant processing parameters, namely, magnetron target-to-sample distance, dc magnetron voltage, and nature of the gas mixture, gas pressure and temperature of the substrate. On the other hand, the chamber can be used in different X-ray diffraction scanning modes, namely, {theta}-2{theta} scanning, fixed {alpha}-2{theta} scanning, and also low angle techniques such as grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray reflectivity. The chamber was mounted on a standard four-circle diffractometer located in a synchrotron beam line and first used for a preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AlN thin films during their growth on the surface of a (100) silicon wafer.

  19. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations of K alpha line emission from S, Ar, Ca and Fe are presented. It is reported that on the basis of data for hard X-ray bursts, the flux during most impulsive, non-thermal events is likely to be weak, though for a few strong bursts, a flux of approximately 100 photons/cm/s may be expected. The amount of S K alpha emission particularly is sensitively dependent on the value of the lower energy bound of the non-thermal electron distribution, offering a possible means of determining this. Thermal K alpha emission is only significant for Fe ions. The calculated thermal K alpha radiation is much less than that observed during an intense soft X-ray burst. It is concluded that a detailed temperature structure for the emission source is required in order to explain the discrepancy.

  20. Multiple powder diffraction data for an accurate charge density study using synchrotron radiation x-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Hidetaka; Nishibori, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    In recent years multiple synchrotron radiation (SR) powder x-ray diffraction profiles have been successfully applied to advanced structural studies such as an accurate charge density study and a structure determination from powder diffraction. The results have been presented with several examples. Abilities and future prospects have been discussed using state of the art powder diffraction data.

  1. In-situ X-ray diffraction system using sources and detectors at fixed angular positions

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, David M.; Gibson, Walter M.; Huang, Huapeng

    2007-06-26

    An x-ray diffraction technique for measuring a known characteristic of a sample of a material in an in-situ state. The technique includes using an x-ray source for emitting substantially divergent x-ray radiation--with a collimating optic disposed with respect to the fixed source for producing a substantially parallel beam of x-ray radiation by receiving and redirecting the divergent paths of the divergent x-ray radiation. A first x-ray detector collects radiation diffracted from the sample; wherein the source and detector are fixed, during operation thereof, in position relative to each other and in at least one dimension relative to the sample according to a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample. A second x-ray detector may be fixed relative to the first x-ray detector according to the a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample, especially in a phase monitoring embodiment of the present invention.

  2. Pressure-induced structural distortion of TbMnO3 : A combined x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Chou, T. L.; Lee, J. M.; Chen, S. A.; Chan, T. S.; Chen, T. H.; Lu, K. T.; Chuang, W. T.; Sheu, H.-S.; Chen, S. W.; Lin, C. M.; Hiraoka, N.; Ishii, H.; Tsuei, K. D.; Yang, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    The variation of electronic states and structural distortion in highly compressed multiferroic TbMnO3 was probed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation. Refined XRD data enabled observation of a reduced local Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of Mn sites within MnO6 octahedra in TbMnO3 with increasing hydrostatic pressure. A progressively increasing intensity of the white line in MnK -edge x-ray absorption spectra of TbMnO3 was detected with increasing pressure. The absorption threshold of MnK -edge spectra of TbMnO3 is shifted toward higher energy, whereas the pre-edge peak is slightly shifted to lower energy with increasing hydrostatic pressure. We provide spectral evidence for pressure-induced bandwidth broadening for mangnites. The enhanced intensity of the white line and the shifted absorption threshold of MnK -edge spectra are explained in terms of a reduced JT distortion of MnO6 octahedra in compressed TbMnO3 . Comparison of XAS data with full-multiple-scattering calculations using code FDMNES shows satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated MnK -edge spectra.

  3. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  4. High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D

    2005-08-19

    Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.

  5. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

  6. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  7. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  8. Phase Sensitive X-Ray Diffraction Imaging Study of Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Z. W.

    2003-01-01

    The study of defects and growth of protein crystals is of importance in providing a fundamental understanding of this important category of systems and the rationale for crystallization of better ordered crystals for structural determination and drug design. Yet, as a result of the extremely weak scattering power of x-rays in protein and other biological macromolecular crystals, the extinction lengths for those crystals are extremely large and, roughly speaking, of the order of millimeters on average compared to the scale of micrometers for most small molecular crystals. This has significant implication for x-ray diffraction and imaging study of protein crystals, and presents an interesting challenge to currently available x-ray analytical techniques. We proposed that coherence-based phase sensitive x-ray diffraction imaging could provide a way to augment defect contrast in x-ray diffraction images of weakly diffracting biological macromolecular crystals. I shall examine the principles and ideas behind this approach and compare it to other available x-ray topography and diffraction methods. I shall then present some recent experimental results in two model protein systems-cubic apofemtin and tetragonal lysozyme crystals to demonstrate the capability of the coherence-based imaging method in mapping point defects, dislocations, and the degree of perfection of biological macromolecular crystals with extreme sensitivity. While further work is under way, it is intended to show that the observed new features have yielded important information on protein crystal perfection and nucleation and growth mechanism otherwise unobtainable.

  9. Combining operando synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy and scanning X-ray diffraction to study lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Patrick; Hess, Michael; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eller, Jens; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    We present an operando study of a lithium ion battery combining scanning X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) simultaneously for the first time. This combination of techniques facilitates the investigation of dynamic processes in lithium ion batteries containing amorphous and/or weakly attenuating active materials. While amorphous materials pose a challenge for diffraction techniques, weakly attenuating material systems pose a challenge for attenuation-contrast tomography. Furthermore, combining SXRD and SRXTM can be used to correlate processes occurring at the atomic level in the crystal lattices of the active materials with those at the scale of electrode microstructure. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, we investigate a silicon powder electrode in lithium metal half-cell configuration. Combining SXRD and SRXTM, we are able to (i) quantify the dissolution of the metallic lithium electrode and the expansion of the silicon electrode, (ii) better understand the formation of the Li15Si4 phase, and (iii) non-invasively probe kinetic limitations within the silicon electrode. A simple model based on the 1D diffusion equation allows us to qualitatively understand the observed kinetics and demonstrates why high-capacity electrodes are more prone to inhomogeneous lithiation reactions. PMID:27324109

  10. Combining operando synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy and scanning X-ray diffraction to study lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Patrick; Hess, Michael; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eller, Jens; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    We present an operando study of a lithium ion battery combining scanning X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) simultaneously for the first time. This combination of techniques facilitates the investigation of dynamic processes in lithium ion batteries containing amorphous and/or weakly attenuating active materials. While amorphous materials pose a challenge for diffraction techniques, weakly attenuating material systems pose a challenge for attenuation-contrast tomography. Furthermore, combining SXRD and SRXTM can be used to correlate processes occurring at the atomic level in the crystal lattices of the active materials with those at the scale of electrode microstructure. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, we investigate a silicon powder electrode in lithium metal half-cell configuration. Combining SXRD and SRXTM, we are able to (i) quantify the dissolution of the metallic lithium electrode and the expansion of the silicon electrode, (ii) better understand the formation of the Li15Si4 phase, and (iii) non-invasively probe kinetic limitations within the silicon electrode. A simple model based on the 1D diffusion equation allows us to qualitatively understand the observed kinetics and demonstrates why high-capacity electrodes are more prone to inhomogeneous lithiation reactions. PMID:27324109

  11. Dynamical x-ray diffraction from an icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kycia, S.

    1996-04-23

    Primary extinction effects in diffraction from single grains of Al-Pd- Mn, and presumably many other FCI alloys, may be significant and should be corrected for prior to use of diffraction data in structural determinations. Probes based on dynamical diffraction effects, such as x-ray standing wave fluorescence, multiple beam interference, and x-ray transmission topographs, may now be used to study the bulk and surface structure of some quasicrystals. The observation of dynamical diffraction from icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn is a striking confirmation of the fact that quasicrystals can present a degree of structural perfection comparable to that found in the best periodic intermetallic crystals.

  12. Advanced x-ray stress analysis method for a single crystal using different diffraction plane families

    SciTech Connect

    Imafuku, Muneyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Kazuyuki; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi

    2008-06-09

    Generalized formula of the x-ray stress analysis for a single crystal with unknown stress-free lattice parameter was proposed. This method enables us to evaluate the plane stress states with any combination of diffraction planes. We can choose and combine the appropriate x-ray sources and diffraction plane families, depending on the sample orientation and the apparatus, whenever diffraction condition is satisfied. The analysis of plane stress distributions in an iron single crystal was demonstrated combining with the diffraction data for Fe{l_brace}211{r_brace} and Fe{l_brace}310{r_brace} plane families.

  13. High temperature x-ray diffraction in transmission under controlled environment

    SciTech Connect

    Margulies, L.; Kramer, M.J.; Williams, J.J.; Deters, E.M.; McCallum, R.W.; Goldman, A.I.; Haeffner, D.R.; Lang, J.C.; Kycia, S.

    1998-12-31

    A compact tube furnace has been developed for high temperature X-ray diffraction studies using high energy synchrotron radiation. The furnace design has a low absorption path in transmission yet allows for a high degree of control of the sample atmosphere and a minimal temperature gradient across the sample. The design allows for a maximum temperature of 1,500 C with a variety of atmospheres including inert, reducing, and oxidizing. Preliminary results obtained at the SRI-CAT 1-ID undulator line (60 keV) at the APS facility and the A2 24 pole wiggler line (45 keV) at CHESS on the Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}Z{sub .5} (Z = C, N, O) system will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  14. Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Matthias; Carlson, David B.; Hunter, Mark; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Barty, Anton; Benner, Henry; Chu, Kaiqin; Graf, Alexander; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Kirian, Rick; Padeste, Celestino; Pardini, Tommaso; Pedrini, Bill; Segelke, Brent; Seibert, M. M.; Spence, John C.; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Lane, Steve M.; Li, Xiao-Dan; Schertler, Gebhard; Boutet, Sebastien; Coleman, Matthew A.; Evans, James E.

    2014-02-28

    Here we present femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional (2-D) protein crystals using an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). To date it has not been possible to acquire x-ray diffraction from individual 2-D protein crystals due to radiation damage. However, the intense and ultrafast pulses generated by an XFEL permits a new method of collecting diffraction data before the sample is destroyed. Utilizing a diffract-before-destroy methodology at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we observed Bragg diffraction to better than 8.5 Å resolution for two different 2-D protein crystal samples that were maintained at room temperature. These proof-of-principle results show promise for structural analysis of both soluble and membrane proteins arranged as 2-D crystals without requiring cryogenic conditions or the formation of three-dimensional crystals.

  15. Closing the gap to the diffraction limit: Near wavelength limited tabletop soft x-ray coherent diffractive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Richard Lunt

    Light microscopy has greatly advanced our understanding of nature. The achievable resolution, however, is limited by optical wavelengths to around 200 nm. Using novel imaging and labeling technologies, resolutions beyond the diffraction limit can be achieved for specialized specimens using techniques such as near-field scanning optical microscopy, stimulated emission depletion microscopy and structured illumination microscopy [1--3]. This dissertation presents a versatile soft x-ray diffraction microscope with 50 nm resolution using tabletop coherent soft x-ray sources. This work represents the first high resolution demonstrations of coherent diffractive or lensless imaging using tabletop extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources [4, 5]. This dissertation also presents the first use of field curvature correction in x-ray coherent imaging which allows high numerical aperture imaging and near-diffraction-limited resolution of 1.5lambda. The relevant theory behind high harmonic generation, the primary tabletop source used in this work, will be discussed as well as the theory behind coherent diffractive imaging. Additionally, the first demonstration of tabletop soft x-ray Fourier Transform holography is shown with important applications to shorter wavelength imaging with high harmonic generation with limited flux. A tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscope should find broad applications in biology, nanoscience, and materials science due to its simple optical design, high resolution, large depth of field, 3D imaging capability, scalability to shorter wavelengths, and ultrafast temporal resolution.

  16. Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

    2011-12-01

    We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 μm on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

  17. Measurement of coronal X-ray emission lines from Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, P. W.; Canizares, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory's Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer has detected X-ray emission lines due to O VIII, Fe XVII, and Fe XX, from the binary star system Capella. Line luminosities are well fitted by an emitting plasma at a single temperature of 6.29 + or - 0.01 - 0.03 million K, and a volume emission measure of about 8.6 x 10 to the 52nd/cu cm, corresponding to the low temperature component previously observed. A high temperature component is undetectable, since the observed lines are not produced in plasma at temperatures above about 20 million K. Nearly isothermal plasma would be expected if many of the magnetically confined coronal loops have similar sizes and pressures, and a second population of longer loops would be required to account for the hotter component. An alternative interpretation of the observed X-ray line emission and upper limit is that the plasma contains a continuous distribution of emission measure versus temperature that rises sharply to 3 million K and then falls by nearly a decade to 16 million. An extrapolation of the loop sizes suggested by this alternative to hotter, longer loops may also account for the higher temperature emission.

  18. Characterization of a 20-nm hard x-ray focus by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Diaz, Ana; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Gorelick, Sergey; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; Karvinen, Petri; Kewish, Cameron M.; Färm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko; Mantion, Alexandre; Bunk, Oliver; Menzel, Andreas; David, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication of diffractive X-ray optics have boosted hard X-ray microscopy into spatial resolutions of 30 nm and below. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for multi-keV photon energies (4-12 keV) with outermost zone widths down to 20 nm. However, the characterization of such elements is not straightforward using conventional methods such as knife edge scans on well-characterized test objects. To overcome this limitation, we have used ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging to characterize a 20 nm-wide X-ray focus produced by a zone-doubled Fresnel zone plate at a photon energy of 6.2 keV. An ordinary scanning transmission X-ray microscope was modified to acquire the ptychographic data from a strongly scattering test object. The ptychographic algorithms allowed for the reconstruction of the image of the test object as well as for the reconstruction of the focused hard X-ray beam waist, with high spatial resolution and dynamic range. This method yields a full description of the focusing performance of the Fresnel zone plate and we demonstrate the usefulness ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging for metrology and alignment of nanofocusing diffractive X-ray lenses.

  19. Real-time observation of coherent acoustic phonons generated by an acoustically mismatched optoacoustic transducer using x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.

    2015-11-14

    The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.

  20. Apparatus for use in examining the lattice of a semiconductor wafer by X-ray diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. L.; Porter, W. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus for examining the crystal lattice of a semiconductor wafer utilizing X-ray diffraction techniques was presented. The apparatus is employed in a method which includes the step of recording the image of a wafer supported in a bent configuration conforming to a compound curve, produced through the use of a vacuum chuck provided for an X-ray camera. The entire surface thereof is illuminated simultaneously by a beam of incident X-rays which are projected from a distant point-source and satisfy conditions of the Bragg Law for all points on the surface of the water.

  1. Pulse requirements for x-ray diffraction imaging of single biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, S; London, R; Huldt, G; Chapman, H

    2005-01-05

    It has been suggested that x-ray free electron lasers will enable single-particle diffraction imaging of biological molecules. In this paper we present a model to estimate the required pulse parameters based on a trade-off between minimizing image degradation due to damage and maximizing the image signal-to-noise ratio. We discuss several means to alleviate the photon requirements, and compare the requirements with existing or planned x-ray sources such as short-pulse x-ray free-electron lasers.

  2. Quality experimental and calculated powder x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sullenger, D.B.; Cantrell, J.S.; Beiter, T.A.; Tomlin, D.W.

    1996-08-01

    For several years, we have submitted quality powder XRD patterns to the International Centre for Diffraction Data for inclusion as reference standards in their Powder Diffraction File. The procedure followed is described; examples used are {beta}-UH{sub 3}, {alpha}- BaT{sub 2}, alpha-lithium disilicate ({alpha}-Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and 2,2`,4,4`,6,6`hexanitroazobenzene-III (HNAB-III).

  3. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder X-ray diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Pawloski, Gayle A.

    1986-01-01

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  4. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder x-ray diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1984-08-10

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  5. X-ray diffraction and EXAFS analysis of materials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkov, M. D. Boiko, M. E.; Bobyl, A. V.; Ershenko, E. M.; Terukov, E. I.; Zubavichus, Y. V.

    2013-12-15

    Lithium iron phosphate LiFePO{sub 4} (triphylite) and lithium titanate Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are used as components of a number of active materials in modern rechargeable batteries. Samples of these materials are studied by X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Hypotheses about the phase composition of the analyzed samples are formulated.

  6. X-ray diffraction on precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caha, O.; Meduňa, M.

    2009-12-01

    The results of a study of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski grown silicon are reported. High-resolution X-ray diffraction was used to measure reciprocal space maps on samples after various annealing treatment. The measurements were performed for several diffraction orders and systematic differences between reciprocal space maps around different diffractions were found. The diffuse X-ray scattering intensity was simulated, where the displacement field of precipitates was calculated using continuum elasticity theory. The simulations give correct asymptotic behavior and the interpretation of intermediate region between Huang and core scattering processes is found. The X-ray diffraction results are correlated to the infrared absorption spectroscopy measurement involving the interstitial oxygen concentration.

  7. Materials identification using a small-scale pixellated x-ray diffraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O’Flynn, D.; Crews, C.; Drakos, I.; Christodoulou, C.; Wilson, M. D.; Veale, M. C.; Seller, P.; Speller, R. D.

    2016-05-01

    A transmission x-ray diffraction system has been developed using a pixellated, energy-resolving detector (HEXITEC) and a small-scale, mains operated x-ray source (Amptek Mini-X). HEXITEC enables diffraction to be measured without the requirement of incident spectrum filtration, or collimation of the scatter from the sample, preserving a large proportion of the useful signal compared with other diffraction techniques. Due to this efficiency, sufficient molecular information for material identification can be obtained within 5 s despite the relatively low x-ray source power. Diffraction data are presented from caffeine, hexamine, paracetamol, plastic explosives and narcotics. The capability to determine molecular information from aspirin tablets inside their packaging is demonstrated. Material selectivity and the potential for a sample classification model is shown with principal component analysis, through which each different material can be clearly resolved.

  8. Development of High Pressure Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Study at ESRF ID 30 Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaussy, A.C.; Mezouar, M.; Mentre, O.

    2004-05-12

    We report about the newly single crystal diffraction set-up development at ID30 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). To illustrate the experimental performance of this set-up, we also present X-ray diffraction spectra recorded at high pressure (HP) using dedicated diamond anvil cell (DAC). Using this new setup, high quality synchrotron single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements of Pb2V3O9 have been performed at HP. We evidenced a reordering in the distorted system by resorbing the existing twin. The structure was partially solved by direct methods and refined by the use of the BRUKER suite of programs package.

  9. Transient x-ray diffraction used to diagnose shock compressed Si crystals on the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D.H.; Chandler, E.A.; Colvin, J.D.; Lee, R.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Wiley, L.G.; Hauer, A.; Wark, J.S.; Loveridge, A.; Failor, B.H.; Meyers, M.A.; Ravichandran, G.

    1999-01-01

    Transient x-ray diffraction is used to record time-resolved information about the shock compression of materials. This technique has been applied on Nova shock experiments driven using a hohlraum x-ray drive. Data were recorded from the shock release at the free surface of a Si crystal, as well as from Si at an embedded ablator/Si interface. Modeling has been done to simulate the diffraction data incorporating the strained crystal rocking curves and Bragg diffraction efficiencies. Examples of the data and post-processed simulations are presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Phase sensitive x-ray diffraction imaging of defects in biological macromolecular crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Z. W.; Lai, B.; Chu, Y. S.; Cai, Z.; Mancini, D. C.; Thomas, B. R.; Chernov, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional x-ray diffraction topography is currently used to map defects in the bulk of protein crystals, but the lack of sufficient contrast is frequently a limiting factor. We experimentally demonstrate that this barrier can be circumvented using a method that combines phase sensitive and diffraction imaging principles. Details of defects revealed in tetragonal lysozyme and cubic ferritin crystals are presented and discussed. The approach enabling the detection of the phase changes of diffracted x rays should prove to be useful in the study of defect structures in a broad range of biological macromolecular crystals.