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1

An in-vacuum wiggler for SOLEIL Hard X-rays spectral range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of Hard X-rays has become a tricky problem on medium energy storage rings. It requires Insertion Devices (IDs) with high magnetic field and a large number of periods. To cover the 20-50 keV photon energy range at SOLEIL (2.75 GeV), an in-vacuum wiggler (WSV50) has been preferred to a superconducting ID. The wiggler is composed of 38 periods of 50 mm producing a 2.1 T field at a minimum magnetic gap of 5.5 mm. To minimize the magnetic forces acting between magnet arrays (8.5 tons), a compensation system composed of non magnetic springs has been mounted apart from the magnet system to reduce the mechanical deformations. The wiggler has been assembled step by step by means of a genetic algorithm which minimizes the magnetic errors measured with a flipping coil. This paper presents the mechanical and magnetic design of the wiggler as well as the construction and the magnetic measurements.

Marcouille, O.; Chapuis, L.; Brunelle, P.; Berteaud, P.; Couprie, M.-E.; Filhol, J.-M.; Herbeaux, C.; Marlats, J.-L.; Massal, M.; Mary, A.; Tavakoli, K.; Valleau, M.; Veteran, J.

2010-06-01

2

Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

Fridriksson, Joel Karl

2011-01-01

3

Spectral formation in compact X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for calculating the transfer of X-rays through gas that is optically thick to Compton scattering. The method permits the simultaneous solution of the radiation-dominated temperature and ionization structure of the medium as well as the effects of incoherent Compton scattering of photons. Self-consistent results are obtained for idealized models of compact X-ray sources, represented as point sources of continuum X-rays surrounded by spherical shells of gas, demonstrating the range of spectral features that might result from such optically thick transfer. Some implications for the analysis of X-ray spectra of galactic X-ray sources are discussed.

Ross, R. R.

1979-01-01

4

X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Service Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Busquet, M. [ARTEP Inc, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ducret, J. E. [CELIA, UMR5107, CEA, CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, 33400 Talence (France); Foelsner, W. [Max Planck Instituet fuer Quantum Optik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S. [CEA, DSM, IRFU, Service d'astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2012-10-15

5

Spectral Analysis of X-Ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), with a particular source, XTE J1701-462, playing a central role. First, I construct and study color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) for a large sample of NS-LMXBs using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data spanning ~15 years. I study in particular detail three sources whose complicated CDs/HIDs are strongly affected by secular motion -- Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1 -- and show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with strong similarities to the transient Z source XTE J1701-462, which was previously shown to have evolved through all subclasses of NS-LMXBs as a result of changes in mass accretion rate. I build on the results for XTE J1701-462, Cyg X-2, and Cir X-1 and rank all the sources in the sample based only on their CD/HID morphology. I speculate that this represents a rough ranking in terms of the relative ranges in mass accretion rate experienced by the sources. Next, I use data from RXTE, Swift, Chandra, and XMM-Newton to study the transition to quiescence and the first ~1200 days of the quiescent phase of XTE J1701-462 following the end of its extraordinarily luminous 19 month outburst in 2006-2007. I find that the crust of the neutron star cooled rapidly during the first ~200 days of quiescence, after having been heated out of thermal equilibrium with the core during the outburst; the source has subsequently shown slower cooling along with sporadic low-level accretion activity. I discuss the implications of the observed cooling behavior and low-level accretion, the former of which yields information on the internal properties of the neutron star. Finally, I use multiple Chandra observations to study the X-ray source populations in the late-type galaxies NGC 6946 and NGC 4485/4490. A particular emphasis is placed on investigating the long-term variability of the sources, several of which are ultraluminous. I present detailed source catalogs and characterize the populations -- which consist primarily of X-ray binaries -- using X-ray luminosity functions and CDs.

Fridriksson, Joel K.

2011-09-01

6

Investigation of sensitometric characteristics of X-ray photoemulsions in the spectral range of 15-80 Å  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the sensitometric characteristics of X-ray films RAR 2497, SB-2, 101-01 (Kodak), D-7 (Agfa-Gevaert) and UFSh-0 (GNIIKhFP) has been carried out. These films are widely used in scientific research with different types of X-ray sources. The investigation was realized with the aid of a transmission grating spectrograph. An S-60 electron accelerator (P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute) was used as

Yu. M. Alexandrov; K. Eidmann; D. A. Fedin; R. V. Fedorchuk; M. O. Koshevoi; V. A. Murashova; A. A. Rupasov; A. S. Shikanov; M. R. Shpol'Sky; M. N. Yakimenko

1991-01-01

7

THE SECOND STAGE OF FERMI@ELETTRA: A SEEDED FEL IN THE SOFT X-RAY SPECTRAL RANGE  

SciTech Connect

The second stage of the FERMI FEL, named FEL-2, is based on the principle of high-gain harmonic generation and relies on a double-seeded cascade. Recent developments stimulated a revision of the original setup, which was designed to cover the spectral range between 40 and 10 nm. The numerical simulations we present here show that the nominal (expected) electron-beam performance allows extension of the FEL spectral range down to 4 nm. A significant amount of third harmonic power can be also expected. We also show that the proposed setup is flexible enough for exploiting future developments of new seed sources, e.g., high harmonic generation in gases.

Allaria, E.; DeNinno, G.; Fawley, W. M.

2009-08-14

8

Soft X-ray spectral observations of quasars and high X-ray luminosity Seyfert galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the analysis of 28 Einstein SSS observations of 15 high X-ray luminosity (L(x) 10 to the 435 power erg/s) quasars and Seyfert type 1 nuclei are presented. The 0.75-4.5 keV spectra are in general well fit by a simple model consisting of a power law plus absorption by cold gas. The averager spectral index alpha is 0.66 + or - .36, consistent with alpha for the spectrum of these objects above 2 keV. In all but one case, no evidence was found for intrinsic absorption, with an upper limit of 2 x 10 to the 21st power/sq cm. Neither was evidence found for partial covering of the active nucleus by dense, cold matter (N(H) 10 to the 22nd power/sq cm; the average upper limit on the partial covering fraction is 0.5. There is no obvious correlation between spectral index and 0175-4.5 keV X-ray luminosity (which ranges from 3 x 10 to the 43rd to 47th powers erg/s or with other source properties. The lack of intrinsic X-ray absorption allows us to place constraints on the density and temperature of the broad-line emission region, and narrow line emission region, and the intergalactic medium.

Petre, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Krolik, J. H.; Holt, S. S.

1983-01-01

9

Soft X-ray spectral observations of quasars and high X-ray luminosity Seyfert galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the analysis of 28 Einstein SSS observations of 15 high X-ray luminosity (L(x) 10 to the 435 power erg/s) quasars and Seyfert type 1 nuclei are presented. The 0.75-4.5 keV spectra are in general well fit by a simple model consisting of a power law plus absorption by cold gas. The average spectral index alpha is 0.66 + or -0.36, consistent with alpha for the spectrum of these objects above 2 keV. In all but one case, no evidence was found for intrinsic absorption, with an upper limit of 2 x 10 to the 21st power/sq cm. Neither was evidence found for partial covering of the active nucleus by dense, cold matter (N sub H greater than 10 to the 22nd power/sq cm); the average upper limit on the partial covering fraction is 0.5. There is no obvious correlation between spectral index and 0.75-4.5 keV X-ray luminosity (which ranges from 3 x 10 to the 43rd to 47th powers erg/s) or with other source properties. The lack of intrinsic X-ray absorption allows us to place constraints on the density and temperature of the broad-line emission region, and narrow line emission region, and the intergalactic medium. Previously announced in STAR as N84-14082

Petre, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.; Krolik, J. H.

1984-01-01

10

A new technique for X-ray spectroscopy of laser-plasmas with simultaneous 2D spatial resolution over a broad spectral range  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years, a new X-ray diagnostic technique has been developed by the group of the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory of the CNR in Pisa. Here we give a brief description of this new diagnostic tool, which basically allows X-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas to be performed over a broad photon energy range with a simultaneous 2D spatial resolution. An outline of recent results will be also given in order to assess the diagnostic capabilities.

Labate, L.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Koester, P.; Levato, T.; Pathak, N.; Gizzi, L. A. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy)

2012-05-25

11

High spectral and spatial resolution X-ray transmission radiography and tomography using a Color X-ray Camera  

PubMed Central

High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors which provide spectral information on the measured X-ray beam can help to overcome these limitations. In this paper, an energy dispersive CCD detector with high spectral resolution is characterized for use in high resolution radiography and tomography, where a focus is put on the experimental conditions and requirements of both measurement techniques. PMID:24357889

Boone, Matthieu N.; Garrevoet, Jan; Tack, Pieter; Scharf, Oliver; Cormode, David P.; Van Loo, Denis; Pauwels, Elin; Dierick, Manuel; Vincze, Laszlo; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

2013-01-01

12

New bright soft X-ray selected ROSAT AGN: I. Infrared-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions  

E-print Network

We present results of an infrared-to-X-ray study of 76 bright soft X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies discovered in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. These objects are characterized by steep X-ray spectra in the 0.2-2.0 keV bandpass with power law energy spectral indices in the range of 1.3 to 8 and a lack of internal absorption by neutral hydrogen. Our sample selection based on hardness ratio yields a mean X-ray slope of alpha-X = 2.1, steeper than in any other known AGN population. At optical wavelengths, the soft AGN have significantly bluer spectra than a comparison sample of AGN with a canonical, harder X-ray spectrum, whereas the slope between 5500 Angstrom and 1 keV is the same. This is consistent with a more pronounced Big Blue Bump emission component in the soft X-ray selected AGN. The blueness of the optical spectra increases with the softness of the X-ray spectra and with the luminosity, saturating at an approximate F_nu proportional to nu^+0.3 spectrum. Such properties are expected if most of the Big Blue Bump emission originates in a (comptonized) accretion disk and accretion rate to mass ratio is higher than in AGN with a hard X-ray spectrum.

D. Grupe; K. Beuermann; H. -C. Thomas; K. Mannheim; H. H. Fink

1997-10-27

13

Optimal material discrimination using spectral x-ray imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral x-ray imaging using novel photon counting x-ray detectors (PCDs) with energy resolving abilities is capable of providing energy-selective images. PCDs have energy thresholds, enabling the classification of photons into multiple energy bins. The extra energy information provided may allow materials such as iodine and calcium, or water and fat to be distinguishable. The information content of spectral x-ray images,

S. J. Nik; J. Meyer; R. Watts

2011-01-01

14

Extended range X-ray telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray telescope system is described which is comprised of a tubular mount having a collecting region remote from the one axial end. A soft X-ray/XUV subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively soft, near on-axis X-rays/XUV radiation incident on a first portion of the collecting region into a first detector sensitive to relatively soft X-rays/XUV radiation. A hard X-ray subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively hard near on-axis X-rays incident on a second portion of the collecting region into a second detector sensitive to relatively hard X-rays.

Hoover, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

15

X-ray spectral properties of {gamma}-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

The authors summarize the spectral characteristics of a sample of 22 bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the gamma-ray burst sensors aboard the satellite Ginga. This instrument employed a proportional and scintillation counter to provide sensitivity to photons in the 2--400 keV range, providing a unique opportunity to characterize the largely unexplored X-ray properties of gamma-ray bursts. The photon spectra of the Ginga bursts are well described by a low energy slope, a bend energy, and a high energy slope. In the energy range where they can be compared, this result is consistent with burst spectral analyses obtained from the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory. However, below 20 keV they find evidence for a positive spectral number index in approximately 40% of their burst sample, with some evidence for a strong rolloff at lower energies in a few events. They find that the distribution of spectral bend energies extends below 10 keV. The observed ratio of energy emitted in the X-rays relative to the gamma-rays can be much larger than a few percent and, in fact, is sometimes larger than unity. The average for their sample is 24%.

Strohmayer, T.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Fenimore, E.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Murakami, Toshio [ISAS, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Yoshida, Atsumasa [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

1997-09-01

16

A new X-ray spectral observation of NGC 1068  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new X-ray observation of NGC 1068, in which improved spectral resolution (R is approximately equal to 40) and broad energy range provide important new constraints on models for this galaxy, is reported. The observed X-ray continuum of NGC 1068 from 0.3 to 10 keV is well fitted as the sum of two power-law spectra with no evidence for absorption intrinsic to the source. Strong Fe K emission lines with a total equivalent width of 2700 eV were detected due to iron less ionized than Fe XX and to iron more ionized than Fe XXIII. No evidence was seen for lines due to the recombination of highly ionized oxygen with an upper limit for the O Ly-alpha emission line of 40 eV. The discovery of multiple Fe K and Fe L emission lines indicates a broad range of ionization states for this gas. The X-ray emission from the two components is modeled for various geometries using a photoionization code that calculates the temperature and ionization state of the gas. Typical model parameters are a total Compton depth of a few percent, an inner boundary of the hot component of about 1 pc, and an inner boundary of the warm component of about 20 pc.

Marshall, F. E.; Netzer, H.; Arnaud, K. A.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Jahoda, K. M.; Kelley, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Petre, R.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

1993-01-01

17

Spectral evolution of a long X-ray burst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray burst-like event with a peak intensity 1 1/2 times that of the Crab and a decay time of approximately 100s was observed. Significant spectral changes occurred during the burst. The spectra were best fit by the black form with kT ranging from .87 keV to 2.3 keV. They suggest a source with smaller dimensions than a massive black hole. A weak source was observed after the burst with a 10 keV thermal spectrum and an indication of iron line emission.

Swank, J. H.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

1976-01-01

18

X-ray spectral signatures of accreting black holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-ray properties of the binary black hole candidates include distinctive bimodal spectral behavior where the X-ray spectra switch between being very soft (alpha greater than 3) and hard (alpha about 0.7). It is pointed out that this spectral transition occurs at about 1 percent L(edd) (for accretion onto a 10 solar masses black hole), and that this corresponds to the luminosity where an optically thick electron-positron pair plasma will form. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often considered to be accreting black holes. An X-ray spectral similarity between the above binary sources and both the Seyfert I and BL Lac classes of AGN is demonstrated. As many of these objects radiate most of their luminosity as X-rays, such a similarity may be expected if the underlying mechanisms are similar.

White, N. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotzky, R. F.

1984-01-01

19

X-ray time and spectral variability as probes of ultraluminous x-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-standing debate in the field of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs: luminosities > 3x1039 ergs s-1) is whether these objects are powered by stellar-mass black holes (mass range of 3-25 solar masses) undergoing hyper-accretion/emission or if they host the long-sought after class of intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses) accreting material at sub-Eddington rates. We present X-ray time and energy spectral variability studies of ULXs in order to understand their physical environments and accurately weigh their compact objects. A sample of ULXs exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with centroid frequencies in the range of 10-200 mHz. The nature of the power density spectra (PDS) of these sources is qualitatively similar to stellar-mass black holes when they exhibit the so-called type-C low-frequency QPOs (frequency range of 0.2-15 Hz). However, the crucial difference is that the characteristic frequencies within the PDS of ULXs, viz., the break frequencies and the centroid frequencies of the QPOs, are scaled down by a factor of approximately 10-100 compared to stellar-mass black holes. It has thus been argued that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C low-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes and that the observed difference in the frequencies (a fewx0.01 Hz compared with a few Hz) is due to the presence of intermediate-mass black holes ( MULX = (QPOstellar-mass black hole }/QPOULX)xM stellar-mass black hole, where M and QPO are the mass and the QPO frequency, respectively) within these ULXs. We analyzed all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray data of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1 in order to test the hypothesis that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C analogs by searching for a correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the energy spectral power-law index as type-C QPOs show such a dependence. From our multi-epoch timing and spectral analysis of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1, we found that the mHz QPOs of these sources vary in frequency by factors of approximately 4 and 6, respectively. However, we did not find evidence for changes in their energy-spectral indices. The apparent lack of a correlation---unlike the type-C QPOs---implies that either the ULX mHz QPOs are fundamentally different compared to the stellar-mass black hole low-frequency QPOs or they are indeed analogous to the low-frequency QPOs but with the observed dependence corresponding to the saturated portion of the correlation seen in stellar-mass black holes. We analyzed all the archival Swift data of ULX NGC 5408 X-1 and found evidence for a 243+/-23 day X-ray period. Based on its variation profile, energy dependence and transient nature, we argue that this period represents the orbital period of the black hole binary. We revisit the previously reported 62 day X-ray period of M82 X-1 and found evidence that the accretion disk's flux varies with this period's phase and also noted that the period's phase changed unusually fast during a certain epoch. Based on this we argue that this period might not be orbital but instead be due to a precessing accretion disk. By combining and averaging all the archival RXTE/PCA data of M82 we detect stable, 3:2 frequency ratio QPOs (>4.7 sigma statistical significance) which we argue represent the high-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes. Unlike the low-frequency QPOs, the high-frequency QPOs of stellar-mass black holes are stable, often occur in frequency ratios of 3:2 and scale inversely with black hole mass. Using the most recent mass estimates of stellar-mass black holes which show high-frequency QPOs and the detected 3:2 pair frequencies of 3.32+/-0.06 and 5.07+/-0.06 Hz from M82 X-1, we were able to accurately weigh its black hole to 428+/-105 solar masses. This detection presents a unique technique to weigh the black holes in variable ULXs. Similar oscillations in other ULXs should be detectable with future X-ray observatories. Finally, we conclude by discussing our preliminary results from the first X-ray---optical reverberation mapping of a ULX and al

Pasham, Dheeraj Ranga Reddy

20

THE X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES TOWARD QUIESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

Most transient black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) spend the bulk of their time in a quiescent state, where they accrete matter from their companion star at highly sub-Eddington luminosities (we define quiescence here as a normalized Eddington ratio l{sub x} = L{sub 0.5-10{sub keV}}/L{sub Edd} < 10{sup -5}). Here, we present Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy for three BHXB systems (H 1743-322, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1752-223) as they fade into quiescence following an outburst. Multiple X-ray observations were taken within one month of each other, allowing us to track each individual system's X-ray spectral evolution during its decay. We compare these three systems to other BHXB systems. We confirm that quiescent BHXBs have softer X-ray spectra than low-hard-state BHXBs, and that quiescent BHXB spectral properties show no dependence on the binary system's orbital parameters. However, the observed anti-correlation between X-ray photon index ({Gamma}) and l{sub x} in the low-hard state does not continue once a BHXB enters quiescence. Instead, {Gamma} plateaus to an average ({Gamma}) = 2.08 {+-} 0.07 by the time l{sub x} reaches {approx}10{sup -5}. l{sub x} {approx} 10{sup -5} is thus an observationally motivated upper limit for the beginning of the quiescent spectral state. Our results are discussed in the context of different accretion flow models and across the black hole mass scale.

Plotkin, Richard M.; Gallo, Elena [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Jonker, Peter G., E-mail: rplotkin@umich.edu [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2013-08-10

21

Super-soft X-ray Spectral Evolution in Novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swift has performed intensive monitoring of a number of novae as they pass through their super-soft X-ray phase. While Chandra and XMM-Newton can provide high-resolution grating spectra, important for identifying individual emission and absorption features and placing constraints on abundances, few observations are obtained with these instruments, thus providing only rare snapshots of the super-soft spectral evolution. With Swift, however, we can perform daily (if not hourly) monitoring, allowing us to follow the entirety of the super-soft phase in great detail. Spectral evolution is clear, often even when simply comparing the unfitted spectra. Here, we fit stellar atmosphere models to the X-ray spectra of some of the densely-observed Swift novae, investigating the evolution of temperature, emitting radius and X-ray luminosity throughout their super-soft phases.

Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.

2014-12-01

22

Spectral Formation in X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns  

E-print Network

We present the first self-consistent model for the dynamics and the radiative transfer occurring in bright X-ray pulsar accretion columns, with a special focus on the role of the shock in energizing the emerging X-rays. The pressure inside the accretion column of a luminous X-ray pulsar is dominated by the photons, and consequently the equations describing the coupled radiative-dynamical structure must be solved simultaneously. Spectral formation in these sources is therefore a complex, nonlinear phenomenon. We obtain the analytical solution for the Green's function describing the upscattering of monochromatic radiation injected into the column from the thermal mound located near the base of the flow. The Green's function is convolved with a Planck distribution to model the X-ray spectrum resulting from the reprocessing of blackbody photons produced in the thermal mound. These photons diffuse through the infalling gas and eventually escape out the walls of the column, forming the observed X-ray spectrum. We show that the resulting column-integrated, phase-averaged spectrum has a power-law shape at high energies and a blackbody shape at low energies, in agreement with the observational data for many X-ray pulsars.

Peter A. Becker; Michael T. Wolff

2005-03-03

23

Modification of the TASMIP x-ray spectral model for the simulation of microfocus x-ray sources  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The availability of accurate and simple models for the estimation of x-ray spectra is of great importance for system simulation, optimization, or inclusion of photon energy information into data processing. There is a variety of publicly available tools for estimation of x-ray spectra in radiology and mammography. However, most of these models cannot be used directly for modeling microfocus x-ray sources due to differences in inherent filtration, energy range and/or anode material. For this reason the authors propose in this work a new model for the simulation of microfocus spectra based on existing models for mammography and radiology, modified to compensate for the effects of inherent filtration and energy range. Methods: The authors used the radiology and mammography versions of an existing empirical model [tungsten anode spectral model interpolating polynomials (TASMIP)] as the basis of the microfocus model. First, the authors estimated the inherent filtration included in the radiology model by comparing the shape of the spectra with spectra from the mammography model. Afterwards, the authors built a unified spectra dataset by combining both models and, finally, they estimated the parameters of the new version of TASMIP for microfocus sources by calibrating against experimental exposure data from a microfocus x-ray source. The model was validated by comparing estimated and experimental exposure and attenuation data for different attenuating materials and x-ray beam peak energy values, using two different x-ray tubes. Results: Inherent filtration for the radiology spectra from TASMIP was found to be equivalent to 1.68 mm Al, as compared to spectra obtained from the mammography model. To match the experimentally measured exposure data the combined dataset required to apply a negative filtration of about 0.21 mm Al and an anode roughness of 0.003 mm W. The validation of the model against real acquired data showed errors in exposure and attenuation in line with those reported for other models for radiology or mammography. Conclusions: A new version of the TASMIP model for the estimation of x-ray spectra in microfocus x-ray sources has been developed and validated experimentally. Similarly to other versions of TASMIP, the estimation of spectra is very simple, involving only the evaluation of polynomial expressions.

Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J., E-mail: juanjose.vaquero@uc3m.es [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Desco, M. [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain) [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid ES28029 (Spain)

2014-01-15

24

Different X-Ray Spectral Evolution for Black Hole X-Ray Binaries in Dual Tracks of Radio-X-Ray Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, an "outlier" track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, ?, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F 3-9 keV, is below and above a critical flux, F X, crit, which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F 3-9 keV >~ F X, crit have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F_X\\propto F_R^{b} and b ~ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the "outlier" track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of ? - F 3-9 keV either stay in the universal track with b ~ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to "outlier" tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and "outlier" tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

2014-06-01

25

Spectral-based 2D/3D X-ray to CT image rigid registration M. Freimana, O. Pelea, A. Hurvitza, M. Wermana, L. Joskowicza  

E-print Network

Spectral-based 2D/3D X-ray to CT image rigid registration M. Freimana, O. Pelea, A. Hurvitza, M, Israel. ABSTRACT We present a spectral-based method for the 2D/3D rigid registration of X-ray images the CT in the expected in-plane location ranges of the fluoroscopic X-ray imaging devices. Each DRR

Werman, Michael

26

X-ray Spectral Formation In High-mass X-ray Binaries: The Case Of Vela X-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are working to develop improved models of radiatively-driven mass flows in the presence of an X-ray source -- such as in X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and active galactic nuclei -- in order to infer the physical properties that determine the X-ray spectra of such systems. The models integrate a three-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamics capability (FLASH); a comprehensive and uniform set of atomic data, improved calculations of the line force multiplier that account for X-ray photoionization and non-LTE population kinetics, and X-ray emission-line models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas (HULLAC); and a Monte Carlo radiation transport code that simulates Compton scattering and recombination cascades following photoionization. As a test bed, we have simulated a high-mass X-ray binary with parameters appropriate to Vela X-1. While the orbital and stellar parameters of this system are well constrained, the physics of X-ray spectral formation is less well understood because the canonical analytical wind velocity profile of OB stars does not account for the dynamical and radiative feedback effects due to the rotation of the system and to the irradiation of the stellar wind by X-rays from the neutron star. We discuss the dynamical wind structure of Vela X-1 as determined by the FLASH simulation, where in the binary the X-ray emission features originate, and how the spatial and spectral properties of the X-ray emission features are modified by Compton scattering, photoabsorption, and fluorescent emission. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

Akiyama, Shizuka; Mauche, C. W.; Liedahl, D. A.; Plewa, T.

2007-05-01

27

Energy Calibration of the Pixels of Spectral X-ray Detectors.  

PubMed

The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally ?-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

2015-03-01

28

SPECTRAL STATES AND EVOLUTION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

We examined spectral evolution in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with apparent luminosities of about 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. Based on new results in this paper, and those reported in the literature, two common spectral behaviors were found. Some ULXs in starburst galaxies have varying luminosity (L) but remain in the hard state with power-law spectra and a constant, hard photon index ({gamma}). Other ULXs, such as NGC 5204 X-1, show a correlation between L and {gamma}. We interpret this L-{gamma} correlated phase as an intermediate state with hybrid properties from the thermal dominant and steep power-law states. When the spectra of NGC 5204 X-1 are fitted with a multicolor disk blackbody plus power-law model, the X-ray luminosity increases with the effective temperature of the accretion disk in a manner similar to that found in stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries, suggesting that the emission arises from an accretion disk. The luminosity, disk size, and temperature suggest that NGC 5204 X-1 harbors a compact object more massive than stellar-mass black holes. In contrast, the disk model in IC 342 X-1 is ruled out because the luminosity decreases as the temperature increases; sources with such behavior may represent a class of objects with super-Eddington accretion. Also, we report a peculiar soft spectral feature from IC 342 X-2 and variability on a timescale of 20 ks from Holmberg II X-1. More observations are needed to test these results.

Feng Hua [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kaaret, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)], E-mail: hfeng@tsinghua.edu.cn

2009-05-10

29

The Extended Range X-Ray Telescope center director's discretionary fund report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Extended Range X-Ray Telescope (ERXRT) of high sensitivity and spatial resolution capable of functioning over a broad region of the X-ray/XUV portion of the spectrum has been designed and analyzed. This system has been configured around the glancing-incidence Wolter Type I X-ray mirror system which was flown on the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount as ATM Experiment S-056. Enhanced sensitivity over a vastly broader spectral range can be realized by the utilization of a thinned, back-illuminated, buried-channel Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as the X-ray/XUV detector rather than photographic film. However, to maintain the high spatial resolution inherent in the X-ray optics when a CCD of 30 micron pixel size is used, it is necessary to increase the telescope plate scale. This can be accomplished by use of a glancing-incidence X-ray microscope to enlarge and re-focus the primary image onto the focal surface of the CCD.

Hoover, R. B.; Cumings, N. P.; Hildner, E.; Moore, R. L.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E. A.

1985-01-01

30

Unsupervised spectral decomposition of X-ray spectra from galactic black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the X-ray spectra of accreting black holes often leads to a problem of degeneracy, i.e. multiple distinct models fit the observed data equally well. Even if an apparently good fit is obtained between the data and the model, it does not necessarily imply a match between theory and physical reality. We separate a multivariate signal -- a set of time series of X-ray spectra -- into subcomponents, using linear unsupervised decomposition methods. This analysis will provide a better estimate of the X-ray continuum models needed to fit the X-ray spectra in these sources by taking into an account also the spectral variability in addition to the fitting of the individual spectra. A comparison with the different analysis methods are studied and suggestions made for the future use of these methods in the context of this study. We apply these analysis methods to an archival set of X-ray spectra from a stellar mass black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4. With a sufficiently long set of observations throughout the hardness-intensity diagram (HID) from GX 339-4, the use of unsupervised decomposition methods reveal how the spectral components change across the HID. We will discuss the ramifications of these results.

Koljonen, K.

2014-07-01

31

Spectral Modeling of X-rays from Hot Star Winds Emma E. Wollman, Swarthmore College `09  

E-print Network

1 Spectral Modeling of X-rays from Hot Star Winds Emma E. Wollman, Swarthmore College `09 Prof x-ray spectra from Chandra's archive. Models of x-ray production in hot star winds predict broad by either lowering the values of the mass-loss rate for these winds, or by reassessing the commonly accepted

Cohen, David

32

X-ray signatures: New time scales and spectral features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The millisecond bursts from Cyg X-1 are investigated and the overall chaotic variability for the bulk of the Cyg X-1 emission is compared to that of Sco X-1, showing that the essential character is remarkably similar (i.e. shot noise) although the fundamental time scales involved differ widely, from a fraction of a second (for Cyg X-1) to a fraction of a day (for Sco X-1). Recent OSO-8 observations of spectra features attributable to iron are reviewed. In particular, line emission is discussed within the context of a model for thermal radiation by a hot evolved gas in systems as different as supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies. Newly observed spectral structure in the emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 is reported.

Boldt, E. A.

1977-01-01

33

High-Frequency X-Ray Oscillations and X-Ray Spectral Evolution in Galactic Black Hole Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are now 5 Galactic black hole candidates that have exhibited quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in X-rays in the range of 67 to 300 Hz. The rms amplitudes are near 1 % of the average flux, and in two cases there are significant changes in the QPO frequency. The short timescales and origin in X-rays suggest that these QPOs signify inner accretion disk oscillations rooted in General Relativity, but the particular mechanism is uncertain. For two of these cases, GRO J1655-40 and GRS 1915+105, we trace the conditions under which these QPOs appear in terms of the division of luminosity between the X-ray components due to the accretion disk and the hard X-ray power law. In this context, the fast QPOs are most likely to occur when there is high luminosity in both the disk and the X-ray power-law component. On the other hand, the QPOs are not seen when the X-ray spectrum resembles either a pure disk or a dominant power-law component associated with a radio jet. The results imply a closer kinship for these QPOs than might be concluded from considerations of the gross shape of the X-ray spectrum.

Remillard, R. A.; Morgan, E. H.; Muno, M.

2002-12-01

34

STATISTICAL STUDY of HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR FLARES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spectral characteristics of 75 solar flares at the hard X-ray peak time observed by RHESSI (Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) in the energy range 12-150keV. At energies above 40keV, the Hard X-ray emission is mostly produced by bremsstrahlung of suprathermal electrons as they interact with the ambient plasma in the chromosphere. The observed photon spectra therefore provide diagnostics of electron acceleration processes in Solar flares. We will present statistical results of spectral fitting using two models: a broken power law plus a thermal component which is a direct fit of the photon spectrum and a thick target model plus a thermal component which is a fit of the photon spectra with assumptions on the electrons emitting bremsstrahlung in the thick target approximation.

Alaoui, M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Lin, R. P.

2009-12-01

35

Energy dependence of power-spectral noise in X-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries show variability on time-scales ranging from milliseconds to years. In the last two decades a detailed phenomenological picture of short-term variability in low-mass X-ray binaries has emerged mainly based on RXTE observations that cover energies above 3 keV. This picture comprises periodic or quasi-periodic variability, seen as spikes or humps in power density spectra, that are superposed on broad noise components. The overall shape of the noise components as well as the occurrence of quasi-periodic oscillations is known to vary with the state of the X-ray binary. We are accomplishing a comprehensive study of archival XMM-Newton observations in timing or burst mode of more than ten black hole and more than thirty neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries to investigate the variability properties of these sources at softer energies where the thermal disk component starts to emerge.Here we present some results of the energy dependence of the noise component in power density spectra: a discussion of the energy dependence of the power spectral state that we found in the “plateau” state of GRS 1915+105 and the intermediate state of 4U 1630-47; the dependence of the break-frequency of the band-limited noise component as well as the quasi-periodic oscillations on the studied energy band in several X-ray binaries like GX 339-4 or Swift J1753.5-0127. We will discuss the implications of these findings for the picture of the accretion geometry in black hole X-ray binaries.

Stiele, Holger; Yu, Wenfei

2014-08-01

36

Correlations between X-ray and radio spectral properties of accreting black holes  

E-print Network

We study correlations betwen X-ray spectral index, strength of Compton reflection, and X-ray and radio fluxes in accreting black holes (Seyferts and black-hole binaries). We critically evaluate the evidence for the correlation of the X-ray spectral index with the strength of Compton reflection and consider in detail statistical and systematic effects that can affect it. We study patterns of spectral variability (in particular, pivoting of a power law spectrum) corresponding to the X-ray index-flux correlation. We also consider implications of the form of observed X-ray spectra and their variability for interpretation of the correlation between the radio and X-ray fluxes. Finally, we discuss accretion geometries that can account for the correlations and their overall theoretical interpretations.

Andrzej A. Zdziarski; Piotr Lubinski; Marat Gilfanov; Mike Revnivtsev

2003-02-20

37

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOEpatents

A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

1998-01-01

38

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOEpatents

A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

1998-07-07

39

Extended range X-ray telescope: X-ray microscope design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glancing incidence X-ray microscope using a confocal hyperboloid ellipsoid mirror was designed to couple optically a Wolter 1 telescope to a CCD focal plane detector. Both the RMS spot size and the point spread function calculations were used to evaluate the resolution, defocusing, and vignetting effects of the system for microscope focal lengths of 1, 1.5, and 2 meters

D. L. Shealy; A. Kassim; S. Chao

1982-01-01

40

X-Ray Spectral Variability in Cygnus X-1  

E-print Network

Spectral variability in different energy bands of X-rays from Cyg X-1 in different states is studied with RXTE observations and time domain approaches. In the hard tail of energy spectrum above $\\sim 10$ keV, average peak aligned shots are softer than the average steady emission and the hardness ratio decreases when the flux increases during a shot for all states. In regard to a soft band lower $\\sim 10$ keV, the hardness in the soft state varies in an opposite way: it peaks when the flux of the shot peaks. For the hard and transition states, the hardness ratio in respect to a soft band during a shot is in general lower than that of the steady component and a sharp rise is observed at about the shot peak. For the soft state, the correlation coefficient between the intensity and hardness ratio in the hard tail is negative and decreases monotonically as the timescale increases from 0.01 s to 50 s, which is opposite to that in regard to a soft band. For the hard and transition states, the correlation coefficients are in general negative and have a trend of decrease with increasing timescale.

C. Z. Liu; T. P. Li

2004-05-13

41

X-ray spectral evolution of high redshift quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At z approx. equals 3, the x-ray spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. High-redshift radio-quiet quasars either have large absorbing columns, N(sub H), and steeper power law spectral indices, alpha(sub epsilon), than low redshift quasars, or no absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s. In contrast, the radio-loud quasars at high redshift have substantial absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s to low redshift quasars. Implications for the interpretation of the evolution of the luminosity function of quasars are discussed. If the absorption arises outside the central engine for both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, then radio-quiet quasars differ from the radio-loud quasars in that their emitted power law spectrum has evolved with redshift. We argue that this favors models where quasars are numerous and short-lived, rather than rare and long-lived.

Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

1994-01-01

42

X-Ray Spectral Study of the Photoionized Stellar Wind in Vela X-1  

SciTech Connect

We present results from quantitative modeling and spectral analysis of the high mass X-ray binary system Vela X-1 obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The observations cover three orbital phase ranges within a single binary orbit. The spectra exhibit emission lines from H-like and He-like ions driven by photoionization, as well as fluorescent emission lines from several elements in lower charge states. The properties of these X-ray lines are measured with the highest accuracy to date. In order to interpret and make full use of the high-quality data, we have developed a simulator, which calculates the ionization and thermal structure of a stellar wind photoionized by an X-ray source, and performs Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photons propagating through the wind. The emergent spectra are then computed as a function of the viewing angle accurately accounting for photon transport in three dimensions including dynamics. From comparisons of the observed spectra with results from the simulator, we are able to find the ionization structure and the geometrical distribution of material in the stellar wind of Vela X-1 that can reproduce the observed spectral line intensities and continuum shapes at different orbital phases remarkably well. We find that the stellar wind profile can be represented by a CAK-model with a star mass loss rate of (1.5-2.0) x 10{sup -6} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}, assuming a terminal velocity of 1100 km s{sup -1}. It is found that a large fraction of X-ray emission lines from highly ionized ions are formed in the region between the neutron star and the companion star. We also find that the fluorescent X-ray lines must be produced in at least three distinct regions: (1) the extended stellar wind, (2) reflection off the stellar photosphere, and (3) in a distribution of dense material partially covering and possibly trailing the neutron star, which may be associated with an accretion wake. Finally, from detailed analysis of the emission line profiles, we demonstrate that the stellar wind dynamics is affected by X-ray photoionization.

Watanabe, Shin; Sako, Masao; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kahn, Steven M.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Nagase, Fumiaki; Paerels, Frederik; Takahashi, Tadayuki; /JAXA,

2006-07-10

43

Development of a stacked detector system for the x-ray range and its possible applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a stacked detector system operating in the X-ray range from 0.5 keV to 250 keV that consists of a Si-based 64×64 DePFET-Matrix in front of a CdTe hybrid detector called Caliste-64. The setup is operated under laboratory conditions that approximate the expected environment of a space-borne observatory. The DePFET detector is an active pixel matrix that provides high count-rate capabilities with a near Fanolimited spectral resolution at energies up to 15 keV. The Caliste-64 hard X-ray camera consists of a 1mm thick CdTe crystal combined with very compact integrated readout electronics, constituting a high performance spectro-imager with event-triggered time-tagging capability in the energy range between 2 keV and 200 keV. In this combined geometry the DePFET detector works as the Low Energy Detector (LED) while the Caliste-64 - as the High Energy Detector (HED) - detects predominantly the high energetic photons that have passed the LED. In addition to the individual optimization of both detectors, we use the setup to test and optimize the performance of the combined detector system. Side-effects like X-ray fluorescence photons, electrical crosstalk, and mutual heating have negative impacts on the data quality and will be investigated. Besides the primary application as a combined imaging detector system with high sensitivity across a broad energy range, additional applications become feasible. Via the analysis of coincident events in both detectors we can estimate the capabilities of the setup to be used as a Compton camera and as an X-ray polarimeter - both desirable functionalities for use in the lab as well as for future X-ray missions.

Maier, Daniel; Limousin, Olivier; Meuris, Aline; Pürckhauer, Sabina; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanz, Thomas; Tenzer, Christoph

2014-07-01

44

SPECTRAL SURVEY OF X-RAY BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER  

SciTech Connect

Using long-term monitoring data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have selected 23 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to derive broadband X-ray spectra from 3 to {approx}>100 keV. Our sample includes mainly radio-quiet Seyferts, as well as seven radio-loud sources. Given the longevity of the RXTE mission, the greater part of our data is spread out over more than a decade, providing truly long-term average spectra and eliminating inconsistencies arising from variability. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line parameters, Compton reflection strengths, and photon indices, as well as fluxes and luminosities for the hard and very hard energy bands, 2-10 keV and 20-100 keV, respectively. We find tentative evidence for high-energy rollovers in three of our objects. We improve upon previous surveys of the very hard X-ray energy band in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, particularly with respect to confirming and quantifying the Compton reflection component. This survey is meant to provide a baseline for future analysis with respect to the long-term averages for these sources and to cement the legacy of RXTE, and especially its High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment, as a contributor to AGN spectral science.

Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard, E-mail: erivers@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

2011-03-15

45

Spectral and Temporal Characteristics of X-Ray-Bright Stars in the Pleiades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We follow up our deep ROSAT imaging survey of the Pleiades (Stauffer et al. 1994) with an analysis of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray-bright stars in the Pleiades. Raymond & Smith (1977) one and two-temperature models have been used to fit the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) pulse-height spectra of the dozen or so brightest sources associated with late-type Pleiades members. The best-fit temperatures suggest hot coronal temperatures for K, M, and rapidly rotating G stars, and cooler temperatures for F and slowly rotating G stars. In order to probe the many less X-ray-luminous stars, we have generated composite spectra by combining net counts from all Pleiades members according to spectral type and rotational velocity. Model fits to the composite spectra confirm the trend seen in the individual spectral fits. Particularly interesting is the apparent dependence of coronal temperature on L(sub x)/L(sub bol). A hardness-ratio analysis also confirms some of these trends. The PSPC data have also revealed a dozen or so strong X-ray flares with peak X-ray luminosities in excess of approx. 10(exp 30) ergs/sec. We have modeled the brightest of these flares with a simple quasi-static cooling loop model. The peak temperature and emission measure and the inferred electron density and plasma volume suggest a very large scale flaring event. The PSPC data were collected over a period of approx. 18 months, allowing us to search for source variability on timescales ranging from less than a day (in the case of flares) to more than a year between individual exposures. On approximately year-long timescales, roughly 25% of the late-type stars are variable. Since the Pleiades was also intensively monitored by the imaging instruments on the Einstein Observatory, we have examined X-ray luminosity variations on the 10 yr timescale between Einstein and ROSAT and find that up to 40% of the late-type stars are X-ray variable. Since there is only marginal evidence for increased variability on decade-long timescales, the variability observed on long and short timescales may have a common physical origin.

Gagne, Marc; Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Stauffer, John R.

1995-01-01

46

Small, Fast TES Microcalorimeters with Unprecedented X-ray Spectral Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Driven initially by the desire for X-ray microcalorimeter arrays suitable for imaging the dynamic solar corona, we have developed a transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeter optimization that exhibits a unique combination of high spectral resolving power and a wide X-ray bandpass. These devices have achieved spectral performance of dE approximately 1.3 eV FWHM at 1.5 keV, 1.6 eV at 6 keV, and 2.0 eV at 8 keV, using small TESs (e.g., approximately 35 micron x 35 micron) that operate in a regime in which the superconducting transition is highly current dependent. In order to accommodate high X-ray count rates, the devices sit directly on a solid substrate instead of on membranes, and we use an embedded heatsinking layer to reduce pixel-to-pixel crosstalk. We will present results from devices with a range of TES and absorber sizes, and from device wafers with varied embedded heatsink materials. This contribution will focus on count-rate capabilities, including a discussion of the trade-off between count rate and energy resolution, and the heatsinking design. We will also present preliminary tests of array readout using a code-division multiplexed SQUID readout scheme, which may be necessary to enable large arrays of these fast devices.

Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.

2011-01-01

47

X-ray spectral and variability properties of low-mass active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the X-ray properties of a sample of 14 optically selected low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGN) whose masses lie within the range 105-2 × 106 M? with XMM-Newton. Only six of these low-mass AGN have previously been studied with sufficient quality X-ray data, thus, we have more than double the number of low-mass AGN observed by XMM-Newton with the addition of our sample. We analyse their X-ray spectral properties and variability and compare the results to their more massive counterparts. The presence of a soft X-ray excess is detectable in all five objects which were not background dominated at 2-3 keV. Combined with previous studies, this gives a total of eight low-mass AGN with a soft excess. The low-mass AGN exhibit rapid, short-term variability (hundreds to thousands of seconds) and long-term variability (months to years). There is a well-known anticorrelation between black hole mass and variability amplitude (normalized excess variance). Comparing our sample of low-mass AGN with this relation we find that all of our sample lie below an extrapolation of the linear relation. Such a flattening of the relation at low masses (below ˜106 M?) is expected if the variability in all AGN follows the same shape power spectrum with a break frequency that is dependent on mass. Finally, we also found two objects that show significant absorption in their X-ray spectrum, indicative of type 2 objects, although they are classified as type 1 AGN based on optical spectra.

Ludlam, R. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Gültekin, K.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, L.; Miniutti, G.

2015-03-01

48

A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4  

E-print Network

The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft ...

Chakrabarty, Deepto

49

Photon counting spectral CT: improved material decomposition with K-edge-filtered x-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting spectral computed tomography (PCSCT) provides material selective CT imaging at a single CT scan and fixed tube voltage. The PCSCT data are acquired in several energy ranges (bins) arranged over the x-ray spectrum. The quasi-monoenergetic CT images are acquired in these energy bins and are used for material decomposition. The PCSCT exhibits inherent limitations when material decomposition is performed using energy bins. For effective material decomposition, the energy bins used for material decomposition should be sufficiently narrow and well separated. However, when narrow bins are used, a large fraction of the detected x-ray counts is lost and statistical noise is increased. Alternatively, the x-ray spectrum can be split into a few larger bins with no gap in between and all detected x-ray photons can be used for material decomposition. However, in this case the energy bins are too wide and not well separated, which results in suboptimal material decomposition. The above contradictory requirements can be resolved if the x-ray photons are physically removed from the regions of the energy spectrum between the energy bins. Such a selective removal can be performed using filtration of the x-ray beam by high-Z filter materials with appropriate positions of K-edge energies. The K-edge filtration of x-rays can, therefore, provide necessary gaps between the energy bins with no dose penalty to the patient. In the current work, we proposed using selective K-edge filtration of x-rays in PCSCT and performed the first experimental investigation of this approach. The PCSCT system included a cadmium zinc telluride semiconductor detector with 2 × 256 pixels and 1 × 1 mm2 pixel size, and five energy bins. The CT phantom had 14 cm diameter and included contrast elements of iodine, gold and calcifications with clinically relevant concentrations. The tube voltages of 60, 90 and 120 kVp were used. K-edge filters based on Ba (Ek = 37.44 keV) were used for a 60 kVp tube voltage and Gd (Ek = 50.24 keV) was used for the 90 and 120 kVp tube voltages, respectively. The material selective CT images were also acquired with conventional Al filtration for comparison. The half-value layers of x-ray beams after K-edge and Al filtration were matched. The mean entrance skin exposure was 280 mR for all tube voltages and filters. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in material-decomposed images was approximately 30%-50% higher when K-edge filters were used instead of Al filters. It was concluded that K-edge filtration of x-rays provides substantial improvement of the CNR in material-selective PCSCT. Further optimization of K-edge filter materials, tube voltages, detector technology and energy bin settings will provide even higher CNR in decomposed images.

Shikhaliev, Polad M.

2012-03-01

50

Photon counting spectral CT: improved material decomposition with K-edge-filtered x-rays.  

PubMed

Photon counting spectral computed tomography (PCSCT) provides material selective CT imaging at a single CT scan and fixed tube voltage. The PCSCT data are acquired in several energy ranges (bins) arranged over the x-ray spectrum. The quasi-monoenergetic CT images are acquired in these energy bins and are used for material decomposition. The PCSCT exhibits inherent limitations when material decomposition is performed using energy bins. For effective material decomposition, the energy bins used for material decomposition should be sufficiently narrow and well separated. However, when narrow bins are used, a large fraction of the detected x-ray counts is lost and statistical noise is increased. Alternatively, the x-ray spectrum can be split into a few larger bins with no gap in between and all detected x-ray photons can be used for material decomposition. However, in this case the energy bins are too wide and not well separated, which results in suboptimal material decomposition. The above contradictory requirements can be resolved if the x-ray photons are physically removed from the regions of the energy spectrum between the energy bins. Such a selective removal can be performed using filtration of the x-ray beam by high-Z filter materials with appropriate positions of K-edge energies. The K-edge filtration of x-rays can, therefore, provide necessary gaps between the energy bins with no dose penalty to the patient. In the current work, we proposed using selective K-edge filtration of x-rays in PCSCT and performed the first experimental investigation of this approach. The PCSCT system included a cadmium zinc telluride semiconductor detector with 2 × 256 pixels and 1 × 1 mm(2) pixel size, and five energy bins. The CT phantom had 14 cm diameter and included contrast elements of iodine, gold and calcifications with clinically relevant concentrations. The tube voltages of 60, 90 and 120 kVp were used. K-edge filters based on Ba (E(k) = 37.44 keV) were used for a 60 kVp tube voltage and Gd (E(k) = 50.24 keV) was used for the 90 and 120 kVp tube voltages, respectively. The material selective CT images were also acquired with conventional Al filtration for comparison. The half-value layers of x-ray beams after K-edge and Al filtration were matched. The mean entrance skin exposure was 280 mR for all tube voltages and filters. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in material-decomposed images was approximately 30%-50% higher when K-edge filters were used instead of Al filters. It was concluded that K-edge filtration of x-rays provides substantial improvement of the CNR in material-selective PCSCT. Further optimization of K-edge filter materials, tube voltages, detector technology and energy bin settings will provide even higher CNR in decomposed images. PMID:22398007

Shikhaliev, Polad M

2012-03-21

51

An X-ray spectral model for Compton-thick toroidal reprocessors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central engines of both type 1 and type 2 active galactic nuclei are thought to harbour a toroidal structure that absorbs and reprocesses high-energy photons from the central X-ray source. Unique features in the reprocessed spectra can provide powerful physical constraints on the geometry, column density, element abundances and orientation of the circumnuclear matter. If the reprocessor is Compton-thick, the calculation of emission-line and continuum spectra that are suitable for direct fitting to X-ray data is challenging because the reprocessed emission depends on the spectral shape of the incident continuum, which may not be directly observable. We present new Monte Carlo calculations of Green's functions for a toroidal reprocessor that provide significant improvements over currently available models. The Green's function approach enables the construction of X-ray spectral fitting models that allow arbitrary incident spectra as part of the fitting process. The calculations are fully relativistic and have been performed for column densities that cover the Compton-thin to Compton-thick regime, for incident photon energies up to 500 keV. The Green's function library can easily be extended cumulatively to provide models that are valid for higher input energies and a wider range of element abundances and opening angles of the torus. The reprocessed continuum and fluorescent line emission due to Fe K?, Fe K? and Ni K? are treated self-consistently, eliminating the need for ad hoc modelling that is currently common practice. We find that the spectral shape of the Compton-thick reflection spectrum in both the soft and hard X-ray bands in our toroidal geometry is different compared with that obtained from disc models. A key result of our study is that a Compton-thick toroidal structure that subtends the same solid angle at the X-ray source as a disc can produce a reflection spectrum that is ~6 times weaker than that from a disc. This highlights the widespread and erroneous interpretation of the so-called `reflection-fraction' as a solid angle, obtained from fitting disc-reflection models to Compton-thick sources without regard for proper consideration of geometry.

Murphy, Kendrah D.; Yaqoob, Tahir

2009-08-01

52

Testing the Pairs-Reflection Model with X-Ray Spectral Variability and X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This grant was awarded to Dr. C. Megan Urry of the Space Telescope Science Institute in response to two successful ADP proposals to use archival Ginga and Rosat X-ray data for 'Testing the Pairs-Reflection model with X-Ray Spectral Variability' (in collaboration with Paola Grandi, now at the University of Rome) and 'X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae

C. Megan Urry

1997-01-01

53

Extended range X-ray telescope: X-ray microscope design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A glancing incidence X-ray microscope using a confocal hyperboloid ellipsoid mirror was designed to couple optically a Wolter 1 telescope to a CCD focal plane detector. Both the RMS spot size and the point spread function calculations were used to evaluate the resolution, defocusing, and vignetting effects of the system for microscope focal lengths of 1, 1.5, and 2 meters and for magnifications varying from 2 to 10x. For the specific application with the S-056 telescope, a 2 meter, 8x microscope with a fabrication ratio of the microscope mirror length to the inner diameter at hyperboloid ellipsoid intersection of 2.5 was designed to be used with a thinned, back illuminated CCD detector array with 320 by 512, 30 micron pixels.

Shealy, D. L.; Kassim, A.; Chao, S.

1982-07-01

54

Chemical bonding effects in X-ray spectral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we examine the use of chemical bonding effects apparent in x-ray spectra (chemical shift, change in shape and intensity of the lines) for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical state of elements (charge state, valency, coordination number, chemical bond type, etc.), and also for direct identification of chemical compounds. In this connection, we examine methods of

L. N. Mazalov; B. A. Treiger

1983-01-01

55

The spectral archive of cosmic X-ray sources observed by the Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) used the technique of Bragg spectroscopy to study cosmic X-ray sources in the 0.2-3 keV energy range. The high spectral resolving power (E/Delta-E is approximately equal to 100-1000) of this instrument allowed it to resolve closely spaced lines and study the structure of individual features in the spectra of 41 cosmic X-ray sources. An archival summary of the results is presented as a concise record the FPCS observations and a source of information for future analysis by the general astrophysics community. For each observation, the instrument configuration, background rate, X-ray flux or upper limit within the energy band observed, and spectral histograms are given. Examples of the contributions the FPCS observations have made to the understanding of the objects observed are discussed.

Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Clark, George W.; Coyne, Joan M.; Markert, Thomas H.; Saez, Pablo J.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Winkler, P. F.

1992-01-01

56

Characteristics of transition radiation in the x-ray spectral region  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of soft x-ray production by transition radiation have been performed in a series of experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results have shown that transition radiation is an intense and predictable source of photons in the soft x-ray energy range. This paper will give a brief review of the general properties of the x-ray distributions generated by these sources. 9 refs., 9 figs.

Moran, M.J.

1986-06-06

57

A toy model for the X-ray spectral variability of active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations into the long-term X-ray spectral variability of 10 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) revealed a positive spectral index-flux correlation for each object. An inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) may connect to a thin disc/corona at a certain transition radius. Both these structures are responsible for the hard X-ray emission in AGNs. The ADAF is hot and its X-ray spectrum is hard, while the corona above the disc is relatively cold and its X-ray spectrum is therefore soft. The radiation efficiency of the ADAF is usually much lower than that of the thin disc. An increase in the transition radius may lead to a decrease in the spectral index (i.e. a hard spectrum) and the X-ray luminosity even if the accretion rate is fixed, and a decrease of transition radius leads to an increase in spectral index. We propose that such X-ray variability is caused by a change in the transition radius. Our model calculations can reproduce the observed index-flux correlations, if the transition radius fluctuates around an equilibrium position and the radiation efficiency of ADAFs is ?5 per cent of that for a thin disc. The average spectral index-Eddington ratio correlation for these ten AGNs sample can also be reproduced by our model calculations, if the equilibrium transition radius increases with decreasing mass accretion rate.

Cao, Xinwu; Wang, Jun-Xian

2014-10-01

58

The X-ray spectral properties of very-faint persistent neutron star X-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AX J1754.2-2754, 1RXS J171824.2-402934 and 1RXH J173523.7-354013 are three persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries that display a 2-10 keV accretion luminosity LX of only (1-10) × 1034 erg s-1 (i.e. only ?0.005-0.05 per cent of the Eddington limit). The phenomenology of accreting neutron stars which accrete at such low accretion rates is not yet well known and the reason why they have such low accretion rates is also not clear. Therefore, we have obtained XMM-Newton data of these three sources and here we report our analysis of the high-quality X-ray spectra we have obtained for them. We find that AX J1754.2-2754 has LX ˜ 1035 erg s-1, while the other two have X-ray luminosities about an order of magnitude lower. However, all sources have a similar, relatively soft, spectrum with a photon index of 2.3-2.5, when the spectrum is fitted with an absorbed power-law model. This model fits the data of AX J1754.2-2754 adequately, but it cannot fit the data obtained for 1RXS J171824.2-402934 and 1RXH J173523.7-354013. For those sources, a clear soft thermal component is needed to fit their spectra. This soft component contributes 40-50 per cent to the 0.5-10 keV flux of the sources. The presence of this soft component might be the reason why the spectra of these two sources are soft. When including this additional spectral component, the power-law photon indices are significantly lower. It can be excluded that a similar component with similar contributions to the 2-10 keV X-ray flux is present for AX J1754.2-2754, indicating that the soft spectrum of this source is mostly due to the fact that the power-law component itself is not hard. We note that we cannot exclude that a weaker soft component is present in the spectrum of this source which only contributes up to ˜25 per cent to the 0.5-10 keV X-ray flux. We discuss our results in the context of what is known of accreting neutron stars at very low accretion rate.

Armas Padilla, M.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.

2013-09-01

59

The spatial, spectral and polarization properties of solar flare X-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays are a valuable diagnostic tool for the study of high energy accelerated electrons. Bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by, and directly related to, high energy electrons accelerated during a flare, provide a powerful diagnostic tool for determining both the properties of the accelerated electron distribution, and of the flaring coronal and chromospheric plasmas. This thesis is specifically concerned with the study of spatial, spectral and polarization properties of solar flare X-ray sources via both modelling and X-ray observations using the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Firstly, a new model is presented, accounting for finite temperature, pitch angle scattering and initial pitch angle injection. This is developed to accurately infer the properties of the acceleration region from the observations of dense coronal X-ray sources. Moreover, examining how the spatial properties of dense coronal X-ray sources change in time, interesting trends in length, width, position, number density and thermal pressure are found and the possible causes for such changes are discussed. Further analysis of data in combination with the modelling of X-ray transport in the photosphere, allows changes in X-ray source positions and sizes due to the X-ray albedo effect to be deduced. Finally, it is shown, for the first time, how the presence of a photospheric X-ray albedo component produces a spatially resolvable polarization pattern across a hard X-ray (HXR) source. It is demonstrated how changes in the degree and direction of polarization across a single HXR source can be used to determine the anisotropy of the radiating electron distribution.

Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.

2014-12-01

60

Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays  

SciTech Connect

Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Brunetti, E.; Vieux, G.; Yang, X.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Maneuski, D.; Montgomery, R.; Smith, G.; Hoek, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Shea, V. O. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Issac, R. C. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom) [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Research Department of Physics, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam 686666, Kerala (India); Lemos, N. R. C.; Dias, J. M. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)] [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Symes, D. R. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); and others

2013-11-15

61

Broad band X-ray spectral properties of Gamma-ray bursts with BeppoSAX  

E-print Network

In about one year, five gamma-ray bursts were simultaneously observed with the Wide Field Cameras and Gamma Ray Burst Monitor aboard the BeppoSAX satellite. From some of them X-ray afterglow emission has been clearly detected with the same satellite. In order to understand how GRB emission is related to the X-ray afterglow, we are performing a systematic study of the spectral properties of these events. We report here preliminary results of this study.

F. Frontera; L. Amati; E. Costa; M. Feroci; J. M. Muller; G. Pizzichini; M. N. Cinti; D. Dal Fiume; J. Heise; L. Nicastro; M. Orlandini; E. Palazzi; J. in 't Zand

1997-12-22

62

Content Based Retrieval of X-ray Images Using Fusion of Spectral Texture and Shape Descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper content based image retrieval of x-ray images using fusion of spectral & shape features is discussed. Texture analysis and shape description are two of the key parts of image content description. Most of the existing descriptors are usually either application dependent or non-robust so we have used spectral measure for content analysis and Fourier descriptors for shape

B. K. Singh; G. R. Sinha; Bidyut Mazumdar; M. I. Khan

2010-01-01

63

Photon interference effect in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range Y. Nishino and T. Ishikawa  

E-print Network

observable concerning x-ray interaction with matter. Studies of funda- mental structures in x-ray absorptionPhoton interference effect in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range Y. Nishino and T Received 3 July 2002; published 12 September 2002 We consider fundamental structures in x-ray absorption

Korecki, Pawe³

64

Experimental spectral measurements of heavy K-edge filtered beams for x-ray computed mammotomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, dual modality computed mammotomography (CmT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system for dedicated 3D breast imaging is in development. The CmT component utilizes novel, heavy K-edge filtration to practicably narrow the energy spectrum of the cone-shaped x-ray beam incident on the patient's pendant, uncompressed breast. This quasi-monochromatic beam in CmT is expected to improve discrimination of tissue with very similar attenuation coefficients while restraining dose levels to below that of existing dual view mammography. Our previous extensive simulation studies showed the optimal energy range that provides maximum dose efficiency for a 50/50 adipose/glandular breast is in the 35-40keV range. This current study aims to experimentally validate previous simulation results. Here, experimental pre-breast and post-breast collimated x-ray beam spectral measurements are made under tube operating voltages between 40-100kVp using filter materials from Z=13-74, with K-edge values spanning that of Ce (K=40.4keV), and using different attenuating thicknesses of filter material, approximately equivalent to the 200 th and 500 th attenuating value layer (VL) thickness. Ce-filtered post breast spectra for 8cm to 18cm breasts are measured for a range of breast adipose/glandular compositions. Evaluated figures of merit include mean beam energy, spectral full-width at tenth-maximum, beam hardening and dose for the range of breast sizes. Measurements are shown to corroborate the simulations, and both indicate that for a given dose a 200 th VL of Ce filtration may have the most optimal performance in the dedicated mammotomography paradigm.

Crotty, Dominic J.; McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

2006-03-01

65

The OPTX Project. III. X-ray Versus Optical Spectral Type for Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the optical spectral types with the X-ray spectral properties for a uniformly selected (sources with fluxes greater than the 3? level and above a flux limit of f 2-8 keV > 3.5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1), highly spectroscopically complete (>80% for f 2-8 keV > 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 and >60% below) 2-8 keV X-ray sample observed in three Chandra fields (CLANS, CLASXS, and the CDF-N) that cover ~1.2 deg2. For our sample of 645 spectroscopically observed sources, we confirm that there is significant overlap of the X-ray spectral properties, as determined by the effective photon indices, ?eff, obtained from the ratios of the 0.5-2 keV to 2-8 keV counts, for the different optical spectral types. For example, broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are expected to be unobscured and hence X-ray soft (?eff >= 1.2), yet we find 20%± 3% have ?eff <1.2. Non-broad-line AGNs are expected to be obscured and hence X-ray hard (?eff < 1.2), yet we find 33% ± 4% have ?eff >= 1.2. Thus, one cannot use the X-ray spectral classifications and the optical spectral classifications equivalently. Since it is not understood how X-ray and optical classifications relate to the obscuration of the central engine, we strongly advise against a mixed classification scheme, as it can only complicate the interpretation of X-ray AGN samples. We confirm the dependence of optical spectral type on X-ray luminosity, and for z < 1, we find a similar luminosity dependence of ?eff. However, this dependence breaks down at higher redshifts due to the highly redshift-dependent nature of ?eff. We therefore also caution that any classification scheme which depends on ?eff is likely to suffer from serious redshift bias. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.

2009-10-01

66

Spectrally resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray luminescence/fluorescence computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanophosphors, or other similar materials, emit near-infrared (NIR) light upon x-ray excitation. They were designed as optical probes for in vivo visualization and analysis of molecular and cellular targets, pathways, and responses. Based on the previous work on x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) and x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT), here we propose a spectrally-resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray luminescence/fluorescence computed tomography (SXLCT or SXFCT) approach to quantify a spatial distribution of nanophosphors (other similar materials or chemical elements) within a biological object. In this paper, the x-ray scattering is taken into account in the reconstruction algorithm. The NIR scattering is described in the diffusion approximation model. Then, x-ray excitations are applied with different spectra, and NIR signals are measured in a spectrally resolving fashion. Finally, a linear relationship is established between the nanophosphor distribution and measured NIR data using the finite element method and inverted using the compressive sensing technique. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and merits of the proposed approach.

Cong, Wenxiang; Shen, Haiou; Wang, Ge

2011-06-01

67

Long-term wind-driven X-ray spectral variability of NGC 1365 with Swift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present long-term (months-years) X-ray spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.8 galaxy NGC 1365 as observed by Swift, which provides well-sampled observations over a much longer time-scale (six years) and a much larger flux range than is afforded by other observatories. At very low luminosities, the spectrum is very soft, becoming rapidly harder as the luminosity increases and then, above a particular luminosity, softening again. At a given flux level, the scatter in hardness ratio is not very large, meaning that the spectral shape is largely determined by the luminosity. The spectra were therefore summed in luminosity bins and fitted with a variety of models. The best-fitting model consists of two power laws, one unabsorbed and another, more luminous, which is absorbed. In this model, we find a range of intrinsic 0.5-10.0 keV luminosities of approximately 1.1-3.5 erg s-1, and a very large range of absorbing columns, of approximately 1022-1024 cm-2. Interestingly, we find that the absorbing column decreases with increasing luminosity, but that this result is not due to changes in ionization. We suggest that these observations might be interpreted in terms of a wind model in which the launch radius varies as a function of ionizing flux and disc temperature and therefore moves out with increasing accretion rate, i.e. increasing X-ray luminosity. Thus, depending on the inclination angle of the disc relative to the observer, the absorbing column may decrease as the accretion rate goes up. The weaker, unabsorbed, component may be a scattered component from the wind.

Connolly, S. D.; McHardy, I. M.; Dwelly, T.

2014-06-01

68

A unified paradigm for the spectral and temporal evolution of Black Hole X-ray Binaries  

E-print Network

We present a unified picture to explain the spectral states of BH binaries based on the two-flow model. In our view, the central regions have a multi-flow configuration consisting in (1) an outer standard accretion disc (SAD) down to a transition radius $r_{tr}$, (2) an inner magnetized jet emitting disc (JED) below $r_{tr}$ driving (3) a self-collimated non relativistic MHD jet surrounding, when conditions for pair creation are met, (4) a ultra relativistic pair beam. Large values of $r_{tr}$ correspond to Hard states while small values correspond to Soft states. In between these extremes, in the high intermediate state, $r_{tr}$ can reach values that switch on a pair cascade process giving birth to ultra-relativistic pair blobs that explain the superluminal events. In this model the accretion rate but also the disc magnetization $\\mu$ play important roles, the latter being necessarily in the range 0.1-1 for the MHD jet to exist. Then, with simple assumptions on $\\mu$, we propose an explanation for the hysteresis behavior observed in microquasars during their outburst. We also discuss the nature, in our framework, of the X-ray corona and the origin of the X-ray variability in the hard state. Preliminary results are discussed.

P. O. Petrucci; J. Ferreira; C. Cabanac; G. Henri; G. Pelletier

2006-11-20

69

X-Ray Spectral Parameters for a Sample of 95 Active Galactic Nuclei  

E-print Network

We present a broadband X-ray analysis of a new homogeneous sample of 95 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the 22-month Swift/BAT all-sky survey. For this sample we treated jointly the X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL missions for the total spectral range of 0.5-250 keV. Photon index \\Gamma, relative reflection R, equivalent width of Fe $K_{\\alpha}$ line (EW Fe $K_{\\alpha}$), hydrogen column density $N_{H}$, exponential cut-off energy $E_{c}$ and intrinsic luminosity $L_{corr}$ are determined for all objects of the sample. We investigated correlations \\Gamma - R, EW Fe $K_{\\alpha}$ - $L_{corr}$, \\Gamma - $E_{c}$, EW Fe $K_{\\alpha}$ - $N_{H}$. Dependence \\Gamma - R for Seyfert 1 and 2 type of galaxies has been investigated separately. We found that the relative reflection parameter at low power-law indexes for Seyfert 2 galaxies is systematically higher than for Seyfert 1 ones. This can be related to an increasing contribution of the reflected radiation from the gas-dust torus. Our data show th...

Vasylenko, A; Fedorova, E

2015-01-01

70

The X-ray Spectral Evolution of eta Carinae as Seen by ASCA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using data from the ASCA X-ray observatory, we examine the variations in the X-ray spectrum of the supermassive star nu Carinae with an unprecedented combination of spatial and spectral resolution. We include data taken during the recent X-ray eclipse in 1997-1998, after recovery from the eclipse, and during and after an X-ray flare. We show that the eclipse variation in the X-ray spectrum is apparently confined to a decrease in the emission measure of the source. We compare our results with a simple colliding wind binary model and find that the observed spectral variations are only consistent, with the binary model if there is significant high-temperature emission far from the star and/or a substantial change in the temperature distribution of the hot plasma. If contamination in the 2-10 keV band is important, the observed eclipse spectrum requires an absorbing column in excess of 10(exp 24)/sq cm for consistency with the binary model, which may indicate an increase in the first derivative of M from nu Carinae near the time of periastron passage. The flare spectra are consistent with the variability seen in nearly simultaneous RXTE observations and thus confirm that nu Carinae itself is the source of the flare emission. The variation in the spectrum during the flare seems confined to a change in the source emission measure. By comparing 2 observations obtained at the same phase in different X-ray cycles, we find that the current, X-ray brightness of the source is slightly higher than the brightness of the source during the last cycle perhaps indicative of a long-term increase in the first derivative of M, not associated with the X-ray cycle.

Corcoran, M. F.; Fredericks, A. C.; Petre, R.; Swank, J. H.; Drake, S. A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

71

Spectral Atlas of X-ray Lines Emitted During Solar Flares Based on CHIANTI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectral atlas of X-ray lines in the wavelength range 7.47-18.97 Angstroms is presented, based on high-resolution spectra obtained during two M-class solar flares (on 1980 August 25 and 1985 July 2) with the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The physical properties of the flaring plasmas are derived as a function of time using strong, isolated lines. From these properties predicted spectra using the CHIANTI database have been obtained which were then compared with wavelengths and fluxes of lines in the observed spectra to establish line identifications. identifications for nearly all the observed lines in the resulting atlas are given, with some significant corrections to previous analysis of these flare spectra.

Landi, E.; Phillips, K. J. H.

2005-01-01

72

Photoelectron range limitations to the spatial resolution for x-rays in gas proportional chambers  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been made, for x-ray energies from a few keV to 18 keV, of the limiting spatial resolution caused by the finite range of the photoelectron, or electrons, created when an x-ray is absorbed in the gas of a proportional chamber. In hydrocarbon gases such as methane and ethane, where the photoelectron receives the bulk of the x-ray energy, the limiting spatial resolution is found to vary as a power law of x-ray energy. In argon and xenon, at an x-ray energy approximately twice that of the A/sub K/ edge and the Xe/sub L/ edge respectively, the measured limiting resolution is better than expected from an equivalent power law behavior.

Smith, G.C.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.

1983-11-01

73

A High Spatial Resolution X-Ray and H? Study of Hot Gas in the Halos of Star-forming Disk Galaxies. I. Spatial and Spectral Properties of the Diffuse X-Ray Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present arcsecond resolution Chandra X-ray and ground-based optical H? imaging of a sample of 10 edge-on star-forming disk galaxies (seven starburst and three ``normal'' spiral galaxies), a sample that covers the full range of star formation intensity found in disk galaxies. The X-ray observations make use of the unprecedented spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observatory to more robustly than before remove X-ray emission from point sources and hence obtain the X-ray properties of the diffuse thermal emission alone. We have combined the X-ray observations with existing, comparable-resolution, ground-based H? and R-band imaging and present a mini-atlas of images on a common spatial and surface brightness scale to aid cross-comparison. In general, the morphology of the extraplanar diffuse X-ray emission is very similar to the extraplanar H? filaments and arcs, on both small and large scales (scales of tens of parsecs and kiloparsecs, respectively). The most spectacular cases of this are found in NGC 1482 (for which we provide the first published X-ray observation) and NGC 3079. We provide a variety of quantitative measures of how the spectral hardness and surface brightness of the diffuse X-ray emission varies with increasing height z above the plane of each galaxy. Of the eight galaxies in which diffuse X-ray emitting halos are found (the starbursts and the normal spiral NGC 891), significant spatial variation in the spectral properties of the extraplanar emission (|z|>=2 kpc) is only found in two cases: NGC 3628 and NGC 4631. In general, the vertical distribution of the halo-region X-ray surface brightness is best described as an exponential, with the observed scale heights of the sample galaxies lying in the range Heff~2-4 kpc. The presence of extraplanar X-ray emission is always associated with the presence of extraplanar optical line emission of similar vertical extent. No X-ray emission was detected from the halos of the two low-mass normal spiral galaxies NGC 6503 and NGC 4244. Active galactic nuclei, where present, appear to play no role in powering or shaping the outflows from the starburst galaxies in this sample. The Chandra ACIS X-ray spectra of extraplanar emission from all these galaxies can be fitted with a common two-temperature spectral model with an enhanced ?-to-iron element ratio. This is consistent with the origin of the X-ray emitting gas being either metal-enriched merged SN ejecta or shock-heated ambient halo or disk material with moderate levels of metal depletion onto dust. Our favored model is that SN feedback in the disks of star-forming galaxies create, via blow-out and venting of hot gas from the disk, tenuous exponential atmospheres of density scale height Hg~4-8 kpc. The soft thermal X-ray emission observed in the halos of the starburst galaxies is either this preexisting halo medium, which has been swept up and shock-heated by the starburst-driven wind, or wind material compressed near the walls of the outflow by reverse shocks within the wind. In either case, the X-ray emission provides us with a powerful probe of the properties of gaseous halos around star-forming disk galaxies.

Strickland, David K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Colbert, Edward J. M.; Hoopes, Charles G.; Weaver, Kimberly A.

2004-04-01

74

New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z. (La Trobe); (Melbourne)

2012-09-25

75

Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10-100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for "measure-and-sort" at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Glownia, J. M.; Baker, K.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Kane, D. J.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Coffee, R. N.

2014-08-01

76

Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses.  

PubMed

The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10-100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for "measure-and-sort" at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses. PMID:25173255

Bionta, M R; Hartmann, N; Weaver, M; French, D; Nicholson, D J; Cryan, J P; Glownia, J M; Baker, K; Bostedt, C; Chollet, M; Ding, Y; Fritz, D M; Fry, A R; Kane, D J; Krzywinski, J; Lemke, H T; Messerschmidt, M; Schorb, S; Zhu, D; White, W E; Coffee, R N

2014-08-01

77

Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses  

SciTech Connect

The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

Bionta, M. R., E-mail: mina.bionta@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartmann, N. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Nicholson, D. J. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Cryan, J. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Baker, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kane, D. J. [Mesa Photonics, LLC., 1550 Pacheco St., Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States); and others

2014-08-15

78

Relationship between X-ray spectral index and X-ray Eddington ratio for Mrk 335 and Ark 564  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive flux-resolved spectral analysis of the bright narrow-line Seyfert 1 AGNs, Mrk 335 and Ark 564 using observations by XMM-Newton satellite. The mean and the flux-resolved spectra are fitted by an empirical model consisting of two Comptonization components, one for the low-energy soft excess and the other for the high-energy power law. A broad iron line and a couple of low-energy edges are required to explain the spectra. For Mrk 335, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity relative to the Eddington value, LX/LEdd, varied from 0.002 to 0.06. The index variation can be empirically described as ? = 0.6 log10 LX/LEdd + 3.0 for 0.005 < LX/LEdd < 0.04. At LX/LEdd ˜ 0.04 the spectral index changes and then continues to follow ? = 0.6 log10 LX/LEdd + 2.7, i.e. on a parallel track. We confirm that the result is independent of the specific spectral model used by fitting the data in the 3-10 keV band by only a power law and an iron line. For Ark 564, the index variation can be empirically described as ? = 0.2 log10 LX/LEdd + 2.7 with a significantly large scatter as compared to Mrk 335. Our results indicate that for Mrk 335, there may be accretion disc geometry changes which lead to different parallel tracks. These changes could be related to structural changes in the corona or enhanced reflection at high flux levels. There does not seem to be any homogeneous or universal relationship for the X-ray index and luminosity for different AGNs or even for the same AGN.

Sarma, R.; Tripathi, S.; Misra, R.; Dewangan, G.; Pathak, A.; Sarma, J. K.

2015-04-01

79

Experimental spectral measurements of heavy K-edge filtered beams for x-ray computed mammotomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual modality computed mammotomography (CmT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system for dedicated 3D breast imaging is in development. Using heavy K-edge filtration, the CmT component narrows the energy spectrum of the cone-shaped x-ray beam incident on the patient's pendant, uncompressed breast. This quasi-monochromatic beam is expected to improve discrimination of tissue with similar attenuation coefficients while restraining absorbed dose to below that of dual view mammography. Previous simulation studies showed the optimal energy that maximizes dose efficiency for a 50/50% adipose/glandular breast is between 30 and 40 keV. This study experimentally validates these results using pre-breast and post-breast spectral measurements made under tungsten tube voltages between 40 and 100 kVp using filter materials with K-edge values ranging from 15 to 70 keV. Different filter material thicknesses are used, approximately equivalent to the 200th and 500th attenuating value layer (VL) thickness. Cerium (K = 40.4 keV) filtered post-breast spectra for 8-18 cm breasts are measured for a range of breast compositions. Figures of merit include mean beam energy, spectral full-width at tenth-maximum, beam hardening and dose for the range of breast sizes. Measurements corroborate simulation results, indicating that for a given dose, a 200th VL of cerium filtration may have optimal performance in the dedicated mammotomography paradigm.

Crotty, D. J.; McKinley, R. L.; Tornai, M. P.

2007-02-01

80

Experimental spectral measurements of heavy K-edge filtered beams for x-ray computed mammotomography.  

PubMed

A dual modality computed mammotomography (CmT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system for dedicated 3D breast imaging is in development. Using heavy K-edge filtration, the CmT component narrows the energy spectrum of the cone-shaped x-ray beam incident on the patient's pendant, uncompressed breast. This quasi-monochromatic beam is expected to improve discrimination of tissue with similar attenuation coefficients while restraining absorbed dose to below that of dual view mammography. Previous simulation studies showed the optimal energy that maximizes dose efficiency for a 50/50% adipose/glandular breast is between 30 and 40 keV. This study experimentally validates these results using pre-breast and post-breast spectral measurements made under tungsten tube voltages between 40 and 100 kVp using filter materials with K-edge values ranging from 15 to 70 keV. Different filter material thicknesses are used, approximately equivalent to the 200th and 500th attenuating value layer (VL) thickness. Cerium (K = 40.4 keV) filtered post-breast spectra for 8-18 cm breasts are measured for a range of breast compositions. Figures of merit include mean beam energy, spectral full-width at tenth-maximum, beam hardening and dose for the range of breast sizes. Measurements corroborate simulation results, indicating that for a given dose, a 200th VL of cerium filtration may have optimal performance in the dedicated mammotomography paradigm. PMID:17228108

Crotty, D J; McKinley, R L; Tornai, M P

2007-02-01

81

The X-ray spectral variability of the BL Lacertae type object PKS 2155-304  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a detailed study of the hard X-ray properties of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304 based on measurements made in 1988 and 1989 with the Large Area Counter (LAC) on board the Ginga satellite. The source exhibited a high degree of variability with a dynamic range of a factor 7 in the 2-6 keV band. The fastest amplitude variation was a factor 2 decline in the intensity in this band within 4 hours. The spectrum is characterized by a break which occurs at about 4 keV. Spectral fits to the data integrated in 6400 s time bins reveal that, in common with previous observations of BL Lacertae objects, the spectral slope is generally anticorrelated with intensity in the sense that the spectrum hardens as the intensity increases. However, the tracks of sequential points in the index-intensity plane are occasionally seen to differ during the rise and decay stages of individual flares. Furthermore, during one, or possibly two, flaring episodes the spectral index is observed to correlate with intensity variations.

Sembay, S.; Warwick, R. S.; Urry, C. M.; Sokoloski, J.; George, I. M.; Makino, F.; Ohashi, T.; Tashiro, M.

1993-01-01

82

X-Ray Spectral Variability Signatures of Flares in BL Lac Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are presenting a detailed parameter study of the time-dependent electron injection and kinematics and the self-consistent radiation transport in jets of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. Using a time-dependent, combined synchrotron-self-Compton and external-Compton jet model, we study the influence of variations of several essential model parameters, such as the electron injection compactness, the relative contribution of synchrotron to external soft photons to the soft photon compactness, the electron- injection spectral index, and the details of the time profiles of the electron injection episodes giving rise to flaring activity. In the analysis of our results, we focus on the expected X-ray spectral variability signatures in a region of parameter space particularly well suited to reproduce the broadband spectral energy distributions of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. We demonstrate that SSC- and external-Compton dominated models for the gamma-ray emission from blazars are producing significantly different signatures in the X-ray variability, in particular in the soft X-ray light curves and the spectral hysteresis at soft X-ray energies, which can be used as a powerful diagnostic to unveil the nature of the high-energy emission from BL Lac objects.

Boettcher, Markus; Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

83

Spectral Variation of the Hard X-ray Emission from the Crab Nebula with the Suzaku Hard X-ray Detector  

E-print Network

The Crab Nebula is one of the brightest and most stable sources in the X-ray sky. Year-scale flux variation from the object was recently revealed in the hard X-ray band by four satellites. This marked the first detection of year-scale variability from pulsar wind nebulae in the hard X-ray band. The Crab Nebula has been observed at least once a year for calibration purposes with the Suzaku Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) since its launch in 2005. In order to investigate possible spectral changes as well as flux variation, the archival data of the HXD were analyzed. The flux variation reported by other instruments was confirmed in the 25 -- 100 keV band by the HXD in a few percent level, but flux above 100 keV did not follow the trend in variation below 100 keV. The hardness ratios produced utilizing the PIN and GSO sensors installed in the HXD exhibit significant scattering, thereby indicating spectral variations in the hard X-ray. The spectral changes are quantified by spectral fitting with a broken power-law model...

Kouzu, Tomomi; Terada, Yukikatsu; Yamada, Shin'ya; Bamba, Aya; Enoto, Teruaki; Mori, Koji; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo

2013-01-01

84

Testing the Pairs-Reflection Model with X-Ray Spectral Variability and X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant was awarded to Dr. C. Megan Urry of the Space Telescope Science Institute in response to two successful ADP proposals to use archival Ginga and Rosat X-ray data for 'Testing the Pairs-Reflection model with X-Ray Spectral Variability' (in collaboration with Paola Grandi, now at the University of Rome) and 'X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects' (in collaboration with then-graduate student Rita Sambruna, now a post-doc at Goddard Space Flight Center). In addition, post-docs Joseph Pesce and Elena Pian, and graduate student Matthew O'Dowd, have worked on several aspects of these projects. The grant was originally awarded on 3/01/94; this report covers the full period, through May 1997. We have completed our project on the X-ray properties of radio-selected BL Lacs.

Urry, C. Megan

1997-01-01

85

The solar spectral irradiances from x ray to radio wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sources of new measurements of the solar EUV, UV, and visible spectrum are presented together with discussion of formation of the solar spectrum as a problem in stellar atmospheres. Agreement between the data and a modern synthetic spectrum shows that observed radiative variability is a minor perturbation on a photosphere in radiative equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Newly observed solar variability in 1992 defines a magnetic episode on the Sun closely associated with changes in both spectral irradiances and the total irradiance. This episode offers the opportunity to track the relationship between radiation and magnetic flux evolution.

White, O. R.

1993-01-01

86

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSES OF SPECTRAL INDICES OF NONTHERMAL EMISSIONS DERIVED FROM HARD X-RAYS AND MICROWAVES  

SciTech Connect

We studied electron spectral indices of nonthermal emissions seen in hard X-rays (HXRs) and microwaves. We analyzed 12 flares observed by the Hard X-Ray Telescope aboard Yohkoh, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and compared the spectral indices derived from total fluxes of HXRs and microwaves. Except for four events, which have very soft HXR spectra suffering from the thermal component, these flares show a gap {Delta}{delta} between the electron spectral indices derived from HXRs {delta} {sub X} and those from microwaves {delta}{sub {mu}} ({Delta}{delta} = {delta} {sub X} - {delta}{sub {mu}}) of about 1.6. Furthermore, from the start to the peak times of the HXR bursts, the time profiles of the HXR spectral index {delta} {sub X} evolve synchronously with those of the microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}}, keeping the constant gap. We also examined the spatially resolved distribution of the microwave spectral index by using NoRH data. The microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}} tends to be larger, which means a softer spectrum, at HXR footpoint sources with stronger magnetic field than that at the loop tops. These results suggest that the electron spectra are bent at around several hundreds of keV, and become harder at the higher energy range that contributes the microwave gyrosynchrotron emission.

Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)] [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Kiyohara, Junko; Takasaki, Hiroyuki [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)] [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Narukage, Noriyuki [Institute of Space and Astronomical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)] [Institute of Space and Astronomical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Masuda, Satoshi [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)] [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan); Shimojo, Masumi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Nakajima, Hiroshi, E-mail: asai@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano, 384-1305 (Japan)] [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano, 384-1305 (Japan)

2013-02-15

87

The time evolving spatial and spectral properties of coronal X-ray sources from solar flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays from solar flares serve as an important and direct observational tool for determining how and why electrons are accelerated. Using observations from the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the imaging algorithm of visibility forward fitting (VIS FWDFIT) we studied the dynamics of source spatial properties: lengths parallel to the guiding field, widths perpendicular to the guiding field and the centroid positions of three coronal X-ray loop top sources. We observed how these parameters changed in time during the evolution of each flare; before, during and after the peak X-ray emission at energies between 10-25 keV. For the first time, it was observed that the lengths and widths, and hence the volumes, of each source decreased while the X-ray emission was increasing. After the peak in X-ray emission, the volume of each source increased, mainly due to a growth in source width. For one event situated at the limb, we also observed a decrease in altitude before the peak in X-ray emission and an increase after the peak, consistent with the results of other coronal loop source observations. However, we note that the changes in loop volume were the dominant changes for each event, over any position changes. Using our imaging parameters in combination with spectral parameters (emission measure and plasma temperature), we also inferred how the number density, thermal pressure and energy density evolved during the observational time for each event. This allowed us to build a fuller picture of how the coronal region changed during the evolution of each flare. From our results, energy release occurs during the entire observational time for each event; before, during and after the peaks in X-ray emission and during both the compression and expansion phases of the loop volumes.

Jeffrey, N. L.; Kontar, E. P.

2012-12-01

88

A Hard X-Ray Power-law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1× 1033 D^2_kpc erg s-1, with sime60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kTe = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fürst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Miller, Jon M.; Nowak, Michael A.; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Wik, Daniel R.; Wilms, Jörn; Zhang, William W.

2014-12-01

89

Spectral character of optimized undulator insertion devices for the Synchrotron X-ray Source at Argonne  

SciTech Connect

Two general types of undulator x-ray sources are planned for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to be built at Argonne. One is to provide first harmonic radiation tunable over the interval of 7 to 14 keV during the initial phase of operation of the storage ring. This tunability range will increase for the same device to approximately 4.7 to 14 keV during the mature phase of operation. A second device with a smaller period is planned for those cases where the intensity of the third harmonic radiation from the above device is not sufficient. In this case, the undulator will provide 20 keV radiation in the first harmonic. The magnetic design of both devices will be a hybrid type which uses the Nd-Fe-B alloy as the permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur as the pole-tip. As part of the optimization scheme, the magnetic field calculations have been carried out using a version of the two dimensional field code PANDIRA. In this approximation, the width of the undulator is assumed to be infinite. Three dimensional effects associated to finite pole widths have been estimated using experimental results of single pole measurements for a 7 cm period device. In addition, numerical calculations of the spectral characteristics have been done using the magnetic design parameters and taking into account the emittance expected for the APS. On-axis brilliance results as well as expected spectral power densities have been determined.

Kim, S.H.; Viccaro, P.J.; Shenoy, G.K.

1987-03-01

90

Complex X-Ray Spectral Variability in Markarian 421 Observed with XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bright blazar Mrk 421 has been observed four times for uninterrupted durations of ~9-13 hr during the performance verification and calibration phases of the XMM-Newton mission. The source was strongly variable in all epochs, with variability amplitudes that generally increased to higher energy bands. Although the detailed relationship between soft (0.1-0.75 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands differed from one epoch to the next, in no case was there any evidence for a measurable interband lag, with robust upper limits of |?|<0.08 hr in the best-correlated light curves. This is in conflict with previous claims of both hard and soft lags of ~1 hr in this and other blazars. However, previous observations suffered a repeated 1.6 hr feature induced by the low-Earth orbital period, a feature that is not present in the uninterrupted XMM-Newton data. The new upper limit on |?| leads to a lower limit on the magnetic field strength and Doppler factor of B?1/3>~4.7 G, mildly out of line with the predictions from a variety of homogeneous synchrotron self-Compton emission models in the literature of B?1/3=0.2-0.8 G. Time-dependent spectral fitting was performed on all epochs, and no detectable spectral hysteresis was seen. We note, however, that the source exhibited significantly different spectral evolutionary behavior from one epoch to the next, with the strongest correlations in the first and last and an actual divergence between soft and hard X-ray bands in the third. This indicates that the range of spectral variability behavior in Mrk 421 is not fully described in these short snippets; significantly longer uninterrupted light curves are required and can be obtained with XMM-Newton.

Sembay, S.; Edelson, R.; Markowitz, A.; Griffiths, R. G.; Turner, M. J. L.

2002-08-01

91

Regularized energy-dependent solar flare hard x-ray spectral index  

E-print Network

The deduction from solar flare X-ray photon spectroscopic data of the energy dependent model-independent spectral index is considered as an inverse problem. Using the well developed regularization approach we analyze the energy dependency of spectral index for a high resolution energy spectrum provided by Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The regularization technique produces much smoother derivatives while avoiding additional errors typical of finite differences. It is shown that observations imply a spectral index varying significantly with energy, in a way that also varies with time as the flare progresses. The implications of these findings are discussed in the solar flare context.

Eduard P. Kontar; Alexander L. MacKinnon

2005-06-05

92

PIXIE III: a very large area photon-counting CMOS pixel ASIC for sharp X-ray spectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXIE III is the third generation of very large area (32 × 25 mm2) pixel ASICs developed by Pixirad Imaging Counters s.r.l. to be used in combination with suitable X-ray sensor materials (Silicon, CdTe, GaAs) in hybrid assemblies using flip-chip bonding. A Pixirad unit module based on PIXIE III shows several advances compared to what has been available up to now. It has a very broad energy range (from 2 to 100 keV before full pulse saturation), high speed (100 ns peaking time), high frame rate (larger than 500 fps), dead-time-free operation, good energy resolution (around 2 keV at 20 keV), high photo-peak fraction and sharp spectral separation between the color images. In this paper the results obtained with PIXIE III both in a test bench set-up as well in X-ray imaging applications are discussed.

Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Delogu, P.; de Ruvo, P. L.; Vincenzi, A.

2015-01-01

93

X-ray spectral constraints on the broad-line cloud geometry of NGC 4151  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectral data from NGC 4151 taken with the Einstein Solid-State Spectrometer (SSS) and the HEAO-1 A-2 experiment cannot be simply reconciled with absorption from a uniform column of cold gas. The SSS data can, however, be explained in terms of a clumped absorber with approximately 10% uncovered fraction and factor-of-two overabundances in Z equal to or greater than 14 elements relative to solar oxygen. It is shown that these and previously reported spectral and variability data can be quantitatively reconciled with absorption arising in the cold clouds responsible for the broad optical line emission if the cloud dimensions are small compared to the central source size. It is suggested that the lack of significant X-ray absorption observed from much higher luminosity Seyferts and quasars is a natural consequence of our picture for NGC 4151.

Holt, S. S.; Muchotzky, R. F.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; White, N. E.

1980-01-01

94

X-ray spectral constraints on the broad-line cloud geometry of NGC 4151  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectral data from NGC 4151 taken with the Einstein Solid-State Spectrometer (SSS) and the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment cannot be simply reconciled with absorption from a uniform column of cold gas. The SSS data can, however, be explained in terms of a clumped absorber with approximately 10% uncovered fraction and factor-of-two overabundances in Z equal to or greater than 14 elements relative to solar oxygen. It is shown that these and previously reported spectral and variability data can be quantitatively reconciled with absorption arising in the cold clouds responsible for the broad optical line emission if the cloud dimensions are small compared to the central source size. It is suggested that the lack of significant X-ray absorption observed from much higher luminosity Seyferts and quasars is a natural consequence of the proposed picture for NGC 4151.

Holt, S. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Becker, R. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; White, N. E.

1980-01-01

95

Spectrally-resolved Soft X-ray Observations and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar X-ray observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during solar flares and quiescent periods. How the corona is heated to its ~1-3 MK nominal temperature remains one of the fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics; heating of plasma to tens of MK during solar flares -- particularly to the hottest observed temperatures of up to ~50 MK -- is also still poorly understood. Soft X-ray emission (~0.1-10 keV; or ~0.1-10 nm) is particularly sensitive to hot coronal plasma and serves as a probe of the thermal processes driving coronal plasma heating. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding these energetic processes, but there have historically been very few such observations. We present new solar soft X-ray spectra from the Amptek X123-SDD, measuring quiescent solar X-ray emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution from two SDO/EVE calibration sounding rocket underflights in 2012 and 2013. Combined with observations from RHESSI, GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, and SDO/AIA, the temperature distribution derived from these data suggest significant hot (5-10 MK) emission from active regions, and the 2013 spectra suggest a low-FIP enhancement of only ~1.6 relative to the photosphere, 40% of the usually-observed value from quiescent coronal plasma. We explore the implications of these findings on coronal heating. We discuss future missions for spectrally-resolved soft X-ray observations using the X123-SDD, including the upcoming MinXSS 3U CubeSat using the X123-SDD and scheduled for deployment in mid-2015, and the CubIXSS 6U CubeSat mission concept.

Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry; McTiernan, James; Woods, Thomas N.

2015-04-01

96

Exploring the spectral properties of faint hard X-ray sources with XMM-Newton  

E-print Network

We present a spectroscopic study of 41 hard X-ray sources detected serendipitously with high significance (> 5 sigma in the 2-10 keV band) in seven EPIC performance/verification phase observations. The large collecting area of EPIC allows us to explore the spectral properties of these faint hard X-ray sources with 2x 10^{-14} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} even though the length of the exposures are modest (~ 20 ks). Optical identifications are available for 21 sources of our sample. Using a simple power law plus Galactic absorption model we find an average value of the photon index Gamma ~ 1.6-1.7, broadly consistent with recent measurements made at similar fluxes with ASCA and with Chandra stacked spectral analyses. We find that 31 out of 41 sources are well fitted by this simple model and only eight sources require absorption in excess of the Galactic value. Interestingly enough, one third of these absorbed sources are broad line objects, though with moderate column densities. Two sources in the sample are X-ray bright optically quiet galaxies and show flat X-ray spectra. Comparing our observational results with those expected from standard synthesis models of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) we find a fraction of unabsorbed to absorbed sources larger than predicted by theoretical models at our completeness limit of F_{2-10} ~ 5 x 10^{-14} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1}. The results presented here illustrate well how wide-angle surveys performed with EPIC on board XMM-Newton allow population studies of interesting and unusual sources to be made as well as enabling constraints to be placed on some input parameters for synthesis models of the CXB.

E. Piconcelli; M. Cappi; L. Bassani; F. Fiore; G. DiCocco; J. B. Stephen

2002-08-08

97

Soft X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the North Polar Spur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a soft X-ray spectral observation of the North Polar Spur (NPS), an enhanced feature in the Soft X-ray Background. The observation was made with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) aboard a sounding rocket on May 2, 1997. CCD temperature during flight was -72°C, approximately 15° higher than optimal. A total of 330 seconds of data was collected. The spectrum, in the 0.22-10 keV energy range, was analyzed using the XSPEC data package. The data were fit by a three component model: an absorbed power law representing the extragalactic emission, a thermal plasma model representing the foreground emission from the Local Hot Bubble and a thermal plasma model representing emission from the North Polar Spur. The extragalactic component was fit with an absorbed power law, using a column density of 2 × 1020cm -2. The best fit gave a spectral index of 1.391 and a normalization of 11.11. The local component was fit with a Raymond and Smith thermal plasma model. The best fit resulted in a temperature of 1.5 × 106 K and an emission measure of 6.76 × 103cm-6 pc. The NPS component was fit with an absorbed Raymond and Smith thermal plasma model with a temperature of 3.5 × 106 K and an emission measures of 3.53 × 103cm-6 pc. The fit was significantly improved with the addition of Gaussians at energies of known astrophysical lines corresponding to N VII, Ne IX, Mg XI and Si Ly?. It was also significantly improved when the abundances of N, O, Ne, Ar, Fe, and Ni were allowed to vary using a variable Raymond and Smith thermal plasma model for the NPS component. Both fits are evidence of abundance variations in the North Polar Spur. An NEI (nonequilibrium ionization) model for the NPS component did not result in a significant improvement of the fit, suggesting that the NPS plasma is already in collisional ionization equilibrium.

Cawley, Laura Joan

98

High-speed dental radiography achieved with a kilohertz-range pulsed x-ray generator  

SciTech Connect

The development of a high-intensity kilohertz-range pulsed x-ray generator and its application to dental radiography are described. The pulsed x-ray generator consisted of the following major components: a constant high-voltage power supply, a high-voltage main condenser, a hot-cathode triode, a DC power supply for the filament (hot cathode), and a grid controller. The main condenser of 0.5 {micro}F-100 kV in the pulser was charged from 50 to 70 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the triode by the grid controller. To be exact, the tube voltage decreased during the discharging for generating pulsed x-rays, yet the maximum value was equivalent to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser. The maximum values of the tube current and the repetition rate were about 0.5 A and 30 kHz, respectively. The pulse width of the x-rays ranged from approximately 20 to 400 {micro}s, and the x-ray intensity with a charging voltage of 70 kV and a total resistance of 5.1 M{Omega} was about 0.83 {micro}C/kg at 1.0 m per pulse. Using this generator, high-speed dental radiography, e.g., delayed radiography and multiple-shot radiography, was performed.

Takabe, Akihito; Yamamoto, Mariko; Sakamaki, Kimio [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). Dept. of Dental Radiology

1995-12-31

99

Spectral performance of a pixellated X-ray imaging detector with suppressed charge sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to perform X-ray imaging with energy resolution on a small pixel detector is severely limited by the charge sharing in the detector. Different schemes have been proposed in order to overcome the problem. Previous studies using synchrotron radiation have shown that, for a 300-?m-thick Si detector with 55 ?m pixel size, almost no charge sharing occurs for photons hitting the centre of each pixel. In this study, we have used slits to focus the beam from a standard X-ray unit onto the centre of a pixel for a MEDIPIX detector. The attenuation of the spectrum was measured for a number of samples of different materials with K-edge energy in the range of 30-50 keV. The measurements were performed by scanning an energy window through the spectrum. Requirements for new X-ray imaging systems with true energy resolution, based on these measurements, are discussed.

Norlin, Börje; Fröjdh, Christer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik

2007-06-01

100

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES  

E-print Network

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method avoids then yields images of the elec- tron flux that vary smoothly with energy. We apply the method to a solar flare

California at Berkeley, University of

101

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES  

E-print Network

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE a new method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method the method to a solar flare observed on 2002 February 20 by the RHESSI instrument. The event is characterized

Piana, Michele

102

Unsupervised spectral decomposition of X-ray binaries with application to GX 339-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore unsupervised spectral decomposition methods for distinguishing the effect of different spectral components for a set of consecutive spectra from an X-ray binary. We use well-established linear methods for the decomposition, namely principal component analysis, independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Applying these methods to a simulated data set consisting of a variable multicolour disc blackbody and a cutoff power law, we find that NMF outperforms the other two methods in distinguishing the spectral components. In addition, due the non-negative nature of NMF, the resulting components may be fitted separately, revealing the evolution of individual parameters. To test the NMF method on a real source, we analyse data from the low-mass X-ray binary GX 339-4 and found the results to match those of previous studies. In addition, we found the inner radius of the accretion disc to be located at the innermost stable circular orbit in the intermediate state right after the outburst peak. This study shows that using unsupervised spectral decomposition methods results in detecting the separate component fluxes down to low flux levels. Also, these methods provide an alternative way of detecting the spectral components without performing actual spectral fitting, which may prove to be practical when dealing with large data sets.

Koljonen, K. I. I.

2015-03-01

103

X-Ray Fluctuation Power Spectral Densities of Seyfert 1 Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By combining complementary monitoring observations spanning long, medium and short time scales, we have constructed power spectral densities (PSDs) of six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs span approx. greater than 4 orders of magnitude in temporal frequency, sampling variations on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to over a year. In at least four cases, the PSD shows a "break," a significant departure from a power law, typically on time scales of order a few days. This is similar to the behavior of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), lower mass compact systems with breaks on time scales of seconds. NGC 3783 shows tentative evidence for a doubly-broken power law, a feature that until now has only been seen in the (much better-defined) PSDs of low-state XRBs. It is also interesting that (when one previously-observed object is added to make a small sample of seven), an apparently significant correlation is seen between the break time scale T and the putative black hole mass M(sub BH), while none is seen between break time scale and luminosity. The data are consistent with the linear relation T = M(sub BH) /10(exp 6.5) solar mass; extrapolation over 6-7 orders of magnitude is in reasonable agreement with XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert 1s and XRBs.

Markowitz, A.; Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; George, I. M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Kaspi, S.; Lawrence, A.; McHandy, I.; Nandra, K.

2003-01-01

104

The X-ray spectral and timing properties of a major radio flare episode in Cygnus X-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microquasar Cygnus X-3 is known for massive outbursts that emit radiation from radio to ?-rays associated with jet ejection events. Using Principal Component Analysis to probe fast (~1 min) X-ray spectral evolution followed by subsequent spectral fits to the time-averaged spectra (~3 ks), we find that the overall X-ray variability during major outbursts can be attributed to two components. The spectral evolution of these components are best fitted with hybrid Comptonization and thermal bremsstrahlung components. Most of the X-ray variability is attributed to the hybrid Comptonization component. However, the spectral evolution of the thermal component is linked to a change in the X-ray spectral state. Phase-folding the fit results shows that the thermal component is restricted to two orbital phase regions opposite to each other, possibly indicating a flattened stellar wind from the Wolf-Rayet companion.

Koljonen, Karri I. I.; Hannikainen, Diana C.; McCollough, Michael L.; Pooley, Guy G.; Trushkin, Sergei A.; Droulans, Robert

2013-02-01

105

Revealing a hard X-ray spectral component reverberating within one light hour of the central Supermassive Black Hole in Ark 564  

E-print Network

Ark 564 (z=0.0247) is an X-ray bright NLS1. By using advanced X-ray timing techniques, Legg et al. (2012) discovered an excess of "delayed" emission in the hard X-ray band (4-7.5 keV) following about 1000 seconds after "flaring" light in the soft X-ray band (0.4-1 keV). We report on the X-ray spectral analysis of eight XMM-Newton and one Suzaku observation of Ark 564. High-resolution spectroscopy was performed with the RGS in the soft X-ray band, while broad-band spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn and XIS/PIN instruments. We analysed time-averaged, flux-selected, and time-resolved spectra. Despite the large variability in flux, the broad band spectral shape of Ark 564 is not dramatically varying and can be reproduced either by a superposition of a power law and a blackbody emission, or by a Comptonized power law emission model. High resolution spectroscopy revealed the presence of ionised gas along the line of sight at the systemic redshift of the source, with a low column density and a range of ioni...

Giustini, M; Reeves, J N; Miller, L; Legg, E; Kraemer, S B; George, I M

2015-01-01

106

Femtosecond X-Ray Free Electron Laser Pulse Duration Measurement from Spectral Correlation Function  

SciTech Connect

We present a novel method for measuring the duration of femtosecond x-ray pulses from self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron lasers by performing statistical analysis in the spectral domain. Analytical expressions of the spectral correlation function were derived in the linear regime to extract both the pulse duration and the spectrometer resolution. Numerical simulations confirmed that the method can be also used in the nonlinear regime. The method was demonstrated experimentally at the Linac Coherent Light Source by measuring pulse durations down to 13 fs FWHM.

Lutman, A. A

2012-04-17

107

Doping evolution of Zhang-Rice singlet spectral weight: A comprehensive examination by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total spectral weight S of the emergent low-energy quasiparticles in high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is explored by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to examine the applicability of the Hubbard model, regimes that cover from zero doping to overdoping are investigated. In contrast to results of mean-field theory, we found that S deviates from linear dependence on the doping level p. The slope of S versus p changes continuously throughout the whole doping range with no sign of saturation up to p=0.23. Therefore, the picture of the Zhang-Rice singlet remains intact within the most prominent doping regimes of HTSCs.

Chen, Y.-J.; Jiang, M. G.; Luo, C. W.; Lin, J.-Y.; Wu, K. H.; Lee, J. M.; Chen, J. M.; Kuo, Y. K.; Juang, J. Y.; Mou, Chung-Yu

2013-10-01

108

Using coherent X-ray ptychography to probe medium-range order.  

PubMed

Characterization of microscopic structural order and in particular medium range order (MRO) in amorphous materials is challenging. A new technique is demonstrated that allows analysis of MRO using X-rays. Diffraction data were collected from a sample consisting of densely packed polystyrene-latex micro-spheres. Ptychography is used to reconstruct the sample transmission function and fluctuation microscopy applied to characterize structural order producing a detailed `fluctuation map' allowing analysis of the sample at two distinct length scales. Independent verification is provided via X-ray diffractometry. Simulations of dense random packing of spheres have also been used to explore the origin of the structural order measured. PMID:24514315

Torrance, A T J; Abbey, B; Putkunz, C T; Pelliccia, D; Balaur, E; Williams, G J; Vine, D J; Nikulin, A Y; McNulty, I; Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A

2013-11-18

109

High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-Ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High spectral resolution, high cadence, imaging x-ray spectroscopy has the potential to revolutionize the study of the solar corona. To that end we have been developing transition-edge-sensor (TES) based x-ray micro calorimeter arrays for future solar physics missions where imaging and high energy resolution spectroscopy will enable previously impossible studies of the dynamics and energetics of the solar corona. The characteristics of these x-ray microcalorimeters are significantly different from conventional micro calorimeters developed for astrophysics because they need to accommodate much higher count rates (300-1000 cps) while maintaining high energy resolution of less than 4 eV FWHM in the X-ray energy band of 0.2-10 keV. The other main difference is a smaller pixel size (less than 75 x 75 square microns) than is typical for x-ray micro calorimeters in order to provide angular resolution less than 1 arcsecond. We have achieved at energy resolution of 2.15 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 12 x 12 square micron TES sensor and 34 x 34 x 9.1 micron gold absorber, and a resolution of 2.30 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 35 x 35 micron TES and a 57 x 57 x 9.1 micron gold absorber. This performance has been achieved in pixels that are fabricated directly onto solid substrates, ie. they are not supported by silicon nitride membranes. We present the results from these detectors, the expected performance at high count-rates, and prospects for the use of this technology for future Solar missions.

Bandler, Simon R.; Bailey, Catherine N.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Chervenak, Jay A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Daniel P.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, Jack E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall K.

2010-01-01

110

Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually emerge from an earlier stage at z approx = 4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The conjecture is pursued that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx. 10 to the 8th power years these central black holes are spun-up to a canonical Kerr equilibrium state (A/M = 0.998; Thorne 1974) and shown how they then can lead to spectral evolution involving non-thermal emission extending to gamma rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. That major portion of the CXB remaining after the contribution of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z 1 can account for the gamma ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and 2 missions as well as gamma ray and optical data are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model.

Leiter, D.; Boldt, E.

1982-01-01

111

Hercules X-1: Spectral Variability of an X-Ray Pulsar in a Stellar Binary System. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment onboard the Orbiting Solar Observatory 8 (OSO-8), observed Her x-1 continuously for approximately 8 days. Spectral-temporal correlations of the X-ray emission were obtained. The major results concern observations of: (1) iron band emission, (2) spectral hardening (increase in effective x-ray temperature) within the X-ray pulse, and (3) a transition from an X-ray low state to a high state. The spectrum obtained prior to the high state can be interpreted as reflected emission from a hot coronal gas surrounding an accretion disk, which itself shields the primary X-ray source from the line of sight during the low state. The spectral hardening within the X-ray pulse was indicative of the beaming mechanism at the neutron star surface. The hardest spectrum by pulse phase was identified with the line of sight close to the Her x-1 magnetic dipole axis, and the X-ray pencil beam become harder with decreasing angle between the line of sight and the dipole axis.

Pravdo, S. H.

1976-01-01

112

Spectral Modeling of the Comptonized Continua of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars: Recent Progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are undertaking a program to analyze the X-ray spectra of the accretion flows onto strongly magnetic neutron stars in high mass binary systems such as Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. These accreting pulsars typically have X-ray spectra consisting of broad Comptonized cutoff power-laws. Current theory suggests these X-ray spectra result from the impact of the high-velocity magnetically channeled plasma accretion flows onto the surfaces of the neutron stars. The flows have such high energy density that shocks developing in the plasmas can be radiation-dominated. These X-ray pulsars often, but not always, show cyclotron resonant scattering features implying neutron star surface magnetic field strengths above 10^12 G. Over the past few years a number of studies have reported both positive and negative correlations of the cyclotron line energy centroids with X-ray luminosity in a number of pulsars. However, the detailed analysis of the cyclotron line centroids suffers from the lack of a robust model for the Comptonized X-ray continuum upon which the cyclotron lines are superposed. We discuss in this presentation our progress in developing tools for the analysis of the X-ray spectra formed in these systems. The range of parameter conditions presented by the many known real accreting pulsar systems substantially exceeds that of the limited set of pulsars on which the original analytic model of Becker and Wolff (2007) was validated. In the high temperature optically thick plasmas, the processes of bremsstrahlung emission from the hot plasma, black body emission from a thermal mound near the neutron star surface, and cyclotron emission from electrons in the first Landau excited state, all contribute to the total local photon population in the shock structure. We discuss our strategy for numerically accounting for the relative contribution to the full X-ray spectrum made by each of these physical processes. Solving for the integrated spectrum involves numerical integrations of complicated analytic series that presents different challenges in each of the three cases of cyclotron, black body, and bremsstrahlung emission. We discuss the issues involved for each physical process.

Wolff, Michael T.; Becker, P. A.; Marcu, D.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Wood, K. S.

2014-01-01

113

Are Spectral and Timing Correlations Similar in Different Spectral States in Black Hole X-Ray Binaries?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the outbursts of the black hole X-ray binaries MAXI J1659-152, SWIFT J1753.5-0127, and GX 339-4 with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The bandpass of the XRT has access to emission from both components of the accretion flow: the accretion disk and the corona/hot flow. This allows a correlated spectral and variability study, with variability from both components of the accretion flow. We present for the first time a combined study of the evolution of spectral parameters (disk temperature and radius) and timing parameters (frequency and strength) of all power spectral components in different spectral states. Comparison of the correlations in different spectral states shows that the frequency and strength of the power spectral components exhibit dependencies on the disk temperature that are different in the (low-)hard and the hard-intermediate states (HIMSs); most of these correlations that are clearly observed in the HIMS (in MAXI J1659-152 and GX 339-4) are not seen in the (low-)hard state (in GX 339-4 and SWIFT J1753.5-0127). Also, the responses of the individual frequency components to changes in the disk temperature are markedly different from one component to the next. Hence, the spectral-timing evolution cannot be explained by a single correlation that spans both these spectral states. We discuss our findings in the context of the existing models proposed to explain the origin of variability.

Kalamkar, M.; Reynolds, M. T.; van der Klis, M.; Altamirano, D.; Miller, J. M.

2015-03-01

114

Extended range X-ray telescope: X-ray microscope design. Final Report, 29 Jan. - 28 Jun. 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glancing incidence X-ray microscope using a confocal hyperboloid ellipsoid mirror was designed to couple optically a Wolter 1 telescope to a CCD focal plane detector. Both the RMS spot size and the point spread function calculations were used to evaluate the resolution, defocusing, and vignetting effects of the system for microscope focal lengths of 1, 1.5, and 2 meters

D. L. Shealy; A. Kassim; S. Chao

1982-01-01

115

X-ray Variability and Spectral Scaling: A measure of BLR sizes in AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a new method of determination of the size of the broad emission-line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei. This method relates the radius of the broad-line region of AGN to the soft X-ray luminosity and spectral index: sources with comparable luminosity but a steeper (or softer) spectrum have more ionizing photons (hence a larger ionizing power), and will produce the emission line region at a larger distance from the central source. Comparing the BLR distances calculated from our model to the BLR distances in 8 AGN and quasars determined by reverberation mapping shows that our scaling law improves over the simple $r\\sim L^{1/2}$ empirical relation, in particular for the objects with steep spectra (NGC 4151 and NGC 5548). We present also a third method of estimating the BLR distance - based on the emission-line width and the central mass estimated from X-ray variability.

Wandel, A.; Boller, Th.

116

Spectral Study of the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission with Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to carry out a precise spectral study of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission using Suzaku, we have observed a typical Galactic plane field at (l,b) = (28°46, -0°20), which is already deeply observed with Chandra, and known to be devoid of bright X-ray point sources. Thanks to the low background and high spectral resolution of Suzaku, we were able to resolve three narrow iron K-emission lines from low-ionized (6.41keV), helium-like (6.67keV), and hydrogenic ions (7.00keV). The cosmic-ray ion charge-exchange model or the non-equilibrium ionization plasma model are unlikely to explain these line features, since they require either broad emission lines or lines at intermediate ionization states. Collisional ionization equilibrium plasma is the likely origin for the 6.67keV and 7.00keV lines; however, the origin of the 6.41keV line, which is due to fluorescence from cold material, has not been elucidated. We could also precisely measure the absolute X-ray surface brightness in the direction of the Galactic plane. Excluding point sources brighter than ˜2×10-13 ergs-1 cm-2 (2-10keV), the total surface brightness on the Galactic plane is ˜6.1×10-11 ergs-1 cm-2 deg-2 (2--10keV), including the contribution of the cosmic X-ray background, which is estimated to be ˜1.3×10-11 ergs-1 cm-2 deg-2.

Ebisawa, Ken; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yasuo; Koyama, Katsuji; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Bamba, Aya; Kokubun, Motohide; Hyodo, Yoshiaki; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hiromitsu

2008-01-01

117

Diffractive lenses for photon energies ranging from the extreme ultraviolet to hard x rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffractive optics for the x-ray range have to meet the various requirements of experimental set-ups at synchrotron or other light sources. In the case of focusing elements it is essential that the devices are matched to parameters such as the photon energy and spatial coherence of the source, as well as the required spatial resolution, working distance, and diffraction efficiency. In some cases, a suppression of disturbing diffraction orders requires additional features such as an opaque central stop integrated into the lens. The Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology provides the essential technologies necessary for the design and fabrication of diffractive x-ray lenses for a wide range of photon energies and applications. Over the past years, a large variety of optics tailored to the specific needs of x-ray optical experiments have been fabricated and tested. These include transmission Fresnel phase zone plate for microscopy, microprobe, or beam monitoring applications, as well as condensers to increase the flux in waveguiding experiments in the hard x-ray range. An overview of the nanofabrication technologies and a selection of experiments demonstrating the devices performance are presented.

David, Christian; Noehammer, Bernd; Solak, Harun H.; Haas, Bianca; Glaus, Fredy; van der Veen, J. Friso; Schlott, Volker; Bongaerts, Jeroen; Kaulich, Burkhard; Susini, Jean

2001-12-01

118

Multicolor operation and spectral control in a gain-modulated x-ray free-electron laser.  

PubMed

We show that the spectral properties of a self-amplified spontaneous emission x-ray free-electron laser can be controlled by modulating the gain in magnetic undulators, thus producing one or several spectral lines within a single few femtosecond pulse. By varying the magnetic field along the undulator and the electron beam transport line, the system we demonstrate can tailor the x-ray spectrum to optimally meet numerous experimental requirements for multicolor operation. PMID:24116783

Marinelli, A; Lutman, A A; Wu, J; Ding, Y; Krzywinski, J; Nuhn, H-D; Feng, Y; Coffee, R N; Pellegrini, C

2013-09-27

119

X-Ray Spectral Cutoff and the Lack of Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies >~ 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 × 1038 erg s-1 for M81 X-6 and 1.2 × 1039 erg s-1 for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 × 1039 erg s-1 for M81 X-6 and 1.9 × 1040 erg s-1 for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

Dewangan, G. C.; Jithesh, V.; Misra, R.; Ravikumar, C. D.

2013-07-01

120

X-RAY SPECTRAL CUTOFF AND THE LACK OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES M81 X-6 AND HOLMBERG IX X-1  

SciTech Connect

We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies {approx}> 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R. [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Jithesh, V.; Ravikumar, C. D., E-mail: gulabd@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Malappuram 673635 (India)

2013-07-10

121

Understanding X-ray Spectral and Timing Characteristics of Active Galactic Nuclei by a Novel Picture with Multiple Primary Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the central engine of type I Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) has been hampered by spectral ambiguity among different X-ray components: e.g., Comptonized primary emission, secondary components possibly affected by strong relativistic effects (e.g., Miniutti et al. 2007), and/or complex partial absorption (e.g., Miller et al. 2008). With a variability-assisted spectral analysis method developed in Noda et al. (2011, 2013), we succeeded in model-independently decomposing the AGN spectra, and establishing a novel view of the engine, that it consists of multiple primary X-ray continua with distinct spectral shapes, variability timescales, and Eddington-ratio dependences (Noda et al. 2013). The novel view with the multiple primary X-ray components can explain several long-lasting problems with the AGN central engine. The hardest of the primary components can now partially explain the "too strong hard X-ray hump", and make the secondary reflection strength moderate. The well-known X-ray spectral softening, when a source brightens, can be successfully reproduced by an increasing dominance of a softer-slope primary component towards higher Eddington ratios. Furthermore, the puzzling lack of good optical vs. X-ray intensity correlation, in some AGNs, can be solved by considering that the optical emission is correlated only with some of the primary X-ray components.

Noda, H.; Makishima, K.; Yamada, S.; Miyake, K.

2014-07-01

122

X-Ray Spectral Variability During an Outburst in V1118 Ori  

E-print Network

We present results from a multi-wavelength campaign to monitor the 2005 outburst of the low-mass young star V1118 Ori. Although our campaign covers the X-ray, optical, infrared, and radio regimes, we focus in this Letter on the properties of the X-ray emission in V1118 Ori during the first few months after the optical outburst. Chandra and XMM-Newton detected V1118 Ori at three epochs in early 2005. The X-ray flux and luminosity stayed similar within a factor of two, and at the same level as in a pre-outburst observation in 2002. The hydrogen column density showed no evidence for variation from its modest pre-outburst value of $N_\\mathrm{H} \\sim 3 \\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$. However, a spectral change occurred from a dominant hot plasma ($\\sim 25$ MK) in 2002 and in January 2005 to a cooler plasma ($\\sim 8$ MK) in February 2005 and in March 2005. We hypothesize that the hot magnetic loops high in the corona were disrupted by the closing in of the accretion disk due to the increased accretion rate during the outburst, whereas the lower cooler loops were probably less affected and became the dominant coronal component.

M. Audard; M. Guedel; S. L. Skinner; K. R. Briggs; F. M. Walter; G. Stringfellow; R. T. Hamilton; E. F. Guinan

2005-10-31

123

Crosscheck of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect

The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony

2005-07-12

124

THE X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTION OF THE SEYFERT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS NGC 7469  

SciTech Connect

We present the broadband X-ray power spectral density (PSD) function of the X-ray-luminous Seyfert 1.2 NGC 7469, measured from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring data and two XMM-Newton observations. We find significant evidence for a turnover in the 2-10 keV PSD at a temporal frequency of 2.0{sup +3.0}{sub -0.8} x 10{sup -6} Hz or 1.0{sup +3.0}{sub -0.6} x 10{sup -6} Hz, depending on the exact form of the break (sharply broken or slowly bending power law, respectively). The 'surrogate' Monte Carlo method of Press et al. was used to map out the probability distributions of PSD model parameters and obtain reliable uncertainties (68% confidence limits quoted here). The corresponding break timescale of 5.8 {+-} 3.5 days or 11.6{sup +17.5}{sub -8.7} days, respectively, is consistent with the empirical relation between PSD break timescale, black hole mass, and bolometric luminosity of McHardy et al. Compared to the 2-10 keV PSD, the 10-20 keV PSD has a much flatter shape at high temporal frequencies, and no PSD break is significantly detected, suggesting an energy-dependent evolution not unlike that exhibited by several Galactic black hole systems.

Markowitz, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

2010-11-20

125

Challenges to quantitative multivariate statistical analysis of atomic-resolution X-ray spectral.  

PubMed

A new aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with an array of Si-drift energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers has been utilized to acquire spectral image data at atomic resolution. The resulting noisy data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis to noise filter, remove an unwanted and partially overlapping non-sample-specific X-ray signal, and extract the relevant correlated X-ray signals (e.g., channels with L and K lines). As an example, the Y?Ti?O? pyrochlore-structured oxide (assumed here to be ideal) was interrogated at the [011] projection. In addition to pure columns of Y and Ti, at this projection, there are also mixed 50-50 at. % Y-Ti columns. An attempt at atomic-resolution quantification is presented. The method proposed here is to subtract the non-column-specific signal from the elemental components and then quantify the data based upon an internally derived k-factor. However, a theoretical basis to predict this non-column-specific signal is needed to make this generally applicable. PMID:22849798

Kotula, Paul G; Klenov, Dmitri O; von Harrach, H Sebastian

2012-08-01

126

X-ray spectral variability of LINERs selected from the Palomar sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Variability is a general property of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The way in which these changes occur at X-rays is not yet clearly understood. In the particular case of low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) nuclei, variations on the timescales from months to years have been found for some objects, but the main driver of these changes is still debated. Aims: The main purpose of this work is to investigate the X-ray variability in LINERs, including the main driver of these variations, and to search for possible differences between type 1 and 2 objects. Methods: We examined the 18 LINERs in the Palomar sample with data retrieved from the Chandra and/or XMM-Newton archives that correspond to observations gathered at different epochs. All the spectra for the same object were fitted simultaneously to study long-term variations. The nature of the variability patterns were studied by allowing different parameters to vary during the spectral fit. Whenever possible, short-term variations from the analysis of the light curves and long-term UV variability were studied. Results: Short-term variations are not reported in X-rays. Three LINERs are classified as non-AGN candidates in X-rays, all of them are Compton-thick candidates; none of them show variations at these frequencies, and two of them vary in the UV. Long-term X-ray variations were analyzed in 12 out of 15 AGN candidates; about half of them showed variability (7 out of the 12). At UV frequencies, most of the AGN candidates with available data are variable (five out of six). Thus, 13 AGN candidates are analyzed at UV and/or X-rays, ten of which are variable at least in one energy band. None of the three objects that do not vary in X-rays have available UV data. This means that variability on long-timescales is very common in LINERs. These X-ray variations are mainly driven by changes in the nuclear power, while changes in absorptions are found only for NGC 1052. We do not find any difference between type 1 and 2 LINERs, neither in the number of variable cases (three out of five type 1 and four out of seven type 2 LINERs), nor in the nature of the variability pattern. We find indications of an anticorrelation between the slope of the power law, ?, and the Eddington ratio. Conclusions: LINERs are definitely variable sources irrespective of whether they are classified as optical type 1 or 2. Their BH masses, accretion rates, and variability timescales place them in the same plane as more powerful AGN at X-rays. However, our results suggest that the accretion mechanism in LINERs may be different. UV variations of some type 2 LINERs were found, this could support the hypothesis of a torus that disappears at low luminosities. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Hernández-García, L.; González-Martín, O.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.

2014-09-01

127

High-spectral resolution high-cadence imaging x-ray microcalorimeters for solar physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spectral resolution, high cadence, imaging x-ray spectroscopy has the potential to revolutionize the study of the solar corona. To that end we have been developing transition-edge-sensor (TES) based x-ray microcalorimeter arrays for future solar physics missions where imaging and high energy resolution spectroscopy will enable previously impossible studies of the dynamics and energetics of the solar corona. The characteristics of these xray microcalorimeters are significantly different from conventional microcalorimeters developed for astrophysics because they need to accommodate much higher count rates (300-1000 cps) while maintaining high energy resolution of less than 4 eV FWHM in the X-ray energy band of 0.2-10 keV. The other main difference is a smaller pixel size (less than 75 x 75 square microns) than is typical for x-ray microcalorimeters in order to provide angular resolution less than 1 arcsecond. We have achieved at energy resolution of 2.15 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 12 x 12 square micron TES sensor and 34 x 34 x 9.1 micron gold absorber, and a resolution of 2.30 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 35 x 35 micron TES and a 57 x 57 x 9.1 micron gold absorber. This performance has been achieved in pixels that are fabricated directly onto solid substrates, ie. they are not supported by silicon nitride membranes. We present the results from these detectors, the expected performance at high count-rates, and prospects for the use of this technology for future Solar missions.

Bandler, Simon R.; Bailey, Catherine N.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Deluca, Edward E.; Chervenak, Jay A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Daniel P.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall K.

2010-07-01

128

Inclination-dependent spectral and timing properties in transient black hole X-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a simple one-dimensional parametrization of timing properties to show that hard and hard-intermediate state transient black hole X-ray binaries with the same power spectral shape have systematically harder X-ray power-law emission in higher inclination systems. We also show that the power spectral shape and amplitude of the broad-band noise (with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations, QPOs, removed) are independent of inclination, confirming that it is well correlated with the intrinsic structure of the emitting regions and that the `type C' QPO, which is inclination dependent, has a different origin to the noise, probably geometric. Our findings suggest that the power-law emission originates in a corona which is flattened in the plane of the disc, and not in a jet-like structure which would lead to softer spectra at higher inclinations. However, there is tentative evidence that the inclination dependence of spectral shape breaks down deeper into the hard state. This suggests either a change in the coronal geometry and possible evidence for contribution from jet emission, or alternatively an even more optically thin flow in these states.

Heil, L. M.; Uttley, P.; Klein-Wolt, M.

2015-04-01

129

A direct comparison of X-ray spectral models for tori in active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several X-ray spectral models for tori in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are available to constrain the properties of tori; however, the accuracy of these models has not been verified. We recently constructed a code for the torus using GEANT4, which can easily handle different geometries. Thus, we adopt the same assumptions as Murphy & Yaqoob (2009, MNRAS, 397, 1549) and Brightman & Nandra (2011, MNRAS, 413, 1206) and try to reproduce their spectra. As a result, we can reproduce well the reflection spectra and the strength of the Fe K? line of Murphy & Yaqoob, for both NH = 1024 and 1025 cm-2. However, we cannot produce the strong reflection component of Brightman & Nandra in the low-energy band. The origin of this component is the reflection from the visible inner wall of the torus, and the reflection should be very weak in the edge-on directions under the geometry of Brightman & Nandra. Therefore, the behaviour of the reflection spectra in Brightman & Nandra is not consistent with their geometry. The strength of the Fe K? line of Brightman & Nandra is also different from our results and the analytical result in the optically thin case. The limitation of the spectral model will bias the parameters from the X-ray spectral fitting.

Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo

2015-03-01

130

On the estimation of spectral density of X-ray sources using attenuation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high energy X-rays typically used in Medical Physics (100s kV -20 MeV ) have such short wavelengths, that creating a diffraction grating is impossible. Because the absorption coefficient depends on the wavelength, one can use transmission data through filters of various thicknesses to obtain information about the spectral density of the X-ray source. Neglecting non-linear processes, there is a linear dependence of the transmission data on the spectral distribution. Unfortunately, the corresponding underdetermined system is ill-conditioned, and traditional methods used to solve inverse problems (such as Singular Valued Decomposition) typically fails, even for very small levels of noise affecting the attenuation data (much lower than is typically obtained in an experiment). We will present a very robust algorithm for detecting the bremsstrahlung spectrum, which seek for a smooth function that minimizes the distance to the experimental transmission data. We will show that the algorithm works very well even for very noisy attenuation data, even when no prior knowledge of spectral distribution is available.

Huerta, Claudia; Vazquez, Luis; Manciu, Marian; Vulcan, Teodor; Manciu, Felicia; Waggener, Robert

2008-03-01

131

THE NEXT GENERATION ATLAS OF QUASAR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM RADIO TO X-RAYS  

SciTech Connect

We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared.

Shang Zhaohui; Li Jun; Xie Yanxia [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Brotherton, Michael S.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Kelly, Benjamin J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Green, Richard F. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Nemmen, Rodrigo S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ganguly, Rajib [Department of Computer Science, Engineering, and Physics, University of Michigan-Flint, 213 Murchie Science Building, 303 Kearsley Street, Flint, MI 48502 (United States); Hines, Dean C. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Kriss, Gerard A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tang, Baitian, E-mail: zshang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 1245 Webster Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States)

2011-09-01

132

The GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron: inelastic X-ray scattering and photoelectron spectroscopy in the hard X-ray range.  

PubMed

The GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron is dedicated to inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) in the 2.3-12 keV hard X-ray range. These two techniques offer powerful complementary methods of characterization of materials with bulk sensitivity, chemical and orbital selectivity, resonant enhancement and high resolving power. After a description of the beamline components and endstations, the beamline capabilities are demonstrated through a selection of recent works both in the solid and gas phases and using either IXS or HAXPES approaches. Prospects for studies on liquids are discussed. PMID:25537606

Rueff, J P; Ablett, J M; Céolin, D; Prieur, D; Moreno, Th; Balédent, V; Lassalle-Kaiser, B; Rault, J E; Simon, M; Shukla, A

2015-01-01

133

Deep galaxy count predictions in the radio, infrared, and X-ray spectral bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of a dominant population of strongly evolving starburst sources at moderate redshift is a plausible explanation for the excess number of faint blue galaxies detected in deep sky surveys. Multiwavelength observations at faint magnitudes would allow the existence of such a population to be confirmed. We use observed luminosity correlations and physical properties of known starburst galaxies to predict their contribution to the deep radio, infrared, and X-ray counts, as well as to the diffuse extragalactic background radiation in these various spectral bands.

Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

1993-01-01

134

Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

1994-01-01

135

Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in an X-Ray Binary System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its ~5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (~7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K? line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (~60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (gsim 1012 G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (1033-1035 erg s-1), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a ~1013 G NS, this scheme can explain the ~5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (~1016 G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (~50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfvén shell for a ~1013 G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn

2014-05-01

136

Determination of electron energy, spectral width, and beam divergence at the exit window for clinical megavoltage x-ray beams  

PubMed Central

Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray beams typically take parameters of the electron beam in the accelerating waveguide to be free parameters. In this paper, a methodology is proposed and implemented to determine the energy, spectral width, and beam divergence of the electron source. All treatment head components were removed from the beam path, leaving only the exit window. With the x-ray target and flattener out of the beam, uncertainties in physical characteristics and relative position of the target and flattening filter, and in spot size, did not contribute to uncertainty in the energy. Beam current was lowered to reduce recombination effects. The measured dose distributions were compared with Monte Carlo simulation of the electron beam through the treatment head to extract the electron source characteristics. For the nominal 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams, the energies were 6.51±0.15 and 13.9±0.2 MeV, respectively, with the uncertainties resulting from uncertainties in the detector position in the measurement and in the stopping power in the simulations. Gaussian spectral distributions were used, with full widths at half maximum ranging from 20±4% at 6 MV to 13±4% at 18 MV required to match the fall-off portion of the percent-depth ionization curve. Profiles at the depth of maximum dose from simulations that used the manufacturer-specified exit window geometry and no beam divergence were 2–3 cm narrower than measured profiles. Two simulation configurations yielding the measured profile width were the manufacturer-specified exit window thickness with electron source divergences of 3.3° at 6 MV and 1.8° at 18 MV and an exit window 40% thicker than the manufacturer’s specification with no beam divergence. With the x-ray target in place (and no flattener), comparison of measured to simulated profiles sets upper limits on the electron source divergences of 0.2° at 6 MV and 0.1° at 18 MV. A method of determining source characteristics without mechanical modification of the treatment head, and therefore feasible in clinics, is presented. The energies and spectral widths determined using this method agree with those determined with only the exit window in the beam path. PMID:19378730

Sawkey, D. L.; Faddegon, B. A.

2009-01-01

137

Determination of electron energy, spectral width, and beam divergence at the exit window for clinical megavoltage x-ray beams  

SciTech Connect

Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray beams typically take parameters of the electron beam in the accelerating waveguide to be free parameters. In this paper, a methodology is proposed and implemented to determine the energy, spectral width, and beam divergence of the electron source. All treatment head components were removed from the beam path, leaving only the exit window. With the x-ray target and flattener out of the beam, uncertainties in physical characteristics and relative position of the target and flattening filter, and in spot size, did not contribute to uncertainty in the energy. Beam current was lowered to reduce recombination effects. The measured dose distributions were compared with Monte Carlo simulation of the electron beam through the treatment head to extract the electron source characteristics. For the nominal 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams, the energies were 6.51{+-}0.15 and 13.9{+-}0.2 MeV, respectively, with the uncertainties resulting from uncertainties in the detector position in the measurement and in the stopping power in the simulations. Gaussian spectral distributions were used, with full widths at half maximum ranging from 20{+-}4% at 6 MV to 13{+-}4% at 18 MV required to match the fall-off portion of the percent-depth ionization curve. Profiles at the depth of maximum dose from simulations that used the manufacturer-specified exit window geometry and no beam divergence were 2-3 cm narrower than measured profiles. Two simulation configurations yielding the measured profile width were the manufacturer-specified exit window thickness with electron source divergences of 3.3 degree sign at 6 MV and 1.8 deg. at 18 MV and an exit window 40% thicker than the manufacturer's specification with no beam divergence. With the x-ray target in place (and no flattener), comparison of measured to simulated profiles sets upper limits on the electron source divergences of 0.2 deg. at 6 MV and 0.1 deg. at 18 MV. A method of determining source characteristics without mechanical modification of the treatment head, and therefore feasible in clinics, is presented. The energies and spectral widths determined using this method agree with those determined with only the exit window in the beam path.

Sawkey, D. L.; Faddegon, B. A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2009-03-15

138

X-ray spectral cut-off and the lack of hard X-ray emission from two ultraluminous X-ray sources M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1  

E-print Network

We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1 based on Suzaku & XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e. the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies more than about 3keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5e38 ergs/s for M81 X-6 and 1.2e39ergs/s for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8e39ergs/s for M81 X-6 and 1.9e40 ergs/s for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cut-offs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there isn't an additional high energy power-law component contributing significantly t...

Dewangan, G C; Misra, R; Ravikumar, C D

2013-01-01

139

Exact Solution for the Hypergeometric Green's Function Describing Spectral Formation in X-Ray Pulsars  

E-print Network

An eigenfunction expansion method involving hypergeometric functions is used to solve the partial differential equation governing the transport of radiation in an X-ray pulsar accretion column containing a radiative shock. The procedure yields the exact solution for the Green's function, which describes the scattering of monochromatic radiation injected into the column from a source located near the surface of the star. Collisions between the injected photons and the infalling electrons cause the radiation to gain energy as it diffuses through the gas and gradually escapes by passing through the walls of the column. The presence of the shock enhances the energization of the radiation and creates a power-law spectrum at high energies, which is typical for a Fermi process. The analytical solution for the Green's function provides important physical insight into the spectral formation process in X-ray pulsars, and it also has direct relevance for the interpretation of spectral data for these sources. Additional interesting mathematical aspects of the problem include the establishment of a closed-form expression for the quadratic normalization integrals of the orthogonal eigenfunctions, and the derivation of a new summation formula involving products of hypergeometric functions. By taking various limits of the general expressions, we also develop new linear and bilinear generating functions for the Jacobi polynomials.

Peter A. Becker

2005-05-06

140

X-Ray Luminosity and Spectral Variability in the TEV BL Lac 1ES2344+514  

E-print Network

The results of a series of five \\sax observations of the TeV BL Lac object 1ES2344+514 are briefly presented. Large amplitude luminosity variability, associated to impressive spectral changes in the hard X-rays, have been found. The shape of the lightcurve depends on energy, with the flare starting and ending in the hard band, but with maximum intensity possibly reached earlier in the soft X-rays. The luminosity and spectral changes may be due to a shift of the peak of the synchrotron emission from the soft X-rays to the hard X-ray band similar to that detected during \\sax observations of MKN 501.

P. Giommi; P. Padovani; E. Perlman

1998-02-02

141

Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multispectral Solar Telescope Array is a rocket-borne observatory which encompasses seven compact soft X-ray/EUV, multilayer-coated, and two compact far-UV, interference film-coated, Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. Extensive measurements are presented on the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the X-ray/EUV telescopes. Attention is given to systematic errors and measurement errors.

Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

1991-01-01

142

Correlated Temporal and Spectral Variability in Neutron Star and Black Hole X-Ray Binaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variability of neutron star and black hole X-ray sources has several dimensions, because of the roles played by different important time-scales. The variations on time scales of hours, weeks, and months, ranging from 50% to orders of magnitude, arise out of changes in the flow in the disk. The most important driving forces for those changes are probably various possible instabilities in the disk, though there may be effects with other dominant causes. The changes in the rate of flow appear to be associated with changes in the flow's configuration, as the accreting material approaches the compact object, for there are generally correlated changes in both the X-ray spectra and the character of the faster temporal variability. There has been a lot of progress in tracking these correlations, both for Z and Atoll neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, and for black hole binaries. I will discuss these correlations and what they tell us about the physical states of the systems.

Swank, J.

2006-01-01

143

Unifying Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-ray Spectral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are known to have properties that distinguish them from broad-line Seyferts. They are identified by their narrow optical permitted lines including H?, weak forbidden lines including [OIII], and strong FeII. They also have unusual UV emission-line properties including strong low-ionization lines such as SiII and blueshifted high-ionization lines such as CIV. Their X-ray properties are distinctive: they have steep X-ray spectra, strong soft excesses, and frequently show high-amplitude variability. These distinctive properties are usually attributed to a high accretion rate relative to Eddington compared with other AGN. However, the properties of objects classified as NLS1s are not uniform. Some have higher amplitude variability than others, and that property is associated with the strength of the soft excess. Some objects have very blueshifted high-ionization lines, and some do not, and the blueshift has been shown to be related to ?ox, a parameter that measures the relative strength of the UV and X-ray emission. This dispersion could indicate a range of accretion rates among NLS1s themselves, or something else. We analyzed a sample of 21 objects that have both XMM-Newton observations and HST spectra in order to determine whether the central engine characteristics, defined by the X-ray properties, are related to the broad-line region characteristics, defined by the UV emission-line properties. In this poster, we present analysis of the XMM-Newton spectra. We find that a broken power law model can adequately parameterize all the spectra in the 0.3-6 keV band. The soft excess has recently been modeled using a relativistically blurred reflection model and a relativistically smeared ionized absorption model. We compare the broken power law parameterization and the two physical models using simulated spectra and compare with our results.

McCully, Curtis; Leighly, K. M.; Maddumage, H.

2008-05-01

144

X-RAY VARIABILITY AND HARDNESS OF ESO 243-49 HLX-1: CLEAR EVIDENCE FOR SPECTRAL STATE TRANSITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which reaches a maximum luminosity of 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} (0.2-10 keV), currently provides the strongest evidence for the existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). To study the spectral variability of the source, we conduct an ongoing monitoring campaign with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), which now spans more than two years. We found that HLX-1 showed two fast rise and exponential decay type outbursts in the Swift XRT light curve with increases in the count rate of a factor {approx}40 separated by 375 {+-} 13 days. We obtained new XMM-Newton and Chandra dedicated pointings that were triggered at the lowest and highest luminosities, respectively. From spectral fitting, the unabsorbed luminosities ranged from 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} to 1.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. We confirm here the detection of spectral state transitions from HLX-1 reminiscent of Galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs): at high luminosities, the X-ray spectrum showed a thermal state dominated by a disk component with temperatures of 0.26 keV at most, and at low luminosities the spectrum is dominated by a hard power law with a photon index in the range 1.4-2.1, consistent with a hard state. The source was also observed in a state consistent with the steep power-law state, with a photon index of {approx}3.5. In the thermal state, the luminosity of the disk component appears to scale with the fourth power of the inner disk temperature, which supports the presence of an optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk. The low fractional variability (rms of 9% {+-} 9%) in this state also suggests the presence of a dominant disk. The spectral changes and long-term variability of the source cannot be explained by variations of the beaming angle and are not consistent with the source being in a super-Eddington accretion state as is proposed for most ULX sources with lower luminosities. All this indicates that HLX-1 is an unusual ULX as it is similar to GBHBs, which have non-beamed and sub-Eddington emission, but with luminosities three orders of magnitude higher. In this picture, a lower limit on the mass of the black hole of >9000 M{sub Sun} can be derived, and the relatively low disk temperature in the thermal state also suggests the presence of an IMBH of a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }.

Servillat, Mathieu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-67, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Farrell, Sean A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lin Dacheng; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A., E-mail: mservillat@cfa.harvard.edu [Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier-Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Toulouse (France)

2011-12-10

145

The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed seven compact soft X-ray/EUV (XUV) multilayer coated and two compact FUV interference film coated Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes for a rocket borne observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. We report here on extensive measurements of the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the XUV telescopes carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.

Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B. C., Jr.; Allen, Max J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C.

1992-01-01

146

The Spectral Evolution of Solar Flare Hard X-Ray Emission Observed with BATSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a more detailed characterization of spectral evolution in solar flare hard X-ray emission than has been previously described. Our characterization is consistent with some earlier results but utilizes higher time resolution data and reveals nuances in spectral evolution that have never been reported. We employ an underutilized data set, the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) solar flare catalog, for our investigation and different methodology than previous studies. Our findings support the conclusion that properties of the particle Abstract: acceleration mechanism in flares, such as the acceleration rate or efficiency, are indeed important to understanding spectral evolution. On the other hand, time-of-flight models, which assume accelerator properties to be negligible, cannot explain the observed detailed spectral evolution, and correlations that we would expect to exist between spectral evolution patterns and parameters derived from time-of-flight model inversions are not supported by the data. In this fashion, we establish an observational context in which to interpret future High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) observations and delineate some constraints for theoretical models of particle acceleration.

Newton, Elizabeth K.; Giblin, Timothy

2000-01-01

147

An X-Ray Spectral Survey of Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei with ASCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a uniform and systematic analysis of the 0.6-10 keV X-ray spectra of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed by ASCA. The sample, which is not statistically complete, includes 10 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs), five radio-loud quasars (QSRs), nine narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs), and 10 radio galaxies (RGs) of mixed FR I and FR II types. For several sources the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. The exposure times of the observations and the fluxes of the objects vary over a wide range; as a result, so does the signal-to-noise ratio of the individual X-ray spectra. At soft X-rays, about 50% of NLRGs and 100% of RGs exhibit thermal plasma emission components, with bimodal distributions of temperatures and luminosities. This indicates that the emission in such an object arises in hot gas either in a surrounding cluster or loose group or in a hot corona, consistent with previous ROSAT and optical results. At energies above 2 keV, a hard power-law component (photon index ?~1.7-1.8) is detected in 90% of cases. The power-law photon indices and luminosities in BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs are similar. This is consistent with simple orientation-based unification schemes for lobe-dominated radio-loud sources in which BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs harbor the same type of central engine. Moreover, excess cold absorption in the range 1021-1024 cm-2 is detected in most (but not all) NLRGs, consistent with absorption by obscuring tori, as postulated by unification scenarios. The ASCA data provide initial evidence that the immediate gaseous environment of the X-ray source of BLRGs may be different than in Seyfert 1 galaxies: absorption edges of ionized oxygen, common in the latter, are detected in only one BLRG. Instead we detect large columns of cold gas in a fraction (~44%-60%) of BLRGs and QSRs, comparable to the columns detected in NLRGs, which is puzzling. This difference hints at different physical and/or geometrical properties of the medium around the X-ray source in radio-loud AGNs compared to their radio-quiet counterparts, properties that can be explored further with future X-ray observations. For the full sample, the nuclear X-ray luminosity is correlated with the luminosity of the [O III] emission line, the FIR emission at 12 ?m, and the lobe radio power at 5 GHz. The Fe K? line is detected in 50% of BLRGs and in one QSR, with a large range of intrinsic widths and equivalent widths. In the handful of NLRGs where it is detected, the line is generally unresolved. Comparing the average power-law photon indices of the various classes of radio-loud AGNs to their radio-quiet counterparts from the literature, we find only a weak indication that the ASCA 2-10 keV spectra of BLRGs are flatter than those of Seyfert 1 galaxies of comparable X-ray luminosity. This result is at odds with evidence from samples studied by other authors suggesting that radio-loud AGNs have flatter spectra than radio-quiet ones. Rather, it supports the idea that a beamed synchrotron self-Compton component related to the radio source (jet) is responsible for the flatter slopes in those radio-loud AGNs. We argue that, because of the way those samples were constructed, beamed X-ray emission from the radio jets probably contributed to the observed X-ray spectra. The sample studied here includes six weak-line radio galaxies (WLRGs), powerful radio galaxies characterized by [O III] 4569 and 5007 Å of unusually low luminosity and by unusually high [O II]/[O III] line ratios. The ASCA spectra of WLRGs can be generally decomposed into a soft thermal component with kT~1 keV, plus a hard component, described either by a flat (=1.5) absorbed power law or by a very hot (kT~100 keV) thermal bremsstrahlung model. Their intrinsic luminosities are in the range L2-10keV~1040-1042 ergs s-1, 2 orders of magnitude lower than in other sources in our sample. If the hard X-ray emission is attributed to a low-luminosity AGN, an interesting possibility is that WLRGs represent an extreme population of radio galaxies in which the central bl

Sambruna, Rita M.; Eracleous, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard F.

1999-11-01

148

Suzaku Spectral Study of the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed a typical Galactic plane blank field with Suzaku for 100 ksec to carry out spectral study of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE). The field had been previously studied with Chandra, and is known to be devoid of bright X-ray point sources. We were able to resolve, for the first time, three narrow iron K-emission lines from low-ionized (6.4 keV), helium-like (6.67 keV), and hydrogenic ions (7.0 keV). These line features constrain the GRXE emission mechanisms. The cosmic-ray ion charge exchange model or the non-ionization equirribrium (NIE) plasma model are very unlikely, since they require either broad emission lines or lines at intermediate ionization states. We were able to precisely measure the absolute GRXE flux thanks to the low background and small stray-light contamination of Suzaku. Excluding point sources brighter than 2 × 10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 (2-10 keV), only ˜ 10 the Chandra point sources brighter than 3 × 10-15 ergs s-1 cm-2.

Ebisawa, K.; Yamauchi, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Koyama, K.; Suzaku Team

149

The First Hard X-Ray Power Spectral Density Functions of AGN  

E-print Network

We present results of our Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis of 30 AGN using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of ~-1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For 5 of the highest S/N sources we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGN, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGN are similar to the high state of Galactic Black Holes.

Shimizu, T Taro

2013-01-01

150

Solar Flare X-ray Source Motion as a Response to Electron Spectral Hardening  

E-print Network

Context: Solar flare hard X-rays (HXRs) are thought to be produced by nonthermal coronal electrons stopping in the chromosphere, or remaining trapped in the corona. The collisional thick target model (CTTM) predicts that sources produced by harder power-law injection spectra should appear further down the legs or footpoints of a flare loop. Therefore, hardening of the injected power-law electron spectrum during flare onset should be concurrent with a descending hard X-ray source. Aims: To test this implication of the CTTM by comparing its predicted HXR source locations with those derived from observations of a solar flare which exhibits a nonthermally-dominated spectrum before the peak in HXRs, known as an early impulsive event. Methods: HXR images and spectra of an early impulsive C-class flare were obtained using the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Images were reconstructed to produce HXR source height evolutions for three energy bands. Spatially-integrated spectral analysis was perf...

O'Flannagain, A; Brown, J; Milligan, R; Holman, G

2013-01-01

151

THE FIRST HARD X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS  

SciTech Connect

We present results of our power spectral density (PSD) analysis of 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of {approx} - 1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For five of the highest signal-to-noise ratio sources, we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGNs, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGNs are similar to the high state of Galactic black holes.

Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F., E-mail: tshimizu@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2013-06-10

152

Spectral Classification of Optical Counterparts to ROSAT All-Sky Survey X-ray Sources  

E-print Network

Previous work statistically identified 5492 optical counterparts, with approximately 90% confidence, from among the approximately 18,000 X-ray sources appearing in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC). Using low resolution spectra in the wavelength range 3700-7900 angstroms, we present spectroscopic classifications for 195 of these counterparts which have not previously been classified. Of these 195, we find 168 individual stars of F, G, K or M type, 6 individual stars of unknown type, 6 double stars, 6 AGN or galaxies and 7 unclassifiable objects; the spectra of the 2 remaining objects were saturated.

Diana Dragomir; Philippe Roy; Robert E. Rutledge

2007-02-16

153

FIRST EVIDENCE FOR SPECTRAL STATE TRANSITIONS IN THE ESO 243-49 HYPERLUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HLX-1  

SciTech Connect

The brightest ultra-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1, with a 0.2-10 keV X-ray luminosity of up to 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, provides the strongest evidence to date for the existence of intermediate mass black holes (BHs). Although small-scale X-ray spectral variability has already been demonstrated, we have initiated a monitoring campaign with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Swift satellite to search for luminosity-related spectral changes and to compare its behavior with the better-studied stellar mass BHs. In this Letter, we report a drop in the XRT count rate by a factor of approx8 which occurred simultaneously with a hardening of the X-ray spectrum. A second observation found that the source had re-brightened by a factor of approx21 which occurred simultaneously with a softening of the X-ray spectrum. This may be the first evidence for a transition between the low/hard and high/soft states.

Godet, O.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CESR, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Farrell, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2009-11-10

154

A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi et al., “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011)]. The agreement between the x-ray spectra calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model and the measured spectra was evaluated for various levels of deadtime loss ratios (DLR) and incident spectral shapes, realized using different attenuators, in terms of the weighted coefficient of variation (COV{sub W}), i.e., the root mean square difference weighted by the statistical errors of the data and divided by the mean. Results: At low count rates, when DLR < 10%, the distorted spectra measured by the DXMCT-1 were in agreement with those calculated by SRE only, with COV{sub W}'s less than 4%. At higher count rates, the measured spectra were also in agreement with the ones calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model; with PMMA as attenuator, COV{sub W} was 5.6% at a DLR of 22% and as small as 6.7% for a DLR as high as 55%. Conclusions: The x-ray spectra calculated by the proposed model agreed with the measured spectra over a wide range of count rates and spectral shapes. The SRE model predicted the distorted, recorded spectra with low count rates over various types and thicknesses of attenuators. The study also validated the hypothesis that the complex spectral distortions in a PCD can be adequately modeled by cascading the count-rate independent SRE and the count-rate dependent PPE.

Cammin, Jochen, E-mail: jcammin1@jhmi.edu, E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki, E-mail: jcammin1@jhmi.edu, E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu [Division of Medical Imaging Physics, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)] [Division of Medical Imaging Physics, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Xu, Jennifer [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)] [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)

2014-04-15

155

A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi , “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011)]. The agreement between the x-ray spectra calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model and the measured spectra was evaluated for various levels of deadtime loss ratios (DLR) and incident spectral shapes, realized using different attenuators, in terms of the weighted coefficient of variation (COVW), i.e., the root mean square difference weighted by the statistical errors of the data and divided by the mean. Results: At low count rates, when DLR < 10%, the distorted spectra measured by the DXMCT-1 were in agreement with those calculated by SRE only, with COVW's less than 4%. At higher count rates, the measured spectra were also in agreement with the ones calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model; with PMMA as attenuator, COVW was 5.6% at a DLR of 22% and as small as 6.7% for a DLR as high as 55%. Conclusions: The x-ray spectra calculated by the proposed model agreed with the measured spectra over a wide range of count rates and spectral shapes. The SRE model predicted the distorted, recorded spectra with low count rates over various types and thicknesses of attenuators. The study also validated the hypothesis that the complex spectral distortions in a PCD can be adequately modeled by cascading the count-rate independent SRE and the count-rate dependent PPE. PMID:24694136

Cammin, Jochen; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Taguchi, Katsuyuki

2014-01-01

156

Detection of faint X-ray spectral features using wavelength, energy, and spatial discrimination techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here our methods and results of measurements of very low-signal X-ray spectra produced by highly charged ions in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). A megapixel Si charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used in a direct-detection, single-photon-counting mode to image spectra with a cylindrically bent Ge(2 2 0) crystal spectrometer. The resulting wavelength-dispersed spectra were then processed using several intrinsic features of CCD images and image-analysis techniques. We demonstrate the ability to clearly detect very faint spectral features that are on the order of the noise due to cosmic-ray background signatures in our images. These techniques remove extraneous signal due to muon tracks and other sources, and are coupled with the spectrometer wavelength dispersion and atomic-structure calculations of hydrogen-like Ti to identify the energy of a faint line that was not in evidence before applying the methods outlined here.

Hudson, L. T.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Pomeroy, J. M.; Szabo, C. I.; Tan, J. N.; Radics, B.; Takacs, E.; Chantler, C. T.; Kimpton, J. A.; Kinnane, M. N.; Smale, L. F.

2007-09-01

157

Spectral Constraints on SEYFERT-2 Galaxies as Major Contributors to the Hard 3-100-KEV X-Ray Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that the flat spectrum of the X-ray background (XRB) above 3 keV and below ~15 keV could be explained by the superposition of absorbed sources at different redshifts. To explain the steepening of the XRB spectrum above ~15 keV, the intrinsic source spectrum should cut off at ~50-100 keV, as observed in NGC 4151 and galactic black hole candidates. Here, assuming that Seyfert 2 galaxies are Seyfert 1 galaxies obscured by intervening matter in the line of sight, as postulated by the unified model, and that they provide the major contribution to the XRB in the 3-100 keV energy range, we derive some constraints on their spectrum and evolution, and indicate, in view of future ASCA measurements, the use of iron spectral features as a test of the model.

Matt, G.; Fabian, A. C.

1994-03-01

158

Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative method  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report a method of precise and fast absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using an iterative x-ray diffraction based method. Although accurate x-ray energy calibration is indispensable for x-ray energy-sensitive scattering and diffraction experiments, there is still a lack of effective methods to precisely calibrate energy over a wide range, especially when normal transmission monitoring is not an option and complicated micro-focusing optics are fixed in place. It is found that by using an iterative algorithm the x-ray energy is only tied to the relative offset of sample-to-detector distance, which can be readily varied with high precision of the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -6} spatial resolution using gauge blocks. Even starting with arbitrary initial values of 0.1 A, 0.3 A, and 0.4 A, the iteration process converges to a value within 3.5 eV for 31.122 keV x-rays after three iterations. Different common diffraction standards CeO{sub 2}, Au, and Si show an energy deviation of 14 eV. As an application, the proposed method has been applied to determine the energy-sensitive first sharp diffraction peak of network forming GeO{sub 2} glass at high pressure, exhibiting a distinct behavior in the pressure range of 2-4 GPa. Another application presented is pair distribution function measurement using calibrated high-energy x-rays at 82.273 keV. Unlike the traditional x-ray absorption-based calibration method, the proposed approach does not rely on any edges of specific elements, and is applicable to the hard x-ray region where no appropriate absorption edge is available.

Hong Xinguo; Chen Zhiqiang [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Duffy, Thomas S. [Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2012-06-15

159

Relationship between X-ray spectral index and X-ray Eddington ratio for Mrk 335 and Ark 564  

E-print Network

We present a comprehensive flux resolved spectral analysis of the bright Narrow line Seyfert I AGNs, Mrk~335 and Ark~564 using observations by XMM-Newton satellite. The mean and the flux resolved spectra are fitted by an empirical model consisting of two Comptonization components, one for the low energy soft excess and the other for the high energy power-law. A broad Iron line and a couple of low energies edges are required to explain the spectra. For Mrk~335, the 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity relative to the Eddington value, L{$_{X}$}/L$_{Edd}$, varied from 0.002 to 0.06. The index variation can be empirically described as $\\Gamma$ = 0.6 log$_{10}$ L{$_{X}$}/L$_{Edd}$ + 3.0 for $0.005 data in the 3 - 10 keV band by only a powe...

Sarma, R; Misra, R; Dewangan, G; Pathak, A; Sarma, J K

2015-01-01

160

High Resolution Temporal and Spectral Monitoring of Eta Carinae's X-Ray Emission the June Eclipse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The supermassive and luminous star Eta Carinae undergoes strong X-ray variations every 5.5 years when its 2-10 keV X-ray emission brightens rapidly with wild fluctuations before dropping by a factor of 100 to a minimum lasting 3 months. The most recent X-ray "eclipse" began in June 2003 and during this time Eta Carinae was intensely observed throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we report the first results of frequent monitoring of the 2-10 keV band X-ray emission by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer along wit high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the transmission gratings on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We compare these observations to those results obtained during the previous X-ray eclipse in 1998, and interpret the variations in the X-ray brightness, in the amount of absorption, in the X-ray emission measure and in the K-shell emission lines in terms of a colliding wind binary model.

Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Henley, D.; Pittard, J. M.; Gull, T. R.; Davidson, K.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.

2004-01-01

161

Ultra-luminous X-ray sources as supercritical accretion disks: Spectral energy distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a model of spectral energy distribution in supercritical accretion disks (SCAD) based on the conception by Shakura and Sunyaev. We apply this model to five ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). In this approach, the disk becomes thick at distances to the center less than the spherization radius, and the temperature dependence is T ? r -1/2. In this region the disk luminosity is L bol ˜ L Edd ln ( {{{dot M} {/ {dot M_{Edd} }}} ), and strong wind arises forming a wind funnel above the disk. Outside the spherization radius, the disk is thin and its total luminosity is Eddington, L Edd. The thin disk heats the wind from below. From the inner side of the funnel the wind is heated by the supercritical disk. In this paper we do not consider Comptonization in the inner hot winds which must cover the deep supercritical disk regions. Our model is technically similar to the DISKIR model of Gierlinski et al. The models differ in disk type (standard—supercritical) and irradiation (disk—wind).We propose to distinguish between these two models in the X-ray region of about 0.3-1 keV, where the SCAD model has a flat ?F ? spectrum, and the DISKIR model never has a flat part, as it is based on the standard ?-disk. An important difference between the models can be found in their resulting black hole masses. In application to the ULX spectra, the DISKIR model yields black hole masses of a few hundred solar masses, whereas the SCAD model produces stellar-mass (about 10M?) black holes.

Vinokurov, A.; Fabrika, S.; Atapin, K.

2013-04-01

162

Advection-dominated Accretion and the Spectral States of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries: Application to Nova MUSCAE 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) are known to display five distinct spectral states. In order of increasing luminosity these are the quiescent state, low state, intermediate state, high state, and very high state. We present a self-consistent model of accretion flows around black holes that unifies all of these states except the very high state. The model is an extension

Ann A. Esin; Jeffrey E. McClintock; Ramesh Narayan

1997-01-01

163

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

2012-03-10

164

Flat panel X-ray detector with reduced internal scattering for improved attenuation accuracy and dynamic range  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed that has had all unnecessary material removed from the x-ray beam path, and all of the remaining material in the beam path made as light and as low in atomic number as possible. The resulting detector is essentially transparent to x-rays and, thus, has greatly reduced internal scatter. The result of this is that x-ray attenuation data measured for the object under examination are much more accurate and have an increased dynamic range. The benefits of this improvement are that beam hardening corrections can be made accurately, that computed tomography reconstructions can be used for quantitative determination of material properties including density and atomic number, and that lower exposures may be possible as a result of the increased dynamic range.

Smith, Peter D. (Santa Fe, NM); Claytor, Thomas N. (White Rock, NM); Berry, Phillip C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Charles R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-10-12

165

Removing Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charged Exchange Recombination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research uses the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study X-ray emission from the charge exchange (CX) of highly charged ions with neutral gases. The resulting data help to fill a void in existing experimental and theoretical understanding of this atomic physics process, and are needed to explain all or part of the observed X-ray emission from the soft X-ray background, stellar winds, the Galactic Center and Galactic Ridge, supernova ejecta, and photoionized nebulae. Appreciation of the astrophysical relevance of our work continues to grow with the publication of roughly a dozen papers in the past four years describing Chandra and XMM observations of geocoronal and heliospheric CX emission, the temporal variation of such emission and correlation with X-ray emission enhancements observed by ROSAT, the theoretical spatial distribution of that emission, and CX emission around other stars. A similar number of papers were also published during that time describing CX emission from planets and comets. We expect that the launch of ASTRSE2, with its second-generation XRS microcalo- (with 6-eV resolution), will reveal even more clearly the contributions of CX to astrophysical emission. In our EBIT work we collected CX spectra from such ions as H-like and He-like Ne, Ar, and Fe. Our early measurements were made with a high-purity Ge detector, but during the second year we began operation of the first-generation XRS microcalorimeter (a twin of the XRS on ASTRO-E) and greatly improved the resolution of our measurements from roughly 150 eV (FWHM) with the Ge detectors to 10 eV with the XRS. We found that saturation of the XRS counting apparatus, which we described in our proposal as a potential concern, is not a problem for studying CX. During the course of our research, we expanded the number of injection gases permitted by the LLNL safety team, purchased and eventually operated an atomic H source, and clearly demonstrated the feasibility of our longer-range plan. For example, we successfully injected He into EBIT (not a small feat because of the difficulty of maintaining a good vacuum with He and avoiding electrical breakdown) to collect a H-like oxygen CX spectrum. The highest energy CX spectrum recorded with the XRS to date is that of the Ar K-shell emission. These measurements provided the first observation of the relative intensity ratios of resolved He-like singlet and triplet n=2->1 lines. We also carried out measurements of He-like Ne as a function of collision energy (i.e., ion temperature). Significant differences in the resulting x-ray spectra were noted. In all cases, the intensity of high-n H-like Lyman lines is significantly higher than current theoretical CX models predict.

Wargelin, Brad

2004-01-01

166

Laser-induced fluorescence and X-ray spectral analysis of carious process in hard dental tissues.  

PubMed

Morphological and spectral X-ray analysis of carious and noncarious extracted teeth showed the patterns of dentin ossification in caries of different degree. Parietal ectopic ossification of the canal and cavity lumens in stages III and IV dental caries is regarded as a specific structural marker of pathological regeneration. The X-ray spectral analysis showed that the progress of carious process is paralleled by loss of mineral components. Laser-induced fluorescent study of tissues in extracted teeth showed 4 spectral bands corresponding to mineral and protein components of the tooth. The progress of carious process was associated with reduction of the fluorescence intensities of the spectral bands characteristic of dental collagen and mineral components. PMID:21246104

Lidman, G Yu; Larionov, P M; Savchenko, S V; Lushnikova, E L; Orishich, A M; Rozhin, I A; Malov, A N; Maslov, N A; Titov, A T; Kositsyna, I G

2010-09-01

167

X-ray laser cavity experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress has been made toward the development of multipass, soft x-ray laser cavities operating in a spectral range around 200 A. Experimental results on the characterization of normal incidence multilayer mirrors, the survival of multilayer mirrors in the hostile x-ray laser environment, and the performance of double pass cavities at 206 A to 209 A are presented.

N. M. Ceglio; D. P. Gaines; J. Trebes; A. M. Hawryluk; D. G. Stearns; G. L. Howe

1987-01-01

168

Analysis of X-ray spectral variability and black hole mass determination of the NLS1 galaxy Mrk 766  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an XMM-Newton time-resolved spectral analysis of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 766. We analysed eight available observations taken between May 2000 and June 2005 with the EPIC-pn camera in order to investigate the X-ray spectral variability produced by changes in the mass accretion rate. The 0.2 - 10 keV spectra are extracted in time bins longer than 3 ks to have at least 3 × 104 net counts in each bin and then accurately trace the variations of the best-fit parameters of our adopted Comptonization spectral model. We tested a bulk-motion Comptonization (BMC) model which is in general applicable to any physical system powered by accretion onto a compact object, and assumes that soft seed photons are efficiently up-scattered via inverse Compton scattering in a hot and dense electron corona. The Comptonized spectrum has a characteristic power law shape, whose slope was found to increase for large values of the normalization of the seed component, which is proportional to the mass accretion rate ? (in Eddington units). Our baseline spectral model also includes a warm absorber lying on the line of sight and radiation reprocessing from the accretion disc or from outflowing matter in proximity to the central compact object. Our study reveals that the normalization-slope correlation, observed in Galactic black hole sources (GBHs), also holds for Mrk 766: variations of the photon index in the range ? ~ 1.9-2.4 are indeed likely to be related to the variations of ?, as observed in X-ray binary systems. We finally applied a scaling technique based on the observed correlation to estimate the BH mass in Mrk 766. This technique is commonly and successfully applied to measure masses of GBHs, and this is the first time it has been applied in detail to estimate the BH mass in an AGN. We obtained a value of MBH = 1.26-0.77+1.00×106 M?, which is in very good agreement with that estimated by the reverberation mapping. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Giacchè, S.; Gilli, R.; Titarchuk, L.

2014-02-01

169

Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band  

SciTech Connect

Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 ?m thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ?6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

McGarry, M. B., E-mail: mbmcgarry@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy)

2014-09-15

170

Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime.

Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A.; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G.; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F.; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan P.; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J.; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

2014-10-01

171

Reabsorption of soft x-ray emission at high x-ray free-electron laser fluences.  

PubMed

We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime. PMID:25375708

Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G; Segtnan, Vegard H; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan P; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

2014-10-10

172

CAN WE REPRODUCE THE X-RAY BACKGROUND SPECTRAL SHAPE USING LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?  

SciTech Connect

The X-ray background (XRB) is due to the aggregate of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which peak in activity at z {approx} 1 and is often modeled as the sum of different proportions of unabsorbed, moderately, and heavily absorbed AGN. We present the summed spectrum of a complete sample of local AGN (the Northern Galactic Cap of the 58 month Swift/BAT catalog, z < 0.2) using 0.4-200 keV data and directly determine the different proportions of unabsorbed, moderately and heavily absorbed AGN that make up the summed spectrum. This stacked low redshift AGN spectrum is remarkably similar in shape to the XRB spectrum (when shifted to z {approx} 1), but the observed proportions of different absorption populations differ from most XRB synthesis models. AGN with Compton-thick absorption account for only {approx}12% of the sample, but produce a significant contribution to the overall spectrum. We confirm that Compton reflection is more prominent in moderately absorbed AGN and that the photon index differs intrinsically between unabsorbed and absorbed AGN. The AGN in our sample account for only {approx}1% of the XRB intensity. The reproduction of the XRB spectral shape suggests that strong evolution in individual AGN properties is not required between z {approx} 0 and 1.

Vasudevan, Ranjan V.; Mushotzky, Richard F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gandhi, Poshak, E-mail: ranjan@astro.umd.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2013-06-20

173

The Spectral States of Black Hole X-ray Binary Sources  

E-print Network

A framework for the interpretation of the spectral states of black hole X-ray transients based on the diversity of accretion disk models is introduced. Depending on the mass accretion rate, it is proposed that the accretion disk is described by one or a combination of the following structures: optically thick disk, advection-dominated disk, corona-disk, and non-steady state disk. In particular, it is suggested that the very high, high, low, and off states are characterized by mass accretion rates of decreasing magnitude. The very high state corresponds to mass accretion rates near the Eddington limit in which an optically thin non steady inner region is surrounded by an optically thick structure. In the high state, the inner region is optically thin and advection-dominated or optically thick. The low hard state is interpreted in terms of a disk-corona system and the off state in terms of an optically thin disk dominated by advective energy transport into the black hole. The possible observational consequences of such a paradigm are discussed.

Xingming Chen; Ronald E. Taam

1996-06-04

174

FULL SPECTRAL SURVEY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER ARCHIVE  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed spectra for all active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line equivalent width (EW), Compton reflection, and photon index, and calculate fluxes and luminosities in the 2-10 keV band for 100 AGN with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to yield high-quality spectral results. We compare these parameters across the different classifications of Seyferts and blazars. Our distributions of photon indices for Seyfert 1s and 2s are consistent with the idea that Seyferts share a common central engine; however, our distributions of Compton reflection hump strengths do not support the classical picture of absorption by a torus and reflection off a Compton-thick disk with type depending only on inclination angle. We conclude that a more complex reflecting geometry such as a combined disk and torus or clumpy torus is likely a more accurate picture of the Compton-thick material. We find that Compton reflection is present in {approx}85% of Seyferts and by comparing Fe line EW's to Compton reflection hump strengths we have found that on average 40% of the Fe line arises in Compton thick material; however, this ratio was not consistent from object to object and did not seem to be dependent on optical classification.

Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard, E-mail: erivers@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

2013-08-01

175

An outburst scenario for the X-ray spectral variability in 3C 111  

E-print Network

We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E=0.6-200keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R~0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at E_c~150-200keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Ly\\alpha emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized disc reflection, this should be emitted at r_in> 50r_g or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h> 30r_g over the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modeled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0^{+6.1}_{-3.2} keV or a photo-ionized...

Tombesi, F; Reynolds, C S; Garcia, J; Lohfink, A

2013-01-01

176

On the Nature of the mHz X-ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1: Search for Timing-Spectral Correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs (0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass.We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling.We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.

Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

2013-01-01

177

ON THE NATURE OF THE mHz X-RAY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS FROM ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE M82 X-1: SEARCH FOR TIMING-SPECTRAL CORRELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs ({approx}0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling. We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.

Pasham, Dheeraj R. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Strohmayer, Tod E., E-mail: dheeraj@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: tod.strohmayer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-07-10

178

A Fully Bayesian Method for Jointly Fitting Instrumental Calibration and X-Ray Spectral Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is "pragmatic" in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or ?-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

Xu, Jin; van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Connors, Alanna; Drake, Jeremy; Meng, Xiao-Li; Ratzlaff, Pete; Yu, Yaming

2014-10-01

179

Correlated X-ray spectral and timing variability of the Be/X-ray binary V0332+53/BQ Cam during a type II outburst  

E-print Network

We have used INTEGRAL & RXTE data to investigate the timing properties of the source in correlation with its spectral states as defined by different positions in the colour-colour diagram. The source shows two distinct branches in the colour-colour diagram that resemble those of the Z sources. The hard branch (similar to the horizontal branch of Z sources) is characterised by a low-amplitude change of the hard colour compared to the change in the soft colour. In the soft branch (analogue to the normal branch) the amplitude of variability of the hard colour is about three times larger than that of the soft colour. As the count rate decreases the source moves up gradually through the soft to the hard branch. The aperiodic variability (excluding the pulse noise) consists of band-limited noise (represented by three broad Lorentzian components) and two QPOs at 0.05 Hz and 0.22 Hz. The strength of the lower frequency QPO increases as the source approaches the hard branch (similar to HBOs in Z sources). The higher frequency QPO reaches maximum significance when the source is in the middle of the branch (like NBOs). We have performed the first measurements of phase lags in the band limited noise below 8 Hz in an accreting X-ray pulsar and found that soft lags dominate at high frequencies. Above the pulse frequency (0.23 Hz), the amplitude of the lag increases as the X-ray flux increases. The Z topology appears to be a signature of the neutron star binaries as it is present in all types of neutron-star binaries (Z, atoll and, as we show here, in accreting pulsars as well). However, the motion along this track, the time scales through the different branches of the diagram and the aperiodic variability associated with portions of the Z track differ for each subclass of neutron-star binary.

P. Reig; S. Martinez-Nunez; V. Reglero

2005-12-12

180

Sensitivity study of ignition capsule implosion performance on the hard x-ray spectral distribution of hohlraum  

SciTech Connect

The paper investigates theoretically the sensitivities of ignition capsule implosion performance on the hard x-ray spectral distribution of hohlraum. In the simulation, the hohlraum radiation is represented by a Planckian spectrum for the main drive plus a gaussian bump centered at energy E{sub c} for preheating x-rays. Simulation results show that with the increasing of center energy E{sub c}, the Atwood number at the fuel-ablator interface increases rapidly due to the preheating and expanding of the inner undoped CH layer. The growing of Atwood number indicates the hydrodynamic instability (HI) growth and mixing at this interface. On the other hand, the increasing of E{sub c} results in a large density gradient scale length of ablation front and stabilizes the HI growth at ablation front. The changes of the hard x-ray spectrum have significant influences on other important implosion parameters including the ablator mass remaining, shock timing, implosion velocity, and yield as well. High-precision results on the hard x-ray spectral distribution of hohlraum are thus critical for optimizing the ignition capsule design to limit the HI growth.

Gu Jianfa; Zou Shiyang; Li Yongsheng; Dai Zhensheng; Ye Wenhua [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2012-12-15

181

The Need for X-Ray Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over four decades, X-ray, EUV, and UV spectral observations have been used to measure physical properties of the solar atmosphere. During this time, there has been substantial improvement in the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution of the observations for the EUV and UV wavelength ranges. At wavelengths below 100 Angstroms, however, observations of the solar corona with simultaneous spatial and spectral resolution are limited, and not since the late 1970's have spatially resolved solar X-ray spectra been measured. The soft-X-ray wavelength range is dominated by emission lines formed at high temperatures and provides diagnostics unavailable in any other wavelength range. In this presentation, we will discuss the important science questions that can be answered using spatially and spectrally resolved X-ray spectra.

Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken

2011-01-01

182

Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charge Exchange Recombination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed research uses the electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study X-ray emission from charge-exchange recombination of highly charged ions with neutral gases. The resulting data fill a void in existing experimental and theoretical understanding of this atomic physics process, and are needed to explain all or part of the observed X-ray emission from the soft X-ray background, stellar winds, the Galactic Center, supernova ejecta, and photoionized nebulae. Progress made during the first year of the grant is described, as is work planned for the second year.

Wargelin, B.

2002-01-01

183

Spectral Modeling of the Comptonized Continua of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are undertaking a program to analyze the X-ray spectra of the accretion flows onto strongly magnetic neutron stars in high mass binary systems such as Cen X-3, and XTE J1946+274. These accreting pulsars typically have X-ray spectra consisting of broad Comptonized cutoff power-laws. Current theory suggests these X-ray spectra result from radiation-dominated shocks that develop in the high-velocity magnetically channeled plasma accretion flows onto the surfaces of the neutron stars. These X-ray pulsars often, but not always, show cyclotron resonant scattering features implying neutron star surface magnetic field strengths above 1012 G. Proper fitting of cyclotron line centroids (for example, to investigate how the line centroid varies with X-ray luminosity) requires a robust model for the Comptonized X-ray continuum upon which the cyclotron lines are superposed, and this can be provided by a continuum model based on the physics of the accretion column.We discuss in this presentation our ongoing program for the analysis of the X-ray spectra formed in these systems. Our program consists of two parts. First, we are modeling the X-ray spectra from the Suzaku X-ray satellite of accreting X-ray pulsars Cen X-3 and XTE J1946+274 utilizing the best currently existing empirical models. The second part of our program is building a new analysis tool based on the analytical model of Becker and Wolff (2007). In the high temperature optically thick plasma flows, the processes of bremsstrahlung emission from the hot plasma, black body emission from a thermal mound near the neutron star surface, and cyclotron emission from electrons in the first Landau excited state, all contribute to the total observed X-ray spectrum. We show recent results from our new implementation and its comparison with the Suzaku data for these X-ray pulsars.This research is supported by the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

Wolff, Michael Thomas; Pottschmidt, Katja; Becker, Peter A.; Marcu, Diana; Wilms, Jörn; Wood, Kent S.

2015-01-01

184

X-ray laser resonator for the kilo-electron-volt range  

SciTech Connect

We have designed, constructed, and tested an x-ray laser resonator operating in the hard x-ray, keV energy region. This ring x-ray laser cavity is formed by four highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystals. The crystals are set at the Bragg angles that allow for the complete 360 Degree-Sign round trip of the 2.37 A, 5.23 keV L{sub {alpha}} line of neodymium. In addition, we also present experimental data of a similar ring laser resonator that utilizes the Cr K{sub {alpha}}, 5.41 keV, x-ray line to propagate through the four mirrors of the cavity. The specific properties of these x-ray laser resonator mirrors, including reflection losses and cavity arrangement, are presented.

Chen, Jie [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tomov, Ivan V.; Er, Ali O.; Rentzepis, Peter M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2013-04-29

185

Monitoring Long-Range Electron Transfer Pathways in Proteins by Stimulated Attosecond Broadband X-ray Raman Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Long-range electron transfer (ET) plays a key role in many biological energy conversion and synthesis processes. We show that nonlinear spectroscopy with attosecond X-ray pulses provides a real time movie of the evolving oxidation states and electron densities around atoms, and can probe these processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. This is demonstrated in a simulation study of the stimulated X-ray Raman (SXRS) signals in Re-modified azurin, which had long served as a benchmark for long-range ET in proteins. Nonlinear SXRS signals are sensitive to the local electronic structure and should offer a novel window for long-range ET.

Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

2014-10-09

186

Impurity Emission Behavior in the Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Range on EAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XEUV) region is very important in magnetic fusion research. Recently, two flat-field spectrometers that utilize a varied line spacing grating to image the spectra of 1-13 nm and 5-50 nm were installed on EAST for core impurity emission monitoring and impurity transport study. The instruments were proven to be capable of observing spectral lines from low-Z impurities (Li, C, O, N, Ar, etc.) and highly ionized medium- and high-Z impurities (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, etc.). For example, spectra in the wavelength intervals of 1-2 nm and 5-13 nm contained strong metal lines, especially molybdenum lines during H-mode phases. Argon and nitrogen lines were also observed, which were injected for diagnostic purposes. Impurity lines were identified and compared to measurements on other magnetic fusion research devices. Detailed measurements of radial emission profiles from various impurity line emissions were also presented. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175208, 11275231 and 11305207), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2012GB101001 and 2013GB112004), Scientific Instrument Development Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YZ200922) and JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the Field of Plasma Physics (No. 11261140328)

SHEN, Yongcai; LYU, Bo; DU, Xuewei; LI, Yingying; FU, Jia; WANG, Fudi; PAN, Xiayun; CHEN, Jun; WANG, Qiuping; Yuejiang, SHI

2015-03-01

187

Temperature and doping dependence of x-ray absorption spectral weight in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comprehensive study of the temperature dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) could be attributed to a dynamical spectral weight ? in YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO). Large spectral weight changes with the temperature for both the Upper Hubbard band and the Zhang-Rice band due to dynamics of holes are experimentally found in the underdoped regime. These spectral weight changes become larger when the doping level p goes deeper into the underdoped regime, but quickly vanishes as p goes to the undoped limit. Our results clearly indicate that the pseudogap is related to the double occupancy and originates from bands in higher energies.

Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Mou, Chung-Yu; Chen, J. M.

2013-03-01

188

Saturation and Dynamic Range of Microchannel Plate-Based X-Ray Imagers  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes recent advances in Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP)–based x-ray detectors, a continuation of ongoing work in this area. A Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed over the past several years by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The model simulates the secondary electron emission process in an MCP pore and includes the effects of gain saturation. In this work we focus on MCP gain saturation and dynamic range. We have performed modeling and experimental characterizations of L/D = 46, 10-micron diameter, MCP-based detectors. The detectors are typically operated by applying a subnanosecond voltage pulse, which gates the detector on. Agreement between the simulations and experiment is very good for a variety of voltage pulse waveforms ranging in width from 150 to 300 ps. The results indicate that such an MCP begins to show nonlinear gain around 5 × 10^4 electrons per pore and hard saturation around 105 electrons per pore. The simulations show a difference in MCP sensitivity vs voltage for high flux of photons producing large numbers of photoelectrons on a subpicosecond timescale. Simulations and experiments both indicate an MCP dynamic range of 1 to 10,000, and the dynamic range depends on how the voltage is applied.

,

2012-05-04

189

X-ray spectral variability in PG 1535+547: the changing look of a ``soft X-ray weak'' AGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: PG 1535+547 is a bright Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy, whose high-energy emission shows strong variability both in shape and flux. On the basis of ROSAT observations, it is classified as ``soft X-ray weak quasi-stellar object (QSO)'', a class of objects whose X-ray-to-optical flux ratio is smaller than in typical QSOs. Their X-ray spectra are often characterized by highly-ionized,

L. Ballo; M. Giustini; N. Schartel; M. Cappi; E. Jiménez-Bailón; E. Piconcelli; M. Santos-Lleó; C. Vignali

2008-01-01

190

Spektr: a computational tool for x-ray spectral analysis and imaging system optimization.  

PubMed

A set of computational tools are presented that allow convenient calculation of x-ray spectra, selection of elemental and compound filters, and calculation of beam quality characteristics, such as half-value layer, mR/mAs, and fluence per unit exposure. The TASMIP model of Boone and Seibert is adapted to a library of high-level language (Matlab) functions and shown to agree with experimental measurements across a wide range of kVp and beam filtration. Modeling of beam filtration is facilitated by a convenient, extensible database of mass and mass-energy attenuation coefficients compiled from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The functions and database were integrated in a graphical user interface and made available online at http:// www.aip.org/epaps/epaps.html. The functionality of the toolset and potential for investigation of imaging system optimization was illustrated in theoretical calculations of imaging performance across a broad range of kVp, filter material type, and filter thickness for direct and indirect-detection flat-panel imagers. The calculations reveal a number of nontrivial effects in the energy response of such detectors that may not have been guessed from simple K-edge filter techniques, and point to a variety of compelling hypotheses regarding choice of beam filtration that warrant future investigation. PMID:15587659

Siewerdsen, J H; Waese, A M; Moseley, D J; Richard, S; Jaffray, D A

2004-11-01

191

Prediction and Measurement of X-Ray Spectral and Intensity Distributions from Low Energy Electron Impact Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-vacuum electron beam welding is a technology that NASA considered as a joining technique for manufacture of space structures. The interaction of energetic electrons with metal produces x-rays. The radiation exposure to astronauts performing the in-vacuum electron beam welding must be characterized and minimized to insure safe operating conditions. This investigation characterized the x-ray environment due to operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. NASA, in a joint venture with the Russian Space Agency, was scheduled to perform a series of welding in space experiments on board the United States Space Shuttle. This series of experiments was named the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE). The hardware associated with the ISWE was leased to NASA, by the Paton Welding Institute (PWI) in Ukraine, for ground based welding experiments in preparation for flight. Two tests were scheduled, using the ISWE electron beam welding tool, to characterize the radiation exposure to an astronaut during the operation of the ISWE. These radiation exposure tests consisted of Thermoluminescence Dosimeters (TLD's) shielded with material currently used by astronauts during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and exposed to x-ray radiation generated by operation of an in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. This investigation was the first known application of TLD's to measure absorbed dose from x-rays of energy less than 10 KeV. The ISWE hardware was returned to Ukraine before the issue of adequate shielding for the astronauts was verified. Therefore, alternate experimental and analytical methods were developed to measure and predict the x-ray spectral and intensity distribution generated by electron impact with metal. These x-ray spectra were used to calculate the absorbed radiation dose to astronauts. These absorbed dose values were compared to TLD measurements obtained during actual operation of the in-vacuum electron beam welding tool. The calculated absorbed dose values were found to be in good agreement with the TLD values.

Edwards, David L.

1999-01-01

192

Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charge Exchange Recombination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed research uses the electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the X-ray emission from charge-exchange recombination of highly charged ions with neutral gases. The resulting data fill a void in the existing experimental and theoretical data and are needed to explain all or part of the observed X-ray emission from the Galactic Ridge, solar and stellar winds, the Galactic Center, supernova ejecta, and photoionized nebulae.

Wargelin, B.

2003-01-01

193

Spectral variability in early-type binary X-ray systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models for the ionization of trace elements in a strong stellar wind by a compact binary X-ray source and for the resulting orbital phase dependence of the emergent soft X-ray spectra and the profiles of ultraviolet resonance lines are presented. Model results agree qualitatively with the X-ray and ultraviolet spectra of the system 4U 0900-40/HD 77581 and explain the suppression of the absorption profiles of the Si IV upsilon 1394 and C IV upsilon 1548 lines when the X-ray sources is in front of the star. The model predicts that the absorption profiles of the N V upsilon 1239 and O VI upsilon 1032 lines will be enhanced rather than suppressed during this orbital phase. We predict phase-dependent linear polarization in the resonance lines profiles. Future observations of these phase dependent effects in early-type binary X-ray systems may be used to investigate the dynamics of stellar winds and their interactions with the X-ray source.

Mccray, R.; Kallman, T. R.; Castor, J. I.; Olson, G. L.

1984-01-01

194

Time-resolved imaging and spectral studies of an X-ray burst from the globular cluster Terzan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first image of an X-ray burst was recorded with the HRI detector at the Einstein Observatory while observing the globular cluster Terzan 2. The burst was coincident with a persistent X-ray source located near the center of the cluster (thus confirming an earlier suggested identification) and reached a peak luminosity exceeding 5 x 10 to the 38th (d/10 kpc) squared. After a rapid rise to peak luminosity, a double-peaked spectral variation was observed over the next approximately 20 s with anticorrelated changes in the apparent emission region radius and temperature derived from blackbody (and modified blackbody) spectral fits. A shell or disk geometry, which undergoes adiabatic expansion and contraction, may be implied for the burst emission region. Alternatively, Comptonization is required. It is also shown that the peak burst luminosity must exceed the Eddington limit.

Grindlay, J. E.; Marshall, H. L.; Hertz, P.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; Ghosh, P.; Darbro, W.; Sutherland, P. G.; Soltan, A.

1980-01-01

195

Diagnosing Direct-Drive, Shock-Heated, and Compressed Plastic Planar Foils with Noncollective Spectrally Resolved X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect

The electron temperature (Te) and average ionization (Z) of nearly Fermi-degenerate, direct-drive, shock-heated, and compressed plastic planar foils were investigated using noncollective spectrally resolved x-ray scattering on the OMEGA Laser System. Plastic (CH) and Br-doped CH foils were driven with six beams, having an overlapped intensity of ~1 × 10^14 W/cm^2 and generating ~15-Mbar pressure in the foil.

Sawada, H.; Regan, S.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Goncharov, V.N.; Boehly, T.R.; Epstein, R.; Sangster, T.C.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Gregori, G.; Glenzer, S.H.; Landen, O.L.

2007-12-14

196

THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs  

SciTech Connect

From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic follow-up using the FLWO/1.5 m, SAAO/1.9 m, WIYN 3.5 m, CTIO/4 m, KPNO/4 m, Magellan/6.5 m, MMT/6.5 m, and Gemini/8 m telescopes, and from archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy. We classify the optical counterparts as 50% broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 16% emission line galaxies, 14% absorption line galaxies, and 20% stars. We detect QSOs out to z {approx} 5.5 and galaxies out to z {approx} 3. We have compiled extensive photometry, including X-ray (ChaMP), ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (SDSS and ChaMP-NOAO/MOSAIC follow-up), near-infrared (UKIDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and ChaMP-CTIO/ISPI follow-up), mid-infrared (WISE), and radio (FIRST and NVSS) bands. Together with our spectroscopic information, this enables us to derive detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for our extragalactic sources. We fit a variety of template SEDs to determine bolometric luminosities, and to constrain AGNs and starburst components where both are present. While {approx}58% of X-ray Seyferts (10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} < L{sub 2-10keV} <10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) require a starburst event (>5% starburst contribution to bolometric luminosity) to fit observed photometry only 26% of the X-ray QSO (L{sub 2-10keV} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) population appear to have some kind of star formation contribution. This is significantly lower than for the Seyferts, especially if we take into account torus contamination at z > 1 where the majority of our X-ray QSOs lie. In addition, we observe a rapid drop of the percentage of starburst contribution as X-ray luminosity increases. This is consistent with the quenching of star formation by powerful QSOs, as predicted by the merger model, or with a time lag between the peak of star formation and QSO activity. We have tested the hypothesis that there should be a strong connection between X-ray obscuration and star formation but we do not find any association between X-ray column density and star formation rate both in the general population or the star-forming X-ray Seyferts. Our large compilation also allows us to report here the identification of 81 X-ray Bright Optically inactive Galaxies, 78 z > 3 X-ray sources, and eight Type-2 QSO candidates. Also, we have identified the highest redshift (z = 5.4135) X-ray-selected QSO with optical spectroscopy.

Trichas, Markos; Green, Paul J.; Aldcroft, Tom; Kim, Dong-Woo; Mossman, Amy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Barkhouse, Wayne [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Cameron, Robert A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Constantin, Anca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, PHCH, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Foltz, Craig [Division of Astronomical Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Haggard, Daryl [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [NOAO, Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Perez, Laura M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Romero-Colmenero, Encarni [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Ruiz, Angel [Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera-INAF, Milan (Italy); Smith, Malcolm G., E-mail: mtrichas@cfa.harvard.edu [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, La Serena (Chile); and others

2012-06-01

197

Pseudopotential calculations of photoionization of atoms in the x-ray photon energy range and FEL beam monitor development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pseudopotential model for calculation of atomic processes under interaction with hard x-ray photons is applied to calculation of Krypton photoionization cross sections by photons with energy in the 20–25 keV range. These cross sections, as well as the mean charge of the resulting ions calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation scheme, are in good agreement with the other theoretical calculations and with the experiment. The obtained results open the doors for new techniques in the design of gas-monitor detectors to control the intensity, coordinates and energy of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beams in the hard x-ray photon energy range. First, Monte Carlo simulations of a scintillation detector application for gas-monitors have been performed.

Chernov, V. E.; Dorofeev, D. L.; Elfimov, S. V.; Zon, B. A.; Gavrilov, G. E.; Naryshkin, Yu G.

2015-03-01

198

High-resolution x-ray spectra of solar flares. IV. General spectral properties of M type flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution x-ray spectra of class M flares have been recorded by four Bragg crystal spectrometers (SOLFLEX = solar flare x-rays) flown by NRL on an Air Force spacecraft. The wavelength ranges are 1.82 to 1.97 A, 2.98 to 3.07 A, 3.14 to 3.24 A, and 8.26 to 8.53 A. Electron temperatures are derived from dielectronic satellite-line-to-resonance-line ratios as a function

U. Feldman; G. A. Doschek; R. W. Kreplin; J. T. Mariska

1980-01-01

199

Reducing Poisson noise and baseline drift in X-ray spectral images with bootstrap Poisson regression and robust nonparametric regression.  

PubMed

X-ray spectral imaging provides quantitative imaging of trace elements in a biological sample with high sensitivity. We propose a novel algorithm to promote the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of x-ray spectral images that have low photon counts. Firstly, we estimate the image data area that belongs to the homogeneous parts through confidence interval testing. Then, we apply the Poisson regression through its maximum likelihood estimation on this area to estimate the true photon counts from the Poisson noise corrupted data. Unlike other denoising methods based on regression analysis, we use the bootstrap resampling method to ensure the accuracy of regression estimation. Finally, we use a robust local nonparametric regression method to estimate the baseline and subsequently subtract it from the x-ray spectral data to further improve the SNR of the data. Experiments on several real samples show that the proposed method performs better than some state-of-the-art approaches to ensure accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of the different trace elements in a standard reference biological sample. PMID:23428404

Zhu, Feng; Qin, Binjie; Feng, Weiyue; Wang, Huajian; Huang, Shaosen; Lv, Yisong; Chen, Yong

2013-03-21

200

Reducing Poisson noise and baseline drift in x-ray spectral images with bootstrap Poisson regression and robust nonparametric regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray spectral imaging provides quantitative imaging of trace elements in a biological sample with high sensitivity. We propose a novel algorithm to promote the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of x-ray spectral images that have low photon counts. Firstly, we estimate the image data area that belongs to the homogeneous parts through confidence interval testing. Then, we apply the Poisson regression through its maximum likelihood estimation on this area to estimate the true photon counts from the Poisson noise corrupted data. Unlike other denoising methods based on regression analysis, we use the bootstrap resampling method to ensure the accuracy of regression estimation. Finally, we use a robust local nonparametric regression method to estimate the baseline and subsequently subtract it from the x-ray spectral data to further improve the SNR of the data. Experiments on several real samples show that the proposed method performs better than some state-of-the-art approaches to ensure accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of the different trace elements in a standard reference biological sample.

Zhu, Feng; Qin, Binjie; Feng, Weiyue; Wang, Huajian; Huang, Shaosen; Lv, Yisong; Chen, Yong

2013-03-01

201

Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually have emerged from an earlier stage at zroughly-equal4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the comic X-ray background (CXB). We pursue the conjecture that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx.10/sup 8/ years these central black holes are spun up to a ''canonical'' Kerr equilibriuim state (a/M = 0.998) and shown how they can lead to spectral evolution involving nonthermal emission extending to gamma-rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. A superposition of sources in the precursor stage can thereby account for that major portion of the CXB remaining after the contributions of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z<1 can account for the gamima-ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and HEAO 2 missions, as well as gamma-ray and optical data, are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model. Several further observational tests are suggested for establishing the validity of this scenario for AGN spectral evolution.

Letter, D.; Boldt, E.

1982-09-01

202

Spectral analysis of paramagnetic centers induced in human tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on study of spectral and relaxation characteristics, we have established that paramagnetic centers induced in tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation are identical in nature. We show that for the same exposure dose, the intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal induced by x-radiation with effective energy 34 keV is about an order of magnitude higher than the amplitude of the signal induced by gamma radiation. We have identified a three-fold attenuation of the EPR signal along the path of the x-radiation from the buccal to the lingual side of a tooth, which is evidence that the individual had undergone diagnostic x-ray examination of the dentition or skull. We have shown that the x-ray exposure doses reconstructed from the EPR spectra are an order of magnitude higher than the applied doses, while the dose loads due to gamma radiation are equal to the applied doses. The data obtained indicate that for adequate reconstruction of individual absorbed doses from EPR spectra of tooth enamel in the population subjected to the combined effect of x-radiation and accidental external gamma radiation as a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, we need to take into account the contribution to the dose load from diagnostic x-rays in examination of the teeth, jaw, or skull.

Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, I. I.

2010-03-01

203

Near-Field Stacking of Zone Plates in the X-Ray Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Fresnel zone plates as focusing optics in hard X-ray microprobes at energies typically between 6 and 30 keV. While a spatial resolution close to 0.1 microm can currently be achieved, highest spatial resolution is obtained only at reduced diffraction efficiency due to manufacturing limitations with respect to the aspect ratios of zone plates. To increase the effective thickness of zone plates, we are stacking several identical zone plates on-axis in close proximity. If the zone plates are aligned laterally to within better than an outermost zone width and longitudinally within the optical near-field, they form a single optical element of larger effective thickness and improved efficiency and reduced background from undiffracted radiation. This allows us both to use zone plates of moderate outermost zone width at energies of 30 keV and above, as well as to increase the efficiency of zone plates with small outermost zone widths particularly for the energy range of 6 - 15 keV.

Maser, J.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; Shastri, S. D.; Cai, Z.

2002-01-01

204

Near-field stacking of zone plates for hard x-ray range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Fresnel zone plates as focusing optics in hard x-ray microprobes at energies typically between 6 and 30 keV. While a spatial resolution close to 0.1 ?m can currently be achieved, highest spatial resolution is obtained only at reduced diffraction efficiency due to manufacturing limitations with respect to the aspect ratios of zone plates. To increase the effective thickness of zone plates, we are stacking several identical zone plates on-axis in close proximity. If the zone plates are aligned laterally to within better than an outermost zone width and longitudinally within the optical near-field, they form a single optical element of larger effective thickness and improved efficiency and reduced background from undiffracted radiation. This allows us both to use zone plates of moderate outermost zone width at energies of 30 keV and above, as well as to increase the efficiency of zone plates with small outermost zone widths particularly for the energy range of 6 - 15 keV.

Maser, Jörg; Lai, Barry P.; Yun, Wenbing; Shastri, Sarvjit D.; Cai, Zhonghou; Rodrigues, W.; Xu, Shenglan; Trackhtenberg, E.

2002-11-01

205

X-ray Spectral Variations of U Gem from Quiescence to Outburst  

E-print Network

In this paper we report the discovery of a high energy component of the X-ray spectra of U Gem, which can be observed while the source is in outburst. We used Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to compare the quiescence and outburst X-ray spectra of the source. The additional component may be the result of the reflection of X-rays emitted from an optically thin plasma close to the white dwarf, from the optically thick boundary layer during the outburst. Another possible explanation is that some magnetically channeled accretion may occur onto the equatorial belt of the primary causing shocks similar to the ones in the intermediate polars as it was suggested by \\citep{w2002}. We have also found a timing structure at about 73 mHz ($\\sim$13.7 s.) in the RXTE observation, resembling dwarf novae oscillations (DNOs).

T. Guver; C. Uluyazi; M. T. Ozkan; E. Gogus

2006-08-08

206

Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/?E) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 ?m from the current 24 ?m spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 ?m square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 ?m and 3.9±0.1 ?m at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these worst-case resolution measurements, estimating the spatial resolution to be approximately 3.5 ?m and 3.0 ?m at 530 eV and 680 eV, well below the resolution limit of 5 ?m required to improve the spectral resolution by a factor of 2.

Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

2013-12-01

207

Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

Manchanda, R.

208

How to Build a Time Machine: Interfacing Hydrodynamics, Ionization Calculations and X-ray Spectral Codes for Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to Chandra and XMM-Newton, spatially resolved spectroscopy of SNRsin the X-ray band has become a reality. Several impressive data sets forejecta-dominated SNRs can now be found in the archives, the Cas A VLP justbeing one (albeit probably the most spectacular) example. However, it isoften hard to establish quantitative, unambiguous connections between theX-ray observations of SNRs and the dramatic events involved in a corecollapse or thermonuclear SN explosion. The reason for this is that thevery high quality of the data sets generated by Chandra and XMM for thelikes of Cas A, SNR 292.0+1.8, Tycho, and SN 1006 has surpassed our abilityto analyze them. The core of the problem is in the transient nature of theplasmas in SNRs, which results in anintimate relationship between the structure of the ejecta and AM, the SNRdynamics arising from their interaction, and the ensuing X-rayemission. Thus, the ONLY way to understand the X-ray observations ofejecta-dominated SNRs at all levels, from the spatially integrated spectrato the subarcsecond scales that can be resolved by Chandra, is to couplehydrodynamic simulations to nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) calculationsand X-ray spectral codes. I will review the basic ingredients that enterthis kind of calculations, and what are the prospects for using them tounderstand the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in young SNRs. Thisunderstanding (when it is possible), can turn SNRs into veritable timemachines, revealing the secrets of the titanic explosions that generatedthem hundreds of years ago.

Badenes, Carlos

2006-02-01

209

Temporal variations and spectral properties of the Be/X-ray pulsar GRO J1008—57 studied by INTEGRAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin period variations and hard X-ray spectral properties of the Be/X-ray pulsar GRO J1008—57 are studied with INTEGRAL observations during two outbursts in 2004 June and 2009 March. The pulsation periods of ~ 93.66 s in 2004 and ~ 93.73 s in 2009 are determined. Pulse profiles of GRO J1008—57 during outbursts are strongly energy dependent with a double-peaked profile from 3-7 keV and a single-peaked profile in hard X-rays above 7 keV. Combined with previous measurements, we find that GRO J1008—57 has undergone a spin-down trend from 1993-2009 with a rate of ~ 4.1 × 10-5 s d-1, and could have changed into a spin-up trend after 2009. We find a relatively soft spectrum in the early phase of the 2009 outburst with cutoff energy ~ 13 keV. Above a hard X-ray flux of ~ 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1, the spectra of GRO J1008—57 during outbursts need an enhanced hydrogen absorption with column density ~ 6 × 1022 cm-2. The observed dip-like pulse profile of GRO J1008—57 in soft X-ray bands could be caused by this intrinsic absorption. Around the outburst peaks, a possible cyclotron resonance scattering feature at ~ 74 keV is detected in the spectra of GRO J1008—57 which is consistent with the feature that was reported in MAXI/GSC observations, making the source a neutron star with the highest known magnetic field (~ 6.6 × 1012 G) among accreting X-ray pulsars. This marginal feature is supported by the present detections in GRO J1008—57 following the correlation between the fundamental line energies and cutoff energies in accreting X-ray pulsars. Finally we discovered two modulation periods at ~ 124.38 d and ~ 248.78 d using RXTE/ASM light curves of GRO J1008—57. Two flare peaks appearing in the folded light curve had different spectral properties. The normal outburst lasting 0.1 of an orbital phase had a hard spectrum and could not be significantly detected below 3 keV. The second flare lasting ten days showed a very soft spectrum without significant detections above 5 keV. GRO J1008—57 is a good candidate of an accreting system with an equatorial circumstellar disk around the companion star. The neutron star passing the disk of the Be star near periastron and apastron produces two X-ray flares. The soft spectral properties in the secondary flares still need further detailed studies with soft X-ray spectroscopy.

Wang, Wei

2014-05-01

210

High Spectral Resolution X-ray Observation of Magnetic CVs: EX Hya  

SciTech Connect

In magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) the primary is a highly magnetized white dwarf (WD) whose field controls the accretion flow close to the WD, leading to a shock and accretion column that radiate chiefly in X-rays. We present preliminary results from a 500 ks Chandra HETG observation of the brightest magnetic CV EX Hya. From the observational dataset we are able to measure the temperature and density at different points of the cooling accretion column using sensitive line ratios. We also construct line-based light curves to search for rotational modulation of the X-ray emission.

Luna, G; Brickhouse, N S; Mauche, C W

2008-04-07

211

X-ray spectral variability in PG1535+547: the changing-look of a 'soft X-ray weak' AGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

PG1535+547 is a bright NLS1 galaxy, whose high energy emission shows strong\\u000avariability in shape and flux. ROSAT data classified it as soft X-ray weak QSO\\u000a(objects whose X-ray-to-optical flux ratio is smaller than in typical QSO):\\u000atheir X-ray spectra are often characterized by highly ionized, complex\\u000aabsorbers and\\/or reflection from the disk, whose relative importance is\\u000acurrently debated. In

L. Ballo; M. Giustini; N. Schartel; M. Cappi; E. Jimenez-Bailon; E. Piconcelli; M. Santos-Lleo; C. Vignali

2008-01-01

212

Detection of Exceptional X-Ray Spectral Variability in the TeV BL Lac 1ES 2344+514  

E-print Network

We present the results of six BeppoSAX observations of 1ES 2344+514, five of which were taken within a week. 1ES 2344+514, one of the few known TeV BL Lac objects, was detected by the BeppoSAX Narrow Field Instruments between 0.1 to \\~50 keV. During the first five closely spaced observations 1ES 2344+514 showed large amplitude luminosity variability, associated with spectacular spectral changes, particularly when compared to the last observation when the source was found to be several times fainter, with a much steeper X-ray spectrum. The energy dependent shape of the lightcurve and the spectral changes imply a large shift (factor of 30 or more in frequency) of the peak of the synchrotron emission. At maximum flux the peak was located at or above 10 keV, making 1ES 2344+514 the second blazar (after MKN501) with the synchrotron peak in the hard X-ray band. The shift, and the corresponding increase in luminosity, might be due to the onset of a second synchrotron component extending from the soft to the hard X-ray band where most of the power is emitted. Rapid variability on a timescale of approximately 5000 seconds has also been detected when the source was brightest.

P. Giommi; P. Padovani; E. Perlman

1999-07-27

213

An Outburst Scenario for the X-ray Spectral Variability in 3C 111  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E=0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R approximately equal to 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at E(sub C) approximately equal to 150- 200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Ly alpha emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized disc reflection, this should be emitted at r(sub in) greater than or equal to 50 r(sub g) or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h greater than or equal to 30 r(sub g) over the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modeled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0(sup +6.1)(sub -3.2) keV or a photo-ionized plasma with logXi=4.52(sup +0.10)(sub -0.16) erg per second cm, and column density N(sub H) greater than 3×10(sup 23) per square centimeter. However, the first and second scenarios are less favored on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blue-shifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter logXi=4.47(sup +0.76) (sub -0.04) erg per second cm, column density NH=(5.3(sup +1.8)(sub -1.3))×10(sup 22) per square centimeter and outflow velocity v(sub out) = 0.104+/-0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind, initially lying out of the line of sight and observed in emission, then crosses our view to the source and it is observed in absorption as a mildly-relativistic UFO.

Tombesi, Francesco; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Garcia, J.; Lohfink, A.

2013-01-01

214

An outburst scenario for the X-ray spectral variability in 3C 111  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E = 0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R ? 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at EC ? 150-200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Ly? emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized-disc reflection, this should be emitted at rin ? 50 rg or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h ? 30 rg above the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modelled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0^{+6.1}_{-3.2} keV or a photoionized plasma with log ? = 4.52^{+0.10}_{-0.16} erg s-1 cm and column density NH > 3 × 1023 cm-2. However, the first and second scenarios are less favoured on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blueshifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultrafast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter log ? = 4.47^{+0.76}_{-0.04} erg s-1 cm, column density N_H = (5.3^{+1.8}_{-1.3})× 10^{22} cm-2 and outflow velocity vout = 0.104 ± 0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind, initially lying out of the line of sight and observed in emission, then crosses our view to the source and it is observed in absorption as a mildly relativistic UFO.

Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, C. S.; García, J.; Lohfink, A.

2013-09-01

215

Spectral Resolution for Five-Element, Filtered, X-Ray Detector (XRD) Arrays Using the Methods of Backus and Gilbert  

SciTech Connect

The generalized method of Backus and Gilbert (BG) is described and applied to the inverse problem of obtaining spectra from a 5-channel, filtered array of x-ray detectors (XRD's). This diagnostic is routinely fielded on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories to study soft x-ray photons ({le}2300 eV), emitted by high density Z-pinch plasmas. The BG method defines spectral resolution limits on the system of response functions that are in good agreement with the unfold method currently in use. The resolution so defined is independent of the source spectrum. For noise-free, simulated data the BG approximating function is also in reasonable agreement with the source spectrum (150 eV black-body) and the unfold. This function may be used as an initial trial function for iterative methods or a regularization model.

FEHL,DAVID LEE; BIGGS,F.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; STYGAR,WILLIAM A.

2000-01-17

216

Bismuth Sulfide Nanoflowers for Detection of X-rays in the Mammographic Energy Range.  

PubMed

The increased use of diagnostic x-rays, especially in the field of medical radiology, has necessitated a significant demand for high resolution, real-time radiation detectors. In this regard, the photoresponse of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), an n-type semiconducting metal chalcogenide, to low energy x-rays has been investigated in this study. In recent years, several types of nanomaterials of Bi2S3 have been widely studied for optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. However, photoresponse of Bi2S3 nanomaterials for dosimetric applications has not yet been reported. The photosensitivity of Bi2S3 with nanoscale "flower-like" structures was characterized under x-ray tube-potentials typically used in mammographic procedures. Both dark current and photocurrent were measured under varying x-ray doses, field sizes, and bias voltages for each of the tube potentials - 20, 23, 26 and 30?kV. Results show that the Bi2S3 nanoflowers instantaneously responded to even minor changes in the dose delivered. The photoresponse was found to be relatively high (few nA) at bias voltage as low as +1?V, and fairly repeatable for both short and long exposures to mammographic x-rays with minimal or no loss in sensitivity. The overall dose-sensitivity of the Bi2S3 nanoflowers was found to be similar to that of a micro-ionization chamber. PMID:25801531

Nambiar, Shruti; Osei, Ernest K; Yeow, John T W

2015-01-01

217

Bismuth Sulfide Nanoflowers for Detection of X-rays in the Mammographic Energy Range  

PubMed Central

The increased use of diagnostic x-rays, especially in the field of medical radiology, has necessitated a significant demand for high resolution, real-time radiation detectors. In this regard, the photoresponse of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), an n-type semiconducting metal chalcogenide, to low energy x-rays has been investigated in this study. In recent years, several types of nanomaterials of Bi2S3 have been widely studied for optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. However, photoresponse of Bi2S3 nanomaterials for dosimetric applications has not yet been reported. The photosensitivity of Bi2S3 with nanoscale “flower-like” structures was characterized under x-ray tube-potentials typically used in mammographic procedures. Both dark current and photocurrent were measured under varying x-ray doses, field sizes, and bias voltages for each of the tube potentials – 20, 23, 26 and 30?kV. Results show that the Bi2S3 nanoflowers instantaneously responded to even minor changes in the dose delivered. The photoresponse was found to be relatively high (few nA) at bias voltage as low as +1?V, and fairly repeatable for both short and long exposures to mammographic x-rays with minimal or no loss in sensitivity. The overall dose-sensitivity of the Bi2S3 nanoflowers was found to be similar to that of a micro-ionization chamber. PMID:25801531

Nambiar, Shruti; Osei, Ernest K.; Yeow, John T. W.

2015-01-01

218

X-ray spectral analysis of sulfur in the technology of hollow glass microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern method for the analysis of silicate materials, which have found increasing use lately, is that of x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) [3]. This method has been used, in particular, to determine the sulfur content in glass in studies of SO 3 solubility in melts of sodalime silicate glasses as part of the study of clarification of those glasses [3,

V. V. Budov; V. I. Fetikov

1992-01-01

219

High-Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectral Analysis in the CK Region of Titanium Carbide (TiC) using the DV-X alpha Molecular Orbital Method  

SciTech Connect

We used the DV-X alpha method to analyze the high-resolution soft X-ray emission and absorption spectra in the CK region of titanium carbide (TiC). The spectral profiles of the X-ray emission and absorption can be ssuscfucelly reproduced by the occupied and unoccupied density of states (DOS ), respectively, in the C2p orbitals of the center carbon atoms in a Ti62C63 cluster model, suggesting that the center carbon atom in a large cluster model expanded to the cubic-structured 53 (= 125) atoms provides sufficient DOS for the X-ray spectral analysis of rock-salt structured metal carbides.

Shimomura, Kenta; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gullikson, Eric M.

2008-10-31

220

Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by “the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTec’s starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

2011-02-08

221

SPATIAL, TEMPORAL, AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE MAGNETAR SGR 0501+4516  

SciTech Connect

SGR 0501+4516 was discovered with the Swift satellite on 2008 August 22 after it emitted a series of very energetic bursts. Since then, the source was extensively monitored with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton, providing a wealth of information about its outburst behavior and burst-induced changes of its persistent X-ray emission. Here, we report the most accurate location of SGR 0501+4516 (with an accuracy of 0.''11) derived with Chandra. Using the combined RXTE, Swift/X-ray Telescope, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations, we construct a phase-connected timing solution with the longest time baseline ({approx}240 days) to date for the source. We find that the pulse profile of the source is energy dependent and exhibits remarkable variations associated with the SGR 0501+4516 bursting activity. We also find significant spectral evolution (hardening) of the source persistent emission associated with bursts. Finally, we discuss the consequences of the SGR 0501+4516 proximity to the supernova remnant, SNR G160.9+2.6 (HB9).

Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki [Sabanci University, Orhanli-Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Woods, Peter M. [Corvid Technologies, 689 Discovery Drive, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP-62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gaensler, Bryan M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A29, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chatterjee, Shami, E-mail: ersing@sabanciuniv.ed [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2010-10-10

222

Spatial, Temporal, and Spectral Properties of X-ray Emission from the Magnetar SGR 0501+4516  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SGR 0501+4516 was discovered with the Swift satellite on 2008 August 22 after it emitted a series of very energetic bursts. Since then, the source was extensively monitored with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton, providing a wealth of information about its outburst behavior and burst-induced changes of its persistent X-ray emission. Here, we report the most accurate location of SGR 0501+4516 (with an accuracy of 0farcs11) derived with Chandra. Using the combined RXTE, Swift/X-ray Telescope, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations, we construct a phase-connected timing solution with the longest time baseline (~240 days) to date for the source. We find that the pulse profile of the source is energy dependent and exhibits remarkable variations associated with the SGR 0501+4516 bursting activity. We also find significant spectral evolution (hardening) of the source persistent emission associated with bursts. Finally, we discuss the consequences of the SGR 0501+4516 proximity to the supernova remnant, SNR G160.9+2.6 (HB9).

Gö?ü?, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaneko, Yuki; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Chatterjee, Shami

2010-10-01

223

Spectral Formation in X-Ray Pulsars and Associated Identities Involving the Laguerre Polynomials  

E-print Network

The partial differential equation governing the formation of the radiation spectrum in the shocked plasma accreting onto an x-ray pulsar is solved to obtain the associated Green's function describing the scattering of monochromatic radiation injected into the plasma at a fixed altitude above the star. Collisions between the photons and the infalling electrons cause both the ordered and random components of the plasma energy to be transferred to the radiation, which escapes by diffusing through the walls of the accretion column. The analytical solution for the Green's function provides important physical insight into the formation of the observed spectra in x-ray pulsars. Interesting mathematical aspects of the problem include the establishment of a new summation formula involving the Laguerre polynomials, based on the calculation of the photon number density via integration of the Green's function.

Peter A. Becker

2009-07-05

224

Spectral Statistics and Local Luminosity Function of a Hard X-ray Complete Sample of Brightest AGNs  

E-print Network

We have measured the X-ray spectral properties of a complete flux-limited sample of bright AGNs from HEAO-1 all-sky catalogs to investigate their statistics and provide greater constraints on the bright-end of the hard X-ray luminosity function (HXLF) of AGNs and the AGN population synthesis model of the X-ray background. Spectral studies using data from ASCA, XMM-Newton and/or Beppo-SAX observations have been made for almost all AGNs in this sample. The spectral measurements enable us to construct the neutral absorbing column density (Log nH) distribution and separate HXLFs for absorbed (Log nH[cm-2]> 21.5) and unabsorbed AGNs in the local universe. Our results show evidence for a difference in the shapes of HXLFs of absorbed and unabsorbed AGNs in that absorbed AGN HXLF drops more rapidly at higher luminosities than that of unabsorbed AGNs, which is similar to that previously reported. In the Lx - nH plot, we found no AGN in the high-luminosity high-intrinsic absorption regime (Log Lx[erg/s]> 44.5, Log nH[cm-2]> 21.5) in our sample, where we expect about 5 AGNs if we assume that absorbed and unabsorbed having identical AGN HXLF shapes. We also find that the observed flux with ASCA or XMM-Newton is smaller than that with HEAO-1 by a factor of 0.29 on average, which is expected for re-observation of sources with a factor 2.5 variability amplitude scale.

K. Shinozaki; T. Miyaji; Y. Ishisaki; Y. Ueda; Y. Ogasaka

2006-03-30

225

Experimental spectral measurements of heavy Kedge filtered beams for x-ray computed mammotomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual modality computed mammotomography (CmT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system for dedicated 3D breast imaging is in development. Using heavy K-edge filtration, the CmT component narrows the energy spectrum of the cone-shaped x-ray beam incident on the patient's pendant, uncompressed breast. This quasi-monochromatic beam is expected to improve discrimination of tissue with similar attenuation coefficients while

D J Crotty; R L McKinley; M P Tornai

2007-01-01

226

A statistical analysis of the broadband 0.1 to 3.5 keV spectral properties of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We survey the broadband spectral properties of approximately 500 X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Einstein Observatory. Included in this survey are the approximately 450 AGNs in the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) of Gioia et al. (1990) and the approximately 50 AGNs in the Ultrasoft Survey of Cordova et al. (1992). We present a revised version of the latter sample, based on the post publication discovery of a software error in the Einstein Rev-1b processing. We find that the mean spectral index of the AGNs between 0.1 and 0.6 keV is softer, and the distribution of indices wider, than previous estimates based on analyses of the X-ray spectra of optically selected AGNs. A subset of these AGNs exhibit flux variabiulity, some on timescales as short as 0.05 days. A correlation between radio and hard X-ray luminosity is confirmed, but the data do not support a correlation between the radio and soft X-ray luminosities, or between radio loudness and soft X-ray spectral slope. Evidence for physically distinct soft and hard X-ray components is found, along with the possibility of a bias in previous optically selected samples toward selection of AGNs with flatter X-ray spectra.

Thompson, R. J.; Cordova, F. A.

1994-01-01

227

X-ray spectral optimization for mammography applications using signal-to-noise ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypotheses that optimum exposure technique factors for mammography can be computed using uncorrected x-ray spectra measured with an inexpensive semiconductor detector is proven. A parametric model is developed, based upon the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to perceive an object against background, to predict optimum exposure technique factors. Using published molybdenum- and rhodium-target x-ray spectra, the model predicts that aluminum-filtered molybdenum and rhodium spectra are optimum. The model is subsequently used to predict optimum exposure technique factors using uncorrected x- ray spectra from a GE Senographe DMR mammography unit measured with a cadmium zinc telluride detector and multichannel analyzer. The computed optimum exposure technique factors using uncorrected measured spectra and published spectra are comparable. The model is validated using the uncorrected measured spectra and a phantom containing objects mimicking microcalcifications and fibrous tissue structures. Entrance skin exposure and breast dose for aluminum-filtered spectra are well below those produced using currently popular k-edge filtered spectra. Aluminum-filtered spectra should be considered useful because (1)structures associated with breast cancer can be successfully imaged, and (2)the patient receives a greatly reduced dose.

Tucker, Jonathan Ernest

2000-07-01

228

Spectral and temporal properties of the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J18483-0311 observed by INTEGRAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. IGR J18483-0311 is a supergiant fast X-ray transient whose compact object is located in a wide (18.5 d) and eccentric (e ~ 0.4) orbit, which shows sporadic outbursts that reach X-ray luminosities of ~1036 erg s-1. Aims: We investigated the timing properties of IGR J18483-0311 and studied the spectra during bright outbursts by fitting physical models based on thermal and bulk Comptonization processes for accreting compact objects. Methods: We analysed archival INTEGRAL data collected in the period 2003-2010, focusing on the observations with IGR J18483-0311 in outburst. We searched for pulsations in the INTEGRAL light curves of each outburst. We took advantage of the broadband observing capability of INTEGRAL for the spectral analysis. Results: We observed 15 outbursts, seven of which we report here for the first time. This data analysis almost doubles the statistics of flares of this binary system detected by INTEGRAL. A refined timing analysis did not reveal a significant periodicity in the INTEGRAL observation where a ~21 s pulsation was previously detected. Neither did we find evidence for pulsations in the X-ray light curve of an archival XMM-Newton observation of IGR J18483-0311. In the light of these results the nature of the compact object in IGR J18483-0311 is unclear. The broadband X-ray spectrum of IGR J18483-0311 in outburst is well fitted by a thermal and bulk Comptonization model of blackbody seed photons by the infalling material in the accretion column of a neutron star. We also obtained a new measurement of the orbital period using the Swift/BAT light curve.

Ducci, L.; Doroshenko, V.; Sasaki, M.; Santangelo, A.; Esposito, P.; Romano, P.; Vercellone, S.

2013-11-01

229

Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X-ray pulsars and supergiant fast X ray transients.

Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

2011-01-01

230

X-Ray Properties of K-selected Galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0: Investigating Trends with Stellar Mass, Redshift and Spectral Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine how the total X-ray luminosity correlates with stellar mass, stellar population, and redshift for a K-band limited sample of ~3500 galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0 from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey in the COSMOS field. The galaxy sample is divided into 32 different galaxy types, based on similarities between the spectral energy distributions. For each galaxy type, we further divide the sample into bins of redshift and stellar mass, and perform an X-ray stacking analysis using the Chandra COSMOS data. We find that full band X-ray luminosity is primarily increasing with stellar mass, and at similar mass and spectral type is higher at larger redshifts. When comparing at the same stellar mass, we find that the X-ray luminosity is slightly higher for younger galaxies (i.e., weaker 4000 Å breaks), but the scatter in this relation is large. We compare the observed X-ray luminosities to those expected from low- and high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). For blue galaxies, XRBs can almost fully account for the observed emission, while for older galaxies with larger 4000 Å breaks, active galactic nuclei (AGN) or hot gas dominate the measured X-ray flux. After correcting for XRBs, the X-ray luminosity is still slightly higher in younger galaxies, although this correlation is not significant. AGN appear to be a larger component of galaxy X-ray luminosity at earlier times, as the hardness ratio increases with redshift. Together with the slight increase in X-ray luminosity this may indicate more obscured AGNs or higher accretion rates at earlier times.

Jones, Therese M.; Kriek, Mariska; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Greene, Jenny E.; Labbé, Ivo; Whitaker, Katherine E.

2014-03-01

231

Tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines: Unfiltered x-ray spectra from 20 kV to 640 kV  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Monte Carlo methods were used to generate lightly filtered high resolution x-ray spectra spanning from 20 kV to 640 kV. Methods: X-ray spectra were simulated for a conventional tungsten anode. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended radiation transport code (MCNPX 2.6.0) was used to produce 35 spectra over the tube potential range from 20 kV to 640 kV, and cubic spline interpolation procedures were used to create piecewise polynomials characterizing the photon fluence per energy bin as a function of x-ray tube potential. Using these basis spectra and the cubic spline interpolation, 621 spectra were generated at 1 kV intervals from 20 to 640 kV. The tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) produces minimally filtered (0.8 mm Be) x-ray spectra with 1 keV energy resolution. The TASMICS spectra were compared mathematically with other, previously reported spectra. Results: Using pairedt-test analyses, no statistically significant difference (i.e., p > 0.05) was observed between compared spectra over energy bins above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence. For all energy bins, the correlation of determination (R{sup 2}) demonstrated good correlation for all spectral comparisons. The mean overall difference (MOD) and mean absolute difference (MAD) were computed over energy bins (above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence) and over all the kV permutations compared. MOD and MAD comparisons with previously reported spectra were 2.7% and 9.7%, respectively (TASMIP), 0.1% and 12.0%, respectively [R. Birch and M. Marshall, “Computation of bremsstrahlung x-ray spectra and comparison with spectra measured with a Ge(Li) detector,” Phys. Med. Biol. 24, 505–517 (1979)], 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (Poludniowski), and 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (AAPM TG 195). The effective energy of TASMICS spectra with 2.5 mm of added Al filtration ranged from 17 keV (at 20 kV) to 138 keV (at 640 kV); with 0.2 mm of added Cu filtration the effective energy was 9 keV at 20 kV and 169 keV at 640 kV. Conclusions: Ranging from 20 kV to 640 kV, 621 x-ray spectra were produced and are available at 1 kV tube potential intervals. The spectra are tabulated at 1 keV intervals. TASMICS spectra were shown to be largely equivalent to published spectral models and are available in spreadsheet format for interested users by emailing the corresponding author (JMB)

Hernandez, Andrew M. [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Boone, John M., E-mail: john.boone@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

2014-04-15

232

EVIDENCE FOR THE FULL HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL SIGNATURE OF NONUNIFORM IONIZATION IN A SOLAR FLARE  

SciTech Connect

The hard X-ray (HXR) emission from solar flares is observed primarily from the footpoints of flare magnetic loops, where nonthermal electrons are understood to emit thick-target bremsstrahlung as they stream from the fully ionized hot corona to the denser, cooler, and partially ionized chromosphere. The change in the plasma ionization along the path of the electrons should result in a characteristic upward break and corresponding flattening of the X-ray spectrum with increasing energy at lower energies, and a downward break at higher energies. Due to the presence of thermal emission, the upward break usually cannot be observed. We report the first evidence for both breaks in spectra measured with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) during the GOES X1.2 class flare that happened on 2002 October 31. The RHESSI X-ray spectral analysis shows both the breakup at {approx}49 keV and the breakdown at {approx}134 keV at the HXR peak time. The time evolution of both breaks also agrees with the nonuniform ionization (NUI) model. Other possible explanations for the breaks are considered, but the NUI model provides the simplest explanation for the spectral shape and its time evolution. We find that the average column density of the fully ionized plasma changed from 2 x10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} in the rise phase to 7 x10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} after the peak. This indicates that plasma in the target was heated and became ionized during the flare, in agreement with heating by the nonthermal electrons and chromospheric evaporation expected in the collisional thick-target model.

Su Yang [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R., E-mail: yang.su@nasa.gov, E-mail: gordon.d.holman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2011-04-20

233

Mcps-range photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

10 Mcps photon counting was carried out using a detector consisting of a 2.0 mm-thick ZnO (zinc oxide) single-crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter) module in an X-ray computed tomography (CT) system. The maximum count rate was 10 Mcps (mega counts per second) at a tube voltage of 70 kV and a tube current of 2.0 mA. Next, a photon-counting X-ray CT system consists of an X-ray generator, a turntable, a scan stage, a two-stage controller, the ZnO-MPPC detector, a counter card (CC), and a personal computer (PC). Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan with a scan velocity of 25 mm/s. The pulses of the event signal from the module are counted by the CC in conjunction with the PC. The exposure time for obtaining a tomogram was 600 s at a scan step of 0.5 mm and a rotation step of 1.0°, and photon-counting CT was accomplished using iodine-based contrast media.

Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Sugimura, Shigeaki; Endo, Haruyuki; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

2011-10-01

234

Spectral Modeling of the Charge-exchange X-Ray Emission from M82  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that the charge-exchange (CX) process at the interface between hot and cool interstellar gases could contribute significantly to the observed soft X-ray emission in star-forming galaxies. We analyze the XMM-Newton/reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) spectrum of M82 using a newly developed CX model combined with a single-temperature thermal plasma to characterize the volume-filling hot gas. The CX process is largely responsible for not only the strongly enhanced forbidden lines of the K? triplets of various He-like ions but also good fractions of the Ly? transitions of C VI (~87%), O VIII, and N VII (gsim50%) as well. In total about a quarter of the X-ray flux in the RGS 6-30 Å band originates in the CX. We infer an ion incident rate of 3 × 1051 s-1 undergoing CX at the hot and cool gas interface and an effective area of the interface of ~2 × 1045 cm2 that is one order of magnitude larger than the cross section of the global biconic outflow. With the CX contribution accounted for, the best-fit temperature of the hot gas is 0.6 keV, and the metal abundances are approximately solar. We further show that the same CX/thermal plasma model also gives an excellent description of the EPIC-pn spectrum of the outflow Cap, projected at 11.6 kpc away from the galactic disk of M82. This analysis demonstrates that the CX is potentially an important contributor to the X-ray emission from starburst galaxies and also an invaluable tool to probe the interface astrophysics.

Zhang, Shuinai; Wang, Q. Daniel; Ji, Li; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R.; Zhou, Xin

2014-10-01

235

X-ray spectral models of Galactic bulge sources - The emission-line factor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current difficulties in finding unique and physically meaningful models for the X-ray spectra of Galactic bulge sources are exacerbated by the presence of strong, variable emission and absorption features that are not resolved by the instruments observing them. Nine Einstein solid state spectrometer (SSS) observations of five Galactic bulge sources are presented for which relatively high resolution objective grating spectrometer (OGS) data have been published. It is found that in every case the goodness of fit of simple models to SSS data is greatly improved by adding line features identified in the OGS that cannot be resolved by the SSS but nevertheless strongly influence the spectra observed by SSS.

Vrtilek, S. D.; Swank, J. H.; Kallman, T. R.

1988-01-01

236

A Comprehensive X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Seyfert 1.5 NGC 3227  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert 1.5 AGN NGC 3227. Our best-fit broadband model to the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC)-pn spectrum consists of a moderately flat (photon index of 1.57) hard X-ray power law absorbed by cold gas with a column density of 3 × 1021 cm2, plus a strong soft excess, modeled as a steep power law with a photon index of 3.35, absorbed by cold gas with a column density of 9 × 1020 cm-2. The soft excess increases in normalization by ~ 20% in ~ 20 ks, independently of the hard X-ray emission component, and the UV continuum, tracked via the Optical Monitor, also shows a strong increasing trend over the observation, consistent with reprocessing of soft X-ray emission. Warm absorber signatures are evident in both the EPIC and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectra; we model two absorbing layers, with ionization parameters log ? = 1.2 and 2.9 erg cm s-1, and with similar column densities (~1021 to 2 × 1021 cm-2). The outflow velocities relative to systemic of the high- and low-ionization absorbers are estimated to be -(2060+240 -170) km s-1 and -(420+430 -190) km s-1, respectively. The Fe K? line FWHM width is 7000 ± 1500 km s-1 its inferred distance from the black hole is consistent with the broad-line region and with the inner radius of the dust reverberation mapped by Suganuma et al. An emission feature near 6.0 keV is modeled equally well as a narrow redshifted Fe K line, possibly associated with a disk "hot spot," or as the red wing to a relativistically broadened Fe line profile. Swift Burst Alert Telescope and archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data suggest at most a weak Compton reflection hump (R lsim 0.5), and a high-energy cutoff near 100 keV. From RXTE monitoring, we find tentative evidence for a significant fraction of the Fe line flux to track variations in the continuum on timescales < 700 days.

Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; George, I. M.; Braito, V.; Smith, R.; Vaughan, S.; Arévalo, P.; Tombesi, F.

2009-02-01

237

The Hubble Space Telescope observations of X-ray nova Muscae 1991 and its spectral evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) Faint Object Camera (FOC) and observations of Nova Muscae 1991 obtained on May 14-15, 1991 are presented and discussed. A nearly featureless continuum with broad 2200 A absorption feature and no Balmer jump is found. The FOS spectrum is modeled, including previous multiepoch IUE, optical, and X-ray data using a simple blackbody accretion disk model. It is found that the mass transfer rate decays exponentially with a characteristic time of about 43 days. The cooling front predicted by the disk instability model should have been observable, but was not seen.

Cheng, F. H.; Horne, Keith; Panagia, N.; Shrader, C. R.; Gilmozzi, R.; Paresce, F.; Lund, N.

1992-01-01

238

X-ray structural and spectral study of the cobalt(II) chloride complex with papaverine  

SciTech Connect

A complex of cobalt(II) chloride with papaverine is characterized by x-ray diffraction method (autodiffractometer, 1917 reflections, R = 0.080). Crystals are tetragonal, a = b = 18.393(2) {angstrom}, c = 12.396(4) {angstrom}, Z = 4, space group P{bar 4}/n. The crystal structure is composed of tetrahedral [CoCl{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anions situated in a special position on the {bar 4} axis, cations of the protonated papaverine, and two types of water molecules. The structure exhibits short hydrogen-bond-type contacts C-H...Cl between anions and cations and C-H...O between cations.

Sabirov, V.Kh.; Struchkov, Yu.T.; Nava, E.U. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-05-01

239

Soft X-ray laser cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report progress in the development of multilayer components for use in multiple pass soft X-ray laser cavities operating in the 100A to 300A spectral range. Our work includes fabrication and characterization of multilayer components; simple resonant cavity design; damage threshold assessment for multilayers in the X-ray laser environment; and multipass cavity experiments for efficiency enhancement and transverse mode selection.

N. M. Ceglio; D. G. Stearns; A. M. Hawryluk; T. M. Barbee; K. Danzmann; M. Kuehne; P. Mueller; B. Wende; M. B. Stearns; A. K. Petford-Long; C.-H. CHANG

1986-01-01

240

Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region  

SciTech Connect

A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15

241

X-ray absorption spectral studies of copper (II) mixed ligand complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray absorption spectra at the K-edge of copper have been studied in two copper mixed ligand complexes, one having tetramethyethylenediamine (tmen) and the other having tetraethyethylenediamine (teen) as one of the ligands. The spectra have been recorded at BL-8 dispersive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beamline at the 2.5 GeV INDUS- 2 synchrotron, RRCAT, Indore, India. The data obtained has been processed using the data analysis program Athena. The energy of the K-absorption edge, chemical shift, edge-width and shift of the principal absorption maximum in the complexes have been determined and discussed. The values of these parameters have been found to be approximately the same in both the complexes indicating that the two complexes possess similar chemical environment around the copper metal atom. The chemical shift has been utilized to estimate effective nuclear charge on the absorbing atom. The normalized EXAFS spectra have been Fourier transformed. The position of the first peak in the Fourier transform gives the value of first shell bond length, which is shorter than the actual bond length because of energy dependence of the phase factors in the sine function of the EXAFS equation. This distance is thus the phase- uncorrected bond length. Bond length has also been determined by Levy's, Lytle's and Lytle, Sayers and Stern's (LSS) methods. The results obtained from LSS and the Fourier transformation methods are comparable with each other, since both are phase uncorrected bond lengths.

Soni, B.; Dar, Davood Ah; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

2014-09-01

242

On the Nature of the mHz X-Ray QPOs from ULX M82 X-1: Evidence for Timing-Spectral (anti) Correlation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its energy spectral power-law index. These quantities are known to correlate in stellar mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibiting Type-C QPOs (approx 0.2-15 Hz). The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of its mHz QPOs as Type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of Type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We resolved the count rates of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling and identify observations in which M82 X-1 was at least as bright as source 5. Using only those observations, we detect QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which the energy spectral power-law index varied from 1.7-2.2. Interestingly, we find evidence for an anti-correlation (Pearsons correlation coefficient = -0.95) between the power-law index and the QPO centroid frequency. While such an anti-correlation is observed in StMBHs at high Type-C QPO frequencies (approx 5-15 Hz), the frequency range over which it holds in StMBHs is significantly smaller (factor of approx 1.5-3) than the QPO range reported here from M82 X-1 (factor of 6). However, it remains possible that contamination from source 5 can bias our result. Joint Chandra/XMM-Newton observations in the future can resolve this problem and confirm the timing-spectral anti-correlation reported here.

Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

2013-01-01

243

A study of X-ray luminescence and spectral compatibility of europium-activated yttrium-vanadate (YVO 4 : Eu) screens for medical imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray luminescence efficiency of laboratory-prepared YVO4: Eu screens and their spectral compatibility to common optical detectors were studied under medical fluoroscopy conditions. YVO4: Eu screens were prepared by sedimentation and with different coating thickness. Luminescence efficiency of the YVO4: Eu screens was measured at various X-ray tube voltages (50–250 kVp) and for screens of different coating thicknesses (20–180 mg\\/cm2).

G. Panayiotakis; D. Cavouras; I. Kandarakis; C. Nomicos

1996-01-01

244

X-ray spectral evolution of TeV BL Lacertae objects: eleven years of observations with BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton and Swift satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Many of the extragalactic sources detected in gamma rays at TeV energies are BL Lac objects. In particular, they belong to the subclass of ``high frequency peaked BL Lacs'' (HBLs), as their spectral energy distributions exhibit a first peak in the X-ray band. At a closer look, their X-ray spectra appear to be generally curved into a log-parabolic shape.

F. Massaro; A. Tramacere; A. Cavaliere; M. Perri; P. Giommi

2008-01-01

245

Correlated X-Ray Spectral and Timing Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564: A New Interpretation of Black Hole States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of data of the black hole candidate and X-ray transient XTE J1550-564, taken with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer between 1998 November 22 and 1999 May 20. During this period the source went through several different states, which could be divided into soft and hard states based on the relative strength of the high-energy spectral component.

Jeroen Homan; Rudy Wijnands; Michiel van der Klis; Tomaso Belloni; Jan van Paradijs; Marc Klein-Wolt; Rob Fender; Mariano Méndez

2001-01-01

246

Warm Absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broadband 0.3-10 keV CCD resolution as well as of soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. We could put a strict lower limit on the detection fraction of 50%. We find a gap in the distribution of the ionisation parameter in the range 0.5X-rays. The WA parameters show no correlation among themselves, except for one case. The shallow slope of the log? versus logv_{out} linear regression (0.12± 0.03) is inconsistent with the scaling laws predicted by radiation or magneto-hydrodynamic-driven winds. Our results suggest also that WA and Ultra Fast Outflows (UFOs) do not represent extreme manifestation of the same astrophysical system.

Laha, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Dewangan, G.; Chakravorty, S.; Kembhavi, A.

2014-07-01

247

Characterizations of MCP performance in the hard x-ray range (6–25 keV)  

SciTech Connect

MCP detector performance at hard x-ray energies from 6 to 25 keV was recently investigated using NSLS beamline X15A at BNL. Measurements were made with an NSTec Gen-II (H-CA-65) framing camera, based on a Photonis MCP with ?10 ?m in diameter pores, ?12 ?m center-center spacing, an L/D ratio of 46, and a bias angle of 8°. The MCP characterizations were focused on (1) energy and angle dependent sensitivity, (2) energy and angle dependent spatial resolution, (3) energy dependent gain performance, and (4) energy dependent dynamic range. These measurement corroborated simulation results using a Monte Carlo model that included hard x-ray interactions and the subsequent electron cascade in the MCP.

Wu, Ming, E-mail: minwu@sandia.gov; Rochau, Greg [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Moy, Ken [Special Technology Laboratories, NSTec, Santa Barbara, California 93111-2335 (United States); Kruschwitz, Craig [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2014-11-15

248

Characterizations of MCP performance in the hard x-ray range (6-25 keV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCP detector performance at hard x-ray energies from 6 to 25 keV was recently investigated using NSLS beamline X15A at BNL. Measurements were made with an NSTec Gen-II (H-CA-65) framing camera, based on a Photonis MCP with ˜10 ?m in diameter pores, ˜12 ?m center-center spacing, an L/D ratio of 46, and a bias angle of 8°. The MCP characterizations were focused on (1) energy and angle dependent sensitivity, (2) energy and angle dependent spatial resolution, (3) energy dependent gain performance, and (4) energy dependent dynamic range. These measurement corroborated simulation results using a Monte Carlo model that included hard x-ray interactions and the subsequent electron cascade in the MCP.

Wu, Ming; Moy, Ken; Kruschwitz, Craig; Rochau, Greg

2014-11-01

249

Constraints on relativistic jets in quiescent black hole X-ray binaries from broad-band spectral modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of black hole jets at the lowest detectable luminosities remains an open question, largely due to a dearth of observational constraints. Here, we present a new, nearly simultaneous broad-band spectrum of the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) XTE J1118+480 at an extremely low Eddington ratio (LX ˜ 10-8.5LEdd). Our new spectral energy distribution (SED) includes the radio, near-infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavebands. XTE J1118+480 is now the second BHXB at such a low Eddington ratio with a well-sampled SED, thereby providing new constraints on highly sub-Eddington accretion flows and jets, and opening the door to begin comparison studies between systems. We apply a multizone jet model to the new broad-band SED, and we compare our results to previous fits to the same source using the same model at 4-5 decades higher luminosity. We find that after a BHXB transitions to the so-called quiescent spectral state, the jet base becomes more compact (by up to an order of magnitude) and slightly cooler (by at least a factor of 2). Our preferred model fit indicates that jet particle acceleration is much weaker after the transition into quiescence. That is, accelerated non-thermal particles no longer reach high enough Lorentz factors to contribute significant amounts of synchrotron X-ray emission. Instead, the X-ray waveband is dominated by synchrotron self-Compton emission from a population of mildly relativistic electrons with a quasi-thermal velocity distribution that are associated with the jet base. The corresponding (thermal) synchrotron component from the jet base emits primarily in the infrared through ultraviolet wavebands. Our results on XTE J1118+480 are consistent with broad-band modelling for A0620-00 (the only other comparably low Eddington ratio BHXB with a well-sampled SED) and for Sgr A* (the quiescent supermassive black hole at the Galactic centre). The above could therefore represent a canonical baseline geometry for accreting black holes in quiescence. We conclude with suggestions for future studies to further investigate the above scenario.

Plotkin, Richard M.; Gallo, Elena; Markoff, Sera; Homan, Jeroen; Jonker, Peter G.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Russell, David M.; Drappeau, Samia

2015-02-01

250

High quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements with long energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell  

SciTech Connect

We describe an approach for acquiring high quality x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy spectra with wide energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC). Overcoming the serious interference of diamond Bragg peaks is essential for combining XAFS and DAC techniques in high pressure research, yet an effective method to obtain accurate XAFS spectrum free from DAC induced glitches has been lacking. It was found that these glitches, whose energy positions are very sensitive to the relative orientation between DAC and incident x-ray beam, can be effectively eliminated using an iterative algorithm based on repeated measurements over a small angular range of DAC orientation, e.g., within {+-}3{sup o} relative to the x-ray beam direction. Demonstration XAFS spectra are reported for rutile-type GeO{sub 2} recorded by traditional ambient pressure and high pressure DAC methods, showing similar quality at 440 eV above the absorption edge. Accurate XAFS spectra of GeO{sub 2} glass were obtained at high pressure up to 53 GPa, providing important insight into the structural polymorphism of GeO{sub 2} glass at high pressure. This method is expected be applicable for in situ XAFS measurements using a diamond anvil cell up to ultrahigh pressures.

Hong, X.; Newville, M.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; (Cornell CHESS); (UC)

2009-07-31

251

High Quality x-ray absorption spectrosocopy measuements with long energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell  

SciTech Connect

We describe an approach for acquiring high quality x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy spectra with wide energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC). Overcoming the serious interference of diamond Bragg peaks is essential for combining XAFS and DAC techniques in high pressure research, yet an effective method to obtain accurate XAFS spectrum free from DAC induced glitches has been lacking. It was found that these glitches, whose energy positions are very sensitive to the relative orientation between DAC and incident x-ray beam, can be effectively eliminated using an iterative algorithm based on repeated measurements over a small angular range of DAC orientation, e.g., within {+-}3{sup o} relative to the x-ray beam direction. Demonstration XAFS spectra are reported for rutile-type GeO{sub 2} recorded by traditional ambient pressure and high pressure DAC methods, showing similar quality at 440 eV above the absorption edge. Accurate XAFS spectra of GeO{sub 2} glass were obtained at high pressure up to 53 GPa, providing important insight into the structural polymorphism of GeO{sub 2} glass at high pressure. This method is expected be applicable for in situ XAFS measurements using a diamond anvil cell up to ultrahigh pressures.

Hong, X.; Newville, M.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M.; Sutton, S.

2009-07-29

252

Calibration of remote mineralogy algorithms using modal analyses of Apollo soils by X-ray diffraction and microscopic spectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have launched a project to determine the modal mineralogy of over 100 soils from all Apollo sites using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microscopic hyperspectral imaging at visible, near-IR and thermal IR wavelengths. The two methods are complementary: XRD is optimal for obtaining the major mineral modes because its measurement is not limited to the surfaces of grains, whereas the hyperspectral imaging method allows us to identify minerals present even down to a single grain, well below the quantitative detection limit of XRD. Each soil is also sent to RELAB to obtain visible, near-IR, and thermal-IR reflectance spectra. The goal is to use quantitative mineralogy in comparison with spectra of the same soils and with remote sensing data of the sampling stations to improve our ability to extract quantitative mineralogy from remote sensing observations. Previous groups have demonstrated methods for using lab mineralogy to validate remote sensing. The LSCC pioneered the method of comparing mineralogy to laboratory spectra of the same soils (Pieters et al. 2002); Blewett et al. (1997) directly compared remote sensing results for sample sites with lab measurements of representative soils from those sites. We are building upon the work of both groups by expanding the number of soils measured to 128, with an emphasis on immature soils to support recent work studying fresh exposures like crater central peaks, and also by incorporating the recent high spatial and spectral resolution data sets over expanded wavelength ranges (e.g. Diviner TIR, M3 hyperspectral VNIR) not available at the time of the previous studies. We have thus far measured 32 Apollo 16 soils using quantitative XRD and are continuing with our collection of soils from the other landing sites. We have developed a microscopic spectral imaging system that includes TIR, VIS, and NIR capabilities and have completed proof-of-concept scans of mineral separates and preliminary lunar soil scans with plans to begin systematically scanning lunar soils in all three wavelength ranges this fall. As an example in using the laboratory data as a validation and improvement tool for remote mineralogy algorithms, we have applied the Apollo 16 XRD results to remote mineralogy of the site obtained using the method of Lucey and Greenhagen (2012). The algorithm was applied to Kaguya MI and Chandrayaan-1 M3 VNIR data with constraints from the Diviner Christiansen Feature (CF). Our study identified potential for improvement in the application of a space weathering correction to the CF data in the Lucey and Greenhagen method, and also highlighted the importance of incorporating microscopic spectral imaging for more precise determination of low-abundance mafic minerals in the plagioclase-dominated highlands. Next steps include incorporating modes from microscopic spectral imaging and applying our methods to sites with greater compositional variability beginning with Apollo 17. Blewett et al. (1997) JGR, 102, E7, doi:10.1029/97JE01505 Lucey and Greenhagen (2012) 43rd LPSC, abstract 1736 Pieters et al. (2002) Icarus 155, 285-298

Crites, S. T.; Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Blake, D. F.

2012-12-01

253

X-ray spectral modelling of the AGN obscuring region in the CDFS: Bayesian model selection and catalogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Aims: Active galactic nuclei are known to have complex X-ray spectra that depend on both the properties of the accreting super-massive black hole (e.g. mass, accretion rate) and the distribution of obscuring material in its vicinity (i.e. the "torus"). Often however, simple and even unphysical models are adopted to represent the X-ray spectra of AGN, which do not capture the complexity and diversity of the observations. In the case of blank field surveys in particular, this should have an impact on e.g. the determination of the AGN luminosity function, the inferred accretion history of the Universe and also on our understanding of the relation between AGN and their host galaxies. Methods: We develop a Bayesian framework for model comparison and parameter estimation of X-ray spectra. We take into account uncertainties associated with both the Poisson nature of X-ray data and the determination of source redshift using photometric methods. We also demonstrate how Bayesian model comparison can be used to select among ten different physically motivated X-ray spectral models the one that provides a better representation of the observations. This methodology is applied to X-ray AGN in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South. Results: For the ~350 AGN in that field, our analysis identifies four components needed to represent the diversity of the observed X-ray spectra: (1) an intrinsic power law; (2) a cold obscurer which reprocesses the radiation due to photo-electric absorption, Compton scattering and Fe-K fluorescence; (3) an unabsorbed power law associated with Thomson scattering off ionised clouds; and (4) Compton reflection, most noticeable from a stronger-than-expected Fe-K line. Simpler models, such as a photo-electrically absorbed power law with a Thomson scattering component, are ruled out with decisive evidence (B > 100). We also find that ignoring the Thomson scattering component results in underestimation of the inferred column density, NH, of the obscurer. Regarding the geometry of the obscurer, there is strong evidence against both a completely closed (e.g. sphere), or entirely open (e.g. blob of material along the line of sight), toroidal geometry in favour of an intermediate case. Conclusions: Despite the use of low-count spectra, our methodology is able to draw strong inferences on the geometry of the torus. Simpler models are ruled out in favour of a geometrically extended structure with significant Compton scattering. We confirm the presence of a soft component, possibly associated with Thomson scattering off ionised clouds in the opening angle of the torus. The additional Compton reflection required by data over that predicted by toroidal geometry models, may be a sign of a density gradient in the torus or reflection off the accretion disk. Finally, we release a catalogue of AGN in the CDFS with estimated parameters such as the accretion luminosity in the 2-10 keV band and the column density, NH, of the obscurer. Appendices and Figs. 6, 9-11 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgCatalogue and software are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A125

Buchner, J.; Georgakakis, A.; Nandra, K.; Hsu, L.; Rangel, C.; Brightman, M.; Merloni, A.; Salvato, M.; Donley, J.; Kocevski, D.

2014-04-01

254

Measurement of high-energy (10-60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10-60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 ?m in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10-60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

Seely, J. F.; Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert; Pereira, N.; Feldman, U.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J.

2014-11-01

255

Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy  

SciTech Connect

A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 ?m in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

Seely, J. F., E-mail: seelyjf@gmail.com; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Court, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Pereira, N. [Ecopulse Inc., P. O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2014-11-15

256

Measurement of high-energy (10-60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy.  

PubMed

A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10-60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 ?m in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10-60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser. PMID:25430194

Seely, J F; Glover, J L; Hudson, L T; Ralchenko, Y; Henins, Albert; Pereira, N; Feldman, U; Di Stefano, C A; Kuranz, C C; Drake, R P; Chen, Hui; Williams, G J; Park, J

2014-11-01

257

Spectral analysis of x-ray emission created by intense laser irradiation of copper materials  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the x-ray emission, primarily from K{sub {alpha}},K{sub {beta}}, and He{sub {alpha}} lines, of elemental copper foil and 'foam' targets irradiated with a mid-10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulse. The copper foam at 0.1 times solid density is observed to produce 50% greater He{sub {alpha}} line emission than copper foil, and the measured signal is well-fit by a sum of three synthetic spectra generated by the atomic physics code FLYCHK. Additionally, spectra from both targets reveal characteristic inner shell K{sub {alpha}} transitions from hot electron interaction with the bulk copper. However, only the larger-volume foam target produced significant K{sub {beta}} radiation, confirming a lower bulk temperature in the higher volume sample.

Huntington, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States); Malamud, G. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States); Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center - Negev, 84190 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2012-10-15

258

Numerical and Observational Examination of the Spectral Variation of Extended Coronal Hard X-Ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of extended coronal hard X-ray sources, for example the 2005 Aug 23 flare, has opened up opportunities for probing the electrons accelerated by solar flares. The loop morphology of the source enables, through the use of RHESSI imaging spectroscopy, detailed analysis of changes in the electron flux spectrum along the spatial extent of the emission. We present a realistic one-dimensional model of the corona subject to coulomb collisions and localised stochastic acceleration akin to a looptop acceleration region. Both ballistic and diffusive transport are examined and the variation of the density weighted mean electron flux, , along our numerical loop will be compared with RHESSI observations to determine the dominant processes in the corona. We will also comment on the validity of the leaky-box Fokker-Planck approximation.

Stackhouse, Duncan James; Kontar, Eduard

2015-04-01

259

Probing the X-ray absorber structure in the AGN population through fast spectral variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the hot topics in modern astrophysics is the variability of absorbers in Seyfert 2 galaxies, suggesting that these structures could be more complex and located at much smaller distances than the conventional obscuring torus. However, in this framework a statistically representative sample of well-studied sources is still missing. We recently started a project aimed at finding more examples of these objects in order to study the physical properties of the X-ray absorber on a larger statistical basis, and to evaluate the frequency of rapid absorption variability among the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population. Here I will present our project: the source selection, based on the exploitation of the BAT AGN catalogue plus the XRT data archive; few preliminary results on particularly significant individual objects; and the future developments, in particular the expectations for Mrk 915, for which new XMM-Newton + NuSTAR observations have been awarded in the last XMM-Newton call.

Ballo, L.; Severgnini, P.; Moretti, A.; Braito, V.; Vignali, C.; Caccianiga, A.; Campana, S.; Della Ceca, R.; Maccacaro, T.; Fanali, R.

2014-07-01

260

A Broad-band Spectral and Timing Study of the X-Ray Binary System Centaurus X-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This dissertation describes a multi-mission investigation of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar Centaurus X-3. Cen X-3 was observed with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) in December 1990. This was the first high-resolution solid state X-ray spectrometer to cover the iron K fluorescence region. The Fe K emission feature was resolved into two components for the first time. A broad 6.7 keV feature was found to be a blend of lines from Fe XXI-Fe XXVI with energies ranging from 6.6 to 6.9 keV due to photoionization of the companion's stellar wind. A narrow line at 6.4 keV due to fluorescence of iron in relatively low ionization states was also found. The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at about 40 mHz were used to estimate the surface magnetic field of Cen X-3 as approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 12) G and to predict that there should be a cyclotron scattering resonance absorption feature (CSRF) near 30 keV. In order to further resolve the iron line complex and to investigate the pulse-phase dependence of the iron line intensities, Cen X-3 was observed with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Using ASCA's state-of-the-art non-dispersive X-ray spectrometers the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line was found to be pulsing while the intensities of the 6.7 and 6.9 keV recombination lines do not vary with pulse phase. This confirms that the 6.4 keV line is due to reflection by relatively neutral matter close to the neutron star while the recombination lines originate in the extended stellar wind. The continuum spectrum was found to be modified by reflection from matter close to the neutron star. Observations with the EXOSAT GSPC were used to search for a CSRF. The EXOSAT spectra were consistent with the presence of a CSRF but an unambiguous detection was not possible because of a lack of sensitivity at energies higher than the cyclotron energy. Cen X-3 was then observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and evidence for a CSRF at 25.1 +/- 0.3 keV was found. This corresponds to a magnetic field of (2.16 +/- 0.03) X 10(exp 12) G and is consistent with the value obtained from the QPO analysis.

Audley, Michael Damian

1998-01-01

261

Multiple-view spectrally resolved x-ray imaging observations of polar-direct-drive implosions on OMEGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved narrow- and broad-band x-ray images of polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on OMEGA. These self-emission images were obtained during the deceleration phase and bang time using several multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging instruments fielded along two or three quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight, including equatorial and polar views. The instruments recorded images based on K-shell lines from a titanium tracer located in the shell as well as continuum emission. These observations constitute the first such data obtained for PDD implosions. The image data show features attributed to laser imprinting and zero-order hydrodynamics. Equatorial-view images show a "double bun" structure that is consistent with synthetic images obtained from post-processing 2D and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment. Polar-view images show a pentagonal, petal pattern that correlates with the PDD laser illumination used on OMEGA, thus revealing a 3D aspect of PDD OMEGA implosions not previously observed. Differences are noted with respect to a PDD experiment performed at National Ignition Facility.

Mancini, R. C.; Johns, H. M.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Nagayama, T.; Hsu, S. C.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Bradley, P. A.; Hakel, P.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.

2014-12-01

262

Uranium enrichment measurements using the intensity ratios of self-fluorescence X-rays to 92* keV gamma ray in UXK alpha spectral region.  

PubMed

In this paper, the known multigroup gamma-ray analysis method for uranium (MGAU) as one of the non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry methods has been applied to certified reference nuclear materials (depleted, natural and enriched uranium) containing (235)U isotope in the range of 0.32-4.51% atom (235)U. Its analysis gives incorrect results for the low component (235)U in depleted and natural uranium samples where the build-up of the decay products begins to interfere with the analysis. The results reveal that the build-up of decay products seems to be significant and thus the algorithms for the presence of decay products should be improved to resulting in the correct enrichment value. For instance, for the case of (235)U analysis in depleted uranium or natural ore samples, self-induced X-rays such as 94.6 keV and 98.4 keV lying in UXK(alpha) spectral region used by MGAU can be excluded from the calculation. Because the significant increases have been observed in the intensities of uranium self-induced X-rays due to gamma-ray emissions with above 100 keV energy arising from decay products of (238)U and (235)U and these parents. Instead, the use of calibration curve to be made between the intensity ratios of self-fluorescence X-rays to 92(*)keV gamma-ray and the certified (235)U abundances is suggested for the determination of (235)U when higher amounts of decay products are detected in the gamma-ray spectrum acquired for the MGAU analysis. PMID:19203602

Yücel, H; Dikmen, H

2009-04-30

263

Miocrowave spectral imaging, H-alpha and hard X-ray observations of a solar limb flare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare the microwave, H-alpha, and hard X-ray observations for a west limb C7.3 flare that occurred at 17:10 UT, 1992 June 26. H-alpha movies were obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Before the onset of the flare, overexposed H-alpha images show the complicated flux loop structure above the limb. Material was observed to descend along the loops toward the site where the flare occurred hours later. Using the five-antenna solar array at Owens Valley Radio Observatory, we obtain two-dimensional maps of flare emission from 1.4 to 14 GHz. In all three temporal peaks of the microwave bursts, the maps show the same characteristics. The peak low-frequency emission comes from the top of one bundle of the H-alpha loops and gradually shifts to the foot-point of the loops (the location of H-alpha flare) as the frequency increases. The location of the emission peak shifts 88 sec between 1 and 14 GHz. Seventy percent of the shift occurs between 1 and 5 GHz. The locus of the shift of the emission peak follows the shape of an H-alpha surge that occurred after the flare. For each point along the locus, we create the microwave brightness temperature spectrum and compare the radio-derived electron distribution with that derived from the high-resolution hard X-ray spectra measured with Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). We find that the peak frequency changes from approximately 3 GHz at the loop top to approximately 7 GHz at the footprint, presumably due to the increase of the magnetic field from approximately 160 GHz at the loop top to approximately 300 G at the footpoint. The high-frequency slope of the microwave power-law spectrum decreases from approximately 10 at the loop top to approximately 5 at the footprint due to a change in the energy distribution of the dominant electrons. The microwave brightness temperature spectral index predicted by the BATSE power-law hard X-ray spectra agrees with the measured value only at the footpoint. At the loop top, the emission may be thermal gyrosynchrotron with a temperature of 3.5 x 10(exp 7) K, which is likely to correspond to the superhot component seen in the hard X-ray emission.

Wang, H.; Gary, D. E.; Lim, J.; Schwartz, R. A.

1994-01-01

264

Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response  

SciTech Connect

CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Emprin, B. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France) [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

2014-01-15

265

Relativistic spectral features from X-ray-illuminated spots and the measure of the black hole mass in active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narrow spectral features in the 5-6 keV range were recently discovered in the X-ray spectra of a few active galactic nuclei. We discuss the possibility that these features are due to localized spots which occur on the surface of an accretion disc following its illumination by flares. We present detailed line profiles as a function of orbital phase of the spot and its radial distance from a central black hole. Comparison of these computed profiles with observed features can help to estimate parameters of the system. In principle, this method can provide a powerful tool to measure the mass of super-massive black holes in active galactic nuclei. By comparing our simulations with the Chandra and XMM-Newton results, we show, however, that spectra from present generation X-ray satellites are not of good enough quality to exploit the method fully and determine the black hole mass with sufficient accuracy. This task has to be deferred to future missions with high throughput and high energy resolution, such as Constellation-X and Xeus.

Dov?iak, M.; Bianchi, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Karas, V.; Matt, G.

2004-05-01

266

X-ray structural studies of quinone reductase 2 nanomolar range inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is one of two members comprising the mammalian quinone reductase family of enzymes responsible for performing FAD mediated reductions of quinone substrates. In contrast to quinone reductase 1 (QR1) which uses NAD(P)H as its co-substrate, QR2 utilizes a rare group of hydride donors, N-methyl or N-ribosyl nicotinamide. Several studies have linked QR2 to the generation of quinone free radicals, several neuronal degenerative diseases, and cancer. QR2 has been also identified as the third melatonin receptor (MT3) through in cellulo and in vitro inhibition of QR2 by traditional MT3 ligands, and through recent X-ray structures of human QR2 (hQR2) in complex with melatonin and 2-iodomelatonin. Several MT3 specific ligands have been developed that exhibit both potent in cellulo inhibition of hQR2 nanomolar, affinity for MT3. The potency of these ligands suggest their use as molecular probes for hQR2. However, no definitive correlation between traditionally obtained MT3 ligand affinity and hQR2 inhibition exists limiting our understanding of how these ligands are accommodated in the hQR2 active site. To obtain a clearer relationship between the structures of developed MT3 ligands and their inhibitory properties, in cellulo and in vitro IC{sub 50} values were determined for a representative set of MT3 ligands (MCA-NAT, 2-I-MCANAT, prazosin, S26695, S32797, and S29434). Furthermore, X-ray structures for each of these ligands in complex with hQR2 were determined allowing for a structural evaluation of the binding modes of these ligands in relation to the potency of MT3 ligands.

Pegan, Scott D.; Sturdy, Megan; Ferry, Gilles; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A.; Mesecar, Andrew D. (IdRS); (Purdue); (Colorado); (UIC)

2011-09-06

267

Broadband Spectral Modeling of NGC 253 from Hard X-rays to TeV Gamma Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exciting result from Fermi is the detection of star-forming galaxies at GeV energies, but the relative contributions of various radiative processes to the gamma-ray signal remain uncertain. NuSTAR observations of NGC 253 in the hard X-ray band (10-30 keV) enable the most sensitive search to date for diffuse inverse Compton emission in that bandpass, which in turn will constrain the role of hadronic and leptonic interactions in producing the GeV emission. We present the latest results from detailed broadband spectral modeling of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 from keV to TeV energies in light of new observations from NuSTAR.

Venters, Tonia M.; Wik, Daniel R.; Lehmer, Bret; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Zezas, Andreas; Antoniou, Vallia; Argo, Megan; Bechtol, Keith; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Krivonos, Roman; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William

2015-01-01

268

Calibration of X-ray detectors in the 8 to 115 keV energy range and their application to diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The calibration of X-ray diagnostics is of paramount importance to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) fills this need by providing a wide variety of calibration and diagnostic development services in support of the ongoing research efforts at NIF. The X-ray source in the High Energy X-ray lab utilizes induced fluorescence in a variety of metal foils to produce a beam of characteristic X rays ranging from 8 to 111 keV. Presented are the methods used for calibrating a High Purity Germanium detector, which has been absolutely calibrated using radioactive check sources, compared against a silicon photodiode calibrated at Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Also included is a limited presentation of results from the recent calibration of the upgraded Filter Fluorescer X ray Spectrometer.

J. J. Lee, M. J. Haugh, G. LaCaille, and P. Torres

2012-10-01

269

CANDIDATE X-RAY-EMITTING OB STARS IN THE CARINA NEBULA IDENTIFIED VIA INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of a new survey of massive, OB stars throughout the Carina Nebula using the X-ray point source catalog provided by the Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP) in conjunction with infrared (IR) photometry from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and the Spitzer Space Telescope Vela-Carina survey. Mid-IR photometry is relatively unaffected by extinction, hence it provides strong constraints on the luminosities of OB stars, assuming that their association with the Carina Nebula, and hence their distance, is confirmed. We fit model stellar atmospheres to the optical (UBV) and IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 182 OB stars with known spectral types and measure the bolometric luminosity and extinction for each star. We find that the extinction law measured toward the OB stars has two components: A{sub V} = 1-1.5 mag produced by foreground dust with a ratio of total-to-selective absorption R{sub V} = 3.1 plus a contribution from local dust with R{sub V} > 4.0 in the Carina molecular clouds that increases as A{sub V} increases. Using X-ray emission as a strong indicator of association with Carina, we identify 94 candidate OB stars with L{sub bol} {approx}> 10{sup 4} L{sub sun} by fitting their IR SEDs. If the candidate OB stars are eventually confirmed by follow-up spectroscopic observations, the number of cataloged OB stars in the Carina Nebula will increase by {approx}50%. Correcting for incompleteness due to OB stars falling below the L{sub bol} cutoff or the CCCP detection limit, these results potentially double the size of the young massive stellar population.

Povich, Matthew S.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gagne, Marc [Department of Geology and Astronomy, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Babler, Brian L.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Townsend, Richard H. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: povich@astro.psu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-05-01

270

Measurement of short-range correlations in shock-compressed plastic by short-pulse x-ray scattering.  

PubMed

We have performed short-pulse x-ray scattering measurements on laser-driven shock-compressed plastic samples in the warm dense matter regime, providing instantaneous snapshots of the system evolution. Time-resolved and angularly resolved scattered spectra sensitive to the correlation effects in the plasma show the appearance of short-range order within a few interionic separations. Comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations indicates that the shocked plastic is compressed with a temperature of a few electron volts. These results are important for the understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of strongly correlated matter for conditions relevant to both laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion research. PMID:19518720

Barbrel, B; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Brambrink, E; Brown, C R D; Gericke, D O; Nagler, B; Rabec le Gloahec, M; Riley, D; Spindloe, C; Vinko, S M; Vorberger, J; Wark, J; Wünsch, K; Gregori, G

2009-04-24

271

A COMPREHENSIVE SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE X-RAY PULSAR 4U 1907+09 FROM TWO OBSERVATIONS WITH THE SUZAKU X-RAY OBSERVATORY  

SciTech Connect

We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku Observatory. The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at approx19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 keV allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe Kbeta line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully covering material along the line of sight with a column density of N{sub H} approx 2 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, consistent with a wind-accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (approx3-4 times solar). Time- and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly in the lower energies implying an increase in N{sub H} along the line of sight, perhaps indicating clumpiness in the stellar wind.

Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Suchy, Slawomir; Rothschild, Richard [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Roth, Stefanie; Barragan, Laura; Fuerst, Felix; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern, E-mail: erivers@ucsd.ed [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

2010-01-20

272

A Comprehensive Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 from Two Observations with the Suzaku X-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku observatory, The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at approx. 19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 ke V allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe Kp line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully-covering material along the line of sight with a column density of N(sub H) approx. 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, consistent with a wind accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (approx. 3 - 4 x solar). Time and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly in the lower energies implying an increase in NH along the line of sight, perhaps indicating clumpiness in the stellar wind

Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Pottschmidt, Katja; Roth, Stefanie; Barragan, Laura; Furst, Felix; Suchy, Slawomir; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Jorn; Rothschild, Richard

2009-01-01

273

The HELLAS2XMM survey. VI. X-ray absorption in the 1df AGN sample through a spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic analysis of 117 serendipitous sources in the HELLAS2XMM 1df (1 degree field) survey is described. Of these, 106 sources, of which 86% have a spectroscopic redshift, are used to evaluate the fraction of X-ray absorbed (log NH>22) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the 2-10 keV flux range 0.8-20×10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. This fraction turns out lower than what is predicted by two well known Cosmic X-Ray Background synthesis models, and the discrepancy is significant at the 99.999% level. This result consolidates the findings recently obtained by other authors. In the flux interval explored, the data are consistent with an intrinsic distribution of the absorbing columns (flat per decade above log NH>21) independent of luminosity and redshift, together with an AGN luminosity function evolving purely in luminosity. It is shown that, on the other hand, extrapolation to lower fluxes fails to reproduce the results inferred from the Chandra Deep Field North survey. It is found that about 40% of the high luminosity sources in our sample have best fit log NH>22, and the surface density of these X-ray obscured QSOs can then be estimated at about 48 per square degree, at the flux limit of ˜10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 of the HELLAS2XMM 1df survey. As a side issue, 5 or 6 out of 60 sources, that is about 10%, identified with broad line AGN, turn out to be affected by log NH>22 absorption. Based on observations made with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission.

Perola, G. C.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Sacchi, N.; Brusa, M.; Cocchia, F.; Baldi, A.; Carangelo, N.; Ciliegi, P.; Comastri, A.; La Franca, F.; Maiolino, R.; Matt, G.; Mignoli, M.; Molendi, S.; Vignali, C.

2004-07-01

274

Structure investigation, spectral, thermal, X-ray and mass characterization of piroxicam and its metal complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[M(H 2L) 2](A) 2. yH 2O (where H 2L: neutral piroxicam (Pir), A: Cl - in case of Ni(II) or acetate anion in case of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions and y=0-2.5) and [M(H 2L) 3](A) z. yH 2O (A: SO 42- in case of Fe(II) ion ( z=1) or Cl - in case of Fe(III) ( z=3) and Co(II) ions ( z=2) and y=1-4) chelates are prepared and characterized using elemental analyses, IR, magnetic and electronic reflectance measurements, mass spectra and thermal analyses. IR spectra reveal that Pir behaves a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions through the pyridyl-N and carbonyl-O of the amide moiety. The reflectance and magnetic moment measurements reveal that these chelates have tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral geometrical structures. Mass spectra and thermal analyses are also used to confirm the proposed formulae and the possible fragments resulted from fragmentation of Pir and its chelates. The thermal behaviour of the chelates (TGA and DTA) are discussed in detail and the thermal stability of the anhydrous chelates follow the order Ni(II)?Cu(II)X-ray powder diffraction was also used as a confirmatory tool to elucidate the crystallinity of the chelates.

Zayed, M. A.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

2004-10-01

275

Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray-extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence  

SciTech Connect

It is shown from both a phenomenological study and exact modeling that the reason for the experimentally observed substantial (a few angstroms or nanometers) separation in wavelength between the maxima of the inside (negative numbered) and outside (positive numbered) diffraction orders of a multilayer-coated grating, operating at near normal incidence and close to the Bragg condition in the soft-x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) regions, is related to the different angles of deviation of the orders. This wavelength separation is also a feature of uncoated diffraction gratings, although not clearly noticeable. The widely used approximate approach for calculating the absolute efficiency, the product of the relative grating efficiency and the reflectance of its multilayer coating, has until recently been considered accurate enough for the analysis of soft-x-ray and EUV near-normal-incidence multilayer-coated gratings. The inapplicability of this approximation for the analysis of the precise positions and shapes of the efficiency curves for the inside and outside orders, despite the small ratios of wavelength and groove depth to period and the small angles of incidence, is demonstrated using gratings with realistic groove profiles and operating in the EUV region. The rigorous modified integral method (MIM), which is a variant of boundary integral equation methods and is designed for the calculation of the efficiency of multilayer gratings with arbitrary layer thicknesses and boundary shapes (including microroughness) and over a wide wavelength range, is proposed in a general operator formalism. An analysis of a derived simple phenomenological expression and the exact numerical study indicates that the spectral separation between the inside and the outside orders grows with increasing either wavelength, angle of incidence, groove frequency, or diffraction order number |m|. The efficiency modeling carried out with the commercial program PCGRATE-SX, based on the MIM, gave not only the exact values of the spectral separation between the inside and outside orders of Mo{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}/Be, Mo/Si, and Mo/Y multilayer-coated gratings with various real groove profiles measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) but also good agreement with synchrotron radiation measurements, including high orders as well. To determine the shapes and positions of efficiency curves in the soft-x-ray-EUV range of close to normal-incidence bulk and multilayer-coated gratings with real groove profiles (measured by AFM), one should use codes based on rigorous electromagnetic theory such as the MIM. The modeling is important for developing high efficiency and dispersion gratings for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of laboratory, solar, and astrophysical radiation sources.

Goray, Leonid I.; Seely, John F.; Sadov, Sergey Yu. [International Intellectual Group, Inc., P.O. Box 335, Penfield, New York 14526 and Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rizhsky Prospect 26, Saint-Petersburg 190103 (Russian Federation); Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

2006-11-01

276

The Observed Spectral Evolution of Solar Flare Hard X-Ray Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral evolution of flare emission may be characterized using color-color diagrams (CCDs), a technique which has been widely employed by the astrophysics community, but not yet by the solar flare community. CCDs are constructed for a sample of flares observed simultaneously by CGRO/BATSE and Yohkoh/HXT. It is found that flare spectral evolution follows one of only a few patterns, which generally evolve differently than the soft-hard-soft pattern put forth as the norm in previous work. The implications for the nature of flare energy release and acceleration/propagation models are discussed

Newton, Elizabeth; Giblin, Timothy

1999-01-01

277

Computer simulations and models for the performance characteristics of spectrally equivalent X-ray beams in medical diagnostic radiology  

PubMed Central

In order to achieve uniformity in radiological imaging, it is recommended that the concept of equivalence in shape (quality) and size (quantity) of clinical Xray beams should be used for carrying out the comparative evaluation of image and patient dose. When used under the same irradiation geometry, X-ray beams that are strictly or relatively equivalent in terms of shape and size will produce identical or relatively identical image quality and patient dose. Simple mathematical models and software program EQSPECT.FOR were developed for the comparative evaluation of the performance characteristics in terms of contrast (C), contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and figure-of-merit (FOM = CNR2/DOSE) for spectrally equivalent beams transmitted through filter materials referred to as conventional and k-edged. At the same value of operating potential (kVp), results show that spectrally equivalent beam transmitted through conventional filter with higher atomic number (Z-value) in comparison with that transmitted through conventional filter with lower Z-value resulted in the same value of C and FOM. However, in comparison with the spectrally equivalent beam transmitted through filter of lower Z-value, the beam through filter of higher Z-value produced higher value of CNR and DOSE at equal tube loading (mAs) and kVp. Under the condition of equivalence of spectrum, at scaled (or reduced) tube loading and same kVp, filter materials of higher Z-value can produce the same values of C, CNR, DOSE and FOM as filter materials of lower Z-value. Unlike the case of comparison of spectrally equivalent beam transmitted through one conventional filter and that through another conventional filter, it is not possible to derive simple mathematical formulations for the relative performance of spectrally equivalent beam transmitted through a given conventional filter material and that through kedge filter material. PMID:21224928

Okunade, Akintunde A.

2007-01-01

278

Evolution of long-range myofibrillar crystallinity in insect flight muscle as examined by X-ray cryomicrodiffraction  

PubMed Central

Insect flight muscle is known for its crystal-quality regularity of contractile protein arrangement within a sarcomere. We have previously shown by X-ray microdiffraction that the crystal-quality regularity in bumble-bee flight muscle is not confined within a sarcomere, but extends over the entire length of a myofibril (>1000 sarcomeres connected in series). Because of this, the whole myofibril may be regarded as a millimetre-long, natural single protein crystal. Using bright X-ray beams from a synchrotron radiation source, we examined how this long-range crystallinity has evolved among winged insects. We analysed >4600 microdiffraction patterns of quick-frozen myofibrils from 50 insect species, covering all the major winged insect orders. The results show that the occurrence of such long-range crystallinity largely coincides with insect orders with asynchronous muscle operation. However, a few of the more skilled fliers among lower-order insects apparently have developed various degrees of structural regularity, suggesting that the demand for skilful flight has driven the lattice structure towards increased regularity. PMID:16608686

Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Katsuaki; Yagi, Naoto

2005-01-01

279

The X-ray spectral signatures from the complex circumnuclear regions in the Compton thick AGN NGC 424  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Most of our knowledge of the circumnuclear matter in Seyfert galaxies is based on the X-ray spectra of the brightest Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies. The complete obscuration of the nuclear radiation in these sources allows us to study all the components arising from reprocessing of the primary continuum in the circumnuclear matter in detail, while they are heavily diluted in unobscured sources, often down to invisibility. Methods: We present the XMM-Newton RGS and EPIC pn spectra of a long (?100 ks) observation of one of the soft X-ray brightest Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies, NGC 424. As a first step, we performed a phenomenological analysis of the data to derive the properties of all the spectral components. On the basis of these results, we fitted the spectra with self-consistent photoionisation models, produced with cloudy. Results: The high-energy part of the spectrum is dominated by a pure neutral Compton reflection component and a neutral iron K? line, together with K? emission from neutral Ni, suggesting a significant Ni/Fe overabundance. The soft X-ray RGS spectrum comes mostly from line emission from H-like and He-like C, N, O, and Ne, as well as from the Fe L-shell. The presence of narrow RRC from O VIII, O VII, and C VI, the last two with resolved widths corresponding to temperatures around 5-10 eV, is a strong indication of a gas in photoionisation equilibrium, as confirmed by the prevalence of the forbidden component in the O VII triplet. Two gas phases with different ionisation parameters are needed to reproduce the spectrum with a self-consistent photoionisation model, any contribution from a gas in collisional equilibrium being no more than 10% of the total flux in the 0.35-1.55 keV band. When this self-consistent model is applied to the 0.5-10 keV band of the EPIC pn spectrum, a third photoionised phase is needed to account for emission lines with higher ionisation potential, although K? emission from S XV and Fe XXVI remains under-predicted.

Marinucci, A.; Bianchi, S.; Matt, G.; Fabian, A. C.; Iwasawa, K.; Miniutti, G.; Piconcelli, E.

2011-02-01

280

Mammography spectrum measurement using an x-ray diffraction device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a diffraction spectrometer developed by Deslattes for the determination of mammographic kV is extended to the measurement of accurate, relative x-ray spectra. Raw x-ray spectra (photon fluence versus energy) are determined by passing an x-ray beam through a bent quartz diffraction crystal, and the diffracted x-rays are detected by an x-ray intensifying screen coupled to a charge coupled device. Two nonlinear correction procedures, one operating on the energy axis and the other operating on the fluence axis, are described and performed on measured x-ray spectra. The corrected x-ray spectra are compared against tabulated x-ray spectra measured under nearly identical conditions. Results indicate that the current device is capable of producing accurate relative x-ray spectral measurements in the energy region from 12 keV to 40 keV, which represents most of the screen-film mammography energy range. Twelve keV is the low-energy cut-off, due to the design geometry of the device. The spectrometer was also used to determine the energy-dependent x-ray mass attenuation coefficients for aluminium, with excellent results in the 12-30 keV range. Additional utility of the device for accurately determining the attenuation characteristics of various normal and abnormal breast tissues and phantom substitutes is anticipated.

Boone, John M.; Yu, Tong; Seibert, Anthony

1998-09-01

281

Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. IV - The soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array uses various combinations of thin foil filters composed of Al, C, Te, Be, Mo, Rh, and phthalocyanine to achieve the requisite radiation-rejection characteristics. Such rejection is demanded by the presence of strong EUV radiation at longer wavelengths where the specular reflectivity of multilayer mirrors can cause 'contamination' of the image in the narrow band defined by the Bragg condition.

Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Powell, Forbes R.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

1991-01-01

282

GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

2013-07-01

283

Non-invasive material discrimination using spectral x-ray radiography  

SciTech Connect

Current radiographic methods are limited in their ability to determine the presence of nuclear materials in containers or composite objects. A central problem is the inability to distinguish the attenuation pattern of high-density metals from those with a greater thickness of a less dense material. Here, we show that spectrally sensitive detectors can be used to discriminate plutonium from multiple layers of other materials using a single-view radiograph. An inverse algorithm with adaptive regularization is used. The algorithm can determine the presence of plutonium in simulated radiographs with a mass resolution per unit area of at least 0.07?g?cm{sup ?2}.

Gilbert, Andrew J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78715-0162 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354-1793 (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S.; Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Ken D.; White, Tim A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354-1793 (United States); Deinert, Mark R., E-mail: mdeinert@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78715-0162 (United States)

2014-04-21

284

Non-invasive material discrimination using spectral x-ray radiography  

SciTech Connect

Current radiographic methods are limited in their ability to determine the presence of nuclear materials in containers or composite objects. A central problem is the inability to distinguish the attenuation pattern of high-density metals from those with a larger greater thickness of a less- dense material. Here we show that spectrally sensitive detectors can be used to discriminate plutonium from multiple layers of other materials using a single-view radiograph. An inverse algorithm with adaptive regularization is used. The algorithm can determine the presence of plutonium in simulated radiographs with a mass resolution per unit area of at least 0.07 g•cm^-2.

Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; White, Timothy A.; Deinert, Mark

2014-04-21

285

A walk through the different spectral states of low-mass X-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lage-massa röntgendubbelstersystemen zijn systemen waarin een compact object, een neutronenster of een zwart gat, materie accreteert van een gewone ster die slechts een massa heeft kleiner dan of vergelijkbaar met die van onze zon. De materie-overdracht vindt plaats via een zogeheten accretieschijf waarin het materiaal naar het compacte object spiraliseert, en soms tot slechts een paar kilometer het compacte object nadert. Door interne wrijving wordt de accretieschijf zo heet dat het voornamelijk röntgenstraling uitzendt. Rondom de accretieschijf en het compacte object bevindt zich een heet plasma, de zogenoemde corona, dat röntgen- en gammastraling uitzendt. De geometrie en oorsprong van de corona zijn niet volledig bekend, maar waarnemingen en theoriën bevestigen de aanwezigheid ervan. Gebruik makend van röntgensatellieten bestuderen we de straling afkomstig van deze accretieschijf en corona welk bijdraagt aan het onderzoek aan compacte objecten en hun nabije omgeving. In dit proefschrift bestudeer ik specifieke eigenschappen van de accretieprocessen in röntgendubbelstersystemen. Deze processen manifesteren zich op verschillende manieren en zijn veranderlijk met tijd, leidend tot de verschillende zogeheten spectrale fases. De geometrie en de temperatuur van de accretieschijf en corona zijn karakteristiek in elk van deze fases. Dit proefschrift loopt door de verschillende spectrale fases heen waarbij vanuit een observationeel standpunt verscheidene bijzonderheden van elk van deze fases worden uitgelicht. Dit levert een belangrijke bijdrage aan de algemene kennis op het gebied van accretieprocessen in lage-massa röntgendubbelstersystemen.

Hiemstra, Beike

2012-02-01

286

A digital x-ray tomosynthesis coupled near infrared spectral tomography system for dual-modality breast imaging  

PubMed Central

A Near Infrared Spectral Tomography (NIRST) system has been developed and integrated into a commercial Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner to allow structural and functional imaging of breast in vivo. The NIRST instrument uses an 8-wavelength continuous wave (CW) laser-based scanning source assembly and a 75-element silicon photodiode solid-state detector panel to produce dense spectral and spatial projection data from which spectrally constrained 3D tomographic images of tissue chromophores are produced. Integration of the optical imaging system into the DBT scanner allows direct co-registration of the optical and DBT images, while also facilitating the synergistic use of x-ray contrast as anatomical priors in optical image reconstruction. Currently, the total scan time for a combined NIRST-DBT exam is ~50s with data collection from 8 wavelengths in the optical scan requiring ~42s to complete. The system was tested in breast simulating phantoms constructed using intralipid and blood in an agarose matrix with a 3 cm x 2 cm cylindrical inclusion at 1 cm depth from the surface. Diffuse image reconstruction of total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration resulted in accurate recovery of the lateral size and position of the inclusion to within 6% and 8%, respectively. Use of DBT structural priors in the NIRST reconstruction process improved the quantitative accuracy of the HbT recovery, and led to linear changes in imaged versus actual contrast, underscoring the advantages of dual-modality optical imaging approaches. The quantitative accuracy of the system can be further improved with independent measurements of scattering properties through integration of frequency or time domain data. PMID:23038553

Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Michaelsen, Kelly E.; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Shaw, Ian; Defrietas, Ken; Brooks, Ken; Paulsen, Keith D.

2012-01-01

287

A digital x-ray tomosynthesis coupled near infrared spectral tomography system for dual-modality breast imaging.  

PubMed

A Near Infrared Spectral Tomography (NIRST) system has been developed and integrated into a commercial Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner to allow structural and functional imaging of breast in vivo. The NIRST instrument uses an 8-wavelength continuous wave (CW) laser-based scanning source assembly and a 75-element silicon photodiode solid-state detector panel to produce dense spectral and spatial projection data from which spectrally constrained 3D tomographic images of tissue chromophores are produced. Integration of the optical imaging system into the DBT scanner allows direct co-registration of the optical and DBT images, while also facilitating the synergistic use of x-ray contrast as anatomical priors in optical image reconstruction. Currently, the total scan time for a combined NIRST-DBT exam is ~50s with data collection from 8 wavelengths in the optical scan requiring ~42s to complete. The system was tested in breast simulating phantoms constructed using intralipid and blood in an agarose matrix with a 3 cm x 2 cm cylindrical inclusion at 1 cm depth from the surface. Diffuse image reconstruction of total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration resulted in accurate recovery of the lateral size and position of the inclusion to within 6% and 8%, respectively. Use of DBT structural priors in the NIRST reconstruction process improved the quantitative accuracy of the HbT recovery, and led to linear changes in imaged versus actual contrast, underscoring the advantages of dual-modality optical imaging approaches. The quantitative accuracy of the system can be further improved with independent measurements of scattering properties through integration of frequency or time domain data. PMID:23038553

Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Michaelsen, Kelly E; Pogue, Brian W; Poplack, Steven P; Shaw, Ian; Defrietas, Ken; Brooks, Ken; Paulsen, Keith D

2012-08-13

288

A Multi-Epoch Timing and Spectral Study of the Ultraluminous X-Ray NGC 5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results of new XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, one of the few ULXs to show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We detect QPOs in each of four new (approximately equal to 100 ks) pointings, expanding the range of frequencies observed from 10 to 40 mHz. We compare our results with the timing and spectral correlations seen in stellar-mass black hole systems, and find that the qualitative nature of the timing and spectral behavior of NGC 5408 X-1 is similar to systems in the steep power-law state exhibiting Type-C QPOs. However, in order for this analogy to quantitatively hold we must only be seeing the so-called saturated portion of the QPO frequency-photon index (or disk flux) relation. Assuming this to be the case, we place a lower limit on the mass of NGC 5408 X-1 of greater than or equal to 800 solar mass. Alternatively, the QPO frequency is largely independent of the spectral parameters, in which case a close analogy with the Type-C QPOs in stellar system is problematic. Measurement of the source's timing properties over a wider range of energy spectral index is needed to definitively resolve this ambiguity. We searched all the available data for both a broad Fe emission line as well as high-frequency QPO analogs (0.1- 1 Hz), but detected neither. We place upper limits on the equivalent width of any Fe emission feature in the 6-7 keV band and of the amplitude (rms) of a high-frequency QPO analog of approximately equal to 10 eV and approximately equal to 4%, respectively.

Dheeraj, Pasham; Strohmayer, Tod E.

2012-01-01

289

Quasar x-ray spectra revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of 45 quasars observed by the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on the Einstein satellite is used to re-examine the relationship between the soft (0.2-3.5 keV) X-ray energy index and radio-loudness. We found the following: (1) the tendency for radio-loud quasars to have systematically flatter X-ray slopes than radio-quiet quasars (RQQ's) is confirmed with the soft X-ray excess having negligible effect; (2) there is a tendency for the flatness of the X-ray slope to correlate with radio core-dominance for radio-loud quasars, suggesting that a component of the X-ray emission is relativistically beamed; (3) for the RQQ's the soft X-ray slopes, with a mean of approximately 1.0, are consistent with the slopes found at higher energies (2-10 keV) although steeper than those observed for Seyfert 1 galaxies (also 2-10 keV) where the reflection model gives a good fit to the data; (4) the correlation of FeII emission line strength with X-ray energy index is confirmed for radio-quiet quasars using a subset of 18 quasars. The radio-loud quasars show no evidence for a correlation. This relation suggests a connection between the ionizing continuum and the line emission from the broad emission line region (BELR) of radio-quiet quasars, but in the opposite sense to that predicted by current photoionization models; and (5) the correlations of X-ray slope with radio core dominance and FeII equivalent width within the radio-loud and radio-quiet sub-classes respectively imply that the observed wide range of X-ray spectral slopes is real rather than due to the large measuring uncertainties for individual objects.

Shastri, P.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J.

1992-01-01

290

Design and performance of a versatile curved-crystal spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy in the tender x-ray range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete in-vacuum curved-crystal x-ray emission spectrometer in Johansson geometry has been constructed for a 2-6 keV energy range with sub natural line-width energy resolution. The spectrometer is designed to measure x-ray emission induced by photon and charged particle impact on solid and gaseous targets. It works with a relatively large x-ray source placed inside the Rowland circle and employs position sensitive detection of diffracted x-rays. Its compact modular design enables fast and easy installation at a synchrotron or particle accelerator beamline. The paper presents main characteristics of the spectrometer and illustrates its capabilities by showing few selected experimental examples.

Kav?i?, M.; Budnar, M.; Mühleisen, A.; Gasser, F.; Žitnik, M.; Bu?ar, K.; Bohinc, R.

2012-03-01

291

Opportunities for resonant elastic X-ray scattering at X-ray free-electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (FELs) are beginning to deliver a revolution in X-ray experiments, thanks to their ultra-bright (peak brightness exceeding 1033 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW), ultrashort (down to a few fs), spatially coherent X-ray pulses. Presently operational facilities cover wide spectral ranges, from the VUV and soft X-ray wavelengths of FLASH in Hamburg (down to 4.2 nm), to the hard X-rays delivered by the LCLS in Stanford (wavelengths of 0.15 nm or shorter). The basic properties of the new sources are briefly reviewed, and the impact on resonant scattering experiments is discussed. The perspective of investigating ultrafast magnetism, and, more generally, the time-dependent response of strongly correlated electron systems, in a pump-and-probe mode at the L edges of 3d transition metals, would be very attractive. In the hard X-ray range, the very recent proposal of self-seeded X-ray FELs, with 10-5 intrinsic bandwidth, tunable wavelength, 100 fs pulses and number of photons per pulse of order 1012 also opens exciting possibilities for resonant scattering.

Altarelli, M.

2012-06-01

292

Spectral Softening Between Outburst and Quiescence In The Neutron Star Low-Mass X-Ray Binary SAX J1750.8-2900  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking the spectral evolution of transiently accreting neutron stars between outburst and quiescence probes relatively poorly understood accretion regimes. Such studies are challenging because they require frequent monitoring of sources with luminosities below the thresholds of current all-sky X-ray monitors. We present the analysis of over 30 observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1750.8-2900 taken across four years with the X-ray telescope aboard Swift. We find spectral softening with decreasing luminosity both on long (˜1 yr) and short (˜days to week) timescales. As the luminosity decreases from 4 × 1036 erg s-1 to ˜ 1× {{10}35} erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV), the power law photon index increases from 1.4 to 2.9. Although not statistically required, our spectral fits allow an additional soft component that displays a decreasing temperature as the luminosity decreases from 4 × 1036 to 6 × 1034 erg s-1. Spectral softening exhibited by SAX J1750.8-2900 is consistent both with accretion emission whose spectral shape steepens with decreasing luminosity and also with being dominated by a changing soft component, possibly associated with accretion onto the neutron star surface, as the luminosity declines.

Allen, Jessamyn L.; Linares, Manuel; Homan, Jeroen; Chakrabarty, Deepto

2015-03-01

293

Explorer Program: X-ray Timing Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This booklet describes the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), one in a series of Explorer missions administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science and managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The X-ray astronomy observatory is scheduled for launch into low-Earth orbit by Delta 2 expendable launch vehicle in late summer of 1995. The mission is expected to operate for at least 2 years and will carry out in-depth timing and spectral studies of the X-ray sources in the 2 to 200 kilo-electron Volt (keV) range. XTE is intended to study the temporal and broad-band spectral phenomena associated with stellar and galactic systems containing compact objects, including neutron stars, white dwarfs, and black holes.

1995-01-01

294

Application of the Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE and MCNP5 to unfold X-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining primary X-ray spectra is a complex task, mainly due to the high fluence of X-rays. In order to avoid the pile up effect in the detector, an indirect method based on the Compton scattering interactions in a low density rod material can be successfully applied in the diagnostic energy range. In this work, the Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE and MCNP5 have been used to simulate the indirect method based on a simplified Compton spectrometry technique. Both models include the X-ray focus, a poly(mehtylmethacrylate) (PMMA) rod and an HPGe detector. Because the probability that primary photons scattered in the PMMA will be emitted towards the detector is small, it is necessary to consider appropriate values for cut-offs and other simulation parameters. With these models, a response function can be determined, relating the response of the detector to the primary X-ray spectrum. This function can be normally expressed as a matrix, which can be calculated by simulating the response detector to several monochromatic X-ray beams. The main goal of this work is to test the capability of the Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE and MCNP5, together with unfolding methods to estimate the primary spectrum when the response matrix and the response of the detector for a given conditions are known. The reliability of unfolded X-ray spectra is studied by comparing them with theoretical spectra obtained from the IPEM 78 catalog and calculating the Root Mean Squared (RMS) and Quality parameters.

Gallardo, Sergio; Querol, Andrea; Pozuelo, Fausto; Verdú, Gumersindo; Ródenas, José

2014-02-01

295

The X-ray Spectrum and Spectral Energy Distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: A Beamed Radio-Quiet Quasar with a Polar Outflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized "FeLoBAL" quasar FIRST J155633.8+351758. Our analyses of the 531 photon spectrum indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index ? = 1.7 or flatter). No iron K-? line is detected, and the X-rays appear to be down by only an order of magnitude below their intrinsic unabsorbed levels. Absorption is present with both partially ionized models and neutral hydrogen models with partial covering providing good fits. The level of partial covering in the latter model is consistent with the rest-frame ultraviolet maximum polarization of 13%, in the sense that light scattered by electrons around the X-ray absorber could account for both results. We present the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIRST J155633.8+351758 from radio through X-ray energies, and make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio-quiet jet, optical dust reddening, and X-ray absorption. The corrected SED appears to be that of a luminous radio-quiet quasar deficient in the mid and far-infrared, suggesting that the dust covering fraction of the quasar is not large and that star formation is not excessive. FIRST J155633.8+351758 seems to be an intrinsically normal radio-quiet quasar with an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars studied in detail at X-ray wavelengths. We acknowledge support from Chandra Award No. GO6-7105X, from the US NSF (grant AST 05-07781), from NASA under the grant NNG05GD03G, and from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 10643001). This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the University of California, LLNL (Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48).

Berrington, Robert C.; Brotherton, M. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Ganguly, R.; Shang, Z.; Lacy, M.; Gregg, M. D.; Hall, P. B.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

2007-12-01

296

A study of X-ray luminescence and spectral compatibility of europium-activated yttrium-vanadate (YVO4: Eu) screens for medical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray luminescence efficiency of laboratory-prepared YVO4 : Eu screens and their spectral compatibility to common optical detectors were studied under medical fluoroscopy conditions. YVO4 : Eu screens were prepared by sedimentation and with different coating thickness. Luminescence efficiency of the YVO4 : Eu screens was measured at various X-ray tube voltages (50 250 kVp) and for screens of different coating thicknesses (20 180 mg/cm2). Spectral response was also measured and spectral matching factors between the YVO4 : Eu screens and some common optical detectors (photocathodes, photodiodes, photographic emulsion) were calculated. Experimental results on efficiency were fitted by formulas of the theoretical model developed by Hamaker and Ludwig in order to determine phosphor intrinsic X-ray-to-light conversion efficiency and intrinsic optical characteristics, such as coefficients related to light scattering and absorption. Although the luminescence efficiency of YVO4 : Eu screens was found to be relatively low (3 11 ?W s/mR m2), the matching factor of YVO4 : Eu screens with some red sensitive optical detectors was excellent, of the order of 0.96. High spectral compatibility may indicate that YVO4 : Eu scintillators could be used in medical image detectors.

Panayiotakis, G.; Cavouras, D.; Kandarakis, I.; Nomicos, C.

1996-04-01

297

The iron complex in high mass X-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-ray binary system consists of a compact object (a white dwarf, a neutron star or a black hole) accreting material from an optical companion star. The spectral type of the optical component strongly affects the mass transfer to the compact object. This is the reason why X-ray binary systems are usually divided in High Mass X-ray Binaries (companion O or B type, denoted HMXB) and Low Mass X-ray Binaries (companion type A or later). The HMXB are divided depending on the partner's luminosity class in two main groups: the Supergiant X-ray Binaries (SGXB) and Be X-ray Binaries (BeXB). We introduce the spectral characterization of a sample of 9 High Mass X-ray Binaries in the iron complex (˜ 6-7 keV). This spectral range is a fundamental tool in the study of the surrounding material of these systems. The sources have been divided into three main groups according to their current standard classification: SGXB, BeXB and ? Cassiopeae-like. The purpose of this work is to look for qualitative patterns in the iron complex, around 6-7 keV, in order to discern between current different classes that make up the group of HMXB. We find significant spectral patterns for each of the sets, reflecting differences in accretion physics thereof.

Giménez-García, A.; Torrejón, J. M.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Rodes-Rocas, J. J.; Bernabéu, G.

2013-05-01

298

THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs  

E-print Network

From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic ...

Trichas, Markos

299

A high energy resolution experiment in the hard X-ray range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Low Energy Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (LEGS), a joint project among NASA/GSFC, CEN-SACLAY, and Rice University, is designed to perform fine energy resolution measurements of astrophysical sources. In its low energy configuration (20-800 keV energy range) the instrument uses three planar detectors (effective area of 53 sq cm) surrounded by a combination of passive Fe and active NaI for shielding and collimation (FOW of about 5 x 10 deg FWHM). In a typical one-day balloon flight, LEGS sensitivity limit (3 sigma) for narrow line features is not greater than about 0.0003 ph/sq cm s (at 100 kev).

Paciesas, W.; Baker, R.; Cline, T.; Ehrmann, C.; Gehrels, N.; Teegarden, B.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, PH.; Hameury, J. M.; Haymes, R.

1983-01-01

300

Radio Spectral Evolution of an X-Ray-poor Impulsive Solar Flare: Implications for Plasma Heating and Electron Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present radio and X-ray observations of an impulsive solar flare that was moderately intense in microwaves, yet showed very meager EUV and X-ray emission. The flare occurred on 2001 October 24 and was well observed at radio wavelengths by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters (NoRP), and the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA). It was also observed

T. S. Bastian; G. D. Fleishman; D. E. Gary

2007-01-01

301

X-ray Diffraction and Molecular Dynamics Study of Medium-range Order in Ambient and Hot Water  

E-print Network

We have developed x-ray diffraction measurements with high energy-resolution and accuracy to study water structure at three different temperatures (7, 25 and 66 C) under normal pressure. Using a spherically curved Ge crystal an energy resolution better than 15 eV has been achieved which eliminates influence from Compton scattering. The high quality of the data allows a precise oxygen-oxygen pair correlation function (PCF) to be directly derived from the Fourier transform of the experimental data resolving shell structure out to ~12 {\\AA}, i.e. 5 hydration shells. Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the TIP4P/2005 force-field reproduce excellently the experimental shell-structure in the range 4-12 {\\AA} although less agreement is seen for the first peak in the PCF. The Local Structure Index [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 7671 (1996)] identifies a tetrahedral minority giving the intermediate-range oscillations in the PCF and a disordered majority providing a more featureless background in this range. The current study supports the proposal that the structure of liquid water, even at high temperatures, can be described in terms of a two-state fluctuation model involving local structures related to the high-density and low-density forms of liquid water postulated in the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis.

Congcong Huang; K. T. Wikfeldt; D. Nordlund; U. Bergmann; T. McQueen; J. Sellberg; L. G. M. Pettersson; A. Nilsson

2011-07-24

302

Periodic hour-range X-ray sources near the Galactic center on the basis of experimental data from the Prognoz-9 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lengthy (October 31, 1983-January 6, 1984) virtually continuous observations of the Galactic center region were carried out during the X-ray experiment on the high-apogee (720,000 km) Prognoz-9 mission. Processing via the method of 'epoch folding' of the time sets of 10-min-average counting rates in the keV energy range yielded frequency spectra of X-ray flux variations revealing previously unknown periods in the hour range, namely, 13, 9.4, 1.96, and 1.078 h.

Kudryavtsev, M. I.; Svertilov, S. I.

1992-07-01

303

Testing MOND over a wide acceleration range in x-ray ellipticals.  

PubMed

The gravitational fields of two isolated ellipticals, NGC 720 and NGC 1521, have been recently measured to very large galactic radii (~100 and ~200 kpc), assuming hydrostatic balance of the hot gas enshrouding them. They afford, for the first time to my knowledge, testing modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in ellipticals with force and quality that, arguably, approach those of rotation-curve tests in disk galaxies. In the context of MOND, it is noteworthy that the measured accelerations span a wide range, from more than 10a(0) to about 0.1a(0), unprecedented in individual ellipticals. I find that MOND predicts correctly the measured dynamical mass runs (apart from a possible minor tension in the inner few kpc of NGC 720, which might be due to departure from hydrostatic equilibrium): The predicted mass discrepancy increases outward from none near the center, to ~10 at the outermost radii. The implications for the MOND-versus-dark-matter controversy go far beyond the simple fact of two more galaxies conforming to MOND. PMID:23030078

Milgrom, Mordehai

2012-09-28

304

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range  

SciTech Connect

We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T. (Melbourne)

2010-11-12

305

The dual-gain mode: a way to enhance the dynamic range of X-ray detectors  

E-print Network

Varian Medical Systems has manufactured and recently put into operation a clinically-applicable solution for image-guided radiation therapy. Cone-beam CT imaging, one of the operation modes of the imaging unit of this device, aims at high-quality volumetric reconstruction. To boost the image quality, the dual-gain mode, a successful means for enhancing the dynamic range of the flat-panel detectors and obtaining better results in the contrast of the reconstructed image, was developed and successfully tested during the last few years. The important steps in the calibration of this mode involve a correction to the pulse widths associated with the X-ray production, the assessment of the detector signal above which nonlinear effects become significant and the determination of some properties of the detector pixels, namely, of dark fields, flatness corrections, etc. Finally, the defect-pixel map is obtained, containing dead and flickering pixels, as well as pixels with properties which are sufficiently `out of rang...

Matsinos, E; Kaissl, Wolfgang; Matsinos, Evangelos

2006-01-01

306

On X-Ray Variability in Seyfert Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a quantification of the X-ray variability amplitude for 79 ASCA observations of 36 Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find that consideration of sources with the narrowest permitted lines in the optical band introduces scatter into the established correlation between X-ray variability and nuclear luminosity. Consideration of the X-ray spectral index and variability properties together shows distinct groupings in parameter space for broad and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, confirming previous studies. A strong correlation is found between hard X-ray variability and FWHM Hbeta. A range of nuclear mass and accretion rate across the Seyfert population can explain the differences observed in X-ray and optical properties. An attractive alternative model, which does not depend on any systematic difference in central mass, is that the circumnuclear gas of NLSy1s is different to BLSy1s in temperature, optical depth, density or geometry.

Turner, T. J.; George, I. M.; Nandra, K.; Turcan, D.

1999-01-01

307

Reduction in the intensity of solar X-ray emission in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range and heating of the solar corona  

SciTech Connect

The time profiles of the energy spectra of low-intensity flares and the structure of the thermal background of the soft X-ray component of solar corona emission over the period of January-February, 2003, are investigated using the data of the RHESSI project. A reduction in the intensity of X-ray emission of the solar flares and the corona thermal background in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range is revealed. The RHESSI data are compared with the data from the Interball-Geotail project. A new mechanism of solar corona heating is proposed on the basis of the results obtained.

Mirzoeva, I. K., E-mail: colombo2006@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15

308

Radio Spectral Evolution of an X-ray Poor Impulsive Solar Flare: Implications for Plasma Heating and Electron Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present radio and X-ray observations of an impulsive solar flare that was\\u000amoderately intense in microwaves, yet showed very meager EUV and X-ray\\u000aemission. The flare occurred on 2001 Oct 24 and was well-observed at radio\\u000awavelengths by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), the Nobeyama Radio\\u000aPolarimeters (NoRP), and by the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA). It was also\\u000aobserved

T. S. Bastian; G. D. Fleishman; D. E. Gary

2007-01-01

309

Spectral and Timing Properties of the Black Hole X-Ray Binary H1743-322 in the Low/Hard State Studied with Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results from Suzaku observations of the Galactic black hole X-ray binary H1743-322 in the low/hard state during its outburst in 2012 October. We appropriately take into account the effects of dust scattering to accurately analyze the X-ray spectra. The time-averaged spectra in the 1-200 keV band are dominated by a hard power-law component of a photon index of ?1.6 with a high-energy cutoff at ?60 keV, which is well described with the Comptonization of the disk emission by the hot corona. We estimate the inner disk radius from the multi-color disk component, and find that it is 1.3-2.3 times larger than the radius in the high/soft state. This suggests that the standard disk was not extended to the innermost stable circular orbit. A reflection component from the disk is detected with R = ?/2? ? 0.6 (? is the solid angle). We also successfully estimate the stable disk component independent of the time-averaged spectral modeling by analyzing short-term spectral variability on a ~1 s timescale. A weak low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation at 0.1-0.2 Hz is detected, whose frequency is found to correlate with the X-ray luminosity and photon index. This result may be explained by the evolution of the disk truncation radius.

Shidatsu, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, S.; Done, C.; Hori, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Kubota, A.; Nagayama, T.; Moritani, Y.

2014-07-01

310

Towards attosecond X-ray pulses from the FEL  

SciTech Connect

The ability to study ultrafast phenomena has been recently advanced by the demonstrated production and measurement of a single, 650-attosecond (10{sup 18} sec), VUV x-ray pulse[1] and, latter, a 250-attosecond pulse[2]. The next frontier is a production of the x-ray pulses with shorter wavelengths and in a broader spectral range. Several techniques for a generation of an isolated, attosecond duration, short-wavelength x-ray pulse based upon the ponderomotive laser acceleration [3], SASE and harmonic cascade FELs ([4] - [6]) had been already proposed. In this paper we briefly review a technique proposed in [5] and present some new results.

Zholents, Alexander A.; Fawley, William M.

2004-07-01

311

High resolution spectroscopy of X-ray emission from high mass X-ray binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly reviews first the progress of spectroscopy in X-ray astronomy from proportional counters, a major instrument in early phase of X-ray astronomy, to gas scintillation proportional counters, X-ray CCD cameras, transmission and reflection gratings, and finally to X-ray micro-calorimeters. As a typical example of spectral features observed from high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), the spectra observed from Vela

F. Nagase; S. Watanabe

2006-01-01

312

Use of depth information from in-depth photon counting detectors for x-ray spectral imaging: a preliminary simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) may improve dose-efficiency but are hampered by limited count rate. They generally have imperfect energy response. Multi-layer ("in-depth") detectors have been proposed to enable higher count rates but the potential benefit of the depth information has not been explored. We conducted a simulation study to compare in-depth detectors against single layer detectors composed of common materials. Both photon counting and energy integrating modes were studied. Methods: Polyenergetic transmissions were simulated through 25cm of water and 1cm of calcium. For PCXD composed of Si, GaAs or CdTe a 120kVp spectrum was used. For energy integrating x-ray detectors (EIXD) made from GaAs, CdTe or CsI, spectral imaging was done using 80 and 140kVp and matched dose. Semi-ideal and phenomenological energy response models were used. To compare these detectors, we computed the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the variance of basis material estimates. Results: For PCXDs with perfect energy response, depth data provides no additional information. For PCXDs with imperfect energy response and for EIXDs the improvement can be significant. E.g., for a CdTe PCXD with realistic energy response, depth information can reduce the variance by ~50%. The improvement depends on the x-ray spectrum. For a semi-ideal Si detector and a narrow x-ray spectrum the depth information has minimal advantage. For EIXD, the in-depth detector has consistent variance reduction (15% and 17%~19% for water and calcium, respectively). Conclusions: Depth information is beneficial to spectral imaging for both PCXD and EIXD. The improvement depends critically on the detector energy response.

Yao, Yuan; Bornefalk, Hans; Hsieh, Scott S.; Danielsson, Mats; Pelc, Norbert J.

2014-03-01

313

A light bending model for the X-ray temporal and spectral properties of accreting black holes  

E-print Network

Uncorrelated variability between direct X-ray continuum and reflection components (including the Fe line, if present) has been reported in many accreting black hole systems, challenging theoretical models of disc reflection. We explore a model based on gravitational light bending in the near vicinity of the central black hole in which the X-ray variability is controlled by the height of the primary source of X-rays above the accretion disc. The relationship between the direct power law component (PLC) and the reflection-dominated component (RDC) is not trivial and allows to identify three different regimes in which the RDC (and the Fe line) is correlated, anti-correlated or almost independent with respect to the PLC. X-ray observations of the active galaxy MCG-6-30-15 and the black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 (and possibly other sources, e.g. NGC 4051) reveal that a series of predictions are actually observed: the behaviour of the Fe line flux, profile, and EW and of the reflection fraction with respect to the continuum supports our model which may explain what are otherwise puzzling properties of these sources.

G. Miniutti; A. C. Fabian

2004-01-13

314

Time-dependent, x-ray spectral unfolds and brightness temperatures for intense Li + ion beam-driven hohlraums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray-producing hohlraums are being studied as indirect drives for inertial confinement fusion targets. In a 1994 target series on the PBFAII accelerator, cylindrical hohlraum targets were heated by an intense Li+ ion beam and viewed by an array of 13 time-resolved, filtered x-ray detectors (XRDs). The unfold operator (UFO) code and its suite of auxiliary functions were used extensively in obtaining time-resolved x-ray spectra and radiation temperatures from this diagnostic. The UFO was also used to obtain fitted response functions from calibration data, to simulate data from blackbody x-ray spectra of interest, to determine the suitability of various unfolding parameters (e.g., energy domain, energy partition, smoothing conditions, and basis functions), to interpolate the XRD signal traces, and to unfold experimental data. The simulation capabilities of the code were useful in understanding an anomalous feature in the unfolded spectra at low photon energies (?100 eV). Uncertainties in the differential and energy-integrated unfolded spectra were estimated from uncertainties in the data. The time-history of the radiation temperature agreed well with independent calculations of the wall temperature in the hohlraum.

Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Biggs, F.; Dukart, R. J.; Moats, A. R.; Leeper, R. J.

1997-01-01

315

PXAMS -- Projectile X ray AMS: X ray yields and applications  

SciTech Connect

Characteristic x rays have recently been explored as a method for the detection and identification of ions in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions stop in an appropriately chosen target and the induced x rays identify the ions by atomic number. For the application of AMS to higher mass isotopes, characteristic x rays allow significantly better discrimination of competing atomic isobars than is possible using energy loss detectors. Characteristic x rays also show promise as a convenient component in hybrid detection systems. Measurements of x ray yields are presented for Si, Fe, Ni, Se, Mo, and Pd ions of 0.5--2 MeV/AMU. The yields rise by more than a factor of 10 over this energy range, and approach 1 x-ray per incident ion at 2 MeV/AMU for the lighter ions. Preliminary work on the application of PXAMS to the detection of {sup 79}Se is described.

McAninch, J.E.; Bench, G.S.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Roberts, M.L.; Southon, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.; Proctor, I.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

1994-10-07

316

The 2006-2007 Active Phase Of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts, and Burst Spectral Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 8-3x10(exp 3)s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx. 2 - 6 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus three emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4)x10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. We discuss these events in the context of the magnetar model.

Gavril, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

2009-01-01

317

Experiment with the SPR-N Instrument Onboard the CORONAS-F Satellite: Polarization, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics of the Hard X-Ray of the Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the experiment with a polarimeter SPR-N onboard the CORONAS-F satellite, polarization of the X-ray of solar flares within the energy ranges of 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 keV was measured according to Thomson scattering of X-ray photons in Beryllium plates with the following registration of the scattered photons by means of a system of six scintillation detectors based on Cs I(Na). As a result of observations for the period from August 2001 till December 2005, hard X-ray radiation was registered for 128 solar flares. During the event of 29 October 2003 degree of polarization of the radiation within the channels 40-60 and 60-100 keV exceeded 70 %, and within the channel 20-40 keV—50 %. Time profiles of the part of polarized radiation, orientation of the maximum polarization on the solar disc were obtained. The upper limit of the polarized radiation part for 25 events was estimated at the level of 8-40 %. For all registered flares time profiles (with resolution of up to 4 s) were registered, hard X-ray fluxes were determined, and spectrum factor was estimated. For the most powerful events which were observed during October-November 2003 and on January 20, 2005, the data on the dynamics of the characteristics of thermal and non-thermal components of X-radiation were obtained.

Zhitnik, I. A.; Logachev, Yu. I.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Denisov, Yu. I.; Kavanosyan, S. S.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Morozov, O. V.; Myagkova, I. N.; Svertilov, S. I.; Ignatiev, A. P.; Oparin, S. N.; Pertsov, A. A.

318

X-ray emission processes in stars  

E-print Network

A decade of X-ray stellar observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton has led to significant advances in our understanding of the physical processes at work in hot (magnetized) plasmas in stars and their immediate environment, providing new perspectives and challenges, and in turn the need for improved models. The wealth of high-quality stellar spectra has allowed us to investigate, in detail, the characteristics of the X-ray emission across the HR diagram. Progress has been made in addressing issues ranging from classical stellar activity in stars with solar-like dynamos (such as flares, activity cycles, spatial and thermal structuring of the X-ray emitting plasma, evolution of X-ray activity with age), to X-ray generating processes (e.g. accretion, jets, magnetically confined winds) that were poorly understood in the pre-Chandra/XMM-Newton era. I discuss the progress made in the study of high energy stellar physics and its impact in a wider astrophysical context, focusing on the role of spectral diagnostics no...

Testa, Paola

2010-01-01

319

X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

Krauss, Miriam Ilana

2007-01-01

320

NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

Skinner, Stephen L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Zhekov, Svetozar A. [Space and Solar-Terrestrial Research Institute, Moskovska str. 6, Sofia-1000 (Bulgaria); Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schmutz, Werner [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD), Dorfstrasse 33, CH-7260 Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Sokal, Kimberly R., E-mail: Stephen.Skinner@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

2012-05-15

321

Soft x-ray solar polarimeter-spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an innovative soft X-ray polarimeter and spectrometer SOLPEX, the instrument to be mounted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015/2016. The SOLPEX will be composed of three individual measuring units: the soft X-ray polarimeter with 1-2% linear polarization detection limit, a fast-rotating drum X-ray spectrometer with very high time resolution (0.1s) and a simple pin-hole soft X-ray imager-spectrometer with moderate spatial (~20arcsec), spectral (0.5 keV) and high time resolution (0.1s). This set of instruments will provide unique opportunity to complement the efforts to reliably measure the X-ray polarization and contribute towards understanding the physics of solar flares. The standard flare model states that electrons are being accelerated in specific regions of the corona at or near magnetic reconnection site and then propagate along reconnected magnetic field lines toward the atmospheric denser layers. There, they are decelerated and lose their energy mainly through the bremsstrahlung process. Deposited energy is readily converted to directed evaporation of the plasma to be detected through the Doppler-shifted emission lines in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges Due to highly anisotropic character of impulsive phase electron beams, resulting emission is expected to be polarized. Both these processes: bremsstrahlung emission of supposedly polarized X-ray flux and accompanying plasma evaporation velocities are to be simultaneously observed by the proposed SOLPEX instruments.

Ste?licki, Marek; Sylwester, Janusz; Siarkowski, Marek; Kowali?ski, Miros?aw; P?ocieniak, Stefan; B?ka?a, Jaros?aw; Szaforz, ?aneta; Kuzin, Sergey

2014-12-01

322

X-ray microtomography  

SciTech Connect

In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

Landis, Eric N., E-mail: landis@maine.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States); Keane, Denis T., E-mail: dtkeane@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); DND-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Bldg. 432/A002, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-12-15

323

An accurate X-ray spectrographic method for the analysis of a wide range of geological samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

For accurate X-ray spectrographic analysis of geological samples of widely varying composition, a fusion with lithium borate containing lanthanum oxide is used to make a suitable glass disc. Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe are determined on this disc, using similar discs made with pure chemicals for calibration. \\

K. Norrish; J. T. Hutton

1969-01-01

324

Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV range T. Missalla, I. Uschmann,a)  

E-print Network

agreement with theoretical data. The possibilities and aspects of laser pump x-ray probe experiments using produced plasma with a fast streak camera demonstrates that in selected cases the duration can be shorter measuring an ultrafast change of the Bragg reflection from a Langmuir­Blodgett film in a few hundreds

von der Linde, D.

325

X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-03-20

326

X-ray imaging and x-ray source development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a continuing effort to develop both x-ray sources and x-ray sources and x-ray microscopy. This effort includes the ongoing development of: (1) a wide range of x-ray lasers at the Nova Laser Facility, (2) a zone plate lens--multilayer mirror based x-ray microscope (3) three dimensional, high resolution x-ray microscopy (4) short wavelength, normal incidence multilayer x-ray mirrors, (5) compact, high average power lasers for producing x-ray lasers and laser plasma x-ray sources. We have constructed and operated an x-ray laser based transmission x-ray microscope. The advantage offered by the x-ray laser source is the extreme high brightness allows high resolution images to be made on a timescale faster than that for x-ray damage effects to appear. The microscope, consists of: the x-ray laser, a multilayer coated, near normal incidence spherical mirror used as a condenser, a silicon nitride specimen holder, an x-ray zone plate used as an objective lens, and a microchannel plate x-ray detector. The x-ray laser used is the Ni-like Ta x-ray laser operating with a wavelength of 4.48 nm, a pulselength of 200 spec, a divergence of 10 mrad, and an output energy of 10 microjoules.

Trebes, J.; Balhorn, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Anderson, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1993-12-01

327

Timing and spectral analysis of the unusual X-ray transient XTE J0421+560/CI Camelopardalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed X-ray study of the 2003 XMM-Newton observation of the high-mass X-ray binary XTE J0421+560/CI Camelopardalis. The continuum of the X-ray spectrum is well described by a flat power law (? = 1.0 ± 0.2) with a large intrinsic absorbing column (NH = (4.4 ± 0.5) × 1023 cm-2). We have decomposed the broad iron line into three separate components: Fe I-K?, Fe I-K? and Fe XXIV-XXVK?. It is unclear how both neutral and almost fully ionized iron can exist simultaneously; however, we suggest that this could be evidence that the compact object is embedded in the circumstellar material. This does not appear to be consistent with the X-ray flux and spectrum of the source, which has remained essentially unchanged since the initial outburst. The iron abundance implied by the ratio of the neutral Fe-K? and Fe-K? is compatible with solar. We search for lags in the neutral Fe-K? with respect to the continuum and find marginal evidence for a lag at ˜10 ks. We interpret this as the light crossing time of the torus which would suggest that the neutral iron is located at a radius of 10 au. This result depends on several assumptions including the distance to the system, the inclination, the mass of system and the orbital period, none of which are known with any great certainty. Better constraints on these system parameters and further observations of this system are required to confirm this result. We discuss the nature of this system in light of our results and place it in context with other binary B[e] stars.

Bartlett, E. S.; Clark, J. S.; Coe, M. J.; Garcia, M. R.; Uttley, P.

2013-02-01

328

Spectral features from X-ray illuminated accretion discs as diagnostics of the black hole angular momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed calculations of the relativistic effects on both the reflection continuum and the iron line from accretion discs around rotating black holes are performed using a method which takes into account the relativistic transfer of both illuminating and reprocessed photons. These may be used as a diagnostics of the black hole spin when data from high throughput X-ray missions, like Constellation-X, will be available. .

Martocchia, Andrea; Matt, Giorgia; Karas, Vladimir

2001-12-01

329

X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the old gamma-ray pulsar J1836+5925  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PSR J1836+5925 is a bright gamma-ray source with a long observational history in various energy bands. Its radio-quietness, and non-detection of X-ray pulsations in previous observations have hindered a detailed analysis of this source. At the characteristic age of 1.83 Myr, it is one of the oldest non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars known, making it a useful object for understanding evolution of high-energy emission from rotation powered pulsars. In our 80 ks XMM-Newton observation of this pulsar, we detected unambiguous 5.77 Hz pulsations, consistent with its known gamma-ray ephemeris and assessed a low X-ray pulsed fraction of ˜ 0.34. In the 0.15 - 10 keV phase-integrated spectrum, non-thermal emission with the photon index Gamma ? 1.8 ± 0.2 dominates above 0.7 keV, whereas at lower energies, the spectrum requires a dominant kT = 63 ± 5 eV blackbody or, alternatively, a 24 ± 3 eV neutron star atmosphere model. We will also present the phase-resolved analysis of the pulsar spectrum and phase-matched X-ray and gamma-ray pulse profiles. Finally, we will discuss the implications of our results for thermal and magnetospheric emission of rotation powered pulsars.

Arumugasamy, Prakash; Pavlov, George; Blake, Joseph

330

X-ray beamsplitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly

Natale M. Ceglio; Daniel S. Stearns; Andrew M. Hawryluk; Barbee Jr. Troy W

1989-01-01

331

TIMING AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF Be/X-RAY PULSAR EXO 2030+375 DURING A TYPE I OUTBURST  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a study of broadband timing and spectral properties of EXO 2030+375 using a Suzaku observation. Pulsations with a period of 41.41 s and strong energy-dependent pulse profiles were clearly detected up to 100 keV. Narrow dips are seen in the profiles up to {approx}70 keV. The presence of prominent dips at several phases in the profiles up to such high energy ranges was not seen before. At higher energies, these dips gradually disappeared and the profile appeared to be single-peaked. The 1.0-200.0 keV broadband spectrum is found to be well described by a partial covering high-energy cutoff power-law model. Several low-energy emission lines are also detected in the pulsar spectrum. We fitted the spectrum using neutral as well as partially ionized absorbers along with the above continuum model yielding similar parameter values. The partial covering with a partially ionized absorber resulted in a marginally better fit. The spectral fitting did not require any cyclotron feature in the best-fit model. To investigate the changes in spectral parameters at dips, we carried out pulse-phase-resolved spectroscopy. During the dips, the value of the additional column density was estimated to be high compared to other pulse phases. While using a partially ionized absorber, the value of the ionization parameter is also higher at the dips. This may be the reason for the presence of dips up to higher energies. No other spectral parameters show any systematic variation with pulse phases of the pulsar.

Naik, Sachindra; Jaisawal, Gaurava K. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)] [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Maitra, Chandreyee; Paul, Biswajit, E-mail: snaik@prl.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivnagar, C. V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560080 (India)] [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivnagar, C. V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560080 (India)

2013-02-20

332

X-Ray Properties of K-Selected Galaxies at 0.5 Less than z Less than 2.0: Investigating Trends with Stellar Mass, Redshift and Spectral Type  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine how the total X-ray luminosity correlates with stellar mass, stellar population, and redshift for a K-band limited sample of approximately 3500 galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0 from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey in the COSMOS field. The galaxy sample is divided into 32 different galaxy types, based on similarities between the spectral energy distributions. For each galaxy type, we further divide the sample into bins of redshift and stellar mass, and perform an X-ray stacking analysis using the Chandra COSMOS data. We find that full band X-ray luminosity is primarily increasing with stellar mass, and at similar mass and spectral type is higher at larger redshifts. When comparing at the same stellar mass, we find that the X-ray luminosity is slightly higher for younger galaxies (i.e., weaker 4000 angstrom breaks), but the scatter in this relation is large. We compare the observed X-ray luminosities to those expected from low- and high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). For blue galaxies, XRBs can almost fully account for the observed emission, while for older galaxies with larger 4000 angstrom breaks, active galactic nuclei (AGN) or hot gas dominate the measured X-ray flux. After correcting for XRBs, the X-ray luminosity is still slightly higher in younger galaxies, although this correlation is not significant. AGN appear to be a larger component of galaxy X-ray luminosity at earlier times, as the hardness ratio increases with redshift. Together with the slight increase in X-ray luminosity this may indicate more obscured AGNs or higher accretion rates at earlier times.

Jones, Therese M.; Kriek, Mariska; vanDokkum, Peter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Greene, Jenny E.; Labbe, Ivo; Whitaker, Katherine E.

2014-01-01

333

X-ray spectroscopy of five BL Lacertae objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five X-ray bright BL Lacertae objects were observed in the energy range 0.6-4.5 keV with the solid state spectrometer (SSS) of the Einstein Observatory. The 14 SSS spectra obtained represent most of the X-ray spectra of BL Lac objects with resolution better than approximately 3. These data do not reveal the presence of large amounts of thermal gas, with upper limits for the equivalent width of individual spectral features typically less that about 100 eV. However, the SSS spectra are the first set of X-ray data to indicate low-energy absorption in excess of that caused by the cold interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Comparison with contemporaneous, lower energy X-ray data implies that this absorption does not arise in cold neutral material, but in hotter, highly ionized material, probably intrinsic to the source. All five BL Lac objects have X-ray continua that are well fitted by power-law models, with power-law energy indices usually greater than about 1. In a few cases, a flattening at higher energies is observed; these and other data suggest that two-component X-ray spectra, steep at low energies and flat at high energies, are a common feature of BL Lac objects. Three of the five sources clearly vary between SSS observations, with time scales ranging from days to years. A historical synopsis of the X-ray spectral data confirms the tendency for BL Lacertae objects to be highly variable in the X-ray band but reveals no correlation between spectral and intensity changes.

Urry, C. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.

1986-01-01

334

Establishment of Age-Specified Bone Mineral Density Reference Range for Indian Females Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook this study to establish age-specified bone mineral density (BMD) reference range for Indian females using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD at multiple skeletal sites was measured in 2034 healthy women aged 18–85yr. The effect of anthropometry and biochemical parameters on BMD was determined. Peak BMD was observed between 30 and 35yr at the hip, lumbar spine, and radius. Significant

Raman K. Marwaha; Nikhil Tandon; Parjeet Kaur; Aparna Sastry; Kuntal Bhadra; Archna Narang; Saurav Arora; Kalaivani Mani

335

The Chandra X-ray Observatory: An Astronomical Facility Available to the World  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-ray observatory, one of NASA's "Great Observatories," provides high angular and spectral resolution X-ray data which is freely available to all. In this review I describe the instruments on chandra along with their current calibration, as well as the chandra proposal system, the freely-available Chandra analysis software package CIAO, and the Chandra archive. As Chandra is in its 6th year of operation, the archive already contains calibrated observations of a large range of X-ray sources. The Chandra X-ray Center is committed to assisting astronomers from any country who wish to use data from the archive or propose for observations

Smith, Randall K.

2006-01-01

336

X-ray luminescence based spectrometer for investigation of scintillation properties  

SciTech Connect

A new x-ray luminescence based spectrometer was developed and installed to examine the scintillation properties of materials while revealing the origins of luminescence and investigating trapping defects. Measurements were performed on a number of undoped and Ce doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystals and various luminescence centers were characterized. The measured x-ray luminescence spectra provide information about the spectral range and the scintillation efficiency and linearity. The efficiency of charge-carriers production due to x ray, their energy transfer to the luminescence centers, and the efficiency of luminescence are all reflected in the efficiency of x-ray luminescence.

Varney, C. R.; Khamehchi, M. A.; Ji, Jianfeng; Selim, F. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)

2012-10-15

337

Optical Spectral Properties of Swift Burst Alert Telescope Hard X-Ray-Selected Active Galactic Nuclei Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swift Burst Alert Telescope survey of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is providing an unprecedented view of local AGNs (langzrang ? 0.03) and their host galaxy properties. In this paper, we present an analysis of the optical spectra of a sample of 64 AGNs from the nine month survey, detected solely based on their 14-195 keV flux. Our analysis includes both archived spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and our own observations from the 2.1 m Kitt Peak National Observatory telescope. Among our results, we include line ratio classifications utilizing standard emission line diagnostic plots, [O III] 5007 Å luminosities, and H?-derived black hole masses. As in our X-ray study, we find the type 2 sources to be less luminous (in [O III] 5007 Å and 14-195 keV luminosities) with lower accretion rates than the type 1 sources. We find that the optically classified low-ionization narrow emission line regions, H II/composite galaxies, and ambiguous sources have the lowest luminosities, while both broad-line and narrow-line Seyferts have similar luminosities. From a comparison of the hard X-ray (14-195 keV) and [O III] luminosities, we find that both the observed and extinction-corrected [O III] luminosities are weakly correlated with X-ray luminosity. In a study of the host galaxy properties from both continuum fits and measurements of the stellar absorption indices, we find that the hosts of the narrow-line sources have properties consistent with late-type galaxies.

Winter, Lisa M.; Lewis, Karen T.; Koss, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Keeney, Brian; Mushotzky, Richard F.

2010-02-01

338

OPTICAL SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE HARD X-RAY-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

The Swift Burst Alert Telescope survey of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is providing an unprecedented view of local AGNs ((z) {approx} 0.03) and their host galaxy properties. In this paper, we present an analysis of the optical spectra of a sample of 64 AGNs from the nine month survey, detected solely based on their 14-195 keV flux. Our analysis includes both archived spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and our own observations from the 2.1 m Kitt Peak National Observatory telescope. Among our results, we include line ratio classifications utilizing standard emission line diagnostic plots, [O III] 5007 A luminosities, and Hbeta-derived black hole masses. As in our X-ray study, we find the type 2 sources to be less luminous (in [O III] 5007 A and 14-195 keV luminosities) with lower accretion rates than the type 1 sources. We find that the optically classified low-ionization narrow emission line regions, H II/composite galaxies, and ambiguous sources have the lowest luminosities, while both broad-line and narrow-line Seyferts have similar luminosities. From a comparison of the hard X-ray (14-195 keV) and [O III] luminosities, we find that both the observed and extinction-corrected [O III] luminosities are weakly correlated with X-ray luminosity. In a study of the host galaxy properties from both continuum fits and measurements of the stellar absorption indices, we find that the hosts of the narrow-line sources have properties consistent with late-type galaxies.

Winter, Lisa M.; Keeney, Brian [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lewis, Karen T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA (United States); Koss, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

2010-02-10

339

X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

1996-01-01

340

Very fast X-ray spectral variability in Cygnus X-1: origin of the hard- and soft-state emission components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The way in which the X-ray photon index, ?, varies as a function of count rate is a strong diagnostic of the emission processes and emission geometry around accreting compact objects. Here we present the results from a study using a new, and simple, method designed to improve sensitivity to the measurement of the variability of ? on very short time-scales. We have measured ? in ˜2 million spectra, extracted from observations with a variety of different accretion rates and spectral states, on time-scales as short as 16 ms for the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (and in a smaller number of spectra for the low-mass X-ray binary GX 339-4), and have cross-correlated these measurements with the source count rate. In the soft-state cross-correlation functions (CCFs), we find a positive peak at zero lag, stronger and narrower in the softer observations. Assuming that the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of soft seed photons by high-energy electrons in a corona, these results are consistent with Compton cooling of the corona by seed photons from the inner edge of the accretion disc, the truncation radius of which increases with increasing hardness ratio. The CCFs produced from the hard-state observations, however, show an anti-correlation which is most easily explained by variation in the energy of the electrons in the corona rather than in variation of the seed photon flux. The hard-state CCFs can be decomposed into a narrow anti-correlation at zero lag, which we tentatively associate with the effects of self-Comptonization of cyclo-synchrotron seed photons in either a hot, optically thin accretion flow or the base of the jet, and a second, asymmetric component which we suggest is produced as a consequence of a lag between the soft and hard X-ray emission. The lag may be caused by a radial temperature/energy gradient in the Comptonizing electrons combined with the inward propagation of accretion rate perturbations.

Skipper, Chris J.; McHardy, Ian M.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

2013-09-01

341

Soft x-ray interferometry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

Not Available

1993-09-01

342

Z-dependence and collective analysis of M x-ray production cross sections for a wide range of elements (60?Z?90) by proton impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the remarkable spread of the ratios of the experimental to theoretical M-shell x-ray production cross section, where they are usually analyzed by a function depending only on the scaled velocity parameter, we attempt to deduce new semi-empirical cross sections by introducing the dependence of these ratios on the atomic number of the target, noted as "Z-dependence". For this effect, the ECPSSR model and the updated experimental data (from 1980 till 2009) of the M-shell x-ray production cross sections are combined to calculate the semi-empirical cross sections for a wide range of heavy elements (60?Z?90) by proton impact. A brief discussion of the agreement between our results and earlier theoretical as well as experimental works has been demonstrated.

Deghfel, B.; Kahoul, A.; Kerai, S.; Saadaoui, M.; Dechoucha, S.; Nekkab, M.

2013-11-01

343

THE 2006-2007 ACTIVE PHASE OF ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSAR 4U 0142+61: RADIATIVE AND TIMING CHANGES, BURSTS, AND BURST SPECTRAL FEATURES  

SciTech Connect

After at least six years of quiescence, anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 yr of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from (0.4-1.8) x 10{sup 3} s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT {approx} 2-9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase, the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -7} Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17 {+-} 2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

Gavriil, Fotis P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2011-08-01

344

The 2006-2007 Active Phase of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts,and Burst Spectral Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in > 11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 0.4 - 1.8 x 10(exp 3) s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx 2 - 9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4) x 10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate. slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

Gavriil, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

2011-01-01

345

Interpretation of the X-ray spectral variation of 1H 0707-495 with a variable double partial covering model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495 is known to exhibit significant X-ray spectral variations. Its X-ray energy spectrum is characterized by a strong soft excess emission, an extremely deep iron K-edge structure at ˜ 7 keV, and a putative iron L-line/edge feature at ˜ 1 keV. We have found that the energy spectrum of 1H 0707-495 in 0.5-10 keV is successfully explained by a "variable double partial covering model" where the original continuum spectrum, which is composed of a soft multi-color disk blackbody component and a hard power-law component, is partially covered by two ionized absorption layers with different ionization states and the same partial covering fraction. The lower-ionized and thicker absorption layer primarily explains the iron K-edge feature, and the higher-ionized and thinner absorption layer explains the L-edge feature. We have discovered that the observed significant intensity/spectral variation within ˜ 1 d is mostly explained by varying only the partial covering fraction. In our model, the intrinsic luminosity and spectral shape are hardly variable within ˜ 1 d, while some intrinsic variability above 3 keV is recognized. This is consistent with the picture that the multi-color disk blackbody spectrum is almost invariable on this timescale, and the hard power-law component is more variable. We propose that the observed spectral variation of 1H 0707-495 is caused by three physically independent variations with different timescales; (1) intrinsic luminosity variation over days, (2) variation of partial covering fraction on a timescale of hours, and (3) small intrinsic hard component variation above 3 keV on a timescale of hours or less.

Mizumoto, Misaki; Ebisawa, Ken; Sameshima, Hiroaki

2014-12-01

346

Cosmic x ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1991-01-01

347

The colours of the X-ray background  

E-print Network

The recent deep X-ray surveys at both soft (0.5--2 keV) and hard (2--10 keV) energies have greatly extended our knowledge of the X-ray source density and spectral shapes at relatively faint fluxes adding further evidence on the fact that discrete sources, mainly AGNs, are responsible for the X-ray background (XRB) emission over a broad energy range. In addition the first complete optically identified samples of soft X-ray sources are becoming available allowing to test the XRB AGN synthesis models in the light of recent results. In this paper I will briefly compare the model predictions with some new observational data.

A. Comastri

1998-09-07

348

Laser-produced plasma x-ray diagnostics with an x-ray streak camera at the Iskra-4 plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X.raj streak camera with an Xray streak tube used for laser-produced plasma soft Xrays measurement is described, and experimental results are given. In investigating short-Jived high temperature plasma, and inertial control of thermonuclear fusion in particular, measurement techniques based on registration of X-.rays emitted by the investigated object are of great value. They make it possible to get much information on the dynamics of plasma evolution, its form, dimensions, temperature, and density. The instrumentation used for these purposes must meet the following main requirements: it must provide measuring X-.rays time, intensity and spatial coordinate; its spectral range must be wide, from relatively hard to extremely soft X-rays (tens of keV to tens of eV quantum energy); its tiive resolution must be high (of the order of 10 s). At present the only type of an instrument satisfying the above requirements is a streak camera with an X-ray' streak tube (X'RST). The XRST operation principle has been known long ago: the photocathode converts the incident X-rays into an electron beam, which is accelerated and focused by the electric fields onto the output phosphor screen, where a visible image of the incident radiation cross-.section appears. The image travels very rapidly over the screen, resulting in a time sweep. The design and development of such kind of instrumentation was begun in our country more than 10 years ago. In 1986 the All-Union Research Institute of experimental Physics, in collaboration with the Research Institute of Pulse Technique, designed and built first instruments with satisfactory parameters. These instruments found use in laser thermonuclear fusion research. Mainly two types of X-.ray streak tubes are used for X-.ray spatial-temporal structure registration: special type X-ray streak tubes with X-ray sensitive photocathodes and transparent for X-ray input windows, and X-ray streak tubes with X-ray sensitive photocathodes and without an input win dow; these tubes are joined to a continuously pumped-out vacuum plant with an X-ray source inside it. The quantum energy lower limit of the registered X-rays depends on the input window thickness and. material, which determine its transparency for the radiation being investigated.

Berkovski, Arkadi G.; Gubanov, Yuri I.; Pryanishnikov, Ivan G.; Murugov, Vasili M.; Petrov, Sergej I.; Senik, Alexei V.

1991-04-01

349

A solar spectral line list between 10 and 200 A modified for application to high spectral resolution X-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectral line list for the 10-200 A range is developed from existing solar spectra for application to high spectral resolution measurements of astrophysical plasmas. The solar spectral line lists are merged into a single comprehensive list. The effect of the solar emission measure distribution is removed from the line intensities, which results in a set of emission rates for the lines that can be applied to many optically thin, low density high temperature plasmas in ionization equilibrium. In addition to the measured solar lines, 250 theoretical lines are added to this list. These lines fall in wavelength regions where the existing solar lists have few lines because of limitations in instrumental sensitivity. Also, some lines have been added because the sun has very little plasma at temperatures of about one million K, and consequently these lines are weak or absent in solar spectra. The entire list contains about 600 lines. Finally, predicted spectra of the two RS CVn stars, alpha Aur (Capella) and UX Ari, are presented at 1 and 0.25 A spectral resolution. Also, the solar spectrum is shown at 1 A resolution, and the emission rate spectrum (spectrum not modified by an emission measure distribution) is shown at very high spectral resolution. The predicted spectra for Capella and UX Ari are based on results obtained from the Einstein and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft.

Doschek, G. A.; Cowan, R. D.

1984-01-01

350

X-Ray Flares from Markarian 501  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the recent discovery of a hierarchical X-ray flaring phenomenon in Mrk 421, we conducted a systematic search for X-ray flares from Mrk 501, another well-known TeV blazar, by making use of the rich RXTE archival database. We detected flares over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes, as in the case of Mrk 421. However, the flares do not seem to occur nearly as frequently in Mrk 501 as in Mrk 421 on any of the timescales. The flaring hierarchy also seems apparent in Mrk 501, suggesting that it might be common among TeV blazars. The results seem to imply a scale-invariant physical origin of the flares (large or small). The X-ray spectrum of the source shows a general trend of hardening toward the peak of long-duration flares, with indication of spectral hysteresis, which is often seen in TeV blazars. However, the data are not of sufficient quality to allow us to draw definitive conclusions about spectral variability associated with more rapid but weaker flares. We critically examine a reported subhour X-ray flare from Mrk 501, in light of intense background-flaring activity at the time of the observation, and concluded that the flare is likely an artifact. On the other hand, we did identify a rapid X-ray flare that appears to be real. It lasted only for about 15 minutes, during which the flux of the source varied by about 30%. Substructures are apparent in its profile, implying variabilities on even shorter timescales. Such rapid variabilities of Mrk 501 place severe constraints on the physical properties of the flaring region in the jet, and the constraints have serious implications for the emission models proposed for TeV blazars.

Xue, Yongquan; Cui, Wei

2005-03-01

351

The feasibility of independent observations/detections of GRBs in X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the observational statistics a large majority of all GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. The wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs and related objects.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.; Skulinova, M.

2011-08-01

352

The feasibility of independent observations/detections of GRBs in X-rays  

SciTech Connect

According to the observational statistics a large majority of all GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. The wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs and related objects.

Hudec, R.; Skulinova, M. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L.; Sveda, L. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Semencova, V.; Inneman, A. [Rigaku Innovative Techniologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic)

2009-05-25

353

The feasibility of independent observations/detections of GRBs in X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the observational statistics a large majority of all GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. The wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs and related objects.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.; Semencova, V.; Inneman, A.; Skulinova, M.

2009-05-01

354

X-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

Wu, S. T.

2000-01-01

355

The discrete X-ray source population of M51  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on the discrete X-ray source population of the nearby interacting galaxy system M51 from new and archival observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory with total exposure time of nearly 1 Ms. This dataset allows us to study the spectral and temporal variability of the X-ray source popultion on timescales ranging from tens of seconds to years. In addition to the X-ray data, we utilize deep observations from the Hubble Space Telescope legacy archive to examine unique source counterparts and optical environments of X-ray sources. We also present, for the first time for any galaxy in the Chandra era, an image reconstruction in which the point sources are treated as true point sources, removing the smoothing artifacts that cause off-axis sources to appear blurred and elongated with greatly exaggerated flux. For this analysis, we have developed a code to model the 2D point spread function for each source in each observation, then synthesize an on-axis point source with the correct spectral properties. The synthesized point sources are then re-added to an image of the diffuse emission. The 2D PSF modeling also provides extremely accurate regions for source extraction, allowing us to recover the true flux and X-ray colors for faint, off-axis sources.

Kilgard, Roy E.; Dorn-Wallenstein, Trevor; Kuntz, K. D.

2014-08-01

356

Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

1987-01-01

357

X-ray Power Spectral Densities of Mkn 79 and NGC 4593 using Markov Chain Monte Carlo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong and highly variable X-ray emission is one of the defining characteristics of active galaxies. The power spectrum of the light curve typically takes the form of a broken power law, with the break frequency closely related to the black hole mass and accretion rate. Previous efforts to measure the break frequency involved Monte Carlo simulations which are often computationally intensive, and do not provide a clear estimate of errors for parameters. Here we apply Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate the power spectra of 2 objects, Mkn 79 and NGC 4593. Break frequencies are clearly detected in each object. For NGC 4593 the detected break frequency is close to the expected value. However for Mkn 79, the measured break timescale is significantly shorter than expectations. This may be due to variability arising in a truncated accretion disk. We also discuss in detail the method used to calculate each power spectrum, along with interpretation of the results and their uncertainties.

Marshall, Kevin

2015-01-01

358

Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

Ne?emer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Raj?evi?, Marija; Ja?imovi?, Radojko; Budi?, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

2003-07-01

359

Focusing x-ray monochromator for EXAFS studies in the energy range 4-30 keV  

SciTech Connect

The design and operating principles of a focusing x-ray monochromator are described. Consistent with extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) applications it allows rapid tuning while maintaining high energy resolution and a fixed focus at the sample. The basic instrument consists of two opposing two crystal monochromators with the second and third crystals operating as a dispersive monochromator. This provides the intrinsic resolution of the crystals independent of silt settings or source size effects. Focusing is achieved by a sagittally bent fourth crystal. To maintain a fixed focus two options are available. In the first, the second crystal pair is translated while the radius of the fourth crystal is held fixed. Thus, the focus remains at the sample even though the angle of incidence on the bent crystal is changing. In the second option the radius of the bent crystal is changed dynamically as the scan is carried out. These techniques are compared and a crystal bender designed for rapid tuning is described.

Heald, S.M.

1983-01-01

360

INTEGRAL observations of the cosmic X-ray background in the 5-100 keV range via occultation by the Earth  

E-print Network

We study the spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in energy range $\\sim$5-100 keV. Early in 2006 the INTEGRAL observatory performed a series of four 30ksec observations with the Earth disk crossing the field of view of the instruments. The modulation of the aperture flux due to occultation of extragalactic objects by the Earth disk was used to obtain the spectrum of the Cosmic X-ray Background(CXB). Various sources of contamination were evaluated, including compact sources, Galactic Ridge emission, CXB reflection by the Earth atmosphere, cosmic ray induced emission by the Earth atmosphere and the Earth auroral emission. The spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in the energy band 5-100 keV is obtained. The shape of the spectrum is consistent with that obtained previously by the HEAO-1 observatory, while the normalization is $\\sim$10% higher. This difference in normalization can (at least partly) be traced to the different assumptions on the absolute flux from the Crab Nebulae. The increase relative to the earlier adopted value of the absolute flux of the CXB near the energy of maximum luminosity (20-50 keV) has direct implications for the energy release of supermassive black holes in the Universe and their growth at the epoch of the CXB origin.

E. Churazov; R. Sunyaev; M. Revnivtsev; S. Sazonov; S. Molkov; S. Grebenev; C. Winkler; A. Parmar; A. Bazzano; M. Falanga; A. Gros; F. Lebrun; L. Natalucci; P. Ubertini; J. -P. Roques; L. Bouchet; E. Jourdain; J. Knoedlseder; R. Diehl; C. Budtz-Jorgensen; S. Brandt; N. Lund; N. J. Westergaard; A. Neronov; M. Turler; M. Chernyakova; R. Walter; N. Produit; N. Mowlavi; J. M. Mas-Hesse; A. Domingo; N. Gehrels; E. Kuulkers; P. Kretschmar; M. Schmidt

2007-02-12

361

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60 keV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to

Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings

2007-01-01

362

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60keV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and

Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings

2007-01-01

363

Modeling the Radio to X-ray SED of Galaxies  

E-print Network

Our multi-wavelength model GRASIL for the SED of galaxies is described, in particular the recent extension to the radio and X-ray range. With our model we can study different aspects of galaxy evolution by exploiting all available spectral observations, where different emission components dominate.

L. Silva; G. L. Granato; A. Bressan; P. Panuzzo

2002-08-17

364

X ray imaging microscope for cancer research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

1991-01-01

365

X-Ray Imaging  

Cancer.gov

X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of different tissues. Calcium in bones absorbs X-rays the most, so bones look white on a film recording of the X-ray image,

366

X-Ray Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the weak interaction of hard x-rays with matter it is generally difficult to manipulate x-rays by optical components. As a result, there have been many complementary approaches to making x-ray optics, exploiting refraction, reflection, and diffraction of x-rays by matter. In this chapter, we describe the physics that underly x-ray optics and explain the working principles and performances of a variety of x-ray optics, including refractive x-ray lenses, reflective optics, such as mirrors and waveguides, and diffractive optics,such as multilayer and crystal optics and Fresnel zone plates.

Schroer, Christian G.; Lengeler, Bruno

367

The ASTRO-H Mission: Unprecedented Spectral Coverage in the X-ray and Soft Gamma-Ray Bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following in the footsteps of the ASCA and Suzaku satellites, the joint Japan-US-European ``ASTRO-H" space mission is considerably more ambitious and represents a major step forward in our ability to study the high-energy universe. Construction of the satellite is well underway, with an anticipated launch date in late 2015. The unprecedented suite of instruments on Astro-H enables simultaneous observations covering 0.1 to 600 keV, including: calorimeter (~5 eV) energy resolution in the 6-7 keV iron line band, good angular resolution and sensitivity, comparable to NuSTAR, at higher energies due to hard X-ray focusing optics, and significant polarization sensitivity above ~50 keV provided by Compton camera electronics. Here we present examples of the spectra expected in a typical 100 kilosecond observation for several classes of sources, focusing on how the combination of Astro-H's instruments enables us to finally break several of the degeneracies that currently hamper modeling efforts for these sources.

Coppi, Paolo S.; Stawarz, L.; Astro-H Collaboration

2015-01-01

368

Timing and Spectral Properties of X-ray Emission from the Converging Flows onto Black hole: Monte-Carlo Simulations  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that a X-ray spectrum of a converging inflow (CI) onto a black hole is the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the Comptonization spread (Green's) function. The latter component is seen as an extended power law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We show that the high energy photon production (source function) in the CI atmosphere is distributed with the characteristic maximum at about the photon bending radius, 1.5r_S, independently of the seed (soft) photon distribution. We show that high frequency oscillations of the soft photon source in this region lead to the oscillations of the high energy part of the spectrum but not of the thermal component. The high frequency oscillations of the inner region are not significant in the thermal component of the spectrum. We further demonstrate that Doppler and recoil effects (which are responsible for the formation of the CI spectrum) are related to the hard (positive) and soft (negative) time lags between the soft and hard photon energy channels respectively.

Philippe Laurent; Lev Titarchuk

2001-10-11

369

The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey (HELLAS) - II. Number counts and X-ray spectral properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey (HELLAS) has surveyed about 85deg2 of sky in the 5-10keV band down to a flux of 4-5×10-14ergcm-2s-1. The source surface density of 16.9+/-6.4deg-2 at the survey limit corresponds to a resolved fraction of the 5-10keV X-ray background (XRB) of the order of 20-30 per cent. Hardness ratio analysis indicates that the spectra of a substantial fraction of the HELLAS sources (at least one-third) are harder than a ?E=0.6 power law. This hardness may be caused by large absorbing columns. The hardness ratio analysis also indicates that many HELLAS sources may have a spectrum more complex than a single absorbed power law. A soft component, superimposed on a strongly cut-off power law, is likely to be present in several sources.

Fiore, F.; Giommi, P.; Vignali, C.; Comastri, A.; Matt, G.; Perola, G. C.; La Franca, F.; Molendi, S.; Tamburelli, F.; Antonelli, L. A.

2001-11-01

370

Stimulated Electronic X-Ray Raman Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate strong stimulated inelastic x-ray scattering by resonantly exciting a dense gas target of neon with femtosecond, high-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). A small number of lower energy XFEL seed photons drive an avalanche of stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering processes that amplify the Raman scattering signal by several orders of magnitude until it reaches saturation. Despite the large overall spectral width, the internal spiky structure of the XFEL spectrum determines the energy resolution of the scattering process in a statistical sense. This is demonstrated by observing a stochastic line shift of the inelastically scattered x-ray radiation. In conjunction with statistical methods, XFELs can be used for stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, with spectral resolution smaller than the natural width of the core-excited, intermediate state.

Weninger, Clemens; Purvis, Michael; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A.; Bozek, John D.; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Brown, Gregory; Rocca, Jorge J.; Rohringer, Nina

2013-12-01

371

Theoretical interpretation for 2p - nd absorption spectra of iron, nickel, and copper in X-ray range measured at the LULI2000 facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2p - nd absorption structures in medium Z elements present a valuable benchmark for atomic models since they exhibit a complex dependence on temperature and density. For these transitions lying in the X-ray range, one observes a competition between the spin-orbit splitting and the broadening associated to the excitation of complex structures. Detailed opacity codes based on the HULLAC or FAC suites agree with the statistical code SCO; but in iron computations predict higher peak absorption than measured. An addition procedure on opacities calculated with detailed codes is proposed and successfully tested.

Poirier, M.; Arnault, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; de Gaufridy de Dortan, F.; Gilleron, F.; Loisel, G.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Thais, F.; Turck-Chièze, S.

2013-11-01

372

The Current Performance of the Wide Range (90-2500 eV) Soft X-ray Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron  

SciTech Connect

The Soft X-ray beamline at the Australian synchrotron has been constructed around a collimated light Plane Grating Monochromator taking light from an Elliptically Polarized Undulator (EPU). The beamline covers a wide photon energy range between 90 to 2500 eV, using two gratings of 250 l/mm and 1200 l/mm. At present the output from the monochromator is directed into one branchline with a dedicated UHV endstation. The measured performance of the beamline in flux and resolution is shown to be very close to that of theoretical calculations.

Cowie, B. C. C.; Tadich, A.; Thomsen, L. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

2010-06-23

373

X-ray spectra of galactic X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectroscopic properties of the various classes of Galactic X-ray sources are discussed, with particular emphasis on binary sources containing an accreting compact object, where post-emission scattering in an accretion disk often prevents the initially produced X-radiation from being observed directly. Theoretical interpretations and X-ray observations are considered for the cataclysmic variables, binary systems with a white dwarf as the compact object and which suffer relatively less from Thomson scattering, and the similar phenomenological spectral characteristics of the bulge sources, including soft transients, bursters and steady X-ray sources with thermal spectra, thought to represent an accreting neutron star, are pointed out. The spectral characteristics of X-ray pulsars in accreting binary systems (rather than the Crab pulsar, which is losing rotational kinetic energy with time) are then presented and interpreted in terms of accretion in the polar regions, and mechanisms for the newly discovered X-ray emission from late-type RS CVn stars are considered.

Holt, S. S.

1980-01-01

374

X ray spectra of cataclysmic variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X ray spectral parameters of cataclysmic variables observed with the 'Einstein' imaging proportional counter were determined by fitting an optically thin, thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum to the raw data. Most of the sources show temperatures of order a few keV, while a few sources exhibit harder spectra with temperatures in excess of 10 keV. Estimated 0.1 to 3.5 keV luminosities are generally in the range from 10(exp 30) to 10(exp 32) erg/sec. The results are consistent with the x rays originating in a disk/white dwarf boundary layer of non-magnetic systems, or in a hot, post-shock region in the accretion column of DQ Her stars, with a negligible contribution from the corona of the companion. In a few objects column densities were found that are unusually high for interstellar material. It was suggested that the absorption occurs in the system itself.

Patterson, Joseph; Halpern, Jules

1990-01-01

375

Identity of nuclear X-ray sources in nearby galaxies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proposal has two distinct parts which are scientifically the same; the goal is to identify nuclear X-ray sources in what were thought to be normal galaxies. 1. An approved XMM-Newton AO9 program. We initiated a Chandra program to search for low-level nuclear activity in a representative sample of late-type galaxies within 20 Mpc. This was a highly successful program; out of 56 galaxies surveyed, we found 17 nuclear X-ray sources which are highly likely to be AGNs. We proposed XMM-Newton observations of two late-type galaxies, Scd and Sd, in both of which a nuclear X-ray source was detected with Chandra. X-ray spectra, lightcurves, and optical--X-ray spectral energy distributions obtained with XMM will secure the identification of X-ray sources as either AGNs, low-mass X-ray binaries or star clusters. Discovering secure AGNs in these bulge-less galaxies will be exciting as it will imply that bulges are not necessary for existence of black holes. This will have important consequences towards understanding the formation and co-evolution of black holes and galaxies. The two proposed targets were accepted for observations with priorities B (62 ks) and C (73 ks). With this proposal, we request support for this approved XMM-Newton AO9 program (PI: Mathur). 2. An archival XMM-Newton program. From the Chandra survey mentioned above, we found that nuclear X-ray sources are present in what were thought to be normal galaxies. Moreover, they span the entire range of Hubble types, and in each Hubble type, there is a wide range of luminosity. Thus the important unsolved problem is what triggers nuclear activity in a galaxy and what determines the accretion rate. In order to answer this fundamental question, we have selected a well defined sample of nearby galaxies for which multiwavelength data already exist, from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS). We propose to perform spectral and timing analysis and obtain optical--X-ray spectral energy distributions of nuclear X-ray sources in SINGS galaxies with XMM and we request funding for the same. Similar to the new XMM observations mentioned above, the goal is to identify these sources as AGNs, binaries or star-clusters. This proposal is to analyze XMM-Newton data, so is directly relevant to this ADAP solicitation.

Mathur, Smita

376

X-ray variability in a complete sample of Soft X-ray selected AGN  

E-print Network

We present ROSAT All-Sky Survey and ROSAT pointed observations (PSPC and HRI) of a complete sample of 113 bright soft X-ray AGN selected from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalog. We compare these observations in order to search for extreme cases of flux and spectral X-ray variability - X-ray transient AGN. Three definite transients and one transient candidate are found. The other sources show amplitude variations typically by factors of 2-3 on timescales of years. We found that the variability strength on timescales of days is a function of the steepness of the X-ray spectrum: steeper X-ray objects show stronger variability than flat X-ray spectrum sources. We also present new HRI measurements of our extreme X-ray transients IC 3599 and WPVS007. We discuss possible models to explain the X-ray transience and the variabilities observed in the non-transient sources.

D. Grupe; H. -C. Thomas; K. Beuermann

2000-12-05

377

Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15?m, high resistivity custom (~30k?-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16?m pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40?V/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9?m epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16?m pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and spectrally resolved without saturation. We present details of our camera design and device performance with particular emphasis on those aspects of interest to single photon counting x-ray astronomy. These features include read noise, x-ray spectral response and quantum efficiency. Funding for this work has been provided in large part by NASA Grant NNX09AE86G and a grant from the Betty and Gordon Moore Foundation.

Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

2014-07-01

378

Long-range structure of Cu(InxGa1-x)3Se5: A complementary neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinguishing the scattering contributions of isoelectronic atomic species by means of conventional x-ray- and/or electron diffraction techniques is a difficult task. Such a problem occurs when determining the crystal structure of compounds containing different types of atoms with equal number of electrons. We propose a new structural model of Cu(InxGa1-x)3Se5 which is valid for the entire compositional range of the CuIn3Se5-CuGa3Se5 solid solution. Our model is based on neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction experiments. These complementary techniques allow the separation of scattering contributions of the isoelectronic species Cu+ and Ga3+, contributing nearly identically in monoenergetic x-ray diffraction experiments. We have found that CuIII3Se5 (III=In,Ga) in its room temperature near-equilibrium modification exhibits a modified stannite structure (space group I4¯2m). Different occupation factors of the species involved, Cu+, In3+, Ga3+, and vacancies have been found at three different cationic positions of the structure (Wyckoff sites 2a, 2b, and 4d) depending on the composition of the compound. Significantly, Cu+ does not occupy the 2b site for the In-free compound, but does for the In-containing case. Structural parameters, including lattice constants, tetragonal distortions, and occupation factors are given for samples covering the entire range of the CuIn3Se5-CuGa3Se5 solid solution. At the light of the result, the denotation of Cu-poor 1:3:5 compounds as chalcopyrite-related materials is only valid in reference to their composition.

Lehmann, S.; Marrón, D. fürtes; León, M.; Feyerherm, R.; Dudzik, E.; Friedrich, E. J.; Tovar, M.; Tomm, Y.; Wolf, C.; Schorr, S.; Schedel-Niedrig, Th.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.; Merino, J. M.

2011-01-01

379

Investigation of the polynomial approach for material decomposition in spectral X-ray tomography using an energy-resolved detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the domain of energy-resolved semiconductor detectors stimulate research in X-ray computed tomography (CT). However, the imperfections of these detectors induce errors that should be considered for further applications. Charge sharing and pile-up effects due to high photon fluxes can degrade image quality or yield wrong material identification. Basis component decomposition provides separate images of principal components, based on the energy related information acquired in each energy bin. The object is typically either decomposed in photoelectric and Compton physical effects or in basis materials functions. This work presents a simulation study taking into account the properties of an energy-resolved CdTe detector with flexible energy thresholds in the context of materials decomposition CT. We consider the effects of a first order pile-up model with triangular pulses of a non-paralyzable detector and a realistic response matrix. We address the problem of quantifying mineral content in bone based on a polynomial approach for material decomposition in the case of two and three energy bins. The basis component line integrals are parameterized directly in the projection domain and a conventional filtered back-projection reconstruction is performed to obtain the material component images. We use figures of merit such as noise and bias to select the optimal thresholds and quantify the mineral content in bone. The results obtained with an energy resolved detector for two and three energy bins are compared with the ones obtained for the dual-kVp technique using an integrating-mode detector with filters and voltages optimized for bone densitometry.

Potop, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Rinkel, J.; Brambilla, A.; Peyrin, F.; Verger, L.

2014-03-01

380

Nanoscale X-ray imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen significant progress in the field of soft- and hard-X-ray microscopy, both technically, through developments in source, optics and imaging methodologies, and also scientifically, through a wide range of applications. While an ever-growing community is pursuing the extensive applications of today's available X-ray tools, other groups are investigating improvements in techniques, including new optics, higher spatial resolutions,

Anne Sakdinawat; David Attwood

2010-01-01

381

X-ray astronomical spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the X-ray spectroscopy of celestial X-ray sources, ranging from nearby stars to distant quasars, is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of such spectroscopy as a useful and unique tool in the elucidation of the physical parameters of the sources. The spectroscopic analysis of degenerate and nondegenerate stellar systems, galactic clusters and active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants is discussed.

Holt, S. S.

1980-01-01

382

High Resolution X-Ray Measurement on MST  

Microsoft Academic Search

A custom-built x-ray detector, with a 20 nanosecond shaping time, will provide a spectral measurement of photons in the 2 to 10 keV energy range. Output pulses from a shaping amplifier are directly digitized at 500 MHz to maximize spectral resolution. Each pulse can be fit to a Gaussian, and noise pulses are easily discriminated. This method is highly advantageous

M. W. Brookman; A. F. Almagri; D. J. Clayton; J. D. Lee; J. S. Sarff; Y. Diawara

2010-01-01

383

Solar EUV, XUV and soft X-ray telescope facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Facility class, high resolution instrumentation can enable maximum spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions and provide understanding of the complex physical conditions in the outer solar atmosphere and the mechanisms responsible for these conditions. The scientific rationale for facility class instruments operating in the EUV, XUV, and soft X ray spectral ranges are discussed. Possible configurations for these facilities and priorities for their development are considered.

Withbroe, G. L.

1982-01-01

384

The Focusing Optics Solar X-ray Imager (FOXSI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager is a sounding rocket payload funded under the NASA Low Cost Access to Space program to test hard x-ray focusing optics and position-sensitive solid state detectors for solar observations. Today's leading solar hard x-ray instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager provides excellent spatial (2 arcsecon