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1

X-ray fluorescence experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary results from the Sco X-1 and Cyg X-1 obtained from the Apollo 15 X-ray detector data are presented along with preliminary results of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric data of the lunar surface composition. The production of the characteristic X-rays following the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface is described along with the X-ray spectrometer. Preliminary analyses of the astronomical X-ray observation and the X-ray fluorescence data are presented.

Adler, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

1972-01-01

2

Student X-Ray Fluorescence Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experimental arrangement for x-ray analysis of samples which involves the following: the radioisotopic x-ray disk source; a student-built fluorescence chamber; the energy dispersive x-ray detector, linear amplifier and bias supply; and a multichannel pulse height analyzer. (GS)

Fetzer, Homer D.; And Others

1975-01-01

3

Apollo 15 Geochemical X-ray Fluorescence Experiment: Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although only part of the information from the x-ray fluorescence geochemical experiment has been analyzed, it is clear that the experiment was highly successful. Significant compositional differences among and possibly within the maria and highlands have been detected. When viewed in the light of analyzed lunar rocks and soil samples, and the data from other lunar orbital experiments (in particular,

I. Adler; J. Trombka; J. Gerard; P. Lowman; R. Schmadebeck; H. Blodget; E. Eller; L. Yin; R. Lamothe; P. Gorenstein; P. Bjorkholm

1972-01-01

4

The Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CSM spectrometric data on the lunar surface with respect to its chemical composition are presented for Al, Mg, and Si as Al/Si and Mg/Si ratios for the various features overflow by the spacecraft. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristic energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The results showed that the highlands and maria are chemically different, with the highlands having considerably more Al and less Mg than the maria. The mare-highland contact is quite sharp and puts a limit on the amount of horizontal transport of material. The X-ray data suggest that the dominant rock type of the lunar highlands is a plagioclase-rich pyroxene bearing rock, probably anorthositic gabbro or feldspathic basalt. Thus the moon appears to have a widespread differentiated crust (the highlands) systematically richer in Al and lower in Mg than the maria. This crust is pre-mare and may represent the first major internal differentiation of the moon.

Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

1972-01-01

5

Laboratory Experiments of Surface Roughness Effect in X-ray Fluorescence at Planetary Regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate roughness effect in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for interpreting remote X-ray spectrometry. To simulate microscopic roughness of uppermost planetary regolith, powdery specimens crashed rocks ranging 25 to 500 microns in size and flat rock plates for comparison were used. The results show XRF intensities from powdery specimens decrease relative to those from flat plates by up to 50 % for larger particle size and at increasing source-to-surface-to-detector (phase) angle. Corrections should be needed for elemental analysis by remote XRF spectrometry. This study is based on our previous results in Maruyama et al, (2008).

Okada, T.

2010-03-01

6

Imaging x-ray fluorescence relevant to hydrodynamic mixing experiments at the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is capable of providing enough energy to explore areas of physics that are not possible on any previous laser system. This includes large-volume, geometrically complex hydrodynamic and radiation hydrodynamic experiments in which traditional, line-integrated radiographic techniques limit the quality of the results. As an example, we are involved in divergent hydrodynamic experiments at the NIF, motivated by supernova hydrodynamics, that cannot be diagnosed in detail with transmission radiography. X-ray scattering has been considered for this purpose and appears feasible [1]. Here we consider fluorescence imaging, a better candidate as the cross section of photoabsorption in the several-keV range is roughly 100 times larger than that of scattering. A single layer of the target will be uniformly doped with a fluorescent tracer, which will be pumped by a sheet of x-rays. The fluorescent intensity will be measured to create a density map of the doped material as it mixes with other layers. Developing this diagnostic will create a powerful tool to characterize hydrodynamic experiments with complex geometries.[4pt] [1] Huntington et al. High Energy Density Physics 6, 194 (2010).

MacDonald, Michael; Gamboa, Eliseo; Kuranz, Carolyn; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

2012-10-01

7

X-ray fluorescence microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy is used to quantitatively measure and image the distribution of trace elements in biological, geological and materials science specimens. The design and performance of the x-ray fluorescence (XFR) microprobe at the NSLS are discussed and compared with other XRF microprobe design. An example of a trace element image obtained with this instrument if presented. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences); Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

8

Geometrical factor correction in grazing incident x-ray fluorescence experiment  

SciTech Connect

The geometrical factor in the grazing incident x-ray fluorescence analysis is an important angle-dependent term, which can have a great effect on the measured data. In this paper, the effects of the geometrical factor on the florescence yield have been demonstrated. A formula is presented to estimate the geometrical factor, which includes the experimental parameters of the beam and setup. The validity of this formula is proven by the good agreement between the calculated fluorescence yields with the experimental results in grazing incident x-ray fluorescence analysis.

Li Wenbin; Zhu Jingtao; Ma Xiaoying; Li Haochuan; Wang Hongchang; Wang Zhanshan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, MOE, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sawhney, Kawal J. S. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

9

NEW CORRECTION PROCEDURE FOR X-RAY SPECTROSCOPIC FLUORESCENCE DATA: SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENT.  

SciTech Connect

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a widely used method for determining the electronic configuration and local structure of dilute species with high sensitivity. In the dilute limit, and for thin films, the X-ray fluorescence signal is directly proportional to the atomic sub-shell absorption coefficient. However, for concentrated samples, the well-documented self-absorption effect often leads to the severe suppression of XANES (X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure) and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure) amplitudes. Thus to recover the real value of the sub-shell absorption coefficient, it is important to apply correction procedures to the measured fluorescence spectra. In this paper, we describe a new straightforward method to correct for self-absorption effects (the difference in the measured fluorescence signal compared to that of the true sub-shell photoabsorption coefficient) in XANES and EXAFS fluorescence measurements. Using a variety of sample and detector configurations, this method is used to extract the sub-shell absorption coefficient on elemental nickel and thick single-crystals of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} and LaAlO{sub 3}.

ABLETT, J.M.; WOICIK, J.C.; KAO, C.C.

2004-08-02

10

New Correction Procedure For X-ray Spectroscopic Fluorescence Data: Simulations and Experiment  

SciTech Connect

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a widely used method for determining the electronic configuration and local structure of dilute species with high sensitivity. In the dilute limit, and for thin films, the X-ray fluorescence signal is directly proportional to the atomic sub-shell absorption coefficient. However, for concentrated samples, the well-documented self-absorption effect often leads to the severe suppression of XANES (X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure) and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure) amplitudes. Thus to recover the real value of the sub-shell absorption coefficient, it is important to apply correction procedures to the measured fluorescence spectra. In this paper, we describe a new straightforward method to correct for self-absorption effects (the difference in the measured fluorescence signal compared to that of the true sub-shell photoabsorption coefficient) in XANES and EXAFS fluorescence measurements. Using a variety of sample and detector configurations, this method is used to extract the sub-shell absorption coefficient on elemental nickel and thick single-crystals of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} and LaAlO{sub 3}.

Ablett,J.; Woicik, J.; Kao, C.

2005-01-01

11

SAVLOC, computer program for automatic control and analysis of X-ray fluorescence experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program for a PDP-15 computer is presented which provides for control and analysis of trace element determinations by using X-ray fluorescence. The program simultaneously handles data accumulation for one sample and analysis of data from previous samples. Data accumulation consists of sample changing, timing, and data storage. Analysis requires the locating of peaks in X-ray spectra, determination of intensities of peaks, identification of origins of peaks, and determination of a real density of the element responsible for each peak. The program may be run in either a manual (supervised) mode or an automatic (unsupervised) mode.

Leonard, R. F.

1977-01-01

12

Confocal X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy experiment in tilted geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a generalized mathematical model to describe the intensity of primary X-ray fluorescence radiation collected in the tilted confocal geometry mode, where the collimating optics is rotated over an angle relative to a horizontal plane. The influence of newly introduced terms, which take into account the tilted geometry mode, is discussed. The model is verified with a multi-layer test sample scanned in depth. It is proved that for low-Z matrices, the rotation of the detection channel does not induce any significant differences in a reconstruction of the thickness and chemical composition of layers, so that it may safely be ignored.

Czyzycki, Mateusz; Wrobel, Pawel; Lankosz, Marek

2014-07-01

13

Remote X-ray fluorescence experiments for future missions to Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the only deep space mission to Mercury, Mariner 10, as well as ground-based observations have failed to provide direct measurements of that planet's composition. Such measurements are fundamental for the understanding of Mercury's origin and the inner solar system's history. The spin-stabilized Mercury Orbiter proposed for launch in the first or second decade of the twenty-first century as part of the ESA's Horizon 2000-plus plan could address this problem by including the X-ray spectrometer proposed here. X-ray spectrometers act as detectors for the X-ray emission induced by the solar flux incident on planetary surfaces. This emission is strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the surface as well as on the solar spectrum. Characteristic fluorescent lines, the most prominent being the K-alpha lines, are of sufficient intensity for major elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe) to allow orbital measurement by remote X-ray detectors. The X-ray spectrometers described here will all have established heritage for space missions by 2000. These instruments have previously flown, are being flown as part of the NASA NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) or Clark SSTI (Small Science and Technology Initiative) missions, or are now under development as part of NASA Facility Instrument Development Program. The instrument package would probably consist of an array of solid state detectors for surface measurements, as well as one which would act as a solar monitor. Calculations of anticipated results have been done for a variety of orbital and instrument configurations, and a variety of lunar soil compositions which could be analogous: anorthositie gabbro bearing soils from lunar highlands (Apollo 16), high-Mg basalt-rich soils from a KREEP-bearing area (Apollo 15), and mare basalt bearing soils (Apollo 12). The mission being considered here should result in maps of abundances of major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe, for much of Mercury's surface, with resolutions ranging from tens to hundreds of kilometers depending on the element, the orbital eccentricity and altitude of the spacecraft.

Clark, P. E.; Trombka, J. I.

1997-01-01

14

X-Ray Fluorescent Recovers Ancient Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Cornell University News Service presents an interdisciplinary effort among physicists and classicists to read a weathered 2000-year-old inscription on stone with x-ray fluorescence. The article describes how a powerful x-ray light source at Cornell produced fluorescence in trace elements in the inscribed stone and includes images showing the original inscription. The article is written for the general public.

2008-10-27

15

X-ray fluorescence microscopy of olfactory receptor neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a x-ray fluorescence microscopy study of cells and tissues from the olfactory system of Xenopus laevis. In this experiment we focus on sample preparation and experimental issues, and present first results of fluorescence maps of the elemental distribution of Cl, K, Ca, P, S and Na both in individual isolated neural cells and in cross-sections of the same tissue.

Du?i?, T.; Breunig, E.; Schild, D.; Herbst, J.; Nováková, E.; Susini, J.; Tucoulu, R.; Salditt, T.

2009-09-01

16

Preliminary results from the Viking X-ray fluorescence experiment - The first sample from Chryse Planitia, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron, calcium, aluminum, silicon, and sulfur are major elements in the first surface sample of Mars that has been analyzed by the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Titanium is present in minor quantities. This is consistent with the sample's being a mixture of fine silicate and oxide mineral grains, with a significant proportion of sulfates, possibly hydrated. Ferric oxide is regarded as the red pigmenting agent on the Martian surface, but if it coats silicate grains, the coatings must be very thin or discontinuous. A high abundance of Fe, relatively low abundances of Al, Rb, Sr, and Zr, and a high Ca/K ratio are distinctive features of the spectra. Preliminary determinations indicate the following abundances (as percentages by weight): Fe, 14 plus or minus 2; Ti, less than 1; S, 2 to 5; the Ca/K ratio by weight is greater than 5.

Toulmin, P., III; Rose, H. J., Jr.; Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Keil, K.

1976-01-01

17

Remote X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The legacy of planetary X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) began in 1960 when W. Parish proposed an XRD instrument for deployment on the moon. The instrument was built and flight qualified, but the Lunar XRD program was cancelled shortly before the first human landing in 1969. XRF chemical data have been collected in situ by surface landers on Mars (Viking 1 & 2, Pathfinder) and Venus (Venera 13 & 14). These highly successful experiments provide critical constraints on our current understanding of surface processes and planetary evolution. However, the mineralogy, which is more critical to planetary surface science than simple chemical analysis, will remain unknown or will at best be imprecisely constrained until X-ray diffraction (XRD) data are collected. Recent progress in X-ray detector technology allows the consideration of simultaneous XRD (mineralogic analysis) and high-precision XRF (elemental analysis) in systems miniaturized to the point where they can be mounted on fixed landers or small robotic rovers. There is a variety of potential targets for XRD/XRF equipped landers within the solar system, the most compelling of which are the poles of the moon, the southern highlands of Mars and Europa.

Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

18

A novel X-ray source for diagnosis: K-fluorescent enhanced X-ray tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel X-ray source for diagnosis, K-fluorescent enhanced X-ray tube, has been developed. With selectively enhanced K characteristic lines of optimum photon energies for medical diagnosis, the novel X-ray tube will provide am imaging source of higher signal-to-noise ratio and lower radiation dose. Its working principle and structure are described. A prototype tube designed with K characteristic photon energy about

Dagang Tan

2000-01-01

19

X-Ray fluorescence analysis in the scanning electron microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary X-ray fluorescence analysis can be performed in a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer by means of a special attachment. For the production of primary X-rays a target is positioned in the electron beam. With this technique an improvement of the detection limits is obtained because of the small fraction of bremsstrahlung in the X-ray

P. Golob

1985-01-01

20

A Monte Carlo study of x-ray fluorescence in x-ray detectors.  

PubMed

Advances in digital x-ray detector systems have led to a renewed interest in the performance of x-ray phosphors and other detector materials. Indirect flat panel x-ray detector and charged coupled device (CCD) systems require a more technologically challenging geometry, whereby the x-ray beam is incident on the front side of the scintillator, and the light produced must diffuse to the back surface of the screen to reach the photoreceptor. Direct detector systems based on selenium have also enjoyed a growing interest, both commercially and academically. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to study the x-ray scattering (Rayleigh and Compton) and the more prevalent x-ray fluorescence properties of seven different x-ray detector materials, Gd2O2S, CsI, Se, BaFBr, YTaO4, CaWO4, and ThO2. The redistribution of x-ray energy, back towards the x-ray source, in a forward direction through the detector, and lateral reabsorption in the detector was computed under monoenergetic conditions (1 keV to 130 keV by 1 keV intervals) with five detector thicknesses, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 mg/cm2 (Se was studied from 30 to 1000 mg/cm2). The radial distribution (related to the point spread function) of reabsorbed x-ray energy was also determined. Representative results are as follows: At 55 keV, more (31.3%) of the incident x-ray energy escaped from a 90 mg/cm2Gd2O2S detector than was absorbed (27.9%). Approximately 1% of the total absorbed energy was reabsorbed greater than 0.5 mm from the primary interaction, for 90 mg/cm2 CsI exposed at 100 kVp. The ratio of reabsorbed secondary (fluorescence + scatter) radiation to the primary radiation absorbed in the detectors (90 mg/cm2) (S/P) was determined as 10%, 16%, 2%, 12%, 3%, 3%, and 0.3% for a 100 kVp tungsten anode x-ray spectrum, for the Gd2O2S, CsI, Se, BaFBr, YTaO4, CaWO4, and ThO2 detectors, respectively. The results indicate significant x-ray fluorescent escape and reabsorption in common x-ray detectors. These findings suggest that x-ray fluorescent radiation redistribution should be considered in the design of digital x-ray imaging systems. PMID:10436891

Boone, J M; Seibert, J A; Sabol, J M; Tecotzky, M

1999-06-01

21

X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Novel Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the capabilities and potential of soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the study of the electronic\\u000a structure and chemical bonding of novel materials. The basic principle of x-ray fluorescence measurements using synchrotron\\u000a radiation and the corresponding instrumentation issues are outlined. Particular attention is given to x-ray spectroscopic\\u000a studies of the electronic structure and characterization of nanostructures, thin

E. Z. Kurmaev

2005-01-01

22

PARTICULATE MATTER ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is primarily concerned with the elemental characterization, by X-ray fluorescence analysis, of particulate matter (PM) collected during active or passive sampling of ambient air. The NERL X-ray fluorescence laboratory is an in-house research facility dedicated to quant...

23

X?ray fluorescence spectrometry in art and archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents examples of analyses by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in art and archaeology, including pigments in paint layers and illuminated manusripts, of iridescent glasses and of medieval coins. Theoretical aspects of information depths and shielding effects in layered materials are discussed. Element maps were experimentally obtained by a specially designed x-ray spectrometer (1 1 mm pixel resolution) and

X-RAY SPECTROMETRY; Michael Mantler

2000-01-01

24

New Technique for Recording Enhanced X-Ray Fluorescence Hologram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weakness of the holographic undulation, which is about 0.3% in the angular distribution of the X-ray fluorescence intensity, has been a problem of X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH). In order to observe strong holographic undulation, I propose a new XFH technique which combines the normal XFH and inverse XFH, which are equivalent by virtue of the optical reciprocity theorem. This new

Kouichi Hayashi

2000-01-01

25

X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

Rivers, M.L.

1987-01-01

26

X-ray fluorescence computed tomography system for biomedical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) computed tomography (CT) system utilizing a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector is described. The CT system is of the first generation type and consists of a cerium x-ray generator, a turn table, a translation stage, a two-stage controller, a CdTe spectrometer, a multichannel analyzer (MCA), a counter board (CB), and a personal computer (PC). When an object is exposed by the x-ray generator, iodine K-series fluorescences are produced and are detected from vertical direction to x-ray axis using the spectrometer. Fluorescent photons are selected out using the MCA and are counted by the PC via CB, and XRF CT is performed by repeating translation and rotation of an object.

Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Hitomi, Keitro; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro

2008-08-01

27

Correcting for surface topography in X-ray fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Samples with non-planar surfaces present challenges for X-ray fluorescence imaging analysis. Here, approximations are derived to describe the modulation of fluorescence signals by surface angles and topography, and suggestions are made for reducing this effect. A correction procedure is developed that is effective for trace element analysis of samples having a uniform matrix, and requires only a fluorescence map from a single detector. This procedure is applied to fluorescence maps from an incised gypsum tablet. PMID:25343805

Geil, E C; Thorne, R E

2014-11-01

28

Sampling the Soils around a Residence Containing Lead-Based Paints: An X-Ray Fluorescence Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sampling experiments utilizing field portable instruments are instructional since students collect data following regulatory protocols, evaluate it, and begin to recognize their civic responsibilities upon collecting useful data. A lead-in-soil experiment educated students on a prevalent exposure pathway. The experimental site was a pre-1950…

Bachofer, Steven J.

2008-01-01

29

X-Ray-fluorescent Fe K? Lines from Stellar Photospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray spectra from stellar coronae are reprocessed by the underlying photosphere through scattering and photoionization events. While reprocessed X-ray spectra reaching a distant observer are at a flux level of only a few percent of that of the corona itself, characteristic lines formed by inner shell photoionization of some abundant elements can be significantly stronger. The emergent photospheric spectra are sensitive to the distance and location of the fluorescing radiation and can provide diagnostics of coronal geometry and abundance. Here we present Monte Carlo simulations of the photospheric K?1,?2 doublet arising from quasi-neutral Fe irradiated by a coronal X-ray source. Fluorescent line strengths have been computed as a function of the height of the radiation source, the temperature of the ionizing X-ray spectrum, and the viewing angle. We also illustrate how the fluorescence efficiencies scale with the photospheric metallicity and the Fe abundance. Based on the results we make three comments: (1) fluorescent Fe lines seen from pre-main-sequence stars mostly suggest flared disk geometries and/or supersolar disk Fe abundances; (2) the extreme ~1400 mÅ line observed from a flare on V1486 Ori could be explained entirely by X-ray fluorescence if the flare itself were partially eclipsed by the limb of the star; and (3) the fluorescent Fe line detected by Swift during a large flare on II Peg is consistent with X-ray excitation and does not require a collisional ionization contribution. There is no convincing evidence supporting the energetically challenging explanation of electron impact excitation for observed stellar Fe K? lines.

Drake, Jeremy J.; Ercolano, Barbara; Swartz, Douglas A.

2008-05-01

30

Diffraction and holography of photoelectrons and fluorescent x-rays  

SciTech Connect

Photoelectron diffraction is by now a powerful technique for studying surface structures, with special capabilities for resolving chemical and magnetic states of atoms and deriving direct structural information from both forward scattering and backscattering. Fitting experiment to theory can lead to structural accuracies in the 0.03 {Angstrom} range. Holographic inversions of such diffraction data also show considerable promise for deriving local three-dimensional structures around a given emitter with accuracies of 0.2--0.3 {Angstrom}. Resolving the photoelectron spin in some way and using circularly polarized radiation for excitation provide added dimensions for the study of magnetic systems and chiral experimental geometries. Synchrotron radiation with the highest brightness and energy resolution, as well as variable polarization, is crucial to the full exploitation of these techniques. X-ray fluorescence holography also has promise for structural studies, but will require intense excitation sources and multichannel detection to be feasible.

Fadley, C.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-04-01

31

Archaeometrical studies using X-ray fluorescence methods  

SciTech Connect

Elemental analysis contributes to authentication (knowing the elemental composition and considering the information about the usual composition of the objects in different historical periods it can be established if the item is original or fake), provenance studies (minor and trace elements indicates ores origin and 'consequently' mines location), (relative) dating of archaeological objects (e.g. for painted items--the chemical recipes for pigments can offer information about the age of objects). The paper gives a general layout for the NIPNE Archaeometry Laboratory's applications using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), micro--Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (micro-PIXE), micro-Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-Ray Fluorescence (micro--SR-XRF) methods.

Pauna, Catalina; Constantinescu, B.; Constantin, F.; Bugoi, R.; Stan, D.; Vasilescu, A. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, POB MG-6, 077125, Bucharest (Romania)

2010-04-26

32

Bone Lead Measured by X-ray Fluorescence: Epidemiologic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement of bone lead concentration (XRF) has emerged as an important technique for future epidemiological studies of long-term toxicity. Several issues germane to epidemiologic methodology need to be addressed, however. First, sources of variability in measurements of bone lead need to be quantified, including imprecision related to the physical measurement itself and the variability of

Howard Hu; Antonio Aro; Andrea Rotnitzky

1995-01-01

33

X-ray fluorescence camera for biomedical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is useful for measuring density distributions of contrast media in vivo. An XRF camera was developed to carry out mapping for iodine-based contrast media used in medical angiography. In this camera, objects are exposed by an x-ray beam formed using a 3.0-mm-diameter lead hole. Next, cerium K-series characteristic x-rays are absorbed effectively by iodine media in objects, and iodine fluorescences are produced from the objects. Iodine K? fluorescences are selected out using a 58-?m-thick stannum filter and are detected by a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. K? rays are discriminated out by a multichannel analyzer (MCA), and photon number is counted by a counter board (CB). The objects are moved and scanned using an x-y stage driven by a two-stage controller, and x-ray images obtained by iodine mapping are shown in a personal computer (PC) monitor. In particular, iodine fluorescences were produced from remanent iodine elements in a cancer region of a rabbit ear.

Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Sato, Koetsu; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro; Ichimaru, Toshio

2008-08-01

34

Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

2010-01-01

35

Numerical simulation of X-ray fluorescence production using MCNPX code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation for the production of X-ray fluorescence by an active X-ray spectrometer was accomplished by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-particle eXtended) Code. Purpose of this study is to cross check between the simulation result and the actual measurement to validate the numerical simulation for prospective usage for various possible cases of measurements which are not easily accessible in a laboratory environment. This study was initiated as a conjunction of Phase A study for the SELENE-2 science payload proposed in 2011. The active X-ray Spectrometer includes an X-ray spectrometer and a pyroelectric crystal-used X-ray generator. For Phase A study, we used both XRS and XRG available from the commercial company, Amptek Inc. Numerical simulation is important to optimize both instrument design and geometry of measurement to perform the best measurement output of an experiment planned. The main purpose of this study is to understand the production of X-ray fluorescence by an active X-ray spectrometer which could be onboard for future planetary spacecraft. For the numerical simulation, we used the lunar simulant FSJ-1 composition, and the input parameters for X-ray flux and energy distribution were accessed from the information of the X-ray generator, Cool-X. The parameters for geometry setting were defined as the experimental setting used for the actual measurement. It was found that the spectrum of numerical simulation is compared well with the actual measurement at the laboratory setting with respect to the number of elements, peak counts, and energy spectrum. To find optimal distance and geometry settings toward the production of X-ray fluorescence, multiple simulations at various geometry settings are currently under investigation.

Kim, Kyeong Ja; Park, Junghun Park

36

Coronally Fluoresced Stellar Photospheric X-Ray Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monte Carlo computations of photospheric fluorescent x-ray spectra are described. X-rays emitted from a hot corona incident on an underlying photosphere can undergo either scattering events by Compton scattering or photoabsorption events through the ionization of atoms or weakly ionized species. Through scattering events, photons can be reflected back in a direction towards the stellar surface where they have a finite chance of escape. Photoionization events involving x-ray photons directed toward the photosphere are predominantly inner shell interactions, Observable fluorescent lines can arise as a result of the finite escape probabilities of photons emitted in outward directions by hole transitions in these atoms. For a given stellar composition, fluorescent line strengths are dependent on the height of the fluorescing source above the photosphere and on the angle between the source and the observer. Although the only fluorescent lines likely to be detected in stellar coronae are Fe Ka and perhaps O Ka, these lines could provide powerful and direct spectroscopic diagnostics of coronal geometry.

Drake, Jeremy J.; Swartz, Douglas A.

1999-01-01

37

X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: the Potential of Astrophysics-developed Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence from the surface of airless bodies has been studied since the Apollo X-ray fluorescence experiment mapped parts of the lunar surface in 1971-1972. That experiment used a collimated proportional counter with a resolving power of ~1 and a beam size of ~1degree. Filters separated only Mg, Al and SI lines. We review progress in X-ray detectors and imaging for astrophysics and show how these advances enable much more powerful use of X-ray fluorescence for the study of airless bodies. Astrophysics X-ray instrumentation has developed enormously since 1972. Low noise, high quantum efficiency, X-ray CCDs have flown on ASCA, XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Swift and Suzaku, and are the workhorses of X-ray astronomy. They normally span 0.5 to ~8 keV with an energy resolution of ~100 eV. New developments in silicon based detectors, especially individual pixel addressable devices, such as CMOS detectors, can withstand many orders of magnitude more radiation than conventional CCDs before degradation. The capability of high read rates provides dynamic range and temporal resolution. Additionally, the rapid read rates minimize shot noise from thermal dark current and optical light. CMOS detectors can therefore run at warmer temperatures and with ultra-thin optical blocking filters. Thin OBFs mean near unity quantum efficiency below 1 keV, thus maximizing response at the C and O lines.such as CMOS detectors, promise advances. X-ray imaging has advanced similarly far. Two types of imager are now available: specular reflection and coded apertures. X-ray mirrors have been flown on the Einstein Observatory, XMM-Newton, Chandra and others. However, as X-ray reflection only occurs at small (~1degree) incidence angles, which then requires long focal lengths (meters), mirrors are not usually practical for planetary missions. Moreover the field of view of X-ray mirrors is comparable to the incident angle, so can only image relatively small regions. More useful are coded-aperture imagers, which have flown on ART-P, Integral, and Swift. The shadow pattern from a 50% full mask allows the distribution of X-rays from a wide (10s of degrees) field of view to be imaged, but uniform emission presents difficulties. A version of a coded-aperture plus CCD detector for airless bodies study is being built for OSIRIS-REx as the student experiment REXIS. We will show the quality of the spectra that can be expected from this class of instrument.

Elvis, M.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Kraft, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Masterton, R.

2012-12-01

38

Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasmaa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-? x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Streit, J.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.

2014-11-01

39

Removing twin images in X-ray fluorescence holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray fluorescence holography is a novel method for three-dimensional (3D) imaging of local atomic structures. However, it suffers from the classical problem of twin images which dates from the original work of D. Gabor. Barton proposed that properly phased combinations of images reconstructed from holograms recorded at several incident energies suppress twin images effects. In this work, the influence of

Honglan Xie; Jianwen Chen; Hongyi Gao; Shisheng Xiong; Zhizhan Xu

2004-01-01

40

Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental technique for surface imaging using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is described. Although TXRF has so far been used to analyze the average chemical composition of rather large sample areas in the order of centimeters squared, a new opportunity to obtain spatial information has arisen through the combination of conventional TXRF and position-sensitive measurement using a collimator and

Kenji Sakurai

1999-01-01

41

X-ray fluorescence holography: Going beyond the diffraction limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method for obtaining diffraction-limited images of the local atomic structure around a given type of emitter. The reconstructed wave field represents a distorted image of the scatterer electron-density distribution, i.e., it is a convolution of the charge-density distribution with a point spread function characteristic of the measurement. We here consider several methods for the

S. Marchesini; C. S. Fadley; F. J. Garcia de Abajo

2003-01-01

42

X-Ray Astronomy Discovery Experiments, III*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first paper established the existence of concurrent discovery experiments by Riccardo Giacconi and myself at the start of x-ray astronomy.footnotetextR. Giacconi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 439 (1962).^,footnotetextP. C. Fisher et al., Quasars and High Energy Astronomy including Proceedings of the 2^nd Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics 15 - 19 December 1964 (K. N. Douglas et. al., eds.) Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, p. 253 (1969).^,footnotetextP. C. Fisher, BAPS 53 No. 2, 165 (2008). Paper II footnotetextP.C. Fisher, http://www.aps.org/units/fhp/index.cfm plus FHP link to April 2009 presentation H14.00006. described some acts by some individuals/institutions over four decades that may have caused the illusion that I had not made a discovery. Some additional data about this illusion, and the first possible measurement of x-ray emission from a black hole, will be presented. This paper's primary goal is for the American Physical Society to have Giacconi comment on several questions of a historical nature. [4pt] *Work supported by NASA contracts NAS5-1174 and NASw-909, the Lockheed Independent Research Program, and Ruffner Associates.

Fisher, P. C.

2011-04-01

43

A system for x-ray diffraction and fluorescence imaging of nanoparticle biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence techniques have proven beneficial for identifying and characterizing biological tissues. X-ray diffraction analysis uses the elemental composition of the sample to discriminate between tissue types, and can provide a considerable enhancement in contrast over conventional x-ray imaging. X-ray fluorescence, in this case, is being used to locate the presence of nanoparticles, such as gold,

Kate Pepper; Christiana Christodoulou; Chiara Guazzoni; Andrea Castoldi; Cigdem Ozkan; Nicola Sodini; Diego Dreossi; Jennifer A. Griffiths; Adam P. Gibson; Gary J. Royle

2010-01-01

44

Multi-angular regolith effects on planetary soft X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent X-rays from the surfaces of airless planetary bodies in the inner solar system have been measured by instruments on several spacecraft. MESSENGER carries an X-ray spectrometer (XRS) on-board and has already attempted to obtain fluorescent X-rays from the Hermean surface. BepiColombo will later on carry an X-ray telescope (MIXS-T) along with a more conventional collimating detector (MIXS-C) to the Hermean orbit, supported by a next-generation X-ray solar monitor (SIXS). These instruments will provide unprecedented knowledge about the geochemical properties of the Hermean regolith. X-ray emission from planetary surfaces follows photoionisation by incident solar X-rays and charged particles and reveals information about the elemental composition of the surface. Analyses of X-ray spectra, obtained by orbiting spacecraft, use both the relative intensities of elemental emission lines (e.g., Ca/Si, Fe/Si) and absolute abundancies of the elements to determine the geochemistry of the target body. Historically, the analysis of X-ray spectra has largely assumed that surfaces can be considered as homogeneous plane-parallel media. It has been shown, however, that fluorescent line intensities are affected by the physical properties of the target surface (e.g., surface roughness of the regolith) as a function of the viewing and illumination geometry of observations in a way that cannot be explained by the traditional models. We describe experimental investigations where we simulated the effects of regolith properties on the fluorescent lines measured by an orbiting instrument, with a large variety of illumination and viewing angles. The planetary regolith analogue used in these experiments was a terrestrial, olivine rich basalt, which has been used by previous authors as an analogue to the lunar maria. The basalt samples were ground to powder and sieved to discriminate particles in the ranges, <75 micrometers, 75-250 micrometers, and 250-500 micrometers. These separate powders were then pressed into solid pellets. The separation of particles with different sizes allows some determination of the effects due to changes in, e.g., surface roughness. The pellets were imaged with a CT scanner to obtain the physical parameters of the samples. All measurements were made at near-vacuum pressures to prevent absorption of fluorescent X-rays in air. The relative fluorescent line ratios of several major rock-forming elements (e.g., Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) were measured. In addition to experimental studies we have simulated the X-ray emission from a regolith using a numerical Monte-Carlo ray-tracing model. This model simulates a regolith of spherical particles, with defined physical properties (particle size distribution, packing density, etc.) and with a realistic macro-scale surface roughness characteristics generated by constraining the surface with a fractional-Brownian-motion surface model. A comparison is made between the modelling and experimental results to validate the modelling. A good agreement between the results is found. We find that both the measured and the simulated spectra become increasingly hard as the phase angle increases (i.e., X-ray lines at higher energies are enhanced relative to those at lower energies). Some hardening of spectra is predicted by the fundamental parameters equation (FPE) of X-ray fluorescence, which assumes a smooth, flat, and homogeneous surface, but we observe further spectral hardening that is in excess to that predicted by the FPE and that this excess hardening is also a function of the surface roughness. We propose to use modelling similar to ours for the data analysis of soft X-ray fluorescence spectra to take the multi-angular effects related to the physical properties of the regolith into account.

Näränen, J.; Parviainen, H.; Carpenter, J.; Muinonen, K.

2009-04-01

45

Proton induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams for soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and selective x-ray fluorescence analysis  

SciTech Connect

We present the analytical features and performance of an x-ray spectroscopy end station of moderate energy resolution operating with proton-induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams. The apparatus was designed, installed and operated at the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG Accelerator Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos,' Athens. The setup includes a two-level ultrahigh vacuum chamber that hosts in the lower level up to six primary targets in a rotatable holder; there, the irradiation of pure element materials-used as primary targets-with few-MeV high current ({approx}{mu}A) proton beams produces intense quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams of selectable energy. In the chamber's upper level, a six-position rotatable sample holder hosts the targets considered for x-ray spectroscopy studies. The proton-induced x-ray beam, after proper collimation, is guided to the sample position whereas various filters can be also inserted along the beam's path to eliminate the backscattered protons or/and to absorb selectively components of the x-ray beam. The apparatus incorporates an ultrathin window Si(Li) spectrometer (FWHM 136 eV at 5.89 keV) coupled with low-noise electronics capable of efficiently detecting photons down to carbon K{alpha}. Exemplary soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and results of selective x-ray fluorescence analysis are presented.

Sokaras, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Zarkadas, Ch. [PANalytical B.V., 7600 AA Almelo (Netherlands); Fliegauf, R.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Karydas, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2012-12-15

46

Quantitative Analysis of Mt. St. Helens Ash by X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative study by x-ray diffraction, optical polarizing microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of fallout and ambient ash from three Mt. St. Helens eruptions has revealed a consistent picture of the mineralogical and elemental composition. The major components observed are amorphous glass, plagioclase of about An50 composition, minor amounts of quartz and other SiO2 polymorphs, as well as ferromagnesian constituents

Briant L. Davis; L. Ronald Johnson; Dana T. Griffen; William Revell Phillips; Robert K. Stevens; David Maughan

1981-01-01

47

X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of Ancient Artifacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many archaeological artifacts feature inscribed and/or painted text or figures which, through erosion and aging, have become difficult or impossible to read with conventional methods. Often, however, the pigments in paints contain metallic elements, and traces may remain even after visible markings are gone. A promising non-destructive technique for revealing these remnants is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging, in which a tightly focused beam of monochromatic synchrotron radiation is raster scanned across a sample. At each pixel, an energy-dispersive detector records a fluorescence spectrum, which is then analyzed to determine element concentrations. In this way, a map of various elements is made across a region of interest. We have succesfully XRF imaged ancient Greek, Roman, and Mayan artifacts, and in many cases, the element maps have revealed significant new information, including previously invisible painted lines and traces of iron from tools used to carve stone tablets. X-ray imaging can be used to determine an object's provenance, including the region where it was produced and whether it is authentic or a copy.

Thorne, Robert; Geil, Ethan; Hudson, Kathryn; Crowther, Charles

2011-03-01

48

Multiangular regolith effects on planetary soft X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent X-rays from the surfaces of airless planetary bodies in the inner solar system have been measured by instruments on several spacecraft. MESSENGER carries an X-ray spectrometer (XRS) on-board and has already attempted to obtain fluorescent X-rays from the Hermean surface. BepiColombo will later on carry an X-ray telescope (MIXS-T) along with a more conventional collimating detector (MIXS-C) to the

J. Näränen; H. Parviainen; J. Carpenter; K. Muinonen

2009-01-01

49

The Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE) is an X-ray multiple-pinhole camera designed to image simultaneously an entire auroral region from high altitudes. It will be mounted on the despun platform of the POLAR spacecraft and will measure the spatial distribution and temporal variation of auroral X-ray emissions in the 2 to 60 keV energy range on the day side

W. L. Imhof; K. A. Spear; J. W. Hamilton; B. R. Higgins; M. J. Murphy; J. G. Pronko; R. R. Vondrak; D. L. McKenzie; C. J. Rice; D. J. Gorney; D. A. Roux; R. L. Williams; J. A. Stein; J. Bjordal; J. Stadsnes; K. Njoten; T. J. Rosenberg; L. Lutz; D. Detrick

1995-01-01

50

A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with a diamond-like carbon coated X-ray reflector.  

PubMed

A diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated quartz glass sample holder is used in a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. A spot area of a water sample on the DLC sample holder becomes smaller than that on a quartz glass sample holder usually used in TXRF analysis because DLC is more hydrophobic. Therefore, the use of the DLC sample holder enhances fluorescent X-rays reaching a detector compared with the use of a quartz glass sample holder, leading to improvement in detection sensitivity. A detection limit of 28 pg is achieved for Cr in a river water sample when using the DLC sample holder. PMID:22087466

Kunimura, Shinsuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi

2012-01-21

51

Human thyroid specimen imaging by fluorescent x-ray computed tomography with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) is being developed to detect non-radioactive contrast materials in living specimens. The FXCT system consists of a silicon (111) channel cut monochromator, an x-ray slit and a collimator for fluorescent x ray detection, a scanning table for the target organ and an x-ray detector for fluorescent x-ray and transmission x-ray. To reduce Compton scattering overlapped on the fluorescent K(alpha) line, incident monochromatic x-ray was set at 37 keV. The FXCT clearly imaged a human thyroid gland and iodine content was estimated quantitatively. In a case of hyperthyroidism, the two-dimensional distribution of iodine content was not uniform, and thyroid cancer had a small amount of iodine. FXCT can be used to detect iodine within thyroid gland quantitatively and to delineate its distribution.

Takeda, Tohoru; Yu, Quanwen; Yashiro, Toru; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yasuo; Itai, Yuji; Akatsuka, Takao

1999-09-01

52

MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer Detection of Electron-induced X-ray Fluorescence from Mercury's Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray emission from solar system bodies has been observed for decades. The surface of planets with no atmosphere may be excited by solar X-rays, solar wind particles (primarily electrons), and ions, producing line emission and bremsstrahlung. Measurement of solar-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from planetary surfaces has been used to infer surface elemental abundances at the Moon and the asteroids 433 Eros and 25143 Itokawa. More recently, the MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) has reported on Mercury's surface composition derived from measurements of solar-flare-induced XRF. The XRS began orbital observations on 23 March 2011 and has observed X-ray fluorescence from the surface of the planet during both "quiet-Sun" and flaring conditions whenever a sunlit portion of Mercury has been within the XRS field of view. XRS can detect the characteristic X-rays of Mg, Al, and Si during quiet-Sun conditions, but solar flares are required to produce measurable signals from the elements of higher atomic number such as S, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Nevertheless, X-ray fluorescence up to the Ca fluorescent line (3.69 keV) has been detected from Mercury's surface at times when the XRS field of view included only unlit portions of the planet or during quiet-Sun illumination. Many such events have been detected and are identified as electron-induced X-ray emission produced by ~1-10 keV electrons interacting with Mercury's surface. Electrons in this energy range were detected by the XRS during the three Mercury flybys, and since the beginning of orbital operations electrons of this same energy range have been detected by XRS during almost every orbit. These electron events last from minutes to tens of minutes. Electron transport models suggest that a large percentage of these quasi-trapped electrons do not complete even a single drift orbit about Mercury before impacting the surface. Knowledge of the precipitating electron distribution at the planet's surface makes it possible to infer surface composition from the measured fluorescent spectra. Elemental compositions for Mg, Al, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe have been derived from these measurements and are in line, to within expected uncertainties, with those inferred from solar-induced XRF. This agreement confirms the value of electron-induced X-ray emission measurements as a tool for geochemical analysis at Mercury.

Starr, R. D.; Schriver, D.; Nittler, L. R.; Weider, S. Z.; Byrne, P. K.; Ho, G. C.; Rhodes, E. A.; Schlemm, C. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Travnicek, P. M.

2012-12-01

53

Feasibility of x ray fluorescence for spent fuel safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Quantifying the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel is necessary for many reasons, in particular to verify that diversion or other illicit activities have not occurred. Therefore, safeguarding the world's nuclear fuel is paramount to responsible nuclear regulation and public acceptance, but achieving this goal presents many difficulties from both a technical and economic perspective. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of NA-24 is funding a large collaborative effort between multiple laboratories and universities to improve spent nuclear fuel safeguards methods and equipment. This effort involves the current work of modeling several different nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Several are being researched, because no single NDA technique, in isolation, has the potential to properly characterize fuel assemblies and offer a robust safeguards measure. The insights gained from this research, will be used to down-select from the original set a few of the most promising techniques that complement each other. The goal is to integrate the selected instruments to create an accurate measurement system for fuel verification that is also robust enough to detect diversions. These instruments will be fabricated and tested under realistic conditions. This work examines one of the NDA techniques; the feasibility of using x ray emission peaks from Pu and U to gather information about their relative quantities in the spent fuel. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF), is unique compared to the investigated techniques in that it is the only one able to give the elemental ratio of Pu to U, allowing the possibility of a Pu gram quantity for the assembly to be calculated. XRF also presents many challenges, mainly its low penetration, since the low energy x rays of interest are effectively shielded by the first few millimeters of a fuel pin. This paper will explore the results of Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code calculations of spent fuel x ray peaks. The MCNPX simulations will be benchmarked against measurements taken at Oak Ridge. Analysis of the feasibility of XRFs role in spent nuclear fuel safeguards efforts, particularly in the context of the overall NGSI effort will be discussed.

Freeman, Corey Ross [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Julia M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, Alissa [TAMU; Charlton, William [TAMU

2010-01-01

54

Analysis of tungsten carbides by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

Five sample presentation techniques were examined for the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of tungsten carbide alloys in powder and cemented forms. Powder samples may be oxidized by air at 600 degrees before fusion (I), or preferably by lithium nitrate during fusion (II); the fusion is effected with lithium-lanthanum tetraborate followed by briquetting with graphite. Powder samples may also be blended with wax and briquetted (III). Cemented carbides are surface-prepared with silicon carbide before analysis (V). Briquettes prepared by blending carbide powder, lithium-lanthanum tetraborate and graphite (IV), give poor reproducibility, however, owing to micro-absorption effects the technique is not recommended. The determination of eight common elements in tungsten carbide is discussed and the relative standard deviations are 0.002-0.004 for major and 0.008-0.01 for minor elements. PMID:18961988

Kinson, K; Knott, A C; Belcher, C B

55

Using X-ray Fluorescence to Date Petroglyphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroglyphs were created by ancient peoples of the Colorado Plateau who pecked figures of cultural or religious significance into the desert varnish, the ubiquitous dark patina covering the rock surfaces of the region. Manganese (Mn) is a significant elemental component of desert varnish that is often at trace levels in the substrate rock. As such, F. Lytle has shown that under certain conditions, it may be possible to estimate the age of petroglpyhs using Mn levels. In this work we use x-ray fluorescence to measure Mn levels in the desert varnish of petroglyphs and then use dated graffiti to attempt to calibrate the Mn level with age. Preliminary results from petroglyph panels in eastern Utah will be presented.

McNeil, James

2009-10-01

56

X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy for Investigation of Archival Tissues  

PubMed Central

Several recent efforts in radiation biology community worldwide have amassed records and archival tissues from animals exposed to different radionuclides and external beam irradiation. In most cases, these samples come from life-long studies on large animal populations conducted in national laboratories and equivalent institutions throughout Europe, North America, and Japan. While many of these tissues were used for histopathological analyses, much more information may still be obtained from these samples. A new technique suitable for imaging of these tissues is X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM). Following development of third generation synchrotrons, XFM has emerged as an ideal technique for study of metal content, speciation, and localization in cells, tissues and organs. Here we review some of the recent XFM literature pertinent to tissue sample studies and present examples of XFM data obtained from tissue sections of beagle dog samples which show that the quality of archival tissues allows XFM investigation. PMID:22951477

Paunesku, T.; Wanzer, M. B.; Kirillova, E. N.; Muksinova, K. N.; Revina, V. S.; Romanov, S. A.; Lyubchansky, E. R.; Grosche, B.; Birschwilks, M.; Vogt, S.; Finney, L.; Woloschak, G. E.

2013-01-01

57

Note: Portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with small vacuum chamber.  

PubMed

To improve the detection limits of a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer using white X-rays (i.e., both characteristic X-rays and continuum X-rays) from a 5 W X-ray tube, the measurement was performed in vacuum. The TXRF spectrum measured in vacuum was compared with that measured in air. The spectral background was significantly reduced when the scattering of the incident X-rays from air was reduced using a vacuum pump, leading to improvement in the detection limit. A detection limit of 8 pg was achieved for Cr when measuring in vacuum. PMID:23635242

Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kudo, Shunpei; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakajima, Yoshihide; Ohmori, Hitoshi

2013-04-01

58

Note: Portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with small vacuum chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the detection limits of a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer using white X-rays (i.e., both characteristic X-rays and continuum X-rays) from a 5 W X-ray tube, the measurement was performed in vacuum. The TXRF spectrum measured in vacuum was compared with that measured in air. The spectral background was significantly reduced when the scattering of the incident X-rays from air was reduced using a vacuum pump, leading to improvement in the detection limit. A detection limit of 8 pg was achieved for Cr when measuring in vacuum.

Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kudo, Shunpei; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakajima, Yoshihide; Ohmori, Hitoshi

2013-04-01

59

Sub-micron Hard X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Synthetic Elements  

PubMed Central

Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurement such as ?-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used SXFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L3 or L2 edge as well as lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope 242Pu. Elemental maps reveal that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions for an average 202 ?m2 cell is 1.4 fg Pu/cell or 2.9 × 10?20 moles Pu/?m2, which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge SXFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its L? X-ray emission. PMID:22444530

Jensen, Mark P.; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E.

2013-01-01

60

Interference of fluorescence x-rays and coherent excitation of core levels  

SciTech Connect

The question of coherence in inelastic x-ray absorption and fluorescence processes among identical interacting atoms is studied using a simple diatomic model. Conditions for the coherence are discussed in terms of energy scales, such as the core hole life-time, instrument energy resolutions, and the splitting of the electronic levels. As in the classical Young double-slit experiment, the primary requirement is that it be impossible to determine which atom has undergone the excitation-decay process.

Ma, Y. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Blume, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-08-01

61

Evaluation of Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer for Zirconium-Thickness Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Evaluation Report provides details of preliminary testing/experiments performed using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer. The analyzer will be utilized in upcoming fuel-foil-rolling optimization studies at the INL. The studies are being performed in support of DOE’s Office of Global Threat Reduction -- Reactor Conversion Subprogram. Details of the equipment used, operating parameters, and measurement results are provided in this report.

Glenn Moore

2013-09-01

62

A Virtual Young's Double Slit Experiment for Hard X-ray Photons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented a virtual Young's double slit experiment for hard X-ray photons with micro-fabricated bi-prisms. We observe fringe patterns with a scintillator, and quantify interferograms by detecting X-ray fluorescence from a scanned 30nm Cr metal film. The observed intensities are best modeled with a near-field, Fresnel analysis. The maximum fringe number in the overlap region is proportional to the

A. F. Isakovic; A. Stein; J. B. Warren; A. R. Sandy; S. Narayanan; M. Sprung; J. M. Ablett; D. P. Siddons; M. Metzler; K. Evans-Lutterodt

2009-01-01

63

Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow-separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Bartlesville, OK); Lewis, Cris (Los Alamos, NM); Mahan, Cynthia A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-04-14

64

Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Bartlesville, OK); Lewis, Cris (Los Alamos, NM); Mahan, Cynthia A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-04-26

65

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Portable Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 © X Portable Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ultra Trace Elemental Determination Shinsuke KUNIMURA and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 29 X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.29-44 (2010) 606-8501 X Portable Total

Jun, Kawai

66

Bone lead measured by X-ray fluorescence: epidemiologic methods.  

PubMed Central

In vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement of bone lead concentration (XRF) has emerged as an important technique for future epidemiological studies of long-term toxicity. Several issues germane to epidemiologic methodology need to be addressed, however. First, sources of variability in measurements of bone lead need to be quantified, including imprecision related to the physical measurement itself and the variability of lead deposition over the two main compartments of bones (cortical vs. trabecular) and within each compartment. Imprecision related to the physical measurement can be estimated for each individual measurement based on the variability of the signal and background. Second, approaches to low-level data need to be debated. We argue for using the minimal detection limit (MDL) to compare instruments and interpret individual measurements; however, with regard to epidemiologic studies, we would abandon the MDL in favor of using all point estimates. In analyses using bone lead as an independent variable, statistical techniques can be used to adjust regression estimates based on estimates of measurement uncertainty and bone lead variability. Third, factors that can be expected to modify the relationship between bone lead and toxicity such as gravida history, endocrinological states, nutrition, and other important influences on bone metabolism, need to be identified and measured in epidemiologic studies. By addressing these issues, investigators will be able to maximize the utility of XRF measurements in environmental epidemiologic studies. Images Figure 2. PMID:7621788

Hu, H; Aro, A; Rotnitzky, A

1995-01-01

67

? x-ray fluorescence spectra of the ? - ? chalcogenide system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sulphur 3p valence states of 0953-8984/8/43/033/img14, 0953-8984/8/43/033/img15, 0953-8984/8/43/033/img16, 0953-8984/8/43/033/img17, 0953-8984/8/43/033/img18, and 0953-8984/8/43/033/img19 of the 0953-8984/8/43/033/img19 - 0953-8984/8/43/033/img14 system have been investigated by means of the 0953-8984/8/43/033/img22 (0953-8984/8/43/033/img23) x-ray emission band. 0953-8984/8/43/033/img17 and 0953-8984/8/43/033/img18 were also studied in the glassy phase. Synchrotron-radiation-induced fluorescence was used. The spectra are discussed in terms of bonding between the sulphur atoms and their nearest neighbours with the help of tight-binding calculations. We observe significant differences among the S 3p states of all these materials, including between the crystalline and glassy phase of 0953-8984/8/43/033/img17. The variations in the 0953-8984/8/43/033/img22 bandwidth and shape clearly reflect the sensitivity of the S 3p states to the local environment and indicate that the valence densities of states are mainly influenced by local order.

Dupont, S.; Gheorghiu, A.; Sénémaud, C.; Mariot, J.-M.; Hague, C. F.; Lippens, P.-E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.

1996-10-01

68

Continuous Flow Cryostat for X-Ray Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A continuous Helium flow cryostat was designed and built by Cryovac GMbH to specifications given by ESRF beamline ID26. The beamline has constructed a high energy resolution X-ray emission spectrometer using multiple spherically bent analyser crystals, together with the sample and detector on a vertical Rowland circle. The double shrouded cryostat has a low profile designed to fit into the spectrometer setup, the lowest detector position allows for a Bragg angle of 85 degrees with a 1 meter diameter Rowland circle. The cryostat has a temperature range of 5 to 300 Kelvin on the sample holder which is cooled by static Helium exchange gas. The cryostat has triple windows for beam entrance, transmission and fluorescence; the latter offers an opening angle of 80 degrees horizontally and 50 degrees vertically. The cryostat can be configured to work in two different operation modes: translation or rotation. The translation mode offers a displacement of 50 mm to accommodate multiple samples on the sample holder. The rotation mode is used for polarisation studies on single crystals.We show recent results obtained on Chromium containing molecular complexes; data collection was done at a temperature of 10 Kelvin to avoid radiation damage.

Weng, T.-C.; Linden, Peter J. E. M. van der; Glatzel, Pieter; Lapras, Christophe [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Krzyzowski, Michael [CryoVac GMbH and Co KG, Heuserweg 14, D-53482 Troisdorf (Germany)

2010-06-23

69

Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the application of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to characterize materials related to deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of contaminated facilities. Two portable XRF instruments manufactured by TN Spectrace were used in a technology evaluation as part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) held at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The LSDP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Are (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate innovative technologies or technology applications potentially beneficial to the D and D of contaminated facilities. The portable XRF technology offers several potential benefits for rapid characterization of facility components and contaminants, including significant cost reduction, fast turnaround time,a nd virtually no secondary waste. Field work for the demonstration of the portable XRF technology was performed from August 28--September 3, 1996 and October 30--December 13, 1996.

NONE

1998-12-01

70

Bone lead measured by X-ray fluorescence: epidemiologic methods.  

PubMed

In vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement of bone lead concentration (XRF) has emerged as an important technique for future epidemiological studies of long-term toxicity. Several issues germane to epidemiologic methodology need to be addressed, however. First, sources of variability in measurements of bone lead need to be quantified, including imprecision related to the physical measurement itself and the variability of lead deposition over the two main compartments of bones (cortical vs. trabecular) and within each compartment. Imprecision related to the physical measurement can be estimated for each individual measurement based on the variability of the signal and background. Second, approaches to low-level data need to be debated. We argue for using the minimal detection limit (MDL) to compare instruments and interpret individual measurements; however, with regard to epidemiologic studies, we would abandon the MDL in favor of using all point estimates. In analyses using bone lead as an independent variable, statistical techniques can be used to adjust regression estimates based on estimates of measurement uncertainty and bone lead variability. Third, factors that can be expected to modify the relationship between bone lead and toxicity such as gravida history, endocrinological states, nutrition, and other important influences on bone metabolism, need to be identified and measured in epidemiologic studies. By addressing these issues, investigators will be able to maximize the utility of XRF measurements in environmental epidemiologic studies. PMID:7621788

Hu, H; Aro, A; Rotnitzky, A

1995-02-01

71

Thin film characterization by total reflection x-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitive and accurate characterization of films thinner than a few nm used in nanoelectronics represents a challenge for many conventional production metrology tools. With capabilities in the 10 10 at/cm 2, methods usually dedicated to contamination analysis appear promising, especially Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF). This study shows that under usual configuration for contamination analysis, with incident angle smaller than the critical angle of the substrate, TXRF signal saturation occurs very rapidly for dense films (below 0.5 nm for HfO 2 films on Si wafers using a 9.67 keV excitation at 0.5°). Increasing the incident angle, the range of linear results can be extended, but on the other hand, the TXRF sensitivity is degraded because of a strong increase of the measurement dead time. On HfO 2 films grown on Si wafers, an incident angle of 0.32° corresponding to a dead time of 95% was used to achieve linear analysis up to 2 nm. Composition analysis by TXRF, and especially the detection of minor elements into thin films, requires the use of a specific incident angle to optimize sensitivity. Although quantitative analyses might require specific calibration, this work shows on Co-based films that the ratio between minor elements (W, P, Mo) and Co taking into account their relative sensitivity factors is a good direct reading of the composition.

Danel, Adrien; Nolot, Emmanuel; Veillerot, Marc; Olivier, Ségolène; Decorps, Tifenn; Calvo-Muñoz, Maria-Luisa; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Lhostis, Sandrine; Kohno, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Motoyuki; Geoffroy, Charles

2008-12-01

72

The BioCAT Microprobe for X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging, MicroXAFS and Microdiffraction Studies on Biological Samples  

SciTech Connect

Microbeam capabilities have been recently added to the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source to allow x-ray elemental mapping, micro x-ray absorption fine structure and microdiffraction studies on biological samples. The microprobe setup comprises a pair of platinum coated silicon KB mirrors; a sample holder mounted in a high precision positioner (100 nm accuracy); fluorescence detectors including a Si drift detector, Fe and Zn Bent Laue analyzers and a Ge detector; and a CCD detector for micro-diffraction experiments. The energy range of the microprobe is from 3.5 keV up to 17 keV. The fast scanning capabilities of the Bio-CAT beamline facilitate rapid acquisition of x-ray elemental images and micro-XAFS spectra. This paper reports the results of commissioning the KB mirror system and its performance in initial x-ray fluorescence mapping and micro-diffraction studies.

Barrea, R.A.; Gore, D.; Kondrashkina, E.; Weng, T.; Heurich, R.; Vukonich, M.; Orgel, J.; Davidson, M.; Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Irving, T.C. (IIT); (Keele); (Florida)

2007-07-31

73

X-ray Peltier cooled detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent results on development of X-ray Si(Li), Si-planar and CdTe p-i-n detectors cooled by Peltier coolers for fabrication of laboratory and portable XRF analysers for different applications are discussed.Low detection limits of XRF analysers are provided by increasing of detectors sensitive surface; improvement of their spectrometrical characteristics; decreasing of front-end-electronics noise level; Peltier coolers and vacuum chambers cooling modes

A. Loupilov; A. Sokolov; V. Gostilo

2001-01-01

74

Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analyzer with several x-ray tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray flurescent analyzer (XFA) has been developed and fabricated for determining sulphur, vanadium and nickel in oil. The instrument is equipped with three x-ray tubes with transmission Ti, Cu and Ag anodes, and aluminum, copper, and germanium filters, respectively, and one common switchable power supply. To excite characteristic radiation of determined elements, the characteristic radiation of the tube anode (titan, copper) is used, or the charactersitic radiation of the filter (germanium). XFA is fitted with one small-size electrically cooled semiconductor detector. The measuring device is based on a wide-angle geometry of characteristic radiation excitation and registration, where the x-ray tube focus illuminates the sample, and the registering detector 'sees' the illuminated area within the plane angle of 90° (it corresponds to 0.146 of 4p). Under such geometry, the dependence of the count rate for excited characteristic photons on the position of sample under study has a smooth maximum in the calculated sample position point. For one, the rate count changes by less than 1%. Quantitative results are obtained through the regression method. The instrument underwent metrology testing. It is designed for operation both in the laboratory and industrial environment. The instrument has been delivered for operation to the "Druzhba" pipeline.

Borisov, G. I.; Kondratenko, R. I.; Mikhin, V. A.; Odinov, B. V.; Pukhov, A. V.

2005-07-01

75

X-Ray Measurements of the Levitated Dipole Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial plasma experiments in the Levitated Dipole Experiment will focus on producing hot electron, high beta plasmas using a supported dipole configuration. Plasmas will be created using multifrequency ECRH and it is therefore expected that most of the plasma energy will be stored in the fast electrons, Te > 100 keV. As a consequence, x-ray flux from bremsstrahlung emission is expected to be easily detectable. The energy spectrum of the x-ray emission below 740 keV is measured by a four channel pulse height analyzer using cadmium zinc telluride detectors. In addition, a single sodium iodide detector which views energies up to 3 MeV will measure the intensity of x-ray emission from the plasma. The electron temperature may be inferred from the x-ray energy. These x-ray spectral measurements can then be combined with the reconstructed plasma equilibria and line-integrated density measurements to give an estimate of the hot electron pressure profile. X-ray measurements will be essential in diagnosing the effectiveness of various ECRH configurations. Initial measurements will be discussed.footnote[1]This work supported by USDOE OFES.

Ellsworth, J. L.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A. K.; Mauel, M. E.

2004-11-01

76

Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for x-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100?kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7?mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3? × ?3?mm(2) in detection area. The angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded x-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of x-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic x-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the x-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory. PMID:25369288

Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, Bp; Molloi, S

2014-12-01

77

Internal elemental imaging by scanning X-ray fluorescence microtomography at the hard X-ray microprobe beamline of the SSRF: Preliminary experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron-based X-ray micro-fluorescence (?-SXRF) is a non-destructive analytical technique and has been widely used to detect and quantify the elemental composition of samples in their natural state. To determine the internal elemental distributions within samples, X-ray fluorescence microtomography has been developed based on the hard X-ray microprobe at beamline BL15U1 of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China.

Jingke Qiu; Biao Deng; Qun Yang; Fen Yan; Aiguo Li; Xiaohan Yu

2011-01-01

78

Spray and gaseous jet diagnostics using x-ray-induced fluorescence imaging and flash radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of near nozzle dense sprays and axisymmetric gas jets using X-ray flash techniques is presented. Flash radiography and X-ray induced fluorescence imaging (X.I.F. imaging), using a flash X-ray developed at GREMI, offer two complementary diagnostics particularly efficient in high pressure conditions. In this work, a compact flash X-ray device is used to freeze fluid motions. Single shot radiographs of argon jets and water sprays expanding in ambient air have been performed. Radial density profiles were measured and quantitative density measurements have been extracted for argon, nitrogen-argon mixture and water jets, using flash X-ray radiography. UV fluorescence emissions due to X-ray excitation of the jet species were imaged on a gated intensified CCD camera.

Hure, Laurent; Robert, Eric; Cachoncinlle, Christophe; Viladrosa, Raymond; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel; Michou, Y.; Gokalp, Iskender

2001-04-01

79

Optimisation of a compact optical system for the beamtransport at the x-ray fluorescence beamline at Elettra for experiments with small spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a simplified and compact mechanical scheme designed for providing alternatively high flux or high spectral resolution from a monochromator for the 2 - 14 keV X-ray range in a stationary spot at a sample. The example case treats a bending magnet source at the Elettra storage ring. The properties of the continuously tunable monochromatic beam are adapted for a variety of experimental techniques, which include also the need to operate the sample in the total reflection regime, i.e. at angles of grazing incidence smaller than the critical angle of the sample material. The positional stability of the monochromatised beam during tuning was the major concern in the design of the monochromator.

Jark, Werner; Eichert, Diane; Luehl, Lars; Gambitta, Alessandro

2014-09-01

80

Femtosecond Radiation Experiment Detector for X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) Coherent X-Ray Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pixel array detector (PAD) module has been developed at Cornell University for the collection of diffuse diffraction data in anticipation of coherent X-ray imaging experiments that will be conducted at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The detector is designed to collect X-rays scattered from monochromatic femtosecond pulses produced by the LCLS X-ray

Hugh T. Philipp; Lucas J. Koerner; Marianne S. Hromalik; Mark W. Tate; Sol M. Gruner

2010-01-01

81

Effect of Synchrotron Polarization in Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence analysis  

E-print Network

Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy has seen a remarkable progress over the past years. Numerous applications in basic and applied sciences prove its importance. The large spectral background which is a major detrimental factor in the conventional x-ray fluorescence technique, limits the element detection sensitivities of the technique to ppm range. This spectral background reduces to a great extent in the TXRF technique due to the low extinction depth of the primary incident x-ray beam. In synchrotron radiation (SR) based TXRF measurements the spectral background reduces further because of the polarization of the synchrotron x-ray beam. Here, we discuss in detail the influence of synchrotron polarization on the spectral background in a fluorescence spectrum and its significance towards TXRF detection sensitivities. We provide a detailed theoretical description and show that how anisotropic scattering probability densities of the Compton and Elastic scattered x-rays depend on the scatterin...

Das, Gangadhar; Singh, A K; Ghosh, Haranath

2014-01-01

82

Sample preparation for evaluation of detection limits in X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

The influence of analyte mass concentration on determination of detection limits in X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been investigated experimentally. Both the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and the conventional energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques have been used to derive the dependence of analyte mass concentration on the values of detection limits. Results obtained indicate that values of detection limits are optimum, or in other words, they are closer to the true detection limit of the technique, when analyte concentrations are in the range of 10 times of the detection limit. PMID:15732474

Tiwari, M K; Singh, A K; Sawhney, K J S

2005-02-01

83

RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS BY HIGH SENSITIVITY DUAL-OPTIC MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and...

84

Grazing emission x-ray fluorescence from multilayers H. P. Urbach and P. K. de Bokx  

E-print Network

Grazing emission x-ray fluorescence from multilayers H. P. Urbach and P. K. de Bokx Philips, the sensitivity to subsurface layers is considerably enhanced by mea- suring intensities at grazing angles.085408 PACS number s : 78.70.En, 41.50. h, 07.85.Nc I. INTRODUCTION The use of grazing-incident x-ray beams

85

Determination of selenium in animal tissue samples using radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified preconcentration procedure for the trace element profile studies of selenium using radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence, RIXRF, is described. The method is based upon sample digestion followed by separation of selenium from the bulk by solvent extraction. The signal to noise ratios in the X-ray spectra are improved and interference from Br and As is significantly reduced. Levels of

M. A. Tariq; I. L. Preiss

1992-01-01

86

Eugen von Gothard and His X-Ray Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eugen von Gothard (1857-1909) made significant contributions to astrophysics and founded the Astrophysical Observatory in Herény, Hungary, in 1881. He also was a gifted instrument maker who designed and produced the apparatus and equipment he needed to carry out his researches, which enabled him to respond immediately to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s astonishing discovery of X rays. Von Gothard took his first X-ray photograph on January 23, 1896, thus inaugurating his first series of experiments, which ended on May 26, 1896. He carried out a second series of experiments on June 21-22, 1905, four years before his premature death at age 51.

Vincze, Ildikó J.; Jankovics, István

2010-03-01

87

Synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of the calibration samples used in surface sensitive total reflection and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) are surface sensitive techniques and can be used for detailed surface studies of different materials, including ultra-low concentration contamination or the lateral and depth distributions of elements. The calibration procedure typically used involves placing a micro-droplet (˜?l) of the standard solution onto a silicon wafer (or quartz backing). After evaporation of the solvent, the residual amount of elements is used as a reference standard. Knowledge of the distribution of residue material on the substrate surface is crucial for precise quantification. In the present work the investigation of the lateral distribution of elements in the multielemental calibrating samples, containing the 23 most commonly studied elements, by using the synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence is presented. The goal of this project was the study of a uniformity of the elemental distributions and determination of the residual elements morphology depending on the temperature of the drying process. The X-ray images were compared with optical and SEM images. Paper presents in details the experimental setup, sample preparation procedures, measurements and results. In the analysis of the X-ray images of the sample dried in high temperature the censoring approach was applied improving the quality of statistical analysis. The information on the elements distribution in the calibrating samples can be useful for developing more accurate calibration procedures applied in quantitative analysis of surface sensitive TXRF and GEXRF techniques.

Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Bana?, D.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Jagodzi?ski, P.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.

2013-12-01

88

Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.  

PubMed

The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers. PMID:24784587

Kayser, Y; B?achucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

2014-04-01

89

Potential applications of polycapillary optics to polarized beam X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Polarized beam X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique has potential applications in elemental analysis in materials analysis and in-vivo. In this work, first micro X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) measurements were done using a focusing lens. Polarization can be used to reduce the background, to give a better minimum detection limit. Polarizing the beam, using scattering has a disadvantage of low intensity and

Abrar M. Hussain

2006-01-01

90

Under-bump Metallization (UBM) Control using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence is a powerful technique for measurement of film thickness as well as compositions. As chip packaging is becoming part of typical Fab process, additional multilayer stack films are used for re-distribution of bumps and under bump metallization. These re-distribution and under-bump film stacks are characterized using XRF. In addition, composition of lead-free Ag/Sn bump is also measured using small spot x-ray fluorescence.

Agnihotri, Dileep; Brown, Dave; Imhof, Joseph; O'Dell, Jeremy; Tokar, Alex

2007-09-01

91

A method of improving spatial resolution in X-ray fluorescence holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a promising method for determination three-dimensional (3D) structure of local atoms. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the resolution of reconstructed atomic images in x-ray fluorescence holography. A Fe single crystal of body-centred lattice was used as a model for calculation of a hologram. Angular range dependence on spatial resolution of atomic

Honglan Xie; Jianwen Chen; Hongyi Gao; Shisheng Xiong; Zhizhan Xu

2003-01-01

92

Major-element ratios in synthetic fluid inclusions by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual fluid inclusions in quartz were investigated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe to develop protocols for major-element microanalysis. Studies were conducted of synthetic fluid inclusions in Brazilian quartz that contain fluids of known NaC1-CaC12-H20 and KCI-H20 compositions. Inclusions were irradiated by synchro- tron X-rays and the resulting energy-dispersive spectra were corrected for fluorescence yield and absorption effects to

David A. Vanko; Stephen R. Sutton; Mark L. Rivers; Robert J. Bodnaff

1993-01-01

93

X-Ray Astronomy Discovery Experiments*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Lockheed proposal to ``scan along the galactic equator in the direction of the galactic center '' ^1 was made to NASA in late 1960, over a year before Giacconi's discovery of Sco X-1, in 1962.^2 The nature of the Lockheed survey and first results were announced in 1964. Data in several publications verified the 1960 postulate that the brightest sources would lie within the galaxy and at low galactic latitude. A fourth publication summarized results.^3 A recent listing ^4 confirmed the discovery nature of the nearly fifty-year-old Lockheed proposal, and the effort's success. Data from the two concurrent experiments will be presented, and several published or just copyrighted appraisals of the two efforts will be described. *Work supported by NASA contracts NAS5-1174 and NASw-909, the Lockheed Independent Research Program, and several successive forms of Ruffner Associates. ^1P. C. Fisher, Lockheed Missiles and Space Division Document LMSD 702172, Palo Alto, (1960) ^2R. Giacconi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 9 (1962) 439 ^3P. C. Fisher et al., Astrophys. J., 151 (1968) 1. ^4P. C. Fisher, Who'sWho in the World, Marquis Who's Who LLC, New Providence, NJ, 22^nd Edition, (2005) 667-668.

Fisher, P. C.

2008-04-01

94

(X-ray diffraction experiments with condenser matter)  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research on the following topics: high-{Tc} superconductors; The response of crystal to an applied electric field; quasicrystals; surface structure and kinetics of surface layer formation; EXAFS studies of superconductors and heterostructures; effect of iron on the crystal structure of perovskite; x-ray detector development; and SAXS experiments. (LSP)

Coppens, P.

1990-01-01

95

Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

DOEpatents

Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Receptors are exposed to at least one potential binder and arrayed on a substrate support. Each member of the array is exposed to X-ray radiation. The magnitude of a detectable X-ray fluorescence signal for at least one element can be used to determine whether a binding event between a binder and a receptor has occurred, and can provide information related to the extent of binding between the binder and receptor.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Mann, Grace (Hong Kong, HK)

2010-12-28

96

X-ray nanoprobes and diffraction-limited storage rings: opportunities and challenges of fluorescence tomography of biological specimens  

PubMed Central

X-ray nanoprobes require coherent illumination to achieve optic-limited resolution, and so will benefit directly from diffraction-limited storage rings. Here, the example of high-resolution X-ray fluorescence tomography is focused on as one of the most voracious demanders of coherent photons, since the detected signal is only a small fraction of the incident flux. Alternative schemes are considered for beam delivery, sample scanning and detectors. One must consider as well the steps before and after the X-ray experiment: sample preparation and examination conditions, and analysis complexity due to minimum dose requirements and self-absorption. By understanding the requirements and opportunities for nanoscale fluorescence tomography, one gains insight into the R&D challenges in optics and instrumentation needed to fully exploit the source advances that diffraction-limited storage rings offer. PMID:25177992

de Jonge, Martin D.; Ryan, Christopher G.; Jacobsen, Chris J.

2014-01-01

97

Determination of L X-ray fluorescence parameters for Ho, Lu, W, Hg and Bi.  

PubMed

In this work, L X-ray fluorescence cross sections, L sub-shell fluorescence yields and level widths and radiative vacancy transfer probabilities of L sub-shells to Mi, Ni and Oi sub-shells were measured for the elements Ho, Lu, W, Hg and Bi. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique was used to measure L X-ray photons. To obtain related parameters, we used 59.54 keV gamma photons of (241)Am radioactive point source. Emitted L X-ray photons from targets were collected by means of a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 180 eV at 5.9 keV. The present results are generally in a good agreement with theoretical calculations and the other results obtained in the literature, within their range considering experimental uncertainty. PMID:24631748

Turhan, M F; Durak, R; Akman, F

2014-07-01

98

In Situ Mineralogical Analysis of Planetary Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote observations of Mars have led scientists to believe that its early climate was similar to that of the early Earth, having had abundant liquid water and a dense atmosphere. One of the most fascinating questions of recent times is whether simple bacterial life developed on Mars (as it did on the Earth) during this early element period. Analyses of SNC meteorites have broadened considerably our knowledge of the chemistry of certain types of Martian rocks, underscoring the tantalizing possibility of early hydrothermal systems and even of ancient bacterial life. Detailed analyses of SNC meteorites in Terrestrial laboratories utilize the most sophisticated organic, isotopic and microscopic techniques in existence. Indeed; it is unlikely that the key biogenic indicators used in McKay et al (ibid) could be identified by a remote instrument on the surface of Mars. As a result, it is probable that any robotic search for evidence of an ancient Martian biosphere will have as its focus the identification of key minerals in likely host rocks rather than the direct detection of organic or isotopic biomarkers. Even on a sample return mission, mineralogical screening will be utilized to choose the most likely candidate rocks. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the only technique that can provide a direct determination of the crystal structures of the phases present within a sample. When many different crystalline phases are present, quantitative analysis is better constrained if used in conjunction with a determination of elemental composition, obtainable by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using the same X-ray source as for XRD. For planetary surface analysis, a remote instrument combining XRD and XRF could be used for mineralogical characterization of both soils and rocks. We are designing a remote XRD/XRF instrument with this objective in mind. The instrument concept pays specific attention to constraints in sample preparation, weight, volume, power, etc. Based on the geometry of a pinhole camera (transmission geometry, flat two-dimensional detector perpendicular to the direct beam), the instrument (which we call CHEMIN, for Chemistry and Mineralogy) uses an X-ray sensitive CCD detector which will allow concurrent positional and energy-dispersive analysis of collected photons. Thus XRF (energy) and XRD (geometry) analysis of transmitted X-rays will be performed at the same time. Tests performed with single minerals and simple mixtures give promising results. Refinements of the prototype promise interpretable results on complex samples.

Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

99

Development of an x-ray generator using a pyroelectric crystal for x-ray fluorescence analysis on planetary landing missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical element abundance on planetary surface is essential for planetary science. We have been developing an active X-ray spectrometer (AXS), which is an in-situ chemical element analyzer based on the X-ray florescence analysis for future planetary landing missions. The AXS consists of an X-ray detector and multiple X-ray sources. Although a pyroelectric X-ray generator is promising for the AXS as an X-ray source, the raise of emission X-ray intensity is necessary for short-time and precise determination of elemental composition. Also, in order to enhance the detection efficiency of light major elements such as Mg, Al, and Si, we have tested the low energy X-ray emission by changing the target material. In this study, the X-ray emission calculation at the target by Monte Carlo simulation and the X-ray emission experiments were carried out. More than 106 cps of the time-averaged X-ray emission rate was achieved in maximum using a LiTaO3 crystal with 4 mm thickness and Cu target with 10 um thickness. The performance of pyroelectric X-ray generator is presented in this paper.

Kusano, Hiroki; Oyama, Yuki; Naito, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kuno, Haruyoshi; Shibamura, Eido; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Amano, Yoshiharu; Kim, Kyeong J.; Matias Lopes, José A.

2014-09-01

100

An X-ray refractive lens comprising two sections cut from a gramophone record for a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-ray refractive lens is assembled from two sections cut from a gramophone record. The refractive lens is placed in a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer, and it is used for collimation of the incident X-ray beams. A TXRF spectrum measured with the refractive lens is compared with that measured with a waveguide. Compared with the refractive lens, the waveguide enhances the intensities of the X-rays illuminating an analyte. Therefore, fluorescent X-ray intensities increase when using the waveguide. On the other hand, the vertical angular divergence of the incident X-ray beams is smaller when using the refractive lens, and the smaller angular divergence results in a reduction of the scattering of the incident X-rays from a sample holder. Therefore, the spectral background is reduced when using the refractive lens, resulting in an increase of the signal to background ratios of the fluorescent X-rays. Detection limits for 3d transition metals obtained with the refractive lens are sub-nanograms to a few nanograms, and the detection limits are similar to those obtained with the waveguide.

Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

2009-08-01

101

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using polycapillaries. A comparison with conventional setups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of producing parallel X-ray beams with low divergence by means of half monolithic polycapillaries gives the impression to be useful in total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) experiments. On one hand, the use of polycapillaries facilitates the alignment and the setup of the experiment. As expected, the spectra registered in the experiment shown low background and good signal-noise ratio. On the other hand, the intensity of photons on the samples when polycapillaries are employed is lower than in other configurations, which produces a loss of efficiency for the excitation of the sample mainly for light elements. In this work, different TXRF experiments were carried out and the minimum detection limits attained were compared with the ones obtained from TXRF using polycapillaries. The results indicate that the decrease of intensity produced by polycapillaries is imposing when detection limits are analyzed. Nevertheless, detection limits are better than conventional XRF. The possibility of employing non-symmetrical polycapillaries could eventually improve the detection limits so as to be equivalent to the conventional TXRF setups.

Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Perez, Roberto Daniel; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Rubio, Marcelo

2010-12-01

102

X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment probing hypothetical particles: the axions, created in the solar core. Inside the transverse magnetic field of the CAST magnet, axions can be converted into x-rays, and be detected by four x-ray detectors at CAST. The expected x-ray signal in CAST is in 1-10 keV range, intensity depending strongly on the coupling constant of axion-photon conversion ga?, which is expected to be low. This requires CAST to have detectors with very low background levels. The CAST Experiment makes use of three Micromesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors, which are gaseous detectors, derived from ideas of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). CAST Micromegas detectors show perfect stability, good spatial and energy resolution. The intense study on Micromegas has enabled CAST to understand the nature of its background level, and improve it by a factor of 102 over ten years. New detector design, new readout system, better cosmic veto and addition of x-ray telescope will further improve the background in the next data taking of the experiment. The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) of CAST is a pn-CCD detector with 200 × 64 pixels. The CAST CCD is coupled to an X-ray telescope, focusing all the parallel x-rays into a 9 mm diameter spot. The CCD will be replaced by the InGrid detector, a special manufactured micromegas detector. It is able to detect single electrons, and the low energy capabilities will open new frontiers on search of axions and other exotic particles. Another option is the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), which is being tested in 2013, and has an energy threshold as low as 250 eV. The CAST experiment is the pioneering helioscope that excludes an important part of axion mass-coupling constant parameter space, and expects to exclude more in the following years. To succeed CAST, a new experiment, the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being designed and optimised, comprising the construction of a magnet specially built for axion search as well as new detectors that will enable to improve the actual limits by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude.

Yildiz, S. C.

2014-03-01

103

Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging.  

PubMed

X-ray imaging offers a new 3-D view into cells. With its ability to penetrate whole hydrated cells it is ideally suited for pairing fluorescence light microscopy and nanoscale X-ray tomography. In this paper, we describe the X-ray optical set-up and the design of the cryo full-field transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. Compared to previous TXM set-ups with zone plate condenser monochromator, the new X-ray optical layout employs an undulator source, a spherical grating monochromator and an elliptically shaped glass capillary mirror as condenser. This set-up improves the spectral resolution by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the partially coherent object illumination improves the contrast transfer of the microscope compared to incoherent conditions. With the new TXM, cells grown on flat support grids can be tilted perpendicular to the optical axis without any geometrical restrictions by the previously required pinhole for the zone plate monochromator close to the sample plane. We also developed an incorporated fluorescence light microscope which permits to record fluorescence, bright field and DIC images of cryogenic cells inside the TXM. For TXM tomography, imaging with multi-keV X-rays is a straightforward approach to increase the depth of focus. Under these conditions phase contrast imaging is necessary. For soft X-rays with shrinking depth of focus towards 10nm spatial resolution, thin optical sections through a thick specimen might be obtained by deconvolution X-ray microscopy. As alternative 3-D X-ray imaging techniques, the confocal cryo-STXM and the dual beam cryo-FIB/STXM with photoelectron detection are proposed. PMID:22273540

Schneider, Gerd; Guttmann, Peter; Rehbein, Stefan; Werner, Stephan; Follath, Rolf

2012-02-01

104

Monte Carlo simulation applied in total reflection x-ray fluorescence: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a technique for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical constituents in a sample. This method is based on detection of the characteristic radiation intensities emitted by the elements of the sample, when properly excited. A variant of this technique is the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) that utilizes electromagnetic radiation as excitation source. In total reflection of X-ray, the angle of refraction of the incident beam tends to zero and the refracted beam is tangent to the sample support interface. Thus, there is a minimum angle of incidence at which no refracted beam exists and all incident radiation undergoes total reflection. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the energy variation of the beam of incident x-rays, using the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo NParticle) based on Monte Carlo method.

Meira, Luiza L. C.; Inocente, Guilherme F.; Vieira, Letícia D.; Mesa, Joel

2013-05-01

105

Bridging the micro-to-macro gap: a new application for micro X-ray fluorescence.  

PubMed

X-ray elemental mapping and X-ray spectrum imaging are powerful microanalytical tools. However, their scope is often limited spatially by the raster area of a scanning electron microscope or microprobe. Limited sampling size becomes a significant issue when large area (>10 cm²), heterogeneous materials such as concrete samples or others must be examined. In such specimens, macro-scale structures, inclusions, and concentration gradients are often of interest, yet microbeam methods are insufficient or at least inefficient for analyzing them. Such requirements largely exclude the samples of interest presented in this article from electron probe microanalysis. Micro X-ray fluorescence-X-ray spectrum imaging (?XRF-XSI) provides a solution to the problem of macro-scale X-ray imaging through an X-ray excitation source, which can be used to analyze a variety of large specimens without many of the limitations found in electron-excitation sources. Using a mid-sized beam coupled with an X-ray excitation source has a number of advantages, such as the ability to work at atmospheric pressure and lower limits of detection owing to the absence of electron-induced bremsstrahlung. ?XRF-XSI also acts as a complement, where applicable, to electron microbeam X-ray output, highlighting areas of interest for follow-up microanalysis at a finer length scale. PMID:21600071

Davis, Jeffrey M; Newbury, Dale E; Fahey, Albert; Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Vicenzi, Edward; Bentz, Dale

2011-06-01

106

Gadolinium concentration analysis in brain phantom by X-ray fluorescence.  

PubMed

We have measured the X-ray fluorescence from gadolinium as a function of concentration and position in tumors of different sizes and shapes in a head phantom. The gadolinium fluorescence was excited with a 36 GBq Am-241 source. The fluorescence signal was detected with a CdTe detector and a multi-channel analyzer. The fluorescence peak was clearly separated from the scattered X-rays. Concentrations of 5.62-78.63 mg/ml of Gd ion were used in 1, 2, and 3 cm diameter spherical tumors and a 2x4 cm oblate spheroid tumor. The data show trends approaching saturation for the highest concentrations, probably due to reabsorption in the tumor. A comparison of X-ray photographic imaging and densitometer measurements to determine concentration is also presented. PMID:20596811

Almalki, Musaed; Majid, Samir Abdul; Butler, Philip H; Reinisch, Lou

2010-06-01

107

Prototype imaging x-ray fluorescence spectrometer based on microchannel plate optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new form of imaging x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, based on a microchannel plate relay optic and a charge coupled device x-ray detector, produces elemental mapping over an instantaneous field of view of 24 mm square without the need to scan either the sample or x-ray beam. We describe the design of a prototype responsive over the energy range of 370 eV-10 keV, its quantitative calibration, demonstration of 0.7 mm spatial resolution and the spectrometer's use in the analysis of geological samples.

Price, G. J.; Fraser, G. W.; Pearson, J. F.; Nussey, J. P.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Holland, A. D.; Turner, K.; Pullan, D.

2004-07-01

108

Influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on uncertainty of calculated fluorescent radiation intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative radiation intensity (Ri) defined as fluorescent radiation intensity of analyte in specimen to fluorescent radiation intensity of pure element or compound, e.g., oxide is used in calculation in both fundamental parameter methods and in theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Accuracy of calculated Ri is determined by uncertainties of atomic parameters, spectrometer geometry and also by X-ray tube spectral distribution.

Rafal Sitko

2007-01-01

109

Region of Interest Reconstruction in X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography for Negligible Attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) is a synchrotron-based imaging modality employed for mapping the distribution of elements within slices or volumes of intact specimens. A pencil beam of external radiation is used to stimulate emission of characteristic X-rays from within a sample, which is scanned and rotated through the pencil beam in a first-generation tomographic geometry. One limitation of XFCT

Patrick La Riviere; Phillip Vargas; Dan Xia; Xiaochuan Pan

2010-01-01

110

Selective x-ray Bragg spectrometry: optimizing fluorescence microprobe sensitivity for precious metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next challenge is in rendering the instrument more user-friendly and in reducing detection limits. We present here the results from an instrument development project aimed at developing an X-ray spectrometer configuration for the X-ray fluorescence microprobe optimized for the detection of precious metals in geological and biological samples. The objective is to improve detection limits and reduce interference from

Barbara Etschmann; Chris Ryan; Stefan Vogt; Jörg Maser; Cathy Harland; D. Legnini

2007-01-01

111

Enhancing the ratio of fluorescence to bremsstrahlung radiation in X-ray tube spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques that can be used to improve the ratio of fluorescence to bremsstrahlung radiation (F\\/B) in X-ray tube spectra. Firstly, an extension of the EGS4 code system is used to evaluate the impact of the substrate in thin target applications, in terms of the yield of bremsstrahlung photons produced. The choice of materials to filter X-ray tube

L. M. N. Tavora; E. J. Morton; W. B. Gilboy

112

Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for environmental monitoring of inorganic pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a portable sensor unit containing a battery, a high voltage power supply, an x-ray tube which produces a beam x-ray radiation directed toward a target sample, and a detector for fluorescent x-rays produced by the sample. If a silicon-lithium detector is used, the sensor unit also contains either a thermoelectric or thermochemical cooler, or a small dewar flask containing liquid nitrogen to cool the detector. A pulse height analyzer (PHA) generates a spectrum of data for each sample consisting of the number of fluorescent x-rays detected as a function of their energy level. The PHA can also store spectrum data for a number of samples in the field. A processing unit can be attached to the pulse height analyzer to upload and analyze the stored spectrum data for each sample. The processing unit provides a graphic display of the spectrum data for each sample, and provides qualitative and/or quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of the sample by comparing the peaks in the sample spectrum against known x-ray energies for various chemical elements. An optional filtration enclosure can be used to filter particles from a sample suspension, either in the form of a natural suspension or a chemically created precipitate. The sensor unit is then temporarily attached to the filtration unit to analyze the particles collected by the filter medium.

Thornton, Michael G. (Inventor); Clark, III, Benton C. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

113

Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise ( Anisum vulgare), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood ( Artemisia herba-alba).

Khuder, A.; Sawan, M. Kh.; Karjou, J.; Razouk, A. K.

2009-07-01

114

OI Fluorescent Line Contamination in Soft X-Ray Diffuse Background Obtained with Suzaku/XIS  

E-print Network

The quantitative measurement of OVII line intensity is a powerful method for understanding the soft X-ray diffuse background. By systematically analyzing the OVII line intensity in 145 high-latitude Suzaku/XIS observations, the flux of OI fluorescent line in the XIS spectrum, contaminating the OVII line, is found to have an increasing trend with time especially after 2011. For these observations, the OVII line intensity would be overestimated unless taking into consideration the OI fluorescent line contamination. Since the OI line emission originates from solar X-rays, this increase suggests that incident solar X-rays at the OI fluorescence energy tend to be larger than the early phase of Suzaku observations (2005 - 2010).

Sekiya, Norio; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Takei, Yoh

2014-01-01

115

Analysis of eight argonne premium coal samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods were used in the analysis of eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Trace elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, and Ce) in coal ash were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) in coal ash and trace elements (Cl and P) in whole coal were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results of this study will be used in a geochemical database compiled for these materials from various analytical techniques. The experimental XRF methods and procedures used to determine these major and trace elements are described.

Evans, J.R.; Sellers, G.A.; Johnson, R.G.; Vivit, D.V.; Kent, J.

1990-01-01

116

Development of a micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics for non-destructive analysis of archaeological objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics has been set up in XOL Lab, BNU, China, in order to be used for analysis of archaeological objects. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to tens of micrometers in diameter that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/trace level sensitivity. The analytical characteristics and potential of this micro-XRF system in archaeological research are discussed. Some described uses of this instrument include studying Chinese ancient porcelain.

Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xunliang; Liu, Zhiguo; Pan, Qiuli; Chu, Xuelian

2007-08-01

117

Imaging experiments of Ne-like x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

We discuss high resolution two-dimensional near-field images of the neon-like nickel and germanium x-ray laser obtained using the Asterix laser at the Max-Planck-Institute and the Nova laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our imaging diagnostic consisted of a concave multilayer mirror that imaged the output end of the x-ray laser line onto a backside illuminated x-ray CCD detector. A 25 microm thick wire positioned at the end of the target provided a spatial fiducial. With the Asterix iodine laser, a prepulse 5.23 ns before the main pulse, was used to irradiate slab targets. A great deal of structure was observed in the near field images, particularly in the J=0-1 emission. We observed a large difference in the spatial dependence of the J=0-1 and J=2-1 lines of germanium, with the J=2-1 emission peaking farther away from the original target surface. A larger prepulse moved the peak emission farther away from the target surface. For the Nova experiments we used a series of 100 ps pulses spaced 400 ps apart to illuminate a germanium target. We obtained high resolution images of both the J=0-1 and J=2-1 lines of Ge. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic simulations coupled with atomic kinetics and including refraction effects.

Moreno, J.C., Nilsen, J.; Barbee, T.W.; Da Silva, L.B.; Fill, E.; Li, Y,; Lu, P.

1997-06-01

118

OSO-8 soft X-ray wheel experiment: Data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The soft X-ray experiment hardware and its operation are described. The device included six X-ray proportional counters, two of which, numbers 1 and 4, were pressurized with on-board methane gas supplies. Number 4 developed an excessive leak rate early in the mission and was turned off on 1975 day number 282 except for brief (typically 2-hour) periods up to day 585 after which it as left off. Counter 1 worked satisfactorily until 1975 day number 1095 (January 1, 1978) at which time the on-board methane supply was depleted. The other four counters were sealed and all except number 3 worked satisfactorily throughout the mission which terminated with permanent satellie shut-down on day 1369. This was the first large area thin-window, gas-flow X-ray detector to be flown in orbit. The background problems were severe and consumed a very large portion of the data analysis effort. These background problems were associated with the Earth's trapped electron belts.

Kraushaar, W. L.

1982-01-01

119

Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

2005-01-01

120

Medical imaging by fluorescent x-ray CT: its preliminary clinical evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent x-ray CT (FXCT) with synchrotron radiation (SR) is being developed to detect the very low concentration of specific elements. The endogenous iodine of the human thyroid and the non-radioactive iodine labeled BMIPP in myocardium were imaged by FXCT. FXCT system consists of a silicon (111) double crystal monochromator, an x-ray slit, a scanning table for object positioning, a fluorescent x-ray detector, and a transmission x-ray detector. Monochromatic x-ray with 37 keV energy was collimated into a pencil beam (from 1 mm to 0.025 mm). FXCT clearly imaged endogenous iodine of thyroid and iodine labeled BMIPP in myocardium, whereas transmission x-ray CT could not demonstrate iodine. The distribution of iodine was heterogeneous within thyroid cancer, and its concentration was lower than that of normal thyroid. Distribution of BMIPP in normal rat myocardium was almost homogeneous; however, reduced uptake was slightly shown in ischemic region. FXCT is a highly sensitive imaging modality to detect very low concentration of specific element and will be applied to reveal endogenous iodine distribution in thyroid and to use tracer study with various kinds of labeled material.

Takeda, Tohoru; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Wu, Jin; Yu, Quanwen; Lwin, Thet T.; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Rao, Donepudi V.; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Yashiro, Toru; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Itai, Yuji; Akatsuka, Takao

2002-01-01

121

A high-resolution large-acceptance analyzer for X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A newly designed multi-crystal X-ray spectrometer and its applications in the fields of X-ray fluorescence and X-ray Raman spectroscopy are described. The instrument is based on 8 spherically curved Si crystals, each with a 3.5 inch diameter form bent to a radius of 86 cm. The crystals are individually aligned in the Rowland geometry capturing a total solid angle of 0.07 sr. The array is arranged in a way that energy scans can be performed by moving the whole instrument, rather than scanning each crystal by itself. At angles close to back scattering the energy resolution is between 0.3 and 1 eV depending on the beam dimensions at the sample. The instrument is mainly designed for X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of transition metals in dilute systems such as metalloproteins. First results of the Mn K{beta} (3p -> 1s) emission in photosystem II are shown. An independent application of the instrument is the technique of X-ray Raman spectroscopy which can address problems similar to those in traditional soft X-ray absorption spectroscopies, and initial results are presented.

Bergmann, Uwe; Cramer, Stephen P.

2001-08-02

122

The MicroAnalysis Toolkit: X-ray Fluorescence Image Processing Software  

SciTech Connect

The MicroAnalysis Toolkit is an analysis suite designed for the processing of x-ray fluorescence microprobe data. The program contains a wide variety of analysis tools, including image maps, correlation plots, simple image math, image filtering, multiple energy image fitting, semi-quantitative elemental analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis, principle component analysis, and tomographic reconstructions. To be as widely useful as possible, data formats from many synchrotron sources can be read by the program with more formats available by request. An overview of the most common features will be presented.

Webb, S. M. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

2011-09-09

123

High resolution L? X-ray fluorescence spectra of palladium compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution Pd L? (L3–M4,5) X-ray fluorescence spectra of several Pd compounds were measured on a double-crystal X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. It was found that the chemical shifts of Pd L?1 line in Pd metal, Pd–Ag alloy, PdCl2, PdBr2, PdI2, Pd(NO3)2 and Pd(acac)2 were relatively small (less than 0.1 eV with metallic Pd as reference). We adopted the charge transfer effect to

Zhenlin Liu; Koretaka Yuge; Jun Kawai

2004-01-01

124

Analysis of Russian kopecks (1877-1933) using x-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed five Russian kopecks minted between the years of 1877 and 1933 using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as part of an undergraduate research project. The intensities of the Cu K-shell X-rays were studied in order to compare the relative purities of the Cu used to mint the kopecks. The economic conditions under which the kopecks were minted are discussed, as well as impurities discovered during XRF analysis. In addition to XRF analysis, kopecks produced just before (1915) and after (1924) the October Revolution of 1917 were weighed in order to determine whether or not the Decree of February 22, 1924 was carried out. The legislation (enacted by the Central Executive Committee and the Council of the People's Commissaries) decreed that the proportions of pure Ag and Cu used in the minting of new coins should be the identical to those produced before the revolution and that the diameters and weights of the kopecks should also remain the same. The data from our experiments suggest that the legislation was successfully carried out.

Cavness, B.; Williams, S.

2013-04-01

125

Modeling of x-ray fluorescence using MCNPX and Geant4  

SciTech Connect

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is one of thirteen non-destructive assay techniques being researched for the purpose of quantifying the Pu mass in used fuel assemblies. The modeling portion of this research will be conducted with the MCNPX transport code. The research presented here was undertaken to test the capability of MCNPX so that it can be used to benchmark measurements made at the ORNL and to give confidence in the application of MCNPX as a predictive tool of the expected capability of XRF in the context of used fuel assemblies. The main focus of this paper is a code-to-code comparison between MCNPX and Geant4 code. Since XRF in used fuel is driven by photon emission and beta decay of fission fragments, both terms were independently researched. Simple cases and used fuel cases were modeled for both source terms. In order to prepare for benchmarking to experiments, it was necessary to determine the relative significance of the various fission fragments for producing X-rays.

Rajasingam, Akshayan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

126

Computed microtomography and X-ray fluorescence analysis for comprehensive analysis of structural changes in bone.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of structural changes in the caudal vertebrae of Turner's thick-toed geckos by computer microtomography and X-ray fluorescence analysis. We present algorithms used for the reconstruction of tomographic images which allow to work with high noise level projections that represent typical conditions dictated by the nature of the samples. Reptiles, due to their ruggedness, small size, belonging to the amniote and a number of other valuable features, are an attractive model object for long-orbital experiments on unmanned spacecraft. Issues of possible changes in their bone tissue under the influence of spaceflight are the subject of discussions between biologists from different laboratories around the world. PMID:24110194

Buzmakov, Alexey; Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Schaefer, Gerald; Gulimova, Victoria; Saveliev, Sergey; Tereschenko, Elena; Seregin, Alexey; Senin, Roman; Prun, Victor; Zolotov, Denis; Asadchikov, Victor

2013-01-01

127

Method for determining the modulation transfer function of X-ray fluorescence mapping system.  

PubMed

A method for determining the modulation transfer function (MTF) in direct X-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) system is reported. With a standard container filled with homogeneous gold nanoparticle (GNP) solution (1% by weight), sharp edges are made and utilized to acquire the data for edge spread function (ESF). Through necessary data processing such as signal extraction, attenuation correction and curve fitting and proper calculations of differentiating and Fourier transform, MTF can be determined. Influencing factors of MTF determination in XFM system are thoroughly discussed in theory and validated by experiments. The results show that different mapping steps do not noticeably affect the measured MTF, while MTF is greatly degraded as the collimator-to-object distance increases. The theoretical analyses and experimental validations of the MTF determination are useful and helpful for imaging performance evaluation, system design and optimal operations. The presented methodology could be applied in other XRF based systems with modified imaging trajectories. PMID:25321501

Ren, Liqiang; Zhou, Zhongxing; Ghani, Muhammad U; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong

2014-09-01

128

Study of properties of chemically modified samples of halloysite mineral with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental and chemical composition of raw and activated samples of halloysite mineral using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods were determined. As the result, it has been shown that application of the complementary X-ray spectrometry techniques allows very precise observation of changes in composition of halloysite mineral samples caused by its chemical modifications. Sample preparation procedure and usability of the research methods applied are described in details. Procedure of activation of raw halloysite mineral samples by etching them in sulfuric acid of various concentrations has been described and discussed. The ability of the samples to adsorb lead from intentionally contaminated water was tested and confirmed.

Bana?, D.; Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Mo?ko, J.; Czech, K.; Garnuszek, M.; S?omkiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, B.

2013-12-01

129

Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 ?m, 8.0-2.0 ?m, 2.0-0.13 ?m 0.13-0.015 ?m (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 ?m, 1-2 ?m, 2-4 ?m, 4-8 ?m, 8-16 ?m. Prior to the sampling "bounce off" effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in all particle size fractions.

Fittschen, U. E. A.; Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Thiele, J.; Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.

2008-12-01

130

Resonance fluorescence in ultrafast and intense x-ray free-electron-laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of resonance fluorescence is calculated for a two-level system excited by an intense, ultrashort x-ray pulse made available, for instance, by free-electron lasers such as the Linac Coherent Light Source. We allow for inner-shell hole decay widths and destruction of the system by further photoionization. This two-level description is employed to model neon cations strongly driven by x rays tuned to the 1s2p-1?1s-12p transition at 848eV; the x rays induce Rabi oscillations which are so fast that they compete with Ne 1s-hole decay. We predict resonance fluorescence spectra for two different scenarios: first, chaotic pulses based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission principle, like those presently generated at x-ray free-electron-laser facilities and, second, Gaussian pulses which will become available in the foreseeable future with self-seeding techniques. As an example of the exciting opportunities derived from the use of seeding methods, we predict, in spite of the above obstacles, the possibility to distinguish at x-ray frequencies a clear signature of Rabi flopping in the spectrum of resonance fluorescence.

Cavaletto, Stefano M.; Buth, Christian; Harman, Zoltán; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Keitel, Christoph H.

2012-09-01

131

Polychromatic excitation improves detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis compared with monochromatic excitation.  

PubMed

Detection limits obtained by a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer with or without a monochromator are compared. A 1 W X-ray tube (tube voltage: 20 kV) is used in this spectrometer. Polychromatic excitation improves the detection limits in TXRF analysis with the low power X-ray tube compared with monochromatic excitation. A detection limit of 26 pg is achieved for Co when using the weak polychromatic X-rays. PMID:20535410

Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

2010-08-01

132

Preliminary Results from the ALEXIS Ultrasoft X-ray Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report preliminary results from the ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors) ultrasoft X-ray experiment, which is scheduled to launch in spring 1993. ALEXIS is a monitor experiment that consists of 6 compact normal-incidence telescopes tuned to narrow bands centered on 66, 71, and 93 eV (186, 172, and 130 Angstroms). The 66 and 71 eV bandpasses are centered on a cluster of emission lines from Fe IX-XII. The 6 telescopes are arranged in pairs and cover three overlapping 33° fields-of-view. During each 30-second spin of the satellite, ALEXIS will monitor the entire anti-solar hemisphere. Each telescope consists of a molybdenum/silicon layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) mirror, a curved-profile microchannel plate detector situated at the prime focus, with wedge-and-strip readout, a thin lexan/titanium/boron or aluminum/carbon filter, electron- rejecting magnets, and readout electronics. The resolution of each telescope is limited by spherical aberration to about 1/2° diameter. ALEXIS, with its wide fields-of-view and well-defined wavelength bands, will complement NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and the German/UK Wide Field Camera on ROSAT. It will pursue a number of scientific objectives, including mapping the diffuse background in three bands, performing a narrow-band survey of point sources, searching for transient phenomena, and monitoring variable ultrasoft X-ray sources, such as cataclysmic variables and flare stars, for weeks and months at a time. ALEXIS is serviced by a small satellite bus, launched by a Pegasus air-launched booster, and tracked by a ground station at Los Alamos. ALEXIS thereby exploits modern technology to field a space experiment better, faster, and cheaper. The ALEXIS project was developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy.

Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J. J.; Edwards, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B. W.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Carone, T.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Vallerga, J.

1993-05-01

133

Development of a compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for fast trace elemental analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (GE-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the laboratory. An Al cylindrical collimator for the primary X-rays was placed just above the sample stage. This collimator also played the role of an exit slit to detect fluorescent X-rays at small grazing exit angles. Therefore, no additional exit slit was used in this setup, leading to a compact design. The entire size of the analysis equipment was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm (horizontal × vertical × height). The maximum exit angle was adjusted to the height of the sample stage. The background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. A calibration curve was obtained using 10 ?L Ga solutions. Accordingly, the detection limit for Ga was evaluated to be 20 ppb.

Ashida, Takafumi; Tsuji, Kouichi

2014-11-01

134

EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SCREENING  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype field-portable X-ray fluorescence system developed by EPA and NASA was evaluated at a site contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cu. The objective of the field test was to evaluate the effectiveness of the instrument as a field analytical tool for locating hot spots and as a ...

135

Analysis of tincal ore waste by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etibank Borax Plant is located in K?rka-Eski?ehir, Turkey. The borax waste from this plant was analyzed by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The standard addition method was used for the determination of the concentration of Al, Fe, Zn, Sn, and Ba. The results are presented and discussed in this paper.

Kalfa, Orhan Murat; Üstünda?, Zafer; Özk?r?m, Ilknur; Kagan Kad?o?lu, Yusuf

2007-01-01

136

L-shell x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone: accuracy and precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to quantify the accuracy and precision of a method for in vivo measurements of lead in bone using L-shell x-ray fluorescence (LXRF), the former via comparison with independent measurements of lead in bone obtained using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) following acid digestion. Using LXRF, the lead content of adult human cadaver tibiae was measured, both as

Andrew C. Todd; Spencer Carroll; Ciaran Geraghty; Fuad A. Khan; Erin L. Moshier; Shida Tang; Patrick J. Parsons

2002-01-01

137

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF FILTER-COLLECTED AEROSOL PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has become an effective technique for determining the elemental content of aerosol samples. For quantitative analysis, the aerosol particles must be collected as uniform deposits on the surface of Teflon membrane filters. An energy dispersive XRF spectrom...

138

X-ray fluorescence and multivariate analysis for sucrose quantification in sugarcane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently the methods used for determining the sucrose content in sugarcane are made in the clarified juice. In this study portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) together with chemometric tools was used to quantify sucrose through the stem, lief and juice. The best results were obtained for the stem, with means relative deviation of around 6%.

Melquiades, Fábio L.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Neme, Fernanda F.; Ton, Ariel; Bueno, Maria I. M. S.

2013-05-01

139

Desert Varnish: Relative and Absolute Dating Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of manganese and iron measured in situ with a portable x-ray fluorescence instrument permit relative and absolute dating of desert varnish. This novel technique may have wide potential application to dating Pleistocene and Holocene events and geomorphic surfaces in dry climate settings. Desert varnish is a thin biogenic coating, enriched in Mn and Fe, found on rock surfaces in

N. E. Pingitore; F. W. Lytle

2003-01-01

140

SPECIMEN PREPARATION LIMITATIONS IN TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS QUANTIFICATION USING MICRO-X-RAY FLUORESCENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-X-ray fluorescence, MXRF, has significant potential for trace elemental analysis when combined with proper specimen preparation. The combination of preconcentration with localized spatially resolved excitation offers increased sensitivity for both aqueous solutions and solid matrices. An additional attractive feature of MXRF is the small specimen size required. Present studies are directed towards the application of this method to trace elemental

Lisa P. Colletti; George J. Havrilla

141

CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS USING FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed characterization of the underlying and adjacent soils near a chrome plating shop utilized field-portable X- ray fluorescence (XRF) as a screening tool. XRF permitted real-time acquisition of estimates for total metal content of soils. A trailer-mounted soil coring unit...

142

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF POST-ABATEMENT DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to characterize post-abatement dust collected with a HEPA filtered vacuum. hree size fractions of resuspended dust (0-30 pm, 2.5-15 pm, and ...

143

Detection of visible and latent fingerprints by micro-X-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous methods are available to forensic scientists for detecting fingerprints in which the prints are treated with various agents to enhance the visual contrast between the print and the surface. In the present work, the spatial elemental imaging capabilities of micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) were used to visualize fingerprint patterns based on inorganic elements present in the prints. A major advantage

Christopher G. Worley; Sara S. Wiltshire; Thomasin C. Miller; George J. Havrilla; Vahid Majidi

2006-01-01

144

Detection of Fingerprints Based on Elemental Composition Using Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to detect fingerprints using a technique known as micro-X-ray fluorescence. The traditional method of detecting fingerprints involves treating the sample with certain powders, liquids, or vapors to add color to the fingerprint so that it can be easily seen and photographed for forensic purposes. This is known as contrast enhancement, and a multitude of chemical processing

C. G. Worley; S. Wiltshire; T. C. Miller; G. J. Havrilla; V. Majidi

2005-01-01

145

Reconstruction of Elemental Distribution Images from Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF) is a powerful technique for studying trace elements in biological samples and other materials in general. Its features including capability to perform measurements in air and water, noncontact and nondestructive assay are superior to other elemental analysis techniques. In this study, a technique for reconstructing elemental distribution mapping of trace elements from spectral data

Jay Arre Toque; Ari Ide-Ektessabi

2009-01-01

146

Determination of phosphorus in food samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and standard spectrophotometric method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD XRF) determination of phosphorus in GMO and non GMO food samples is proposed. The tested materials included commercially available transgenic, unmodified soya-foods and popular dairy products. The WD XRF method was compared with the standard molybdenum blue method. Matrix effects were minimised by using standard reference material. Obtained results were discussed in respect of

A Jastrz?bska; B Brudka; T Szyma?ski; E Sz?yk

2003-01-01

147

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - FIELD PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYZER - HNU SYSTEMS, SEFA-P  

EPA Science Inventory

In April 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) Analyzers. The primary objectives of this demonstration were (1) to determine how well FPXRF analyzers perform in comparison to a standard reference m...

148

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - FIELD PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYZER - SCITEC, MAP SPECTRUM ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

In April 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a demonstration of field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) analyzers. The primary objectives of this demonstration were (1) to determine how well FPXRF analyzers perform in comparison to standard reference...

149

X-ray microprobe synchroton radiation X-ray fluorescence application on human teeth of renal insufficiency patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on the measurements of elemental profiles in teeth collected from patients with renal insufficiency. Elemental concentrations of Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb Sr and Pb in different parts of teeth from patients with renal insufficiency are discussed and correlated with the corresponding values for healthy citizens. Both situations, patients with and without dialysis treatment were studied. The purpose of this work is to point out the influence of renal insufficiency together with long dialysis treatment, on teeth elemental content. An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the LURE synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination. The resolution of the synchrotron microprobe was 100 ?m and the energy of the incident photons was 19 keV. Teeth of citizens with renal insufficiency and those submitted since several years to dialysis treatment show a similar concentration with teeth of healthy subjects in what concerns the elemental distribution for Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr. However, higher levels of Pb were found in pulp region of diseased citizens when compared to values of healthy people. Very low concentrations of Ti, Co, Ni, Se, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed teeth. No difference was found in patients with and without dialysis treatment.

Marques, A. F.; Marques, J. P.; Casaca, C.; Carvalho, M. L.

2004-10-01

150

A High-Speed Detector System for X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes.  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high-speed system for collecting x-ray fluorescence microprobe data, based on ASICs developed at BNL and high-speed processors developed by CSIRO. The system can collect fluorescence data in a continuous raster scan mode, and present elemental images in real time using Ryan's Dynamic Analysis algorithm. We will present results from a 32-element prototype array illustrating the concept. The final instrument will have 384 elements arranged in a square array around a central hole.

Siddons,P.D.; Dragone, A.; De Geronimo, g.; Kuczewski, A.; Kuczewski, J.; O

2006-10-29

151

Data Analysis of X-ray Fluorescence Holography by Subtracting Normal Component from Inverse Hologram  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a powerful technique for determining three-dimensional local atomic arrangements around a specific fluorescing element. However, the raw experimental hologram is predominantly a mixed hologram, i.e., a mixture of hologram generated in both normal and inverse modes, which produces unreliable atomic images. In this paper, we propose a practical subtraction method of the normal component from

Naohisa Happo; Kouichi Hayashi; Shinya Hosokawa

2010-01-01

152

X-Ray Spectroscopic Laboratory Experiments in Support of the X-Ray Astronomy Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our program is to perform a series of laboratory investigations designed to resolved significant atomic physics uncertainties that limit the interpretation of cosmic X-ray spectra. Specific goals include a quantitative characterization of Fe L-shell spectra; the development of new techniques to simulate Maxwellian plasmas using an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT); and the measurement of dielectronic recombination rates for photoionized gas. New atomic calculations have also been carried out in parallel with the laboratory investigations.

Kahn, Steven M.

1997-01-01

153

Setup for optimized grazing incidence x-ray absorption experiments on thin films on substrates  

SciTech Connect

We present a state-of-the-art experimental apparatus and a proper setup to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments in grazing incidence mode. This geometry is appropriate for doped thin films or interfaces buried at moderate depth in a thick matrix, whenever the scattering and/or fluorescence from the matrix has to be strongly attenuated. Both the calculation and the experimental data demonstrate that the specific setup that consists in a grazing incidence and grazing collection geometry is extremely advantageous. In fact, with respect to the standard geometry used to perform XAS experiments in fluorescence mode, the present setup allows an enhancement in the interesting fluorescence signal from the surface layer without a corresponding increase in the elastic scattering contribution from the matrix. The sample holder especially designed for this kind of experiment can work in vacuum and at low temperature. An easy and quick automatic sample alignment procedure is detailed.

Maurizio, C.; Rovezzi, M.; Bardelli, F.; Pais, H. G.; D'Acapito, F. [CNR-INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, GILDA CRG 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

2009-06-15

154

A dosimetry study for a K-fluorescent x-ray system  

E-print Network

A DOSIMETRY STUDY FOR A K-FLUORESCENT X-RAY SYSTEM A Thesis by TRAVIS NEWTON BEARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTFR OF SCIENCE May 1975 Major... Subject: Nuclear Engineering (Health Physics) A DOSIMETRY STUDY FOR A K-FI. UORESCENT X-RAY SYSTEM A Thesis by TRAVIS NEWTON BEARD Approved as to style and conte t by: f / C. ' (Ch~airman of Comm( t ) I I (Head of Department) Me5 (Member...

Beard, Travis Newton

2012-06-07

155

Elemental distribution images in prostate samples by X-ray fluorescence microtomography.  

PubMed

An X-ray transmission microtomography (CT) system combined with an X-ray fluorescence microtomography (XRF?CT) system was implemented in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in order to determine the elemental distribution in prostate samples aiming at establishing a correlation between the concentration of some elements and the characteristics and pathology of the tissues. The CT images were reconstructed using a filtered-back projection algorithm and the XRF?CT images were reconstructed using a filtered-back projection algorithm with absorption corrections. PMID:22206909

Pereira, G R; Rocha, H S; Anjos, M J; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

2012-07-01

156

Photon Regeneration Experiment for Axion Search Using X-Rays  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter we describe our novel photon regeneration experiment for the axionlike particle search using an x-ray beam with a photon energy of 50.2 and 90.7 keV, two superconducting magnets of 3 T, and a Ge detector with a high quantum efficiency. A counting rate of regenerated photons compatible with zero has been measured. The corresponding limits on the pseudoscalar axionlike particle-two-photon coupling constant is obtained as a function of the particle mass. Our setup widens the energy window of purely terrestrial experiments devoted to the axionlike particle search by coupling to two photons. It also opens a new domain of experimental investigation of photon propagation in magnetic fields.

Battesti, R.; Fouche, M.; Berceau, P.; Duc, F.; Frings, P.; Rikken, G. L. J. A.; Rizzo, C. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses (UPR 3228, CNRS-INSA-UJF-UPS), F-31400 Toulouse Cedex (France); Detlefs, C.; Roth, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

2010-12-17

157

Structural characterization of Au\\/Co multilayers by x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity and glancing-incidence x-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic properties of metallic multilayers are strongly influenced by their structural properties, for example interface quality, parallelism of the atomic layers, the amount of strain in the material and the coherence over long distances. In this paper we discuss analysis of such materials in a non-destructive way by the use of glancing-incidence X-ray analysis (GIXA) and high-angle X-ray diffraction.

W. W. v. D. Hoogenhof; T. W. Ryan

1993-01-01

158

Reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of semiconductor surfaces with synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a well-established method to monitor lowest level contamination on semiconductor surfaces. Even light elements on a wafer surface can be excited effectively when using high-flux synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray range. To meet current industrial requirements in nondestructive semiconductor analysis, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) operates dedicated instrumentation for analyzing light element contamination on wafer pieces as well as on 200- and 300-mm silicon wafer surfaces. This instrumentation is also suited for grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis and conventional energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried and surface nanolayered structures, respectively. The most prominent features are a high-vacuum load-lock combined with an equipment front end module and a UHV irradiation chamber with an electrostatic chuck mounted on an eight-axis manipulator. Here, the entire surface of a 200- or a 300-mm wafer can be scanned by monochromatized radiation provided by the plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation in the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This beamline provides high spectral purity and high photon flux in the range of 0.078-1.86 keV. In addition, absolutely calibrated photodiodes and Si(Li) detectors are used to monitor the exciting radiant power respectively the fluorescence radiation. Furthermore, the footprint of the excitation radiation at the wafer surface is well-known due to beam profile recordings by a CCD during special operation conditions at BESSY II that allow for drastically reduced electron beam currents. Thus, all the requirements of completely reference-free quantitation of TXRF analysis are fulfilled and are to be presented in the present work. The perspectives to arrange for reference-free quantitation using X-ray tube-based, table-top TXRF analysis are also addressed. PMID:17880182

Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fliegauf, Rolf; Kolbe, Michael; Müller, Matthias; Weser, Jan; Ulm, Gerhard

2007-10-15

159

Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and multi-elemental. The micro-PIXE technique requires rather expensive instrumentation, but offers multi-elemental analysis on the tissue and cellular level.

Ne?emer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Š?an?ar, Janez; Ja?imovi?, Radojko; Sim?i?, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

2008-11-01

160

X-ray fluorescence from the element with atomic number Z=120.  

PubMed

An atomic clock based on x-ray fluorescence yields has been used to estimate the mean characteristic time for fusion followed by fission in reactions 238U + 64Ni at 6.6??MeV/A. Inner shell vacancies are created during the collisions in the electronic structure of the possibly formed Z=120 compound nuclei. The filling of these vacancies accompanied by a x-ray emission with energies characteristic of Z=120 can take place only if the atomic transitions occur before nuclear fission. Therefore, the x-ray yield characteristic of the united atom with 120 protons is strongly related to the fission time and to the vacancy lifetimes. K x rays from the element with Z=120 have been unambiguously identified from a coupled analysis of the involved nuclear reaction mechanisms and of the measured photon spectra. A minimum mean fission time ?(f)=2.5×10(-18)??s has been deduced for Z=120 from the measured x-ray multiplicity. PMID:22540578

Frégeau, M O; Jacquet, D; Morjean, M; Bonnet, E; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Rivet, M F; Tassan-Got, L; Dechery, F; Drouart, A; Nalpas, L; Ledoux, X; Parlog, M; Ciortea, C; Dumitriu, D; Fluerasu, D; Gugiu, M; Gramegna, F; Kravchuk, V L; Marchi, T; Fabris, D; Corsi, A; Barlini, S

2012-03-23

161

Improvement of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer sensitivity by flowing nitrogen gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of Ar K? line was reduced by a factor of 17 times by flowing more than 400 mL min- 1 of N2 gas through gas pipe placed at the gap between the X-ray detector and the sample stage of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. The signal-to-background ratios of characteristic X-rays with energies less than 8 keV were improved by flowing N2 gas owing to the reduction of peak pileups related to the Ar K? peak. The improvement of the signal-to-background ratios became significant as the energies of the characteristic X-rays approached that of the Ar K? line (2.96 keV) for characteristic X-rays with energies less than 5 keV. When 1 ?L of solution containing 10 mg L- 1 cadmium (10 ng) was measured with the TXRF spectrometer by flowing N2 gas, Cd L? line was clearly observed, although the Cd L? line overlapped with the Ar K lines without flowing N2 gas. The lower limit of detection of cadmium evaluated from the Cd L? line was improved from 7.0 to 2.2 ng by flowing N2 gas. This N2 gas flowing technique can be applied to trace element analysis of cadmium in solutions which do not contain potassium such as leaching solutions from products containing cadmium in TXRF and conventional XRF measurements.

Imashuku, Susumu; Tee, Deh Ping; Kawai, Jun

2012-07-01

162

Evaluation of different synchrotron beamline configurations for X-ray fluorescence analysis of environmental samples.  

PubMed

Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is a powerful elemental analysis tool, yet synchrotrons are large, multiuser facilities that are generally not amenable to modification. However, the X-ray beamlines from synchrotrons can be modified by simply including X-ray filters or removing monochromators to improve the SR-XRF analysis. In this study, we evaluated four easily applied beamline configurations for the analysis of three representative environmental samples, namely a thin aerosol sample, an intermediate thickness biological sample, and a thick rare earth mineral specimen. The results showed that the "white beam" configuration, which was simply the full, polychromatic output of the synchrotron, was the optimal configuration for the analysis of thin samples with little mass. The "filtered white beam" configuration removed the lower energy X-rays from the excitation beam so it gave better sensitivity for elements emitting more energetic X-rays. The "filtered white beam-filtered detector" configuration sacrifices the lower energy part of the spectrum (<15 keV) for improved sensitivity in the higher end (?26 to 48 keV range). The use of a monochromatic beam, which tends to be the standard mode of operation for most SR-XRF analyses reported in the literature, gave the least sensitive analysis. PMID:25025342

Barberie, Sean R; Iceman, Christopher R; Cahill, Catherine F; Cahill, Thomas M

2014-08-19

163

MAXIE 1 (Magnetospheric Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite flight of the MAXIE-1 (Magnetospheric Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment) instrument is being implemented under ONR (the Office of Naval Research) sponsorship. The MAXIE-1 instrument is being developed as a joint activity of Lockheed, the Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Bergen; much of the Lockheed development has been done under the Independent Research Program. Under ONR sponsorship that institution is responsible for managing the program, for providing spacecraft interface requirements, for providing interface electronics for conditioning sensor signals, for developing test software and for conducting environmental tests needed for flight. This report describes some of the interface activities undertaken in the last three months, including meetings at NOAA and at RCA.

Imhof, William L.; Voss, Henry D.; Chinn, Victor

1987-09-01

164

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERFICATION REPORT - FIELD PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYZER - TN SPECTRACE, TN 9000 AND TN PB FIELD PORTABLE X-RAY FLOURESCENCE ANALYZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In April 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a demonstration of field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) analyzers. The primary objectives of this demonstration were to evaluate these analyzers for: (1) their analytical performance relative to standar...

165

In-situ speciation of arsenic contaminated soil using micro-focused x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption fine  

E-print Network

In-situ speciation of arsenic contaminated soil using micro-focused x-ray fluorescence and x-A, 0-20 cm; LM-B, 20-40 cm) of a mixed metal-arsenic contaminated soil from a former copper chromated-contaminating metal cations (Cu, Zn, & Cr) in the solid phase speciation of arsenic. Elemental maps from ÝSXRF

Sparks, Donald L.

166

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with monoenergetic excitation and full spectrum excitation using rotating anode X-ray tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly constructed measuring chamber for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) has been tested for several applications. Full spectrum excitation and monoenergetic excitation of the sample are compared using rotating and standing anode tubes as primary radiation source. Advantages and disadvantages of using a W-C multilayer structure as monochromator in TXRF are discussed. Extrapolated detection limits of 170 fg

Wolfgang Ladisich; Robert Rieder; Peter Wobrauschek; Hannes Aiginger

1993-01-01

167

Bent Laue X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Manganese in Biological Tissues--Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect

Manganese (Mn) is not abundant in human brain tissue, but it is recognized as a neurotoxin. The symptoms of manganese intoxication are similar to Parkinson's disease (PD), but the link between environmental, occupational or dietary Mn exposure and PD in humans is not well established. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and in particular X-ray fluorescence can provide precise information on the distribution, concentration and chemical form of metals. However the scattered radiation and fluorescence from the adjacent abundant element, iron (Fe), may interfere with and limit the ability to detect ultra-dilute Mn. A bent Laue analyzer based Mn fluorescence detection system has been designed and fabricated to improve elemental specificity in XAS imaging. This bent Laue analyzer of logarithmic spiral shape placed upstream of an energy discriminating detector should improve the energy resolution from hundreds of eV to several eV. The bent Laue detection system was validated by imaging Mn fluorescence from Mn foils, gelatin calibration samples and adult Drosophila at the Hard X-ray MicroAnalysis (HXMA) beamline at the Canadian Light Source (CLS). Optimization of the design parameters, fabrication procedures and preliminary experimental results are presented along with future plans.

Zhu Ying; Zhang Honglin [Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Bewer, Brian [Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Nichol, Helen; Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 (Canada); Thomlinson, Bill [Office of the Vice President Research, University of Saskatchewan, 121 Research Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 1K2 (Canada)

2010-06-23

168

Correlative organelle fluorescence microscopy and synchrotron X-ray chemical element imaging in single cells.  

PubMed

X-ray chemical element imaging has the potential to enable fundamental breakthroughs in the understanding of biological systems because chemical element interactions with organelles can be studied at the sub-cellular level. What is the distribution of trace metals in cells? Do some elements accumulate within sub-cellular organelles? What are the chemical species of the elements in these organelles? These are some of the fundamental questions that can be addressed by use of X-ray chemical element imaging with synchrotron radiation beams. For precise location of the distribution of the elements, identification of cellular organelles is required; this can be achieved, after appropriate labelling, by use of fluorescence microscopy. As will be discussed, this approach imposes some limitations on sample preparation. For example, standard immunolabelling procedures strongly modify the distribution of the elements in cells as a result of the chemical fixation and permeabilization steps. Organelle location can, however, be performed, by use of a variety of specific fluorescent dyes or fluorescent proteins, on living cells before cryogenic fixation, enabling preservation of element distribution. This article reviews the methods used for fluorescent organelle labelling and X-ray chemical element imaging and speciation of single cells. Selected cases from our work and from other research groups are presented to illustrate the potential of the combination of the two techniques. PMID:25023971

Roudeau, Stéphane; Carmona, Asuncion; Perrin, Laura; Ortega, Richard

2014-11-01

169

Apollo 16 Experiments - Fluorescence Spectrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from the Lunar and Planetary Institute, describes how the composition of portions of the lunar surface was determined by observing the fluorescence produced by solar x-rays. Images are provided with results from the experiments and links are offered to other LPI pages with information on the Apollo missions. This page is written at the level of introductory physics.

2009-07-29

170

Investigation of radiation absorption and X-ray fluorescence properties of medical imaging scintillators by Monte Carlo methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence properties of medical imaging scintillating screens were studied by Monte Carlo methods as a function of the incident photon energy and screen-coating thickness. The scintillating materials examined were Gd 2O 2S, (GOS) Gd 2SiO 5 (GSO) YAlO 3 (YAP), Y 3Al 5O 12 (YAG), LuSiO 5 (LSO), LuAlO 3 (LuAP) and ZnS. Monoenergetic photon exposures were modeled in the range from 10 to 100 keV. The corresponding ranges of coating thicknesses of the investigated scintillating screens ranged up to 200 mg cm -2. Results indicated that X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence are affected by the incident photon energy and the screen's coating thickness. Regarding incident photon energy, this X-ray absorption and fluorescence was found to exhibit very intense changes near the corresponding K edge of the heaviest element in the screen's scintillating material. Regarding coating thickness, thicker screens exhibited higher X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence. Results also indicated that a significant fraction of the generated X-ray fluorescent quanta escape from the scintillating screen. This fraction was found to increase with screen's coating thickness. At the energy range studied, most of the incident photons were found to be absorbed via one-hit photoelectric effect. As a result, the reabsorption of scattered radiation was found to be of rather minor importance; nevertheless this was found to increase with the screen's coating thickness. Differences in X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence were found among the various scintillators studied. LSO scintillator was found to be the most attractive material for use in many X-ray imaging applications, exhibiting the best absorption properties in the largest part of the energy range studied. Y-based scintillators were also found to be of significant absorption performance within the low energy ranges.

Nikolopoulos, D.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Valais, I.; Linardatos, D.; Michail, C.; David, S.; Gaitanis, A.; Nomicos, C.; Louizi, A.

2006-09-01

171

X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia.  

PubMed

This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. PMID:22154649

Hložek, M; Komoróczy, B; Trojek, T

2012-07-01

172

X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon  

SciTech Connect

Argon L{sub 2.3}-M{sub 2.3}M{sub 2.3} Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with K{alpha} fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons.

Arp, U. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Electron and Optical Physics Div.; LeBrun, T.; Southworth, S.H.; Jung, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; MacDonald, M.A. [E.P.S.R.C. Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

173

The use of swept-charge devices in planetary analogue X-ray fluorescence studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) was launched onboard the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission in October 2008. The instrument consisted of 24 swept-charge device (SCD) silicon X-ray detectors providing a total collecting area of ~ 24 cm2, corresponding to a 14° field of view (FWHM), with the ability to measure X-rays from 0.8-10 keV. One algorithm used to analyse the C1XS flight data was developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) to convert the raw X-ray flux data into elemental ratios and abundances to make geological interpretations about the lunar surface. Laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data were used to validate the RAL algorithm, with previous studies investigating how the measured XRF flux varies with target surface characteristics including grain size and roughness. Evidence for a grain-size effect was observed in the data, the XRF line intensity generally decreasing with increasing sample grain size, dependent on the relative abundance of elemental components. This paper presents a subsequent study using more homogeneous samples made from mixtures of MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 powders, all of grain size < 44 ?m, across a broader range of mixture ratios and at a higher level of X-ray flux data in order to further validate the RAL algorithm. For the majority of the C1XS flight data analysed so far with the RAL algorithm, the corresponding lunar ground tracks have been generally basaltic, laboratory verification of the algorithm having been primarily conducted using basaltic lunar regolith simulant (JSC-1A) XRF data. This paper also presents results from tests on a terrestrial anorthosite sample, more relevant to the anorthositic lunar highlands, from where the remaining C1XS lunar dataset derives. The operation of the SCD, the XRF test facility, sample preparation and collected XRF spectra are discussed in this paper.

Walker, T. E.; Smith, D. R.

2012-07-01

174

Feasibility study for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone using L-x-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead deposits in bone were detected by x-ray fluorescence using x-rays from either a ¹²⁵I or a ¹°⁹Cd source. Measurements were taken from tibia in intact human legs, post-mortem. On the basis of preliminary measurements, it was concluded that an exposure of one rad is adequate for determination of lead in bone. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of L-x-rays,

L. Wielopolski; D. N. Slatkin; D. Vartsky; K. J. Ellis; S. H. Cohn

1980-01-01

175

X-ray fluorescence analysis of metal concentration in an alloy electroplating bath  

SciTech Connect

An energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has been developed for rapid, simultaneous analysis of gold and copper concentrations in an aqueous electroplating bath. The speed and repeatability of the system make it well suited for in-process control. Data collection and reduction are automatic. The analysis requires less than 10 minutes from taking the sample to printing the gold and copper concentrations.

Hines, R.A.

1980-06-01

176

Analysis of non-organic elements in plant foliage using polarised X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method for the rapid and non-destructive analysis of 30 non-organic elements in plant leaves over five orders of magnitude concentration from several percentage of dry weight to sub-milligram per kilogram, is described. There is a growing need for a simple method of monitoring non-organic trace elements in plant material, especially those which accumulate in soils with

W. E. Stephens; A. Calder

2004-01-01

177

Genesis Sample Surface Contamination Study using Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used synchrotron-based Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) to measure the surface and near-surface contamination of Genesis flight spare material as well as one piece of sapphire which flew on the mission. Flight spare samples included uncoated, Al-coated and Au-coated sapphire wafers and diamond-like carbon (DLC) on silicon. These studies were performed to determine the suitability of TXRF for the

S. Brennan; K. Luening; P. Pianetta; H. A. Ishii; D. S. Burnett

2005-01-01

178

Quantitative comparison of preparation methodologies for x-ray fluorescence microscopy of brain tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) facilitates high-sensitivity quantitative imaging of trace metals at high spatial resolution\\u000a over large sample areas and can be applied to a diverse range of biological samples. Accurate determination of elemental content\\u000a from recorded spectra requires proper calibration of the XFM instrument under the relevant operating conditions. Here, we\\u000a describe the manufacture, characterization, and utilization of multi-element

Simon A. James; Damian E. Myers; Martin D. de Jonge; Stefan Vogt; Chris G. Ryan; Brett A. Sexton; Pamela Hoobin; David Paterson; Daryl L. Howard; Sheridan C. Mayo; Matteo Altissimo; Gareth F. Moorhead; Stephen W. Wilkins

179

Preconcentration Methods for the Analysis of Liquid Samples by X-Ray Fluorescence Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of multi-element and single-element preconcentration procedures prior to X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of liquid samples. Many of these preconcentration methods were developed long ago and the purpose of this review is to present some new efficient variations of these methods and new techniques extending the possibilities of XRF for liquid solutions analysis.

E. Margui; R. van Grieken; C. Fontas; M. Hidalgo; I. Queralt

2010-01-01

180

Quantitative assessment of x-ray fluorescence holography for bcc Fe as a test case  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a pure direct x-ray-fluorescence holography measurement. It allows a straightforward data evaluation and a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed atomic images. The experimental hologram of a bcc Fe single crystal recorded with the Fe Kalpha,beta lines is presented together with its three-dimensional reconstruction. An isotropic spatial resolution is obtained by using the symmetry information from the measured Kossel

T. Hiort; D. V. Novikov; E. Kossel; G. Materlik

2000-01-01

181

Elemental analysis of mining wastes by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) tri-axial geometry experimental spectrometer has been employed to determine the concentrations of 13 different elements (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb) in mine wastes from different depths of two mine tailings from the Cartagena-La Union (Spain) mining district. The elements were determined and quantified using the

O. Gonzalez-Fernandez; I. Queralt; M. L. Carvalho; G. Garcia

2007-01-01

182

Application of the X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray diffraction in geochemical studies of the Pleistocene tills from Holy Cross Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence analysis methods (wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (WDXRF) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) have been applied in complementary geochemical studies of the Pleistocene till samples. The XRPD technique gave information about the mineral composition of the analyzed samples while the WDXRF and TXRF studies allowed the fast elemental analysis. The till samples were collected from different regions of Holy Cross Mountains (located in central Poland) which are still not unambiguously described in the context of the geochemical studies of the Quaternary sediments. The analysis was concentrated on the geochemical composition of the till samples both for materials occurring on the surface (characterized by continuous weathering processes) and for samples taken from core borehole. The overriding purpose of these studies is determination of the local lithotype of the tills and its lithologic and petrographic diagnostic properties, including the chemical composition of clay and minerals found in the clay. In the presented work the experimental sets up, sample preparation procedure and measurements programme will be discussed in details. Finally, the elemental and mineral compositions will be presented for studied different groups of the samples.

Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Ludwikowska-K?dzia, M.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Mo?ko, J.

2013-12-01

183

A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

2013-05-15

184

Determination of fluorine by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest in determination of low Z elements, i.e. carbon to phosphorus, in various samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been already established as a suitable trace element analytical method with low sample demand and quite good quantification limits. Recently, the determinable element range was extended towards Z = 6 (carbon). In this study, the analytical performance of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for determination of fluorine was investigated applying a spectrometer equipped with Cr-anode X-ray tube, multilayer monochromator, vacuum chamber, and a silicon drift detector (SDD) with ultra thin window was used. The detection limit for fluorine was found to be 5 mg L - 1 (equivalent to 10 ng absolute) in aqueous matrix. The linear range of the fluorine determination is between 15 and 500 mg L - 1 , within this range the precision is below 10%. The matrix effects of the other halogens (chlorine, bromine and iodine), and sulfate were also investigated. It has been established that the upper allowed concentration limit of the above interfering elements is 100, 200, 50 and 100 mg L - 1 for Cl, Br, I and sulfate, respectively. Moreover, the role of the pre-siliconization of the quartz carrier plate was investigated. It was found, that the presence of the silicone results in poorer analytical performance, which can be explained by the thicker sample residue and stronger self-absorption of the fluorescent radiation.

Tarsoly, G.; Óvári, M.; Záray, Gy.

2010-04-01

185

Airborne particles in the Miyagi Museum of Art in Sendai, Japan, studied by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis.  

PubMed

The presented work provides baseline data on the existing airborne conditions in the Miyagi Museum of Art in Sendai, Japan, during the summer of 2000. The chemical composition, size and indoor and outdoor origin of the suspended particulate matter were identified using a number of advanced X-ray techniques, such as Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRF). Our results, to the best of our knowledge, represent the first detailed study of the chemical nature of the indoor particulate matter in a Japanese museum and, as such, may contribute to future improvements of the air quality inside museums and to the lasting conservation of works of art. PMID:12036125

Injuk, Jasna; Osán, Janos; Van Grieken, René; Tsuji, Kouichi

2002-05-01

186

Calcium-dependent copper redistributions in neuronal cells revealed by a fluorescent copper sensor and X-ray fluorescence microscopy  

PubMed Central

Dynamic fluxes of s-block metals like potassium, sodium, and calcium are of broad importance in cell signaling. In contrast, the concept of mobile transition metals triggered by cell activation remains insufficiently explored, in large part because metals like copper and iron are typically studied as static cellular nutrients and there are a lack of direct, selective methods for monitoring their distributions in living cells. To help meet this need, we now report Coppersensor-3 (CS3), a bright small-molecule fluorescent probe that offers the unique capability to image labile copper pools in living cells at endogenous, basal levels. We use this chemical tool in conjunction with synchotron-based microprobe X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRFM) to discover that neuronal cells move significant pools of copper from their cell bodies to peripheral processes upon their activation. Moreover, further CS3 and XRFM imaging experiments show that these dynamic copper redistributions are dependent on calcium release, establishing a link between mobile copper and major cell signaling pathways. By providing a small-molecule fluorophore that is selective and sensitive enough to image labile copper pools in living cells under basal conditions, CS3 opens opportunities for discovering and elucidating functions of copper in living systems. PMID:21444780

Dodani, Sheel C.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Nam, Christine I.; Miller, Evan W.; Finney, Lydia A.; Vogt, Stefan; Chang, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

187

Cancer diagnosis using a conventional x-ray fluorescence camera with a cadmium-telluride detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is useful for mapping various atoms in objects. Bremsstrahlung X-rays are selected using a 3.0 mm-thick aluminum filter, and these rays are absorbed by indium, cerium and gadolinium atoms in objects. Then XRF is produced from the objects, and photons are detected by a cadmium-telluride detector. The K? photons are discriminated using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. The objects are moved and scanned by an x-y stage in conjunction with a two-stage controller, and X-ray images obtained by atomic mapping are shown on a personal computer monitor. The scan steps of the x and y axes were both 2.5 mm, and the photon-counting time per mapping point was 0.5 s. We carried out atomic mapping using the X-ray camera, and K? photons from cerium and gadolinium atoms were produced from cancerous regions in nude mice.

Sato, Eiichi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Sato, Koetsu; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

2011-10-01

188

X-ray fluorescence analysis of cultural artefacts — Applications to the Czech heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray florescence analysis is an excellent non-destructive tool for analysing the elemental composition of materials in a wide range of works of art. The Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation at CTU-FNSPE has used radionuclide or X-ray tube excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for many kinds of artefacts, including frescos, paintings, manuscripts, metal sculptures and other objects, ceramics, jewellery, various archaeological finds, etc. The method used is more or less "traditional", i.e., semiconductor spectrometry of excited X-rays, with some optional choices—capillary optics for collimation of exciting beams and two-dimensional scanning. The "hardware" complex is supplemented by techniques for estimating the depth distribution of measured elements, for suppressing surface effects, for in situ non-contact measurements, etc. Extending the measurable range to lighter elements and decreasing the detection limits is one of the achievements that has been attained by improving the instrumentation and techniques that are used. This paper gives a brief review of works carried out at the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation at CTU-FNSPE.

Trojek, T.; Musílek, L.; ?echák, T.

2014-02-01

189

Iontophoresis: mechanism of action studied by potentiometry and x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Physiotherapists often apply electrotherapeutic treatments to the knees with sponges impregnated with potassium iodide (KI). To study the fate of iodine applied in this way, the amount of iodide (I-) that penetrates the skin was determined using an iodide-selective electrode. The I- uptake was shown to take place only when galvanic current was applied. Iontophoresis did not result in superficial migration of the applied ions on the skin from one pole to the other, but led to penetration into the skin. The hyperemia, which occurs at the zone of application during iontophoresis, did not affect the uptake of subsequent treatments. Only very slight differences in uptake were observed for each patient with sequential application, whereas the interindividual differences were more pronounced. Combined evidence from all experiments suggested that about 10% of the applied KI had penetrated the skin. X-ray fluorescence scans of the volunteers' thyroid gland, before and after a series of 10 iontophoretic treatments, to establish whether I- was taken up by the thyroid, showed that the average iodine content of the gland was increased by more than 30%.

Puttemans, F.J.; Massart, D.L.; Gilles, F.; Lievens, P.C.; Jonckeer, M.H.

1982-04-01

190

Macro and micro full field x-ray fluorescence with an x-ray pinhole camera presenting high energy and high spatial resolution.  

PubMed

This work describes a tabletop (50 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm) full field X-ray pinhole camera (FF-XPC) presenting high energy- and high spatial-resolution. The FF-XPC consists of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) detector coupled, in a coaxial geometry, to a pinhole collimator of small diameter. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is induced on the samples with an external low-power X-ray tube. The use of the CCD as an energy dispersive X-ray detector was obtained by adopting a multi-image acquisition in single photon counting and by developing a processing algorithm to be applied in real-time to each of the acquired image-frames. This approach allowed the measurement of X-ray spectra with an energy resolution down to 133 eV at the reference value of 5.9 keV. The detection of the X-ray fluorescence through the pinhole-collimator allowed the two-dimensional elemental mapping of the irradiated samples. Two magnifications (M), determined by the relative sample-pinhole-CCD distances, are used in the present setup. A low value of M (equal to 0.35×) allows the macro-FF-XRF of large area samples (up to 4 × 4 cm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 140 ?m; a large magnification (M equal to 6×) is used for the micro-FF-XRF of small area samples (2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 30 ?m. PMID:25284509

Romano, Francesco Paolo; Caliri, Claudia; Cosentino, Luigi; Gammino, Santo; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Pappalardo, Lighea; Rizzo, Francesca; Taccetti, Francesco

2014-11-01

191

The X-ray polarization experiment on the OSO-8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The OSO-8 satellite, launched on June 21, 1975 contains two X-ray polarimeters. These polarimeters use mosaic crystals of graphite to yield polarization-sensitive Bragg reflection of stellar X-rays. The crystals reflect a narrow energy bandwidth centered at 2.6 and 5.2 keV. The polarimeter background signal is minimized by mounting the crystals on parabolic surfaces which focus the diffracted X-rays onto small-area, beryllium-window proportional counters. This technique permits the observation of low-intensity X-ray sources and reduces the possibility of systematic background effects which could lead to a false signature of polarization. A description of the instrument is given, and the sensitivity to polarization, particularly in regard to binary sources, is discussed. Preliminary results for Cen X-3 and GX5-1 are presented.

Weisskopf, M. C.; Cohen, G. G.; Kestenbaum, H. L.; Novick, R.; Wolff, R. S.; Landecker, P. B.

1976-01-01

192

Virtual Young's Double Slit Experiment for Hard X-ray Photons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent hard X-ray beams underlie many of the recent advances in X-ray imaging and characterization, and it is crucial to quantify the coherence properties of X-ray beams for further advances. The classic Young's double slit experiment is an accepted method from which one can deduce the transverse coherence length, but unfortunately the double slit experiment is difficult to implement at

Abdel Isakovic; K. Evans-Lutterodt; D. P. Siddons; A. Stein; J. B. Warren; A. Sandy; S. Narayanan; M. Metzler

2010-01-01

193

A new method for x-ray fluorescence analysis of contaminated material. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Niton has successfully completed the objectives of the Phase II program to build a hand-held, x-ray fluorescent analyzer optimized for DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities in the field. A two-pound x-ray fluorescence analyzer was developed that contains 3 radioactive sources, emitting 3 widely spaced monochromatic x-rays, to give the lowest detection limits for the full range of toxic elements, from chromium to plutonium. A rapid, fundamental- parameters algorithm was developed that yields quantitative results in less than 1 second. High-resolution silicon drift detectors and silicon PIN diodes give excellent efficiency and speed. These results from Phase II have been introduced into the XL 300, 700 and 800 commercial products series. More than 800 of these instruments, yielding revenues of more than $20 million dollars, have been sold since the first 3-source instrument was introduced in 1998. A direct consequence of the Phase II funding has been the growth of Niton from 20 people to its present size of 60.

Grodzins, Lee; Niland, John

2002-05-23

194

Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

2014-03-01

195

Roughness effect due to planetary regolith particles in X-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our latest studies showed the severe influence of microscopic roughness of planetary uppermost surface on X-ray fluorescence intensities (Okada and Kuwada(1997), Okada(2004), Maruyama et al.( 2008)). More than 20 to 50 percents of intensities of X-ray fluorescence are reduced and more than 10 to 30 percents of derived major elemental ratios are changed for a typical case of lunar regolith simulants, which have several tens to 100 micrometers in average diameter. We also have measured the dependency of observation geometry such as incident, emission, and phase angles of X-rays. In the previous studies, we have modeled the surface feature using a rectangular function after we measured the surface of specimens by laser microscopy, derived the surface cross section from it, and fitted the surface curve. In this study, we directly measured by digitized microscopy and altimetry of the rough surface and obtained the precise roughness feature in 3D form. More detailed surface models are constructed for better use in data analysis of practical observation.

Okada, Tatsuaki; Ogawa, Kazunori; Kawamura, Taichi

196

Measurement of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel by self-induced x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurement of the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel is a challenging problem in non-destructive assay. The very high gamma-ray flux from fission product isotopes overwhelms the weaker gamma-ray emissions from plutonium and uranium, making passive gamma-ray measurements impossible. However, the intense fission product radiation is effective at exciting plutonium and uranium atoms, resulting in subsequent fluorescence X-ray emission. K-shell X-rays in the 100 keV energy range can escape the fuel and cladding, providing a direct signal from uranium and plutonium that can be measured with a standard germanium detector. The measured plutonium to uranium elemental ratio can be used to compute the plutonium content of the fuel. The technique can potentially provide a passive, non-destructive assay tool for determining plutonium content in spent fuel. In this paper, we discuss recent non-destructive measurements of plutonium X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signatures from pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods. We also discuss how emerging new technologies, like very high energy resolution microcalorimeter detectors, might be applied to XRF measurements.

Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudy, Cliff R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, A [TEXAS A& M; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M; Saavadra, S [ORNL

2009-01-01

197

A new fundamental parameter based calibration procedure for micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental parameter based quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement data requires an accurate knowledge of the spectrometer parameters, including the spectral distribution of the excitation radiation. In case of micro-XRF where a polycapillary optic is utilized in the excitation channel this distribution is changed due to the transmission properties of the lens. A new calibration procedure, based on fluorescence data of thin standard samples, was developed to determine the excitation spectrum, i.e., the product of the X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the used X-ray optic of a micro-XRF setup. The calibration result was validated by the quantitative analyses of certified multi-element reference standards and shows uncertainties in the order of 2% for main components, 10% for minor elements and 25% for trace elements. The influence of secondary order effects like Coster-Kronig transitions and cascade effects is analyzed and the accuracy of fundamental parameters in common databases is discussed.

Wolff, Timo; Malzer, Wolfgang; Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Hahn, Oliver; Kanngießer, Birgit

2011-02-01

198

Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to small glass fragments.  

PubMed

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been applied for trace elemental analysis of small glass fragments. A small glass sample (a fragment with weight less than 0.5 mg) was decomposed by 100 microg of HF/HNO3 acid; the material was condensed to 10 microl and was dried on a Si wafer. Since the size of the dried residue on the Si wafer was less than 1 cm in diameter, an incident X-ray beam with about 1 cm in width could effectively excite elemental components in such a small glass fragment. The precision of the present technique was checked by analyzing the glass fragments (<0.5 mg) from NIST SRM612; the relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 8.1% were achieved for elemental ratios that were normalized by Sr. Fragments (<0.5 mg) obtained from 23 figured sheet glasses were used as samples for estimating the utility of this technique to forensic discrimination. Comparison of five elemental ratios of Ti/Sr, Mn/Sr, Zn/Sr, Rb/Sr, and Pb/Sr calculated from X-ray fluorescence spectra was effective in distinguishing glass fragments that could not be differentiated by their refractive indexes (RI). PMID:17038765

Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Shimoyama, Masahiko; Nakanishi, Toshio; Ninomiya, Toshio; Nakai, Izumi

2006-10-01

199

Spontaneous soft x-ray fluorescence from a superlattice under Kossel diffraction conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study gives the proof of principle of a technique that is an extension of Kossel diffraction both from crystals to superlattices and toward the soft x-ray region, allowing the characterization of the interfaces within a periodic structure. We measure the intensity of the Co L? and Mg K? characteristic fluorescence emissions from a Mg/Co superlattice upon soft x-ray excitation. The observation is made so that the angle between the sample surface and the detection direction is scanned around the first and second Bragg peaks of the fluorescence emissions. Clear modulations of the emitted intensities are observed and well reproduced by simulations based on the reciprocity theorem and assuming a perfect stack. The present work gives evidence that such a superlattice plays the role of an optical cavity for the spontaneous emission generated within the stack. This should also be the case for stimulated emission, which when combined with pumping free electron laser, will open the road to innovative x-ray distributed feedback lasers.

Jonnard, P.; Yuan, Y.-Y.; Le Guen, K.; André, J.-M.; Zhu, J.-T.; Wang, Z.-S.; Bridou, F.

2014-08-01

200

Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

Karunaratne, B. S. B.

2012-07-01

201

Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and fluorescence study of the astrolabe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astrolabe is an ancient analogue astronomical computing device used for calculations relating to position and time of the observer's location. In its most common form (the planispheric astrolabe), it consists of an engraved plate or series of plates held together and pinned in a housing, the assembly usually being made of brass. The present study describes the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in a synchrotron to elucidate the composition of, and fabrication techniques used for, the major component parts of the astrolabe. The synchrotron XRF studies are compared to similar studies made with a handheld XRF instrument and the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed.

Notis, Michael; Newbury, Brian; Stephenson, Bruce; Stephenson, G. Brian

2013-04-01

202

Fundamental parameter based quantification algorithm for confocal nano-X-ray fluorescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was derived based on the fundamental parameter method (FPM). The FPM equations were adapted to accommodate the special case of confocal nano-XRF, i.e. X-ray nano-beam excitation coupled with confocal detection, taking into account the special characteristics of the detector channel polycapillary. A thorough error estimation algorithm based on the Monte Carlo method was applied, producing a detailed analysis of the uncertainties of the quantification results. The new FPM algorithm was applied on confocal nano-XRF data obtained from cometary dust returned by NASA's Stardust mission, recorded at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Vekemans, Bart; Schmitz, Sylvia; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Brenker, Frank E.; Vincze, Laszlo

2012-01-01

203

In Vivo X-Ray Fluorescence Microtomographic Imaging of Elements in Single-Celled Fern Spores  

SciTech Connect

We have observed in vivo three-dimensional distributions of constituent elements of single-celled spores of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris using an X-ray fluorescence computed microtomography method. The images of these distributions are generated from a series of slice data, each of which is acquired by a sample translation-rotation method. An incident X-ray microbeam irradiates the sample with a spot size of 1 {mu}m. The high Ca concentration in the testa and the localized and overlapping Fe and Zn concentrations inside the spore are shown in three-dimensional images. The K concentration is high throughout the cell, and there are localized regions of higher density. The atomic number densities of these elements in the testa and inside the cell in a tomographic slice are estimated with a resolution of about 1 {mu}m.

Hirai, Yasuharu; Yoneyama, Akio; Hisada, Akiko [Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Uchida, Kenko [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan)

2007-01-19

204

Elemental investigation on Spanish dinosaur bones by x-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we examine the chemical composition results obtained on a collection of 18 dinosaur fossil bones from Spain studied using a portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer together with a reverse Monte Carlo numerical technique of data analysis. This approach is applied to the hypothesis of arbitrarily rough surfaces in order to account for the influence of the surface state of specimens on the chemical content evaluation. It is confirmed that the chemical content of elements is essential for understanding the changes brought about by diagenetic and taphonomic processes. However, for precise knowledge of what changes fossil bones have undergone after animal life and burial, it is necessary to use a multi-technique approach making use of other instruments like x-ray diffraction in order to describe accurately the transformations undergone by the mineralogical and bioinorganic phases and the properties of specific molecular groups.

Brunetti, Antonio; Piga, Giampaolo; Lasio, Barbara; Golosio, Bruno; Oliva, Piernicola; Stegel, Giovanni; Enzo, Stefano

2013-07-01

205

Correlative VIS-fluorescence and soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of adherent cells  

PubMed Central

Soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of vitreous samples is becoming a valuable tool in structural cell biology. Within the ‘water-window’ wavelength region (2.34–4.37 nm), it provides absorption contrast images with high signal to noise ratio and resolution of a few tens of nanometer. Soft X-rays with wavelengths close to the K-absorption edge of oxygen penetrate biological samples with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Here, we report on the application of a recently established extension of the transmission soft X-ray cryo-microscope (HZB TXM) at the beamline U41-XM of the BESSY II electron storage ring by an in-column epi-fluorescence and reflected light cryo-microscope. We demonstrate the new capability for correlative fluorescence and soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of this instrument along a typical life science experimental approach – the correlation of a fluorophore-tagged protein (pUL34-GFP of pseudorabies virus, PrV, the nuclear membrane-anchored component of the nuclear egress complex of the Herpesviridae which interacts with viral pUL31) in PrV pUL34-GFP/pUL31 coexpressing mammalian cells, with virus-induced vesicular structures in the nucleus, expanding the nucleoplasmic reticulum. Taken together, our results demonstrate new possibilities to study the role of specific proteins in substructures of adherent cells, especially of the nucleus in toto, accessible to electron microscopy in thinned samples only. PMID:22210307

Hagen, Christoph; Guttmann, Peter; Klupp, Barbara; Werner, Stephan; Rehbein, Stefan; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Schneider, Gerd; Grunewald, Kay

2012-01-01

206

Experimental demonstration of novel imaging geometries for x-ray fluorescence computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) is an emerging imaging modality that maps the three-dimensional distribution of elements, generally metals, in ex vivo specimens and potentially in living animals and humans. At present, it is generally performed at synchrotrons, taking advantage of the high flux of monochromatic x rays, but recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of using laboratory-based x-ray tube sources. In this paper, the authors report the development and experimental implementation of two novel imaging geometries for mapping of trace metals in biological samples with ?50–500 ?m spatial resolution. Methods: One of the new imaging approaches involves illuminating and scanning a single slice of the object and imaging each slice's x-ray fluorescent emissions using a position-sensitive detector and a pinhole collimator. The other involves illuminating a single line through the object and imaging the emissions using a position-sensitive detector and a slit collimator. They have implemented both of these using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source. Results: The authors show that it is possible to achieve 250 eV energy resolution using an electron multiplying CCD operating in a quasiphoton-counting mode. Doing so allowed them to generate elemental images using both of the novel geometries for imaging of phantoms and, for the second geometry, an osmium-stained zebrafish. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of these two novel approaches to XFCT imaging. While they use synchrotron radiation in this demonstration, the geometries could readily be translated to laboratory systems based on tube sources. PMID:23718594

Fu, Geng; Meng, Ling-Jian; Eng, Peter; Newville, Matt; Vargas, Phillip; Riviere, Patrick La

2013-01-01

207

An x-ray fluorescence imaging system for gold nanoparticle detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) may be used as a contrast agent to identify tumour location and can be modified to target and image specific tumour biological parameters. There are currently no imaging systems in the literature that have sufficient sensitivity to GNP concentration and distribution measurement at sufficient tissue depth for use in in vivo and in vitro studies. We have demonstrated that high detecting sensitivity of GNPs can be achieved using x-ray fluorescence; furthermore this technique enables greater depth imaging in comparison to optical modalities. Two x-ray fluorescence systems were developed and used to image a range of GNP imaging phantoms. The first system consisted of a 10 mm2 silicon drift detector coupled to a slightly focusing polycapillary optic which allowed 2D energy resolved imaging in step and scan mode. The system has sensitivity to GNP concentrations as low as 1 ppm. GNP concentrations different by a factor of 5 could be resolved, offering potential to distinguish tumour from non-tumour. The second system was designed to avoid slow step and scan image acquisition; the feasibility of excitation of the whole specimen with a wide beam and detection of the fluorescent x-rays with a pixellated controlled drift energy resolving detector without scanning was investigated. A parallel polycapillary optic coupled to the detector was successfully used to ascertain the position where fluorescence was emitted. The tissue penetration of the technique was demonstrated to be sufficient for near-surface small-animal studies, and for imaging 3D in vitro cellular constructs. Previous work demonstrates strong potential for both imaging systems to form quantitative images of GNP concentration.

Ricketts, K.; Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A.; Gibson, A. P.; Royle, G. J.

2013-11-01

208

Determination of quartz in bauxite by a combined X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz is one of the important phase constituents of any bauxite and may vary from a small fraction to over 50% of the total SiO2 concentration. At present, the most practical method of estimating quartz is by wet chemistry or by using conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Whether employing a direct or Rietveld approach, the XRD method is difficult and

Frank R. Feret; Daniel Roy

2002-01-01

209

Analysis of nuclear materials by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and spectral effects of alpha decay  

SciTech Connect

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectra collected from alpha emitters are complicated by artifacts inherent to the alpha decay process, particularly when using portable instruments. For example, {sup 239}Pu EDXRF spectra exhibit a prominent uranium L X-ray emission peak series due to sample alpha decay rather than source-induced X-ray fluorescence. A portable EDXRF instrument was used to collect spectra from plutonium, americium, and a Pu-contaminated steel sample. The plutonium sample was also analyzed by wavelength dispersive XRF to demonstrate spectral differences observed when using these very different instruments.

Worley, Christopher G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

210

Preliminary investigation of trace element in Pterygium using Synchrotron radiation micro-beam X-ray fluorescence analysis (-XRF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have assessed the relative content and distribution of Iron and Zinc elements using microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique. One such technique is X-ray fluorescence (XRF), which has been used previously to map trace elements distribution in Physical samples. In this article a compromise is suggested in issue Pterygium samples. In this study, a prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted. Serial frozen sections of pterygium tissues and conjunctival tissues of 40 ?m thickness were collected from 8 patients £¨10 eyes£©undergoing pterygium excision combine with limbal stem cell transplantation. A synchrotron-based XRF microprobe was used to map the distribution of Fe and Zn in whole frozen pterygium sections. The frozen sections were tested by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique. These experiments were performed at BL15U in Shanghai, China. Then, the results have palyed that Iron and Zinc were present in both pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissues (relevance ratio 100%). The contents of Iron and Zinc in normal conjunctiva tissues were significantly lower than in pterygium tissues (P < 0.05). The microelements were mostly clusteredin the pterygium tissues, while sparsely distributed in the normal conjunctiva tissue. Finally, we found that XRF imaging will be useful for mapping elemental distribution in Pterygium tissues. 40 ?m frozen section on 6 ?m mylar film is good for the test on BL15U. The contents of Iron and Zinc in pterygium tissue were significantly higher than in the control tissues. The results seem to be valuable in that Iron and Zinc may play a role in the development process of Pterygium.

Xie, Q.; Peng, L.; Cai, F.; Li, Ai G.; Yang, K.

2013-07-01

211

Radiographic x-ray flux monitoring during explosive experiments by copper activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During radiographic experiments involving explosives, it is valuable to have a method of monitoring the x-ray flux ratio between the dynamic experiment and an x-ray taken of a static object for comparison. The standard method of monitoring with thermoluminescent detectors suffers the disadvantages of being sensitive to temperature, shock, uv radiation, cleanliness and saturation. A flux monitoring system is being

Goosman

1986-01-01

212

A Photon Regeneration Experiment for Axionlike Particle Search using X-rays R. Battesti,1,  

E-print Network

A Photon Regeneration Experiment for Axionlike Particle Search using X-rays R. Battesti,1, M, 2010) In this letter we describe our novel photon regeneration experiment for the axionlike particle search using a x-ray beam with a photon energy of 50.2 keV and 90.7 keV, two superconducting magnets of 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

A Photon Regeneration Experiment for Axion Search using X-rays R. Battesti,1,  

E-print Network

A Photon Regeneration Experiment for Axion Search using X-rays R. Battesti,1, M. Fouch´e,1 C) In this letter we describe our novel photon regeneration experiment using a x-ray beam with a photon energy of 50 been measured. The corresponding limits on the axion-two photons coupling constant is presented

214

Hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer for x-rays above 120 keV  

DOEpatents

An apparatus utilizing filter-fluorescer combinations is provided to measure short bursts of high fluence x-rays above 120 keV energy, where there are no practical absorption edges available for conventional filter-fluorescer techniques. The absorption edge of the prefilter is chosen to be less than that of the fluorescer, i.e., E.sub.PRF E.sub.F. In this way, the response function is virtually zero between E.sub.PRF and E.sub.F and well defined and enhanced in an energy band of less than 1000 keV above the 120 keV energy.

Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

215

Tracing Ambient Air Geochemistry using a Modified X-Ray Fluorescence Filter Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications of x-ray fluorescence counting procedures enable tracing of aerosol dispersals related to weather fronts and local weather phenomena. Improved X-ray fluorescence methods for bulk aerosols deposited under positive air pressure conditions onto Millipore filters at 80 liters/hour enable the tracing of geological samples in periods down to one hour. Vacuum-plating aliquots of USGS standards onto 0.2 micron polycarbonate and quartz Millipore filters create standards with a shelf life of several months. The analytical system permits detection of light oxides, such as silica to 10 ppm, and heavy elements, such as iron to 0.5 ppm. These collections allow discriminations to be drawn between dominantly geological, silica-enriched air mass and dominantly iron-enriched air of possible industrial origin. These ambient air collections at 120 feet elevation at City College are used to create possible distinctions in air masses related to points of origin. Splits of aerosol examined by neutron activation and coupled plasma emission spectroscopy agree with x-ray fluorescence methods to within analytical error. Aerosol flux conditions are monitored for speciation using direct examination by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analytical capability plus aerosol physical properties by sun photometry. The latter provides bulk optical transmission at six major wavelengths and estimates for bulk aerosol size properties. Preliminary data show positive photometry links with iron-aerosols with a correlation coefficient with southwesterly wind-driven conditions of seventy percent over a four hour monitoring period. Aerosol flux comparisons with heavy metal populations, Ba, Rb, Zr, La show uniform distributions with iron- and silica-enriched populations indicating a pervasive background condition in the ambient air mass over New York City.

Steiner, J. C.; Rudolph, E.; Wrice, T.

2002-12-01

216

Advanced combined application of micro-X-ray diffraction/micro-X-ray fluorescence with conventional techniques for the identification of pictorial materials from Baroque Andalusia paintings.  

PubMed

The process of investigating paintings includes the identification of materials to solve technical and historical art questions, to aid in the deduction of the original appearance, and in the establishment of the chemical and physical conditions for adequate restoration and conservation. In particular, we have focused on the identification of several samples taken from six famous canvases painted by Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra, who created a very special collection depicting the life of San Ignacio, which is located in the church of San Justo y Pastor of Granada, Spain. The characterization of the inorganic and organic compounds of the textiles, preparation layers, and pictorial layers have been carried out using an XRD diffractometer, SEM observations, EDX spectrometry, FT-IR spectrometry (both in reflection and transmission mode), pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray techniques. In this work, the advantages over conventional X-ray diffraction of using combined synchrotron-based micro-X-ray diffraction and micro-X-ray fluorescence in the identification of multi-layer paintings is demonstrated. PMID:19782194

Herrera, L K; Montalbani, S; Chiavari, G; Cotte, M; Solé, V A; Bueno, J; Duran, A; Justo, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

2009-11-15

217

Airborne particulate matter (PM) filter analysis and modeling by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray standing wave (XSW).  

PubMed

This work is presented as an improvement of a recently introduced method for airborne particulate matter (PM) filter analysis [1]. X-ray standing wave (XSW) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) were performed with a new dedicated laboratory instrumentation. The main advantage of performing both XSW and TXRF, is the possibility to distinguish the nature of the sample: if it is a small droplet dry residue, a thin film like or a bulk sample. Another advantage is related to the possibility to select the angle of total reflection to make TXRF measurements. Finally, the possibility to switch the X-ray source allows to measure with more accuracy lighter and heavier elements (with a change in X-ray anode, for example from Mo to Cu). The aim of the present study is to lay the theoretical foundation of the new proposed method for airborne PM filters quantitative analysis improving the accuracy and efficiency of quantification by means of an external standard. The theoretical model presented and discussed demonstrated that airborne PM filters can be considered as thin layers. A set of reference samples is prepared in laboratory and used to obtain a calibration curve. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method for quantitative analysis of air PM filters is affordable and reliable without the necessity to digest filters to obtain quantitative chemical analysis, and that the use of XSW improve the accuracy of TXRF analysis. PMID:22284465

Borgese, L; Salmistraro, M; Gianoncelli, A; Zacco, A; Lucchini, R; Zimmerman, N; Pisani, L; Siviero, G; Depero, L E; Bontempi, E

2012-01-30

218

Parameter study of self-absorption effects in Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure analysis of arsenic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis in combination with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis is a powerful method to perform chemical speciation studies at trace element levels. However, when measuring samples with higher concentrations and in particular standards, damping of the oscillations is observed. In this study the influence of self-absorption effects on TXRF-XANES measurements was investigated by comparing measurements with theoretical calculations. As(V) standard solutions were prepared at various concentrations and dried on flat substrates. The measurements showed a correlation between the damping of the oscillations and the As mass deposited. A Monte-Carlo simulation was developed using data of the samples shapes obtained from confocal white light microscopy. The results showed good agreement with the measurements; they confirmed that the key parameters are the density of the investigated atom in the dried residues and the shape of the residue, parameters that combined define the total mass crossed by a certain portion of the incident beam. The study presents a simple approach for an a priori evaluation of the self-absorption in TXRF X-ray absorption studies. The consequences for Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and XANES measurements under grazing incidence conditions are discussed, leading to the conclusion that the damping of the oscillations seems to make EXAFS of concentrated samples non feasible. For XANES "fingerprint" analysis samples should be prepared with a deposited mass and sample shape leading to an acceptable absorption for the actual investigation.

Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.; Zoeger, N.; Falkenberg, G.

2008-12-01

219

The Bionanoprobe: hard X-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities  

PubMed Central

Hard X-ray fluorescence microscopy is one of the most sensitive techniques for performing trace elemental analysis of biological samples such as whole cells and tissues. Conventional sample preparation methods usually involve dehydration, which removes cellular water and may consequently cause structural collapse, or invasive processes such as embedding. Radiation-induced artifacts may also become an issue, particularly as the spatial resolution increases beyond the sub-micrometer scale. To allow imaging under hydrated conditions, close to the ‘natural state’, as well as to reduce structural radiation damage, the Bionanoprobe (BNP) has been developed, a hard X-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic sample environment and cryo transfer capabilities, dedicated to studying trace elements in frozen-hydrated biological systems. The BNP is installed at an undulator beamline at sector 21 of the Advanced Photon Source. It provides a spatial resolution of 30?nm for two-dimensional fluorescence imaging. In this first demonstration the instrument design and motion control principles are described, the instrument performance is quantified, and the first results obtained with the BNP on frozen-hydrated whole cells are reported. PMID:24365918

Chen, S.; Deng, J.; Yuan, Y.; Flachenecker, C.; Mak, R.; Hornberger, B.; Jin, Q.; Shu, D.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Roehrig, C.; Paunesku, T.; Gleber, S. C.; Vine, D. J.; Finney, L.; VonOsinski, J.; Bolbat, M.; Spink, I.; Chen, Z.; Steele, J.; Trapp, D.; Irwin, J.; Feser, M.; Snyder, E.; Brister, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Woloschak, G.; Vogt, S.

2014-01-01

220

Determination of lithium in mineral water samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method is shown for the determination of trace amounts of lithium by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) in natural mineral waters with various therapeutic effects originating in Poland. The method is an expansion of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applications to the determination of a very light element. The direct determination of lithium by XRF is practically impossible due to the extremely low fluorescence yield and long-wavelength characteristic radiation of such a light element. The lithium is determined via iron after precipitation with stoichiometric potassium lithium periodatoferrate(III) complex. The solution obtained after dissolving the complex was pipetted onto Mylar foil for XRF analysis. As little as 1 ?g Li may be determined with this method. Accurate lithium determinations can be obtained using simple calibration samples requiring only pipetting Fe solution in the range 8.0-28.0 ?g onto the Mylar foil. The prepared samples are thin, which allows the errors resulting from self-absorption or matrix effects to be neglected. Our studies give essential information about the quality of the analyzed waters. PMID:21986084

Zawisza, Beata; Sitko, Rafa?

2011-10-01

221

Maia X-ray fluorescence imaging: Capturing detail in complex natural samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the challenge of capturing complex hierarchical chemical detail in natural material from a wide range of applications, the Maia detector array and integrated realtime processor have been developed to acquire X-ray fluorescence images using X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM). Maia has been deployed initially at the XFM beamline at the Australian Synchrotron and more recently, demonstrating improvements in energy resolution, at the P06 beamline at Petra III in Germany. Maia captures fine detail in element images beyond 100 M pixels. It combines a large solid-angle annular energy-dispersive 384 detector array, stage encoder and flux counter inputs and dedicated FPGA-based real-time event processor with embedded spectral deconvolution. This enables high definition imaging and enhanced trace element sensitivity to capture complex trace element textures and place them in a detailed spatial context. Maia hardware and software methods provide per pixel correction for dwell, beam flux variation, dead-time and pileup, as well as off-line parallel processing for enhanced throughput. Methods have been developed for real-time display of deconvoluted SXRF element images, depth mapping of rare particles and the acquisition of 3D datasets for fluorescence tomography and XANES imaging using a spectral deconvolution method that tracks beam energy variation.

Ryan, C. G.; Siddons, D. P.; Kirkham, R.; Li, Z. Y.; de Jonge, M. D.; Paterson, D. J.; Kuczewski, A.; Howard, D. L.; Dunn, P. A.; Falkenberg, G.; Boesenberg, U.; De Geronimo, G.; Fisher, L. A.; Halfpenny, A.; Lintern, M. J.; Lombi, E.; Dyl, K. A.; Jensen, M.; Moorhead, G. F.; Cleverley, J. S.; Hough, R. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; James, S. A.; Spiers, K. M.; Alfeld, M.; Wellenreuther, G.; Vukmanovic, Z.; Borg, S.

2014-04-01

222

Background estimation methods for quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis of gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate background estimation to isolate the fluorescence signals is an important issue for quantitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Though a good estimation can be obtained experimentally through acquiring the background spectrum of water solution, it inevitably leads to unnecessary second exposure in reality. Thus, several numerical methods such as trapezoidal shape estimation, interpolation by polynomial fitting and SNIP (Statistics sensitive Nonlinear Iterative Peak-Clipping) algorithm are proposed to achieve this goal. This paper aims to evaluate the estimation results calculated by these numerical methods through comparing with that acquired using the experimental way, in term of mean squared error (MSE). Four GNP/water solutions with various concentrations from 0.0% to 1.0% by weight are prepared. Then, ten spectra are acquired for each solution for further analysis, under the identical condition of using pencil beam x-ray and single spectrometer. Finally, the experimental and numerical methods are performed on these spectra within the optimally determined energy window and their statistical characteristics are analyzed and compared. These numerical background estimation methods as well as the evaluation methods can be easily extended to analyze the fluorescence signals of other nanoparticle biomarkers such as gadolinium, platinum and Barium in multiple biomedical applications.

Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

2014-02-01

223

Enhanced coherence x-ray laser experiments and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bright, spatially coherent x-ray lasers (XRLs) have applications in areas such as holography, interferometric imaging, and non-linear optics. Nominally, we can improve XRL coherence by either increasing the length or by reducing the aperture. The length can be increased by coupling multiple stages of XRLs or by using multilayer optics, but the effective gain length of an XRL is limited

Alan S. Wan; Stephen B. Libby; Juan C. Moreno

1994-01-01

224

Enhanced coherence x ray laser experiments and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bright, spatially coherent x-ray lasers (XRL's) have applications in areas such as holography, interferometric imaging, and non-linear optics. Nominally, the authors can improve XRL coherence by either increasing the length or by reducing the aperture. Length can be increased by coupling multiple stages of XRL's or by using multilayer optics, but the effective gain length of an XRL is limited

A. S. Wan; S. B. Libby; J. C. Moreno

1993-01-01

225

Phase-resolved x-ray ferromagnetic resonance measurements in fluorescence yield  

SciTech Connect

Phase-resolved x-ray ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) has been measured in fluorescence yield, extending the application of XFMR to opaque samples on opaque substrates. Magnetization dynamics were excited in a Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 50}(0.7)/Ni{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}(5) bilayer by means of a continuous wave microwave excitation, while x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra were measured stroboscopically at different points in the precession cycle. By tuning the x-ray energy to the L{sub 3} edges of Ni and Fe, the dependence of the real and imaginary components of the element specific magnetic susceptibility on the strength of an externally applied static bias field was determined. First results from measurements on a Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 50}(0.7)/Ni{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}(5)/Dy(1) sample confirm that enhanced damping results from the addition of the Dy cap.

Marcham, M. K.; Keatley, P. S.; Neudert, A.; Hicken, R. J.; Cavill, S. A.; Shelford, L. R.; van der Laan, G.; Telling, N. D.; Childress, J. R.; Katine, J. A.; Shafer, P.; Arenholz, E.

2010-10-14

226

Proton-induces and x-ray induced fluorescence analysis of scoliotic tissue  

SciTech Connect

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is characterized by a curvature or assymetry of the spine which may become progressively more severe, with clinical symptoms appearing just prior to, or during, puberty. The incidence for scoliosis in the age group from 12 to 14 years of age has been reported as high as 8 to 10%, with more than 80% of the cases occurring in females. Although pathologic changes exist in muscles from both sides of the spinal curvature, and no statistically significant side differences have been reported, morphologic changes suggest that the concanve side is the most affected. This paper reports our preliminary data on the elemental composition of individual muscle fibers derived from convex, concave and gluteal scoliotic muscle, and erythrocytes from scoliotic and normal patients, analyzed by proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). A new type of specimen holder was designed for this study which offers low x-ray background, minimal absorption and maintenance of a moist environment around the specimen.

Panessa-Warren, B J; Kraner, H W; Jones, K W; Weiss, L S

1980-02-01

227

X-ray fluorescence analysis of iron and manganese distribution in primary dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

Transition metals have been suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. X-ray microscopy combined with a cryogenic setup is a powerful method for elemental imaging in low concentrations and high resolution in intact cells, eliminating the need for fixation and sectioning of the specimen. Here, we performed an elemental distribution analysis in cultured primary midbrain neurons with a step size in the order of 300 nm and ~ 0.1 ppm sensitivity under cryo conditions by using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. We report the elemental mappings on the subcellular level in primary mouse dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons after treatment with transition metals. Application of Fe(2+) resulted in largely extracellular accumulation of iron without preference for the neuronal transmitter subtype. A quantification of different Fe oxidation states was performed using X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. After treatment with Mn(2+) , a cytoplasmic/paranuclear localization of Mn was observed preferentially in DAergic neurons, while no prominent signal was detectable after Mn(3+) treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis correlated the preferential Mn uptake to increased expression of voltage-gated calcium channels in DAergic neurons. We discuss the implications of this differential elemental distribution for the selective vulnerability of DAergic neurons and Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. PMID:23106162

Du?i?, Tanja; Barski, Elisabeth; Salome, Murielle; Koch, Jan C; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

2013-01-01

228

Wide band-pass approaches to total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement and control of surface and near surface trace impurities on silicon wafers is a critical technology for the development and manufacture of leading-edge silicon VLSI circuits. Among the industry-standard methods for monitoring surface impurities are grazing-incidence X-ray methods employing rotating anode sources. In the semiconductor industry, the X-ray method is referred to as total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TRXRF or TXRF). Conventional-source TRXRF methods are not adequate for future industry needs. Beamline modifications and a special experimental chamber were designed and executed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory to investigate the performance of synchrotron radiation based approaches to this application. Crystal monochromators, a Mo?C multilayer mirror, and filtered white light were examined as sources for TRXRF. The best experimental configuration surpassed previous attempts in the field. With it, two different semiconductor industry user groups were able to demonstrate significant improvements in the TRXRF detection limits for 3-d transition metals and for aluminum compared to standard conventional equipment. The design goals, equipment configuration and current performance level of this synchrotron-based TRXRF configuration are described in detail. Aspects of the experimental design under further development for even higher performance are discussed.

Brennan, S.; Tompkins, W.; Takaura, N.; Pianetta, P.; Laderman, S. S.; Fischer-Colbrie, A.; Kortright, J. B.; Madden, M. C.; Wherry, D. C.

1994-08-01

229

X-ray fluorescence analysis of iron and manganese distribution in primary dopaminergic neurons  

PubMed Central

Transition metals have been suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. X-ray microscopy combined with a cryogenic setup is a powerful method for elemental imaging in low concentrations and high resolution in intact cells, eliminating the need for fixation and sectioning of the specimen. Here, we performed an elemental distribution analysis in cultured primary midbrain neurons with a step size in the order of 300 nm and ? 0.1 ppm sensitivity under cryo conditions by using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. We report the elemental mappings on the subcellular level in primary mouse dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons after treatment with transition metals. Application of Fe2+ resulted in largely extracellular accumulation of iron without preference for the neuronal transmitter subtype. A quantification of different Fe oxidation states was performed using X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. After treatment with Mn2+, a cytoplasmic/paranuclear localization of Mn was observed preferentially in DAergic neurons, while no prominent signal was detectable after Mn3+ treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis correlated the preferential Mn uptake to increased expression of voltage-gated calcium channels in DAergic neurons. We discuss the implications of this differential elemental distribution for the selective vulnerability of DAergic neurons and Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. PMID:23106162

Ducic, Tanja; Barski, Elisabeth; Salome, Murielle; Koch, Jan C; Bahr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

2013-01-01

230

[Application of in situ micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis in mineralogy].  

PubMed

Thirteen rock samples were collected for studying the variation of element content in the mineral during the alteration process from Xinjiang, China. The IED-6000 in situ micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence developed by CDUT was applied to get chemical and physical data from minerals. The non-destructive spectrometer is based on a low-power Mo-anode X-ray tube and a Si-PIN peltier cooled X-ray detector. The unique design of the tube's probe allows very close coupling of polycapillary and makes the use of micro-area measurement feasible and efficient. The spectrometer can be integrated into any microscope for analysis. The long axis diameter of beam spot is about 110 microm. According to micro-EDXRF measurement, the tetrahedrite was corrected to pyrite, improving the efficiency and accuracy of the mineral identification. The feldspar of mineralized rock sample is rich in Cu and Zn which can be used as prospecting indicator elements. Element content of Cr, Mn and Co shows negative correlation with the degree of mineralization. PMID:24555398

Yang, Hai; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Xiong, Sheng-Qing

2013-11-01

231

First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique.

Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Tsuji, Kouichi; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Margui, Eva; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Stosnach, Hagen; Yamada, Takashi; Vandenabeele, Peter; Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael; Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K.; Bennun, Leonardo; Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina; Depero, Laura E.

2014-11-01

232

In-vivo Fluorescent X-ray CT Imaging of Mouse Brain  

SciTech Connect

Using a non-radioactive iodine-127 labeled cerebral perfusion agent (I-127 IMP), fluorescent X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) clearly revealed the cross-sectional distribution of I-127 IMP in normal mouse brain in-vivo. Cerebral perfusion of cortex and basal ganglion was depicted with 1 mm in-plane spatial resolution and 0.1 mm slice thickness. Degree of cerebral perfusion in basal ganglion was about 2-fold higher than that in cortical regions. This result suggests that in-vivo cerebral perfusion imaging is realized quantitatively by FXCT at high volumetric resolution.

Takeda, T.; Wu, J.; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Huo, Q.; Minami, M. [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Sunaguchi, N.; Murakami, T.; Mouri, S.; Nasukawa, S.; Yuasa, T.; Akatsuka, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Hyodo, K. [Institute of Material Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hontani, H. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

2007-01-19

233

Laboratory total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis for low concentration samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative elemental determination for concentrations in the ppb range requires a careful preparation of the sample. In particular, for elemental analysis of very low concentration samples, less than 1 ng/mm2, a very bright X-ray source, typically synchrotron radiation (SR) in total external reflection fluorescence regime (SR-TXRF), is required. Here, we wish to demonstrate that a conventional source combined with a polycapillary semi-lens can provide a quasi-parallel beam intense enough for desktop TXRF analysis of low concentration samples.

Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Polese, C.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.

2014-11-01

234

Analysis Results for Lunar Soil Simulant Using a Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar soil will potentially be used for oxygen generation, water generation, and as filler for building blocks during habitation missions on the Moon. NASA s in situ fabrication and repair program is evaluating portable technologies that can assess the chemistry of lunar soil and lunar soil simulants. This Technical Memorandum summarizes the results of the JSC 1 lunar soil simulant analysis using the TRACeR III IV handheld x-ray fluorescence analyzer, manufactured by KeyMaster Technologies, Inc. The focus of the evaluation was to determine how well the current instrument configuration would detect and quantify the components of JSC-1.

Boothe, R. E.

2006-01-01

235

Electrophoretic separation and detection of metalloproteins by X-ray fluorescence mapping.  

PubMed

All living systems depend on metalloproteins. Yet, while tools for the separation and identification of apo-proteins are well developed, those enabling identification and quantitation of individual metalloproteins within complex mixtures are still nascent. Here, we describe the electrophoretic separation of a mixture of carbonic anhydrase, ceruloplasmin, urease, and hemoglobin using native 2D gel electrophoresis and X-ray fluorescence mapping-an approach we have developed to be broadly applicable, not require specialized equipment for sample preparation, and likely to be extensible in the future. PMID:22585518

Khare, Tripti; Chishti, Yasmin; Finney, Lydia A

2012-01-01

236

The determination of nanogram amounts of Chromium in urine by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nanogram amounts of chromium can be extracted as oxinate into chloform. By treatment of the chloroform layer 3 M hydrochloric acid, oxinates of other elements and excess of reagent are removed, leaving a chloroform solution of the chromium chelate only. This solution is concentrated and transferred to the top of a small brass rod acting as sample holder. The intensity of the X-ray fluorescence of the Cr K?? line is measured with curved crystal optics. Chromium amounts greater than 5 ng can be detected. The application of the procedure to the analysis of the chromium content of urine is demonstrated. ?? 1969.

Beyermann, K.; Rose, H.J., Jr.; Christian, R.P.

1969-01-01

237

Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDX) in a case of methomyl ingestion.  

PubMed

We applied energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDX) in a case of poisoning by methomyl, a carbamate pesticide. Quantitative GC/MS analysis showed that the concentration of methomyl-oxime in the femoral blood was 4.0 ?g/ml. The elemental analysis by EDX identified the high peak of silicon and sulfur in the stomach contents. We concluded that the cause of his death was methomyl poisoning. This indicates that screening of stomach contents by EDX provides useful information for the forensic diagnosis. PMID:22999231

Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Jamal, Mostofa; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Okuzono, Ryota; Tsutsui, Kunihiko; Ameno, Kiyoshi

2013-04-10

238

Application of grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence technique to discriminate and quantify implanted solar wind  

SciTech Connect

NASA launched the Genesis return mission to obtain pristine solar wind samples in order to better understand solar wind mechanics, solar physics, and solar system evolution. Unfortunately, the probe crash-landed shattering the collector plates necessitating the application of a grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence technique. This nondestructive methodology differentiates the terrestrial contamination from the low concentration implanted solar wind. Using this technique, the elemental depth distribution is obtained resulting in the determination of absolute solar wind elemental abundance. We describe this application and present the solar wind Fe concentration determination as an example.

Kitts, K.; Choi, Y. [Department of Geology and Environment Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, Davis Hall 312, Normal Road, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 (United States); Eng, P. J.; Ghose, S. K.; Sutton, S. R. [Department of Geophysical Sciences and Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Rout, B. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

2009-03-15

239

Picoliter solution deposition for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of semiconductor samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deposition system capable of delivering picoliter quantities of solution in programmable arrays was investigated as a method for sample preparation for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Arrays of trace metals in solution were deposited on Si wafers. The array deposits provide a capability of depositing closely spaced (100 ?m or less), typically 5-20 ?m diameter droplets in an area that can be matched to the analysis spot of the TXRF detector. The dried depositions were physically characterized and the effect of deposition type and matrix on the TXRF signal was investigated.

Sparks, Chris M.; Fittschen, Ursula E. A.; Havrilla, George J.

2010-09-01

240

Environmental trace-element analysis using a benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.  

PubMed

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is an established technique for trace-element analysis in various types of samples. Though expensive large-scale systems restricted the applications in the past, in this study the capability of a benchtop system for trace elemental analysis is reported. The suitability of this system for the mobile on-site analysis of heavy metal contaminated soils and sediments is reported as well as the possibilities and restrictions of TXRF for additional applications, including trace-element analysis of water, glass and biological samples. PMID:16038513

Stosnach, Hagen

2005-07-01

241

Combined backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer/x ray fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF) for extraterrestrial surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have designed and tested a prototype combined backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer and x-ray fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF). A space qualified instrument based on this design would be suitable for in-situ use on planetary missions to the surfaces of the Moon (Artemis and lunar outpost), Mars (MESUR), asteroids, or other solid solar system objects. The BaMS/XRF instrument is designed to be capable of concurrent sample analyses for the mineralogy of iron-bearing phases and elemental composition without the need for sample preparation.

Shelfer, T. D.; Wills, E. L.; Agresti, D. G.; Pimperl, M. M.; Shen, M. H.; Morris, R. V.; Nguyen, T.

1993-01-01

242

Trace element determination in drugs by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) for the determination of trace elements in drugs is described. Various samples of lecithin, insulin, procaine and tryptophan of different origin were investigated. The element concentrations provide element fingerprints which offer the possibility to discriminate between different batches of the analysed substances originating from different production or purification processes. TXRF facilitates the characterization of such samples without extensive pre-treatment, and provides fast multi-element determination of elements with atomic numbers 14< Z<92 based on matrix-independent quantification by means of an internal standard.

Wagner, M.; Rostam-Khani, P.; Wittershagen, A.; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Kolbesen, B. O.; Hoffmann, H.

1997-07-01

243

Preliminary testing of a prototype portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for use as an analyzer in mineral resource investigative work was built and tested. The prototype battery powered spectrometer, measuring 11 by 12 by 5 inches and weighing only about 15 pounds, was designed specifically for field use. The spectrometer has two gas proportional counters and two radioactive sources, Cd (10a) and Fe (55). Preliminary field and laboratory tests on rock specimens and rock pulps have demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer to detect 33 elements to date. Characteristics of the system present some limitations, however, and further improvements are recommended.

Patten, L. L.; Anderson, N. B.; Stevenson, J. J.

1982-01-01

244

New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

2012-03-13

245

X-ray fluorescence imaging system for fast mapping of pigment distributions in cultural heritage paintings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional X-ray fluorescence imaging technique uses a focused X-ray beam to scan through the sample and an X-ray detector with high energy resolution but no spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the image is then determined by the size of the exciting beam, which can be obtained either from a synchrotron source or from an X-ray tube with a micro-capillary lens. Such a technique based on a pixel-by-pixel measurement is very slow and not suitable for imaging large area samples. The goal of this work is to develop a system capable of simultaneous imaging of large area samples by using a wide field uniform excitation X-ray beam and a position sensitive and energy dispersive detector. The development is driven by possible application of such a system to imaging of distributions of hidden pigments containing specific elements in cultural heritage paintings, which is of great interest for the cultural heritage research. The fluorescence radiation from the area of 10 × 10 cm2 is projected through a pinhole camera on the Gas Electron Multiplier detector of the same area. The detector is equipped with two sets of orthogonal readout strips. The strips are read out by the GEMROC Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC)s, which deliver time and amplitude information for each hit. This ASIC architecture combined with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based readout system allows us to reconstruct the position and the total energy of each detected photon for high count rates up to 5 × 106 cps. Energy resolution better than 20% FWHM for the 5.9 keV line and spatial resolution of 1 mm FWHM have been achieved for the prototype system. Although the energy resolution of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is, by principle, not competitive with that of specialised high energy resolution semiconductor detectors, it is sufficient for a number of applications. Compared to conventional micro-XRF techniques the developed system allows shortening of the measurement time by 2-3 orders of magnitude.

Zieli?ska, A.; D?browski, W.; Fiutowski, T.; Mindur, B.; Wi?cek, P.; Wróbel, P.

2013-10-01

246

X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Measurements for In Situ Planetary Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA/NASA ExoMars mission, due for launch in 2018, has a combined X-ray fluorescence/diffraction instrument, Mars-XRD, as part of the onboard analytical laboratory. The results of some XRF (X-ray fluorescence) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) tests using a laboratory chamber with representative performance are reported. A range of standard geological reference materials and analogues were used in these tests. The XRD instruments are core components of the forthcoming NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and ESA/NASA ExoMars missions and will provide the first demonstrations of the capabilities of combined XRD/XRF instrumentation in situ on an extraterrestrial planetary surface. The University of Leicester team is part of the Italy-UK collaboration that is responsible for building the ExoMars X-ray diffraction instrument, Mars-XRD [1,2]. Mars-XRD incorporates an Fe-55 radioisotope source and three fixed-position charge-coupled devices (CCDs) to simultaneously acquire an X-ray fluorescence spectrum and a diffraction pattern providing a measurement of both elemental and mineralogical composition. The CCDs cover an angular range of 2? = 6° to 73° enabling the analysis of a wide range of geologically important minerals including phyllosilicates, feldspars, oxides, carbonates and evaporites. The identification of hydrous minerals may help identify past Martian hydrothermal systems capable of preserving traces of life. Here we present some initial findings from XRF and XRD tests carried out at the University of Leicester using an Fe-55 source and X-ray sensitive CCD. The XRF/XRD test system consists of a single CCD on a motorised arm, an Fe-55 X-ray source, a collimator and a sample table which approximately replicate the reflection geometry of the Mars-XRD instrument. It was used to test geological reference standard materials and Martian analogues. This work was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK. References [1] Marinangeli, L., Hutchinson, I., Baliva, A., Stevoli, A., Ambrosi, R., Critani, F., Delhez, R., Scandelli, L., Holland, A., Nelms, N. & the Mars-XRD Team, Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 12 - 16 March 2007, League City, Texas, USA. [2] L. Marinangeli, I. B. Hutchinson, A. Stevoli, G. Adami, R. Ambrosi, R. Amils, V. Assis Fernandes, A. Baliva, A. T. Basilevsky, G. Benedix, P. Bland, A. J. Böttger, J. Bridges, G. Caprarelli, G. Cressey, F. Critani, N. d'Alessandro, R. Delhez, C. Domeneghetti, D. Fernandez-Remolar, R. Filippone, A. M. Fioretti, J. M. Garcia Ruiz, M. Gilmore, G. M. Hansford, G. Iezzi, R. Ingley, M. Ivanov, G. Marseguerra, L. Moroz, C. Pelliciari, P. Petrinca, E. Piluso, L. Pompilio, J. Sykes, F. Westall and the MARS-XRD Team, EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, 3 - 7 October 2011, La Cité Internationale des Congrès Nantes Métropole, Nantes, France.

Hansford, G.; Hill, K. S.; Talboys, D.; Vernon, D.; Ambrosi, R.; Bridges, J.; Hutchinson, I.; Marinangeli, L.

2011-12-01

247

Non-destructive in situ study of "Mad Meg" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder using mobile X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Mad Meg", a figure of Flemish folklore, is the subject of a famous oil-on-panel painting by the Flemish renaissance artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder, exhibited in the Museum Mayer van den Bergh (Antwerp, Belgium). This article reports on the in situ chemical characterization of this masterpiece by using currently available state-of-the-art portable analytical instruments. The applied non-destructive analytical approach involved the use of a) handheld X-ray fluorescence instrumentation for retrieving elemental information and b) portable X-ray fluorescence/X-ray diffraction instrumentation and laser-based Raman spectrometers for obtaining structural/molecular information. Next to material characterization of the used pigments and of the different preparation layers of the painting, also the verification of two important historical iconographic hypotheses is performed concerning the economic way of painting by Brueghel, and whether or not he used blue smalt pigment for painting the boat that appears towards the top of the painting. The pigments identified are smalt pigment (65% SiO2 + 15% K2O + 10% CoO + 5% Al2O3) for the blue color present in all blue areas of the painting, probably copper resinate for the green colors, vermillion (HgS) as red pigment and lead white is used to form different colors. The comparison of blue pigments used on different areas of the painting gives no differences in the elemental fingerprint which confirms the existing hypothesis concerning the economic painting method by Bruegel.

Van de Voorde, Lien; Van Pevenage, Jolien; De Langhe, Kaat; De Wolf, Robin; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Vandenabeele, Peter; Martens, Maximiliaan P. J.

2014-07-01

248

X-ray based extensometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over 3000 F. Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly 1600 F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation. The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible. The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles (NASP) all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology.

Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

1988-01-01

249

Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (?=0.05) between the groups studied.

Leitão, R. G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P. A. V. R.; Pereira, G. R.; Canellas, C. G. L.; Anjos, M. J.; Nasciutti, L. E.; Lopes, R. T.

2014-02-01

250

X-ray fluorescence and absorption analysis of krypton in irradiated nuclear fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of krypton in irradiated uranium dioxide fuel has been successfully achieved by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption. The present study focuses on the analytical challenge of sample and sub-sample production to perform the analysis with the restricted conditions dictated by the radioprotection regulations. It deals also with all potential interferences that could affect the quality of the measurement in fluorescence as well as in absorption mode. The impacts of all dissolved gases in the fuel matrix are accounted for the analytical result quantification. The krypton atomic environment is ruled by the presence of xenon. Other gases such as residual argon and traces of helium or hydrogen are negligible. The results are given in term of density for krypton (?3 nm-3) and xenon (?20 nm-3). The presence of dissolved, interstitial and nano-phases are discussed together with other analytical techniques that could be applied to gain information on fission gas behaviour in nuclear fuels.

Degueldre, Claude; Mieszczynski, Cyprian; Borca, Camelia; Grolimund, Daniel; Martin, Matthias; Bertsch, Johannes

2014-10-01

251

Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation.

Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane; Menzel, Magnus; Scharf, Oliver; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther; Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn; Streli, Christina; Havrilla, George Joseph

2014-09-01

252

ELS'XII conference article template Helsinki 2010 H. Parviainen et al. Soft X-Ray Fluorescence  

E-print Network

X-Ray Fluorescence from Particulate Media H. Parviainen1 , J. Näränen2 and K. Muinonen,2,3 1 in particulate media. We use the code to investigate the effects on absolute fluorescence line intensities and observation geometry has been carried out by Näränen et al. (1; 2). An excellent introduction to the theory

Pinfield, David J.

253

A study of ancient pottery by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, multivariate statistics and mineralogical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the composition of 64 potsherds from the Hellenistic settlement of Orraon, in northwestern Greece. Data classification by principal components analysis revealed four distinct groups of pottery, pointing to different local production practices rather than different provenance. The interpretation of statistical grouping was corroborated by a complementary X-ray diffraction analysis. Compositional and mineralogical

Christina Papachristodoulou; Artemios Oikonomou; Kostas Ioannides; Konstantina Gravani

2006-01-01

254

Fusion imaging of fluorescent and phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation in medical biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We integrated fluorescent X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) and phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCCT), and the feasibility of this fusion imaging was assessed for small animals. Brain tumor model of mouse and cardiomyopathic model of hamsters were examined. The brain and heart were extracted after intravenous injection of cerebral perfusion agent 127I-IMP and myocardial fatty acid metabolic agent 127I-BMIPP, respectively. Each

Jin Wu; Tohoru Takeda; Thet Thet Lwin; Naoki Sunaguchi; Tadanori Fukami; Tetsuya Yuasa; Manabu Minami; Takao Akatsuka

2006-01-01

255

Shedding new light on historical metal samples using micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and spectroscopyB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS) were used in the present study to obtain spatially resolved micro-scale information on elemental composition, trace element distribution, chemical speciation and oxidation state and\\/or mineral phase distribution within historical iron artefacts dating from the Iron Age to early Medieval Times. Large area two-dimensional trace element distribution maps and oxidation state maps

D. Grolimund; M. Senn; M. Trottmann; M. Janousch; A. M. Scheidegger; M. Marcus

256

X-ray fluorescence modelling for Solar system regoliths: Effects of viewing geometry, particle size, and surface roughness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study X-ray fluorescent emission and monochromatic scattering from the surfaces of asteroids and other atmosphereless solar-system objects using numerical Monte Carlo simulations. X-ray observations allow the assessment of the elemental composition and structure of the surface. We assume that the model regolith consists of close-packed spherical or irregular particles with a certain size distribution and that the particles are

Jyri Näränen; Hannu Parviainen; Karri Muinonen

2007-01-01

257

Magnetospheric Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (MAXIE). Final report, March 1993-April 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities sponsored by the Office of Naval Research for the Magnetospheric Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (MAXIE). The Magnetospheric Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (MAXIE), the ONR 401 experiment, is the first in a new class of satellite-borne remote sensing instruments. The primary innovation is the ability to obtain rapid, sequential, images with high sensitivity of the earth`s X ray aurora from a low altitude polar orbiting satellite. These images can be used to identify dynamic temporal variations in the three-dimensional (energy and position) distribution of electron precipitation into the atmosphere.

Imhof, W.L.; Voss, H.D.; Mobilia, J.; Datlowe, D.W.; Chinn, V.L.

1996-06-06

258

Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage. Column experiments and X-ray microtomography.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Column experiments to emulate the behavior of passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage (AMD) were carried out. Synthetic acidic solutions made up of H2SO4 and Fe (III) (200-1500 ppm) at pH 2 circulated through columns filled with grains of calcite, aragonite or dolomite at a constant flow rate (6e-7 or 1e-6 m3/m2//s). Grain size ranged between 1 and 2 mm. The columns worked as an efficient barrier for some time, increasing the pH of the circulating solution to about 7 and removing its metal content. Results show that acidic solution reacts with the carbonate surfaces and newly precipitated gypsum coats the carbonate grains, eventually causing the passivation of the system. Metal-oxyhydroxysulfates precipitate mostly at the central regions of pore space. Variation in porosity and secondary mineral precipitation (gypsum, goethite, schwertmannite in some cases) was investigated with X-ray microtomography. Reaction fronts advance along the columns (precipitation of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates). Variation in porosity due to secondary mineral precipitation is quantified and formation of preferential flow paths in the porous medium is observed. In addition, X-ray fluorescence was performed to map the metal content and metal distribution.

Offeddu, Francesco; Tiseanu, Ion; Cama, Jordi; Soler, Josep M.; Ayora, Carlos

2010-05-01

259

Real-Time Studies of Gallium Adsorption and Desorption Kinetics by Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and X-ray Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Gallium adsorption and desorption on c-plane sapphire has been studied by real-time grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray fluorescence as a function of substrate temperature (680-740 C) and Ga flux. The x-ray techniques monitor the surface morphology evolution and amount of Ga on the surface. During deposition, nanodroplets of liquid Ga are observed to form on the surface and coarsen. The growth of droplet size during continuous deposition follows dynamical scaling, in agreement with expectations from theory and simulations which include deposition-induced droplet coalescence. However, observation of continued droplet distance scale coarsening during desorption points to the necessity of including further physical processes in the modeling. The desorption rate at different substrate temperatures gives the activation energy of Ga desorption as 2.7 eV, comparable to measured activation energies for desorption from Ga droplets on other substrates and to the Ga heat of vaporization.

Wang, Y.; Ozcan, A; Ludwig, K; Bhattacharyya, A

2008-01-01

260

Real-time studies of gallium adsorption and desorption kinetics on sapphire (0001) by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Gallium adsorption and desorption on c-plane sapphire has been studied by real-time grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray fluorescence as a function of substrate temperature (680-740 deg. C) and Ga flux. The x-ray techniques monitor the surface morphology evolution and amount of Ga on the surface. During deposition, nanodroplets of liquid Ga are observed to form on the surface and coarsen. The growth of droplet size during continuous deposition follows dynamical scaling, in agreement with expectations from theory and simulations which include deposition-induced droplet coalescence. However, observation of continued droplet distance scale coarsening during desorption points to the necessity of including further physical processes in the modeling. The desorption rate at different substrate temperatures gives the activation energy of Ga desorption as 2.7 eV, comparable to measured activation energies for desorption from Ga droplets on other substrates and to the Ga heat of vaporization.

Wang Yiyi; Oezcan, Ahmet S.; Ludwig, Karl F. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Bhattacharyya, Anirban [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2008-05-15

261

Laboratory x-ray spectroscopy experiments in support of NASA`s x-ray satellite missions  

SciTech Connect

With support from NASA, we are performing a series of laboratory astrophysics investigations designed to address fundamental uncertainties in basic atomic physics processes relevant to the interpretation of discrete X-ray spectra of cosmic plasmas. Moderate resolution spectra acquired by the ASCA Observatory already demonstrate the inadequacy of currently available spectral modelling codes for this wavelength band. With the upcoming launches of AXAF, XMM, ASTRO E, and Spektrum Roentgen-Gamma, the demand for significant advances in this field will increase dramatically. Our program is based on the exploitation of the Electron Beam Ion Trap facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and a unique set of spectrometers and experimental techiques specifically developed for this purpose. Recent experiments have been devoted to definitive measurements of line emissivities for iron L-shell ions in optically thin, collisional plasmas.

Kahn, S. M., Columbia University

1998-05-22

262

Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted elements with drastically increased confidence level. Silicon wafers implanted with Arsenic at different implantation energies were measured by XRR and GIXRF using a combined, simultaneous measurement and data evaluation procedure. The data were processed using a self-developed software package (JGIXA), designed for simultaneous fitting of GIXRF and XRR data. The results were compared with depth profiles obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS).

Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

2014-09-01

263

Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

1996-01-01

264

THz pulses from 4th generation X-ray light sources: Perspectives for fully synchronized THz pump X-ray probe experiments  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the prospects of terahertz (THz) pulses generated at 4th generation X-ray light sources are presented on the example of recent results from a prototype set-up at the soft X-ray FEL FLASH. It is shown, that the THz pulses from the relativistic ultra short electron bunches have unique properties, that at FLASH are utilized for novel THz pump X-ray probe experiments with a robust few fs resolution. Based on these experiences it is discussed, how future facilities can benefit from implementation of similar or further improved instrumentation.

Gensch, M. [BESSY, Helmholtz-Center Berlin, Albert Einstein Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2010-02-03

265

Considerations on the ideal sample shape for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF) is widely used in semiconductor industry for the analysis of silicon wafer surfaces. Typically an external standard is used for the calibration of the spectrometer. This is sensitive to errors in quantification. For small sample amounts the thin film approximation is valid, absorption effects of the exciting and the detected radiation are neglected and the relation between sample amount and fluorescence intensity is linear. For higher total sample amounts deviations from linearity have been observed (saturation effect). These deviations are one of the difficulties for external standard quantification. A theoretical determination of the ideal TXRF sample shape is content of the presented work with the aim to improve the calibration process and therefore the quantification. The fluorescence intensity emitted by different theoretical sample shapes was calculated, whereby several parameters have been varied (excitation energy, density, diameter/height ratio of the sample). It was investigated which sample shape leads to the highest fluorescence intensity and exhibits the lowest saturation effect. The comparison of the different sample shapes showed that the ring shape matches the ideal TXRF sample shape best.

Horntrich, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

2011-11-01

266

Development of a hard X-ray delay line for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at X-ray free-electron laser sources  

PubMed Central

A hard X-ray delay line capable of splitting and delaying single X-ray pulses has been developed with the aim of performing X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and X-ray pump–probe experiments at hard X-ray free-electron laser sources. The performance of the device was tested with 8.39?keV synchrotron radiation. Time delays up to 2.95?ns have been demonstrated. The feasibility of the device for performing XPCS studies was tested by recording static speckle patterns. The achieved speckle contrast of 56% indicates the possibility of performing ultra-fast XPCS studies with the delay line. PMID:21525658

Roseker, Wojciech; Franz, Hermann; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Ehnes, Anita; Leupold, Olaf; Zontone, Federico; Lee, Sooheyong; Robert, Aymeric; Grubel, Gerhard

2011-01-01

267

Electrochemical X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for trace heavy metal analysis: enhancing X-ray fluorescence detection capabilities by four orders of magnitude.  

PubMed

The development of a novel analytical technique, electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), is described and applied to the quantitative detection of heavy metals in solution, achieving sub-ppb limits of detection (LOD). In EC-XRF, electrochemical preconcentration of a species of interest onto the target electrode is achieved here by cathodic electrodeposition. Unambiguous elemental identification and quantification of metal concentration is then made using XRF. This simple electrochemical preconcentration step improves the LOD of energy dispersive XRF by over 4 orders of magnitude (for similar sample preparation time scales). Large area free-standing boron doped diamond grown using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques is found to be ideal as the electrode material for both electrodeposition and XRF due to its wide solvent window, transparency to the XRF beam, and ability to be produced in mechanically robust freestanding thin film form. During electrodeposition it is possible to vary both the deposition potential (Edep) and deposition time (tdep). For the metals Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) the highest detection sensitivities were found for Edep = -1.75 V and tdep (=) 4000 s with LODs of 0.05 and 0.04 ppb achieved, respectively. In mixed Cu(2+)/Pb(2+) solutions, EC-XRF shows that Cu(2+) deposition is unimpeded by Pb(2+), across a broad concentration range, but this is only true for Pb(2+) when both metals are present at low concentrations (10 nM), boding well for trace level measurements. In a dual mixed metal solution, EC-XRF can also be employed to either selectively deposit the metal which has the most positive formal reduction potential, E(0), or exhaustively deplete it from solution, enabling uninhibited detection of the metal with the more negative E(0). PMID:24701959

Hutton, Laura A; O'Neil, Glen D; Read, Tania L; Ayres, Zoë J; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

2014-05-01

268

Imaging metals in proteins by combining electrophoresis with rapid x-ray fluorescence mapping.  

SciTech Connect

Growing evidence points toward a very dynamic role for metals in biology. This suggests that physiological circumstance may mandate metal ion redistribution among ligands. This work addresses a critical need for technology that detects, identifies, and measures the metal-containing components of complex biological matrixes. We describe a direct, user-friendly approach for identifying and quantifying metal?protein adducts in complex samples using native- or SDS-PAGE, blotting, and rapid synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping with micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) of entire blots. The identification and quantification of each metal bound to a protein spot has been demonstrated, and the technique has been applied in two exemplary cases. In the first, the speciation of the in vitro binding of exogenous chromium to blood serum proteins was influenced markedly by both the oxidation state of chromium exposed to the serum proteins and the treatment conditions, which is of relevance to the biochemistry of Cr dietary supplements. In the second case, in vivo changes in endogenous metal speciation were examined to probe the influence of oxygen depletion on iron speciation in Shewanella oneidensis.

Finney, L.; Chishti, Y.; Khare, T.; Giometti, C.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A.; Vogt, S.; Univ. of Sydney; Northwestern Univ.

2010-01-01

269

Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

2013-06-01

270

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for direct analysis of aerosol particle samples.  

PubMed

Atmospheric aerosol particles have a great impact on the environment and on human health. Routine analysis of the particles usually involves only the mass determination. However, chemical composition and phases provide fundamental information about the particles' origins and can help to prevent health risks. For example, these particles may contain heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and Cd, which can adversely affect human health. In this work, filter samples were collected in Brescia, an industrial town located in Northern Italy. In order to identify the chemical composition and the phases of the atmospheric aerosols, the samples were analysed by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry with a laboratory instrument and X-ray microdiffraction at Synchrotron Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington (Cheshire, UK). The results are discussed and correlated to identify possible pollution sources. The novelty of this analytical approach is that filter samples for TXRF were analysed directly and did not require chemical pretreatment to leach elements from the aerosol particulates. The results of this study clearly show that TXRF is a powerful technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols on 'as-received' filters, thereby leaving samples intact and unaltered for possible subsequent analyses by other methods. In addition, the low detection limits for many elements (low ng/cm2) indicate that this method may hold promise in various application fields, such as nanotechnology. PMID:20480822

Bontempi, E; Zacco, A; Benedetti, D; Borgese, L; Colombi, P; Stosnach, H; Finzi, G; Apostoli, P; Buttini, P; Depero, L E

2010-04-14

271

Brain Iron Detected by SWI High Pass Filtered Phase Calibrated with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test the ability of susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and high pass filtered phase images to localize and quantify brain iron. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images of human cadaver brain hemispheres were collected using a gradient echo based SWI sequence at 1.5T. For X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping, each brain was cut to obtain slices that reasonably matched the MR images and iron was mapped at the iron K-edge at 50 or 100 ?m resolution. Iron was quantified using XRF calibration foils. Phase and iron XRF were averaged within anatomic regions of one slice, chosen for its range of iron concentrations and nearly perfect anatomic correspondence. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine if the chemical form of iron was different in regions with poorer correspondence between iron and phase. Results Iron XRF maps, SWI, and high pass filtered phase data in nine brain slices from five subjects were visually very similar, particularly in high iron regions. The chemical form of iron could not explain poor matches. The correlation between the concentration of iron and phase in the cadaver brain was estimated as cFe [?g/g tissue] = 850?? + 110. Conclusion The phase shift ?? was found to vary linearly with iron concentration with the best correspondence found in regions with high iron content. PMID:20512886

Hopp, Karla; Popescu, Bogdan F.Gh.; McCrea, Richard P.E.; Harder, Sheri L.; Robinson, Christopher A.; Haacke, Mark E.; Rajput, Ali H.; Rajput, Alex; Nichol, Helen

2013-01-01

272

In vivo monitoring of toxic metals: assessment of neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence techniques  

SciTech Connect

To date, cadmium, lead, aluminum, and mercury have been measured in vivo in humans. The possibilities of monitoring other toxic metals have also been demonstrated, but no human studies have been performed. Neutron activation analysis appears to be most suitable for Cd and Al measurements, while x-ray fluorescence is ideally suited for measurement of lead in superficial bone. Filtered neutron beams and polarized x-ray sources are being developed which will improve in vivo detection limits. Even so, several of the current facilities are already suitable for use in epidemiological studies of selected populations with suspected long-term low-level ''environmental'' exposures. Evaluation and diagnosis of patients presenting with general clinical symptoms attributable to possible toxic metal exposure may be assisted by in vivo examination. Continued in vivo monitoring of industrial workers, especially follow-up measurements, will provide the first direct assessment of changes in body burden and a direct measure of the biological life-times of these metals in humans. 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Ellis, K.J.

1986-01-01

273

Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging and elemental mapping from biological samples  

SciTech Connect

The present study utilized the new hard X-ray microspectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS, BNL, USA, for elemental mapping. This facility provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of {approx}10 {mu}m, for focussing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescent intensities for Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The sample is scanned in a 'step-and-repeat' mode for fast elemental mapping measurements and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV, from a small animal shell (snail). The accumulated trace elements, from these biological samples, in small areas have been identified. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other elements.

D Rao; M Swapna; R Cesareo; A Brunetti; T Akatsuka; T Yuasa; T Takeda; G Gigante

2011-12-31

274

Determination of carbon in natural freshwater biofilms with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest in determination of low Z elements, i.e., carbon to phosphorus, in biological samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been already established as suitable trace element analytical method with low sample demand and quite good quantification limits. Recently, the determinable element range was extended towards Z = 6 (carbon). Biofilms can be used for biomonioring purposes in the aquatic environment. Besides the trace metals, especially the determination of the carbon content is important for the better understanding of the early stage of biofilm formation. For this, an ATI low Z spectrometer equipped with Cr-anode X-ray tube, multilayer monochromator, vacuum chamber, and a Si(Li) detector with ultra thin window was used. Biofilms were grown on two different artificial supports (granite and plexiglass), freeze dried, suspended in high purity water and analyzed. As an internal standard the natural titanium content of the biofilms was used. The accuracy of the method was checked by total carbon measurement using a combusting carbon analyzer.

Óvári, M.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Záray, Gy.

2009-08-01

275

Generation of Tunable, Monochromatic X-rays in the Nonlinear Laser Synchrotron Source Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laser Synchrotron Source (LSS) experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory has generated monochromatic, tunable x-rays by Thomson backscattering of laser photons from a relativistic electron beam. Recent experimental results include the generation of 1×10^7 x-ray photons per pulse at 372 eV with a bandwidth of 7 eV [1]. A new experiment is under construction which will investigate nonlinear Thomson

R. P. Fischer; A. Ting; M. Baine; E. Briscoe; P. Sprangle

2002-01-01

276

X-ray fluorescence mercury determination using cation selective membranes at sub-ppb levels.  

PubMed

In the present work a method for the determination of mercury at trace levels by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is introduced. Mercury ions were concentrated on cation selective membranes that have been prepared on Mylar(®) thin film substrate, immobilized on plastic cups. The produced membranes were immersed in water solutions containing low concentrations of mercury. The membranes were left to equilibrate in 1000 mL of mercury solutions and were analyzed by EDXRF. The effects of various experimental parameters were examined. Minimum detection limits of pg mL(-1) (ppt) (0.069 ng mL(-1) for ASTM Type I water and 0.064 ng mL(-1) for seawater) and good linearity were achieved. PMID:24418129

Hatzistavros, Vasilios S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G

2014-01-27

277

Synchrotron X-ray fluorescent analysis application in biogeochemical investigations in Yakutia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large possibilities of synchrotron X-ray fluorescent analysis (SR-XRFA), along with the simple preparation of biological samples, allowed us to carry out valuable biogeochemical investigations in Yakutia during the years 2002-2008. New data on the accumulation of macroelements K, Ca, Fe, Mn, biophilic microelements Cu, Zn, Mo, chalcophilous Ni, Pb, Ag, As, Sb, rare lithophilous Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, scattered chalcophilous Ga, Ge, Se, Cd, Te, Tl in the tissues of larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.), mosses and lichens (Cladina genus, Dicranum genus, Hylocomium) were obtained. A connection between the elemental composition of larch tissues and the composition of bed rocks was revealed; a comparison with the elemental composition of mosses and lichens was carried out.

Artamonova, S. Yu.; Kolmogorov, Yu. P.

2009-05-01

278

X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8-13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

Tellería Narvaez, C. A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F. G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A. O.; Romero Bolaños, L. E.; Ramírez Ávila, G. M.

2014-06-01

279

X-ray astronomy instrumentation studies. [design of a proportional counter and measurements of fluorescent radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary designs were made for a multiplane, multiwire position sensitive proportional counter for X-ray use. Anode spacing was 2 mm and cathode spacing 1 mm. Assistance was provided in setting up and operating two multiwire proportional counters, one with 5 mm anode spacing, and the other with 2 mm spacing. Argon-based counter gases were used for preliminary work in assembling a working experimental system to measure xenon fluorescence yields. The design and specification of a high purity gas filling system capable of supplying mixtures of xenon and other gases to proportional counters was also performed. The system is mounted on a cart, is fully operational, and is flexible enough to be easily used as a pumping station for other clean applications. When needed, assistance was given to put into operation various computer-related pieces of equipment.

Gregory, J. C.

1981-01-01

280

Possible use of pattern recognition for the analysis of Mars rover X-ray fluorescence spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Mars rover sample-return mission, the rover vehicle will collect and select samples from different locations on the Martian surface to be brought back to earth for laboratory studies. It is anticipated that an in situ energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer will be on board the rover. On such a mission, sample selection is of higher priority than in situ quantitative chemical anlaysis. With this in mind, a pattern recognition technique is proposed as a simple, direct, and speedy alternative to detailed chemical analysis of the XRF spectra. The validity and efficacy of the pattern recognition technique are demonstrated by the analyses of laboratory XRF spectra obtained from a series of geological samples, in the form both of standardized pressed pellets and as unprepared rocks. It is found that pattern recognition techniques applied to the raw XRF spectra can provide for the same discrimination among samples as a knowledge of their actual chemical composition.

Yin, Lo I.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Seltzer, Stephen M.; Johnson, Robert G.; Philpotts, John A.

1989-10-01

281

Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh; George, Martin J.; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V.; Kelly, Michael E.; McCrea, Richard P. E.; Lüning, Katharina; Devon, Richard M.; George, Graham N.; Hanson, Akela D.; Harder, Sheri M.; Chapman, L. Dean; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Nichol, Helen

2009-02-01

282

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence polymer spectra: classification by taxonomy statistic tools.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to explore the use of chemometric tools for the classification of synthetic and natural polymers with a mean molecular weight greater than 10(6). Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectra were obtained and analyzed in order to retrieve matrix information and to illustrate the calibration procedure. The intensities of the coherent and incoherent scattered peaks were specially selected for this purpose. The polymers studied were aqueous solutions of scleroglucan, polyacrilamide, polyoxyethylene oxide, glucomannan, 2,3,6-tri-o-ethylamylose and xhantan, in concentrations upto 1% (m/m). matlab software was used for numerical calculations. Using a combination of principal component analysis and cluster analysis, the differences in composition of various analyzed polymers can be visualized. PMID:18968717

Vázquez, Cristina; Boeykens, Susana; Bonadeo, H

2002-07-19

283

Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: An alternative tool for the analysis of magnetic ferrofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the first application of the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to the compositional study of magnetic ferrofluids. With the aims of validating the best analytical conditions and also, limitations of the TXRF in the compositional study of these materials, an alternative empirical method, based in the use of angle-dependence TXRF (AD-TXRF) measurements, is proposed. Three kinds of ferromagnetic nanoparticles, with different morphologies, have been studied. The techniques of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) have been used to validate the TXRF results. In contrast with the plasma techniques, the developed TXRF procedure need not of previous chemical acid digestion. Additionally, two procedures of magnetic nanoparticles synthesis, co-precipitation and laser-pyrolysis, have been checked for the contaminants trace metals Zn, Mn and Cr. It has been found that the method of laser-pyrolysis produces nanoparticles of higher purity.

Fernández-Ruiz, R.; Costo, R.; Morales, M. P.; Bomatí-Miguel, O.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

2008-12-01

284

Determination of halide ions in solution by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry.  

PubMed

An accurate quantitative determination of halide ions X (X = Cl, Br, I) in aqueous solution by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is not possible using the traditional acidic internal standards. In general, the standard solutions are highly acidic (e.g., Ga(NO3)3 in HNO3) to avoid precipitation of hydroxides of the standard element and to obtain a stable and reliable standard. In acidic solutions, dissolved halide salts can exchange their cation for a proton. The resulting volatile HX compounds can evaporate during the drying procedure of the TXRF sample preparation. In this technical note, we show that an alkaline Cu(NH3)4(NO3)2 standard can be used for the determination of chlorine, bromine and iodine without facing problems of HX evaporation. PMID:24387144

Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Jamar, Steven; Wellens, Sil; Binnemans, Koen

2014-02-01

285

Bromate determination in water after membrane complexation and total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis.  

PubMed

A new method for the determination of trace levels of bromates by selective membrane collection is presented. Various membranes containing a few micrograms of different complexing reagents in a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix were tested. These membranes were produced on the surface of quartz glass (reflectors), and they were immersed in solutions containing bromate and bromide ions. At the first stage the prepared membranes collected both bromate and bromide ions, so different bromide masking agents were put in the analyzed solutions to avoid bromide collection. By the end of the equilibration time, the reflectors were left to dry, and they were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The poly(vinyl chloride) with aliquat-336 membrane and o-dianisidin complexing agent gave the best results. The minimum detection limit was equal to 0.9 ng/mL for ultrapure water and 1.0 ng/mL for drinking water. PMID:17326608

Hatzistavros, Vasilios S; Koulouridakis, Pavlos E; Aretaki, Ioanna I; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G

2007-04-01

286

Selective mercury determination after membrane complexation and total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis.  

PubMed

A new method for low mercury concentration analysis in drinking waters is presented. Membranes containing a few micrograms of various complexing reagents were produced on the surface of quartz glasses (reflectors). The reflectors were immersed in water solutions containing various concentrations of inorganic mercury salts at low concentrations (1-40 ng/mL). The membranes were left to equilibrate in 5-500 mL of solution for many hours; when the equilibration stage was finished they were cleaned with ultrapure water and left to dry. Analyses were performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The effects of various experimental parameters (complexing agent, equilibrium time, sample volume, etc.) as well as the selectivity of the membranes were studied. The complexing reagent dithizone with a PVC-based membrane gave the best results. The limit of quantitation was 0.8 ng/mL. PMID:15283566

Koulouridakis, Pavlos E; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G

2004-08-01

287

Direct elemental analysis of cancer cell lines by total reflection X-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental content of Cu, Fe and Zn in two human adenocarcinoma cell lines was investigated by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. Cancer cells were sedimented directly to the quartz plates using a modified cytospin slide holder setup. Special glass stands and caps were also constructed to hold the quartz plates with the cells during the vapour-phase microwave assisted digestion. The method was validated by analysis of certified reference materials. The signal-to-noise ratio was optimized by washing the cells with different solutions. The technique was applied to the determination of Cu, Fe and Zn content of HT-29 and HCA-7 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Dry mass of the centrifuged cells were determined and the elemental analysis data reported for the two cell lines were referred either to cell numbers, to the total protein content or to the dry mass.

Szoboszlai, Norbert; Réti, Andrea; Budai, Barna; Szabó, Zsuzsa; Kralovánszky, Judit; Záray, Gyula

2008-12-01

288

Recent trends in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for biological applications.  

PubMed

This review is focused on the application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry in the field of biological research. In the last decade, most papers were published by authors who applied laboratory-scale TXRF equipments. The application of synchrotron radiation as excitation source (SR-TXRF) shows a slowly increasing tendency. In the cited papers the micro-, trace and multielement capability of these TXRF techniques was demonstrated in the clinical and medical laboratory practice, as well as in various plant physiological studies. For speciation of elements in biological matrices, the TXRF was used as element specific detector following an off-line separation step (e.g., thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography), however, these off-line methods are not competitive with the on-line coupled HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PMID:19110110

Szoboszlai, Norbert; Polgári, Zsófia; Mihucz, Victor G; Záray, Gyula

2009-02-01

289

Development of a combined portable x-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer for in situ analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have built a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer in a planar configuration coupled to a Raman head and a digital optical microscope, for in situ analysis. Several geometries for the XRF apparatus and digital microscope are possible in order to overcome spatial constraints and provide better measurement conditions. With this combined spectrometer, we are now able to perform XRF and Raman measurements in the same point without the need for sample collection, which can be crucial when dealing with cultural heritage objects, as well as forensic analysis. We show the capabilities of the spectrometer by measuring several standard reference materials, as well as other samples usually encountered in cultural heritage, geological, as well as biomedical studies.

Guerra, M.; Longelin, S.; Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M. L.

2014-06-01

290

Development of a combined portable x-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer for in situ analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, we have built a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer in a planar configuration coupled to a Raman head and a digital optical microscope, for in situ analysis. Several geometries for the XRF apparatus and digital microscope are possible in order to overcome spatial constraints and provide better measurement conditions. With this combined spectrometer, we are now able to perform XRF and Raman measurements in the same point without the need for sample collection, which can be crucial when dealing with cultural heritage objects, as well as forensic analysis. We show the capabilities of the spectrometer by measuring several standard reference materials, as well as other samples usually encountered in cultural heritage, geological, as well as biomedical studies. PMID:24985805

Guerra, M; Longelin, S; Pessanha, S; Manso, M; Carvalho, M L

2014-06-01

291

Reconstruction of Confocal Micro-X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy Depth Scans Obtained with a Laboratory Setup.  

PubMed

Depth profiling with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal micro-XRF) is a nondestructive analytical method for obtaining elemental depth profiles in the micrometer region. Up until now, the quantitative reconstruction of thicknesses and elemental concentration of stratified samples has been only possible with monochromatic, thus, synchrotron radiation. In this work, we present a new calibration and reconstruction procedure, which renders quantification in the laboratory feasible. The proposed model uses the approximation of an effective spot size of the optic in the excitation channel and relies on the calibration of the transmission of this lens beforehand. Calibration issues are discussed and validation measurements on thick multielement reference material and a stratified system are presented. PMID:25162502

Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Wolff, Timo; Seim, Christian; Stoytschew, Valentin; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kanngießer, Birgit

2014-10-01

292

Trace element distribution in human teeth by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis  

E-print Network

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) was used as a multielement method of evaluation of individual whole human tooth or tooth tissues for their amounts of trace elements. Measurements were carried out on human enamel, dentine, and dental cementum, and some differences in tooth matrix composition were noted. In addition, the elemental concentrations determined in teeth from subjects of different ages, nutritional states, professions and gender, living under various environmental conditions and dietary habits, were included in a comparison by multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) methods. By factor analysis it was established that inorganic components of human teeth varied consistently with their source in the tissue, with more in such tissue from females than in that from males, and more in tooth incisor than in tooth molar.

Oprea, Cristiana; Gustova, Marina V; Oprea, Ioan A; Buzguta, Violeta L

2014-01-01

293

Measurement of angular distribution of fluorescent X-rays and L subshell fluorescence yields in thorium and uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L?,L ?,L ?2,4,L ?1,3 and L ? X-ray production cross-sections and L-subshell fluorescence yields ( ?1 and ?2) in Th and U have been determined at an incident photon energy of 59.5 keV by measuring differential cross-sections with angles changing at intervals of 10° from 40° to 130°. In particular, we have investigated the angular dependence of production cross-sections for the L ?2,4 and L ?1,3 lines which can be obtained with some ease for U and Th in Si(Li) detector. The experimental values of cross-sections were obtained by using the absolute yield of L subshell X-rays emitted from a target of a given element and thickness when bombarded with a known flux of photons of given energy. The theoretical values of the cross-sections were estimated from the theoretical values of subshell photoionization cross-sections, fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities and relative decay rates. The enhancement effect of the Coster-Kronig transition have been calculated for these elements at the same photon energy. The present experimental results have been compared with theoretical and other experimental values. It has been found that the present experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical and the experimental values of others.

Seven, Sabriye

2004-04-01

294

High resolution X-ray fluorescence imaging for a microbeam radiation therapy treatment planning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses an array of high-dose, narrow (~100 ?m) beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. MRT has been shown to spare normal tissue up to 1000 Gy of entrance dose while still being highly tumoricidal. Current methods of tumor localization for our MRT treatments require MRI and X-ray imaging with subject motion and image registration that contribute to the measurement error. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel form of imaging to quickly and accurately assist in high resolution target positioning for MRT treatments using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The key to this method is using the microbeam to both treat and image. High Z contrast media is injected into the phantom or blood pool of the subject prior to imaging. Using a collimated spectrum analyzer, the region of interest is scanned through the MRT beam and the fluorescence signal is recorded for each slice. The signal can be processed to show vascular differences in the tissue and isolate tumor regions. Using the radiation therapy source as the imaging source, repositioning and registration errors are eliminated. A phantom study showed that a spatial resolution of a fraction of microbeam width can be achieved by precision translation of the mouse stage. Preliminary results from an animal study showed accurate iodine profusion, confirmed by CT. The proposed image guidance method, using XRF to locate and ablate tumors, can be used as a fast and accurate MRT treatment planning system.

Chtcheprov, Pavel; Inscoe, Christina; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Yuan, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

2014-03-01

295

Production of the ideal sample shape for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF) is a well-established analytical method in the semiconductor industry for the analysis of silicon wafer surfaces. For the calibration of the spectrometer typically an external standard is used which is sensitive to quantification errors. In general TXRF is known to allow for linear calibration. For small sample amounts (pg to ng region) the thin film approximation is valid neglecting absorption effects of the exciting and the detected radiation. For higher total amounts of sample the relation between fluorescence intensity and sample amount diverges from linearity (saturation effect). These deviations lead to difficulties in quantification with external standard. Content of the presented work is the production of the ideal TXRF sample shape, which was theoretically determined to be ring shaped. A possibility for the production of samples with ring shape is the use of a nanodispensing system combined with a positioning device. Therewith it is possible to produce ring shaped samples in a controlled way with the ring consisting of individual nanodroplets, so that the wanted diameter of the ring can be chosen. A comparison of the fluorescence intensities emitted by contracted and ring shaped samples shows that the ring shape is not only theoretically the best TXRF shape but also experimentally. It could be proven that for contracted samples the saturation effect occurs at a lower sample mass than for samples with ring shape.

Horntrich, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Prost, J.; Stadlbauer, F.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

2012-11-01

296

Versatile plug flow catalytic cell for in situ transmission/fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel flow-through catalytic cell has been developed for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on heterogeneous catalysts under working conditions and in the presence of a liquid and a gas phase. The apparatus allows to carry out XAS measurements in both the transmission and fluorescence modes, at moderate temperature (from RT to 50-80 °C) and low-medium gas pressure (up to 7-8 bars). The materials employed are compatible with several chemicals such as those involved in the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (O2, H2, H2O2, methanol). The versatile design of the cell allows to fit it to different experimental setups in synchrotron radiation beamlines. It was used successfully for the first time to test nanostructured Pd catalysts during the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in methanol solution from dihydrogen and dioxygen.

Centomo, P.; Meneghini, C.; Zecca, M.

2013-05-01

297

Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of moss and soil from abandoned mining of Pb-Zn ores.  

PubMed

This research investigates heavy metal pollution around one of the most important mining areas in Turkey, the Sebinkarahisar (Giresun) lead-zinc mining, by means of analyzing moss and soil samples collected in the neighborhood of the copper mining at different distances. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (Epsilon 5, PANalytical, Almelo, The Netherlands) is utilized in the experiments. The results have indicated that the both moss and soil samples contain aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, barium, cerium, tungsten, and lead. The comparison of the heavy metal concentrations with the typical measurements in the world and with the limit values for the human health has revealed the critical heavy metal pollution levels in the region. The possible consequences of these results are briefly discussed from the point of potential hazards to ecology and human health. PMID:24788924

Koz, B

2014-09-01

298

Measurements of the cosmic X-ray background of the Universe and the MVN experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to studying the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) of the Universe in the energy range 1-100 keV and to the prospects for its investigation by means of the projected MVN (Monitor Vsego Neba) experiment. The nature of the CXB and its use for studying the cosmological evolution of black holes are briefly discussed. The bulk of the paper is devoted to the methods of CXB measurements, from the first pioneering rocket and balloon-borne experiments to the measurements made with latest-generation orbital X-ray observatories. Particular attention is given to the problems of allowance for the contribution of background events to the measurements with X-ray and hard X-ray instruments.

Revnivtsev, M. G.

2014-11-01

299

Search for X-rays and relativistic electrons in laboratory discharge experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2013 discharge experiments were carried out at the Technical University of Eindhoven. The experimental set-up was designed to search for both X-rays and electrons produced in meter-scale sparks using a 1 MV Marx generator. In this paper we present the spatial distribution of signals and examine whether they are X-rays only or X-rays and electrons. Other characteristics of the signals will be presented as well. These experiments are carried out in the context of a larger effort to understand the various phenomena of X-rays and gammas from natural lightning. We acknowledge Z. Scherrer, K. Weber and K. LeCaptain at the Carthage college for supporting the initial data-analysis.

Ostgaard, Nikolai; Carlson, Brant E.; Grøndahl, Øystein; Kochkin, Pavlo; Nisi, Ragnhild S.; Gjesteland, Thomas

2014-05-01

300

Measurement of K x-ray fluorescence parameters in elements with 24?Z?65 in an external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the external magnetic field has been investigated on the K x-ray fluorescence parameters (K?, K? and total K x-rays fluorescence cross sections, fluorescence yields, IK?/IK? intensity ratios and K shell level widths) for 25 elements with 24?Z?65 by using an energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The samples were irradiated by using the gamma rays of 59.537 keV emitted from 241Am radioisotope source of 100 mCi. The external magnetic fields have been applied in two opposite directions and the magnitude of the external magnetic field has been fixed at +0.75 T and -0.75 T. For B=0, the measured K shell fluorescence parameters have been compared with the experimental and theoretical data in literature. The results show that the fluorescence parameters such as fluorescence cross section, fluorescence yield, intensity ratio, spectral linewidth and radiation rates can change when the irradiation is conducted in the external magnetic field.

Demir, D.; ?ahin, Y.

2013-04-01

301

Precision spectroscopy of light kaonic atom X-rays in the SIDDHARTA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The SIDDHARTA experiment successfully measured kaonic atom X-rays using four gas targets of hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3, and helium-4 at the DA{Phi}NH electron-positron collider. Excellent performance of the SDDs under beam conditions was found in terms of X-ray energy resolution and a good background suppression capability. The preliminary results of the strong-interaction shifts of the kaonic atoms with Z = 1 and 2 are given.

Ishiwatari, T.; Cargnelli, M.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut fuer subatomare Physik, Vienna (Austria); Bazzi, M.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Guaraldo, C.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lucherini, V.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Rizzo, A.; Vidal, A. Romero; Scordo, A.; Doce, O. Vazquez [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria B.C. (Canada); Bombelli, L. [Politechno di Milano, Sez. di Elettronica, Milano (Italy)

2010-12-28

302

Development of miniature detector for soft x-ray used in laser plasma interaction experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The miniature soft X-ray detector (M-XRD) is the key part of the miniature soft X-ray spectrometer, which was developed and used in laser-produced plasma interaction experiments on Shenguang III Laser Facility. The results of the analyze shown that the significant schemes was to get well-proportioned electric field distributions, which can obtain the strongest intensity of electric field, by using the

Zhan-Ping Wang; Xiao-Hong Tang; Rong-Qing Yi; Qi-Ming Sun; Chun-Ming Gao; Ying Zhou; Li-Feng Yang; Ya-Fei Wang

2008-01-01

303

The secondary X-ray fluorescence and absorption near the interface of multi-material: Case of EDS microanalysis.  

PubMed

A simple model is proposed to take into account secondary X-ray fluorescence and absorption effects near the interface. This model is based on the investigation of the shape change of the first derivative equation that can fit the sigmoidal EDS profile obtained when a high vacuum electron beam passes through the interface of two adjacent materials. The contribution of the photoelectric absorption of primary X-rays (characteristic and Bremsstrahlung) and the secondary fluorescence on the degradation of the X-ray spatial resolution can be easily quantified. The close agreement between the simulated (Monte Carlo simulation using the Casino software) and the experimental data serves to assess the reliability of this developed model. PMID:25086233

Zoukel, A; Khouchaf, L

2014-12-01

304

High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

Llorens, Isabelle [CEA/DSM/INAC/SP2M/NRS, F-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL - MARS beamline, L'Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier [Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble, UMS 832 CNRS Universite Joseph Fourier, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); BM30B/FAME beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Braillard, Aurelien; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Prat, Alain; Testemale, Denis [BM30B/FAME beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR 7590, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Bardou, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR 20 CNRS, Route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Ulrich, Olivier [CEA/DSM/INAC/SP2M/NRS, F-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); BM32/IF beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Arnaud, Stephan; Berar, Jean-Francois; Boudet, Nathalie; Caillot, Bernard [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); BM02/D2AM beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d'Enseignement des Geosciences de l'Environnement, UMR 7730, F-13545 Aix en Provence (France); and others

2012-06-15

305

High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline.  

PubMed

Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed. PMID:22755612

Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Braillard, Aurélien; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Prat, Alain; Testemale, Denis; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; Arnaud, Stéphan; Berar, Jean-François; Boudet, Nathalie; Caillot, Bernard; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jérôme; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Martin, Philippe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

2012-06-01

306

High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Braillard, Aurélien; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Prat, Alain; Testemale, Denis; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; Arnaud, Stéphan; Berar, Jean-François; Boudet, Nathalie; Caillot, Bernard; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jérôme; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Martin, Philippe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

2012-06-01

307

Fluorescence properties of Savinase®: the X-ray structure in the region of the tryptophyl residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence properties of the alkaline proteinase Savinase® are described and related to the enzyme X-ray crystal structure. The intrinsic protein emission is dominated by the 'exposed' Trp 241. The fluorescence decay of the phenylmethanesulfonyl (PMS)-proteinase excited at 297 nm was well fitted by three exponentials with lifetimes of 0.34±0.06 ns (39.4%), 2.80±0.17 ns (42.3%) and 6.80±1.15 ns (18.3%). Savinase® and the closely related proteolytic enzyme Esperase® are an attractive couple of proteins for fluorescence studies. Trp 6 and Trp 113, common to both proteinases, are located in identical microenvironments in the two globular proteins. Iodide ions are efficient quenchers of the PMS-Savinase® fluorescence. Caesium had almost no effect on the indole emission. An electrostatic parameter E=12.4 was obtained as the ratio KSV-/ KSV+. This means a positive microenvironment of the emitting tryptophans. Acrylamide quenching proceeds via both dynamic and static processes. The activation energy for the thermal deactivation of the excited indole groups is 59.2 kJ mol -1 in the absence of extraneous calcium and 76.4 kJ mol -1 in the presence of 100 mM Ca 2+. The Tm values in the absence and presence of added Ca 2+ are 61 and 78°C, respectively; saturation of the 'weak' calcium-binding site, Ca2, dramatically increased the PMS-proteinase thermostability. A good correlation between the spectroscopic properties and the crystallographic structure of Savinase® was observed.

Georgieva, Dessislava Nikolova; Nikolov, Peter; Ivanova, Veneta; Gusterova, Adriana; Betzel, Christian

1999-09-01

308

First demonstration of multiplexed X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging.  

PubMed

Simultaneous imaging of multiple probes or biomarkers represents a critical step toward high specificity molecular imaging. In this work, we propose to utilize the element-specific nature of the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signal for imaging multiple elements simultaneously (multiplexing) using XRF computed tomography (XFCT). A 5-mm-diameter pencil beam produced by a polychromatic X-ray source (150 kV, 20 mA) was used to stimulate emission of XRF photons from 2% (weight/volume) gold (Au), gadolinium (Gd), and barium (Ba) embedded within a water phantom. The phantom was translated and rotated relative to the stationary pencil beam in a first-generation CT geometry. The X-ray energy spectrum was collected for 18 s at each position using a cadmium telluride detector. The spectra were then used to isolate the K shell XRF peak and to generate sinograms for the three elements of interest. The distribution and concentration of the three elements were reconstructed with the iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm. The linearity between the XFCT intensity and the concentrations of elements of interest was investigated. We found that measured XRF spectra showed sharp peaks characteristic of Au, Gd, and Ba. The narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the peaks strongly supports the potential of XFCT for multiplexed imaging of Au, Gd, and Ba ( FWHM(Au,K?1) = 0.619 keV, FWHM(Au,K?2)=1.371 keV , FWHM(Gd,K?)=1.297 keV, FWHM(Gd,K?)=0.974 keV , FWHM(Ba,K?)=0.852 keV, and FWHM(Ba,K?)=0.594 keV ). The distribution of Au, Gd, and Ba in the water phantom was clearly identifiable in the reconstructed XRF images. Our results showed linear relationships between the XRF intensity of each tested element and their concentrations ( R(2)(Au)=0.944 , R(Gd)(2)=0.986, and R(Ba)(2)=0.999), suggesting that XFCT is capable of quantitative imaging. Finally, a transmission CT image was obtained to show the potential of the approach for providing attenuation correction and morphological information. In conclusion, XFCT is a promising modality for multiplexed imaging of high atomic number probes. PMID:23076031

Kuang, Yu; Pratx, Guillem; Bazalova, Magdalena; Meng, Bowen; Qian, Jianguo; Xing, Lei

2013-02-01

309

Application of a charge-coupled device photon-counting technique to three-dimensional element analysis of a plant seed (alfalfa) using a full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-field x-ray fluorescence imaging microscope using a Wolter mirror was constructed at Photon Factory BL3C2. White x rays from a bending magnet were used to excite x-ray fluorescence and to enhance the x-ray fluorescence intensity. A photon-counting method using a charge-coupled device was applied to obtain an x-ray fluorescence spectrum at the image plane. The spatial distributions of some

Masato Hoshino; Toyoaki Ishino; Takashi Namiki; Norimitsu Yamada; Norio Watanabe; Sadao Aoki

2007-01-01

310

Multi-element analysis by portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.  

PubMed

Multi-element solutions containing the 11 elements S, K, Sc, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Ga, As, Br and Y were analyzed by a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. The excitation parameters (glancing angle, operational voltage and current) and sample amount were optimized for the portable TXRF in order to realize the smallest possible detection limits for all elements. The excitation parameter dependencies of the fluorescence signal and background for the detected elements are explained in detail. Background contributed by the sample carrier is also discussed. Consequently, nine elements were detectable at sub-nanogram levels in a single measurement of 10 min under the optimal experimental conditions. The portable TXRF spectrometer was found to be suitable for simultaneous multi-element analysis with low detection limits. The features of high sensitivity, small sample amount required, and fast detection of a wide range of elements make the portable TXRF a valuable tool in various applications, such as field studies in environmental and geological investigations. PMID:23934559

Liu, Ying; Imashuku, Susumu; Kawai, Jun

2013-01-01

311

Novel handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for routine testing for the presence of lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RMD is developing a safe, inexpensive, and easy to operate lead detector for retailers and consumers that can reliably detect dangerous levels of lead in toys and other household products. Lead and its compounds have been rated as top chemicals that pose a great threat to human health. However, widespread testing for environmental lead is rarely undertaken until lead poisoning has already been diagnosed. The problem is not due to the accuracy or sensitivity of existing lead detection technology, but rather to the high expense, safety and licensing barriers of available test equipment. An inexpensive and easy to use lead detector would enable the identification of highly contaminated objects and areas and allow for timely and cost effective remediation. The military has similar needs for testing for lead and other heavy elements such as mercury, primarily in the decontamination of former military properties prior to their return to civilian use. RMD's research and development efforts are abased on advanced solid-state detectors combined with recently patented lead detection techniques to develop a consumer oriented lead detector that will be widely available and easy and inexpensive to use. These efforts will result in an instrument that offers: (1) high sensitivity, to identify objects containing dangerous amounts of lead, (2) low cost to encourage widespread testing by consumers and other end users and (3) convenient operation requiring no training or licensing. In contrast, current handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometers either use a radioactive source requiring licensing and operating training, or use an electronic x-ray source that limits their sensitivity to surface lead.

Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Squillante, Michael R.

2011-06-01

312

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne silver nanoparticles from fabrics.  

PubMed

Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are usually applied to consumer products because of their antimicrobial properties, which are desired in fabrics for sportswear as well as cloth used for cleaning. Hazards to human health from airborne Ag NPs may occur when the NPs are inhaled. NPs are comparable in size to macromolecules and viruses and able to penetrate deep into the lungs, e.g., the alveoli, where they may cause damage to cells and tissue due to their large surface area. In this study, aerosols released form fabrics treated with Ag NPs were collected using a low pressure Berner impactor and analyzed with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). We found that the Ag NPs are released primarily in the form of larger particles, mainly 0.13-2 ?m, probably attached to fiber material. Using an electron micro probe, single particles could be identified. The detection of backscattered electrons suggests small spots on the particle consist of a heavier element, which most likely is Ag, although the signal in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was below the lower limit of detection (LOD). To achieve LODs necessary for Ag determination, Ar peaks were eliminated by a nitrogen atmosphere provided by the "Picofox-box". This enables linear calibration and quantification of Ag. The LOD was calculated at 0.2 ng (2.0 ppb). Following the TXRF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/EDX analysis, the aerosol samples were dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed with ICPMS to successfully confirm the results obtained by the TXRF measurements. PMID:24524688

Menzel, Magnus; Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane

2014-03-18

313

Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

2010-05-12

314

Impact of ultrafast electronic damage in single-particle x-ray imaging experiments.  

PubMed

In single-particle coherent x-ray diffraction imaging experiments, performed at x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), samples are exposed to intense x-ray pulses to obtain single-shot diffraction patterns. The high intensity induces electronic dynamics on the femtosecond time scale in the system, which can reduce the contrast of the obtained diffraction patterns and adds an isotropic background. We quantify the degradation of the diffraction pattern from ultrafast electronic damage by performing simulations on a biological sample exposed to x-ray pulses with different parameters. We find that the contrast is substantially reduced and the background is considerably strong only if almost all electrons are removed from their parent atoms. This happens at fluences of at least one order of magnitude larger than provided at currently available XFEL sources. PMID:23214818

Lorenz, U; Kabachnik, N M; Weckert, E; Vartanyants, I A

2012-11-01

315

Impact of ultrafast electronic damage in single particle x-ray imaging experiments  

E-print Network

In single particle coherent x-ray diffraction imaging experiments, performed at x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), samples are exposed to intense x-ray pulses to obtain single-shot diffraction patterns. The high intensity induces electronic dynamics on the femtosecond time scale in the system, which can reduce the contrast of the obtained diffraction patterns and adds an isotropic background. We quantify the degradation of the diffraction pattern from ultrafast electronic damage by performing simulations on a biological sample exposed to x-ray pulses with different parameters. We find that the contrast is substantially reduced and the background is considerably strong only if almost all electrons are removed from their parent atoms. This happens at fluences of at least one order of magnitude larger than provided at currently available XFEL sources.

Lorenz, U; Weckert, E; Vartanyants, I A

2012-01-01

316

Development of a time-resolved soft x-ray spectrometer for laser produced plasma experiments  

SciTech Connect

A 2400 lines/mm variable-spaced grating spectrometer has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 A) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x rays emitted from the back of the Mylar and the copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx}120 at 19 A with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolutions of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

Cone, K. V.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Dunn, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; James, D. L.; May, M. J.; Shepherd, R.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Baldis, H. A. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2010-10-15

317

Development of a time-resolved soft x-ray spectrometer for laser produced plasma experiments.  

PubMed

A 2400 lines/mm variable-spaced grating spectrometer has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 A?) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x rays emitted from the back of the Mylar and the copper foils irradiated at 10(15)?W/cm(2). The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of ?120 at 19 A? with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolutions of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas. PMID:21034016

Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

2010-10-01

318

DEVELOPMENT, DESIGN, AND OPERATION OF A CASCADE IMPACTOR TO COLLECT AEROSOL SAMPLES FOR WAVELENGTH DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this research project was to design and construct a particle sizing device that will collect and size source emitted aerosols on 47 mm diameter substrates for subsequent wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. Calibration studies were conducted with a proto...

319

Measurement of trace element concentration in a metal matrix using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) has been used in combination with synchrotron radiation in order to determine detection limits and lowest limits of concentration of trace elements in metal matrices. Two applications on irradiated material are described, where the TXRF method has some advantages, as compared to other detection methods, because only few micrograms of material is needed for

J. van Aarle; R. Abela; F. Hegedüs; C. Streli; M. Victoria; P. Winkler; P. Wobrauschek

1999-01-01

320

Concentration of U and Np from Pu and Pu alloys for determination by x-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are presented for the determination of uranium, or uranium and neptunium, in plutonium metal and plutonium alloys. Anion exchange or a combination of anion exchange and solvent extraction is used to concentrate the elements for x-ray fluorescence analysis, depending upon the impurities present and the elements to be determined. The precision for determining between 3 and 250 ..mu..g of

J. M. Jr. Hansel; C. J. Martell; G. B. Nelson; E. A. Hakkila

1976-01-01

321

The simultaneous determination of thorium, niobium lead, and zinc by photon-induced x-ray fluorescence of lateritic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method is presented for the simultaneous determinations of thorium, niobium, lead, and zinc in lateritic material from Cerro Impacto, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela. This technique uses a PDP - 11\\/05 processor - based photon induced x-ray fluorescence system. The total variations of approximately 5% for concentrations of approximately 1 and 10% for concentrations of approximately 0.1% were obtained with

J. J. Labrecque; D. Adames; W. C. Parker

1981-01-01

322

Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence Jauharah Md Khudzari b,1  

E-print Network

Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence analysis Jauharah of 34 hair samples were analyzed that consisting of 29 samples from sanitation workers and five samples groups, three additional elements, i.e. As, Hg and Pb, were detected only in sanitation workers group

Short, Daniel

323

VERIFICATION OF A PARTICLE SIZE CORRECTION METHOD FOR X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Platinum tetraiodide aerosols generated with a spinning disk from solutions in ethanol were used to test a particle size correction factor recently proposed by Criss for the X-ray fluorescence analysis of filter-deposited particulate samples. A set of standards of well-defined pa...

324

Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide interacting with individual tumor cells.  

PubMed

The first example of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging of cultured mammalian cells in cyclic peptide research is reported. The study reports the first quantitative analysis of the incorporation of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide and its effects on the biodistribution of endogenous elements (for example, K and Cl) within individual tumor cells. PMID:23412478

Sheridan, Erin J; Austin, Christopher J D; Aitken, Jade B; Vogt, Stefan; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Harris, Hugh H; Rendina, Louis M

2013-03-01

325

Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide interacting with individual tumor cells  

PubMed Central

The first example of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging of cultured mammalian cells in cyclic peptide research is reported. The study reports the first quantitative analysis of the incorporation of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide and its effects on the biodistribution of endogenous elements (for example, K and Cl) within individual tumor cells. PMID:23412478

Sheridan, Erin J.; Austin, Christopher J. D.; Aitken, Jade B.; Vogt, Stefan; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; Harris, Hugh H.; Rendina, Louis M.

2013-01-01

326

COMPARISON OF LEAD CONCENTRATION IN SURFACE SOIL BY INDUCTED COUPLED PLASMA/OPTICAL EMISSION SPECTROMETRY AND X-RAY FLUORESCENCE  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF LEAD CONCENTRATION IN SURFACE SOIL BY INDUCTED COUPLED PLASMA/OPTICAL EMISSION-en-Halatte, France roseline.bonnard@ineris.fr) Keywords : soil lead concentration, soil samples, in situ measurements, X-ray fluorescence, ICP/OES ABSTRACT The lead concentration in the surface soil of a French village

Boyer, Edmond

327

Scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping: A new tool for the study of laminated sediment records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of elemental mapping by scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the study of annual laminated sedimentary records was investigated on eight annually laminated sediment types. The examples were chosen to illustrate the potential of this approach in environments dominated by terrigenous, biological and chemical deposition. Individual laminae were identifiable in elemental maps of all sediment types and were enhanced

T. M. Shanahan; J. T. Overpeck; J. B. Hubeny; J. King; F. S. Hu; K. Hughen; G. Miller; J. Black

2008-01-01

328

FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT NITON'S XLI/XLT 700 SERIES X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

NITON's XL-700 Series X-ray fluorescence analyzers were demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration...

329

EVALUATION OF PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETER FOR MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN PAINT, SOIL AND DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Three widely used commercially available portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers were evaluated for precision and accuracy of measurement of lead in paint. ncluded were two direct reading instruments and one spectrum analyzer. est materials were prepared by spiking oil-based an...

330

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - FIELD PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYZER - METOREX, INC. X-MET 920-P AND 940  

EPA Science Inventory

In April 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a demonstration of field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) analyzers. The primary objectives of this demonstration were (1) to determine how well FPXRF analyzers perform in comparison to standard reference...

331

Iron speciation in human cancer cells by K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis in combination with synchrotron radiation induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) acquisition was used to determine the oxidation state of Fe in human cancer cells and simultaneously their elemental composition by applying a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of pipetting the cell suspension onto the quartz reflectors. XANES spectra of several inorganic and organic iron compounds were recorded and compared to that of different cell lines. The XANES spectra of cells, independently from the phase of cell growth and cell type were very similar to that of ferritin, the main Fe store within the cell. The spectra obtained after CoCl 2 or NiCl 2 treatment, which could mimic a hypoxic state of cells, did not differ noticeably from that of the ferritin standard. After 5-fluorouracil administration, which could also induce an oxidative-stress in cells, the absorption edge position was shifted toward higher energies representing a higher oxidation state of Fe. Intense treatment with antimycin A, which inhibits electron transfer in the respiratory chain, resulted in minor changes in the spectrum, resembling rather the N-donor Fe-?,?'-dipyridyl complex at the oxidation energy of Fe(III), than ferritin. The incorporation of Co and Ni in the cells was followed by SR-TXRF measurements.

Polgári, Zs.; Meirer, F.; Sasamori, S.; Ingerle, D.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Rickers, K.; Réti, A.; Budai, B.; Szoboszlai, N.; Záray, G.

2011-03-01

332

Development of Standard Samples for on-board Calibration of a New Planetary X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing research group at Freie Universität Berlin an SCD-based X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer is being developed to be employed on planetary orbiters to conduct direct, passive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence measurements of planetary surfaces through measuring the emitted X-Ray fluorescence induced by solar x-rays and high energy particles. Because the Sun is a highly variable radiation source, the intensity of solar X-Ray radiation has to be monitored constantly to allow for comparison and signal calibration of X-Ray radiation from lunar surface materials. Measurements are obtained by indirectly monitoring incident solar x-rays emitted from a calibration sample. This has the additional advantage of minimizing the risk of detector overload and damage during extreme solar events such as high-energy solar flares and particle storms as only the sample targets receive the higher radiation load directly (while the monitor is never directly pointing towards the Sun). Quantitative data are being obtained and can be subsequently analysed through synchronous measurement of fluorescence of the Moon's surface by the XRF-S main instrument and the emitted x-ray fluorescence of calibration samples by the XRF-S-ISM (Indirect Solar Monitor). We are currently developing requirements for 3 sample tiles for onboard correction and calibration of XRF-S, each with an area of 3-9 cm2 and a maximum weight of 45 g. This includes development of design concepts, determination of techniques for sample manufacturing, manufacturing and testing of prototypes and statistical analysis of measurement characteristics and quantification of error sources for the advanced prototypes and final samples. Apart from using natural rock samples as calibration sample, we are currently investigating techniques for sample manufacturing including laser sintering of rock-glass on metals, SiO2-stabilized mineral-powders, or artificial volcanic glass. High precision measurements of the chemical composition of the final samples (EPMA, various energy-dispersive XRF) will serve as calibration standard for XRF-S. Development is funded by the German Aerospace Agency under grant 50 JR 1303.

Dreißigacker, Anne; Köhler, Eberhard; Fabel, Oliver; van Gasselt, Stephan

2014-05-01

333

Fast-scanning high-flux microprobe for biological X-ray fluorescence microscopy and microXAS  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing interest in the biomedical community in obtaining information concerning the distribution and local chemical environment of metals in tissues and cells. Recently, biological X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) has emerged as the tool of choice to address these questions. A fast-scanning high-flux X-ray microprobe, built around a recently commissioned pair of 200 mm-long Rh-coated silicon Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors, has been constructed at BioCAT beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The new optical system delivers a flux of 1.3 x 10{sup 12} photons s{sup -1} into a minimum focal spot size of {approx}3-5 {micro}m FWHM. A set of Si drift detectors and bent Laue crystal analyzers may be used in combination with standard ionization chambers for X-ray fluorescence measurements. BioCAT's scanning software allows fast continuous scans to be performed while acquiring and storing full multichannel analyzer spectra per pixel on-the-fly with minimal overhead time (<20 ms per pixel). Together, the high-flux X-ray microbeam and the rapid-scanning capabilities of the BioCAT beamline allow the collection of XFM and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (microXAS) measurements from as many as 48 tissue sections per day. This paper reports the commissioning results of the new instrument with representative XFM and microXAS results from tissue samples.

Barrea, R.A.; Gore, D.; Kujala, N.; Karanfil, C.; Kozyrenko, S.; Heurich, R.; Vukonich, M.; Huang, R.; Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.; Irving, T.C. (IIT); (NWU); (HWMRI)

2010-07-23

334

Fast-scanning high-flux microprobe for biological X-ray fluorescence microscopy and microXAS  

PubMed Central

There is a growing interest in the biomedical community in obtaining information concerning the distribution and local chemical environment of metals in tissues and cells. Recently, biological X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) has emerged as the tool of choice to address these questions. A fast-scanning high-flux X-ray microprobe, built around a recently commissioned pair of 200?mm-long Rh-coated silicon Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors, has been constructed at BioCAT beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The new optical system delivers a flux of 1.3 × 1012?photons s?1 into a minimum focal spot size of ?3–5?µm FWHM. A set of Si drift detectors and bent Laue crystal analyzers may be used in combination with standard ionization chambers for X-ray fluorescence measurements. BioCAT’s scanning software allows fast continuous scans to be performed while acquiring and storing full multichannel analyzer spectra per pixel on-the-fly with minimal overhead time (<20?ms per pixel). Together, the high-flux X-ray microbeam and the rapid-scanning capabilities of the BioCAT beamline allow the collection of XFM and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (microXAS) measurements from as many as 48 tissue sections per day. This paper reports the commissioning results of the new instrument with representative XFM and microXAS results from tissue samples. PMID:20567085

Barrea, R. A.; Gore, D.; Kujala, N.; Karanfil, C.; Kozyrenko, S.; Heurich, R.; Vukonich, M.; Huang, R.; Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.; Irving, T. C.

2010-01-01

335

A New In Situ Method of Determining Relative Abundances and Charge States of Implanted Transition Metals in Individual Grains Using Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

We report on a new in situ method of determining relative abundances and charge states of implanted transition metals in individual grains using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. In order to determine in situ the relative abundances and charge states of the transition metals in implanted solar wind in individual lunar plagioclase grains, we have developed a new microbeam x-ray fluorescence method using the synchrotron x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source (GSECARS sector 13) at Argonne National Laboratory.

Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M. (NIU); (UofC)

2007-03-06

336

High energy x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for high-throughput analysis of composition spread thin films  

PubMed Central

High-throughput crystallography is an important tool in materials research, particularly for the rapid assessment of structure-property relationships. We present a technique for simultaneous acquisition of diffraction images and fluorescence spectra on a continuous composition spread thin film using a 60 keV x-ray source. Subsequent noninteractive data processing provides maps of the diffraction profiles, thin film fiber texture, and composition. Even for highly textured films, our diffraction technique provides detection of diffraction from each family of Bragg reflections, which affords direct comparison of the measured profiles with powder patterns of known phases. These techniques are important for high throughput combinatorial studies as they provide structure and composition maps which may be correlated with performance trends within an inorganic library. PMID:20059152

Gregoire, John M.; Dale, Darren; Kazimirov, Alexander; DiSalvo, Francis J.; van Dover, R. Bruce

2009-01-01

337

Imaging of the intracellular topography of copper with a fluorescent sensor and by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential micronutrient that plays a central role for a broad range of biological processes. Although there is compelling evidence that the intracellular milieu does not contain any free copper ions, the rapid kinetics of copper uptake and release suggests the presence of a labile intracellular copper pool. To elucidate the subcellular localization of this pool, we have synthesized and characterized a membrane-permeable, copper-selective fluorescent sensor (CTAP-1). Upon addition of Cu(I), the sensor exhibits a 4.6-fold emission enhancement and reaches a quantum yield of 14%. The sensor exhibits excellent selectivity toward Cu(I), and its emission response is not compromised by the presence of millimolar concentrations of Ca(II) or Mg(II) ions. Variable temperature dynamic NMR studies revealed a rapid Cu(I) self-exchange equilibrium with a low activation barrier of ?G‡ = 44 kJ·mol–1 and kobs ? 105 s–1 at room temperature. Mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) incubated with the sensor produced a copper-dependent perinuclear staining pattern, which colocalizes with the subcellular locations of mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. To evaluate and confirm the sensor's copper-selectivity, we determined the subcellular topography of copper by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, microprobe x-ray absorption measurements at various subcellular locations showed a near-edge feature that is characteristic for low-coordinate monovalent copper but does not resemble the published spectra for metallothionein or glutathione. The presented data provide a coherent picture with strong evidence for a kinetically labile copper pool, which is predominantly localized in the mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. PMID:16061820

Yang, Liuchun; McRae, Reagan; Henary, Maged M.; Patel, Raxit; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Fahrni, Christoph J.

2005-01-01

338

Watershed-Scale Geochemical Inventory of Soils by Portable X-Ray Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial databases of geochemical data are an excellent source of point-scale information on naturally occurring toxic elements (arsenic, selenium or radon), contamination from industrial processes (lead, mercury, or cesium), mineralogical variability, and the fate of toxic compounds (i.e. sorption of pesticides to iron oxyhydroxide minerals) in soil. Sample preparation time, safety concerns associated with HF or HNO3 acid dissolution, instrument availability, and cost are all common constraints that limit the scale at which new geochemical surveys can be conducted. We used a Thermo-Fisher Niton portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) meter to perform comparatively rapid geochemical surveys in soils of two (35 ha) watersheds. The watersheds have contrasting parent materials, one formed from metavolcanic rock and the other from granite. The X-Ray fluorescence inventory of genetic soil horizons (n=660) was used to identify trends in soil development and landscape processes. Since soil samples are usually sieved and ground for standard laboratory characterization, the additional time required to prepare samples for XRF analysis was minimal, approximately 2 minutes for sample preparation and 6 minutes for machine scan time per sample. Preliminary analysis of the resulting geochemical data show strong spatial trends in watershed- and hillslope-scale variability in weathering indices (FeCBD:FeTotal and K:Ti), inferred mineralogy (Si:Al, Si:Al+Fe), and geologic signatures (multivariate analysis of 20 common elements). Depth trends and spatial patterns were correlated with common terrain-shape indices (slope, upslope contributing area, surface curvatures, local prominence, etc.), degree of soil development, parent material, and hydrological conditions. For example, Si:Al was higher in soils with greater upslope contributing area, and in seasonally saturated soils (Fig 1). Our findings demonstrate that portable XRF technology is a promising new tool for rapid lab-based and in situ geochemical surveys of soils. Ratio of silicon to aluminum (molecular mass) at six depth ranges, within a Sierra Foothill watershed. Watershed area is approximately 35ha, north is aligned with the y-axis.

Beaudette, D. E.; Stupi, L. K.; Swarowsky, A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Chang, J. F.; Gallagher, B.

2009-12-01

339

The use of swept-charge devices in planetary analogue X-ray fluorescence studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) was launched onboard the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission in October 2008. The instrument consisted of 24 swept-charge device (SCD) silicon X-ray detectors providing a total collecting area of ? 24 cm2, corresponding to a 14° field of view (FWHM), with the ability to measure X-rays from 0.8–10 keV. One algorithm used

T E Walker; D R Smith

2012-01-01

340

Fast automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in x-ray computed tomography images to improve fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of hybrid imaging scanners that integrate fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) allows the utilization of x-ray information as image priors for improving optical tomography reconstruction. To fully capitalize on this capacity, we consider a framework for the automatic and fast detection of different anatomic structures in murine XCT images. To accurately differentiate between different structures such as bone, lung, and heart, a combination of image processing steps including thresholding, seed growing, and signal detection are found to offer optimal segmentation performance. The algorithm and its utilization in an inverse FMT scheme that uses priors is demonstrated on mouse images.

Freyer, Marcus; Ale, Angelique; Schulz, Ralf B.; Zientkowska, Marta; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Englmeier, Karl-Hans

2010-05-01

341

A study of ancient pottery by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, multivariate statistics and mineralogical analysis.  

PubMed

Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the composition of 64 potsherds from the Hellenistic settlement of Orraon, in northwestern Greece. Data classification by principal components analysis revealed four distinct groups of pottery, pointing to different local production practices rather than different provenance. The interpretation of statistical grouping was corroborated by a complementary X-ray diffraction analysis. Compositional and mineralogical data, combined with archaeological and materials' science criteria, allowed addressing various aspects of pottery making, such as selection of raw clays, tempers and firing conditions. PMID:17723544

Papachristodoulou, Christina; Oikonomou, Artemios; Ioannides, Kostas; Gravani, Konstantina

2006-07-28

342

Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe: Quantification and mapping of mixed valence state samples using micro-XANES  

SciTech Connect

The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe is a valuable instrument for quantification and mapping of mixed valence state samples with high spatial resolution and elemental sensitivity. A method has been developed for quantifying the proportions of Fe[sup 2+] and Fe[sup 3+] with 100 [mu]m spatial resolution and better than 100 ppm sensitivity using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). Applications of valence state mapping have been made to selenium in water-saturated sediments and manganese associated with wheat roots attacked by the take-all fungus.

Sutton, S.R. (Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Bajt, S. (Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Delaney, J. (Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States)); Schulze, D. (Agronomy Department, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)); Tokunaga, T. (Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1995-02-01

343

Photospheric Fluorescence and Resonance Scattering: Non Classical Diagnostics and the Future of X-ray Stellar Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High resolution AXAF and XMM observations of stellar coronae will yield a wealth of X-ray plasma line diagnostics that will provide a giant leap forward in our understanding of coronal densities, abundance anomalies and emission measure distributions. Unfortunately, there is one very basic unanswered question in the physics of active stellar coronae that the usual plasma diagnostics cannot address directly: What are the spatial characteristics of stellar coronae-the scale height and filling factor? What do other stellar coronae actually look like? I will discuss two novel diagnostics of coronal geometry and their application to future X-ray spectra: photospheric fluorescence and resonance line optical depths.

Drake, Jeremy

1998-01-01

344

X-ray diagnostics for the Levitated Dipole Experiment  

E-print Network

Initial plasma experiments in the Levitated Dipole Experiment focus on producing hot electron, high beta plasmas using a supported dipole configuration. Plasmas are created using multifrequency ECRH and it is therefore ...

Ellsworth, Jennifer L

2004-01-01

345

Investigation of measuring hazardous substances in printed circuit boards using the micro-focus X-ray fluorescence screening  

E-print Network

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are widely used in most electrical and electronic equipments or products. Hazardous substances such as Pb, Hg, Cd, etc, can be present in high concentrations in PCBs and the degradation and release of these substances poses a huge threat to humans and the environment. To investigation the chemical composition of PCBs in domestic market of China, a practical micro-focus X-ray fluorescence system is setup to make the elements analysis, especially for detecting hazardous substances. Collimator is adopted to focus the X-ray emitted from X-ray tube. BRUKER X-ray detector with proportional counter is used to detect the emitted fluorescence from the PCB samples. Both single layer PCB samples and double layers PCB samples made of epoxy glass fiber are purchased from the domestic market of China. Besides, a MC55 wireless communication module made by SIEMENS in Germany is used as the reference material. Experimental results from the fluorescence spectrums of the testing points of PCB sampl...

Fu, M L; Fakhrtdinov, R; Grigoriev, M; Quan, B S; Le, Z C; Roshchupkin, D

2014-01-01

346

INVERSE PROBLEMS IN X-RAY SCIENCE STEFANO MARCHESINI  

E-print Network

-rays absorption/refraction scattering/diffraction (refraction) fluorescence, electrons X-ray interaction) ·Archeology ·Semiconductors (lithography, metrology) ·... 4 #12;ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE SYNCHROTRON Diffraction - ...................... 5 #12;X-RAY EXPERIMENTS x-rays absorption/refraction scattering/diffraction (refraction

Masci, Frank

347

Comparative study of different scattering geometries for the proposed Indian X-ray polarization measurement experiment using Geant4  

E-print Network

Polarization measurements in X-rays can provide unique opportunity to study the behavior of matter and radiation under extreme magnetic fields and extreme gravitational fields. Unfortunately, over past two decades, when X-ray astronomy witnessed multiple order of magnitude improvement in temporal, spatial and spectral sensitivities, there is no (or very little) progress in the field of polarization measurements of astrophysical X-rays. Recently, a proposal has been submitted to ISRO for a dedicated small satellite based experiment to carry out X-ray polarization measurement, which aims to provide the first X-ray polarization measurements since 1976. This experiment will be based on the well known principle of polarization measurement by Thomson scattering and employs the baseline design of a central low Z scatterer surrounded by X-ray detectors to measure the angular intensity distribution of the scattered X-rays. The sensitivity of such experiment is determined by the collecting area, scattering and detectio...

Vadawale, S V; Pendharkar, J; Naik, Sachindra; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.116

2010-01-01

348

Experimental developments to obtain real-time x-ray diffraction measurements in plate impact experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental facility was developed to obtain real-time, quantitative, x-ray diffraction data in laboratory plate impact experiments. A powder gun, to generate plane wave loading in samples, was designed and built specifically to permit flash x-ray diffraction measurements in shock-compression experiments. Spatial resolution and quality of the diffracted signals were improved significantly over past attempts through partial collimation of the incident beam and the use of two-dimensional detectors to record data from shocked crystals. The experimental configuration and synchronization issues are discussed, and relevant details of the x-ray system and the powder gun are described. Representative results are presented from experiments designed to determine unit cell compression in shock-compressed LiF single crystals subjected to both elastic and elastic-plastic deformation, respectively. The developments described here are expected to be useful for examining lattice deformation and structural changes in shock wave compression studies.

Gupta, Y. M.; Zimmerman, K. A.; Rigg, P. A.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Savage, D. M.; Bellamy, P. M.

1999-10-01

349

Titanium dioxide determination in sunscreen by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methodology.  

PubMed

Nowadays there are many sun-protection cosmetics incorporating chemical and/or physical UV filters as active ingredients and there are no official methods to determine these kinds of compounds in sunscreen cosmetics. The objective of this work is to estimate TiO(2) concentration, without sample preparation, employing a portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), aiming to estimate the sun protection factor (SPF) due to the physical barrier in sunscreen composition, and also identify the metals present in the samples. A portable EDXRF system was used for the analysis of fifteen commercial samples. It was also prepared three formulations estimated in FPS-30 using TiO(2) at 5%. Quantification was performed using calibration curves with standards from 1 to 30%. The physical barrier contribution in the SPF, associated to Ti concentration, was determined for all samples. The presence of some elements, like K, Zn, Br and Sr was detected in the sunscreen, identifying chemical elements that were not cited in the formulations. Three commercial samples were analyzed for total SPF determination and the result shows that the measured value is 10% lower than the nominal one. PMID:18395052

Melquiades, F L; Ferreira, D D; Appoloni, C R; Lopes, F; Lonni, A G; Oliveira, F M; Duarte, J C

2008-04-21

350

X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals the role of selenium in spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Selenium (Se) is a trace element with important roles in human health. Several selenoproteins have essential functions in development. However, the cellular and tissue distribution of Se remains largely unknown because of the lack of analytical techniques that image this element with sufficient sensitivity and resolution. Herein, we report that X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) can be used to visualize and quantify the tissue, cellular and subcellular topography of Se. We applied this technique to characterize the role of Se in spermatogenesis and identified a dramatic Se enrichment specifically in late spermatids, a pattern that was not seen in any other elemental maps. This enrichment was due to elevated levels of the mitochondrial form of glutathione peroxidase 4 and was fully dependent on the supplies of Se by Selenoprotein P. High-resolution scans revealed that Se concentrated near the lumen side of elongating spermatids, where structural components of sperm are formed. During spermatogenesis, maximal Se associated with decreased phosphorus, whereas Zn did not change. In sperm, Se was primarily in the midpiece and co-localized with Cu and Fe. XFM allowed quantification of Se in the midpiece (0.8 fg) and head (0.14 fg) of individual sperm cells, revealing the ability of sperm cells to handle the amounts of this element well above its toxic levels. Overall, the use of XFM allowed visualization of tissue and cellular Se and provided important insights in the role of this and other trace elements in spermatogenesis. PMID:19379757

Kehr, Sebastian; Malinouski, Mikalai; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Kasaikina, Marina V.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Zhou, You; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2009-01-01

351

Comparison of gold leaf thickness in Namban folding screens using X-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the thickness of the gold leaf applied in six Japanese folding screens is compared using a nondestructive approach. Four screens belonging to the Momoyama period (~1573-1603) and two screens belonging to the early Edo period (~1603-1868) were analyzed in situ using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and the thickness of the applied gold leaf was evaluated using a methodology based on the attenuation of the different characteristic lines of gold in the gold leaf layer. Considering that the leaf may well not be made of pure gold, we established that, for the purpose of comparing the intensity ratios of the Au lines, layers made with gold leaf of high grade can be considered identical. The gold leaf applied in one of the screens from the Edo period was found to be thinner than the gold leaf applied in the other ones. This is consistent with the development of the beating technology to obtain ever more thin gold leafs.

Pessanha, Sofia; Madeira, Teresa I.; Manso, Marta; Guerra, Mauro; Le Gac, Agnès; Carvalho, Maria Luisa

2014-09-01

352

X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study of Coating Thickness and Base Metal Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts to be approved for space use, they must be able to meet safety standards approved by NASA. A fast, reliable, and precise method is needed to make sure these standards are met. Many EEE parts are coated in gold (Au) and nickel (Ni), and the thickness coating is crucial to a part s performance. A nondestructive method that is efficient in measuring coating thickness is x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The XRF spectrometer is a machine designed to measure layer thickness and composition of single or multilayered samples. By understanding the limitations in the collection of the data by this method, accurate composition and thickness measurements can be obtained for samples with Au and Ni coatings. To understand the limitations of data found, measurements were taken with the XRF spectrometer and compared to true values of standard reference materials (SRM) that were National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable. For every sample, six different parameters were varied to understand measurement error: coating/substrate combination, number of layers, counting interval, collimator size, coating thickness, and test area location. Each measurement was taken in accordance with standards set by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International Standard B 568.

Rolin, T. D.; Leszczuk, Y.

2008-01-01

353

Algorithms for a hand-held miniature x-ray fluorescence analytical instrument  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this joint program was to provide technical assistance with the development of a Miniature X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analytical Instrument. This new XRF instrument is designed to overcome the weaknesses of spectrometers commercially available at the present time. Currently available XRF spectrometers (for a complete list see reference 1) convert spectral information to sample composition using the influence coefficients technique or the fundamental parameters method. They require either a standard sample with composition relatively close to the unknown or a detailed knowledge of the sample matrix. They also require a highly-trained operator and the results often depend on the capabilities of the operator. In addition, almost all existing field-portable, hand-held instruments use radioactive sources for excitation. Regulatory limits on such sources restrict them such that they can only provide relatively weak excitation. This limits all current hand-held XRF instruments to poor detection limits and/or long data collection times, in addition to the licensing requirements and disposal problems for radioactive sources. The new XRF instrument was developed jointly by Quantrad Sensor, Inc., the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the Department of Energy (DOE). This report describes the analysis algorithms developed by NRL for the new instrument and the software which embodies them.

Elam, W.T.; Newman, D.; Ziemba, F. [and others

1998-12-31

354

Determination of halide impurities in ionic liquids by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

The determination and quantification of halide impurities in ionic liquids is highly important because halide ions can significantly influence the chemical and physical properties of ionic liquids. The use of impure ionic liquids in fundamental studies on solvent extraction or catalytic reactions can lead to incorrect experimental data. The detection of halide ions in solution by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) has been problematic because volatile hydrogen halide (HX) compounds are formed when the sample is mixed with the acidic metal standard solution. The loss of HX during the drying step of the sample preparation procedure gives imprecise and inaccurate results. A new method based on an alkaline copper standard Cu(NH3)4(NO3)2 is presented for the determination of chloride, bromide, and iodide impurities in ionic liquids. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim]) ionic liquids with the anions acetate ([C4mim][OAc]), nitrate ([C4mim][NO3]), trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4mim][OTf]), and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][Tf2N]) were synthesized via a halide-free route and contaminated on purpose with known amounts of [C4mim]Cl, [C4mim]Br, [C4mim]I, or potassium halide salts in order to validate the new method and standard. PMID:24628670

Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Jamar, Steven; Wellens, Sil; Binnemans, Koen

2014-04-15

355

Combined Fluorescence and X-Ray Tomography for Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Fluorophore  

PubMed Central

Initial results from a novel dual modality preclinical imager which combines non-contact fluorescence tomography (FT) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for preclinical functional and anatomical in vivo imaging are presented. The anatomical data from CT provides a priori information to the FT reconstruction to create overlaid functional and anatomical images with accurate localization and quantification of fluorophore distribution. Phantoms with inclusions containing Indocyanine-Green (ICG), and with heterogeneous backgrounds including iodine in compartments at different concentrations for CT contrast, have been imaged with the dual modality FT/CT system. Anatomical information from attenuation maps and optical morphological information from absorption and scattering maps are used as a priori information in the FT reconstruction. Although ICG inclusions can be located without the a priori information, the recovered ICG concentration shows 75% error. When the a priori information is utilized, the ICG concentration can be recovered with only 15% error. Developing the ability to accurately quantify fluorophore concentration in anatomical regions of interest may provide a powerful tool for in vivo small animal imaging. PMID:20082529

Barber, W. C.; Lin, Y.; Nalcioglu, O.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Hartsough, N. E.; Gulsen, G.

2010-01-01

356

Sample Preparation for in vitro Analysis of Iodine in Thyroid Tissue using X-ray Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Iodine is enriched and stored in the thyroid gland. Due to several factors, the size of the thyroid iodine pool varies both between individuals and within individuals over time. Excess iodine as well as iodine deficiency may promote thyroid cancer. Therefore, knowledge of iodine content and distribution within thyroid cancer tissue is of interest. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are two methods that can be used to assess iodine content in thyroid tissue. With both techniques, choice of sample preparation affects the results. Aldehyde fixatives are required for SIMS analysis while a freezing method might be satisfactory for XRF analysis. The aims of the present study were primarily to evaluate a simple freezing technique for preserving samples for XRF analysis and also to use XRF to evaluate the efficacy of using aldehyde fixatives to prepare samples for SIMS analysis. Ten porcine thyroids were sectioned into four pieces that were either frozen or fixed in formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, or a modified Karnovsky fixative. The frozen samples were assessed for iodine content with XRF after 1 and 2 months, and the fixed samples were analyzed for iodine content after 1 week. Freezing of untreated tissue yielded no significant iodine loss, whereas fixation with aldehydes yielded an iodine loss of 14–30%, with Karnovsky producing the least loss. PMID:19259403

Hansson, Marie; Isaksson, Mats; Berg, Gertrud

2008-01-01

357

Patella lead x-ray fluorescence measurements are independent of sample orientation.  

PubMed

In vivo x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurements assess long-term lead exposure. Tibia, calcaneus, and patella are the most commonly sampled bones. Patella measurements also include lead signals from the distal femur, proximal tibia, and synovium. It is therefore important to know whether the orientation of the patella relative to the measurement system substantially affects the measured patella lead concentrations and their measurement uncertainties. This study examined whether these parameters exhibited a dependence on the orientation of the patella with respect to the measurement system, a dependence that could arise from varying nonpatella contributions. There was no effect of orientation on measured patella lead concentration, but there was a highly significant effect of orientation on the measurement uncertainty. These data do not conclusively show that there are no nonpatella contributions to a patella lead measurement; rather, that any such contributions are not a function of measurement orientation over the range of orientations considered. Further study is required if the contribution of nonpatella tissues to a patella lead XRF-measured concentration is to be fully addressed. This study also filled a gap in the literature by quantifying the within-patella (29%) and between-patella (71%) variability of measured patella lead concentrations from replicate measures of nine patellae. PMID:11548953

Todd, A C; Godbold, J H; Moshier, E L; Khan, F A

2001-08-01

358

Effects of overlying soft tissue on X-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of overlying soft tissue on the measurement uncertainty of the in vivo 109Cd K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique were investigated, as applied to the tibia bone site. Experimental measurements were performed on a set of nine leg phantoms of different soft tissue thickness, intended to model the lower leg at mid-tibia. A standard bone phantom made from plaster-of-Paris and having a nominal lead concentration of 25.6 ?g Pb per gram was used in all trials. Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental set-up were also performed. Results indicate a strong relation between measurement uncertainty and overlying tissue thickness (OTT) for the XRF bone lead method. In increasing the OTT from 3.2 to 14.6 mm, an increase in average measurement uncertainty by a factor of 2.40 was observed experimentally. Monte Carlo simulations indicated an increase in minimum detectable limit (MDL) by a factor of 2.46 over the same interval. Experimental and Monte Carlo results were generally in strong agreement. For subject screening purposes, direct measurement of soft tissue overlying the tibia is recommended whenever practical.

Ahmed, Naseer; Fleming, David E. B.; Wilkie, David; O'Meara, Joanne M.

2006-01-01

359

Effect of the sample matrix on measurement uncertainty in X-ray fluorescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of measurement uncertainty, with reference to univariate calibration functions, is discussed in detail in the Eurachem Guide "Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement". The adoption of these recommendations to quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) involves basic problems which are above all due to the strong influence of the sample matrix on the analytical response. In XRF-analysis, the proposed recommendations are consequently applicable only to the matrix corrected response. The application is also restricted with regard to both the matrices and analyte concentrations. In this context the present studies are aimed at the problems to predict measurement uncertainty also with reference to more variable sample compositions. The corresponding investigations are focused on the use of the intensity of the Compton scattered tube line as an internal standard to assess the effect of the individual sample matrix on the analytical response relatively to a reference matrix. Based on this concept the estimation of the measurement uncertainty of an analyte presented in an unknown specimen can be predicted in consideration of the data obtained under defined matrix conditions.

Morgenstern, P.; Brüggemann, L.; Wennrich, R.

2005-10-01

360

In vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence bone lead measurements in young adults.  

PubMed

The (109)Cd K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used to measure in vivo tibia lead concentrations of 34 young adults living in the state of Vermont (USA) and the province of New Brunswick (Canada). The subjects ranged in age from 18 to 35 years, and had no known history of elevated lead exposure. Measurement parameters were varied, using the same XRF system for both populations. Tibia lead concentrations were low for both groups, with mean values of 0.7 microg lead g(-1) bone mineral (Vermont) and 0.5 microg g(-1)(New Brunswick). No individual measurement exceeded 7 microg g(-1). Mean uncertainty values obtained for the Vermont and New Brunswick subjects were 4.1 microg g(-1) and 2.6 microg g(-1), respectively. Improved measurement uncertainty in the New Brunswick group was attributed to the use of a reduced source-to-skin distance (approximately 5 mm) and a longer measurement time (3600 seconds) using a weaker radioisotope source (< or =0.42 GBq). Measurement uncertainty tended to increase with body mass index. For a given body mass index, female subjects returned a measurement uncertainty approximately 1 microg g(-1) greater than males. PMID:15877166

Ahmed, Naseer; Osika, Natalie A; Wilson, Alexander M; Fleming, David E B

2005-05-01

361

Study of decorated archeological ceramics by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) spectrometry is an analytical technique that is especially suitable for the study of archeological findings since it is non-destructive, rapid, universal, versatile and multi-elemental. In the present work a compact portable ?-XRF spectrometer was used to characterize decorated sherds of Neolithic pottery from Polyplatanos, North Greece. The sherds were divided into four decorative groups (crusted, classic Dimini, cream on red, and black on red) and the characterization was focused on the determination of certain major, minor and trace elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) on the decorated surface and in the clay body. The aim of this characterization was to supplement and confirm archeological information regarding the origin of the artifacts and the manufacturing techniques used for their production. The most predominant chemical elements were determined, and representative ratios (Ca/K, Fe/Mn) were calculated and compared for each individual sample group. The crusted samples and the cream on red samples showed higher concentrations of Ca in the white-crusted surface in comparison with the clay body while Fe was the predominant element in the red decorated surface. The analysis of the samples of classic Dimini, revealed higher concentrations of Mn in the black painted surfaces and higher Ca content in the light-coloured clay bodies. Finally, most samples of the black on red group present high concentrations of Mn in their decoration surface. Zn and Ni were also detected in this group in contrast with the remaining groups.

Papadopoulou, D.; Sakalis, A.; Merousis, N.; Tsirliganis, N. C.

2007-09-01

362

Using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobes in the study of metal homeostasis in plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims This Botanical Briefing reviews the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes to the plant sciences; how the technique has expanded our knowledge of metal(loid) homeostasis, and how it can be used in the future. Scope The use of SXRF microspectroscopy and microtomography in research on metal homeostasis in plants is reviewed. The potential use of SXRF as part of the ionomics toolbox, where it is able to provide fundamental information on the way that plants control metal homeostasis, is recommended. Conclusions SXRF is one of the few techniques capable of providing spatially resolved in-vivo metal abundance data on a sub-micrometre scale, without the need for chemical fixation, coating, drying or even sectioning of samples. This gives researchers the ability to uncover mechanisms of plant metal homeostasis that can potentially be obscured by the artefacts of sample preparation. Further, new generation synchrotrons with smaller beam sizes and more sensitive detection systems will allow for the imaging of metal distribution within single living plant cells. Even greater advances in our understanding of metal homeostasis in plants can be gained by overcoming some of the practical boundaries that exist in the use of SXRF analysis. PMID:19182222

Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio

2009-01-01

363

Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes in the Study of Metal Homeostasis in Plants  

SciTech Connect

Background and Aims: This Botanical Briefing reviews the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes to the plant sciences; how the technique has expanded our knowledge of metal(loid) homeostasis, and how it can be used in the future. Scope: The use of SXRF microspectroscopy and microtomography in research on metal homeostasis in plants is reviewed. The potential use of SXRF as part of the ionomics toolbox, where it is able to provide fundamental information on the way that plants control metal homeostasis, is recommended. Conclusions: SXRF is one of the few techniques capable of providing spatially resolved in-vivo metal abundance data on a sub-micrometre scale, without the need for chemical fixation, coating, drying or even sectioning of samples. This gives researchers the ability to uncover mechanisms of plant metal homeostasis that can potentially be obscured by the artefacts of sample preparation. Further, new generation synchrotrons with smaller beam sizes and more sensitive detection systems will allow for the imaging of metal distribution within single living plant cells. Even greater advances in our understanding of metal homeostasis in plants can be gained by overcoming some of the practical boundaries that exist in the use of SXRF analysis.

Punshon, T.; Guerinot, M; Lanzirotti, A

2009-01-01

364

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace-elements in candies marketed in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace metals concentrations in food are significant for nutrition, due either to their nature or toxicity. Sweets, including chewing gum and candies, are not exactly a food, but they usually are unwearied consumed by children, the most vulnerable age-group to any kind of metal contamination in the food chain. The presence of relatively high concentrations of heavy metals such as Lead elicits concern since children are highly susceptible to heavy metals poisoning. Trace-metals concentrations were determined for six different flavors of a Mexican candy by means of Total X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Triplicate samples of the various candy's flavours (strawberry, pineapple, lemon, blackberry, orange and chilli) were digested in 8 mL of a mix of supra-pure HNO 3 and H 2O 2 (6 mL: 2 mL) in a microwave oven MARS-X. Results show the presence of essential and toxic elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. All metal concentrations were higher and significantly different ( ? = 0.05) in chilli candy, compared to other candy flavours. Lead concentration fluctuated in the range of 0.102 to 0.342 ?g g - 1 . A discussion about risk consumption and concentration allowed by Mexican and International Norms is made. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a NIST standard of "Citrus Leaves" and a blank were treated in the same way.

Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

2010-06-01

365

X-ray Young's double slit experiment and other aspects of kinoform X-ray prism arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical design and large aspect ratio nanofabrication techniques [1] were employed to produce kinoform prisms and lenses for the purpose of focusing, deflecting and characterizing hard X-ray synchrotron radiation. Purely refractive lenses are hampered by the effects of absorbtion, which limits the numerical aperture of the lens and hence the optic resolution. Kinoform lenses allow one to circumvent these limitations,

A. F. Isakovic; K. Evans-Lutterodt; A. Stein; J. B. Warren; S. Narayanan; A. R. Sandy

2009-01-01

366

University of California electron and X-ray experiments on ISEE-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of the University of California solar and interplanetary electron experiment and the solar X-ray experiment is outlined, and the two instruments used are described. The roles of personnel are mentioned and the data analysis projects completed or begun are summarized. A bibliography is included.

Anderson, K. A.

1981-01-01

367

Atmospheric X-ray emission experiment for shuttle. [earth atmosphere - radiation counters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment designed to measure the spatial, temporal, and energy distribution of X-ray aurorae produced by precipitating electrons, is presented. The experiment will provide vital data on solar-terrestrial relationships that may lead to defining the transfer mechanism that causes certain terrestrial weather events and climatological behavior. An instrument concept is discussed, and is based on a spatially sensitive multiwire proportional counter, combined with collimators to produce X-ray images of the aurorae. An instrument pointing system, on which the counter can be mounted, will provide the required altitude control, and can be operated by a Spacelab payload specialist for full control over its observing and data taking modes.

Goldberg, R. A.; Hallam, K. L.; Emming, J. G.

1975-01-01

368

The use of total reflectance X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for the determination of metals in the pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

The control of residual metals in active pharmaceutical ingredients (API's) and intermediates is critical because of their potential toxic effects. A variety of technologies are available to measure residual metals in pharmaceutical compounds including, AAS, ICP-AES, and ICP-MS. The newest technology is total reflectance X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) which uses primary X-rays to excite atoms which then emit secondary X-rays. The emitted X-rays are characteristic of the individual elements present, and the intensities of the emitted X-rays are proportional to the concentrations of the elements present in the sample. The benefits of TXRF are that it is essentially unaffected by matrix effects, is very sensitive (ppb's), requires small amounts of sample (5-10 mg), and requires very little sample preparation time. During this study, TXRF was used to quantitatively measure residual metals in API's and intermediates and such topics as sample preparation, sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility and accuracy are discussed. The results obtained by TXRF were compared with those obtained by ICP-MS for the same samples for Pd and Cu measurement, and statistical analysis indicated that the results obtained by the two technologies are equivalent at the 95% confidence level. A comparison is also made of the capabilities of the instruments using a tungsten (W) or a molybdenum (Mo) source for excitation. Both instruments could be used for the quantitative determination of residual metals in pharmaceuticals. PMID:22316622

Antosz, Frederick J; Xiang, Yanqiao; Diaz, Angel R; Jensen, Andrew J

2012-03-25

369

Element distribution in the brain sections of rats measured by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of trace elements in brain sections was measured by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. The relative concentration was calculated by means of the normalization of Compton scattering intensity approximately 22 keV, after the normalization for collecting time of X-ray spectrum and the counting of the ion chamber, and subtracting the contribution of the polycarbonate film for supporting sample. Furthermore, the statistical evaluation of the element distribution in various regions of the brain sections of the 20-day-old rats was tested. For investigating the distribution of elements in the brain of iodine deficient rats, Wistar rats were fed with iodine deficient diet and deionized water (ID group). The rats were fed the same iodine deficient diet, but drank KIO 3 solution as control (CT group). The results showed that the contents of calcium (Ca) in thalamus (TH) and copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) in cerebral cortex (CX) of ID rats were significantly lower than that of control rats, while the contents of phosphor (P), sulfur (S), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), zinc (Zn), Ca and Cu of ID in hippocampus (H) and the contents of Br, Cl, Zn and Ca in cerebral cortex of ID rats were significantly higher. Especially, the difference of Br, Cl, Zn and Ca in H between ID and CT was more significant. The contents of all elements measured in H were higher than (or equal to) CX and/or TH for both groups, except low Cl of the control rats. Furthermore Zn and Cu contents along the hippocampal fissure in both groups were 1.5 ( P<0.001) and 0.87( P<0.03) times higher than in hippocampus, respectively. Considering the results of cluster analysis our study shows that the marked alterations in the spatial distribution of Zn and Ca of ID rats brain during brain development stages. In addition, the effect of the perfusion with 0.9% NaCl solution before taking brain on the distribution of elements in the brain sections was observed and discussed.

Liu, N. Q.; Zhang, F.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Chai, Z. F.; Huang, Y. Y.; He, W.; Zhao, X. Q.; Zuo, A. J.; Yang, R.

2004-02-01

370

Modeling and experiments of x-ray ablation of National Ignition Facility first wall materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses results of modeling and experiments on the x-ray response of selected materials relevant to NIF target chamber design. X-ray energy deposition occurs in such small characteristic depths (on the order of a micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion significantly affect the material response, even during the typical 10-ns pulses. The finite-difference ablation model integrates four separate processes: x-ray energy deposition, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and surface vaporization. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser facility in Livermore on response of various materials to NIF-relevant x-ray fluences. Fused silica, Si nitride, B carbide, B, Si carbide, C, Al2O3, and Al were tested. Response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with SEM and atomic force microscopes. Judgements were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material; relative importances of these processes were also studied with the x-ray response model.

Anderson, A.T.; Burnham, A.K.; Tobin, M.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Peterson, P.F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-06-04

371

Forensic analysis of laser printed ink by X-ray fluorescence and laser-excited plume fluorescence.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a minimally destructive two-tier approach for multielement forensic analysis of laser-printed ink. The printed document was first screened using a portable-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) probe. If the results were not conclusive, a laser microprobe was then deployed. The laser probe was based on a two-pulse scheme: the first laser pulse ablated a thin layer of the printed ink; the second laser pulse at 193 nm induced multianalytes in the desorbed ink to fluoresce. We analyzed four brands of black toners. The toners were printed on paper in the form of patches or letters or overprinted on another ink. The XRF probe could sort the four brands if the printed letters were larger than font 20. It could not tell the printing sequence in the case of overprints. The laser probe was more discriminatory; it could sort the toner brands and reveal the overprint sequence regardless of font size while the sampled area was not visibly different from neighboring areas even under the microscope. In terms of general analytical performance, the laser probe featured tens of micrometer lateral resolution and tens to hundreds of nm depth resolution and atto-mole mass detection limits. It could handle samples of arbitrary size and shape and was air compatible, and no sample pretreatment was necessary. It will prove useful whenever high-resolution and high sensitivity 3D elemental mapping is required. PMID:23570307

Chu, Po-Chun; Cai, Bruno Yue; Tsoi, Yeuk Ki; Yuen, Ronald; Leung, Kelvin S Y; Cheung, Nai-Ho

2013-05-01

372

High-energy-resolution grazing emission X-ray fluorescence applied to the characterization of thin Al films on Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) technique was applied to the analysis of different Al films, with nominal thicknesses in the range of 1 nm to 150 nm, on Si wafers. In GEXRF the sample volume from which the fluorescence intensity is detected is restricted to a near-surface region whose thickness can be tuned by varying the observation angle. This is possible because of the refraction of the fluorescence X-rays and the quite long emission paths within the probed sample. By recording the X-ray fluorescence signal for different shallow emission angles, defined relatively to the flat, smooth sample surface, the deposited Al surface layers of the different samples could be well characterized in terms of layer thickness, layer density, oxidation and surface roughness. The advantages offered by synchrotron radiation and the employed wavelength-dispersive detection setup were profited from. The GEXRF results retrieved were confirmed by complementary measurements. The experimental setup, the principles and advantages of GEXRF and the analysis of the recorded angular intensity profiles will be discussed in details.

Kayser, Y.; Szlachetko, J.; Bana?, D.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Pajek, M.

2013-10-01

373

Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Inubushi, Yuichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-10-15

374

Pb distribution in bones from the Franklin expedition: synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and laser ablation/mass spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron micro-X-ray Fluorescence has been used to map the metal distribution in selected bone fragments representative of remains associated with the Franklin expedition. In addition, laser ablation mass spectroscopy using a 25 ?m diameter circular spot was employed to compare the Pb isotope distributions in small regions within the bone fragments. The X-ray Fluorescence mapping shows Pb to be widely distributed in the bone while the Pb isotope ratios obtained by laser ablation within small areas representative of bone with different Pb exchange rates do not show statistically significant differences. These results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that faulty solder seals in tinned meat were the principle source of Pb in the remains of the expedition personnel.

Martin, Ronald Richard; Naftel, Steven; Macfie, Sheila; Jones, Keith; Nelson, Andrew

2013-04-01

375

Asymmetri Distribution of Metals in the Xenopus Laevis Oocyte: a Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe Study  

SciTech Connect

The asymmetric distribution of many components of the Xenopus oocyte, including RNA, proteins, and pigment, provides a framework for cellular specialization during development. During maturation, Xenopus oocytes also acquire metals needed for development, but apart from zinc, little is known about their distribution. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe was used to map iron, copper, and zinc and the metalloid selenium in a whole oocyte. Iron, zinc, and copper were asymmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, while selenium and copper were more abundant in the nucleus. A zone of high copper and zinc was seen in the animal pole cytoplasm. Iron was also concentrated in the animal pole but did not colocalize with zinc, copper, or pigment accumulations. This asymmetry of metal deposition may be important for normal development. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe will be a useful tool to examine how metals accumulate and redistribute during fertilization and embryonic development.

Popescu, B.F.G.; Belak, Z.R.; Ignatyev, K.; Ovsenek, N.; Nichol, H.; /Saskatchewan U. /SLAC, SSRL

2009-04-29

376

Asymmetric Distribution of Metals in the Xenopus Laevis Oocyte: a Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe Study  

SciTech Connect

The asymmetric distribution of many components of the Xenopus oocyte, including RNA, proteins, and pigment, provides a framework for cellular specialization during development. During maturation, Xenopus oocytes also acquire metals needed for development, but apart from zinc, little is known about their distribution. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe was used to map iron, copper, and zinc and the metalloid selenium in a whole oocyte. Iron, zinc, and copper were asymmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, while selenium and copper were more abundant in the nucleus. A zone of high copper and zinc was seen in the animal pole cytoplasm. Iron was also concentrated in the animal pole but did not colocalize with zinc, copper, or pigment accumulations. This asymmetry of metal deposition may be important for normal development. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe will be a useful tool to examine how metals accumulate and redistribute during fertilization and embryonic development.

Popescu, B.F.Gh.; Belak, Z.R.; Ignatyev, K.; Ovsenek, N.; Nichol, H.

2009-06-04

377

Chemical Composition and Heterogeneity of Wild 2 Cometary Particles Determined by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Seven cometary dust particle tracks in Stardust aerogel were studied using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence methods at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NY) and Advanced Photon Source (IL). Elemental maps were produced for each of the tracks and elemental abundances for 156 individual fragments within these tracks were determined. Whole-track elemental abundances were inferred by summing the elemental masses for the fragments in each track and scaling by the ratio of total Fe in the map and total Fe in the fragments. In general, whole-track and terminal-particle abundances are dissimilar. The total Fe masses ranged from 4 to 2200 pg, corresponding to impactors in the size range of 2.7 to 22 {mu}m if Fe abundances are equal to the chondritic value. Systematic variations in element abundance with fragment distance from the aerogel entry point were generally subtle but were pronounced in one track (C2115,19). In this track, Zn/Fe was about three orders of magnitude higher at the top, Cr/Fe was two orders of magnitude higher at the bottom, and S was relatively uniform. Compositional convergence data showed that typically analysis of {approx}10 fragments was needed to reach convergent whole-track abundance. Zinc was an exception, showing nonconvergent profiles and steps due to the presence of rare, high-Zn fragments. The resulting wholetrack elemental abundances show diverse patterns that are generally chondritic (i.e., within a factor of three of CI abundances) with some exceptions, notably depletions in S and enrichments in the moderately volatile elements Cu, Zn, and Ga. Enrichments in large ion lithophile elements relative to Fe were observed in one track. Correlation matrices showed several strong elemental correlations, notably selenium associated with sulfur (sulfides), a ubiquitous correlation of the first-row transition metals Cr, Mn, and Fe attributed to the presence of pyroxene, and enrichments of gallium associated with calcium, likely affiliated with Mg-Al glass.

Lanzirotti,A.; Sutton, S.; Flynn, G.; Newville, M.; Rao, W.

2008-01-01

378

Rare earth element concentrations in geological and synthetic samples using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in specific mineral grains from the Bayan Obo ore deposit and synthetic high-silica glass samples have been measured by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis using excitation of the REE K lines between 33 and 63 keV. Because SXRF, a nondestructive analytical technique, has much lower minimum detection limits (MDLs) for REEs, it is an important device that extends the in situ analytical capability of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The distribution of trace amounts of REEs in common rock-forming minerals, as well as in REE minerals and minerals having minor quantities of REEs, can be analyzed with SXRF. Synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet and a wiggler source at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was used to excite the REEs. MDLs of 6 ppm (La) to 26 ppm (Lu) for 3600 s in 60-??m-thick standard samples were obtained with a 25-??m diameter wiggler beam. The MDLs for the light REEs were a factor of 10-20 lower than the MDLs obtained with a bending magnet beam. The SXRF REE concentrations in mineral grains greater than 25 ??m compared favorably with measurements using EPMA. Because EPMA offered REE MDLs as low as several hundred ppm, the comparison was limited to the abundant light REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd). For trace values of medium and heavy REEs, the SXRF concentrations were in good agreement with measurements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a bulk analysis technique. ?? 1993.

Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Cygan, G.L.; Grossman, J.N.; Reed, M.J.

1993-01-01

379

Quantifying trace elements in individual aquatic protist cells with a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe.  

SciTech Connect

The study of trace metal cycling by aquatic protists is limited by current analytical techniques. Standard 'bulk' element analysis techniques that rely on physical separations to concentrate cells for analysis cannot separate cells from co-occurring detrital material or other cells of differing taxonomy or trophic function. Here we demonstrate the ability of a synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe to quantify the elements Si, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn in individual aquatic protist cells. This technique distinguishes between different types of cells in an assemblage and between cells and other particulate matter. Under typical operating conditions, the minimum detection limits are 7.0 x 10{sup -16} mol {mu}m{sup -2} for Si and between 5.0 x 10{sup -20} and 3.9 x 10{sup -19} mol {mu}m{sup -2} for Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn; this sensitivity is sufficient to detect these elements in cells from even the most pristine waters as demonstrated in phytoplankton cells collected from remote areas of the Southern Ocean. Replicate analyses of single cells produced variations of <5% for Si, Mn, Fe, and Zn and <10% for Ni. Comparative analyses of cultured phytoplankton cells generally show no significant differences in cellular metal concentrations measured with SXRF and standard bulk techniques (spectrophotometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry). SXRF also produces two-dimensional maps of element distributions in cells, thereby providing information not available with other analytical approaches. This technique enables the accurate and precise measurement of trace metals in individual aquatic protists collected from natural environments.

Twining, B. S.; Baines, S. B.; Fisher, N. S.; Maser, J.; Vogt, S.; Jacobsen, C.; Tovar-Sanchez, A.; Sanudo-Wihelmy, S. A.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); Stony Brook Univ.

2003-01-01

380

Analysis of limestones and dolomites by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Sources of calcium are generally widespread and quite extensive. These sources are limestone, dolomite, marl, chalk, and oyster shell. Cement plants account for nearly half of the demand, while two hundred lime plants in the US and Puerto Rico consume about twenty five percent. Since the chemical composition of the limestone and other sources of calcium is critical in the cement and lime industry, particularly for the deleterious compounds such as sodium oxide, Na{sub 2}O, magnesium oxide, MgO, phosphorus pentoxide, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and potassium oxide, K{sub 2}O, accurate determinations are critical. Due to the tonnage per hour, these determinations must be made rapidly and accurately. X-ray fluorescence can thereby satisfy this need for accuracy and also precision. Production of lime is performed by calcining limestone or dolomite in which the industry is generally located and concentrated in the States of Michigan and Pennsylvania. The resulting product is quicklime, CaO, and hydrated lime, Ca(OH){sub 2}. Substantial amounts of quicklime is further processed into calcium carbide in order to produce acetylene gas. In this case, the determination of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is critical since minor quantities of phosphorus in acetylene gas can cause premature explosions. Other uses for lime are well known in the treatment of water, the paper and pulp industry, and in the steel industry for the production of slag to remove impurities. Dolomitic lime is heavily utilized in the manufacture of magnesite refractories by reacting dolomitic lime with brines from the Michigan Basin to produce magnesium oxide, MgO, and calcium chloride, CaCl{sub 2}. Sample preparation for these materials usually is performed by grinding and pelletizing or fusion with lithium-tetra-borate, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.

Wheeler, B.D.

1999-07-01

381

X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Hippocampal Formation After Manganese Exposure†  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) intoxication results in neurological conditions similar, but not identical, to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. While the mechanism(s) by which Mn exposure leads to neurotoxic effects remains unclear, studies by magnetic resonance imaging demonstrate a high Mn accumulation in the hippocampal formation (HPCf) of the brain. Metal quantification using this method is not possible. Using x-ray fluorescence imaging, we measured the distribution of Mn in the HPCf for a rodent model of chronic Mn exposure and quantitatively compared it with distributions of other biologically relevant metals. We found considerable increases in average Mn concentrations in all analyzed areas and we identified the dentate gyrus (DG) and the cornus ammonis 3 (CA3) layer as areas accumulating the highest Mn content (~1.2 µg Mn/g tissue). The DG is significantly enriched with iron (Fe), while the CA3 layer has high zinc (Zn) content. Additionally, significant spatial correlations were found for Mn/Zn concentrations across the identified substructures of the HPCf and for Mn/Fe concentrations in the DG. Combined results support that at least two mechanisms may be responsible for Mn transport and/or storage in the brain, associated with either Fe or Zn. Subcellular resolution images of metal distribution in cells of the CA3 show diffuse Mn distributions consistent with Mn localization in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Mn was not increased in localized intracellular Fe or copper accumulations. A consistent Mn/Zn correlation both at the tissue (40 µm × 40 µm) and cellular (0.3 µm × 0.3 µm) levels suggests that a Zn transport/storage mechanism in the HPCf is likely associated with Mn accumulation. PMID:23999853

Robison, Gregory; Zakharova, Taisiya; Fu, Sherleen; Jiang, Wendy; Fulper, Rachael; Barrea, Raul; Zheng, Wei; Pushkar, Yulia

2013-01-01

382

X-ray fluorescence imaging of the hippocampal formation after manganese exposure.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) intoxication results in neurological conditions similar, but not identical, to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. While the mechanism(s) by which Mn exposure leads to neurotoxic effects remains unclear, studies by magnetic resonance imaging demonstrate a high Mn accumulation in the hippocampal formation (HPCf) of the brain. Metal quantification using this method is not possible. Using X-ray fluorescence imaging, we measured the distribution of Mn in the HPCf for a rodent model of chronic Mn exposure and quantitatively compared it with distributions of other biologically relevant metals. We found considerable increases in average Mn concentrations in all analyzed areas and we identified the dentate gyrus (DG) and the cornus ammonis 3 (CA3) layer as areas accumulating the highest Mn content (?1.2 ?g Mn per g tissue). The DG is significantly enriched with iron (Fe), while the CA3 layer has high zinc (Zn) content. Additionally, significant spatial correlations were found for Mn-Zn concentrations across the HPCf substructures and for Mn-Fe concentrations in the DG. Combined results support that at least two mechanisms may be responsible for Mn transport and/or storage in the brain, associated with either Fe or Zn. Subcellular resolution images of metal distribution in cells of the CA3 show diffuse Mn distributions consistent with Mn localization in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Mn was not increased in localized intracellular Fe or copper accumulations. A consistent Mn-Zn correlation both at the tissue (40 ?m × 40 ?m) and cellular (0.3 ?m × 0.3 ?m) levels suggests that a Zn transport/storage mechanism in the HPCf is likely associated with Mn accumulation. PMID:23999853

Robison, Gregory; Zakharova, Taisiya; Fu, Sherleen; Jiang, Wendy; Fulper, Rachael; Barrea, Raul; Zheng, Wei; Pushkar, Yulia

2013-11-01

383

Determination of sulphur in uranium matrix by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of sulphur determination in uranium matrix by total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been studied. Calibration solutions and samples of sulphur in uranium matrix were prepared by mixing uranium in form of a standard uranyl nitrate solution and sulphur in the form of Na 2SO 4 standard solution, prepared by dissolving Na 2SO 4 in Milli-Q water. For major element analysis of sulphur, it was determined without separation of uranium whereas for the trace level determinations, uranium was first separated by solvent extraction using 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in dodecane as an extractant. In order to countercheck the TXRF results, a few samples of Rb 2U(SO 4) 3, a chemical assay standard for uranium, were diluted to different dilutions and sulphur content in these solutions were determined. The TXRF determined results for trace determinations of sulphur in these diluted solutions were counterchecked after addition of another uranium solution, so that sulphur is at trace level compared to uranium, separating uranium from these solution mixtures using TBP extraction and determining sulphur in aqueous phase by TXRF. For such TXRF determinations, Co was used as internal standard and W L? was used as excitation source. The precision and accuracy of the method was assessed for trace and major element determinations and was found to be better than 8% (1 ? RSD) and 15% at a concentration level of 1 ?g/mL of sulphur measured in solutions whereas for Rb 2U(SO 4) 3, these values were found to be better than 4 and 13%, respectively.

Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

2008-12-01

384

Total reflection of x-ray fluorescence (TXRF): a mature technique for environmental chemical nanoscale metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a technique well established for chemical analysis of samples deposited as a thin layer. Nowadays it is mainly employed for electronic industry quality control. Recently, very compact and economic TXRF instrumentation was proposed. Combining this with the capability to analyze liquid samples, this technique is suitable to be employed in many different applications, comprising the very critical field of environmental analysis. Comparisons with the standard atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique show that TXRF is a practical, accurate, and reliable technique. Indeed, round-robin activities have already been started. Despite the efficiency and economy of the developed portable TXRF instrumentation, this is not widely employed for chemical laboratory analysis probably because TXRF is not an officially recognized technique, i.e. it is not yet normative-subjected. This fact could also be due to the long background of analytical applications developed for AAS, ICPS or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) up to now. In this paper, we present a work of environmental monitoring of an industrial site, performed by means of bioindicators (lichens). The analysis of trace elements concentration in lichen was usually conducted with spectrophotometric techniques, such as AAS and ICP-MS, which were accepted by common regulations and normative-subjected. In this study, we accomplished a comparative lichen analysis by AAS and TXRF. The reproducibility of the obtained results showed the high correspondence between the two techniques. This comparison highlighted the versatility of the TXRF apparatus that allowed more rapid and simultaneous element detection. The obtained results suggested that this portable TXRF system could be suitable for regulation to produce certificated analysis upto ppb concentrations for some elements.

Borgese, L.; Zacco, A.; Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Bertuzzi, R.; Ferretti, E.; Tenini, S.; Depero, L. E.

2009-08-01

385

Direct analysis of Al2O3 powders by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

A direct analysis procedure for the determination of trace impurities of Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga in Al2O3 ceramic powders by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is described. The powders were analysed in the form of slurries containing 1-10 mg mL(-1) of powder. The use of the procedure in the case of powders with differing grain size and for different slurry concentrations was investigated. Three different quantification possibilities were compared, namely the use of Al as a matrix component, the use of Fe as a trace element contained in the sample or of Co added in concentrations of 200 microg g(-1) as internal standard. The homogeneity of elemental distributions in sample layers deposited on the TXRF quartz carriers by evaporating 5 microL of the 10 mg mL(-1) slurries was studied by scanning the 4- to 5-mm-diameter spots of two samples by synchrotron radiation TXRF at Hasylab. For powders with differing graininess but mainly finer than about a few 10 microm, no systematic influence of the grain size on the accuracy of the determinations of Ca, V, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn could be observed. The measurement precision, however, seemed to be limited by inhomogeneous distributions of the trace elements in the samples as testified by the synchrotron radiation TXRF scans. Detection limits of the developed TXRF procedure for Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga were found to be in the 0.3-7 microg g(-1) range and were shown to increase slightly with the grain size of the samples. Quantification using Al (matrix) as internal standard led to systematically higher values out of the accuracy required, whereas the other two approaches in all cases led to reliable results. PMID:16034618

Peschel, Birgit U; Fittschen, Ursula E A; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Jokubonis, Christoph; Streli, Christina; Wobrauschek, Peter; Falkenberg, Gerald; Broekaert, José A C

2005-08-01

386

X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging: A New Tool for Studying Manganese Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The neurotoxic effect of manganese (Mn) establishes itself in a condition known as manganism or Mn induced parkinsonism. While this condition was first diagnosed about 170 years ago, the mechanism of the neurotoxic action of Mn remains unknown. Moreover, the possibility that Mn exposure combined with other genetic and environmental factors can contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease has been discussed in the literature and several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Mn exposure and an elevated risk of Parkinson's disease. Here, we introduce X-ray fluorescence imaging as a new quantitative tool for analysis of the Mn distribution in the brain with high spatial resolution. The animal model employed mimics deficits observed in affected human subjects. The obtained maps of Mn distribution in the brain demonstrate the highest Mn content in the globus pallidus, the thalamus, and the substantia nigra pars compacta. To test the hypothesis that Mn transport into/distribution within brain cells mimics that of other biologically relevant metal ions, such as iron, copper, or zinc, their distributions were compared. It was demonstrated that the Mn distribution does not follow the distributions of any of these metals in the brain. The majority of Mn in the brain was shown to occur in the mobile state, confirming the relevance of the chelation therapy currently used to treat Mn intoxication. In cells with accumulated Mn, it can cause neurotoxic action by affecting the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This can result in increased susceptibility of the neurons of the globus pallidus, thalamus, and substantia nigra pars compacta to various environmental or genetic insults. The obtained data is the first demonstration of Mn accumulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and thus, can represent a link between Mn exposure and its potential effects for development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:23185282

Robison, Gregory; Zakharova, Taisiya; Fu, Sherleen; Jiang, Wendy; Fulper, Rachael; Barrea, Raul; Marcus, Matthew A.; Zheng, Wei; Pushkar, Yulia

2012-01-01

387

STUDIES OF AURORAL X-RAY BACKGROUNDS FOR HIGH LATITUDE BALLOON ASTROPHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS.  

E-print Network

STUDIES OF AURORAL X-RAY BACKGROUNDS FOR HIGH LATITUDE BALLOON ASTROPHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS. Stefan was discovered in the 1950s and has been studied with instruments on balloons, rockets and satellites. While is also a background for astrophysical observations made dur- ing balloon flights at high latitudes

Haviland, David

388

Estimation of grain size variability with micro X-ray fluorescence in laminated lacustrine sediments, Cape Bounty, Canadian High Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finely laminated sediment cores from two Arctic lakes were investigated using the Itrax™ Core Scanner that provides micro\\u000a X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) measurements with a spatial resolution of 100 ?m. We compared these chemical measurements with\\u000a standard geochemical methods using, at the macroscopic scale, inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)\\u000a and, at the microscopic scale, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). We also investigated

Stéphanie Cuven; Pierre Francus; Scott F. Lamoureux

2010-01-01

389

Dendrochemistry of White Mountain bristlecone pines: An investigation via Synchrotron Radiation Scanning X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron Radiation Scanning X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy (SXFM) was used for the first spatially\\/temporally resolved investigation of the multielemental chemistry of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey). A new protocol was designed to apply this nondestructive method of analysis to this unique palaeoclimatological resource, extracting previously inaccessible dendrochemical information at subannual resolution from tree rings ranging from 1400 to 40 mum.

C. L. Pearson; D. S. Dale; P. W. Brewer; M. W. Salzer; J. Lipton; S. W. Manning

2009-01-01

390

Dendrochemistry of White Mountain bristlecone pines: An investigation via Synchrotron Radiation Scanning X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron Radiation Scanning X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy (SXFM) was used for the first spatially\\/temporally resolved investigation of the multielemental chemistry of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey). A new protocol was designed to apply this nondestructive method of analysis to this unique palaeoclimatological resource, extracting previously inaccessible dendrochemical information at subannual resolution from tree rings ranging from 1400 to 40 ?m.

C. L. Pearson; D. S. Dale; P. W. Brewer; M. W. Salzer; J. Lipton; S. W. Manning

2009-01-01

391

Direct determination of trace elements in boron nitride powders by slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SlS-TXRF) for the direct determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti in four boron nitride powders has been described. Measurements of the zeta potential showed that slurries with good stabilities can be obtained by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) at a concentration of 0.1wt.% and by adjusting the

Martin A. Amberger; Michael Höltig; José A. C. Broekaert

2010-01-01

392

Improved signal-to-noise ratio for non-perpendicular detection angles in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard imaging setup in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography detects the fluorescence emission at a right angle with respect to the axis of the excitation beam. In this paper we have studied how the detection angle affects the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which is a major factor influencing the low-contrast sensitivity of the imaging system. This is done for an imaging setup using a collimated detector and a pencil beam of excitation x-rays. An ideal detection process is simulated for a generalized imaging case with gold/platinum tracers and experimental measurements are performed using a diagnostic x-ray tube. For monochromatic excitation, the results indicate that order-of-magnitude improvements of the S/N can be achieved by optimizing the detection angle. The maximal S/N, when exciting with an energy just above the K-edge, is achieved for large detection angles, i.e. with the detector close to the source. The improvements also transfer to polychromatic excitation sources and the experimental results show up to four-fold improvements of the S/N when changing the detection angle from 90° to 150°. Also, the changes of the S/N behavior when switching the fluorescent tracer is briefly demonstrated. These results suggest that the choice of detection angle should be taken seriously in the design of future XFCT imaging systems.

Sjölin, Martin; Danielsson, Mats

2014-11-01

393

Improved signal-to-noise ratio for non-perpendicular detection angles in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT).  

PubMed

The standard imaging setup in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography detects the fluorescence emission at a right angle with respect to the axis of the excitation beam. In this paper we have studied how the detection angle affects the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which is a major factor influencing the low-contrast sensitivity of the imaging system. This is done for an imaging setup using a collimated detector and a pencil beam of excitation x-rays. An ideal detection process is simulated for a generalized imaging case with gold/platinum tracers and experimental measurements are performed using a diagnostic x-ray tube. For monochromatic excitation, the results indicate that order-of-magnitude improvements of the S/N can be achieved by optimizing the detection angle. The maximal S/N, when exciting with an energy just above the K-edge, is achieved for large detection angles, i.e. with the detector close to the source. The improvements also transfer to polychromatic excitation sources and the experimental results show up to four-fold improvements of the S/N when changing the detection angle from 90° to 150°. Also, the changes of the S/N behavior when switching the fluorescent tracer is briefly demonstrated. These results suggest that the choice of detection angle should be taken seriously in the design of future XFCT imaging systems. PMID:25310695

Sjölin, Martin; Danielsson, Mats

2014-11-01

394

Conventional X-ray fluorescence camera with a cadmium-telluride detector and its application to cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is useful for mapping various molecules in objects. Bremsstrahlung X-rays are selected using a 3.0-mm-thick aluminum filter, and these rays are absorbed by iodine, cerium, and gadolinium molecules in objects. Next, XRF is produced from the objects, and photons are detected by a cadmium-telluride detector. The K? photons are discriminated using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. The objects are moved and scanned by an x- y stage in conjunction with a two-stage controller, and X-ray images obtained by molecular mapping are shown on a personal computer monitor. The scan steps of x and y axes were both 2.5 mm, and the photon-counting time per mapping point was 0.5 s. We carried out molecular mapping using the X-ray camera, and K? photons from cerium and gadolinium molecules were produced from cancerous regions in nude mice.

Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

2011-04-01

395

Evaluation on the stability of Hg in ABS disk CRM during measurements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

The stability of Hg in an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene disk certified reference material (ABS disk CRM, NMIJ CRM 8116-a) during measurements by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis was evaluated in this study. The XRF intensities of Hg (L(?)) and Pb (L(?)) as well as the XRF intensity ratios of Hg (L(?))/Pb (L(?)) observed under different X-ray tube current conditions as well as their irradiation time were examined to evaluate the stability of Hg in the ABS disk CRM. The observed XRF intensities and the XRF intensity ratios for up to 32 h of measurements under 80 mA of X-ray tube current condition were constant, even though the surface of the ABS disk CRM was charred by the X-ray irradiation with high current for a long time. Moreover, the measurements on Hg and Pb in the charred disks by an energy dispersive XRF (ED-XRF) spectrometer showed constant XRF intensity ratios of Hg (L(?))/Pb (L(?)). From these results, Hg in the ABS disk CRM was evaluated to be sufficiently stable for XRF analysis. PMID:23149612

Ohata, Masaki; Kidokoro, Toshihiro; Hioki, Akiharu

2012-01-01

396

Observation of Surface Distribution of Products by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry during D2 Gas Permeation Through pd Complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ measurement of transmutation of Cs into Pr was performed, and the surface distribution of Pr was investigated using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) at SPring-8, a large synchrotron X-ray facility. The in-situ measurement indicated that Pr emerged and Cs decreased at some points after D2 gas permeation, though any Pr cannot be observed before D2 gas permeation at all the points on the Pd complex surface. Using small size X-ray beam in 100- and 500-?m2, we obtained two-dimensional XRF spectra for three permeated samples, from which we detected Pr. Pr was detected again by the two small X-ray beams as expected. The amount of Pr varied greatly at different locations of the Pd surface, however, a clear correlation between surface structures and distribution of Pr has not seen up to now. Experimental results suggest that nuclear transmutations do not occur uniformly but some uncertain factors, presumably condensed matter effects in the present Pd/D/CaO system, have a large effect on the rate or the process of the reactions.

Iwamura, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Takehiko; Sakano, Mitsuru; Yamazaki, Noriko; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Terada, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

397

Analysis of beverages for Hg, As, Pb, and Cd with a field portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer.  

PubMed

Analytical capabilities of a handheld X-ray tube analyzer for analysis of beverages were evaluated. Sets of standard solutions for the elements Hg, As, Pb, and Cd were prepared with mass fractions up to 5000 mg/kg. A thirst quencher beverage was spiked with these elements up to mass fractions of 2500 mg/kg. Portions of these solutions were placed in standard X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cells, as well as the original container, and analyzed by using a field portable Innov-X alpha-6000s XRF tube-type analyzer. Uncorrected analyzer output usually yielded qualitative or semiquantitative results for the spiked beverages in X-ray cells. Average correction factors applied to analyzer output yielded accurate (in terms of z-scores) quantitative results for As above 20 mg/kg and qualitative or semiquantitative results for the other elements. Weighted quadratic fit calibrations provided accurate quantitative or semiquantitative results for all elements at levels above 20 mg/kg. The instrument's preset X-ray overlap correction algorithm worked well for the beverage spiked with all four elements. Spiked beverages analyzed through the wall of the original polyethylene terephthalate container produced accurate results within measurement uncertainties after application of "container wall" correction factors. PMID:20480916

Anderson, David L

2010-01-01

398

Measurement of trace element concentration in a metal matrix using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) has been used in combination with synchrotron radiation in order to determine detection limits and lowest limits of concentration of trace elements in metal matrices. Two applications on irradiated material are described, where the TXRF method has some advantages, as compared to other detection methods, because only few micrograms of material is needed for the measurements. The first application is devoted to radiation damage studies on first wall material of future fusion reactors. Therefore, metal foils were irradiated with 590 MeV protons at PSI and the transmutational elements produced in the foils were measured. The second application is the assessment of radiation damage of core components in a nuclear power plant, e.g. the reactor pressure vessel. This is performed by the determination of the fast neutron fluence on the components using an activation reaction of 93Nb which is a trace element in most reactor steels. Detection limits of a few picograms have been found in the experiments.

van Aarle, J.; Abela, R.; Hegedüs, F.; Streli, C.; Victoria, M.; Winkler, P.; Wobrauschek, P.

1999-10-01

399

Trace elemental analysis of drugs of abuse using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF).  

PubMed

Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SR-TXRF) was utilized to analyze various trace elements in small amounts of drugs of abuse. Sample amounts of 1 microL solutions containing 10 microg of drugs (methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin) were spotted on silicon wafers for direct analysis. In addition, a leaflet of marijuana was set directly on a silicon wafer, and opium in the form of a soft lump was smeared on another silicon wafer for analysis. In these experiments, about 10 pg of contaminant elements could be detected. For example, in a seized methamphetamine sample, iodine was found, which could be indicative of synthetic route. In seized 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine samples, variable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, and potassium were found, which could not be detected in a control 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine sample. For marijuana and opium, two spectral patterns were obtained that were far different from each other and could be easily discriminated. Using SR-TXRF, pg amounts of each trace element in 10 microg of various drugs can be easily detected, which is not the case either for a standard TXRF experimental system or for other elemental analysis techniques. PMID:12353579

Muratsu, Seiji; Ninomiya, Toshio; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Matsui, Junji

2002-09-01

400

Furthering the understanding of silicate-substitution in ?-tricalcium phosphate: an X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study.  

PubMed

High-purity (SupT) and reagent-grade (ST), stoichiometric and silicate-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP: ST0/SupT0 and Si-TCP x=0.10: ST10/SupT10) were prepared by solid-state reaction based on the substitution mechanism Ca3(PO4)(2-x)(SiO4)x. Samples were determined to be phase pure by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rietveld analysis performed on the XRD data confirmed inclusion of Si in the ?-TCP structure as determined by increases in unit cell parameters; particularly marked increases in the b-axis and ?-angle were observed. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) confirmed the presence of expected levels of Si in Si-TCP compositions as well as significant levels of impurities (Mg, Al and Fe) present in all ST samples; SupT samples showed both expected levels of Si and a high degree of purity. Phosphorus ((31)P) magic-angle-spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements revealed that the high-purity reagents used in the synthesis of SupT0 can resolve the 12 expected peaks in the (31)P spectrum of ?-TCP compared to the low-purity ST0 that showed significant spectral line broadening; line broadening was also observed with the inclusion of Si which is indicative of induced structural disorder. Silicon ((29)Si) MAS NMR was also performed on both Si-TCP samples which revealed Q(0) species of Si with additional Si Q(1)/Q(2) species that may indicate a potential charge-balancing mechanism involving the inclusion of disilicate groups; additional Q(4) Si species were also observed, but only for ST10. Heating and cooling rates were briefly investigated by (31)P MAS NMR which showed no significant line broadening other than that associated with the emergence of ?-TCP which was only realised with the reagent-grade sample ST0. This study provides an insight into the structural effects of Si-substitution in ?-TCP and could provide a basis for understanding how substitution affects the physicochemical properties of the material. PMID:24287162

Duncan, J; Hayakawa, S; Osaka, A; MacDonald, J F; Hanna, J V; Skakle, J M S; Gibson, I R

2014-03-01

401

Magnetic Compton-profile experiments using circularly polarized hard x rays  

SciTech Connect

The beamline NE-1A, constructed at the accumulation ring of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics in Tsukuba has brought a remarkable progress in the magnetic Compton-profile experiment. Circularly polarized hard x rays emitted from an elliptical multipole wiggler are monochromatized and focused with a quasidoubly-bent Si monochromator. We report the methodological aspect of recent successful magnetic Compton-profile experiments with high statistical accuracy achieved by using a Ge solid-state detector having thirteen segments.

Tanaka, Y.; Sakai, N. (The Institute of Physical Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-01 (Japan)); Kawata, H.; Iwazumi, T. (Photon Factory, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan))

1992-01-01

402

Nonlinear Laser Synchrotron Source Experiment for Tunable, Monochromatic X-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laser Synchrotron Source (LSS) experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory has generated monochromatic, tunable x-rays at 372 eV by Thomson backscattering of laser photons from a relativistic electron beam [1]. A new experiment is underway which will investigate nonlinear Thomson scattering using a new 4.5 MeV photocathode RF gun and the NRL T^3 laser (1 J, 0.4 ps). When

R. P. Fischer; A. Ting; D. Gordon; I. Alexeev; E. Briscoe; P. Sprangle

2003-01-01

403

Advances in the detection of as in environmental samples using low energy X-ray fluorescence in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope: arsenic immobilization by an Fe(II)-oxidizing freshwater bacteria.  

PubMed

Speciation and quantitative mapping of elements, organic and inorganic compounds, and mineral phases in environmental samples at high spatial resolution is needed in many areas of geobiochemistry and environmental science. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXMs) provide a focused beam which can interrogate samples at a fine spatial scale. Quantitative chemical information can be extracted using the transmitted and energy-resolved X-ray fluorescence channels simultaneously. Here we compare the relative merits of transmission and low-energy X-ray fluorescence detection of X-ray absorption for speciation and quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of arsenic(V) within cell-mineral aggregates formed by Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1, an anaerobic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing ?-proteobacteria isolated from the sediments of Lake Constance. This species is noted to be highly tolerant to high levels of As(V). Related, As-tolerant Acidovorax-strains have been found in As-contaminated groundwater wells in Bangladesh and Cambodia wherein they might influence the mobility of As by providing sorption sites which might have different properties as compared to chemically formed Fe-minerals. In addition to demonstrating the lower detection limits that are achieved with X-ray fluorescence relative to transmission detection in STXM, this study helps to gain insights into the mechanisms of As immobilization by biogenic Fe-mineral formation and to further the understanding of As-resistance of anaerobic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:22283463

Hitchcock, A P; Obst, M; Wang, J; Lu, Y S; Tyliszczak, T

2012-03-01

404

Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which would be converted to alphanumeric data in a digital equivalent data system (DEDS), which is the subject of the previous article. These alphanumeric data would be used to track the pearls through all stages of commerce, from the farmer to the retail customer.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

405

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important to land disposal restrictions. The long term precision (24-hr) also was good with percent relative standard deviations (%RSDs) < 10 % for most elements in filtered solution. There were some issues with a few elements precipitating out of solution over time affecting the long term precision of the method. Additional research will need to be performed to resolve this sample stability problem. Activities related to methodology optimization in the Phase 1b portion of the study were eliminated as a result of WTP request to discontinue remaining activities due to funding reduction. These preliminary studies demonstrate that developing an XRF method to support the LAW vitrification plant is feasible. When funding is restored for the WTP, it is recommended that optimization of this technology should be pursued.

Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

2006-05-08

406

Evaluation of the uncertainties associated with in vivo X-ray fluorescence bone lead calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An anthropometric leg phantom developed at the University of Cincinnati (UC) was used to evaluate the effects that changes in leg position and variation between subjects has on in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of stable lead in bone. The changes in leg position that were evaluated include changes in source-phantom distance ranging between 0.0 mm and 30.0 mm and phantom rotation over 40 degrees. Source-phantom distance was determined to have a significant effect on XRF measurement results particularly at source-phantom distances greater than 10.0 mm. Rotation of the leg phantom through 40 degrees was determined to have no significant effect on XRF measurement results. Between subject factors that were evaluated include bone calcium content and overlying tissue thickness. Bone calcium content was determined to have a significant effect on XRF measurements when measuring lead in micrograms per gram bone material. However, if measurement results of micrograms of lead per gram calcium (or per gram bone mineral) is used the normalization method makes the change in calcium content not significant. Overlying tissue thickness was determined to have no significant effect on XRF measurement results with tissue thickness ranging between 5.7 and 11.62 mm. The UC leg phantom was modified to include a fibula bone phantom so that the effect that the fibula has on XRF measurement results could be evaluated. The fibula was determined to have no significant effect on XRF measurement results and in the future need not be incorporated into in vivo XRF calibration phantoms. A knee phantom was also developed for purposes of calibrations of in vivo XRF measurement of lead in the patella. XRF measurement results using this phantom were compared to results of XRF measurements made using the plaster-of-Paris (POP) phantoms. A significant difference was observed between the normalized count rates of the two phantom types when either micrograms of lead per gram of bone material or micrograms of lead per gram calcium (bone mineral) is used as the lead content. This difference is consistent with what is observed in real in vivo XRF measurements and indicates the need for the correction factors that are used.

Lodwick, Jeffrey C.

407

Improvements in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detection limits with thin specimens deposited on thin transparent adhesive tape supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental detection limits observed in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) are better compared to that of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) by approximately three orders of magnitude (in pg level) mainly due to efficient excitation geometry and special features of total reflection of X-rays. Also, the matrix effects are negligible and the thin film approximation is valid for all types of specimens. The detection limits in EDXRF can be improved using thin specimens deposited on thin sample supports so that scattering and thereby background are reduced. In the present study, the detection limits in EDXRF could be improved to ng-pg level for different elements using thin specimens of the samples deposited on thin transparent adhesive tape supports. The EDXRF analytical results were in very good agreement with those of TXRF. The EDXRF detection limit achieved using this approach for Cr was found to be 1050 pg compared to 320 pg obtained in TXRF. For Y these values were found to be 320 and 168 pg respectively. The EDXRF detection limits achieved in the present work have given a new EDXRF analysis methodology for sample analysis with detection limits comparable to TXRF using a simple instrumentation.

Kanrar, Buddhadev; Sanyal, Kaushik; Misra, N. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

2014-11-01

408

Determination of trace elements in bee honey, pollen and tissue by total reflection and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multielemental determinations in samples of various types of bee honey, pollen and bee tissue have been carried out using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The objective was to establish whether the elemental content of bee honey, in particular, correlates with any useful information about the environment, variety of honey, etc. An attempt has also been made to determine the X-ray techniques' ability to compete with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), with regard to elemental sensitivity, accuracy, sample preparation procedures, and in particular, economic performance, which is very important in selecting an appropriate technique for the analysis of large numbers of samples. The results confirm the advantages of the TXRF method for trace element analysis, but only when utilising monochromatic excitation and selecting a proper sample preparation procedure. The radioisotope XRF technique, which does not require any sample preparation, is still very competitive in analysis of elements with concentrations above a few ten ppm. Preliminary results also confirm some correlations between the elemental content of honey and the status of the environment, and encourage further work in this direction

Kump, P.; Ne?emer, M.; Šnajder, J.

1996-04-01

409

Depth Profiling of Element Concentrations in Stratified Materials by Confocal Microbeam X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry with Polychromatic Excitation.  

PubMed

The confocal microbeam X-ray fluorescence technique is a well-established analytical tool that is widely used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of stratified materials. There are several different reconstruction methods dedicated to this type of samples. However, these methods are applicable with monochromatic excitation only. The full description of matrix effects and geometrical effects for polychromatic X-ray photons in confocal geometry is a demanding task. In the present paper, this problem was overcome by the use of effective energy approximation. The reduction of the whole energy dimension into one effective value eliminates the necessity of integration over the primary beam energy range for a number of basic parameters. This simplification is attainable without loss of the accuracy of analysis. The proposed approach was validated by applying it to the reconstruction of element concentration depth profiles of stratified standard samples measured with tabletop confocal microbeam X-ray fluorescence setup and by comparing the obtained results of two independent algorithms. PMID:25307861

Wrobel, Pawel; Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Lankosz, Marek

2014-11-18

410

Improving limited-projection-angle fluorescence molecular tomography using a co-registered x-ray computed tomography scan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the improvement in imaging performance, such as axial resolution and signal localization, when employing limited-projection-angle fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) together with x-ray computed tomography (XCT) measurements versus stand-alone FMT. For this purpose, we employed living mice, bearing a spontaneous lung tumor model, and imaged them with FMT and XCT under identical geometrical conditions using fluorescent probes for cancer targeting. The XCT data was employed, herein, as structural prior information to guide the FMT reconstruction. Gold standard images were provided by fluorescence images of mouse cryoslices, providing the ground truth in fluorescence bio-distribution. Upon comparison of FMT images versus images reconstructed using hybrid FMT and XCT data, we demonstrate marked improvements in image accuracy. This work relates to currently disseminated FMT systems, using limited projection scans, and can be employed to enhance their performance.

Radrich, Karin; Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2012-12-01

411

Trace Element Determinations in Presolar SiC Grains by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence: Commencement of a Coordinated Multimethod Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined trace element compositions of individual ~1-3 ?m presolar SiC grains from 6 KJG grains and 26 additionally cleaned KJG grains from the Murchison CM chondrite using nondestructive synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF).

K. B. Knight; S. R. Sutton; M. Newville; A. M. Davis; N. Dauphas; R. S. Lewis; S. Amari; I. M. Steele; M. R. Savina; M. J. Pellin

2008-01-01

412

X-ray fluorescence core scanning records of chemical weathering and monsoon evolution over the past 5 Myr in the southern South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrahigh resolution nondestructive X-ray fluorescence core scanning recordsK\\/Al and Ti\\/Al as East Asian summer monsoon proxyNonstationary phase of Asian summer monsoon relative to ice volume change

Jun Tian; Xin Xie; Wentao Ma; Haiyan Jin; Pinxian Wang

2011-01-01

413

Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) a new high sensitivity (PPT) quantitative method for forensic and environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TYRF) Spectroscopy instrumentation has recently become available on the U.S. commercial market. This x-ray excited method is touted for its sensitivity (parts per trillion), quantitative ability without the need for multi-element standards and lack of response change to matrix element differences. It has been promoted for use in forensic science and on environmental samples. This paper will discuss the results of a blind studies, wherein well characterized samples of forensic interest and environmental water proficiency tests were submitted for determination of elemental composition and concentration. The results indicate that this instrumentation should be considered by those laboratories analyzing materials at low (trace) concentrations or small (microscopical) size.

Kubic, T.A.; Amray, M.S. [ATOMIKA, Bedford, MA (United States); Reus, U. [ATOMKIA Instruments, Munich (Germany)] [and others

1995-12-31

414

Data processing technique for mercury determination by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence, using amalgamation with gold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method to determine mercury concentrations using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) which leads to reliable results. The usual sample preparation procedure of TXRF is not applicable due to element loss by evaporation on account of its high vapor pressure. The method we developed consists of forming an amalgam on a thin layer of gold affixed in a specular-surface quartz reflector while it is in contact with a mercury ionic solution. Subsequently, a traditional TXRF analysis is performed. Since the mercury and gold peaks overlap, we have developed a data processing scheme to achieve the most precise results. Using a molybdenum anode X-ray tube at 40 kV and 20 mA, the limit of detection achieved for a 10-?l specimen with 2000 s counting time is 250 ppb.

Bennun, L.; Gillette, V. H.; Greaves, E. D.

1999-09-01