Sample records for x-ray spectral range

  1. The PTB high-accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the VUV and x-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, A.; Kroth, U.; Krumrey, M.; Richter, M.; Scholze, F.; Ulm, G.

    2006-04-01

    At the electron storage ring BESSY II, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt operates ten experimental stations at six synchrotron radiation beamlines for photon metrology in the spectral range from ultraviolet radiation to x-rays. Five of these beamlines are used to realize and disseminate a scale of spectral responsivity for photodetectors. Detector calibration is based on the use of cryogenic radiometers as primary detector standards. The current status of instrumentation and measurement capabilities is described. Best measurement capabilities (k = 2) for the calibration of photodiodes vary between 0.4% and 2.3%.

  2. Response of diamond photoconductors to soft x-ray in the spectral range 125 {angstrom} to 240 {angstrom}

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Wagner, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gullikson, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Due to the large bandgap of diamond, it is transparent to the visible spectrum, making it an attractive material for soft x-ray detection. Response of diamond photoconductors fabricated using Polycrystalline chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond to soft x-rays has been measured using x-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma source in the spectral range 125 {Angstrom} to 240 {Angstrom}. These photoconductors have interdigitated electrode structure in order to increase the active area as well as detector sensitivity. Contributions to the detector sensitivity by the photoelectrons is discussed.

  3. An in-vacuum wiggler for SOLEIL Hard X-rays spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Marcouille, O.; Chapuis, L.; Brunelle, P.; Berteaud, P.; Couprie, M.-E.; Filhol, J.-M.; Herbeaux, C.; Marlats, J.-L.; Massal, M.; Mary, A.; Tavakoli, K.; Valleau, M.; Veteran, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Bat. A, Saint-Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette- 9119 (France)

    2010-06-23

    The production of Hard X-rays has become a tricky problem on medium energy storage rings. It requires Insertion Devices (IDs) with high magnetic field and a large number of periods. To cover the 20-50 keV photon energy range at SOLEIL (2.75 GeV), an in-vacuum wiggler (WSV50) has been preferred to a superconducting ID. The wiggler is composed of 38 periods of 50 mm producing a 2.1 T field at a minimum magnetic gap of 5.5 mm. To minimize the magnetic forces acting between magnet arrays (8.5 tons), a compensation system composed of non magnetic springs has been mounted apart from the magnet system to reduce the mechanical deformations. The wiggler has been assembled step by step by means of a genetic algorithm which minimizes the magnetic errors measured with a flipping coil. This paper presents the mechanical and magnetic design of the wiggler as well as the construction and the magnetic measurements.

  4. Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Fridriksson, Joel Karl

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

  5. Detector calibration at the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in the VUV and soft x-ray spectral ranges using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, Thomas; Rabus, Hans; Scholze, Frank; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, Gerhard

    1995-06-01

    In the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral ranges the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY offers two different methods for the calibration of radiation detectors. The electron storage ring BESSY, in combination with suitable monochromators, reproducible produces monochromatic radiation of tunable photon energy, high spectral purity, and high radiant power which can be reduced by twelve orders of magnitude. With this source of monochromatic radiation a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer (ESR) is operated as a primary detector standard in the photon energy range from 3 eV to 1500 eV. The ESR is optimized for synchrotron radiation, capable of measuring radiant power in the order of some (mu) W with an uncertainty below 0.2%. Radiation detectors can be calibrated against the ESR with uncertainties well below 1%. Recent progress in this field will be demonstrated for the calibration of photodiodes. The electron storage ring BESSY is also used as a primary source standard, in the photon energy range from the infrared to the soft x-ray range. The spectral and spatial distribution of the broadband radiation, emitted in the range from 1 eV to 15 keV, is calculable from the known storage ring parameters with uncertainties from 0.04% to 0.35%, respectively. This allows the detection efficiency of energy-dispersive detectors such as solid-state detectors, charge- coupled devices, and others to be determined, provided the detector response function to monochromatic radiation is measured as well.

  6. Soft X-ray spectral observations of quasars and high X-ray luminosity Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Krolik, J. H.; Holt, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of the analysis of 28 Einstein SSS observations of 15 high X-ray luminosity (L(x) 10 to the 435 power erg/s) quasars and Seyfert type 1 nuclei are presented. The 0.75-4.5 keV spectra are in general well fit by a simple model consisting of a power law plus absorption by cold gas. The averager spectral index alpha is 0.66 + or - .36, consistent with alpha for the spectrum of these objects above 2 keV. In all but one case, no evidence was found for intrinsic absorption, with an upper limit of 2 x 10 to the 21st power/sq cm. Neither was evidence found for partial covering of the active nucleus by dense, cold matter (N(H) 10 to the 22nd power/sq cm; the average upper limit on the partial covering fraction is 0.5. There is no obvious correlation between spectral index and 0175-4.5 keV X-ray luminosity (which ranges from 3 x 10 to the 43rd to 47th powers erg/s or with other source properties. The lack of intrinsic X-ray absorption allows us to place constraints on the density and temperature of the broad-line emission region, and narrow line emission region, and the intergalactic medium.

  7. High spectral and spatial resolution X-ray transmission radiography and tomography using a Color X-ray Camera

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Matthieu N.; Garrevoet, Jan; Tack, Pieter; Scharf, Oliver; Cormode, David P.; Van Loo, Denis; Pauwels, Elin; Dierick, Manuel; Vincze, Laszlo; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-01-01

    High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors which provide spectral information on the measured X-ray beam can help to overcome these limitations. In this paper, an energy dispersive CCD detector with high spectral resolution is characterized for use in high resolution radiography and tomography, where a focus is put on the experimental conditions and requirements of both measurement techniques. PMID:24357889

  8. Synchrotron-radiation-operated cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as the high-accuracy primary detector standard in the ultraviolet, vacuum-ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges.

    PubMed

    Rabus, H; Persch, V; Ulm, G

    1997-08-01

    The accuracy of detector calibration in the UV, vacuum-ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges could be significantly improved by the use of the synchrotron radiation electrical substitution radiometer (SYRES) as the primary detector standard. The SYRES radiometer is optimized for use with spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation as supplied by two monochromator beam lines in the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the Berlin electron-storage ring (BESSY). Wavelength ranges from 0.8 to 25 nm and from 35 to 400 nm are covered. The typically available radiant power of approximately 1-10 microW can be measured with the SYRES radiometer with a standard relative uncertainty of less than 0.2%. The spectral responsivity of qualified photodiodes for use as secondary detector standards is determined by direct comparison with the primary detector standard at an arbitrary wavelength. At present, the scale of spectral responsivity is realized with a standard relative uncertainty of well below 1% in the spectral ranges 0.8-3.5 nm, 5-25 nm, and 120-400 nm. We provide a comprehensive description of the SYRES radiometer and of the two facilities for detector calibration in the UV and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral ranges and in the soft-x-ray spectral range, respectively, and we discuss the achievable uncertainties in the calibration of detectors. PMID:18259363

  9. X-ray spectral properties of {gamma}-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmayer, T.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Fenimore, E.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Murakami, Toshio [ISAS, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Yoshida, Atsumasa [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The authors summarize the spectral characteristics of a sample of 22 bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the gamma-ray burst sensors aboard the satellite Ginga. This instrument employed a proportional and scintillation counter to provide sensitivity to photons in the 2--400 keV range, providing a unique opportunity to characterize the largely unexplored X-ray properties of gamma-ray bursts. The photon spectra of the Ginga bursts are well described by a low energy slope, a bend energy, and a high energy slope. In the energy range where they can be compared, this result is consistent with burst spectral analyses obtained from the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory. However, below 20 keV they find evidence for a positive spectral number index in approximately 40% of their burst sample, with some evidence for a strong rolloff at lower energies in a few events. They find that the distribution of spectral bend energies extends below 10 keV. The observed ratio of energy emitted in the X-rays relative to the gamma-rays can be much larger than a few percent and, in fact, is sometimes larger than unity. The average for their sample is 24%.

  10. X-ray time and spectral variability as probes of ultraluminous x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj Ranga Reddy

    A long-standing debate in the field of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs: luminosities > 3x1039 ergs s-1) is whether these objects are powered by stellar-mass black holes (mass range of 3-25 solar masses) undergoing hyper-accretion/emission or if they host the long-sought after class of intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses) accreting material at sub-Eddington rates. We present X-ray time and energy spectral variability studies of ULXs in order to understand their physical environments and accurately weigh their compact objects. A sample of ULXs exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with centroid frequencies in the range of 10-200 mHz. The nature of the power density spectra (PDS) of these sources is qualitatively similar to stellar-mass black holes when they exhibit the so-called type-C low-frequency QPOs (frequency range of 0.2-15 Hz). However, the crucial difference is that the characteristic frequencies within the PDS of ULXs, viz., the break frequencies and the centroid frequencies of the QPOs, are scaled down by a factor of approximately 10-100 compared to stellar-mass black holes. It has thus been argued that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C low-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes and that the observed difference in the frequencies (a fewx0.01 Hz compared with a few Hz) is due to the presence of intermediate-mass black holes ( MULX = (QPOstellar-mass black hole }/QPOULX)xM stellar-mass black hole, where M and QPO are the mass and the QPO frequency, respectively) within these ULXs. We analyzed all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray data of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1 in order to test the hypothesis that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C analogs by searching for a correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the energy spectral power-law index as type-C QPOs show such a dependence. From our multi-epoch timing and spectral analysis of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1, we found that the mHz QPOs of these sources vary in frequency by factors of approximately 4 and 6, respectively. However, we did not find evidence for changes in their energy-spectral indices. The apparent lack of a correlation---unlike the type-C QPOs---implies that either the ULX mHz QPOs are fundamentally different compared to the stellar-mass black hole low-frequency QPOs or they are indeed analogous to the low-frequency QPOs but with the observed dependence corresponding to the saturated portion of the correlation seen in stellar-mass black holes. We analyzed all the archival Swift data of ULX NGC 5408 X-1 and found evidence for a 243+/-23 day X-ray period. Based on its variation profile, energy dependence and transient nature, we argue that this period represents the orbital period of the black hole binary. We revisit the previously reported 62 day X-ray period of M82 X-1 and found evidence that the accretion disk's flux varies with this period's phase and also noted that the period's phase changed unusually fast during a certain epoch. Based on this we argue that this period might not be orbital but instead be due to a precessing accretion disk. By combining and averaging all the archival RXTE/PCA data of M82 we detect stable, 3:2 frequency ratio QPOs (>4.7 sigma statistical significance) which we argue represent the high-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes. Unlike the low-frequency QPOs, the high-frequency QPOs of stellar-mass black holes are stable, often occur in frequency ratios of 3:2 and scale inversely with black hole mass. Using the most recent mass estimates of stellar-mass black holes which show high-frequency QPOs and the detected 3:2 pair frequencies of 3.32+/-0.06 and 5.07+/-0.06 Hz from M82 X-1, we were able to accurately weigh its black hole to 428+/-105 solar masses. This detection presents a unique technique to weigh the black holes in variable ULXs. Similar oscillations in other ULXs should be detectable with future X-ray observatories. Finally, we conclude by discussing our preliminary results from the first X-ray---optical reverberation mapping of a ULX and al

  11. X-ray spectral signatures of accreting black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray properties of the binary black hole candidates include distinctive bimodal spectral behavior where the X-ray spectra switch between being very soft (alpha greater than 3) and hard (alpha about 0.7). It is pointed out that this spectral transition occurs at about 1 percent L(edd) (for accretion onto a 10 solar masses black hole), and that this corresponds to the luminosity where an optically thick electron-positron pair plasma will form. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often considered to be accreting black holes. An X-ray spectral similarity between the above binary sources and both the Seyfert I and BL Lac classes of AGN is demonstrated. As many of these objects radiate most of their luminosity as X-rays, such a similarity may be expected if the underlying mechanisms are similar.

  12. Spectral unfolds of PITHON Flash X-ray source.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Riordan, John C. (L-3 Pulse Sciences)

    2007-11-01

    Using a differential absorption spectrometer we obtained experimental spectral information for the PITHON Flash X-ray Machine located in San Leandro, California at L-3 Communications. Spectral information we obtained pertained to the 200 keV to 800 keV endpoint operation of PITHON. We also obtained data on the temporal behavior of high energy and low energy spectral content.

  13. X-ray surveys - X-ray spectral analysis of bright Chandra-COSMOS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 405 brightest sources in the Chandra- COSMOS catalog (Elvis et al. 2009) that present at least 70 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. This bright sample has a ~100% completeness in optical-IR identification, with ~73% of the sample having a spectroscopic redshift and ~23% a photometric redshift (with accuracy ?(z)/(1+z)~1.5%). This allow us to accurately determine both the intrinsic absorption distribution and the intrinsic L2-10 of all the sources in the sample, and to study the evolution of X-ray spectral parameters in redshift. We analyze the statistical distribution of X-ray spectral properties in the sample (e.g. NH and L2-10 distribution, fraction of obscured sources) and their correlation with multiwavelength properties. Finally, 294 sources present a detected counterpart in the XMM-COSMOS survey. For this sources we performed a simultaneous spectral fit with the XMM-Newton data, in order to search for systematic differences in the constraint on spectral parameters and, eventually, for variability in the values of flux and obscuration.

  14. X-ray timing and spectral studies from Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Garcia, M.

    2015-07-01

    A unified characterization of the spectral evolution of black hole binaries has been done in the last 30 yrs. The study of the spectral and aperiodic variability characterizing the X-ray emission from stellar-mass black-hole binaries has revealed to be a very useful tool to understand the mass of the black hole and the physics of accretion onto these sources. Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are accreting black holes that might represent strong evidence of the Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBH), proposed to exist by theoretical studies but with no firm detection (as a class) so far. Their X-ray properties have been seen to be different from the case of stellar-mass black hole binaries. I will present the results that we have obtained from two outstanding ULXs (NGC5408 X-1 and the ULXs in M82) and discuss on the properties that can be derived from the study of their X-ray emission.

  15. Spectral encoding of x-ray/optical relative delay.

    PubMed

    Bionta, Mina R; Lemke, H T; Cryan, J P; Glownia, J M; Bostedt, C; Cammarata, M; Castagna, J-C; Ding, Y; Fritz, D M; Fry, A R; Krzywinski, J; Messerschmidt, M; Schorb, S; Swiggers, M L; Coffee, R N

    2011-10-24

    We present a new technique for measuring the relative delay between a soft x-ray FEL pulse and an optical laser that indicates a sub 25 fs RMS measurement error. An ultra-short x-ray pulse photo-ionizes a semiconductor (Si(3)N(4)) membrane and changes the optical transmission. An optical continuum pulse with a temporally chirped bandwidth spanning 630 nm-710 nm interacts with the membrane such that the timing of the x-ray pulse can be determined from the onset of the spectral modulation of the transmitted optical pulse. This experiment demonstrates a nearly in situ single-shot measurement of the x-ray pulse arrival time relative to the ultra-short optical pulse. PMID:22109037

  16. Temporal and spectral variability in luminous X ray binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Alexander Vaughan

    1992-01-01

    A variety of timing analyses have been applied to data from recent Ginga observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidates (BHC) and Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXB) to probe spectral and temporal variability. (1) A cross spectral analysis of Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4. The cross spectral coherence function is used to study temporal correlations between hard and soft photons from

  17. Optimal material discrimination using spectral x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Nik, S J; Meyer, J; Watts, R

    2011-09-21

    Spectral x-ray imaging using novel photon counting x-ray detectors (PCDs) with energy resolving abilities is capable of providing energy-selective images. PCDs have energy thresholds, enabling the classification of photons into multiple energy bins. The extra energy information provided may allow materials such as iodine and calcium, or water and fat to be distinguishable. The information content of spectral x-ray images, however, depends on how the photons are grouped together. In this work, we present a model to optimize energy windows for maximum material discrimination. Multivariate statistics allows the confidence region of the correlated uncertainties to be mapped in the thickness space. Minimization of the uncertainties enables optimization of energy windows. Applications related to small animal imaging and breast imaging are considered. PMID:21860080

  18. Modification of the TASMIP x-ray spectral model for the simulation of microfocus x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J., E-mail: juanjose.vaquero@uc3m.es [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Desco, M. [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain) [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid ES28029 (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The availability of accurate and simple models for the estimation of x-ray spectra is of great importance for system simulation, optimization, or inclusion of photon energy information into data processing. There is a variety of publicly available tools for estimation of x-ray spectra in radiology and mammography. However, most of these models cannot be used directly for modeling microfocus x-ray sources due to differences in inherent filtration, energy range and/or anode material. For this reason the authors propose in this work a new model for the simulation of microfocus spectra based on existing models for mammography and radiology, modified to compensate for the effects of inherent filtration and energy range. Methods: The authors used the radiology and mammography versions of an existing empirical model [tungsten anode spectral model interpolating polynomials (TASMIP)] as the basis of the microfocus model. First, the authors estimated the inherent filtration included in the radiology model by comparing the shape of the spectra with spectra from the mammography model. Afterwards, the authors built a unified spectra dataset by combining both models and, finally, they estimated the parameters of the new version of TASMIP for microfocus sources by calibrating against experimental exposure data from a microfocus x-ray source. The model was validated by comparing estimated and experimental exposure and attenuation data for different attenuating materials and x-ray beam peak energy values, using two different x-ray tubes. Results: Inherent filtration for the radiology spectra from TASMIP was found to be equivalent to 1.68 mm Al, as compared to spectra obtained from the mammography model. To match the experimentally measured exposure data the combined dataset required to apply a negative filtration of about 0.21 mm Al and an anode roughness of 0.003 mm W. The validation of the model against real acquired data showed errors in exposure and attenuation in line with those reported for other models for radiology or mammography. Conclusions: A new version of the TASMIP model for the estimation of x-ray spectra in microfocus x-ray sources has been developed and validated experimentally. Similarly to other versions of TASMIP, the estimation of spectra is very simple, involving only the evaluation of polynomial expressions.

  19. Spectral-based 2D/3D X-ray to CT image rigid registration M. Freimana, O. Pelea, A. Hurvitza, M. Wermana, L. Joskowicza

    E-print Network

    Werman, Michael

    Spectral-based 2D/3D X-ray to CT image rigid registration M. Freimana, O. Pelea, A. Hurvitza, M, Israel. ABSTRACT We present a spectral-based method for the 2D/3D rigid registration of X-ray images the CT in the expected in-plane location ranges of the fluoroscopic X-ray imaging devices. Each DRR

  20. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun, E-mail: qwwu@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-10

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, ?, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F{sub 3-9} {sub keV}, is below and above a critical flux, F{sub X,} {sub crit}, which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} ? F{sub X,} {sub crit} have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F{sub X}?F{sub R}{sup b} and b ? 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of ? – F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} either stay in the universal track with b ? 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  1. Monte Carlo error analysis in x-ray spectral deconvolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, D.G.; Hoffman, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    The deconvolution of spectral information from sparse x-ray data is a widely encountered problem in data analysis. An often-neglected aspect of this problem is the propagation of random error in the deconvolution process. We have developed a Monte Carlo approach that enables us to attach error bars to unfolded x-ray spectra. Our Monte Carlo error analysis has been incorporated into two specific deconvolution techniques: the first is an iterative convergent weight method; the second is a singular-value-decomposition (SVD) method. These two methods were applied to an x-ray spectral deconvolution problem having m channels of observations with n points in energy space. When m is less than n, this problem has no unique solution. We discuss the systematics of non-unique solutions and energy-dependent error bars for both methods. The Monte Carlo approach has a particular benefit in relation to the SVD method: it allows us to apply the constraint of spectral non-negativity after the SVD deconvolution rather than before. Consequently we can identify inconsistencies between different detector channels. 4 references, 6 figures.

  2. Experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in heated Al and Ge on the Iskra-5 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Pinegin, A V; Suslov, N A [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-31

    We set forth the data of experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in the 1.1 - 1.6 keV photon energy range for Al and Ge specimens bulk heated by soft X-ray radiation. Two experimental techniques are described: with the use of one facility channel and the heating of specimens by the X-ray radiation from a plane burnthrough target, as well as with the use of four channels and the heating by the radiation from two cylindrical targets with internal input of laser radiation. The X-ray radiation absorption coefficients were studied by way of transmission absorption spectroscopy using backlighting X-ray radiation from a point source. The results of investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients on the 1s - 2p transitions in Al atoms and the 2p - 3d transitions in Ge atoms are presented.

  3. CIX: a detector for spectrally enhanced x-ray imaging by simultaneous counting and integrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Fink, J.; Kraft, E.; Wermes, N.; Fischer, P.; Peric, I.; Herrmann, C.; Overdick, M.; Rütten, W.

    2008-03-01

    A hybrid pixel detector based on the concept of simultaneous charge integration and photon counting will be presented. The second generation of a counting and integrating X-ray prototype CMOS chip (CIX) has been operated with different direct converting sensor materials (CdZnTe and CdTe) bump bonded to its 8x8 pixel matrix. Photon counting devices give excellent results for low to medium X-ray fluxes but saturate at high rates while charge integration allows the detection of very high fluxes but is limited at low rates by the finite signal to noise ratio. The combination of both signal processing concepts therefore extends the resolvable dynamic range of the X-ray detector. In addition, for a large region of the dynamic range, where counter and integrator operate simultaneously, the mean energy of the detected X-ray spectrum can be calculated. This spectral information can be used to enhance the contrast of the X-ray image. The advantages of the counting and integrating signal processing concept and the performance of the imaging system will be reviewed. The properties of the system with respect to dynamic range and sensor response will be discussed and examples of imaging with additional spectral information will be presented.

  4. Investigation of pulsed X-ray radiation of a plasma focus in a broad energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Savelov, A. S., E-mail: vniia@vniia.ru; Salakhutdinov, G. Kh. [National Research Nuclear Center 'MIFI,' (Russian Federation); Koltunov, M. V.; Lemeshko, B. D.; Yurkov, D. I.; Sidorov, P. P. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'VNII Avtomatiki,' (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The results of the experimental investigations of the spectral composition of plasma focus X-ray radiation in the photon energy range of 1.5 keV-400 keV are presented. Three regions in the radiation spectrum where the latter is of a quasi-thermal nature with a corresponding effective temperature are distinguished.

  5. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally ?-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

  6. The Intrinsically X-Ray Weak Quasar PHL 1811. I. X-Ray Observations and Spectral Energy Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Leighly; Jules P. Halpern; Edward B. Jenkins; Dirk Grupe; Jiehae Choi; Kimberly B. Prescott

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of two papers reporting observations and analysis of the unusually bright (mb=14.4), luminous (MB=-25.5), nearby (z=0.192) narrow-line quasar PHL 1811, focusing on the X-ray properties and the spectral energy distribution. Two Chandra observations reveal a weak X-ray source with a steep spectrum. Variability by a factor of 4 between the two observations separated by 12 days

  7. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY BINARIES IN CENTAURUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Mark J.; Raychaudhury, Somak [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kraft, Ralph P.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Evans, Daniel A.; Jordan, Andres [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J.; Croston, Judith H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Brassington, Nicola J.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Goodger, Joanna L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kainulainen, Jouni [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Woodley, Kristin A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Sivakoff, Gregory R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Gilfanov, Marat [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Sarazin, Craig L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Voss, Rasmus, E-mail: mburke@star.sr.bham.ac.uk [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud, University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud, University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present a spectral investigation of X-ray binaries (XBs) in NGC 5128 (Cen A), using six 100 ks Chandra observations taken over two months in 2007. We divide our sample into thermally and non-thermally dominated states based on the behavior of the fitted absorption column N{sub H}, and present the spectral parameters of sources with L{sub x} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. The majority of sources are consistent with being neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs) and we identify three transient black hole (BH) LMXB candidates coincident with the dust lane, which is the remnant of a small late-type galaxy. Our results also provide tentative support for the apparent 'gap' in the mass distribution of compact objects between {approx}2-5 M{sub Sun }. We propose that BH LMXBs are preferentially found in the dust lane, and suggest this is because of the younger stellar population. The majority ({approx}70%-80%) of potential Roche lobe filling donors in the Cen A halo are {approx}> 12 Gyr old, while BH LMXBs require donors {approx}> 1 M{sub Sun} to produce the observed peak luminosities. This requirement for more massive donors may also explain recent results that claim a steepening of the X-ray luminosity function with age at L{sub x} {>=} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for the XB population of early-type galaxies; for older stellar populations, there are fewer stars {approx}> 1 M{sub Sun }, which are required to form the more luminous sources.

  8. Two Laser-Produced Plasmas Method For Absorption Spectra And Photoionization Cross-Sections Measurements On Light Ions In The Vuv Dnd Soft X-Ray Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannitti, E.; Nicolosi, P.; Tondello, G.

    1988-07-01

    The method of using two laser produced plasmas, one acting as background continuum radiation source, the other as absorbing medium, for obtaining the absorption spectra and for measuring the photoionization cross-sections of low-Z ionic species is described. The basic principles of the experiment are discussed. The advantages of some technical solutions, like the use of stigmatic technique in VUV and XUV spectral regions, the use of detecting system using photodiode arrays, and the constrained deconvolution procedure adopted in data processing, are emphasized.

  9. Feasibility of a spectral imager in the soft x-ray region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslava Wilcox; Victor White; Kirill Shcheglov

    2009-01-01

    The development of Fourier Transform (FT) spectral techniques in the soft X-ray (100eV to 500eV spectral region) has been advocated in the past as a possible route to constructing a bench-top size spectral imager with high spatial and spectral resolution. The crux of the imager is the soft X-ray interferometer. The auxiliary subsystems include a soft X-ray source, focusing optics

  10. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. 2014PNTT01, 2014PNTT07, and 2014PNTT08).

  11. The Intrinsically X-ray Weak Quasar PHL 1811. I. X-ray Observations and Spectral Energy Distribution

    E-print Network

    Karen M. Leighly; Jules P. Halpern; Edward B. Jenkins; Dirk Grupe; Jiehae Choi; Kimberly B. Prescott

    2006-11-10

    This is the first of two papers reporting observations and analysis of the unusually bright (m_b=14.4), luminous (M_B=-25.5), nearby (z=0.192) narrow-line quasar PHL 1811, focusing on the X-ray properties and the spectral energy distribution. Two Chandra observations reveal a weak X-ray source with a steep spectrum. Variability by a factor of 4 between the two observations separated by 12 days suggest that the X-rays are not scattered emission. The XMM-Newton spectra are modelled in the 0.3--5 keV band by a steep power law with \\Gamma = 2.3\\pm 0.1, and the upper limit on intrinsic absorption is 8.7 x 10^{20} cm^{-2}. The spectral slopes are consistent with power law indices commonly observed in NLS1s, and it appears that we observe the central engine X-rays directly. Including two recent Swift ToO snapshots, a factor of ~5 variability was observed among the five X-ray observations reported here. In contrast, the UV photometry obtained by the XMM-Newton OM and Swift UVOT, and the HST spectrum reveal no significant UV variability. The \\alpha_{ox} inferred from the Chandra and contemporaneous HST spectrum is -2.3 \\pm 0.1, significantly steeper than observed from other quasars of the same optical luminosity. The steep, canonical X-ray spectra, lack of absorption, and significant X-ray variability lead us to conclude that PHL 1811 is intrinsically X-ray weak. We also discuss an accretion disk model, and the host galaxy of PHL 1811.

  12. Spectral Modeling of X-rays from Hot Star Winds Emma E. Wollman, Swarthmore College `09

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    1 Spectral Modeling of X-rays from Hot Star Winds Emma E. Wollman, Swarthmore College `09 Prof x-ray spectra from Chandra's archive. Models of x-ray production in hot star winds predict broad by either lowering the values of the mass-loss rate for these winds, or by reassessing the commonly accepted

  13. Spectrally resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ge

    resolution.6 Through selective excitation with a pencil x-ray beam, XLCT can perform in vivo tomographic, the anatomy and the nanophos- phors can be imaged in one scan. Second, the use of x-ray excitation eliminates

  14. A Constant Spectral Index for Sagittarius A* During Infrared/X-ray Intensity Variations

    E-print Network

    S. D. Hornstein; K. Matthews; A. M. Ghez; J. R. Lu; M. Morris; E. E. Becklin; M. Rafelski; F. K. Baganoff

    2007-06-12

    We report the first time-series of broadband infrared (IR) color measurements of Sgr A*, the variable emission source associated with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. Using the laser and natural guide star AO systems on the Keck II telescope, we imaged Sgr A* in multiple near-infrared broadband filters with a typical cycle time of ~3 min during 4 observing runs (2005-2006), two of which were simultaneous with Chandra X-ray measurements. In spite of the large range of dereddened flux densities for Sgr A* (2-30 mJy), all of our near-IR measurements are consistent with a constant spectral index of alpha = -0.6+-0.2. Furthermore, this value is consistent with the spectral indices observed at X-ray wavelengths during nearly all outbursts; which is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton model for the production of the X-ray emission. During the coordinated observations, one IR outburst occurs 1 GeV is generated, and it is this high-energy tail that gives rise to the X-ray outbursts. One possible explanation for this type of variation is from the turbulence induced by a magnetorotational instability, in which the outer scale length of the turbulence varies and changes the high-energy cutoff.

  15. X-ray spectral variability of Seyfert 2 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-García, L.; Masegosa, J.; González-Martín, O.; Márquez, I.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Variability across the electromagnetic spectrum is a property of active galactic nuclei (AGN) that can help constrain the physical properties of these galaxies. Nonetheless, the way in which the changes happen and whether they occur in the same way in every AGN are still open questions. Aims: This is the third in a series of papers with the aim of studying the X-ray variability of different families of AGN. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the variability pattern(s) in a sample of optically selected Seyfert 2 galaxies. Methods: We use the 26 Seyfert 2s in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog with data available from Chandra and/or XMM-Newton public archives at different epochs, with timescales ranging from a few hours to years. All the spectra of the same source were simultaneously fitted, and we let different parameters vary in the model. Whenever possible, short-term variations from the analysis of the light curves and/or long-term UV flux variations were studied. We divided the sample into Compton-thick and Compton-thin candidates to account for the degree of obscuration. When transitions between Compton-thick and thin were obtained for different observations of the same source, we classified it as a changing-look candidate. Results: Short-term variability at X-rays was studied in ten cases, but variations are not found. From the 25 analyzed sources, 11 show long-term variations. Eight (out of 11) are Compton-thin, one (out of 12) is Compton-thick, and the two changing-look candidates are also variable. The main driver for the X-ray changes is related to the nuclear power (nine cases), while variations at soft energies or related to absorbers at hard X-rays are less common, and in many cases these variations are accompanied by variations in the nuclear continuum. At UV frequencies, only NGC 5194 (out of six sources) is variable, but the changes are not related to the nucleus. We report two changing-look candidates, MARK 273 and NGC 7319. Conclusions: A constant reflection component located far away from the nucleus plus a variable nuclear continuum are able to explain most of our results. Within this scenario, the Compton-thick candidates are dominated by reflection, which suppresses their continuum, making them seem fainter, and they do not show variations (except MARK 3), while the Compton-thin and changing-look candidates do. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. The Intrinsically X-ray Weak Quasar PHL 1811. I. X-ray Observations and Spectral Energy Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Leighly; Jules P. Halpern; Edward B. Jenkins; Dirk Grupe; Jiehae Choi; Kimberly B. Prescott

    2006-01-01

    This is the first of two papers reporting observations and analysis of the\\u000aunusually bright (m_b=14.4), luminous (M_B=-25.5), nearby (z=0.192) narrow-line\\u000aquasar PHL 1811, focusing on the X-ray properties and the spectral energy\\u000adistribution. Two Chandra observations reveal a weak X-ray source with a steep\\u000aspectrum. Variability by a factor of 4 between the two observations separated\\u000aby 12 days

  17. X-Ray Spectral Study of the Photoionized Stellar Wind in Vela X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Shin; Sako, Masao; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kahn, Steven M.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Nagase, Fumiaki; Paerels, Frederik; Takahashi, Tadayuki; /JAXA,

    2006-07-10

    We present results from quantitative modeling and spectral analysis of the high mass X-ray binary system Vela X-1 obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The observations cover three orbital phase ranges within a single binary orbit. The spectra exhibit emission lines from H-like and He-like ions driven by photoionization, as well as fluorescent emission lines from several elements in lower charge states. The properties of these X-ray lines are measured with the highest accuracy to date. In order to interpret and make full use of the high-quality data, we have developed a simulator, which calculates the ionization and thermal structure of a stellar wind photoionized by an X-ray source, and performs Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photons propagating through the wind. The emergent spectra are then computed as a function of the viewing angle accurately accounting for photon transport in three dimensions including dynamics. From comparisons of the observed spectra with results from the simulator, we are able to find the ionization structure and the geometrical distribution of material in the stellar wind of Vela X-1 that can reproduce the observed spectral line intensities and continuum shapes at different orbital phases remarkably well. We find that the stellar wind profile can be represented by a CAK-model with a star mass loss rate of (1.5-2.0) x 10{sup -6} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}, assuming a terminal velocity of 1100 km s{sup -1}. It is found that a large fraction of X-ray emission lines from highly ionized ions are formed in the region between the neutron star and the companion star. We also find that the fluorescent X-ray lines must be produced in at least three distinct regions: (1) the extended stellar wind, (2) reflection off the stellar photosphere, and (3) in a distribution of dense material partially covering and possibly trailing the neutron star, which may be associated with an accretion wake. Finally, from detailed analysis of the emission line profiles, we demonstrate that the stellar wind dynamics is affected by X-ray photoionization.

  18. Spectra of cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Share, G. H.; Kane, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Hard X-ray measurements of six gamma-ray bursts observed by detectors on the OGO-5 and OSO-6 satellites during the period Oct. 1969 to Apr. 1971 are presented. Spectra for five of the six bursts were determined using measurements from both satellites in order to reduce ambiguities due to uncertain source locations. A significant fraction, 20 to 60%, of the energy of the bursts fall in the hard X-ray range (20 to 130 keV). The time-integrated spectra were fitted by power-law, exponential, and thermal bremsstrahlung functions. They are consistent with power-laws which steepen at energies approx. above 150 keV, as reported earlier for two other bursts. Evidence for spectral variability from event to event in the hard X-ray region is presented. The hard X-ray spectra of the gamma-ray bursts differ from those of the recently discovered 1 to 15 keV bursts.

  19. X-ray spectral evolution of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    At z approx. equals 3, the x-ray spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. High-redshift radio-quiet quasars either have large absorbing columns, N(sub H), and steeper power law spectral indices, alpha(sub epsilon), than low redshift quasars, or no absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s. In contrast, the radio-loud quasars at high redshift have substantial absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s to low redshift quasars. Implications for the interpretation of the evolution of the luminosity function of quasars are discussed. If the absorption arises outside the central engine for both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, then radio-quiet quasars differ from the radio-loud quasars in that their emitted power law spectrum has evolved with redshift. We argue that this favors models where quasars are numerous and short-lived, rather than rare and long-lived.

  20. Feasibility of a spectral imager in the soft x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2009-05-01

    The development of Fourier Transform (FT) spectral techniques in the soft X-ray (100eV to 500eV spectral region) has been advocated in the past as a possible route to constructing a bench-top size spectral imager with high spatial and spectral resolution. The crux of the imager is the soft X-ray interferometer. The auxiliary subsystems include a soft X-ray source, focusing optics and a CCD-based detection system. When tuned over a sufficiently large range of path delays (frames), the interferometer will sinusoidally modulate a spectrum of a wide-band X-ray source centered at the core wavelength of interest with high resolving power. The spectrum illuminates a target, the reflected signal is imaged onto a CCD, and data acquired for different frames is converted to spectra in software by using FT methods similar to those used in IR spectrometry, producing spectral image per each pixel. The use of short wavelengths results in dramatic increase in imaging resolution over that for IR. Important for future NASA missions, and unlike X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) that uses intense and in monochromatic beams which only a synchrotron can deliver, FTXR plans to use a miniature, wide bandwidth X-ray source. By modulating the beam spectrum around the wavelength of interest, the beam energy is used much more efficiently than with gratings (when only a very small, monochromatized portion of the radiation is used at one time) facilitating construction of a bench-top instrument. With the predicted <0.1eV spectral and <100 nm spatial resolution, the imager would be able to map a core-level shift spectrum for each pixel of the image for elements such as C, Si, Ca, N (K?-lines) which can be used as a chemical compound fingerprint and for imaging intracellular structures. For heavy elements it could provide "bonding maps" (L and M-shell lines), enabling to study fossils of microorganisms on space missions and in returned samples to Earth. We have initiated development of a Fourier Transform X-ray Reflection (FTXR) spectral imager based on the use of a Mach-Zender type interferometer. The enabling technology for the interferometer is the X-ray beam splitting mirrors. The mirrors are not available commercially; multi layers of quarter-wave films are not suitable, requiring a different approach to beam-splitters than in the visible or IR regions. Several efforts by other researchers used parallel slits or stripes for partial transmission, with only a very limited success. In contrast, our beam splitters are based on thin (about 200 nm) SiN membranes perforated with a large number of very small holes, prepared using state-of-art microfabrication techniques that have only recently become available in our laboratory at JPL. Precise control of surface roughness and high planarity are needed to achieve the wave coherency required for high-contrast fringe forming. The perforation design is expected to result in much greater surface flatness, facilitating greater wave coherence than for the other techniques. We report on our progress in the fabrication of beam splitting mirrors to-date, interferometer design, modeling, assembly, and experimental results.

  1. Spectral and Temporal Characteristics of X-Ray-Bright Stars in the Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagne, Marc; Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Stauffer, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We follow up our deep ROSAT imaging survey of the Pleiades (Stauffer et al. 1994) with an analysis of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray-bright stars in the Pleiades. Raymond & Smith (1977) one and two-temperature models have been used to fit the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) pulse-height spectra of the dozen or so brightest sources associated with late-type Pleiades members. The best-fit temperatures suggest hot coronal temperatures for K, M, and rapidly rotating G stars, and cooler temperatures for F and slowly rotating G stars. In order to probe the many less X-ray-luminous stars, we have generated composite spectra by combining net counts from all Pleiades members according to spectral type and rotational velocity. Model fits to the composite spectra confirm the trend seen in the individual spectral fits. Particularly interesting is the apparent dependence of coronal temperature on L(sub x)/L(sub bol). A hardness-ratio analysis also confirms some of these trends. The PSPC data have also revealed a dozen or so strong X-ray flares with peak X-ray luminosities in excess of approx. 10(exp 30) ergs/sec. We have modeled the brightest of these flares with a simple quasi-static cooling loop model. The peak temperature and emission measure and the inferred electron density and plasma volume suggest a very large scale flaring event. The PSPC data were collected over a period of approx. 18 months, allowing us to search for source variability on timescales ranging from less than a day (in the case of flares) to more than a year between individual exposures. On approximately year-long timescales, roughly 25% of the late-type stars are variable. Since the Pleiades was also intensively monitored by the imaging instruments on the Einstein Observatory, we have examined X-ray luminosity variations on the 10 yr timescale between Einstein and ROSAT and find that up to 40% of the late-type stars are X-ray variable. Since there is only marginal evidence for increased variability on decade-long timescales, the variability observed on long and short timescales may have a common physical origin.

  2. PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS FOR X-RAYS AND EXPERIMENTS INVOLVING THEIR APPLICATION IN X-RAY SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. I. Narbutt; S. M. Perelman; I. A. Prager; V. A. Kharlakov

    1963-01-01

    Two types of proportional counters for the detection of x rays are ; described. One type has a side entrance window while the other has an aperture ; in the front portion of the counter. All windows are made of beryllium foils ; whose thicknesses are in the range 150 to 200 . The counter with the side ; entrance

  3. Small, Fast TES Microcalorimeters with Unprecedented X-ray Spectral Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Driven initially by the desire for X-ray microcalorimeter arrays suitable for imaging the dynamic solar corona, we have developed a transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeter optimization that exhibits a unique combination of high spectral resolving power and a wide X-ray bandpass. These devices have achieved spectral performance of dE approximately 1.3 eV FWHM at 1.5 keV, 1.6 eV at 6 keV, and 2.0 eV at 8 keV, using small TESs (e.g., approximately 35 micron x 35 micron) that operate in a regime in which the superconducting transition is highly current dependent. In order to accommodate high X-ray count rates, the devices sit directly on a solid substrate instead of on membranes, and we use an embedded heatsinking layer to reduce pixel-to-pixel crosstalk. We will present results from devices with a range of TES and absorber sizes, and from device wafers with varied embedded heatsink materials. This contribution will focus on count-rate capabilities, including a discussion of the trade-off between count rate and energy resolution, and the heatsinking design. We will also present preliminary tests of array readout using a code-division multiplexed SQUID readout scheme, which may be necessary to enable large arrays of these fast devices.

  4. X-Ray Spectral Variability in NGC 7469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen; Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Tsuruta, Sachiko

    1996-01-01

    We present analyses of two Ginga observations and two observations from the ROSAT database of NGC 7469, focusing on the spectral variability observed on timescales of days and longer. During the 1988 Ginga observation, the hardness ratio (8-21 keV/3.4-5.7 keV) increased significantly as the total flux decreased by 30%. As the spectrum is well fit by the reflection model and since the spectra variability dominates the higher energy band, this could be explained by either a variation in the power law index or in the effective covering fraction of the reflecting material. This ambiguity is inherent in reflection modeling of Ginga spectra from moderate flux Seyfert 1 galaxies. Assuming that the power law index did not change, we find that the reflected flux is consistent with being constant, suggesting that much of the reflecting material may be located more than 3 light-days from the continuum source with the molecular torus being a plausible site. This scenario is also supported by the report of a narrow rather than broad iron K-alpha line in the ASCA data by Guainazzi et al. NGC 7469 was faint during the 1989 Ginga observation, but variability was observed with doubling timescale of 5 hr, and the spectrum was harder. A reflection component could not be constrained, and the change in the spectrum could be explained by an increase in neutral absorption. The brighter of two ROSAT spectra was significantly softer, and in both spectra there was evidence of spectral complexity, as has been previously reported by Turner, George, & Mushotzky and Brandt et al. The spectrum could be fit by a variety of two-component models, including a warm absorber model, an ionized disk model, and a thermal model with single-component blackbody spectrum, but joint fitting of the 1988 average Ginga spectrum and the nonsimultaneous ROSAT spectra favored thermal models, and other models required an anomalously high reflection ratio. This model is supported by the observation of a soft excess component and the lack of ionized absorption edges in the ASCA spectrum by Guainazzi et al. The long-term spectral variability could be explained by relative variability between the power-law and soft excess component normalizations, perhaps implying that hard X-ray reprocessing in thermal material does not dominate on long timescales.

  5. Spectral features in solar hard x-ray and radio events and particle acceleration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Benz

    1977-01-01

    Hard x-ray and radio intensities of two major solar outbursts are found to anticorrelate in time with their spectral indices, which, furthermore, are in satisfactory correlation with each other. The radio emission must be synchrotron radiation from the same electron population that causes the x-ray bremsstrahlung. A delay of temporal features, increasing with energy, is clearly observed in one of

  6. Spectral Brilliance of Parametric X-rays at the FAST facility

    E-print Network

    Sen, Tanaji

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the generation of parametric X-rays in the new photoinjector at the FAST (Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology) facility in Fermilab. These experiments will be conducted in addition to channeling X-ray radiation experiments. The low emittance electron beam makes this facility a promising source for creating brilliant X-rays. We discuss the theoretical model and present detailed calculations of the intensity spectrum, energy and angular widths and spectral brilliance under different conditions. We also report on expected results with parametric X-rays generated while under channeling conditions.

  7. Temporal and spectral dependence of samariuom x-ray emission in subpicosecond and nanosecond laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenais-Popovics, Claude J.; Audebert, Patrick; Fajardo, M.; Shepherd, Ronnie L.; Peyrusse, Olivier; Gauthier, Jean-Claude J.

    2001-11-01

    Ultra-short x-ray sources are generated by focusing sub- picosecond lasers on massive targets. The emission duration of a samarium x-ray source produced with a 100 TW sub- picosecond laser was measured using an ultra-fast X-ray streak camera. The spectral range was limited around 7.5-8.5 angstrom, the range in which samarium can be used as a backlighter for K(alpha) aluminum absorption experiments. The spectral time-evolution and the duration of samarium emission were measured. Preliminary calculations performed with non-local-thermodynamic equilibrium atomic physics show the plasma cooling which occurs with a characteristic time longer than predicted by radiative hydrocode simulations.

  8. Conception of broadband stigmatic high-resolution spectrometers for the soft X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, E. A.; Shatokhin, A. N.; Ragozin, E. N.

    2015-04-01

    We formulate an approach to the development of stigmatic high-resolution spectral instruments for the soft X-ray range (? ?slant 300 \\mathring{\\text{A}}), which is based on the combined operation of normal-incidence multilayer mirrors (including broadband aperiodic ones) and grazing-incidence reflection gratings with nonequidistant grooves (so-called VLS gratings). A concave multilayer mirror serves to produce a slightly astigmatic image of the radiation source (for instance, an entrance slit), and the diffraction grating produces a set of its dispersed stigmatic spectral images. The width of the operating spectral region is determined by the aperiodic structure of the multilayer mirror and may range up to an octave in wavelength.

  9. Practical energy response estimation of photon counting detectors for spectral X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Goo; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2010-04-01

    Spectral X-ray imaging is a promising technique to drastically improve the diagnostic quality of radiography and computed tomography (CT), since it enables material decomposition and/or identification based on the energy dependency of material-specific X-ray attenuation. Unlike the charge-integration based X-ray detectors, photon counting X-ray detectors (PCXDs) can discriminate the energies of incident X-ray photons and thereby multi-energy images can be obtained in single exposure. However, the measured data are not accurate since the spectra of incident X-rays are distorted according to the energy response function (ERF) of a PCXD. Thus ERF should be properly estimated in advance for accurate spectral imaging. This paper presents a simple method for ERF estimation based on a polychromatic X-ray source that is widely used for medical imaging. The method consists of three steps: source spectra measurement, detector spectra reconstruction, and ERF inverse estimation. Real spectra of an X-ray tube are first measured at all kVs by using an X-ray spectrometer. The corresponding detector spectra are obtained by threshold scans. The ERF is then estimated by solving the inverse problem. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the concept of the proposed method.

  10. Photon counting spectral CT: improved material decomposition with K-edge-filtered x-rays.

    PubMed

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2012-03-21

    Photon counting spectral computed tomography (PCSCT) provides material selective CT imaging at a single CT scan and fixed tube voltage. The PCSCT data are acquired in several energy ranges (bins) arranged over the x-ray spectrum. The quasi-monoenergetic CT images are acquired in these energy bins and are used for material decomposition. The PCSCT exhibits inherent limitations when material decomposition is performed using energy bins. For effective material decomposition, the energy bins used for material decomposition should be sufficiently narrow and well separated. However, when narrow bins are used, a large fraction of the detected x-ray counts is lost and statistical noise is increased. Alternatively, the x-ray spectrum can be split into a few larger bins with no gap in between and all detected x-ray photons can be used for material decomposition. However, in this case the energy bins are too wide and not well separated, which results in suboptimal material decomposition. The above contradictory requirements can be resolved if the x-ray photons are physically removed from the regions of the energy spectrum between the energy bins. Such a selective removal can be performed using filtration of the x-ray beam by high-Z filter materials with appropriate positions of K-edge energies. The K-edge filtration of x-rays can, therefore, provide necessary gaps between the energy bins with no dose penalty to the patient. In the current work, we proposed using selective K-edge filtration of x-rays in PCSCT and performed the first experimental investigation of this approach. The PCSCT system included a cadmium zinc telluride semiconductor detector with 2 × 256 pixels and 1 × 1 mm(2) pixel size, and five energy bins. The CT phantom had 14 cm diameter and included contrast elements of iodine, gold and calcifications with clinically relevant concentrations. The tube voltages of 60, 90 and 120 kVp were used. K-edge filters based on Ba (E(k) = 37.44 keV) were used for a 60 kVp tube voltage and Gd (E(k) = 50.24 keV) was used for the 90 and 120 kVp tube voltages, respectively. The material selective CT images were also acquired with conventional Al filtration for comparison. The half-value layers of x-ray beams after K-edge and Al filtration were matched. The mean entrance skin exposure was 280 mR for all tube voltages and filters. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in material-decomposed images was approximately 30%-50% higher when K-edge filters were used instead of Al filters. It was concluded that K-edge filtration of x-rays provides substantial improvement of the CNR in material-selective PCSCT. Further optimization of K-edge filter materials, tube voltages, detector technology and energy bin settings will provide even higher CNR in decomposed images. PMID:22398007

  11. Extended range X-ray telescope: X-ray microscope design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Kassim, A.; Chao, S.

    1982-01-01

    A glancing incidence X-ray microscope using a confocal hyperboloid ellipsoid mirror was designed to couple optically a Wolter 1 telescope to a CCD focal plane detector. Both the RMS spot size and the point spread function calculations were used to evaluate the resolution, defocusing, and vignetting effects of the system for microscope focal lengths of 1, 1.5, and 2 meters and for magnifications varying from 2 to 10x. For the specific application with the S-056 telescope, a 2 meter, 8x microscope with a fabrication ratio of the microscope mirror length to the inner diameter at hyperboloid ellipsoid intersection of 2.5 was designed to be used with a thinned, back illuminated CCD detector array with 320 by 512, 30 micron pixels.

  12. Spectral filtering optimization of a measuring channel of an x-ray broadband spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emprin, B.; Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Delmotte, F.

    2013-05-01

    A new channel of an X-ray broadband spectrometer has been developed for the 2 - 4 keV spectral range. It uses a spectral filtering by using a non-periodic multilayer mirror. This channel is composed by a filter, an aperiodic multilayer mirror and a detector. The design and realization of the optical coating mirror has been defined such as the reflectivity is above 8% in almost the entire bandwidth range 2 - 4 keV and lower than 2% outside. The mirror is optimized for working at 1.9° grazing incidence. The mirror is coated with a stack of 115 chromium / scandium (Cr / Sc) non-periodic layers, between 0.6 nm and 7.3 nm and a 3 nm thick top SiO2 layer to protect the stack from oxidization. To control thin thicknesses, we produced specific multilayer mirrors which consist on a superposition of two periodic Cr / Sc multilayers with the layer to calibrate in between. The mirror and subnanometric layers characterizations were made at the "Laboratoire Charles Fabry" (LCF) with a grazing incidence reflectometer working at 8.048 keV (Cu K? radiation) and at the synchrotron radiation facility SOLEIL on the hard X-ray branch of the "Metrology" beamline. The reflectivity of the mirrors as a function of the photon energy was obtained in the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) laboratory at the synchrotron radiation facility Bessy II.

  13. Spectral and temporal properties of the X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 at hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Kendziorra, E .; Kretschmar, P.; Maisack, M.; Mony, B.; Staubert, R.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Pietsch, W.

    1993-01-01

    The binary X-ray pulsar SMC X- 1 has been observed at hard X-rays with the High Energy X-Ray Experiment (HEXE) on nine occasions between Nov. 1987 and March 1989. A thin thermal bremsstrahlung fit to the phase averaged spectrum yields a plasma temperature (14.4 +/- 1.3) keV and a luminosity above (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10 exp 38 erg/s in the 20-80 keV band. Pulse period values have been established for three observations, confirming the remarkably stable spin-up trend of SMC X-1. In one of the three observations the pulse profile was seen to deviate from a dominant double pulsation, while at the same time the pulsed fraction was unusually large. For one observation we determined for the first time the pulsed fraction in narrow energy bands. It increases with photon energy from about 20 percent up to over 60 percent in the energy range from 20 to 80 keV.

  14. Nonthermal pair models reflection and X-ray spectral variability of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandi, P.; Done, C.; Urry, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Standard nonthermal electron-positron pair cascades, including the effects of reflection from an accretion disk, can explain reasonably well the mean spectra of low-luminosity, Seyfert-type active galaxies. We test this model using the spectral variability observed by EXOSAT between 0.05 and 10 keV in five active galaxies: NGC 5548, 3C 120, 3C 273, NGC 7469, and MCG 2-58-22. We find that pair-reflection models fail to reproduce the full range of spectra observed, particularly very hard spectra with a strong soft X-ray excess. Either the pair-reflection model is not an accurate description of the emission process in these objects or extrinsic effects, such as enhancement of the reflection component and/or a partially ionized absorber with a large column density, are responsible for much of the observed spectral variability.

  15. The influence of accretion geometry on the spectral evolution during thermonuclear (type I) X-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajava, Jari J. E.; Nättilä, Joonas; Latvala, Outi-Marja; Pursiainen, Miika; Poutanen, Juri; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Kuulkers, Erik; Galloway, Duncan K.

    2014-12-01

    Neutron star (NS) masses and radii can be estimated from observations of photospheric radius-expansion X-ray bursts, provided the chemical composition of the photosphere, the spectral colour-correction factors in the observed luminosity range, and the emission area during the bursts are known. By analysing 246 X-ray bursts observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from 11 low-mass X-ray binaries, we find a dependence between the persistent spectral properties and the time evolution of the blackbody normalization during the bursts. All NS atmosphere models predict that the colour-correction factor decreases in the early cooling phase when the luminosity first drops below the limiting Eddington value, leading to a characteristic pattern of variability in the measured blackbody normalization. However, the model predictions agree with the observations for most bursts occurring in hard, low-luminosity, island spectral states, but rarely during soft, high-luminosity, banana states. The observed behaviour may be attributed to the accretion flow, which influences cooling of the NS preferentially during the soft state bursts. This result implies that only the bursts occurring in the hard, low-luminosity spectral states can be reliably used for NS mass and radius determination.

  16. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Brunetti, E.; Vieux, G.; Yang, X.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Maneuski, D.; Montgomery, R.; Smith, G.; Hoek, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Shea, V. O. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)] [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Issac, R. C. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom) [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Research Department of Physics, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam 686666, Kerala (India); Lemos, N. R. C.; Dias, J. M. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)] [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas eFusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Symes, D. R. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-11-15

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

  17. Toward a New Spectral Modeling Capability for Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael T.; Becker, P. A.; Marcu, D.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Wood, K. S.

    2013-04-01

    Spectral modeling of accreting X-ray pulsars can tell us a great deal about the physical conditions in and near the neutron star compact objects in high mass X-ray binary systems. In such systems the accreting plasma is initially channeled from an accretion disk by the strong neutron star magnetic field into a funneled supersonic flow onto the magnetic polar cap of the neutron star. Many of these accreting X-ray pulsars have X-ray spectra that consist of broadband Comptonized power-law X-ray continua with superposed cyclotron resonant scattering features indicating magnetic field strengths above 10^12 G. We are undertaking a new program to develop a spectral analysis tool based on the analytical work of Becker & Wolff (2007) for accreting X-ray pulsar spectra inside the XSPEC spectral analysis framework. We will apply this new analysis tool to the large amount of data on numerous bright accreting X-ray pulsars currently residing in the HEASARC archive. In this presentation we discuss the physical processes that are likely to occur in such a flow and how one might self-consistently model the broadband pulsar X-ray spectrum. A previous attempt at developing such a modeling capability made significant contributions to the understanding of one source in particular, namely, 4U0115+634 (Ferrigno et al. 2010) and we expect to build on that success. Our models will incorporate bremsstrahlung emission, black body emission, and cyclotron emission, all in a strongly Comptonizing environment inside the shock-heated accreting plasma. We will discuss how we will include these physical processes in the calculations as well as the algorithm such a tool will use to converge to a solution. This program is both feasible and timely in light of the expected launch of the LOFT X-ray timing mission. This research is supported by the NASA Astrophysical Data Analysis Program and the Office of Naval Research.

  18. Wavefront measurements in the soft X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, S.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Idir, M.; Dhez, P.; Ros, D.; Carillon, A.; Roca, J. J.; François, M.

    2002-12-01

    In this article we report a new wavefront sensor, developed at the Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique et Ionique, for a full characterization of soft X-ray beams. The Shack-Hartmann sensor has a theoretical accuracy in the order of ?/100 at a wavelength around 13 nm. A cartography of the wave-vectors pointing of laser-pumped soft X-ray laser has been achieved. It has shown the presence of many ripples probably coming from plasma instabilities. Capillary discharge soft X-ray laser has been also investigated. For all the pumping configurations, the wavefront is spherical, divergent with a radius of about 6.5 m at 2.5 m from the plasma end. The best wavefront exhibits an error to a perfect wave of 3? rms. Assuming to focus the beam with a f =50 mm diffraction-limited mirror, a theoretical focal spot size of 0.5 ?m in diameter have been estimated containing 70% of the incident energy. In that case an intensity of 4×10^{13} W cm^{-2} should be achieved.

  19. TW Hya: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY, X-RAYS, AND ACCRETION DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Australian National Observatory, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, A. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens (Greece); Crause, L. A. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Lawson, W. A. [School of Physical, Environmental, and Math Sciences, University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Mallik, S. V. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Schuler, S. C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over {approx}17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the H{alpha} flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The H{alpha} emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H{alpha} and H{beta} lines is followed by He I ({lambda}5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of {approx}2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows {approx}2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  20. X-ray Flux Related Timing and Spectral Features of 2S 1417-62

    E-print Network

    S. C. Inam; A. Baykal; D. M. Scott; M. Finger; J. Swank

    2003-12-02

    RXTE observations of the X-ray transient pulsar 2S 1417-62 between 1999 November and 2000 August with a total exposure of $\\sim 394$ ksec were analyzed. Observations include a main outburst followed by a series of mini outbursts. Changes in pulse morphology and pulse fraction were found to be related to the changes in X-ray flux. Particularly low X-ray flux regions were found to have significantly lower pulse fractions with different pulse morphologies. The 3-60 keV PCA-HEXTE main outburst spectrum was modeled with an absorbed power law model with high energy cut-off and a Gaussian Iron line complex feature. Using the same spectral model, individual 3-20 keV PCA spectra were found to be softer and less absorbed in low X-ray flux regions between outbursts. Spectral studies showed that hydrogen column density was correlated, and the power law index was anti-correlated with the 3-20 keV X-ray flux. X-ray flux related spectral and timing features in 2S 1417-62 except for low X-ray flux regions were interpreted as a sign of disc accretion with a similar accretion geometry with a varying mass accretion rate ($\\dot{M}$), whereas spectral and timing features of the low X-ray flux regions were interpreted as a sign of possible temporary accretion geometry change prior to the next periastron where $\\dot{M}$ increases again to restore the original accretion geometry.

  1. Spectral x-ray phase contrast imaging for single-shot retrieval of absorption, phase, and differential-phase imagery.

    PubMed

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua

    2014-11-01

    In this Letter, we propose the first single-shot, noninterferometric x-ray imaging method for simultaneous retrieval of absorption, phase, and differential-phase imagery with quantitative accuracy. Our method utilizes a photon-counting spectral x-ray detector in conjunction with a simplified transport-of-intensity equation for coded-aperture phase-contrast imaging to efficiently solve the retrieval problem. This method can utilize an incoherent and polychromatic (clinical or laboratory) x-ray tube and can enable retrieval for a wide range and composition of material properties. The proposed method has been validated via computer simulations and is expected to significantly benefit applications that are sensitive to complexity of measurement, radiation dose and imaging time. PMID:25361350

  2. THE OPTX PROJECT. III. X-RAY VERSUS OPTICAL SPECTRAL TYPE FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowie, L. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Yang, Y. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mushotzky, R. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    We compare the optical spectral types with the X-ray spectral properties for a uniformly selected (sources with fluxes greater than the 3sigma level and above a flux limit of f {sub 2-8keV} > 3.5 x 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}), highly spectroscopically complete (>80% for f {sub 2-8keV} > 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and >60% below) 2-8 keV X-ray sample observed in three Chandra fields (CLANS, CLASXS, and the CDF-N) that cover approx1.2 deg{sup 2}. For our sample of 645 spectroscopically observed sources, we confirm that there is significant overlap of the X-ray spectral properties, as determined by the effective photon indices, GAMMA{sub eff}, obtained from the ratios of the 0.5-2 keV to 2-8 keV counts, for the different optical spectral types. For example, broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are expected to be unobscured and hence X-ray soft (GAMMA{sub eff} >= 1.2), yet we find 20%+- 3% have GAMMA{sub eff} <1.2. Non-broad-line AGNs are expected to be obscured and hence X-ray hard (GAMMA{sub eff} < 1.2), yet we find 33% +- 4% have GAMMA{sub eff} >= 1.2. Thus, one cannot use the X-ray spectral classifications and the optical spectral classifications equivalently. Since it is not understood how X-ray and optical classifications relate to the obscuration of the central engine, we strongly advise against a mixed classification scheme, as it can only complicate the interpretation of X-ray AGN samples. We confirm the dependence of optical spectral type on X-ray luminosity, and for z < 1, we find a similar luminosity dependence of GAMMA{sub eff}. However, this dependence breaks down at higher redshifts due to the highly redshift-dependent nature of GAMMA{sub eff}. We therefore also caution that any classification scheme which depends on GAMMA{sub eff} is likely to suffer from serious redshift bias.

  3. A spectral code for X-ray spectra of supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaastra, J. S.; Jansen, F. A.

    1993-03-01

    We present a spectral code for the calculation of nonequilibrium spatially resolved X-ray spectra of SNR. The code is based upon eigenvalue decomposition of the transition rates matrix and discretization of the transition rates. The transition rates are taken from the compilation of Arnaud and Rothenflug (1985). The X-ray spectra are calculated using an updated version of the Mewe and Gronenschild code and include nearly 2500 spectral lines. For the hydrodynamics we used several self-similar models, either adiabatic, isothermal, or isentropic and both with and without a reverse shock. The resulting code proves to be fast enough for spectral fitting purposes. We give a few illustrative examples based upon Cas A like spectra and summarize the scaling laws for the X-ray spectra.

  4. Experimental measurements of selenium x-ray laser spectral line profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; London, R.A.; Lee, R.W.; Mrowka, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US); Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (US)

    1993-03-01

    The authors discuss their recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 {Angstrom} x-ray laser transition in Ne-like Se. These measurements used a high-resolution grating spectrometer and were performed over a wide range of laser amplifier lengths. The data have enabled them to extrapolate the intrinsic line width and to observe the effects of gain-narrowing and saturation on the line profile. They find an intrinsic width which is 1.4 times the Doppler width, they observe gain-narrowing in intermediate length amplifiers, and they observe no re-broadening in long, saturated amplifiers. These results suggest that collisional line-broadening has a significant effect on the line profile and saturation behavior of this laser.

  5. Spectral Atlas of X-ray Lines Emitted During Solar Flares Based on CHIANTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, E.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2005-01-01

    A spectral atlas of X-ray lines in the wavelength range 7.47-18.97 Angstroms is presented, based on high-resolution spectra obtained during two M-class solar flares (on 1980 August 25 and 1985 July 2) with the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The physical properties of the flaring plasmas are derived as a function of time using strong, isolated lines. From these properties predicted spectra using the CHIANTI database have been obtained which were then compared with wavelengths and fluxes of lines in the observed spectra to establish line identifications. identifications for nearly all the observed lines in the resulting atlas are given, with some significant corrections to previous analysis of these flare spectra.

  6. Analysis of X-ray Spectra of High-Z Elements obtained on Nike with high spectral and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Yefim; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2014-10-01

    The spectra of multi-charged ions of Hf, Ta, W, Pt, Au and Bi have been studied on Nike krypton-fluoride laser facility with the help of two kinds of X-ray spectrometers. First, survey instrument covering a spectral range from 0.5 to 19.5 angstroms which allows simultaneous observation of both M- and N- spectra of above mentioned elements with high spectral resolution. Second, an imaging spectrometer with interchangeable spherically bent Quartz crystals that added higher efficiency, higher spectral resolution and high spatial resolution to the qualities of the former one. Multiple spectral lines with X-ray energies as high as 4 keV that belong to the isoelectronic sequences of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn were identified with the help of NOMAD package developed by Dr. Yu. Ralchenko and colleagues. In our continuous effort to support DOE-NNSA's inertial fusion program, this campaign covered a wide range of plasma conditions that result in production of relatively energetic X-rays. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  7. Spectral Evolution of Coronal Hard X-ray Sources during Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, Sam; Lin, R. P.

    2006-06-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) emissions during solar flares are most prominent at chromospheric footpoints of flare loops which reveal where flare-accelerated electrons lose their energy by collision. The lower density in the corona makes it much more difficult to detect coronal HXR emissions, but coronal HXR sources directly reveal insights into the acceleration region (e.g. Masuda et al. 1994). Observations with Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) give for the first time detailed spatial and spectral observations in the HXR range. Initial results of a few events reveal at least two different spectral behavior, possibly indicating two different acceleration mechanisms: (1) Coronal HXR sources with a 'soft-hard-soft' behavior (Battaglia & Benz 2006), and (2) sources that show spectral hardening in time, i.e. a 'soft-hard-harder' behavior (Krucker et al. 2005). After a short review of recent RHESSI observations, we will present statistical results on the spectral evolution of coronal HXR sources of 50 partly occulted limb flares seen by RHESSI.

  8. New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z. (La Trobe); (Melbourne)

    2012-09-25

    An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

  9. Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Kobayashi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2012-12-24

    Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 {mu}m pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

  10. Possible application of X-ray optical elements for reducing the spectral bandwidth of an X-ray SASE FEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Feldhaus; E. L Saldin; J. R Schneider; E. A Schneidmiller; M. V Yurkov

    1997-01-01

    A new design for a single pass X-ray Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL is proposed. The scheme consists of two undulators and an X-ray monochromator located between them. The first stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the SASE linear regime. After the exit of the first undulator the electron bunch is guided through a non-isochronous bypass and the X-ray

  11. Simulation of experimental investigations of X-ray spectral path lengths on Iskra-5 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'kov, S A; Sharov, O O [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    We describe an improved Slater average-ion model employed in the numerical-theoretical analysis of experimental data, which were obtained in the investigation of X-ray spectral path lengths performed on the Iskra-5 laser facility at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). The proposed model permits determining the spectral characteristics of the X-ray radiation with an accuracy of a few electronvolts. We outline the results of simulations of experiments with X-ray radiation-heated aluminium and germanium specimens of initial thickness of {approx}0.1 mm, in which absorption lines arising from 1s-2p transitions in Al and the absorption band arising from 2p-3d transitions in Ge were recorded.

  12. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Bionta, M R; Hartmann, N; Weaver, M; French, D; Nicholson, D J; Cryan, J P; Glownia, J M; Baker, K; Bostedt, C; Chollet, M; Ding, Y; Fritz, D M; Fry, A R; Kane, D J; Krzywinski, J; Lemke, H T; Messerschmidt, M; Schorb, S; Zhu, D; White, W E; Coffee, R N

    2014-08-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10-100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for "measure-and-sort" at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses. PMID:25173255

  13. X-RAY SPECTRAL CONSTRAINTS FOR z {approx} 2 MASSIVE GALAXIES: THE IDENTIFICATION OF REFLECTION-DOMINATED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. C.; Del Moro, A.; Goulding, A. D.; Mullaney, J. R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Young, M.; Rafferty, D. A.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Daddi, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lehmer, B. D. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-04127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Paolillo, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo V. Cinthia, 9, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Shemmer, O. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We use the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey to place direct constraints on the ubiquity of z {approx} 2 heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in K < 22 BzK-selected galaxies. Forty-seven ({approx}21%) of the 222 BzK-selected galaxies in the central region of the CDF-S are detected at X-ray energies, 11 ({approx}5%) of which have hard X-ray spectral slopes ({Gamma} {approx}< 1), indicating the presence of heavily obscured AGN activity (N{sub H} {approx}> 3 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}). The other 36 X-ray detected BzK galaxies appear to be relatively unobscured AGNs and starburst galaxies; we use X-ray variability analyses over a rest-frame baseline of {approx}3 years to further confirm the presence of AGN activity in many of these systems. The majority (7 out of 11) of the heavily obscured AGNs have excess infrared emission over that expected from star formation (termed 'infrared-excess galaxies'). However, we find that X-ray detected heavily obscured AGNs only comprise {approx}25% of the infrared-excess galaxy population, which is otherwise composed of relatively unobscured AGNs and starburst galaxies. We find that the typical X-ray spectrum of the heavily obscured AGNs is better characterized by a pure reflection model than an absorbed power-law model, suggesting extreme Compton-thick absorption (N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) in some systems. We verify this result by producing a composite rest-frame 2-20 keV spectrum, which has a similar shape as a reflection-dominated X-ray spectrum and reveals an emission feature at rest-frame energy {approx}6.4 keV, likely to be due to Fe K. These heavily obscured AGNs are likely to be the distant analogs of the reflection-dominated AGNs recently identified at z {approx} 0 with >10 keV observatories. On the basis of these analyses, we estimate the space density for typical (intrinsic X-ray luminosities of L{sub 2-10keV} {approx}> 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) heavily obscured and Compton-thick AGNs at z {approx} 2. Our space-density constraints are conservative lower limits but they are already consistent with the range of predictions from X-ray background models.

  14. UV-VIS and FTIR spectral studies of CR39 plastics irradiated with X-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Chong; I. Ishak; R. H. Mahat; Y. M. Amin

    1997-01-01

    A study has been made on the UV-VIS and FTIR spectra of CR-39 plastics irradiated with 50 kVp tube X-rays in the dose range 0ndash;45 MR. The optical transmittance over the wavelength region of 200–1000nm decreases with the X-ray exposure, much greater decrease being observed in the UV region. The IR absorption spectra of the irradiated samples show the presence

  15. The X-ray spectral variability of the BL Lacertae type object PKS 2155-304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembay, S.; Warwick, R. S.; Urry, C. M.; Sokoloski, J.; George, I. M.; Makino, F.; Ohashi, T.; Tashiro, M.

    1993-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the hard X-ray properties of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304 based on measurements made in 1988 and 1989 with the Large Area Counter (LAC) on board the Ginga satellite. The source exhibited a high degree of variability with a dynamic range of a factor 7 in the 2-6 keV band. The fastest amplitude variation was a factor 2 decline in the intensity in this band within 4 hours. The spectrum is characterized by a break which occurs at about 4 keV. Spectral fits to the data integrated in 6400 s time bins reveal that, in common with previous observations of BL Lacertae objects, the spectral slope is generally anticorrelated with intensity in the sense that the spectrum hardens as the intensity increases. However, the tracks of sequential points in the index-intensity plane are occasionally seen to differ during the rise and decay stages of individual flares. Furthermore, during one, or possibly two, flaring episodes the spectral index is observed to correlate with intensity variations.

  16. X-ray diffraction and spectral studies of biological native and modified tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazina, A. A.; Budantsev, A. Yu.; Bras, W.; Deshcherevskaya, N. P.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Gadzhiev, A. M.; Korneev, V. N.; Lanina, N. F.; Letyagin, V. P.; Maevsky, E. I.; Matyushin, A. M.; Podolsky, I. Ya.; Samsonova, M. V.; Sergienko, P. M.; Simonova, N. B.; Stankevich, V. G.; Trunova, V. A.; Vavilov, V. M.; Chernyaev, A. L.; Sharafutdinov, M. R.; Sheromov, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    X-ray diffraction and spectral data obtained by studying different types of native and modified human and animal tissues are reported. It has been found that the proteoglycan structure undergoes transformation upon interaction with calcium cations. The role of the extracellular matrix in the structure of the native tissue is discussed.

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectral transmittance study of stoichiometry in sputtered vanadium oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghanashyam Krishna; Y. Debauge; A. K. Bhattacharya

    1998-01-01

    The growth of magnetron sputtered vanadium oxide thin films has been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectral transmittance in the region from 350 to 1100 nm. It is shown that films stoichiometry is dependent on film thickness as well as oxygen partial pressure. Beyond a critical thickness of ? 250 nm, the films are completely stoichiometric V2O5

  18. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSES OF SPECTRAL INDICES OF NONTHERMAL EMISSIONS DERIVED FROM HARD X-RAYS AND MICROWAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)] [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Kiyohara, Junko; Takasaki, Hiroyuki [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)] [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Narukage, Noriyuki [Institute of Space and Astronomical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)] [Institute of Space and Astronomical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Masuda, Satoshi [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)] [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan); Shimojo, Masumi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Nakajima, Hiroshi, E-mail: asai@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano, 384-1305 (Japan)] [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano, 384-1305 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    We studied electron spectral indices of nonthermal emissions seen in hard X-rays (HXRs) and microwaves. We analyzed 12 flares observed by the Hard X-Ray Telescope aboard Yohkoh, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and compared the spectral indices derived from total fluxes of HXRs and microwaves. Except for four events, which have very soft HXR spectra suffering from the thermal component, these flares show a gap {Delta}{delta} between the electron spectral indices derived from HXRs {delta} {sub X} and those from microwaves {delta}{sub {mu}} ({Delta}{delta} = {delta} {sub X} - {delta}{sub {mu}}) of about 1.6. Furthermore, from the start to the peak times of the HXR bursts, the time profiles of the HXR spectral index {delta} {sub X} evolve synchronously with those of the microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}}, keeping the constant gap. We also examined the spatially resolved distribution of the microwave spectral index by using NoRH data. The microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}} tends to be larger, which means a softer spectrum, at HXR footpoint sources with stronger magnetic field than that at the loop tops. These results suggest that the electron spectra are bent at around several hundreds of keV, and become harder at the higher energy range that contributes the microwave gyrosynchrotron emission.

  19. The solar spectral irradiances from x ray to radio wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Sources of new measurements of the solar EUV, UV, and visible spectrum are presented together with discussion of formation of the solar spectrum as a problem in stellar atmospheres. Agreement between the data and a modern synthetic spectrum shows that observed radiative variability is a minor perturbation on a photosphere in radiative equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Newly observed solar variability in 1992 defines a magnetic episode on the Sun closely associated with changes in both spectral irradiances and the total irradiance. This episode offers the opportunity to track the relationship between radiation and magnetic flux evolution.

  20. The X-Ray Spectral Evolution in X-Ray Binaries and Its Application to Constrain the Black Hole Mass of Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingwen Wu; Minfeng Gu

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the hard X-ray photon index Gamma and the Eddington ratio [xi=LX(0.5-25 keV)\\/LEdd] in six X-ray binaries (XRBs) with well-constrained black hole masses and distances. We find that different XRBs follow different anticorrelations between Gamma and xi when xi is less than a critical value, while Gamma and xi generally follow the same positive correlation when

  1. Parameterized algorithms for quantitative differentials in spectrally equivalent medical diagnostic x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative equivalence of spectra transmitted by two different elemental filters require a good match in terms of shape and size over the entire energy range of 0-150 keV used in medical diagnostic radiology. However, the photoelectric absorptions and Compton scattering involved in the interaction of x rays with matter at these relatively low photon energies differ in a nonuniform manner with energy and atomic number. By careful choice of thicknesses for filter materials with an atomic number between 12 and 39, when compared with aluminum, it is possible to obtain transmitted beams of the same shape (quality) but not of the same size (quantity). In this paper, calculations have been carried out for the matching of the shapes and sizes of beams transmitted through specified thicknesses of aluminium filter and spectrally equivalent thicknesses of other filter materials (different from aluminium) using FORTRAN source codes traceable to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM), College Park, MD, USA. Parametrized algorithms for the evaluation of quantitative differentials (deficit or surplus) in radiation output (namely, photon fluence, exposure, kerma, energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose) from these transmitted spectrally equivalent beams were developed. These differentials range between 1%, and 4% at 1 mm Al filtration and between 8%, and 25% for filtration of 6 mm Al for different filter materials in comparison with aluminum. Also developed were models for factors for converting measures of photon fluence, exposure-area product, (EAP), and kerma-area product (KAP) to risk related quantities such as energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose from the spectrally equivalent beams. The thicknesses of other filter materials that are spectrally equivalent to given thicknesses of aluminum filter were characterized using polynomial functions. The fact that the use of equivalent spectra in radiological practice can provide means of ranking the differentials in radiographic image quality and stochastic risk is discussed. PMID:16013736

  2. Morphology and spectral characteristics of the X-ray emission of M33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinchieri, G.; Fabbiano, G.; Peres, G.

    1988-01-01

    A previous analysis of the X-ray data on M33 has been extended to include a detailed study of the morpholgoy and spectral characteristics of the X-ray emission, and the results are reported. A low surface brightness, extended emission in the plane of the galaxy is detected. The X-ray luminosity of this component, about 10 to the 38th egs/s, is comparable to the total luminosity of the bright sources observed in the same region. Its radial distribution is similar to that of the blue light. The spectrum of the extended emission shows two distinct components: a hard one, with a temperature above 3 keV and a soft one with a temperature below 1 keV. The X-ray spectrum of the nuclear source, which is inconsistent with any of the known spectra of X-ray binary sources, can be fitted with either a low-temperature thermal emission or a steep power law model.

  3. X-ray spectral variability of low ionization nuclear emission line regions (LINERs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-García, L.; González-Martín, O.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.

    2015-05-01

    Although variability is a general property of AGN, and in LINERs variations in timescales of months/years have been found for some objects, it is not clear how these changes occur. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the X-ray variability in LINERs, including the main driver of such variations. We use the 18 LINERs in the Palomar sample with data at different epochs available in Chandra and/or XMM-Newton archives. All the spectra for the same object are simultaneously fitted to study long term variations. The nature of the variability pattern was studied allowing the different parameters to vary during the spectral fit. Whenever possible, short term variations and UV variability are studied. Short term variations are not found at X-rays. Taking into account the data at X-rays (seven out of 12 objects) and UV (five out of six), ten out of 13 LINERs show long term variations. The main driver of the X-ray variations is related to changes in the nuclear power, while changes on absorptions are found only in one case. According to their BH masses, accretion rates and variability timescales, LINERs behave as more powerful AGN at X-rays. However, we conclude that a different accretion mechanism (compared to more powerful AGN) may be present, based on the anticorrelation between ? and the Eddington ratio.

  4. Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions

    SciTech Connect

    Attwood, D.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); and others

    1999-05-01

    Undulator radiation, generated by relativistic electrons traversing a periodic magnet structure, can provide a continuously tunable source of very bright and partially coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), soft X-ray (SXR), and X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically, 1--10 W are radiated within a 1/N relative spectral bandwidth, where N is of order 100. Monochromators are frequently used to narrow the spectral bandwidth and increase the longitudinal coherence length, albeit with a more than proportionate loss of power. Pinhole spatial filtering is employed to provide spatially coherent radiation at a power level determined by the wavelength, electron beam, and undulator parameters. In this paper, experiments are described in which broadly tunable, spatially coherent power is generated at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths extending from about 3 to 16 nm (80--430-eV photon energies). Spatially coherent power of order 10 {micro}W is achieved in a relative spectral bandwidth of 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, with 1.90-GeV electrons traversing an 8-cm period undulator of 55 periods. This radiation has been used in 13.4-nm interferometric tests that achieve an rms wavefront error (departure from sphericity) of {lambda}{sub euv}/330. These techniques scale in a straightforward manner to shorter soft X-ray wavelengths using 4--5-cm period undulators at 1.90 GeV and to X-ray wavelengths of order 0.1 nm using higher energy (6--8 GeV) electron beams at other facilities.

  5. Investigation of Solar Flares Using Spectrally, Spatially, and Temporally Resolved Observations in Gamma Rays, Hard X Rays, and Microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol Jo; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The high-energy components of solar flares radiate at a wide range of wavelengths. We are using spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved hard X-ray, gamma-ray, and microwave observations of solar flares to investigate flare models and to understand the flare acceleration process. The hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations are obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) spacecraft that was launched on February 5, 2002. The microwave observations are obtained with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), which has been dedicated to daily observations of solar flares in microwaves with a five-element interferometer since June 1992. These studies are expected to yield exciting new insights into the fundamental physics of the flare acceleration processes.

  6. PIXIE III: a very large area photon-counting CMOS pixel ASIC for sharp X-ray spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Delogu, P.; de Ruvo, P. L.; Vincenzi, A.

    2015-01-01

    PIXIE III is the third generation of very large area (32 × 25 mm2) pixel ASICs developed by Pixirad Imaging Counters s.r.l. to be used in combination with suitable X-ray sensor materials (Silicon, CdTe, GaAs) in hybrid assemblies using flip-chip bonding. A Pixirad unit module based on PIXIE III shows several advances compared to what has been available up to now. It has a very broad energy range (from 2 to 100 keV before full pulse saturation), high speed (100 ns peaking time), high frame rate (larger than 500 fps), dead-time-free operation, good energy resolution (around 2 keV at 20 keV), high photo-peak fraction and sharp spectral separation between the color images. In this paper the results obtained with PIXIE III both in a test bench set-up as well in X-ray imaging applications are discussed.

  7. X-Ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars. I. Spectral Evolution and Low-Energy Cutoffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Fiore; Martin Elvis; Paolo Giommi; Paolo Padovani

    1998-01-01

    We have used the WGA catalog of ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) X-ray sources to study the X-ray spectrum of about 500 quasars in the redshift interval 0.1-4.1, detected with a signal-to-noise ratio better than 7. We have parameterized the PSPC spectrum in terms of two \\

  8. X-ray spectral variability of LINERs selected from the Palomar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, L.; González-Martín, O.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.

    2014-07-01

    Variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been discovered at X-ray, UV, and radio frequencies on timescales from hours to years, being one of their most important features. Among the AGN family and according to theoretical studies, low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) nuclei would be variable objects at long timescales because of their large black hole masses and low accretion rates. Our aim is to investigate the spectral X-ray variability in LINERs, leading to an understanding of the nature of this kind of objects, including their accretion mechanism. We selected 18 LINERs from the Palomar sample, and used Chandra and XMM-Newton public archives to analyze their X-ray spectral properties at different epochs with timescales of years. Spectral modeling allowed us to investigate the parameter(s) responsible for the variations. The main result from the analysis is that long term spectral variability is very common, mostly related to the nuclear power at hard (2-10 keV) energies.

  9. High-spatial resolution and high-spectral resolution detector for use in the measurement of solar flare hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, U. D.; Orwig, Larry E.

    1988-01-01

    In the areas of high spatial resolution, the evaluation of a hard X-ray detector with 65 micron spatial resolution for operation in the energy range from 30 to 400 keV is proposed. The basic detector is a thick large-area scintillator faceplate, composed of a matrix of high-density scintillating glass fibers, attached to a proximity type image intensifier tube with a resistive-anode digital readout system. Such a detector, combined with a coded-aperture mask, would be ideal for use as a modest-sized hard X-ray imaging instrument up to X-ray energies as high as several hundred keV. As an integral part of this study it was also proposed that several techniques be critically evaluated for X-ray image coding which could be used with this detector. In the area of high spectral resolution, it is proposed to evaluate two different types of detectors for use as X-ray spectrometers for solar flares: planar silicon detectors and high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). Instruments utilizing these high-spatial-resolution detectors for hard X-ray imaging measurements from 30 to 400 keV and high-spectral-resolution detectors for measurements over a similar energy range would be ideally suited for making crucial solar flare observations during the upcoming maximum in the solar cycle.

  10. Sufficient statistics as a generalization of binning in spectral X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Adam S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the energy dependence of X-ray attenuation can be used to characterize materials. Yet, even with energy discriminating photon counting X-ray detectors, it is still unclear how to best form energy dependent measurements for spectral imaging. Common ideas include binning photon counts based on their energies and detectors with both photon counting and energy integrating electronics. These approaches can be generalized to energy weighted measurements, which we prove can form a sufficient statistic for spectral X-ray imaging if the weights used, which we term ?-weights, are basis attenuation functions that can also be used for material decomposition. To study the performance of these different methods, we evaluate the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of material estimates in the presence of quantum noise. We found that the choice of binning and weighting schemes can greatly affect the performance of material decomposition. Even with optimized thresholds, binning condenses information but incurs penalties to decomposition precision and is not robust to changes in the source spectrum or object size, although this can be mitigated by adding more bins or removing photons of certain energies from the spectrum. On the other hand, because ?-weighted measurements form a sufficient statistic for spectral imaging, the CRLB of the material decomposition estimates is identical to the quantum noise limited performance of a system with complete energy information of all photons. Finally, we show that ?-weights lead to increased conspicuity over other methods in a simulated calcium contrast experiment. PMID:20682470

  11. Broad-band short term X-ray spectral variability of the quasar PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzeu, G.; Reeves, J.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Costa, M.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-07-01

    We present an analysis of a recent 500 ks Suzaku observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby (z=0.184) luminous (L_{bol}˜10^{47} erg s^{-1}) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. Short term X-ray spectral variability has been detected, which may be caused by two variable coverers of column density log (N_{H,1}/cm^{-2})=22.3±0.1 and log (N_{H,2}/cm(-2) )=23.2±0.1 We find that the partial covering requires an outflow velocity of ˜0.25 c, coincident with the velocity of the highly ionised outflow at the 99.9 % confidence level. Therefore the partial covering clouds could be the denser clumpy part of an inhomogeneous wind. An obscuration event occurs 1250 ks into the observation, where the spectrum becomes totally opaque at Fe K. This implies that the size of the absorber and likewise the X-ray emitter, to be less than 20 Rg. We also analyse the flaring behaviour in the lightcurve. The behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray flux, suggested a corona characterised by an extended "warm" region of ˜20 Rg in size combined with more compact regions of "hot" electrons of ˜8 Rg in size.

  12. Rapid spectral and flux time variations in a solar burst observed at various dm-mm wavelengths and at hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zodivaz, A. M.; Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Takakura, T.; Cliver, E. W.; Tapping, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A solar burst was observed with high sensitivity and time resolution at cm-mm wavelengths by two different radio observatories (Itapetinga and Algonquin), with high spectral time resolution at dm-mm wavelengths by patrol instruments (Sagamore Hill), and at hard X-rays (HXM Hinotori). At the onset of the major burst time structure there was a rapid rise in the spectral turnover frequency (from 5 to 15 GHz), in about 10s, coincident to a reduction of the spectral index in the optically thin part of the spectrum. The burst maxima were not time coincident at the optically thin radio frequencies and at the different hard X-ray energy ranges. The profiles at higher radio frequencies exhibited better time coincidence to the high energy X-rays. The hardest X-ray spectrum (-3) coincided with peak radio emission at the higher frequency (44 GHz). The event appeared to be built up by a first major injection of softer particles followed by other injections of harder particles. Ultrafast time structures were identified as superimposed on the burst emission at the cm-mm high sensitivity data at X-rays, with predominant repetition rates ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 Hz.

  13. Femtosecond X-Ray Free Electron Laser Pulse Duration Measurement from Spectral Correlation Function

    SciTech Connect

    Lutman, A. A

    2012-04-17

    We present a novel method for measuring the duration of femtosecond x-ray pulses from self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron lasers by performing statistical analysis in the spectral domain. Analytical expressions of the spectral correlation function were derived in the linear regime to extract both the pulse duration and the spectrometer resolution. Numerical simulations confirmed that the method can be also used in the nonlinear regime. The method was demonstrated experimentally at the Linac Coherent Light Source by measuring pulse durations down to 13 fs FWHM.

  14. Multivariate analysis of X-ray, ion and electron spectral images: from surface to 3D materials characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2005-02-01

    Spectral imaging where a complete spectrum is collected from each of a series of spatial locations (1D lines, 2D images or 3D volumes) is now available on a wide range of analytical tools - from electron and x-ray to ion beam instruments. With this capability to collect extremely large spectral images comes the need for automated data analysis tools that can rapidly and without bias reduce a large number of raw spectra to a compact, chemically relevant, and easily interpreted representation. It is clear that manual interrogation of individual spectra is impractical even for very small spectral images (< 5000 spectra). More typical spectral images can contain tens of thousands to millions of spectra, which given the constraint of acquisition time may contain between 5 and 300 counts per 1000-channel spectrum. Conventional manual approaches to spectral image analysis such as summing spectra from regions or constructing x-ray maps are prone to bias and possibly error. One way to comprehensively analyze spectral image data, which has been automated, is to utilize an unsupervised self-modeling multivariate statistical analysis method such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR). This approach has proven capable of solving a wide range of analytical problems based upon the counting of x-rays (SEM/STEM-EDX, XRF, PIXE), electrons (EELS, XPS) and ions (TOF-SIMS). As an example of the MCR approach, a STEM x-ray spectral image from a ZrB2-SiC composite was acquired and analyzed. The data were generated in a FEI Tecnai F30-ST TEM/STEM operated at 300kV, equipped with an EDAX SUTW x-ray detector. The spectral image was acquired with the TIA software on the STEM at 128 by 128 pixels (12nm/pixel) for 100msec dwell per pixel (total acquisition time was 30 minutes) with a probe of approximately the same size as each pixel. Each spectrum in the image had, on average, 500 counts. The calculation took 5 seconds on a PC workstation with dual 2.4GHz PentiumIV Xeon processors and 2Gbytes of RAM and resulted in four chemically relevant components, which are shown in Figure 1. The analysis region was at a triple junction of three ZrB2 grains that contained zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide and a glass phase. The power of unbiased statistical methods, such as MCR as applied here, is that no a priori knowledge of the material's chemistry is required. The algorithms, in this case, effectively reduced over 16,000 2000-channel spectra (64Mbytes) to four images and four spectral shapes (72kbytes), which in this case represent chemical phases. This three order of magnitude compression is achieved rapidly with no loss of chemical information. There is also the potential to correlate multiple analytical techniques like, for example, EELS and EDS in the STEM adding sensitivity to light elements as well as bonding information for EELS to the more comprehensive spectral coverage of EDS.

  15. Astro-H: New Spectral Features Seen in High-Resolution X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Odaka, Hirokazu; Astro-H Science Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) microcalorimeter on Astro-H will provide the first high-resolution X-ray spectra of diffuse astrophysical sources. One key new type of science will be charge exchange spectroscopy, wherein highly-ionized metals interact with neutral hydrogen, helium, or other material. This has been detected with modest resolution in comets and planets, and is thought to be the origin of at least some of the 1/4 keV soft X-ray background. We will report on the predicted emission that the Astro-H SXS may detector from all of these sources using the recently released AtomdB Charge Exchange spectral model acx, and comment on possible other sources such as starburst galaxies. The SXS will also observe complex high-resolution spectra from other diffuse sources such as overionized supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. We will discuss these in the context of advanced spectral models using the recently released AtomDB v3.0 data and non-equilibrium models.

  16. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Boldt, E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually emerge from an earlier stage at z approx = 4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The conjecture is pursued that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx. 10 to the 8th power years these central black holes are spun-up to a canonical Kerr equilibrium state (A/M = 0.998; Thorne 1974) and shown how they then can lead to spectral evolution involving non-thermal emission extending to gamma rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. That major portion of the CXB remaining after the contribution of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z 1 can account for the gamma ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and 2 missions as well as gamma ray and optical data are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model.

  17. X-ray spectral line coincidences between fluorine K- and transition-metal L-series lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhalter, P. G.; Charatis, G.; Rockett, P. D.

    1983-11-01

    Wavelengths of lines measured as pumping candidates in transition metals are presented. Spectral data were collected for Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni in the 12-15 A region, and high-resolution L-series spectra were collected for beryl and thallium acid phthalate. The precision in measuring the X-ray lines was 1-2 mA in the best cases of distinct, narrow lines and 4-5 mA for the weaker or broader lines. Line coincidences were identified between Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni L spectra and F VIII and F IX K-shell lines. High-resolution X-ray spectra were collected under controlled illumination and target conditions using 1.05 and 0.527 micron laser excitation with the KMS CHROMA laser, which was varied in intensity from 1.2-2.5 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm in 200-ps pulses. Within an accuracy range of 1-3 mA, some five L-series X-ray lines, mostly 2p-3d transitions from Cr, Mn, and Ni, had wavelength values coincident with K-series lines in fluorine.

  18. Spectral Comparison of Weak Short Bursts to the Persistent X-rays from the Magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 in its 2009 Outburst

    E-print Network

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sakamoto, Takanori; Makishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In January 2009, the 2.1-sec anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408 evoked intense burst activity. A follow-up Suzaku observation on January 28 recorded enhanced persistent emission both in soft and hard X-rays (Enoto et al. 2010b). Through re-analysis of the same Suzaku data, 18 short bursts were identified in the X-ray events recorded by the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) and the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS). Their spectral peaks appear in the HXD-PIN band, and their 10-70 keV X-ray fluences range from ~2e-9 erg cm-2 to 1e-7 erg cm-2. Thus, the 18 events define a significantly weaker burst sample than was ever obtained, ~1e-8-1e-4 erg cm-2. In the ~0.8 to ~300 keV band, the spectra of the three brightest bursts can be represented successfully by a two-blackbody model, or a few alternative ones. A spectrum constructed by stacking 13 weaker short bursts with fluences in the range (0.2-2)e-8 erg s-1 is less curved, and its ratio to the persistent emission spectrum becomes constant at ~170 above ~8 keV. As a resu...

  19. X-RAY SPECTRAL CUTOFF AND THE LACK OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES M81 X-6 AND HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R. [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Jithesh, V.; Ravikumar, C. D., E-mail: gulabd@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Malappuram 673635 (India)

    2013-07-10

    We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies {approx}> 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

  20. Characterization of Medium-Range Order in Noncrystalline Systems by Fluctuation X-ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, D.; Fan, L.; McNulty, I.; Gibson, J.M.; Treacy, M.M.M.J. (AZU)

    2007-05-24

    In recent years, materials research has increasingly focused on developing a better understanding of the disordered state of matter. Much of our understanding amorphous materials has depended upon the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) obtained from diffraction experiments. However, the PDF method has poor sensitivity to medium-range order (MRO), the characterization of which is a long standing problem. Recently, fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) was developed and successfully used for probing MRO in amorphous materials. This technique gains its sensitivity to MRO by examining fluctuations in coherently scattered (speckle) intensity patterns from very small sample volumes, on a length scale determined by the illuminated radius or associated imaging resolution. The speckle variance depends on two-, three- and four-body atomic correlation functions, whereas the average, which is just the diffracted intensity, depends only on the two-body PDF. Higher order correlation functions are more sensitive to MRO. In the x-ray regime, many techniques exist to probe long- and short-range order in matter, in real space by imaging and in reciprocal space by diffraction and scattering. The average intensity obtained from scattering and diffraction experiments is routinely inverted to give the atomic PDF. At present, no x-ray technique effectively probes MRO. By comparison to electrons, x-rays provide access to longer length scales due to their longer wavelengths and offer greater sample penetration with less radiation damage, as well as elemental and chemical sensitivity through resonant effects. Consequently, we are developing fluctuation x-ray microscopy (FXM) at the 2-ID-B soft x-ray beamline to study MRO in bulk samples, solutions and films at nanometer and larger length scales. Compared to FEM, FXM is better suited to materials with larger characteristic length scales such as polymers, biological macromolecules and their complexes, as well as other nanostructured materials, nanocomposites and hybrids.

  1. The Next Generation Atlas of Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions from Radio to X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhaohui; Brotherton, Michael S.; Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Green, Richard F.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Hines, Dean C.; Kelly, Benjamin J.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Li, Jun; Tang, Baitian; Xie, Yanxia

    2011-09-01

    We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared.

  2. A direct comparison of X-ray spectral models for tori in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-03-01

    Several X-ray spectral models for tori in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are available to constrain the properties of tori; however, the accuracy of these models has not been verified. We recently constructed a code for the torus using GEANT4, which can easily handle different geometries. Thus, we adopt the same assumptions as Murphy & Yaqoob (2009, MNRAS, 397, 1549) and Brightman & Nandra (2011, MNRAS, 413, 1206) and try to reproduce their spectra. As a result, we can reproduce well the reflection spectra and the strength of the Fe K? line of Murphy & Yaqoob, for both NH = 1024 and 1025 cm-2. However, we cannot produce the strong reflection component of Brightman & Nandra in the low-energy band. The origin of this component is the reflection from the visible inner wall of the torus, and the reflection should be very weak in the edge-on directions under the geometry of Brightman & Nandra. Therefore, the behaviour of the reflection spectra in Brightman & Nandra is not consistent with their geometry. The strength of the Fe K? line of Brightman & Nandra is also different from our results and the analytical result in the optically thin case. The limitation of the spectral model will bias the parameters from the X-ray spectral fitting.

  3. X-Ray Spectral Components Observed in the Afterglow of GRB 130925A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Horesh, Assaf; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at greater than 4 less than 1 significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 x 10 (sup 5) and 10 (sup 6) seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several kiloelectronvolts width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10 (sup 8) centimeters), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  4. THE NEXT GENERATION ATLAS OF QUASAR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM RADIO TO X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Zhaohui; Li Jun; Xie Yanxia [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Brotherton, Michael S.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Kelly, Benjamin J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Green, Richard F. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Nemmen, Rodrigo S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ganguly, Rajib [Department of Computer Science, Engineering, and Physics, University of Michigan-Flint, 213 Murchie Science Building, 303 Kearsley Street, Flint, MI 48502 (United States); Hines, Dean C. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Kriss, Gerard A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tang, Baitian, E-mail: zshang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 1245 Webster Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared.

  5. Deep galaxy count predictions in the radio, infrared, and X-ray spectral bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The existence of a dominant population of strongly evolving starburst sources at moderate redshift is a plausible explanation for the excess number of faint blue galaxies detected in deep sky surveys. Multiwavelength observations at faint magnitudes would allow the existence of such a population to be confirmed. We use observed luminosity correlations and physical properties of known starburst galaxies to predict their contribution to the deep radio, infrared, and X-ray counts, as well as to the diffuse extragalactic background radiation in these various spectral bands.

  6. Spectral x-ray diffraction using a 6 megapixel photon counting array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Ryan D.; Pogranichniy, Nicholas R.; Muir, J. Lewis; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Toth, Scott J.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2015-03-01

    Pixel-array array detectors allow single-photon counting to be performed on a massively parallel scale, with several million counting circuits and detectors in the array. Because the number of photoelectrons produced at the detector surface depends on the photon energy, these detectors offer the possibility of spectral imaging. In this work, a statistical model of the instrument response is used to calibrate the detector on a per-pixel basis. In turn, the calibrated sensor was used to perform separation of dual-energy diffraction measurements into two monochromatic images. Targeting applications include multi-wavelength diffraction to aid in protein structure determination and X-ray diffraction imaging.

  7. Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

  8. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  9. Artificial Temperature Anisotropy of Crystals in X-Ray Frequency Range

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, Vahram P.; Gasparyan, Laura G.; Balyan, Minas K. [Department of solid state physics, Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2010-04-06

    The effect of artificial temperature anisotropy of crystals in X-ray frequency range was observed for the first time and an effort to theoretically interpret this effect in Bragg-Laue diffraction case was made. It was established that an isotropic crystal optically turns into an artificially anisotropic one with optical axis along the direction of applied external influence as a symmetry axis, giving rise to the double refraction.

  10. Analysis of nuclear materials by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and spectral effects of alpha decay

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, Christopher G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectra collected from alpha emitters are complicated by artifacts inherent to the alpha decay process, particularly when using portable instruments. For example, {sup 239}Pu EDXRF spectra exhibit a prominent uranium L X-ray emission peak series due to sample alpha decay rather than source-induced X-ray fluorescence. A portable EDXRF instrument was used to collect spectra from plutonium, americium, and a Pu-contaminated steel sample. The plutonium sample was also analyzed by wavelength dispersive XRF to demonstrate spectral differences observed when using these very different instruments.

  11. Search for X-ray Spectral Features in Two BL Lac Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This grant covered the analysis and interpretation of astrophysical data obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite mission. BL Lac objects are active galactic nuclei that exhibit unusually strong polarization and variability, and are also missing the usual strong optical/ultraviolet emission lines. They are typically strong X-ray sources, but this is the first survey gathering high-quality spectral data from a significant number of these objects. The observations were successful, and all data (for objects in this proposal as well as that of Dr. Perlman s) were of very good quality, as expected. We find that the X-ray spectra of most of these objects are well described by a power-law after allowing for low-energy absorption that can be attributed to neutral gas in the line of sight, presumably located in our own Galaxy. However, in some cases we see indications of a deviation from power-law behavior in the sense that the spectrum appears to be steepening (softening) to higher energies. We are developing a theoretical model in which the steepening is a result of energy-dependent cooling of the radiating particles.We searched for discrete spectral features that might be intrinsic to the objects or their host galaxies, but we found none at the level of sensitivity provided by these data. These are interestingly strong upper bounds.

  12. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scatteringa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, D.; Vorberger, J.; Helfrich, J.; Gericke, D. O.; Bachmann, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Barbrel, B.; Blaževi?, A.; Carroll, D. C.; Cayzac, W.; Döppner, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Frank, A.; Frydrych, S.; Gamboa, E. J.; Gauthier, M.; Göde, S.; Granados, E.; Gregori, G.; Hartley, N. J.; Kettle, B.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Notley, M. M.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Ravasio, A.; Riley, D.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Schumaker, W.; Siegenthaler, K.; Spindloe, C.; Wagner, F.; Wünsch, K.; Glenzer, S. H.; Roth, M.; Falcone, R. W.

    2015-05-01

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  13. LONG-TERM X-RAY SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF THE NUCLEUS OF M81 V. La Parola,1

    E-print Network

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    LONG-TERM X-RAY SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF THE NUCLEUS OF M81 V. La Parola,1 G. Fabbiano,2 M. Elvis,2-luminosity active galactic nu- cleus (AGN; Peimbert & Torres-Peimbert 1981; Elvis & van Speybroeck 1982) and has. 1996), and a variable pointlike X-ray source (LX $ 1040 ergs sÀ1), M81 X-5 (Elvis & van Speybroeck 1982

  14. Soft X-Ray Measurement of the TPE-RX Reversed Field Pinch Plasma Using High Spectral Resolution TES Microcalorimeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHINOZAKI Keisuke; HOSHINO Akio; ISHISAKI Yoshitaka; MORITA Umeyo; OHASHI Takaya; MIHARA Tatehiro; MITSUDA Kazuhisa; TANAKA Keiichi; YAGI Yasuyuki; KOGUCHI Haruhisa; HIRANO Yoichi; SAKAKITA Hajime

    2006-01-01

    We report the first result of soft X-ray spectroscopy for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma in TPE- RX using a high spectral resolution (FWHM ? 50 eV) superconductive transition edge sensor (TES) mi- crocalorimeter. Total 3472 count of X-ray signals were detected in 0.2-3.0 keV for 210 plasma shots during the flat-top phase (35-70 ms) after the pile-up rejection.

  15. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Multispectral Solar Telescope Array is a rocket-borne observatory which encompasses seven compact soft X-ray/EUV, multilayer-coated, and two compact far-UV, interference film-coated, Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. Extensive measurements are presented on the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the X-ray/EUV telescopes. Attention is given to systematic errors and measurement errors.

  16. Multilayer X-ray mirrors for the (4.4-5)-nm carbon-window spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, S. S.; Barysheva, M. M.; Vainer, Yu. A.; Gaikovich, P. K.; Pariev, D. E., E-mail: Pariev@ipmras.ru; Pestov, A. E.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Chkhalo, N. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Cr/C-based multilayer X-ray mirrors intended for the reflection of X-ray radiation in the 'carbon-window' spectral region ({lambda} = 4.4-5 nm) are fabricated and studied. The structures are formed by magnetron sputtering at different deposition parameters. Under normal incidence, record reflection coefficients up to 15% are reached. The structural parameters of the mirrors are investigated by reflectometry at wavelengths of 0.154 and 4.47 nm.

  17. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B. C., Jr.; Allen, Max J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed seven compact soft X-ray/EUV (XUV) multilayer coated and two compact FUV interference film coated Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes for a rocket borne observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. We report here on extensive measurements of the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the XUV telescopes carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  18. Processing of spectrally resolved x-ray images of inertial confinement fusion implosion cores recorded with multimonochromatic x-ray imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Florido, R. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Tommasini, R.; Koch, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We discuss the processing of data recorded with multimonochromatic x-ray imagers (MMI) in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The MMI records hundreds of gated, spectrally resolved images that can be used to unravel the spatial structure of the implosion core. In particular, we present a new method to determine the centers in all the array of images, a better reconstruction technique of narrowband implosion core images, two algorithms to determine the shape and size of the implosion core volume based on reconstructed broadband images recorded along three-quasiorthogonal lines of sight, and the removal of artifacts from the space-integrated spectra.

  19. THE FIRST HARD X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F., E-mail: tshimizu@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present results of our power spectral density (PSD) analysis of 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of {approx} - 1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For five of the highest signal-to-noise ratio sources, we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGNs, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGNs are similar to the high state of Galactic black holes.

  20. FIRST EVIDENCE FOR SPECTRAL STATE TRANSITIONS IN THE ESO 243-49 HYPERLUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HLX-1

    SciTech Connect

    Godet, O.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CESR, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Farrell, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-11-10

    The brightest ultra-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1, with a 0.2-10 keV X-ray luminosity of up to 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, provides the strongest evidence to date for the existence of intermediate mass black holes (BHs). Although small-scale X-ray spectral variability has already been demonstrated, we have initiated a monitoring campaign with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Swift satellite to search for luminosity-related spectral changes and to compare its behavior with the better-studied stellar mass BHs. In this Letter, we report a drop in the XRT count rate by a factor of approx8 which occurred simultaneously with a hardening of the X-ray spectrum. A second observation found that the source had re-brightened by a factor of approx21 which occurred simultaneously with a softening of the X-ray spectrum. This may be the first evidence for a transition between the low/hard and high/soft states.

  1. Pockels readout optical modulator: An x-ray imaging detector that maintains good efficiency over a broad energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, G.H.; Stupin, D.M.; Elliott, N.E.; Graser M. Jr.

    1985-11-01

    We present measurements of the performance of a Pockels readout optical modulator (PROM) x-ray imaging detector using a 30-kV constant potential bremsstrahlung source. A nickel step wedge was used to measure the spatial resolution and noise of the PROM image. PROMs are unique high-efficiency x-ray detectors that image with good spatial resolution over a wide range of x-ray energy. The PROM is constructed from an optically transparent, active crystal that is sensitive to x-ray dose. This unique construction allows the use of a thick crystal to increase efficiency for x-ray detection while avoiding the spatial resolution degradation that usually accompanies thick detectors.

  2. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Cammin, Jochen, E-mail: jcammin1@jhmi.edu, E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki, E-mail: jcammin1@jhmi.edu, E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu [Division of Medical Imaging Physics, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)] [Division of Medical Imaging Physics, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Xu, Jennifer [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)] [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi et al., “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011)]. The agreement between the x-ray spectra calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model and the measured spectra was evaluated for various levels of deadtime loss ratios (DLR) and incident spectral shapes, realized using different attenuators, in terms of the weighted coefficient of variation (COV{sub W}), i.e., the root mean square difference weighted by the statistical errors of the data and divided by the mean. Results: At low count rates, when DLR < 10%, the distorted spectra measured by the DXMCT-1 were in agreement with those calculated by SRE only, with COV{sub W}'s less than 4%. At higher count rates, the measured spectra were also in agreement with the ones calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model; with PMMA as attenuator, COV{sub W} was 5.6% at a DLR of 22% and as small as 6.7% for a DLR as high as 55%. Conclusions: The x-ray spectra calculated by the proposed model agreed with the measured spectra over a wide range of count rates and spectral shapes. The SRE model predicted the distorted, recorded spectra with low count rates over various types and thicknesses of attenuators. The study also validated the hypothesis that the complex spectral distortions in a PCD can be adequately modeled by cascading the count-rate independent SRE and the count-rate dependent PPE.

  3. Origin of the Characteristic X-ray Spectral Variation of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Yamasaki, H.; Mizumoto, M.; Sameshima, H.

    2015-07-01

    We have proposed the Variable Double Partial Covering (VDPC) model to explain characteristic spectral variability of MCG-6-30-15 (Miyakawa et al. 2012), 1H0707-495 (Mizumoto, Ebisawa and Sameshima 2014) and other 20 Seyfert galaxies (Iso et al. 2015). In this model, observed flux/spectral variations below 10 keV within a ˜day are primarily caused by change of the partial covering fraction of the central X-ray source by patchy absorbing clouds with internal structure. Here, we found the VDPC model is also successful to explain spectral variations as well as Root Mean Square (RMS) spectra of IRAS 13224-3809, Mrk 335 and Ark 564 in the 0.5 -10 keV. In addition to the well-known significant drop in the iron K-band, we occasionally found such intriguing iron L-peaks in the RMS spectra of 1H0707-495 and IRAS 13224-$3809, that appear when iron L-absorption edges are particularly deep. This feature is naturally explained with the VDPC model, where the fluxes of the direct component (without absorption edges) and the absorbed component (with absorption edges) exhibit anti-correlation while the sum is hardly variable. The fractional variation thus peaks at the energy where the flux separation between the two spectral components is the widest, corresponding to the iron L-edge.

  4. Single-step, quantitative x-ray differential phase contrast imaging using spectral detection in a coded aperture setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua

    2015-03-01

    In this abstract we describe the first non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) method that uses only a single-measurement step to retrieve with quantitative accuracy absorption, phase and differential phase. Our approach is based on utilizing spectral information from photon counting spectral detectors in conjunction with a coded aperture PCI setting to simplify the x-ray "phase problem" to a one-step method. The method by virtue of being single-step with no motion of any component for a given projection image has significantly high potential to overcome the barriers currently faced by PCI.

  5. Rigorous integral method in application to computing diffraction on relief gratings working in wavelength range from microwaves to x ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goray, Leonid I.

    1995-09-01

    Application of rigorous integral method for computing the efficiency of arbitrary profile relief gratings used in all the optical spectral range is presented in this paper. The main progress of the method and the programs lays in numerical solution algorithm. In particular, an approximation of Green-function and its normal derivative is used providing a sufficient accuracy for common practice simultaneously with satisfactory computation time. There is a very important peculiarity of the algorithm, namely both distribution of points of collocation and choice of the number of terms in Green-function expansion are used. These characteristics are different for each special case: perfect conductivity, finite conductivity, transmission gratings and gratings for X-ray and XUV. Such programs can be used as a mathematical model to design and calculate complex multielement optical systems with diffraction gratings.

  6. Relationship between X-ray spectral index and X-ray Eddington ratio for Mrk 335 and Ark 564

    E-print Network

    Sarma, R; Misra, R; Dewangan, G; Pathak, A; Sarma, J K

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive flux resolved spectral analysis of the bright Narrow line Seyfert I AGNs, Mrk~335 and Ark~564 using observations by XMM-Newton satellite. The mean and the flux resolved spectra are fitted by an empirical model consisting of two Comptonization components, one for the low energy soft excess and the other for the high energy power-law. A broad Iron line and a couple of low energies edges are required to explain the spectra. For Mrk~335, the 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity relative to the Eddington value, L{$_{X}$}/L$_{Edd}$, varied from 0.002 to 0.06. The index variation can be empirically described as $\\Gamma$ = 0.6 log$_{10}$ L{$_{X}$}/L$_{Edd}$ + 3.0 for $0.005 < L{_{X}}/L_{Edd} < 0.04$. At $ L_{{X}}/L_{Edd} \\sim 0.04$ the spectral index changes and then continues to follow $\\Gamma$ = 0.6 log$_{10}$ L$_{{X}}$/L$_{Edd}$ + 2.7, i.e. on a parallel track. We confirm that the result is independent of the specific spectral model used by fitting the data in the 3 - 10 keV band by only a powe...

  7. High Resolution Temporal and Spectral Monitoring of Eta Carinae's X-Ray Emission the June Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Henley, D.; Pittard, J. M.; Gull, T. R.; Davidson, K.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The supermassive and luminous star Eta Carinae undergoes strong X-ray variations every 5.5 years when its 2-10 keV X-ray emission brightens rapidly with wild fluctuations before dropping by a factor of 100 to a minimum lasting 3 months. The most recent X-ray "eclipse" began in June 2003 and during this time Eta Carinae was intensely observed throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we report the first results of frequent monitoring of the 2-10 keV band X-ray emission by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer along wit high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the transmission gratings on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We compare these observations to those results obtained during the previous X-ray eclipse in 1998, and interpret the variations in the X-ray brightness, in the amount of absorption, in the X-ray emission measure and in the K-shell emission lines in terms of a colliding wind binary model.

  8. Flat panel X-ray detector with reduced internal scattering for improved attenuation accuracy and dynamic range

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Peter D. (Santa Fe, NM); Claytor, Thomas N. (White Rock, NM); Berry, Phillip C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Charles R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-10-12

    An x-ray detector is disclosed that has had all unnecessary material removed from the x-ray beam path, and all of the remaining material in the beam path made as light and as low in atomic number as possible. The resulting detector is essentially transparent to x-rays and, thus, has greatly reduced internal scatter. The result of this is that x-ray attenuation data measured for the object under examination are much more accurate and have an increased dynamic range. The benefits of this improvement are that beam hardening corrections can be made accurately, that computed tomography reconstructions can be used for quantitative determination of material properties including density and atomic number, and that lower exposures may be possible as a result of the increased dynamic range.

  9. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zombeck, M. V.; Braeuninger, H.; Ondrusch, A.; Predehl, P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of high angular resolution grazing incidence scattering measurements of highly polished, coated optical flats in the X-ray spectral range of 1.5 to 6.4 keV are reported. The interpretation of these results in terms of surface microtopography is presented and the implications for grazing incidence X-ray imaging are discussed.

  10. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    The "Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives" (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  11. Discovery of Spatial and Spectral Structure in the X-Ray Emission from the Crab Nebula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Weisskopf; J. Jeff Hester; Allyn F. Tennant; Ronald F. Elsner; Norbert S. Schulz; Herman L. Marshall; Margarita Karovska; Joy S. Nichols; Douglas A. Swartz; Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak; Stephen L. O'Dell

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and pulsar during orbital calibration. Zeroth-order images with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) readout by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy array (ACIS-S) show a striking richness of X-ray structure at a resolution comparable to that of the best ground-based visible-light observations. The HETG-ACIS-S images reveal, for the first time, an X-ray

  12. Reabsorption of soft x-ray emission at high x-ray free-electron laser fluences.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G; Segtnan, Vegard H; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan P; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2014-10-10

    We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime. PMID:25375708

  13. Image-based spectral distortion correction for photon-counting x-ray detectors

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using an image-based method to correct for distortions induced by various artifacts in the x-ray spectrum recorded with photon-counting detectors for their application in breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: The polyenergetic incident spectrum was simulated with the tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) code and carefully calibrated to match the x-ray tube in this study. Experiments were performed on a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) photon-counting detector with five energy thresholds. Energy bins were adjusted to evenly distribute the recorded counts above the noise floor. BR12 phantoms of various thicknesses were used for calibration. A nonlinear function was selected to fit the count correlation between the simulated and the measured spectra in the calibration process. To evaluate the proposed spectral distortion correction method, an empirical fitting derived from the calibration process was applied on the raw images recorded for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms of 8.7, 48.8, and 100.0 mm. Both the corrected counts and the effective attenuation coefficient were compared to the simulated values for each of the five energy bins. The feasibility of applying the proposed method to quantitative material decomposition was tested using a dual-energy imaging technique with a three-material phantom that consisted of water, lipid, and protein. The performance of the spectral distortion correction method was quantified using the relative root-mean-square (RMS) error with respect to the expected values from simulations or areal analysis of the decomposition phantom. Results: The implementation of the proposed method reduced the relative RMS error of the output counts in the five energy bins with respect to the simulated incident counts from 23.0%, 33.0%, and 54.0% to 1.2%, 1.8%, and 7.7% for 8.7, 48.8, and 100.0 mm PMMA phantoms, respectively. The accuracy of the effective attenuation coefficient of PMMA estimate was also improved with the proposed spectral distortion correction. Finally, the relative RMS error of water, lipid, and protein decompositions in dual-energy imaging was significantly reduced from 53.4% to 6.8% after correction was applied. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that dramatic distortions in the recorded raw image yielded from a photon-counting detector could be expected, which presents great challenges for applying the quantitative material decomposition method in spectral CT. The proposed semi-empirical correction method can effectively reduce these errors caused by various artifacts, including pulse pileup and charge sharing effects. Furthermore, rather than detector-specific simulation packages, the method requires a relatively simple calibration process and knowledge about the incident spectrum. Therefore, it may be used as a generalized procedure for the spectral distortion correction of different photon-counting detectors in clinical breast CT systems. PMID:22482608

  14. Image-based spectral distortion correction for photon-counting x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using an image-based method to correct for distortions induced by various artifacts in the x-ray spectrum recorded with photon-counting detectors for their application in breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: The polyenergetic incident spectrum was simulated with the tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) code and carefully calibrated to match the x-ray tube in this study. Experiments were performed on a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) photon-counting detector with five energy thresholds. Energy bins were adjusted to evenly distribute the recorded counts above the noise floor. BR12 phantoms of various thicknesses were used for calibration. A nonlinear function was selected to fit the count correlation between the simulated and the measured spectra in the calibration process. To evaluate the proposed spectral distortion correction method, an empirical fitting derived from the calibration process was applied on the raw images recorded for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms of 8.7, 48.8, and 100.0 mm. Both the corrected counts and the effective attenuation coefficient were compared to the simulated values for each of the five energy bins. The feasibility of applying the proposed method to quantitative material decomposition was tested using a dual-energy imaging technique with a three-material phantom that consisted of water, lipid, and protein. The performance of the spectral distortion correction method was quantified using the relative root-mean-square (RMS) error with respect to the expected values from simulations or areal analysis of the decomposition phantom. Results: The implementation of the proposed method reduced the relative RMS error of the output counts in the five energy bins with respect to the simulated incident counts from 23.0%, 33.0%, and 54.0% to 1.2%, 1.8%, and 7.7% for 8.7, 48.8, and 100.0 mm PMMA phantoms, respectively. The accuracy of the effective attenuation coefficient of PMMA estimate was also improved with the proposed spectral distortion correction. Finally, the relative RMS error of water, lipid, and protein decompositions in dual-energy imaging was significantly reduced from 53.4% to 6.8% after correction was applied. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that dramatic distortions in the recorded raw image yielded from a photon-counting detector could be expected, which presents great challenges for applying the quantitative material decomposition method in spectral CT. The proposed semi-empirical correction method can effectively reduce these errors caused by various artifacts, including pulse pileup and charge sharing effects. Furthermore, rather than detector-specific simulation packages, the method requires a relatively simple calibration process and knowledge about the incident spectrum. Therefore, it may be used as a generalized procedure for the spectral distortion correction of different photon-counting detectors in clinical breast CT systems.

  15. Short term X-ray spectral variability of the strong iron-k absorption feature in PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzeu, G.; Reeves, J.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E.; Costa, M.; Braito, V.; O'Brien, P.; Ward, M.; Turner, J.; Miller, L.

    2014-07-01

    We present a recent 500 ks Suzaku and a simultaneous 500 ks XMM-Newton & NuSTAR observations, carried out in 2013, of the nearby (z=0.184) luminous (L_{bol}˜10^{47} erg s^{-1}) quasar PDS 456. Short term X-ray spectral variability, including the presence of a strong and rapidly variable iron-K absorption feature, is observed and subsequently investigated. Here, our attention is focused on the physical interpretation of the short term variability where two models are adopted in the spectral analysis (partial covering vs coronal changes), leading to two valid interpretations. In the partial covering scenario, rapidly varying absorption is due to inhomogeneous dense material and such short timescale changes also entail that that the absorption is due to gas located in the vicinity of the black hole possibly shielding part of the outflow. In the second scenario, the complex spectral variability is due to variations in the intrinsic continuum observed as changes in the soft X-ray spectrum leading subsequent changes in the hard X-ray power-law, possibly induced by Comptonisation in the disc corona. Furthermore it was possible to extrapolate the size and the location of the absorber, its outflowing velocity and a direct estimation of the size of the X-ray emitting region ˜20 R_{g}.

  16. The X-ray Spectrum and Spectral Energy Distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL Quasar with a Probable Polar Outflow

    E-print Network

    Berrington, Robert C; Gallagher, Sarah C; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D; Hall, Patrick B; Laurent-Muehleisen, S A

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e., an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Gamma = 1.7 or flatter at a >99% confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 10^23 cm^-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providi...

  17. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, M. B., E-mail: mbmcgarry@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 ?m thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ?6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  18. Uncovering the X-ray Emitting OB Population of Massive Star Forming Regions with Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busk, Heather

    2013-01-01

    We report the identification of dozens of previously unknown OB star candidates in ~20 star forming regions as part of the MYStIX (Massive Young stellar clusters Study in Infrared and X-rays) project. The candidates were identified by fitting stellar models to infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions of objects in a Chandra X-ray point source catalog. The IR photometry is a combination of 2MASS or UKIDSS NIR with Spitzer IRAC data. Prior optical spectroscopic identification of the OB population of star forming regions has been hampered by high extinction, which is alleviated by using IR photometry. X-ray selection greatly reduces the fraction of foreground and background contaminants. Few new OB are found in some clusters, while in others, up to twice as many as previously known are identified.

  19. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band.

    PubMed

    McGarry, M B; Franz, P; Den Hartog, D J; Goetz, J A; Johnson, J

    2014-09-01

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 ?m thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ~6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors. PMID:25273791

  20. X-ray attenuation of adipose breast tissue: in-vitro and in-vivo measurements using spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Erhard, Klaus; Berggren, Karl; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Cederström, Björn; Johansson, Henrik; Lundqvist, Mats; Moa, Elin; Homan, Hanno; Willsher, Paula; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Wallis, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    The development of new x-ray imaging techniques often requires prior knowledge of tissue attenuation, but the sources of such information are sparse. We have measured the attenuation of adipose breast tissue using spectral imaging, in vitro and in vivo. For the in-vitro measurement, fixed samples of adipose breast tissue were imaged on a spectral mammography system, and the energy-dependent x-ray attenuation was measured in terms of equivalent thicknesses of aluminum and poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). For the in-vivo measurement, a similar procedure was applied on a number of spectral screening mammograms. The results of the two measurements agreed well and were consistent with published attenuation data and with measurements on tissue-equivalent material.

  1. FULL SPECTRAL SURVEY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard, E-mail: erivers@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We have analyzed spectra for all active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line equivalent width (EW), Compton reflection, and photon index, and calculate fluxes and luminosities in the 2-10 keV band for 100 AGN with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to yield high-quality spectral results. We compare these parameters across the different classifications of Seyferts and blazars. Our distributions of photon indices for Seyfert 1s and 2s are consistent with the idea that Seyferts share a common central engine; however, our distributions of Compton reflection hump strengths do not support the classical picture of absorption by a torus and reflection off a Compton-thick disk with type depending only on inclination angle. We conclude that a more complex reflecting geometry such as a combined disk and torus or clumpy torus is likely a more accurate picture of the Compton-thick material. We find that Compton reflection is present in {approx}85% of Seyferts and by comparing Fe line EW's to Compton reflection hump strengths we have found that on average 40% of the Fe line arises in Compton thick material; however, this ratio was not consistent from object to object and did not seem to be dependent on optical classification.

  2. CAN WE REPRODUCE THE X-RAY BACKGROUND SPECTRAL SHAPE USING LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Ranjan V.; Mushotzky, Richard F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gandhi, Poshak, E-mail: ranjan@astro.umd.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    The X-ray background (XRB) is due to the aggregate of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which peak in activity at z {approx} 1 and is often modeled as the sum of different proportions of unabsorbed, moderately, and heavily absorbed AGN. We present the summed spectrum of a complete sample of local AGN (the Northern Galactic Cap of the 58 month Swift/BAT catalog, z < 0.2) using 0.4-200 keV data and directly determine the different proportions of unabsorbed, moderately and heavily absorbed AGN that make up the summed spectrum. This stacked low redshift AGN spectrum is remarkably similar in shape to the XRB spectrum (when shifted to z {approx} 1), but the observed proportions of different absorption populations differ from most XRB synthesis models. AGN with Compton-thick absorption account for only {approx}12% of the sample, but produce a significant contribution to the overall spectrum. We confirm that Compton reflection is more prominent in moderately absorbed AGN and that the photon index differs intrinsically between unabsorbed and absorbed AGN. The AGN in our sample account for only {approx}1% of the XRB intensity. The reproduction of the XRB spectral shape suggests that strong evolution in individual AGN properties is not required between z {approx} 0 and 1.

  3. X-ray diffraction and IR spectral characteristics of zinc(II)tetra- tert-butylphthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.; Malkova, Elena A.

    2007-11-01

    According to well-known procedures, ?- and ?-crystal polymorphic modifications of zinc(II)tetra- tert-butylphthalocianine (Zn( t-Bu) 4Pc) were prepared and X-ray analysis of their powders was carried out. It was found that four tert-butyl groups in Zn( t-Bu) 4Pc molecule do not prevent the formation of the ?- and ?-polymorphs. The ?- and ?-polymorphs differ from each other mainly by a mutual arrangement of neighboring metallophthalocyenine molecules in ?-stacking. Comparison of IR spectra of the ?- and ?-polymorphs of ZnPc and Zn( t-Bu) 4Pc was carried out. It was indicated that new bands appear at 670-690, 1256 and 1362 cm -1 in the spectrum of Zn( t-Bu) 4Pc in comparison with that of ZnPc. The appearance of new band at 1256 cm -1 is assigned to rocking C-CH 3 vibrations and the band at 1362 cm -1 to symmetrical deformational C-H vibrations of methyl groups of the peripheral substitutes. The main spectral characteristics for identification of the polymorphic modifications of Zn( t-Bu) 4Pc are listed.

  4. Monitoring Long-Range Electron Transfer Pathways in Proteins by Stimulated Attosecond Broadband X-ray Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-11-06

    Long-range electron transfer (ET) plays a key role in many biological energy conversion and synthesis processes. We show that nonlinear spectroscopy with attosecond X-ray pulses provides a real time movie of the evolving oxidation states and electron densities around atoms, and can probe these processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. This is demonstrated in a simulation study of the stimulated X-ray Raman (SXRS) signals in Re-modified azurin, which had long served as a benchmark for long-range ET in proteins. Nonlinear SXRS signals are sensitive to the local electronic structure and should offer a novel window for long-range ET.

  5. Sensitivity study of ignition capsule implosion performance on the hard x-ray spectral distribution of hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Jianfa; Zou Shiyang; Li Yongsheng; Dai Zhensheng; Ye Wenhua [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The paper investigates theoretically the sensitivities of ignition capsule implosion performance on the hard x-ray spectral distribution of hohlraum. In the simulation, the hohlraum radiation is represented by a Planckian spectrum for the main drive plus a gaussian bump centered at energy E{sub c} for preheating x-rays. Simulation results show that with the increasing of center energy E{sub c}, the Atwood number at the fuel-ablator interface increases rapidly due to the preheating and expanding of the inner undoped CH layer. The growing of Atwood number indicates the hydrodynamic instability (HI) growth and mixing at this interface. On the other hand, the increasing of E{sub c} results in a large density gradient scale length of ablation front and stabilizes the HI growth at ablation front. The changes of the hard x-ray spectrum have significant influences on other important implosion parameters including the ablator mass remaining, shock timing, implosion velocity, and yield as well. High-precision results on the hard x-ray spectral distribution of hohlraum are thus critical for optimizing the ignition capsule design to limit the HI growth.

  6. The dependence of the soft X ray spectral slope with radio property, luminosity, and redshift, for a large sample of AGN from the Einstein IPC data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, H.; Worrall, D. M.; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Elvis, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the soft X-ray spectral slope on radio, optical and X-ray properties, and on redshift are reported for a large sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The sample includes 317 optically and radio-selected AGN from a preliminary version of the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) quasar and AGN data base. The main results are: the difference in X-ray slope between radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN were confirmed for an independent and much larger sample of sources; a difference in X-ray slope between flat and steep radio spectrum AGN is observed only in high luminosity sub-sample; in flat radio spectrum AGNs there is an indication for a dependence of the X-ray spectral index on X-ray luminosity redshift and alpha sub 0x.

  7. Saturation and Dynamic Range of Microchannel Plate-Based X-Ray Imagers

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-05-04

    This paper describes recent advances in Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP)–based x-ray detectors, a continuation of ongoing work in this area. A Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed over the past several years by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The model simulates the secondary electron emission process in an MCP pore and includes the effects of gain saturation. In this work we focus on MCP gain saturation and dynamic range. We have performed modeling and experimental characterizations of L/D = 46, 10-micron diameter, MCP-based detectors. The detectors are typically operated by applying a subnanosecond voltage pulse, which gates the detector on. Agreement between the simulations and experiment is very good for a variety of voltage pulse waveforms ranging in width from 150 to 300 ps. The results indicate that such an MCP begins to show nonlinear gain around 5 × 10^4 electrons per pore and hard saturation around 105 electrons per pore. The simulations show a difference in MCP sensitivity vs voltage for high flux of photons producing large numbers of photoelectrons on a subpicosecond timescale. Simulations and experiments both indicate an MCP dynamic range of 1 to 10,000, and the dynamic range depends on how the voltage is applied.

  8. Spektr: A computational tool for x-ray spectral analysis and imaging system optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Siewerdsen, J.H.; Waese, A.M.; Moseley, D.J.; Richard, S.; Jaffray, D.A. [Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2004-11-01

    A set of computational tools are presented that allow convenient calculation of x-ray spectra, selection of elemental and compound filters, and calculation of beam quality characteristics, such as half-value layer, mR/mAs, and fluence per unit exposure. The TASMIP model of Boone and Seibert is adapted to a library of high-level language (Matlab{sup TM}) functions and shown to agree with experimental measurements across a wide range of kVp and beam filtration. Modeling of beam filtration is facilitated by a convenient, extensible database of mass and mass-energy attenuation coefficients compiled from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The functions and database were integrated in a graphical user interface and made available online at http://www.aip.org/epaps/epaps.html. The functionality of the toolset and potential for investigation of imaging system optimization was illustrated in theoretical calculations of imaging performance across a broad range of kVp, filter material type, and filter thickness for direct and indirect-detection flat-panel imagers. The calculations reveal a number of nontrivial effects in the energy response of such detectors that may not have been guessed from simple K-edge filter techniques, and point to a variety of compelling hypotheses regarding choice of beam filtration that warrant future investigation.

  9. Spektr: a computational tool for x-ray spectral analysis and imaging system optimization.

    PubMed

    Siewerdsen, J H; Waese, A M; Moseley, D J; Richard, S; Jaffray, D A

    2004-11-01

    A set of computational tools are presented that allow convenient calculation of x-ray spectra, selection of elemental and compound filters, and calculation of beam quality characteristics, such as half-value layer, mR/mAs, and fluence per unit exposure. The TASMIP model of Boone and Seibert is adapted to a library of high-level language (Matlab) functions and shown to agree with experimental measurements across a wide range of kVp and beam filtration. Modeling of beam filtration is facilitated by a convenient, extensible database of mass and mass-energy attenuation coefficients compiled from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The functions and database were integrated in a graphical user interface and made available online at http:// www.aip.org/epaps/epaps.html. The functionality of the toolset and potential for investigation of imaging system optimization was illustrated in theoretical calculations of imaging performance across a broad range of kVp, filter material type, and filter thickness for direct and indirect-detection flat-panel imagers. The calculations reveal a number of nontrivial effects in the energy response of such detectors that may not have been guessed from simple K-edge filter techniques, and point to a variety of compelling hypotheses regarding choice of beam filtration that warrant future investigation. PMID:15587659

  10. The X-ray spectral evolution of Cygnus X-2 in the framework of bulk Comptonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinelli, R.; Paizis, A.; Landi, R.; Titarchuk, L.

    2009-05-01

    Context: Strong theoretical and observational support exists that the spectral evolution of neutron-star LMXBs, including transient hard X-ray tails, can be explained by the interplay between thermal and bulk motion Comptonization. The introduction of a new XSPEC Comptonization model, Comptb, including thermal and bulk Comptonization, has provided additional support to this interpretation. Aims: We used Comptb to investigate the spectral evolution of the neutron-star LMXB Cyg X-2 along its Z track. We selected a single source to trace in a quantitative way the evolution of the physical parameters of the model. Methods: We analyzed archival broad-band BeppoSAX spectra of Cyg X-2. Five broad-band spectra were newly extracted by using information about the source position in the Z track described in the colour-colour and colour-intensity diagrams. Results: We fitted the spectra of the source with two Comptb components. The first one, with a bulk parameter ? = 0, represents the dominant component of the overall source broad-band spectrum and its origin is related to thermal upscattering (Comptonization) of cold seed photons by warm electrons in a high opacity enviroment. We attribute the origin of these seed photons to the section of the disk that illuminates the outer coronal region (transition layer) located between the accretion disk itself and the neutron-star surface. The physical properties of this thermal component are roughly constant with both time and inferred mass accretion rate. The second Comptb model describes the overall Comptonization (thermal plus bulk, ? > 0) of hotter seed photons that originate in both the inner transition layer and at the neutron-star surface. This component is more significant in the horizontal branch of the colour-colour or hardness-intensity diagram and progressively disappears towards the normal branch, where a pure blackbody spectrum is observed. Conclusions: The spectral evolution of Cyg X-2 is studied and interpreted in terms of changes in the innermost environmental conditions of the system, leading to a variable thermal-bulk Comptonization efficiency.

  11. Pseudopotential calculations of photoionization of atoms in the x-ray photon energy range and FEL beam monitor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. E.; Dorofeev, D. L.; Elfimov, S. V.; Zon, B. A.; Gavrilov, G. E.; Naryshkin, Yu G.

    2015-03-01

    A pseudopotential model for calculation of atomic processes under interaction with hard x-ray photons is applied to calculation of Krypton photoionization cross sections by photons with energy in the 20–25 keV range. These cross sections, as well as the mean charge of the resulting ions calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation scheme, are in good agreement with the other theoretical calculations and with the experiment. The obtained results open the doors for new techniques in the design of gas-monitor detectors to control the intensity, coordinates and energy of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beams in the hard x-ray photon energy range. First, Monte Carlo simulations of a scintillation detector application for gas-monitors have been performed.

  12. Searching for dark matter in X-rays: how not to check the dark matter origin of a spectral feature

    E-print Network

    Alexander Kusenko; Michael Loewenstein

    2010-01-22

    In a recent preprint entitled "Searching for dark matter in X-rays: how to check the dark matter origin of a spectral feature" [arXiv:1001.0644v1], the authors have claimed that some archival X-ray data could be used to rule out dark matter in the form of 5-keV sterile neutrinos at the level of 20 sigma. Unfortunately, the limit was derived incorrectly. We point out the shortcomings of this analysis and show that the tentative detection of a spectral feature consistent with a 5-keV sterile neutrino is not in contradiction with existing limits. Future observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies will test this hypothesis.

  13. Spectral characterization of a flash X-ray diffraction transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, J.L.; Green, R.E. Jr. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Adams, K.J. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    X-ray diffraction from well-defined sources provides a powerful tool for investigating parameters that characterize the structure of polycrystalline materials. The current work is part of an effort to design and evaluate a flash X-ray diffraction transmission (FXDT) system for probing the interior of a hyper-velocity copper jet resulting from the detonation of a shaped charge. This is an extension of previous studies involving through-transmission diffraction with aluminum jets.

  14. Spectral variability in early-type binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Kallman, T. R.; Castor, J. I.; Olson, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models for the ionization of trace elements in a strong stellar wind by a compact binary X-ray source and for the resulting orbital phase dependence of the emergent soft X-ray spectra and the profiles of ultraviolet resonance lines are presented. Model results agree qualitatively with the X-ray and ultraviolet spectra of the system 4U 0900-40/HD 77581 and explain the suppression of the absorption profiles of the Si IV upsilon 1394 and C IV upsilon 1548 lines when the X-ray sources is in front of the star. The model predicts that the absorption profiles of the N V upsilon 1239 and O VI upsilon 1032 lines will be enhanced rather than suppressed during this orbital phase. We predict phase-dependent linear polarization in the resonance lines profiles. Future observations of these phase dependent effects in early-type binary X-ray systems may be used to investigate the dynamics of stellar winds and their interactions with the X-ray source.

  15. Spectral variability in early-type binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Castor, J. I.; Olson, G. L.; Mccray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models for the ionization of trace elements in a strong stellar wind by a compact binary X-ray source and for the resulting orbital phase dependence of the emergent soft X-ray spectra and the profiles of ultraviolet resonance lines are presented. Model results agree qualitatively with the X-ray and ultraviolet spectra of the system 4U 0900-40/HD 77581 and explain the suppression of the absorption profiles of the Si IV upsilon 1394 and C IV upsilon 1548 lines when the X-ray sources are in front of the star. The model predicts that the absorption profiles of the N V upsilon 1239 and O VI upsilon 1032 lines will be enhanced rather than suppresed during this orbital phase.Phase-dependent linear polarization in the resonance lines profiles is predicted. Future observations of these phase dependent effects in early-type binary X-ray systems may be used to investigate the dynamics of stellar winds and their interactions with the X-ray source.

  16. Variabilities of the X-ray Broad Iron Spectral Features in Active Galactic Nuclei and Black-hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Ebisawa, K.; Tsujimoto, M.; Inoue, H.

    2015-07-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and black-hole binaries (BHB) often exhibit X-ray broad iron spectral features (``disk-line''), which may be explained either by the ``relativistic disk reflection'' scenario or the ``partial covering'' scenario. It is hardly possible to determine which models are valid from time-averaged spectral analysis, thus X-ray spectral variabilities have been investigated to constrain spectral models. To that end, it is crucial to study iron structure of BHBs in detail at short time-scales. This is made possible with the Suzaku XIS Parallel-sum clocking (P-sum) mode, which has the CCD energy-resolution as well as a time-resolution of 7.8 ms. We have carried out systematic calibration of the P-sum mode, and investigate spectral variabilities of GRS 1915+105. Consequently, we found that the spectral variabilities of GRS 1915+105 does not show iron features at sub-seconds. This is totally different from AGN variabilities, where the variability significantly drops at the iron energy band. This indicates that spectral variability timescales of AGN and BHB are not simply normalized by black-hole masses, which is naturally understood in the framework of the ``partial covering'' scenario.

  17. Spectral analysis of paramagnetic centers induced in human tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, I. I.

    2010-03-01

    Based on study of spectral and relaxation characteristics, we have established that paramagnetic centers induced in tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation are identical in nature. We show that for the same exposure dose, the intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal induced by x-radiation with effective energy 34 keV is about an order of magnitude higher than the amplitude of the signal induced by gamma radiation. We have identified a three-fold attenuation of the EPR signal along the path of the x-radiation from the buccal to the lingual side of a tooth, which is evidence that the individual had undergone diagnostic x-ray examination of the dentition or skull. We have shown that the x-ray exposure doses reconstructed from the EPR spectra are an order of magnitude higher than the applied doses, while the dose loads due to gamma radiation are equal to the applied doses. The data obtained indicate that for adequate reconstruction of individual absorbed doses from EPR spectra of tooth enamel in the population subjected to the combined effect of x-radiation and accidental external gamma radiation as a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, we need to take into account the contribution to the dose load from diagnostic x-rays in examination of the teeth, jaw, or skull.

  18. The wide band spectral observation of high mass x-ray binary 4u1700-37 with suzaku (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Yuu; Sasaki, Chikako; Kokubun, Motohide

    4U1700-37 is a high mass X-ray binary discovered by Uhuru satellite, whose companion star HD153919 is the brightest one in the visible light. 4U1700-37 was observed with Suzaku from September 13th to 14th, 2006. The observational period corresponded to an orbital phase of 0.30-0.72, and the XIS mode was set to be 1/4 window mode with 1 sec Burst mode. We have divided all observation data into 1000 sec periods and individually fitted the extracted spectra by the cut off power-law model. Several results were obtained from light curves of the best-fit parameters. The normalization of power-law and line flux was fluctuating by a factor of 10, and the absorption was also making a variation such order. On the other hand, the power-law index approximately stayed in a range of 0.7-1.2, except a short period in which the value dropped smaller than 0. The cutoff and folding energy stayed comparatively flat, changing between 4 and 14 keV, 5 and 25 keV, respectively. The line center energy almost remained constant. We will report these results on the wide-band spectral properties and temporal behaviors of 4U1700-37.

  19. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/?E) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 ?m from the current 24 ?m spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 ?m square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 ?m and 3.9±0.1 ?m at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these worst-case resolution measurements, estimating the spatial resolution to be approximately 3.5 ?m and 3.0 ?m at 530 eV and 680 eV, well below the resolution limit of 5 ?m required to improve the spectral resolution by a factor of 2.

  20. Near-field stacking of zone plates for hard x-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maser, Jörg; Lai, Barry P.; Yun, Wenbing; Shastri, Sarvjit D.; Cai, Zhonghou; Rodrigues, W.; Xu, Shenglan; Trackhtenberg, E.

    2002-11-01

    We use Fresnel zone plates as focusing optics in hard x-ray microprobes at energies typically between 6 and 30 keV. While a spatial resolution close to 0.1 ?m can currently be achieved, highest spatial resolution is obtained only at reduced diffraction efficiency due to manufacturing limitations with respect to the aspect ratios of zone plates. To increase the effective thickness of zone plates, we are stacking several identical zone plates on-axis in close proximity. If the zone plates are aligned laterally to within better than an outermost zone width and longitudinally within the optical near-field, they form a single optical element of larger effective thickness and improved efficiency and reduced background from undiffracted radiation. This allows us both to use zone plates of moderate outermost zone width at energies of 30 keV and above, as well as to increase the efficiency of zone plates with small outermost zone widths particularly for the energy range of 6 - 15 keV.

  1. Short-Range Order and Collective Dynamics of DMPC Bilayers: A Comparison between Molecular Dynamics Simulations, X-Ray,

    E-print Network

    de Groot, Bert

    derived by molecular dynamics simulations, elastic x-ray, and inelastic neutron scattering experimentsShort-Range Order and Collective Dynamics of DMPC Bilayers: A Comparison between Molecular Dynamics. The quantities that are compared between simulation and experiment include static and dynamic structure factors

  2. How to Build a Time Machine: Interfacing Hydrodynamics, Ionization Calculations and X-ray Spectral Codes for Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenes, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Thanks to Chandra and XMM-Newton, spatially resolved spectroscopy of SNRsin the X-ray band has become a reality. Several impressive data sets forejecta-dominated SNRs can now be found in the archives, the Cas A VLP justbeing one (albeit probably the most spectacular) example. However, it isoften hard to establish quantitative, unambiguous connections between theX-ray observations of SNRs and the dramatic events involved in a corecollapse or thermonuclear SN explosion. The reason for this is that thevery high quality of the data sets generated by Chandra and XMM for thelikes of Cas A, SNR 292.0+1.8, Tycho, and SN 1006 has surpassed our abilityto analyze them. The core of the problem is in the transient nature of theplasmas in SNRs, which results in anintimate relationship between the structure of the ejecta and AM, the SNRdynamics arising from their interaction, and the ensuing X-rayemission. Thus, the ONLY way to understand the X-ray observations ofejecta-dominated SNRs at all levels, from the spatially integrated spectrato the subarcsecond scales that can be resolved by Chandra, is to couplehydrodynamic simulations to nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) calculationsand X-ray spectral codes. I will review the basic ingredients that enterthis kind of calculations, and what are the prospects for using them tounderstand the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in young SNRs. Thisunderstanding (when it is possible), can turn SNRs into veritable timemachines, revealing the secrets of the titanic explosions that generatedthem hundreds of years ago.

  3. Temporal variations and spectral properties of the Be/X-ray pulsar GRO J1008—57 studied by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The spin period variations and hard X-ray spectral properties of the Be/X-ray pulsar GRO J1008—57 are studied with INTEGRAL observations during two outbursts in 2004 June and 2009 March. The pulsation periods of ~ 93.66 s in 2004 and ~ 93.73 s in 2009 are determined. Pulse profiles of GRO J1008—57 during outbursts are strongly energy dependent with a double-peaked profile from 3-7 keV and a single-peaked profile in hard X-rays above 7 keV. Combined with previous measurements, we find that GRO J1008—57 has undergone a spin-down trend from 1993-2009 with a rate of ~ 4.1 × 10-5 s d-1, and could have changed into a spin-up trend after 2009. We find a relatively soft spectrum in the early phase of the 2009 outburst with cutoff energy ~ 13 keV. Above a hard X-ray flux of ~ 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1, the spectra of GRO J1008—57 during outbursts need an enhanced hydrogen absorption with column density ~ 6 × 1022 cm-2. The observed dip-like pulse profile of GRO J1008—57 in soft X-ray bands could be caused by this intrinsic absorption. Around the outburst peaks, a possible cyclotron resonance scattering feature at ~ 74 keV is detected in the spectra of GRO J1008—57 which is consistent with the feature that was reported in MAXI/GSC observations, making the source a neutron star with the highest known magnetic field (~ 6.6 × 1012 G) among accreting X-ray pulsars. This marginal feature is supported by the present detections in GRO J1008—57 following the correlation between the fundamental line energies and cutoff energies in accreting X-ray pulsars. Finally we discovered two modulation periods at ~ 124.38 d and ~ 248.78 d using RXTE/ASM light curves of GRO J1008—57. Two flare peaks appearing in the folded light curve had different spectral properties. The normal outburst lasting 0.1 of an orbital phase had a hard spectrum and could not be significantly detected below 3 keV. The second flare lasting ten days showed a very soft spectrum without significant detections above 5 keV. GRO J1008—57 is a good candidate of an accreting system with an equatorial circumstellar disk around the companion star. The neutron star passing the disk of the Be star near periastron and apastron produces two X-ray flares. The soft spectral properties in the secondary flares still need further detailed studies with soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Low rank approximation (LRA) based noise reduction in spectral-resolved x-ray imaging using photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Spectral imaging with photon counting detectors has recently attracted a lot of interest in X-ray and CT imaging due to its potential to enable ultra low radiation dose x-ray imaging. However, when radiation exposure level is low, quantum noise may be prohibitively high to hinder applications. Therefore, it is desirable to develop new methods to reduce quantum noise in the acquired data from photon counting detectors. In this paper, we propose a new denoising algorithm to reduce quantum noise in data acquired using an ideal photon counting detector. The proposed method exploits the intrinsic low dimensionality of acquired spectral data to decompose the acquired data in a series of orthonormal spectral bases. The first few spectral bases contain object information while the rest of the bases contain primarily quantum noise. The separation of image content and noise in these orthogonal spatial bases provides a means to reject noise without losing image content. Numerical simulations were conducted to validate and evaluate the proposed noise reduction algorithm. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively reduce quantum noise while maintaining both spatial and spectral fidelity.

  5. Bismuth sulfide nanoflowers for detection of X-rays in the mammographic energy range.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Shruti; Osei, Ernest K; Yeow, John T W

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of diagnostic x-rays, especially in the field of medical radiology, has necessitated a significant demand for high resolution, real-time radiation detectors. In this regard, the photoresponse of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), an n-type semiconducting metal chalcogenide, to low energy x-rays has been investigated in this study. In recent years, several types of nanomaterials of Bi2S3 have been widely studied for optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. However, photoresponse of Bi2S3 nanomaterials for dosimetric applications has not yet been reported. The photosensitivity of Bi2S3 with nanoscale "flower-like" structures was characterized under x-ray tube-potentials typically used in mammographic procedures. Both dark current and photocurrent were measured under varying x-ray doses, field sizes, and bias voltages for each of the tube potentials - 20, 23, 26 and 30 kV. Results show that the Bi2S3 nanoflowers instantaneously responded to even minor changes in the dose delivered. The photoresponse was found to be relatively high (few nA) at bias voltage as low as +1 V, and fairly repeatable for both short and long exposures to mammographic x-rays with minimal or no loss in sensitivity. The overall dose-sensitivity of the Bi2S3 nanoflowers was found to be similar to that of a micro-ionization chamber. PMID:25801531

  6. Development of a standard for the method of x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis integrated into the international system of estimation of the quality of refractory products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Suvorov; Yu. G. Lifanov; E. A. Vikhrov

    2011-01-01

    A program for the development of the national standard for the method of x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of refractory\\u000a materials and ensuring its conformity to the international standard ISO 12677–2003 is created.

  7. Soft X-ray spectral fits of Geminga with model neutron star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. D.; Pavlov, G. G.; Meszaros, P.

    1994-01-01

    The spectrum of the soft X-ray pulsar Geminga consists of two components, a softer one which can be interpreted as thermal-like radiation from the surface of the neutron star, and a harder one interpreted as radiation from a polar cap heated by relativistic particles. We have fitted the soft spectrum using a detailed magnetized hydrogen atmosphere model. The fitting parameters are the hydrogen column density, the effective temperature T(sub eff), the gravitational redshift z, and the distance to radius ratio, for different values of the magnetic field B. The best fits for this model are obtained when B less than or approximately 1 x 10(exp 12) G and z lies on the upper boundary of the explored range (z = 0.45). The values of T(sub eff) approximately = (2-3) x 10(exp 5) K are a factor of 2-3 times lower than the value of T(sub eff) obtained for blackbody fits with the same z. The lower T(sub eff) increases the compatibility with some proposed schemes for fast neutrino cooling of neutron stars (NSs) by the direct Urca process or by exotic matter, but conventional cooling cannot be excluded. The hydrogen atmosphere fits also imply a smaller distance to Geminga than that inferred from a blackbody fit. An accurate evaluation of the distance would require a better knowledge of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) response to the low-energy region of the incident spectrum. Our modeling of the soft component with a cooler magnetized atmosphere also implies that the hard-component fit requires a characteristic temperature which is higher (by a factor of approximately 2-3) and a surface area which is smaller (by a factor of 10(exp 3), compared to previous blackbody fits.

  8. Timing and Spectral Properties of X-ray Emission from the Converging Flows onto Black hole: Monte-Carlo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, L. G.; Laurent, P.

    2001-12-01

    We present the timing and spectral analysis of Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray radiation for a converging inflow (CI) onto a black hole. We demonstrate that a X-ray spectrum of a converging inflow (CI) onto a black hole is the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the Comptonization spread (Green's) function. The latter component is seen as an extended power law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We show that the high energy photon production (source function) in the CI atmosphere is distributed with the characteristic maximum at about the photon bending radius, 1.5rS, independently of the seed (soft) photon distribution. We show that high frequency oscillations of the soft photon source in this region lead to the oscillations of the high energy part of the spectrum but not of the thermal component. Because the effective area of the X-ray emitting disk (? 100-120 Schwarzschild square radii) is one order of magnitude larger than that of the inner edge region which is of order of ?(9-10) rS2. The high frequency oscillations of the inner region are not significant in the thermal component of the spectrum. We further demonstrate that Doppler and recoil effects (which are responsible for the formation of the CI spectrum) are related to the hard (positive) and soft (negative) time lags between the soft and hard photon energy channels respectively. We demonstrate the presence of two types of time lags in the simulated CI spectra. We conclude that the high frequency QPO is related to the extended power law spectral component, the soft and hard time lags are inevitable and natural properties of the X-ray emission from the converging inflows onto black holes.

  9. High-Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectral Analysis in the CK Region of Titanium Carbide (TiC) using the DV-X alpha Molecular Orbital Method

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Kenta; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2008-10-31

    We used the DV-X alpha method to analyze the high-resolution soft X-ray emission and absorption spectra in the CK region of titanium carbide (TiC). The spectral profiles of the X-ray emission and absorption can be ssuscfucelly reproduced by the occupied and unoccupied density of states (DOS ), respectively, in the C2p orbitals of the center carbon atoms in a Ti62C63 cluster model, suggesting that the center carbon atom in a large cluster model expanded to the cubic-structured 53 (= 125) atoms provides sufficient DOS for the X-ray spectral analysis of rock-salt structured metal carbides.

  10. Studies on x-ray and UV emissions in electron cyclotron resonance x-ray sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S.

    2008-02-01

    A novel electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source is constructed based on the ECR technique. In this paper, the possibility of using the ECR x-ray source for producing UV rays by optimizing the plasma parameters is explored. X-ray and UV emissions from the ECR x-ray source are carried out for argon, nitrogen, and CO2 plasma. The x-ray spectral and dose measurements are carried with NaI(Tl) based spectrometer and dosimeter, respectively. For UV measurement, a quartz window arrangement is made at the exit port and the UV intensity is measured at 5cm from the quartz plate using UV meter. The x-ray and UV emissions are carried out for different microwave power levels and gas pressures. The x-ray emission is observed in the pressure range ?10-5Torr, whereas the UV emission is found to be negligible for the gas pressures <10-5Torr and it starts increasing in the pressure range between 10-5 and 10-3Torr. At high-pressure range, collision frequency of electron-atom is large which leads to the higher UV flux. At low pressure, the electron-atom collision frequency is low and hence the electrons reach high energy and by hitting the cavity wall produces higher x-ray flux. By choosing proper experimental conditions and plasma gas species, the same source can be used as either an x-ray source or an UV source.

  11. Experimental study of spectral and spatial distribution of solar X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Catura, R. C.; Culhane, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The study of the physical conditions within the solar corona and the development of instrumentation and technical expertise necessary for advanced studies of solar X-ray emission are reported. Details are given on the Aerobee-borne-X-ray spectrometer/monochromator and also on the observing program. Preliminary discussions of some results are presented and include studies of helium-like line emission, mapping O(VII) and Ne(IX) lines, survey of O(VII) and Ne(IX) lines, study of plage regions and small flares, and analysis of line emission from individual active regions. It is concluded that the use of large-area collimated Bragg spectrometers to scan narrow wavelength intervals and the capability of the SPARCS pointing control to execute a complex observing program are established.

  12. 3D ISM-Shock Spectral Emission: X-ray models for Radio Galaxy SED Modeling

    E-print Network

    Ralph S. Sutherland

    2005-02-17

    Galaxies form out of small fluctuations in a smoothly expanding Universe. However, the initial gravitational collapse phase is accompanied by the formation of supermassive black holes and clusters of massive stars. Black holes and star clusters generate powerful outflows in the form of jets and superwinds that interact with still infalling gas, possibly regulating the galaxy formation process, initiating new sites of star formation, and carrying chemically enriched gas to the intergalactic medium. Unfortunately, beyond this qualitative description our detailed theoretical understanding is poor. New results from 3D simulations of a GPS/CSS galaxy, with gravitational potentials included, shed some new light on the jet driven outflow process in particular. New code capabilites to predict detailed X-ray spectra from multi-dimensional time-dependent dynamics simulations of Galaxy Feedback, and will be useful for future interpretation of X-ray and radio SEDs of forming galaxies.

  13. Spectral Characteristics of X-ray Flashes compared to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    R. M. Kippen; P. M. Woods; J. Heise; J. J. M. in 't Zand; M. S. Briggs; R. D. Preece

    2002-03-07

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a new type of fast transient source observed with the BeppoSAX Wide Field Cameras (WFC) at a rate of about four per year. Apart from their large fraction of 2-26 keV X-rays, the bulk properties of these events are similar to those of classical gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). By investigating the wide-band spectra of ten events detected in common with WFC and BATSE, we explore the possibility that XRFs are a low-energy branch of the GRB population. We find that XRF spectra are similar to those of GRBs, and that their low peak energies could be an extension of known GRB properties.

  14. X-ray structural and spectral study of the cobalt(II) chloride complex with papaverine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kh. Sabirov; Yu. T. Struchkov; E. U. Nava

    1994-01-01

    A complex of cobalt(II) chloride with papaverine is characterized by x-ray diffraction method (autodiffractometer, 1917 reflections, R = 0.080). Crystals are tetragonal, a = b = 18.393(2) â«, c = 12.396(4) â«, Z = 4, space group P{bar 4}\\/n. The crystal structure is composed of tetrahedral [CoClâ]²⁻ anions situated in a special position on the {bar 4} axis, cations of

  15. Unsupervised classification of single-particle X-ray diffraction snapshots by spectral clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Schwander, Peter; Abergel, Chantal; Andersson, Inger; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Saša.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Chapman, Henry N.; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Coppola, Nicola; Deponte, Daniel P.; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Hartmann, Robert; Hauser, Gunter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kiskinova, Maya; Liang, Mengning; Duane Loh, Ne-Te; Lomb, Lukas; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, Marvin; Seltzer, Virginie; Shoeman, Robert L.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Steinbrener, Jan; Stier, Gunter; Strüder, Lothar; Svenda, Martin; Ullrich, Joachim; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A.; Wunderer, Cornelia; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle experiments using X-ray Free Electron Lasers produce more than 105 snapshots per hour, consisting of an admixture of blank shots (no particle intercepted), and exposures of one or more particles. Experimental data sets also often contain unintentional contamination with different species. We present an unsupervised method able to sort experimental snapshots without recourse to templates, specific noise models, or user-directed learning. The results show 90% agreement with manual classification.

  16. Measurements of x-ray spectral flux and intensity distribution of APS/CHESS undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z.

    1994-09-01

    Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the APS undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x-rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

  17. Spectral Analysis of Super Soft X-ray Sources: V4743 Sagittarii

    E-print Network

    Thomas Rauch; Marina Orio; R. Gonzales-Riestra; Martin Still

    2004-10-28

    Half a year after its outburst, the nova V4743 Sgr evolved into the brightest super-soft X-ray source in the sky with a flux maximum around 30A, exhibiting resonance lines of C V, C VI, N VI, N VII, and O VII. We present preliminary results of an analysis of the XMM-Newton RGS spectra by means of NLTE model-atmosphere techniques.

  18. Simulated Soft X-ray Spectral Observations with the ATSSI Sounding Rocket Payload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis S. Martinez-Galarce; P. F. Boerner; S. Deiker; A. Rausch; N. Katz; L. Shing; T. Nast; D. Franks; J. Mix; J. Olson; W. B. Doriese; C. Reintsema; K. Irwin; B. Cabrera; S. W. Leman; T. W. Barbee; P. C. Baker; D. McCammon

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Spectroscopic Imager (ATSSI) is a soft X-ray spectroheliograph consisting of a transition-edge sensor (TES) array placed at the focus of a Wolter I thin-foil mirror, and electronics. TESs are a sub-class of microcalorimeters that operate at temperatures <= 100 mK. ATSSI is being developed for flight on a sounding rocket and is presently scheduled to launch

  19. X-ray diffraction and spectral studies of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2',4'-dimethylphenylazo)-pyrazolone-5

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'mina, L.G.; Grigor'eva, L.P.; Struchkov, Yu.T.; Ezhkova, Z.I.; Zaitsev, B.E.; Zaitseva, V.A.; Pron'kin, P.P.

    1985-12-01

    The molecular and crystal structures of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2',4'-dimethyl-phenylazo)pyrazolone-5 were determined. In the crystal the molecule exists as the hydrazone tautomer. The pyrazole ring is planar, and the substituents are practically coplanar with it. The molecule contains an intramolecular NH...O hydrogen bond that closes a practically planar six-membered ring (N...O, 2.77 (I), H...O 2.14 A, angle at H(N/sub (4)/) hydrogen 131/sup 0/). The x-ray diffraction data agree with the spectral data and with the CNO calculation.

  20. Application of maximum-entropy spectral estimation to deconvolution of XPS data. [X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Klein, J. D.; Barton, J. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made between maximum-entropy spectral estimation and traditional methods of deconvolution used in electron spectroscopy. The maximum-entropy method is found to have higher resolution-enhancement capabilities and, if the broadening function is known, can be used with no adjustable parameters with a high degree of reliability. The method and its use in practice are briefly described, and a criterion is given for choosing the optimal order for the prediction filter based on the prediction-error power sequence. The method is demonstrated on a test case and applied to X-ray photoelectron spectra.

  1. Soft x-ray laser cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.M.; Danzmann, K.; Kuehne, M.; Mueller, P.; Wende, B.; Stearns, M.B.; Petford-Long, A.K.

    1986-07-08

    We report progress in the development of multilayer components for use in multiple pass soft x-ray laser cavities operating in the 100A to 300A spectral range. Our work includes fabrication and characterization of multilayer components; simple resonant cavity design; damage threshold assessment for multilayers in the x-ray laser environment; and multipass cavity experiments for efficiency enhancement and transverse mode selection. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Optical constants for hard x-ray multilayers over the energy range E = 35 180 keV

    E-print Network

    of a prototype W/SiC multilayer coating over the energy range E=35 ­ 100 keV, and we compare the measured, W, Pt, C, B4C, Si and SiC were deposited by magnetron sputtering onto superpolished optical flats the reflectance of prototype hard X-ray W/Si and W/SiC multilayers designed for use above 100 keV; we found

  3. Tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines: Unfiltered x-ray spectra from 20 kV to 640 kV

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Andrew M. [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Boone, John M., E-mail: john.boone@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo methods were used to generate lightly filtered high resolution x-ray spectra spanning from 20 kV to 640 kV. Methods: X-ray spectra were simulated for a conventional tungsten anode. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended radiation transport code (MCNPX 2.6.0) was used to produce 35 spectra over the tube potential range from 20 kV to 640 kV, and cubic spline interpolation procedures were used to create piecewise polynomials characterizing the photon fluence per energy bin as a function of x-ray tube potential. Using these basis spectra and the cubic spline interpolation, 621 spectra were generated at 1 kV intervals from 20 to 640 kV. The tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) produces minimally filtered (0.8 mm Be) x-ray spectra with 1 keV energy resolution. The TASMICS spectra were compared mathematically with other, previously reported spectra. Results: Using pairedt-test analyses, no statistically significant difference (i.e., p > 0.05) was observed between compared spectra over energy bins above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence. For all energy bins, the correlation of determination (R{sup 2}) demonstrated good correlation for all spectral comparisons. The mean overall difference (MOD) and mean absolute difference (MAD) were computed over energy bins (above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence) and over all the kV permutations compared. MOD and MAD comparisons with previously reported spectra were 2.7% and 9.7%, respectively (TASMIP), 0.1% and 12.0%, respectively [R. Birch and M. Marshall, “Computation of bremsstrahlung x-ray spectra and comparison with spectra measured with a Ge(Li) detector,” Phys. Med. Biol. 24, 505–517 (1979)], 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (Poludniowski), and 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (AAPM TG 195). The effective energy of TASMICS spectra with 2.5 mm of added Al filtration ranged from 17 keV (at 20 kV) to 138 keV (at 640 kV); with 0.2 mm of added Cu filtration the effective energy was 9 keV at 20 kV and 169 keV at 640 kV. Conclusions: Ranging from 20 kV to 640 kV, 621 x-ray spectra were produced and are available at 1 kV tube potential intervals. The spectra are tabulated at 1 keV intervals. TASMICS spectra were shown to be largely equivalent to published spectral models and are available in spreadsheet format for interested users by emailing the corresponding author (JMB)

  4. Novel parallel vacuum ultra-violet/X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erko, A.; Firsov, A.; Senf, F.

    2012-01-01

    Novel instrumentation developments in X-ray spectroscopy for parallel spectral measurements with soft X-rays are described. The significant performance improvements are achieved utilising Fresnel diffraction from structures built onto the surface of a total external reflection mirror. An array of reflection zone plates was tested as a wavelength-dispersive fluorescence spectrometer for soft X-rays in the energy range of 100-550 eV.

  5. Hard X-rays emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C. D.; Polcaro, V. F.; Zambon, G.; Manchanda, R. K.

    The X-Rays emission from Active Galactic Nuclei has been known since the first observations obtained by Uhuru. their X-Rays spectra are determining to investigate the radiation process and for the diffuse X-Rays background problem. We will present spectral observations of AGN's in the range 20-100 KeV obtained with a one square meter area balloon borne experiment. From the comparison with previous data a clear evidence of flux variability is obtained.

  6. EVIDENCE FOR THE FULL HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL SIGNATURE OF NONUNIFORM IONIZATION IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yang [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R., E-mail: yang.su@nasa.gov, E-mail: gordon.d.holman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-04-20

    The hard X-ray (HXR) emission from solar flares is observed primarily from the footpoints of flare magnetic loops, where nonthermal electrons are understood to emit thick-target bremsstrahlung as they stream from the fully ionized hot corona to the denser, cooler, and partially ionized chromosphere. The change in the plasma ionization along the path of the electrons should result in a characteristic upward break and corresponding flattening of the X-ray spectrum with increasing energy at lower energies, and a downward break at higher energies. Due to the presence of thermal emission, the upward break usually cannot be observed. We report the first evidence for both breaks in spectra measured with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) during the GOES X1.2 class flare that happened on 2002 October 31. The RHESSI X-ray spectral analysis shows both the breakup at {approx}49 keV and the breakdown at {approx}134 keV at the HXR peak time. The time evolution of both breaks also agrees with the nonuniform ionization (NUI) model. Other possible explanations for the breaks are considered, but the NUI model provides the simplest explanation for the spectral shape and its time evolution. We find that the average column density of the fully ionized plasma changed from 2 x10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} in the rise phase to 7 x10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} after the peak. This indicates that plasma in the target was heated and became ionized during the flare, in agreement with heating by the nonthermal electrons and chromospheric evaporation expected in the collisional thick-target model.

  7. Attosecond broadband multilayer mirrors for the water window spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenmos, A.; Radünz, S.; Rauhut, R.; Hofstetter, M.; Venkatesan, S.; Wochnik, A.; Scheu, C.; Gullikson, E.; Fischer, S.; Nickel, B.; Kleineberg, U.

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the `water window' spectral range, between the carbon 1s and oxygen 1s states (284 eV - 543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for attosecond beam steering and dispersion management. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of atomically smooth interfaces in broadband CrSc multilayer mirrors by an optimized ion beam deposition and assisted interface polishing process.

  8. Spectral Modeling of the Charge-exchange X-Ray Emission from M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuinai; Wang, Q. Daniel; Ji, Li; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R.; Zhou, Xin

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that the charge-exchange (CX) process at the interface between hot and cool interstellar gases could contribute significantly to the observed soft X-ray emission in star-forming galaxies. We analyze the XMM-Newton/reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) spectrum of M82 using a newly developed CX model combined with a single-temperature thermal plasma to characterize the volume-filling hot gas. The CX process is largely responsible for not only the strongly enhanced forbidden lines of the K? triplets of various He-like ions but also good fractions of the Ly? transitions of C VI (~87%), O VIII, and N VII (gsim50%) as well. In total about a quarter of the X-ray flux in the RGS 6-30 Å band originates in the CX. We infer an ion incident rate of 3 × 1051 s-1 undergoing CX at the hot and cool gas interface and an effective area of the interface of ~2 × 1045 cm2 that is one order of magnitude larger than the cross section of the global biconic outflow. With the CX contribution accounted for, the best-fit temperature of the hot gas is 0.6 keV, and the metal abundances are approximately solar. We further show that the same CX/thermal plasma model also gives an excellent description of the EPIC-pn spectrum of the outflow Cap, projected at 11.6 kpc away from the galactic disk of M82. This analysis demonstrates that the CX is potentially an important contributor to the X-ray emission from starburst galaxies and also an invaluable tool to probe the interface astrophysics.

  9. Characterizations of MCP performance in the hard x-ray range (6–25 keV)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ming, E-mail: minwu@sandia.gov; Rochau, Greg [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Moy, Ken [Special Technology Laboratories, NSTec, Santa Barbara, California 93111-2335 (United States); Kruschwitz, Craig [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    MCP detector performance at hard x-ray energies from 6 to 25 keV was recently investigated using NSLS beamline X15A at BNL. Measurements were made with an NSTec Gen-II (H-CA-65) framing camera, based on a Photonis MCP with ?10 ?m in diameter pores, ?12 ?m center-center spacing, an L/D ratio of 46, and a bias angle of 8°. The MCP characterizations were focused on (1) energy and angle dependent sensitivity, (2) energy and angle dependent spatial resolution, (3) energy dependent gain performance, and (4) energy dependent dynamic range. These measurement corroborated simulation results using a Monte Carlo model that included hard x-ray interactions and the subsequent electron cascade in the MCP.

  10. Spectral-timing modeling of the X-ray reverberation in Mrk 335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chainakun, P.; Young, A.

    2015-07-01

    We present a physical X-ray reverberation model to simultaneously fit the 2-10 keV spectrum and the frequency-dependent time lags of 2.5-4 vs. 4-6.5 keV bands in the high flux state of Mrk 335. The model consists of an axial point source that illuminates an accretion disc. The XILLVER model is used to produce a back-scattered, ionised reflection spectrum. The time lags are computed taking into account the relativistic and full-dilution effects. The best-fitting parameters are consistent with a black hole mass of ? 1.3 × 10(7) M_{?}, disc inclination of 45° and the photon index of the direct continuum of 2.4. The iron abundance is 0.5 and the ionisation parameter is 10^{3} erg cm s^{-1} at the innermost part of the disc and decreases further out. The X-ray source height is very small, ? 2 r_{g}$. Furthermore, we report systematic differences below 2 keV using the two reflection models, XILLVER and REFLIONX, which make simultaneous fitting the time-averaged spectrum and the softer-band lags (e.g. Fe-L lags) much more complicated. We also find that the measurements of the source height and the central mass significantly depend on the ionisation state of the disc and are possibly model-dependent.

  11. Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J. F., E-mail: seelyjf@gmail.com; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Court, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Pereira, N. [Ecopulse Inc., P. O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 ?m in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

  12. Spectral analysis of x-ray emission created by intense laser irradiation of copper materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States); Malamud, G. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States); Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center - Negev, 84190 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We have measured the x-ray emission, primarily from K{sub {alpha}},K{sub {beta}}, and He{sub {alpha}} lines, of elemental copper foil and 'foam' targets irradiated with a mid-10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulse. The copper foam at 0.1 times solid density is observed to produce 50% greater He{sub {alpha}} line emission than copper foil, and the measured signal is well-fit by a sum of three synthetic spectra generated by the atomic physics code FLYCHK. Additionally, spectra from both targets reveal characteristic inner shell K{sub {alpha}} transitions from hot electron interaction with the bulk copper. However, only the larger-volume foam target produced significant K{sub {beta}} radiation, confirming a lower bulk temperature in the higher volume sample.

  13. Spectral analysis of x-ray emission created by intense laser irradiation of copper materialsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Malamud, G.; Drake, R. P.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.

    2012-10-01

    We have measured the x-ray emission, primarily from K?,K?, and He? lines, of elemental copper foil and "foam" targets irradiated with a mid-1016 W/cm2 laser pulse. The copper foam at 0.1 times solid density is observed to produce 50% greater He? line emission than copper foil, and the measured signal is well-fit by a sum of three synthetic spectra generated by the atomic physics code FLYCHK. Additionally, spectra from both targets reveal characteristic inner shell K? transitions from hot electron interaction with the bulk copper. However, only the larger-volume foam target produced significant K? radiation, confirming a lower bulk temperature in the higher volume sample.

  14. X-Ray Spectral Studies of AGN with the ASCA Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    1999-01-01

    This project involved the interpretation of Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), with emphasis on four different aspects of the AGN phenomenon: (1) Absorption by hot gas in blazars: This anomalous absorption was detected in several objects, notably the BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object 1426+428. (2) Separation of blazar and Seyfert components in superluminal radio galaxies and quasars: Both components were found in the radio galaxies samples, but with no clear trend in which dominates. (3) Detection of high energy Compton components in blazars: Both BL Lacs and quasars show hard X-ray spectra that represent the onset of the Compton-scattered gamma-ray component. (4) Correlation of X- and gamma-ray emission in blazars: Several multiwavelength monitoring campaigns showed a correlation between X- and gamma-rays in blazars.

  15. Spectral analysis of x-ray emission created by intense laser irradiation of copper materials.

    PubMed

    Huntington, C M; Kuranz, C C; Malamud, G; Drake, R P; Park, H-S; Maddox, B R

    2012-10-01

    We have measured the x-ray emission, primarily from K(?),K(?), and He(?) lines, of elemental copper foil and "foam" targets irradiated with a mid-10(16) W/cm(2) laser pulse. The copper foam at 0.1 times solid density is observed to produce 50% greater He(?) line emission than copper foil, and the measured signal is well-fit by a sum of three synthetic spectra generated by the atomic physics code FLYCHK. Additionally, spectra from both targets reveal characteristic inner shell K(?) transitions from hot electron interaction with the bulk copper. However, only the larger-volume foam target produced significant K(?) radiation, confirming a lower bulk temperature in the higher volume sample. PMID:23126936

  16. A Broad-band Spectral and Timing Study of the X-Ray Binary System Centaurus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audley, Michael Damian

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation describes a multi-mission investigation of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar Centaurus X-3. Cen X-3 was observed with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) in December 1990. This was the first high-resolution solid state X-ray spectrometer to cover the iron K fluorescence region. The Fe K emission feature was resolved into two components for the first time. A broad 6.7 keV feature was found to be a blend of lines from Fe XXI-Fe XXVI with energies ranging from 6.6 to 6.9 keV due to photoionization of the companion's stellar wind. A narrow line at 6.4 keV due to fluorescence of iron in relatively low ionization states was also found. The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at about 40 mHz were used to estimate the surface magnetic field of Cen X-3 as approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 12) G and to predict that there should be a cyclotron scattering resonance absorption feature (CSRF) near 30 keV. In order to further resolve the iron line complex and to investigate the pulse-phase dependence of the iron line intensities, Cen X-3 was observed with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Using ASCA's state-of-the-art non-dispersive X-ray spectrometers the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line was found to be pulsing while the intensities of the 6.7 and 6.9 keV recombination lines do not vary with pulse phase. This confirms that the 6.4 keV line is due to reflection by relatively neutral matter close to the neutron star while the recombination lines originate in the extended stellar wind. The continuum spectrum was found to be modified by reflection from matter close to the neutron star. Observations with the EXOSAT GSPC were used to search for a CSRF. The EXOSAT spectra were consistent with the presence of a CSRF but an unambiguous detection was not possible because of a lack of sensitivity at energies higher than the cyclotron energy. Cen X-3 was then observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and evidence for a CSRF at 25.1 +/- 0.3 keV was found. This corresponds to a magnetic field of (2.16 +/- 0.03) X 10(exp 12) G and is consistent with the value obtained from the QPO analysis.

  17. Spectral and temporal properties of the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J18483-0311 observed by INTEGRAL

    E-print Network

    Ducci, L; Sasaki, M; Santangelo, A; Esposito, P; Romano, P; Vercellone, S

    2013-01-01

    IGR J18483-0311 is a supergiant fast X-ray transient whose compact object is located in a wide (18.5 d) and eccentric (e~0.4) orbit, which shows sporadic outbursts that reach X-ray luminosities of ~1e36 erg/s. We investigated the timing properties of IGR J18483-0311 and studied the spectra during bright outbursts by fitting physical models based on thermal and bulk Comptonization processes for accreting compact objects. We analysed archival INTEGRAL data collected in the period 2003-2010, focusing on the observations with IGR J18483-0311 in outburst. We searched for pulsations in the INTEGRAL light curves of each outburst. We took advantage of the broadband observing capability of INTEGRAL for the spectral analysis. We observed 15 outbursts, seven of which we report here for the first time. This data analysis almost doubles the statistics of flares of this binary system detected by INTEGRAL. A refined timing analysis did not reveal a significant periodicity in the INTEGRAL observation where a ~21s pulsation w...

  18. Multiple-view spectrally resolved x-ray imaging observations of polar-direct-drive implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, R. C.; Johns, H. M.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Nagayama, T.; Hsu, S. C.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Bradley, P. A.; Hakel, P.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved narrow- and broad-band x-ray images of polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on OMEGA. These self-emission images were obtained during the deceleration phase and bang time using several multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging instruments fielded along two or three quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight, including equatorial and polar views. The instruments recorded images based on K-shell lines from a titanium tracer located in the shell as well as continuum emission. These observations constitute the first such data obtained for PDD implosions. The image data show features attributed to laser imprinting and zero-order hydrodynamics. Equatorial-view images show a "double bun" structure that is consistent with synthetic images obtained from post-processing 2D and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment. Polar-view images show a pentagonal, petal pattern that correlates with the PDD laser illumination used on OMEGA, thus revealing a 3D aspect of PDD OMEGA implosions not previously observed. Differences are noted with respect to a PDD experiment performed at National Ignition Facility.

  19. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Emprin, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V.; Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  20. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    PubMed

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods. PMID:24517761

  1. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    SciTech Connect

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Emprin, B. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France) [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  2. The effects of radiation damage on the spectral resolution of the Chandrayaan-1 x-ray spectrometer over the full mission duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. E.; Smith, D. R.

    2012-07-01

    The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) was launched onboard the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission in October 2008. The instrument consisted of 24 swept-charge device silicon X-ray detectors providing a total collecting area of ~24 cm2, corresponding to a 14° field of view (FWHM), with the ability to measure X-rays from 0.8 - 10 keV. During the 10 months the spacecraft was located in orbit around the Moon a number of solar flare X-ray events were detected, along with calibration data from X-ray sources housed inside the movable door of the instrument. This paper presents a further study of the degradation in spectral resolution of the measured X-ray calibration lines, adding a final calibration point towards the end of mission lifetime to the known results from the midpoint of the mission, giving a more detailed analysis of the extent of the radiation damage. The radiation environment the detectors were subjected to is discussed in light of the actual radiation damage effects on the spectral resolution observed in flight.

  3. Miocrowave spectral imaging, H-alpha and hard X-ray observations of a solar limb flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H.; Gary, D. E.; Lim, J.; Schwartz, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    We compare the microwave, H-alpha, and hard X-ray observations for a west limb C7.3 flare that occurred at 17:10 UT, 1992 June 26. H-alpha movies were obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Before the onset of the flare, overexposed H-alpha images show the complicated flux loop structure above the limb. Material was observed to descend along the loops toward the site where the flare occurred hours later. Using the five-antenna solar array at Owens Valley Radio Observatory, we obtain two-dimensional maps of flare emission from 1.4 to 14 GHz. In all three temporal peaks of the microwave bursts, the maps show the same characteristics. The peak low-frequency emission comes from the top of one bundle of the H-alpha loops and gradually shifts to the foot-point of the loops (the location of H-alpha flare) as the frequency increases. The location of the emission peak shifts 88 sec between 1 and 14 GHz. Seventy percent of the shift occurs between 1 and 5 GHz. The locus of the shift of the emission peak follows the shape of an H-alpha surge that occurred after the flare. For each point along the locus, we create the microwave brightness temperature spectrum and compare the radio-derived electron distribution with that derived from the high-resolution hard X-ray spectra measured with Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). We find that the peak frequency changes from approximately 3 GHz at the loop top to approximately 7 GHz at the footprint, presumably due to the increase of the magnetic field from approximately 160 GHz at the loop top to approximately 300 G at the footpoint. The high-frequency slope of the microwave power-law spectrum decreases from approximately 10 at the loop top to approximately 5 at the footprint due to a change in the energy distribution of the dominant electrons. The microwave brightness temperature spectral index predicted by the BATSE power-law hard X-ray spectra agrees with the measured value only at the footpoint. At the loop top, the emission may be thermal gyrosynchrotron with a temperature of 3.5 x 10(exp 7) K, which is likely to correspond to the superhot component seen in the hard X-ray emission.

  4. Laser-generated plasma as soft X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerritsen, H. C.; van Brug, H.; Bijkerk, F.; van der Wiel, M. J.

    1986-04-01

    Some properties of laser-generated plasma emission in the soft X-ray region are presented. Detailed spectral distributions are reported for different target materials (C, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ta, Au, Pb, and Bi) in the energy range from 100 to 800 eV. Furthermore, included are measurements of the angular distribution, laser power dependence, and source size of the soft X-rays. The efficiency for soft X-ray generation in the energy range studied peaks at a laser power density of 10 to the 12th W/sq cm, which can be obtained already with standard laser systems. A comparison is made with other X-ray sources. To demonstrate the unique properties of laser-generated plasmas as soft X-ray source, the first single-shot EXAFS measurement in the soft X-ray region are reported.

  5. STUDY OF THE SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF X-RAY EMISSION OF THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY LS 5039 WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kishishita, Tetsuichi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Takaaki [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Khangulyan, Dmitry; Aharonian, Felix A.; Bosch-Ramon, Valenti [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Hinton, Jim A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds (United Kingdom)], E-mail: takahasi@astro.isas.jaxa.jp

    2009-05-20

    We report on the results from Suzaku broadband X-ray observations of the galactic binary source LS 5039. The Suzaku data, which have continuous coverage of more than one orbital period, show strong modulation of the X-ray emission at the orbital period of this TeV gamma-ray emitting system. The X-ray emission shows a minimum at orbital phase {approx}0.1, close to the so-called superior conjunction of the compact object, and a maximum at phase {approx}0.7, very close to the inferior conjunction of the compact object. The X-ray spectral data up to 70 keV are described by a hard power law with a phase-dependent photon index which varies within {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.45- 1.61. The amplitude of the flux variation is a factor of 2.5, but is significantly less than that of the factor {approx}8 variation in the TeV flux. Otherwise the two light curves are similar, but not identical. Although periodic X-ray emission has been found from many galactic binary systems, the Suzaku result implies a phenomenon different from the 'standard' origin of X-rays related to the emission of the hot accretion plasma formed around the compact companion object. The X-ray radiation of LS 5039 is likely to be linked to very high energy electrons which are also responsible for the TeV gamma-ray emission. While the gamma rays are the result of inverse Compton (IC) scattering by electrons on optical stellar photons, X-rays are produced via synchrotron radiation. Yet, while the modulation of the TeV gamma-ray signal can be naturally explained by the photon-photon pair production and anisotropic IC scattering, the observed modulation of synchrotron X-rays requires an additional process, the most natural one being adiabatic expansion in the radiation production region.

  6. X-ray structural studies of quinone reductase 2 nanomolar range inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pegan, Scott D; Sturdy, Megan; Ferry, Gilles; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is one of two members comprising the mammalian quinone reductase family of enzymes responsible for performing FAD mediated reductions of quinone substrates. In contrast to quinone reductase 1 (QR1) which uses NAD(P)H as its co-substrate, QR2 utilizes a rare group of hydride donors, N-methyl or N-ribosyl nicotinamide. Several studies have linked QR2 to the generation of quinone free radicals, several neuronal degenerative diseases, and cancer. QR2 has been also identified as the third melatonin receptor (MT3) through in cellulo and in vitro inhibition of QR2 by traditional MT3 ligands, and through recent X-ray structures of human QR2 (hQR2) in complex with melatonin and 2-iodomelatonin. Several MT3 specific ligands have been developed that exhibit both potent in cellulo inhibition of hQR2 nanomolar, affinity for MT3. The potency of these ligands suggest their use as molecular probes for hQR2. However, no definitive correlation between traditionally obtained MT3 ligand affinity and hQR2 inhibition exists limiting our understanding of how these ligands are accommodated in the hQR2 active site. To obtain a clearer relationship between the structures of developed MT3 ligands and their inhibitory properties, in cellulo and in vitro IC50 values were determined for a representative set of MT3 ligands (MCA-NAT, 2-I-MCANAT, prazosin, S26695, S32797, and S29434). Furthermore, X-ray structures for each of these ligands in complex with hQR2 were determined allowing for a structural evaluation of the binding modes of these ligands in relation to the potency of MT3 ligands. PMID:21538647

  7. X-ray photon spectroscopy with the YOHKOH Soft X-ray telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Labonte; K. Reardon

    1997-01-01

    Individual X-ray photons in the keV energy range produce hundreds of photoelectrons in a single pixel of a CCD array detector. The number of photoelectrons produced is a linear function of the photon energy, allowing the measurement of spectral information with an imaging detector system. The Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope uses a CCD in an integrating mode and makes temperature

  8. CANDIDATE X-RAY-EMITTING OB STARS IN THE CARINA NEBULA IDENTIFIED VIA INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Povich, Matthew S.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gagne, Marc [Department of Geology and Astronomy, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Babler, Brian L.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Townsend, Richard H. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: povich@astro.psu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We report the results of a new survey of massive, OB stars throughout the Carina Nebula using the X-ray point source catalog provided by the Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP) in conjunction with infrared (IR) photometry from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and the Spitzer Space Telescope Vela-Carina survey. Mid-IR photometry is relatively unaffected by extinction, hence it provides strong constraints on the luminosities of OB stars, assuming that their association with the Carina Nebula, and hence their distance, is confirmed. We fit model stellar atmospheres to the optical (UBV) and IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 182 OB stars with known spectral types and measure the bolometric luminosity and extinction for each star. We find that the extinction law measured toward the OB stars has two components: A{sub V} = 1-1.5 mag produced by foreground dust with a ratio of total-to-selective absorption R{sub V} = 3.1 plus a contribution from local dust with R{sub V} > 4.0 in the Carina molecular clouds that increases as A{sub V} increases. Using X-ray emission as a strong indicator of association with Carina, we identify 94 candidate OB stars with L{sub bol} {approx}> 10{sup 4} L{sub sun} by fitting their IR SEDs. If the candidate OB stars are eventually confirmed by follow-up spectroscopic observations, the number of cataloged OB stars in the Carina Nebula will increase by {approx}50%. Correcting for incompleteness due to OB stars falling below the L{sub bol} cutoff or the CCCP detection limit, these results potentially double the size of the young massive stellar population.

  9. X-ray spectral state evolution in IGR J17091–3624 and comparison of its heartbeat oscillation properties with those of GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J S; Bhattacharyya, Sudip, E-mail: mp@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-10

    In this work, we study the X-ray timing and spectral evolution of the transient low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17091–3624 during the first 66 days of its 2011 outburst. We present results obtained from observations with two instruments, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array and SWIFT X-Ray Telescope, between 2011 February 9 and 2011 April 15. Using quasi-periodic oscillation classifications, power density spectrum characteristics, time-lag behavior, and energy spectral properties, we determine source states and their transitions at different times of the outburst. During the first part of the evolution, the source followed trends that are usually observed from transient black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs). Interestingly, a gradual transition is observed in IGR J17091–3624 from the low-variability soft intermediate state, commonly seen in BHXBs, to a high-variability state with regular, repetitive, and structured pulsations, seen only from GRS 1915+105 (also known as '?' class variability/'heartbeat' oscillations). We study the time evolution of the characteristic timescale, quality factor, and rms amplitude of heartbeat oscillations in IGR J17091–3624. We also present a detailed comparison of the timing and spectral properties of heartbeat oscillations and their evolution in IGR J17091–3624 and GRS 1915+105.

  10. A Comprehensive Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 from Two Observations with the Suzaku X-Ray Observatory

    E-print Network

    Rivers, E; Pottschmidt, K; Roth, S; Barragán, L; Fürst, F; Suchy, S; Kreykenbohm, I; Wilms, J; Rothschild, R

    2009-01-01

    We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku observatory. The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at ~19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 keV allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe K beta line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully-covering material along the line of sight with a column density of NH ~2e22 /cm^2, consistent with a wind accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (~3-4 x solar). Time and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly...

  11. Electromagnetic-Field Distribution Measurements in the Soft X-Ray Range: Full Characterization of a Soft X-Ray Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, S.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Idir, M.; Dhez, P.; Rocca, J. J.; François, M.

    2002-05-01

    We report direct measurement of the electromagnetic-field spatial distribution in a neonlike Ar capillary discharge-driven soft x-ray laser beam. The wave front was fully characterized in a single shot using a Shack-Hartmann diffractive optics sensor. The wave front was observed to be dependent on the discharge pressure and capillary length, as a result of beam refraction variations in the capillary plasma. The results predict ˜70% of the laser beam energy can be focused into an area 4 times the size of the diffraction-limited spot, reaching intensities of ˜4×1013W/cm2.

  12. Electromagnetic-field distribution measurements in the soft x-ray range: full characterization of a soft x-ray laser beam.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, S; Zeitoun, Ph; Idir, M; Dhez, P; Rocca, J J; François, M

    2002-05-01

    We report direct measurement of the electromagnetic-field spatial distribution in a neonlike Ar capillary discharge-driven soft x-ray laser beam. The wave front was fully characterized in a single shot using a Shack-Hartmann diffractive optics sensor. The wave front was observed to be dependent on the discharge pressure and capillary length, as a result of beam refraction variations in the capillary plasma. The results predict approximately 70% of the laser beam energy can be focused into an area 4 times the size of the diffraction-limited spot, reaching intensities of approximately 4 x 10(13) W/cm(2). PMID:12005683

  13. Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray-extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Goray, Leonid I.; Seely, John F.; Sadov, Sergey Yu. [International Intellectual Group, Inc., P.O. Box 335, Penfield, New York 14526 and Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rizhsky Prospect 26, Saint-Petersburg 190103 (Russian Federation); Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2006-11-01

    It is shown from both a phenomenological study and exact modeling that the reason for the experimentally observed substantial (a few angstroms or nanometers) separation in wavelength between the maxima of the inside (negative numbered) and outside (positive numbered) diffraction orders of a multilayer-coated grating, operating at near normal incidence and close to the Bragg condition in the soft-x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) regions, is related to the different angles of deviation of the orders. This wavelength separation is also a feature of uncoated diffraction gratings, although not clearly noticeable. The widely used approximate approach for calculating the absolute efficiency, the product of the relative grating efficiency and the reflectance of its multilayer coating, has until recently been considered accurate enough for the analysis of soft-x-ray and EUV near-normal-incidence multilayer-coated gratings. The inapplicability of this approximation for the analysis of the precise positions and shapes of the efficiency curves for the inside and outside orders, despite the small ratios of wavelength and groove depth to period and the small angles of incidence, is demonstrated using gratings with realistic groove profiles and operating in the EUV region. The rigorous modified integral method (MIM), which is a variant of boundary integral equation methods and is designed for the calculation of the efficiency of multilayer gratings with arbitrary layer thicknesses and boundary shapes (including microroughness) and over a wide wavelength range, is proposed in a general operator formalism. An analysis of a derived simple phenomenological expression and the exact numerical study indicates that the spectral separation between the inside and the outside orders grows with increasing either wavelength, angle of incidence, groove frequency, or diffraction order number |m|. The efficiency modeling carried out with the commercial program PCGRATE-SX, based on the MIM, gave not only the exact values of the spectral separation between the inside and outside orders of Mo{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}/Be, Mo/Si, and Mo/Y multilayer-coated gratings with various real groove profiles measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) but also good agreement with synchrotron radiation measurements, including high orders as well. To determine the shapes and positions of efficiency curves in the soft-x-ray-EUV range of close to normal-incidence bulk and multilayer-coated gratings with real groove profiles (measured by AFM), one should use codes based on rigorous electromagnetic theory such as the MIM. The modeling is important for developing high efficiency and dispersion gratings for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of laboratory, solar, and astrophysical radiation sources.

  14. Task-based weights for photon counting spectral x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bornefalk, Hans [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a framework for taking the spatial frequency composition of an imaging task into account when determining optimal bin weight factors for photon counting energy sensitive x-ray systems. A second purpose of the investigation is to evaluate the possible improvement compared to using pixel based weights. Methods: The Fourier based approach of imaging performance and detectability index d' is applied to pulse height discriminating photon counting systems. The dependency of d' on the bin weight factors is made explicit, taking into account both differences in signal and noise transfer characteristics across bins and the spatial frequency dependency of interbin correlations from reabsorbed scatter. Using a simplified model of a specific silicon detector, d' values for a high and a low frequency imaging task are determined for optimal weights and compared to pixel based weights. Results: The method successfully identifies bins where a large point spread function degrades detection of high spatial frequency targets. The method is also successful in determining how to downweigh highly correlated bins. Quantitative predictions for the simplified silicon detector model indicate that improvements in the detectability index when applying task-based weights instead of pixel based weights are small for high frequency targets, but could be in excess of 10% for low frequency tasks where scatter-induced correlation otherwise degrade detectability. Conclusions: The proposed method makes the spatial frequency dependency of complex correlation structures between bins and their effect on the system detective quantum efficiency easier to analyze and allows optimizing bin weights for given imaging tasks. A potential increase in detectability of double digit percents in silicon detector systems operated at typical CT energies (100 kVp) merits further evaluation on a real system. The method is noted to be of higher relevance for silicon detectors than for cadmium (zink) telluride detectors.

  15. Spectroscopic Studies in X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chul-Sung

    2000-09-01

    X-ray astronomy deals with measurements of the electromagnetic radiation in the energy range of E 0.1- 100 keV. The wavelength of X-ray is comparable to the size of atoms, so that the photons in the X-ray range are usually produced and absorbed by the atomic processes. Since the launch of the first X-ray astronomy satellite "Uhuru" in 1970, technological advances in a launch capability and a detection capability make X-ray astronomy one of the most rapidly evolving fields of astronomical research. Particularly, a spectral resolving power E/Delta E has been increased by an order of 2 - 3 (in the energy range of 0,1 - 10 keV) during the past 30 years. In this paper, I briefly review a developing process of the resolving power and spectroscopic techniques. Then I describe important emission/absorption lines in X-ray astronomy, as well as diagnostics of gas property with line parameters.

  16. Absolute spectral characterization of silicon barrier diode: Application to soft X-ray fusion diagnostics at Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Vezinet, D.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-14

    This paper presents an experimental protocol for absolute calibration of photo-detectors. Spectral characterization is achieved by a methodology that unlike the usual line emissions-based method, hinges on the Bremsstrahlung radiation of a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tube only. Although the proposed methodology can be applied virtually to any detector, the application presented in this paper is based on Tore Supra's SXR diagnostics, which uses Silicon Surface Barrier Diodes. The spectral response of these n-p junctions had previously been estimated on a purely empirical basis. This time, a series of second-order effects, like the spatial distribution of the source radiated power or multi-channel analyser non linearity, are taken into account to achieve accurate measurements. Consequently, a parameterised physical model is fitted to experimental results and the existence of an unexpected dead layer (at least 5 {mu}m thick) is evidenced. This contribution also echoes a more general on-going effort in favour of long-term quality of passive radiation measurements on Tokamaks.

  17. Results of Chandra X-ray Observations of the GPS quasar sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Siemiginowska; T. L. Aldcroft; J. Bechtold; M. Blazejowski; M. Elvis

    2003-01-01

    We observed 11 Giga-Hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources with Chandra\\/ACIS-S. Here we present the results of our observations with emphasis on the X-ray spectral properties of the sample. We detect all 11 sources and find that they are powerful X-ray emitters, with X-ray luminosities in the range L(0.1-2keV) ˜ 1044}-10{47 ergs s-1. We discuss the observed spectral parameters and the

  18. Measurement of the X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver in the 5-20?keV range.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Tauhidul; Tantau, Lachlan J; Rae, Nicholas A; Barnea, Zwi; Tran, Chanh Q; Chantler, Christopher T

    2014-03-01

    The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver were measured in the energy range 5-20?keV with an accuracy of 0.01-0.2% on a relative scale down to 5.3?keV, and of 0.09-1.22% on an absolute scale to 5.0?keV. This analysis confirms that with careful choice of foil thickness and careful correction for systematics, especially including harmonic contents at lower energies, the X-ray attenuation of high-Z elements can be measured with high accuracy even at low X-ray energies (<6?keV). This is the first high-accuracy measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver in the low energy range, indicating the possibility of obtaining high-accuracy X-ray absorption fine structure down to the L1 edge (3.8?keV) of silver. Comparison of results reported here with an earlier data set optimized for higher energies confirms accuracy to within one standard error of each data set collected and analysed using the principles of the X-ray extended-range technique (XERT). Comparison with theory shows a slow divergence towards lower energies in this region away from absorption edges. The methodology developed can be used for the XAFS analysis of compounds and solutions to investigate structural features, bonding and coordination chemistry. PMID:24562564

  19. Quasar x-ray spectra revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri, P.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A sample of 45 quasars observed by the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on the Einstein satellite is used to re-examine the relationship between the soft (0.2-3.5 keV) X-ray energy index and radio-loudness. We found the following: (1) the tendency for radio-loud quasars to have systematically flatter X-ray slopes than radio-quiet quasars (RQQ's) is confirmed with the soft X-ray excess having negligible effect; (2) there is a tendency for the flatness of the X-ray slope to correlate with radio core-dominance for radio-loud quasars, suggesting that a component of the X-ray emission is relativistically beamed; (3) for the RQQ's the soft X-ray slopes, with a mean of approximately 1.0, are consistent with the slopes found at higher energies (2-10 keV) although steeper than those observed for Seyfert 1 galaxies (also 2-10 keV) where the reflection model gives a good fit to the data; (4) the correlation of FeII emission line strength with X-ray energy index is confirmed for radio-quiet quasars using a subset of 18 quasars. The radio-loud quasars show no evidence for a correlation. This relation suggests a connection between the ionizing continuum and the line emission from the broad emission line region (BELR) of radio-quiet quasars, but in the opposite sense to that predicted by current photoionization models; and (5) the correlations of X-ray slope with radio core dominance and FeII equivalent width within the radio-loud and radio-quiet sub-classes respectively imply that the observed wide range of X-ray spectral slopes is real rather than due to the large measuring uncertainties for individual objects.

  20. Design and performance of a versatile curved-crystal spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy in the tender x-ray range.

    PubMed

    Kav?i?, M; Budnar, M; Mühleisen, A; Gasser, F; Žitnik, M; Bu?ar, K; Bohinc, R

    2012-03-01

    A complete in-vacuum curved-crystal x-ray emission spectrometer in Johansson geometry has been constructed for a 2-6 keV energy range with sub natural line-width energy resolution. The spectrometer is designed to measure x-ray emission induced by photon and charged particle impact on solid and gaseous targets. It works with a relatively large x-ray source placed inside the Rowland circle and employs position sensitive detection of diffracted x-rays. Its compact modular design enables fast and easy installation at a synchrotron or particle accelerator beamline. The paper presents main characteristics of the spectrometer and illustrates its capabilities by showing few selected experimental examples. PMID:22462912

  1. Evaluation of imaging properties of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors and their application to highly dispersive spectral imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kolachevsky, N. N.; Mitropolsky, M. M.; Ragozin, E. N.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Slemzin, V. A.; Zhitnik, I. A. [Optics Division of the P. N. Lebedev Physics Inst., 53 Leninsky ave., 117924 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Physics of Microstructures, 46 Uljanov Str., 603600 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Optics Division of the P. N. Lebedev Physics Inst., 53 Leninsky ave., 117924 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    A variety of normal-incidence multilayer mirrors (MMs) intended for studies of astrophysical and laboratory soft-x-ray radiation sources have been synthesized on concave (r=1.6-2.0 m) fused silica substrates. The MMs range in resonance wavelength {lambda}0 from 4.5 to 31 nm. Their imaging capability has been evaluated from small-source imaging tests employing to a laser-plasma broadband XUV radiation source and a high-resolution XUV photographic film. The photographs testify to a subarcsecond angular resolution. For 17.5-nm MMs, a resolution of at least {approx_equal}0.32 arcseconds has been demonstrated, which is only 2.4{lambda}0/D for the MMs involved.

  2. The X-ray spectral properties of the bulge of M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Trinchieri, G.; Van Speybroeck, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a spectral analysis of the Einstein observations of the bulge of M31 are reported. The data can be fitted with a hard thermal spectrum with characteristic temperature kT of about 6-13 keV (at 90 percent confidence). No intrinsic absorption above the galactic value of N(H) is required. These results are in agreement with the presence in the bulge of M31 of a population of low-mass binary sources similar to those of the Milky Way.

  3. Non-invasive material discrimination using spectral x-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; White, Timothy A.; Deinert, Mark

    2014-04-21

    Current radiographic methods are limited in their ability to determine the presence of nuclear materials in containers or composite objects. A central problem is the inability to distinguish the attenuation pattern of high-density metals from those with a larger greater thickness of a less- dense material. Here we show that spectrally sensitive detectors can be used to discriminate plutonium from multiple layers of other materials using a single-view radiograph. An inverse algorithm with adaptive regularization is used. The algorithm can determine the presence of plutonium in simulated radiographs with a mass resolution per unit area of at least 0.07 g•cm^-2.

  4. Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: Apodization and shaping of their spectral response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed non-periodic Cr/Sc multilayer mirrors specifically designed to reflect energy photons between 2 and 4 keV with a pre-defined reflectivity profile. Furthermore, these mirrors have to work as filters in the 1-2 keV and 4-12 keV energy bandpass with a reflectivity as low as possible in these bandwidths. The mirrors were designed and optimized with the help of a commercial calculation code. Numerous combinations of layers have been investigated with two or three different materials in the multilayer. The interfacial effect, leading to thickness modifications, has been investigated. Layer thicknesses were accurately controlled, taking into account compaction effect at interfaces. The best results lead to non-periodic mirrors dedicated to work at 1.5° grazing incidence with a reflectivity above 15% in almost the entire energy range 2-4 keV and lower than 1% outside, except in the total reflection zone. The final choice of material was made from the experimental knowledge of corresponding layer deposited behavior. The multilayers have been deposited by magnetron sputtering. Grazing-incidence X-ray reflectance at 8.05 keV (0.154 nm) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt laboratory (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin for X-ray reflectance over the whole range were used both in order to characterize the multilayers (thicknesses, complex indices, and roughnesses). The final results show good agreement with the requested reflectivity profile.

  5. A MULTI-EPOCH TIMING AND SPECTRAL STUDY OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY NGC 5408 X-1 WITH XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Dheeraj, Pasham R. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Strohmayer, Tod E., E-mail: dheeraj@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: tod.strohmayer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We present results of new XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, one of the few ULXs to show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We detect QPOs in each of four new ( Almost-Equal-To 100 ks) pointings, expanding the range of frequencies observed from 10 to 40 mHz. We compare our results with the timing and spectral correlations seen in stellar-mass black hole systems, and find that the qualitative nature of the timing and spectral behavior of NGC 5408 X-1 is similar to systems in the steep power-law state exhibiting Type-C QPOs. However, in order for this analogy to quantitatively hold we must only be seeing the so-called saturated portion of the QPO frequency-photon index (or disk flux) relation. Assuming this to be the case, we place a lower limit on the mass of NGC 5408 X-1 of {approx}> 800 M{sub Sun }. Alternatively, the QPO frequency is largely independent of the spectral parameters, in which case a close analogy with the Type-C QPOs in stellar systems is problematic. Measurement of the source's timing properties over a wider range of energy spectral index is needed to definitively resolve this ambiguity. We searched all the available data for both a broad Fe emission line as well as high-frequency QPO analogs (0.1-1 Hz), but detected neither. We place upper limits on the equivalent width of any Fe emission feature in the 6-7 keV band and of the amplitude (rms) of a high-frequency QPO analog of Almost-Equal-To 10 eV and Almost-Equal-To 4%, respectively.

  6. X-ray spectral evolution of TeV BL Lac objects: eleven years of observations with BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton and SWIFT satellites

    E-print Network

    Massaro, F; Cavaliere, A; Perri, M; Giommi, P

    2007-01-01

    Many of the extragalactic sources detected in $\\gamma$ rays at TeV energies are BL Lac objects. In particular, they belong to the subclass of ``high frequency peaked BL Lacs" (HBLs), as their spectral energy distributions exhibit a first peak in the X-ray band. At a closer look, their X-ray spectra appear to be generally curved into a log-parabolic shape. In a previous investigation of Mrk 421, two correlations were found between the spectral parameters. One involves the height $S_p$ increasing with the position $E_p$ of the first peak; this was interpreted as a signature of synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. The other involves the curvature parameter $b$ decreasing as $E_p$ increases; this points toward statistical/stochastic acceleration processes for the emitting electrons. We analyse X-ray spectra of several TeV HBLs to pinpoint their behaviours in the $E_p-S_p$ and $E_p-b$ planes and to compare them with Mrk 421. We perfom X-ray spectral analyses of a sample of 15 BL Lacs. We report the wh...

  7. A digital x-ray tomosynthesis coupled near infrared spectral tomography system for dual-modality breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Michaelsen, Kelly E; Pogue, Brian W; Poplack, Steven P; Shaw, Ian; Defrietas, Ken; Brooks, Ken; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-08-13

    A Near Infrared Spectral Tomography (NIRST) system has been developed and integrated into a commercial Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner to allow structural and functional imaging of breast in vivo. The NIRST instrument uses an 8-wavelength continuous wave (CW) laser-based scanning source assembly and a 75-element silicon photodiode solid-state detector panel to produce dense spectral and spatial projection data from which spectrally constrained 3D tomographic images of tissue chromophores are produced. Integration of the optical imaging system into the DBT scanner allows direct co-registration of the optical and DBT images, while also facilitating the synergistic use of x-ray contrast as anatomical priors in optical image reconstruction. Currently, the total scan time for a combined NIRST-DBT exam is ~50s with data collection from 8 wavelengths in the optical scan requiring ~42s to complete. The system was tested in breast simulating phantoms constructed using intralipid and blood in an agarose matrix with a 3 cm x 2 cm cylindrical inclusion at 1 cm depth from the surface. Diffuse image reconstruction of total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration resulted in accurate recovery of the lateral size and position of the inclusion to within 6% and 8%, respectively. Use of DBT structural priors in the NIRST reconstruction process improved the quantitative accuracy of the HbT recovery, and led to linear changes in imaged versus actual contrast, underscoring the advantages of dual-modality optical imaging approaches. The quantitative accuracy of the system can be further improved with independent measurements of scattering properties through integration of frequency or time domain data. PMID:23038553

  8. Explorer Program: X-ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet describes the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), one in a series of Explorer missions administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science and managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The X-ray astronomy observatory is scheduled for launch into low-Earth orbit by Delta 2 expendable launch vehicle in late summer of 1995. The mission is expected to operate for at least 2 years and will carry out in-depth timing and spectral studies of the X-ray sources in the 2 to 200 kilo-electron Volt (keV) range. XTE is intended to study the temporal and broad-band spectral phenomena associated with stellar and galactic systems containing compact objects, including neutron stars, white dwarfs, and black holes.

  9. The Spectral Analysis of X-Ray Binaries from the XMM-Newton Space Craft Data using SAS Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, P.; Mito, C. O.

    2009-10-01

    A spectral data analysis on a luminous object of sky-coordinates 12h52m24.28s-29d115'02.3'12.6arcsec using Science Analysis Software (SAS) is presented. The analysis, based on data acquired by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) camera aboard the XMM-Newton Space satellite, shows that the primary constituents of the X-ray source are Fe (Iron) and O (oxygen). This suggests that the source may be a magnetized plasma in a binary system and as this magnetic field accelerates the cooling of a star, one may speculate that this may be a compact star in its last stages of a thermonuclear fusion process. Nous présentons une analyse du spectre d'une source a rayons X située -- en coordonnées sidérales - à 12h52m24.28s - 29d115'02.312.6 arcsec. Science Analysis Software (SAS) est le programme informatique utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Cette analyse est basée sur les données provenant du spectromètre à haute résolution (RGS) à bord du satellite spatiale XMM-Newton. Nous montrons que ladite source est principalement constituée de Fer (Fe) et d'oxygene (O). Ce résultat suggère que la source pourrait être un plasma magnétisé au sein d'un système binaire. Et du fait que ce champ magnétique accélère le refroidissement de l'étoile, nous supposons que cette étoile pourrait ètre un objet compact en phase terminale d'un processus de fusion thermonucléaire.

  10. Hort-Range Wetting at Liquid Gallium-Bismuth Alloy Surfaces: X-ray Measurements and Square-Gradient Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O; Pershan, P; Ocko, B; DiMasi, E; Deutsch, M

    2009-01-01

    We present an x-ray reflectivity study of wetting at the free surface of the binary liquid metal alloy gallium-bismuth (Ga-Bi) in the region where the bulk phase separates into Bi-rich and Ga-rich liquid phases. The measurements reveal the evolution of the microscopic structure of the wetting films of the Bi-rich, low-surface-tension phase along several paths in the bulk phase diagram. The wetting of the Ga-rich bulk's surface by a Bi-rich wetting film, the thickness of which is limited by gravity to only 50 Angstroms, creates a Ga-rich/Bi-rich liquid/liquid interface close enough to the free surface to allow its detailed study by x rays. The structure of the interface is determined with Angstromsngstrem resolution, which allows the application of a mean-field square gradient model extended by the inclusion of capillary waves as the dominant thermal fluctuations. The sole free parameter of the gradient model, the influence parameter K, that characterizes the influence of concentration gradients on the interfacial excess energy, is determined from our measurements. This, in turn, allows a calculation of the liquid/liquid interfacial tension, and a separation of the intrinsic and capillary wave contributions to the interfacial structure. In spite of expected deviations from MF behavior, based on the upper critical dimensionality (Du = 3 ) of the bulk, we find that the capillary wave excitations only marginally affect the short-range complete wetting behavior. A critical wetting transition that is sensitive to thermal fluctuations appears to be absent in this binary liquid-metal alloy.

  11. The iron complex in high mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez-García, A.; Torrejón, J. M.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Rodes-Rocas, J. J.; Bernabéu, G.

    2013-05-01

    An X-ray binary system consists of a compact object (a white dwarf, a neutron star or a black hole) accreting material from an optical companion star. The spectral type of the optical component strongly affects the mass transfer to the compact object. This is the reason why X-ray binary systems are usually divided in High Mass X-ray Binaries (companion O or B type, denoted HMXB) and Low Mass X-ray Binaries (companion type A or later). The HMXB are divided depending on the partner's luminosity class in two main groups: the Supergiant X-ray Binaries (SGXB) and Be X-ray Binaries (BeXB). We introduce the spectral characterization of a sample of 9 High Mass X-ray Binaries in the iron complex (˜ 6-7 keV). This spectral range is a fundamental tool in the study of the surrounding material of these systems. The sources have been divided into three main groups according to their current standard classification: SGXB, BeXB and ? Cassiopeae-like. The purpose of this work is to look for qualitative patterns in the iron complex, around 6-7 keV, in order to discern between current different classes that make up the group of HMXB. We find significant spectral patterns for each of the sets, reflecting differences in accretion physics thereof.

  12. X-ray spectral microanalysis of composition of individual lunar regolith particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, N. P.; Loseva, L. Y.; Senin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    Determinations were made of the chemical compositions of selected olivine crystals, spherical particles ranging in size from 170 to 350 micrometer, spinels, and magnetic particles. The olivines contain 30 to 50 mole percent fayalite. The spherical particles of various colors are aluminosilicate glasses, significantly enriched in CaO compared with the mean composition of the regolith. The degree of coloration depends on the FeO content and also the admixtures TiO2, MnO, and Cr2O3. Compositionally, the spinel was interpreted to be chromopicotites. Magnetic particles were shown to be complex intergrowths of nickelous iron and aluminosilicates. The composition of the metallic phase of one particle (in percent) was: Fe - 86, Ni - 13.6, and Co - 0.16 in combination with plagioclase and microinclusions of ilmenite in silicate. Kamacite was determined in another intergrowth of Fe, Ni, and Co.

  13. High Quality Fraunhofer Diffraction Spectra Taken at SSRL in the Soft X-Ray Range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tatchyn; I. Lindau; M. Hecht; E. Källne; E. Spiller; R. Bartlett; J. Källne; J. H. Dijkstra; A. Hawryluk; R. Z. Bachrach

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental arrangement utilized at SSRL for obtaining high-quality Fraunhofer diffraction spectra from a group of specially-fabricated gold transmission gratings prepared at IBM. The data taken will ultimately be utilized to estimate the optical constants of gold in the 120 eV-640 eV range, but in the present paper our focus is on the new advances achieved in

  14. A study of X-ray luminescence and spectral compatibility of europium-activated yttrium-vanadate (YVO4: Eu) screens for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayiotakis, G.; Cavouras, D.; Kandarakis, I.; Nomicos, C.

    1996-04-01

    The X-ray luminescence efficiency of laboratory-prepared YVO4 : Eu screens and their spectral compatibility to common optical detectors were studied under medical fluoroscopy conditions. YVO4 : Eu screens were prepared by sedimentation and with different coating thickness. Luminescence efficiency of the YVO4 : Eu screens was measured at various X-ray tube voltages (50 250 kVp) and for screens of different coating thicknesses (20 180 mg/cm2). Spectral response was also measured and spectral matching factors between the YVO4 : Eu screens and some common optical detectors (photocathodes, photodiodes, photographic emulsion) were calculated. Experimental results on efficiency were fitted by formulas of the theoretical model developed by Hamaker and Ludwig in order to determine phosphor intrinsic X-ray-to-light conversion efficiency and intrinsic optical characteristics, such as coefficients related to light scattering and absorption. Although the luminescence efficiency of YVO4 : Eu screens was found to be relatively low (3 11 ?W s/mR m2), the matching factor of YVO4 : Eu screens with some red sensitive optical detectors was excellent, of the order of 0.96. High spectral compatibility may indicate that YVO4 : Eu scintillators could be used in medical image detectors.

  15. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T. (Melbourne)

    2010-11-12

    We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

  16. THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs

    E-print Network

    Trichas, Markos

    From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic ...

  17. The spatial, spectral, and temporal character of the hard X-ray flare of 1982 February 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Nariaki; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Kai, Keizo

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents spatially resolved, hard and soft X-ray, 17 GHz microwave and H-alpha observations of an X1.1 flare which occurred on February 3, 1982. The bulk of the 25-50 keV hard X-ray emission during impulsive peaks is produced by two sources of differing brightness which are separated by about 50 arcsec. Soft X-ray images reveal a single component that resides between the two hard sources. On the decay of the event, X-ray spectra provide direct evidence for a hot component that dominates the less than 50 keV flux. Hard X-ray images obtained at these times show a single source that is nearly coincident with the soft X-ray source. Interferometric microwave observations obtained during impulsive peaks support the idea that microwave emission is produced in the vicinity of high magnetic fields near the sunspot. The influence of an asymmetric loop or system of asymmetric loops is essential to interpreting the observations.

  18. Performance simulation of an x-ray detector for spectral CT with combined Si and Cd[Zn]Te detection layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Herrmann; Klaus-Jürgen Engel; Jens Wiegert

    2010-01-01

    The most obvious problem in obtaining spectral information with energy-resolving photon counting detectors in clinical computed tomography (CT) is the huge x-ray flux present in conventional CT systems. At high tube voltages (e.g. 140 kVp), despite the beam shaper, this flux can be close to 109 Mcps mm-2 in the direct beam or in regions behind the object, which are

  19. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm/sup 2/ and a thickness of 100 ..mu..m. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150/sup 0/K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs.

  20. Small area silicon diffused junction X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.; Pehl, R. H.; Larsh, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low-temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy X-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 sq cm and a thickness of 100 microns. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values, indicating that the defects introduced by the high-temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low-energy X-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 K to 150 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low-energy X-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon-diffused junction technology to X-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon X-ray detector designs.

  1. X-ray spectral evolution of TeV BL Lac objects: eleven years of observations with BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton and SWIFT satellites

    E-print Network

    F. Massaro; A. Tramacere; A. Cavaliere; M. Perri; P. Giommi

    2007-12-13

    Many of the extragalactic sources detected in $\\gamma$ rays at TeV energies are BL Lac objects. In particular, they belong to the subclass of ``high frequency peaked BL Lacs" (HBLs), as their spectral energy distributions exhibit a first peak in the X-ray band. At a closer look, their X-ray spectra appear to be generally curved into a log-parabolic shape. In a previous investigation of Mrk 421, two correlations were found between the spectral parameters. One involves the height $S_p$ increasing with the position $E_p$ of the first peak; this was interpreted as a signature of synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. The other involves the curvature parameter $b$ decreasing as $E_p$ increases; this points toward statistical/stochastic acceleration processes for the emitting electrons. We analyse X-ray spectra of several TeV HBLs to pinpoint their behaviours in the $E_p-S_p$ and $E_p-b$ planes and to compare them with Mrk 421. We perfom X-ray spectral analyses of a sample of 15 BL Lacs. We report the whole set of observations obtained with the \\sax, \\xmm and \\swf satellites between 29/06/96 and 07/04/07. We focus on five sources (PKS 0548-322, 1H 1426+418, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, PKS2155-304) whose X-ray observations warrant detailed searching of correlations or trends. Within our database, we find that four out of five sources, namely PKS 0548-322, 1H 1426+418, Mrk 501 and 1ES 1959+650, follow similar trends as Mrk 421 in the $E_p-S_p$ plane, while PKS 2155-304 differs. As for the $E_p-b$ plane, all TeV HBLs follow a similar behaviour. The trends exhibited by Mrk 421 appear to be shared by several TeV HBLs, such as to warrant discussing predictions from the X-ray spectral evolution to that of TeV emissions.

  2. X-ray variability with spectral state transitions in NS-LMXBs observed with MAXI/GSC and Swift/BAT

    E-print Network

    Asai, Kazumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions in bright low mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star are investigated by using the one-day bin light curves of MAXI/GSC (Gas Slit Camera) and Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope). Four sources (4U 1636$-$536, 4U 1705$-$44, 4U 1608$-$52, and GS 1826$-$238) exhibited small-amplitude X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions. Such "mini-outbursts" were characterized by smaller amplitudes (several times) and shorter duration (less than several tens of days) than those of "normal outbursts." Theoretical model of disk instability by Mineshige and Osaki (PASJ, 37, 1, 1985) predicts both large-amplitude outbursts and small-amplitude variabilities. We interpret the normal outbursts as the former prediction of this model, and the mini-outbursts as the latter. Here, we can also call the mini-outburst as "purr-type outburst" referring to theoretical work. We suggest that similar variabilities lasting for several tens of days without spectral state transiti...

  3. LONG-TERM X-RAY MONITORING OF LS I +61{sup 0}303: ANALYSIS OF SPECTRAL VARIABILITY AND FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian; Zhang Shu; Chen Yupeng; Wang Jianmin [Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China); Torres, Diego F. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Hadasch, Daniela; Rea, Nanda [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Torre C5, 2a planta 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Ray, Paul S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Kretschmar, Peter, E-mail: jianli@ihep.ac.cn [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-06-01

    We report on the full analysis of a Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array monitoring of the {gamma}-ray binary system LS I +61{sup 0}303. The data set covers 42 contiguous cycles of the system orbital motion. Analyzing this X-ray monitoring data set, the largest to date for this source, we report on the variability of the orbital profile and the spectral distribution, and provide strong evidence for an anti-correlation between flux and spectral index (the higher the flux, the harder the spectral index). Furthermore, we present the analysis of two newly discovered kilosecond-timescale flares, which present significant variability also on shorter timescales and tend to occur at orbital phases between 0.6 and 0.9. However, a detailed timing analysis of the flares does not show any coherent or quasi-coherent (QPO) structure in their power spectra. We also investigated the possible appearance of the radio super-orbital modulation at X-ray energies, but we could not unambiguously detect such modulation in the system flux history nor in the evolution of its orbital modulation fraction.

  4. Photon Spectroscopy with Imaging X-Ray Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Labonte; K. P. Reardon

    2007-01-01

    Individual X-ray photons in the keV energy range produce hundreds of photoelectrons in a single pixel of a CCD array detector.\\u000a The number of photoelectrons produced is a linear function of the photon energy, allowing the measurement of spectral information\\u000a with an imaging detector system. Most solar X-ray telescopes, such as Yohkoh\\/SXT and Hinode\\/XRT, use CCD detectors in an integrating

  5. Photon Spectroscopy with Imaging X-Ray Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Labonte; K. P. Reardon

    2007-01-01

    Individual X-ray photons in the keV energy range produce hundreds of photoelectrons in a single pixel of a CCD array detector. The number of photoelectrons produced is a linear function of the photon energy, allowing the measurement of spectral information with an imaging detector system. Most solar X-ray telescopes, such as Yohkoh\\/SXT and Hinode\\/XRT, use CCD detectors in an integrating

  6. Measurements of K-shell X-ray production cross-sections and fluorescence yields for some elements in the atomic number range 28?Z?40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, R.; Tunç, H.; özkartal, A.

    2015-07-01

    K shell X-ray production cross-sections (?K? and ?K?) have been measured for some elements in the atomic number range 28?Z?40. Measurements have been carried out at 16.896 keV excitation energy using secondary source. K X-rays emitted by samples have been counted by a Si(Li) detector with 160 eV resolution at 5.9 keV. The values of K-shell fluorescence yields (?K) have been evaluated for the same elements. The results obtained for K X-ray production cross-sections and fluorescence yields have been compared with the theoretically calculated values and other available semiempirical values.

  7. Searching for dark matter in X-rays: how to check the dark matter origin of a spectral feature

    E-print Network

    Alexey Boyarsky; Oleg Ruchayskiy; Dmytro Iakubovskyi; Matthew G. Walker; Signe Riemer-Sorensen; Steen H. Hansen

    2010-05-06

    A signal from decaying dark matter (DM) can be unambiguously distinguished from spectral features of astrophysical or instrumental origin by studying its spatial distribution. We demonstrate this approach by examining the recent claim of 0912.0552 regarding the possible DM origin of the 2.5 keV line in Chandra observations of the Milky Way satellite known as Willman 1. Our conservative strategy is to adopt a relatively large dark mass for Willman 1 and relatively small dark masses for the comparison objects. We analyze archival observations by XMM-Newton of M31 and Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) and Chandra observations of Sculptor dSph. By performing a conservative analysis of X-ray spectra, we show the absence of a DM decay line with parameters consistent with those of 0912.0552. For M31, the observations of the regions between 10 and 20 kpc from the center, where the uncertainties in the DM distribution are minimal, make a strong exclusion at the level above 10sigma. The minimal estimate for the amount of DM in the central 40 kpc of M31 is provided by the model of 0912.4133, assuming the stellar disk's mass to light ratio ~8 and almost constant DM density within a core of 28 kpc. Even in this case one gets an exclusion at 5.7sigma from central region of M31 whereas modeling all processed data from M31 and Fornax produces more than 14sigma exclusion. Therefore, despite possible systematic uncertainties, we exclude the possibility that the spectral feature at ~2.5 keV found in 0912.0552 is a DM decay line. We conclude, however, that the search for DM decay line, although demanding prolonged observations of well-studied dSphs, M31 outskirts and other similar objects, is rather promising, as the nature of a possible signal can be checked. An (expected) non-observation of a DM decay signal in the planned observations of Willman 1 should not discourage further dedicated observations.

  8. Short-Range Order and Collective Dynamics of DMPC Bilayers: A Comparison between Molecular Dynamics Simulations, X-Ray, and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen S. Hub; Tim Salditt; Maikel C. Rheinstädter; Bert L. de Groot

    2007-01-01

    We present an extensive comparison of short-range order and short wavelength dynamics of a hydrated phospholipid bilayer derived by molecular dynamics simulations, elastic x-ray, and inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The quantities that are compared between simulation and experiment include static and dynamic structure factors, reciprocal space mappings, and electron density profiles. We show that the simultaneous use of molecular dynamics

  9. Evaluation of field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of lead contamination on small-arms firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; Taylor, J.D.; Bass, D.A.; Zellmer, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rieck, M. [U.S. Army, Grafenwoehr Training Area (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    Field analytical methods for the characterization of lead contamination in soil are being developed. In this study, the usefulness of a commercially available, field-portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) is evaluated for determining the extent of lead contamination in soils on small-arms firing ranges at a military installation. This field screening technique provides significant time and cost savings for the study of sites with lead-contaminated soil. Data obtained with the XRF unit in the field are compared with data obtained from soil samples analyzed in an analytical laboratory by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Results indicate that the field-portable XRF unit evaluated in this study provides data that are useful in determining the extent and relative magnitude of lead contamination. For the commercial unit used in this study, improvements in the spectral resolution and in the limit of detection would be required to make the unit more than just a screening tool.

  10. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation – Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V.-D. Hodoroaba; M. Radtke; L. Vincze; V. Rackwitz; D. Reuter

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The

  11. Spectral and Timing Properties of the Black Hole X-Ray Binary H1743-322 in the Low/Hard State Studied with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shidatsu, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, S.; Done, C.; Hori, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Kubota, A.; Nagayama, T.; Moritani, Y.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the results from Suzaku observations of the Galactic black hole X-ray binary H1743-322 in the low/hard state during its outburst in 2012 October. We appropriately take into account the effects of dust scattering to accurately analyze the X-ray spectra. The time-averaged spectra in the 1-200 keV band are dominated by a hard power-law component of a photon index of ?1.6 with a high-energy cutoff at ?60 keV, which is well described with the Comptonization of the disk emission by the hot corona. We estimate the inner disk radius from the multi-color disk component, and find that it is 1.3-2.3 times larger than the radius in the high/soft state. This suggests that the standard disk was not extended to the innermost stable circular orbit. A reflection component from the disk is detected with R = ?/2? ? 0.6 (? is the solid angle). We also successfully estimate the stable disk component independent of the time-averaged spectral modeling by analyzing short-term spectral variability on a ~1 s timescale. A weak low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation at 0.1-0.2 Hz is detected, whose frequency is found to correlate with the X-ray luminosity and photon index. This result may be explained by the evolution of the disk truncation radius.

  12. Hard x-ray diagnostics for laser fusion plasmas analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miquel, J.; Bourgade, J.; Schirmann, D. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre de Limeil-Valenton, 94195 Villeneuve-Saint-Georges Cedex (France)); Veaux, J.; Gex, J.; Cavailler, C. (CEA, Centre de Vaujours, B.P. 7, 77181 Courtry (France)); de Mascureau, J. (CEA, CESTA, B.P. 2, 33114 Le Barp (France)); Frotte, V.; Trochet, R. (CEA, Centre de Bruyeres-le-chatel, B.P. 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-chatel (France))

    1992-10-01

    Two diagnostics for the study of hard x-ray emission produced by plasmas during inertial confinement fusion experiments, are described: (i) a hard x-ray spectrometer to measure the high-energy tail of the spectrum, with eight spectral bands in the 50--400-keV range, by fluorescence and simple filter techniques; (ii) a time-integrated pinhole imaging device using a microchannel plate converter tube and a 7.5-{mu}m-thick tantalum photocathode adjusted for a mean spectral sensitivity around 200 keV. Adjustment and test of these diagnostics have been performed with a pulsed hard x-ray generator using a plasma focus device. Absolute calibration of the spectrometer detectors (scintillator Photomultiplier) was obtained on an x-ray tube with fluorescent emission lines (10--100 keV) and with a cobalt radioactive source at 1.23 MeV.

  13. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-06-05

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni L..cap alpha../sub 1/ /sub 2/ lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures.

  14. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Zhekov, Svetozar A. [Space and Solar-Terrestrial Research Institute, Moskovska str. 6, Sofia-1000 (Bulgaria); Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schmutz, Werner [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD), Dorfstrasse 33, CH-7260 Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Sokal, Kimberly R., E-mail: Stephen.Skinner@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  15. Soft x-ray solar polarimeter-spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ste?licki, Marek; Sylwester, Janusz; Siarkowski, Marek; Kowali?ski, Miros?aw; P?ocieniak, Stefan; B?ka?a, Jaros?aw; Szaforz, ?aneta; Kuzin, Sergey

    2014-12-01

    We present an innovative soft X-ray polarimeter and spectrometer SOLPEX, the instrument to be mounted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015/2016. The SOLPEX will be composed of three individual measuring units: the soft X-ray polarimeter with 1-2% linear polarization detection limit, a fast-rotating drum X-ray spectrometer with very high time resolution (0.1s) and a simple pin-hole soft X-ray imager-spectrometer with moderate spatial (~20arcsec), spectral (0.5 keV) and high time resolution (0.1s). This set of instruments will provide unique opportunity to complement the efforts to reliably measure the X-ray polarization and contribute towards understanding the physics of solar flares. The standard flare model states that electrons are being accelerated in specific regions of the corona at or near magnetic reconnection site and then propagate along reconnected magnetic field lines toward the atmospheric denser layers. There, they are decelerated and lose their energy mainly through the bremsstrahlung process. Deposited energy is readily converted to directed evaporation of the plasma to be detected through the Doppler-shifted emission lines in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges Due to highly anisotropic character of impulsive phase electron beams, resulting emission is expected to be polarized. Both these processes: bremsstrahlung emission of supposedly polarized X-ray flux and accompanying plasma evaporation velocities are to be simultaneously observed by the proposed SOLPEX instruments.

  16. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  17. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  18. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  19. X-Ray Data Booklet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Attwood, David.

    2000-01-01

    The X-Ray Data Booklet is provided by the Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The online publication contains topics such as x-ray properties of elements, mass absorption coefficients, synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, low-energy electron ranges in matter, optics and detectors, specular reflectivities for grazing-incidence mirrors, and other practical information that has been produced and gathered as a result of research at the center. Additional features of the informative site include an interactive periodic table of X-Ray properties and free deliverable hardcopies of the document.

  20. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, Eric N., E-mail: landis@maine.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States); Keane, Denis T., E-mail: dtkeane@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); DND-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Bldg. 432/A002, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  1. Short-range structure of solid and liquid AgBr determined by multiple-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea di Cicco; Marco Taglienti; Marco Minicucci; Adriano Filipponi

    2000-01-01

    X-ray absorption measurements of solid and liquid AgBr in the T=30-927 K range of temperature have been performed using synchrotron radiation. Accurate short-range structural parameters are determined using simultaneous Ag and Br K-edge EXAFS refinement in the framework of the GNXAS method for data analysis. Results are discussed in light of the peculiar structural and ionic conduction properties of AgBr

  2. X-ray emission from supernova remnants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Charles

    1976-01-01

    Using data from the Mullard Space Science Laboratory's X-ray telescopes on the satellite OAO-Copernicus, the five supernova remnants, the Crab Nebula, the Cygnus Loop, IC443, Cas A and Pup A, have been studied in detail in the 0.5 - 7.5 keV range. Both spectral and spatial information are available for each remnant, from which the following conclusions may be drawn.

  3. An accurate X-ray spectrographic method for the analysis of a wide range of geological samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Norrish; J. T. Hutton

    1969-01-01

    For accurate X-ray spectrographic analysis of geological samples of widely varying composition, a fusion with lithium borate containing lanthanum oxide is used to make a suitable glass disc. Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe are determined on this disc, using similar discs made with pure chemicals for calibration. \\

  4. Studies of short-range order in amorphous polymers by radial distribution functions derived from X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Wignall; G. W. Longman

    1976-01-01

    Interatomic and intermolecular ordering in amorphous polymers can be characterized by radial distribution functions (RDF) derived from radiation scattering measurements (X-rays, neutrons, etc.). The type of information which may be derived from RDF data in monatomic systems is illustrated by measurements on a sample of vitreous carbon, which is shown to consist of graphite-like sheets of hexagonally packed carbon atoms

  5. Solar active region physical parameters inferred from a thermal cyclotron line and soft X-ray spectral lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Lang; Robert F. Willson; Kermit L. Smith; Keith T. Strong

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous high-resolution observations of coronal loops were made at the 20-cm wavelength with the VLA and at soft X-ray wavelengths with the SMM FCS. The images obtained at both wavelengths have nearly identical sizes and ellipsoidal shapes, with the emission stretching between and across regions of opposite magnetic polarity in the underlying photosphere. The results indicate that the radiation at

  6. Exploring the Small Magellanic Cloud to the Faintest X-ray Fluxes: Source Catalog, Timing and Spectral Analysis

    E-print Network

    Silas Laycock; Andreas Zezas; Jaesub Hong; Jeremy Drake; Valsamo Antoniou

    2014-08-02

    We present the results of a pair of 100 ksec Chandra observations in the Small Magellanic Cloud to survey high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), stars and LMXBs/CVs down to Lx = 4.3 x 10^32 erg/s The two SMC Deep Fields are located in the most active star forming region of the bar, with Deep Field-1 positioned at the most pulsar-rich location identified from previous surveys. Two new pulsars were discovered in outburst: CXOU J004929.7-731058 (P=892s), CXOU J005252.2-721715 (P=326s), and 3 new HMXB candidates were identified. Of 15 Be-pulsars now known in the field, 13 were detected, with pulsations seen in 9 of them. Ephemerides demonstrate that 6 of the 10 pulsars known to exhibit regular outbursts were seen outside their periastron phase, and quiescent X-ray emission at Lx=10^33 - 10^34 is shown to be common. Comparison with ROSAT, ASCA, XMM-Newton catalogs resulted in positive identification of several previously ambiguous sources. Bright optical counterparts exist for 40 of the X-ray sources, of which 33 are consistent with early-type stars Mvproperties.

  7. Generation of picosecond CuK? X-ray pulses and application to time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chen; I. V. Tomov; H. E. Elsayed-Ali; M. P. Rentzepis

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. Generation of picosecond X-ray pulses has applications to time-resolved diffraction studies. For the generation of picosecond narrow linewidth hard X-ray pulses one can use the optical excitation of an X-ray diode. This technique allows for the generation of picosecond X-ray pulses with spatial and spectral characteristics similar to the X-ray radiation generated by conventional X-ray tubes.

  8. Mapping of auroral x-rays from rocket overflights

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.A.; Barcus, J.R.; Treinish, L.A.; Vondrak, R.R.

    1982-04-01

    In March 1978, two Nike Tomahawk payloads were launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, to observe the structure of bremsstrhlung x rays and precipitating particles during both nighttime and daytime observe x rays in four spectral ranges (5--10 keV, 10--20 keV, 20--40 keV, and >40 keV). Particle contamination of the detectors was avoided with broom magnet shielding techniques. By virtue of the payloads' approximate 20/sup 0/ coning angle (about 10.5-s period), the detectors scanned wide regions on either side of the trajectory paths. This has permitted construction (using computer color graphics) of the time averaged (approx.4 min) x ray source regions near 100 km, a height consistent with Chatanika radar electron density maps obtained during each flight period. X ray image maps for both flights exhibit enhanced source regions well outside the rocket trajectory planes. For the nighttime overflight, Chatanika radar scan data and Fort Yukon riometer data were used to verify the presence of an x ray imaged enhancement of electron precipitation, approximately 30 km to the east of the rocket trajectory plane. The daytime x ray data also exhibited several regions of enhanced emission, but outside the region scanned by Chatanika radar. A comparison of the x ray emissions from the two events shows the daytime x ray spectral distributions to be significantly harder but less intense that the nighttime distributions. Furthermore, for both events, spectra compared within and nearby each enhanced emitting region exhibit characteristics of a two component spectrum, such that the bright regions show an increased flux primarily in the low-energy component. Electron fluxes measured on each of the two flights with Geiger tubes are mainly isotropic over the downward hemisphere at night but show anisotropic pitch angle characteristics by day, consistent with the concept that the enhancement of the low-energy x ray flux component is predominantly induced by electrons filling the loss cone.

  9. X-Ray Properties of K-Selected Galaxies at 0.5 Less than z Less than 2.0: Investigating Trends with Stellar Mass, Redshift and Spectral Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Therese M.; Kriek, Mariska; vanDokkum, Peter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Greene, Jenny E.; Labbe, Ivo; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    We examine how the total X-ray luminosity correlates with stellar mass, stellar population, and redshift for a K-band limited sample of approximately 3500 galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0 from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey in the COSMOS field. The galaxy sample is divided into 32 different galaxy types, based on similarities between the spectral energy distributions. For each galaxy type, we further divide the sample into bins of redshift and stellar mass, and perform an X-ray stacking analysis using the Chandra COSMOS data. We find that full band X-ray luminosity is primarily increasing with stellar mass, and at similar mass and spectral type is higher at larger redshifts. When comparing at the same stellar mass, we find that the X-ray luminosity is slightly higher for younger galaxies (i.e., weaker 4000 angstrom breaks), but the scatter in this relation is large. We compare the observed X-ray luminosities to those expected from low- and high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). For blue galaxies, XRBs can almost fully account for the observed emission, while for older galaxies with larger 4000 angstrom breaks, active galactic nuclei (AGN) or hot gas dominate the measured X-ray flux. After correcting for XRBs, the X-ray luminosity is still slightly higher in younger galaxies, although this correlation is not significant. AGN appear to be a larger component of galaxy X-ray luminosity at earlier times, as the hardness ratio increases with redshift. Together with the slight increase in X-ray luminosity this may indicate more obscured AGNs or higher accretion rates at earlier times.

  10. Diamond Photodetectors for X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Emanuele; De Sio, Antonio; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Ziyu; Marcelli, Augusto

    2010-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is a fundamental tool for X-ray research. In particular, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) accesses information as electronic properties, local structure or chemical-physical state in condensed-matter studies. Ionization chambers (ICs) are the most widely used XAS detectors for transmission measurements because of their reliability, high linearity and good stability. Recently, solid-state detectors have been considered and Si p-i-n has been applied to high fluxes (1011 ph/s), where the linearity of ICs is no longer guaranteed. Silicon photodiodes exhibit an extremely linear response in at least 5 decades but show diffraction peaks. Diamond is an ideal substrate to produce radiation-hard, low dark current (<1 pA/cm2), visible-blind and fast-response X-ray detectors with a high S/N ratio. Diamond detectors were tested as SR monitor capable to withstand the high photon flux density of the 3rd generation SR sources. Being the lowest X-ray-absorbing solid-state dielectric material, diamond maximizes the flux through thin self-standing devices with minimal spectral effect down to the soft x-ray range. We will present results of X-ray tests of photoconductors based on different diamond substrates. The results will be compared to standard ICs for XAS applications in terms of spectral quality, noise and linearity in the 4-13 keV energy range.

  11. A galactic component of the diffuse X-ray flux in the range 2-7 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protheroe, R. J.; Wolfendale, A. W.; Wdowczyk, J.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the spatial distribution of the 2-7 keV X-ray background measured by Uhuru and reported by Schwartz (1979) is presented. The latitude distribution above 10 deg is consistent with a uniform isotropic component comprising the bulk of the radiation plus a galactic part varying from 3% at /b/ = 20 deg to 1% at /b/ = 90 deg. An analysis was made of the residual background based on the work of Warwick, Pye, and Fabian, in terms of a directional anisotropy as indicated by the Compton-Getting effect; the symmetrical galactic contribution was subtracted in the computations. It was shown that the results are consistent with the solar system moving through the 2-7 keV X-ray sea in the same manner as it appears to move with respect to the 2.7 K radiation.

  12. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  13. A second-generation x-ray streak camera with true large format, high dynamic range, and high reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke-Xun Sun; William Nishimura; Theodore Perry; Steve Compton

    2005-01-01

    This paper will review the specifications, test and experiment performance features of Bechtel Nevada's Phase 2 X-ray Streak Camera (P2XSC). The P2XSC was developed to meet stringent inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density (HED) science requirements for experiments at Omega laser facility at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), and National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  14. Skull x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table or sit in a chair. Your ... there is little or no discomfort during an x-ray. If there is a head injury , positioning ...

  15. X-ray source population study of the starburst galaxy M83 with XMM-Newton

    E-print Network

    Ducci, L; Haberl, F; Pietsch, W

    2013-01-01

    We present the results obtained from the analysis of three XMM-Newton observations of M83. The aims of the paper are studying the X-ray source populations in M83 and calculating the X-ray luminosity functions of X-ray binaries for different regions of the galaxy. We detected 189 sources in the XMM-Newton field of view in the energy range of 0.2-12 keV. We constrained their nature by means of spectral analysis, hardness ratios, studies of the X-ray variability, and cross-correlations with catalogues in X-ray, optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths. We identified and classified 12 background objects, five foreground stars, two X-ray binaries, one supernova remnant candidate, one super-soft source candidate and one ultra-luminous X-ray source. Among these sources, we classified for the first time three active galactic nuclei (AGN) candidates. We derived X-ray luminosity functions of the X-ray sources in M83 in the 2-10 keV energy range, within and outside the D_25 ellipse, correcting the total X-ray luminosity...

  16. Soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

  17. Accurate measurement and physical insight: The X-ray extended range technique for fundamental atomic physics, condensed matter research and biological sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantler, C. T.

    2010-02-01

    Research in core physics or atomic and condensed matter science is increasingly relevant for diverse fields and are finding application in chemistry, engineering and biological sciences, linking to experimental research at synchrotrons, reactors and specialised facilities. Over recent synchrotron experiments and publications we have developed methods for measuring the absorption coefficient far from the edge and in the XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) region in neutral atoms, simple compounds and organometallics reaching accuracies of below 0.02%. This is 50-500 times more accurate than earlier methods, and 50-250 times more accurate than claimed uncertainties in theoretical computations for these systems. The data and methodology are useful for a wide range of applications, including major synchrotron and laboratory techniques relating to fine structure, near-edge analysis and standard crystallography. Experiments are sensitive to theoretical and computational issues, including correlation between convergence of electronic and atomic orbitals and wavefunctions. Hence, particularly in relation to the popular techniques of XAFS and XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure), this development calls for strong theoretical involvement but has great applications in solid state structural determination, catalysis and enzyme environments, active centres of biomolecules and organometallics, phase changes and fluorescence investigations and others. We discuss key features of the X-ray extended range technique (XERT) and illustrate applications.

  18. The effect of characteristic x-rays on the spatial and spectral resolution of a CZT-based detector for breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Stephen J.; Didier, Clay S.

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to improve the early stage detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, a number of research groups have been investigating the use of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) systems dedicated for use in imaging the breast. Preliminary results suggest that dedicated breast CT systems can provide improved visualization of 3D breast tissue as compared to conventional mammography. However, current breast CT prototypes that are being investigated have limitations resulting in less than desirable spatial resolution, lesion contrast, and signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. Another option is a CT breast imaging system that uses a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) based detector operating in a photon counting mode. This paper uses a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of characteristic x-rays on spatial and spectral resolution for a CZT detector used for breast CT. It is concluded that using CZT of 500-750 ?m would not cause significant differences in spatial or spectral resolution, nor in stopping power as compared to using CZT with thickness 2-3 mm.

  19. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  20. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  1. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  2. X-ray universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W.; Giacconi, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a selective and personal history of x-ray astronomy. The x-ray universe is considered along with the sensible world, historical aspects regarding the discovery and utilization of x-rays, the pioneers of x-ray astronomy, the discovery of an x-ray star, the riddle of the x-ray stars, developments leading to the Uhuru (x-ray Explorer) satellite and the study of neutron stars and black holes, the x-ray sky, a telescope for x-rays, the Einstein observatory (HEAO-2), stellar coronas and supernovas, active galaxies and quasars, clusters of galaxies and the missing mass, and the cosmic x-ray background. Attention is also given to NASA's Advanced x-Ray Astrophysics Facility, which will open a permanent window on the x-ray universe.

  3. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  4. The XMM-Newton wide-field survey in the COSMOS field. IV: X-ray spectral properties of Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    V. Mainieri; G. Hasinger; N. Cappelluti; M. Brusa; H. Brunner; F. Civano; A. Comastri; M. Elvis; A. Finoguenov; F. Fiore; R. Gilli; I. Lehmann; J. Silverman; L. Tasca; C. Vignali; G. Zamorani; E. Schinnerer; C. Impey; J. Trump; S. Lilly; C. Maier; R. E. Griffiths; T. Miyaji; P. Capak; A. Koekemoer; N. Scoville; P. Shopbell; Y. Taniguchi

    2006-12-14

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of point-like X-ray sources in the XMM-COSMOS field. Our sample of 135 sources only includes those that have more than 100 net counts in the 0.3-10 keV energy band and have been identified through optical spectroscopy. The majority of the sources are well described by a simple power-law model with either no absorption (76%) or a significant intrinsic, absorbing column (20%).As expected, the distribution of intrinsic absorbing column densities is markedly different between AGN with or without broad optical emission lines. We find within our sample four Type-2 QSOs candidates (L_X > 10^44 erg/s, N_H > 10^22 cm^-2), with a spectral energy distribution well reproduced by a composite Seyfert-2 spectrum, that demonstrates the strength of the wide field XMM/COSMOS survey to detect these rare and underrepresented sources.

  5. THE 2006-2007 ACTIVE PHASE OF ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSAR 4U 0142+61: RADIATIVE AND TIMING CHANGES, BURSTS, AND BURST SPECTRAL FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Gavriil, Fotis P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2011-08-01

    After at least six years of quiescence, anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 yr of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from (0.4-1.8) x 10{sup 3} s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT {approx} 2-9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase, the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -7} Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17 {+-} 2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  6. The 2006-2007 Active Phase of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts,and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in > 11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 0.4 - 1.8 x 10(exp 3) s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx 2 - 9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4) x 10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate. slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  7. EXIST: All-Sky Hard X-ray Imaging and Spectral-Temporal Survey for Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Jonathan E. Grindlay

    2005-12-30

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is under study for the proposed Black Hole Finder Probe, one of the three Einstein Probe missions in NASA's proposed Beyond Einstein Program. EXIST would have unique capabilities: it would survey the full sky at 5-600 keV each 95min orbit with 0.9-5 arcmin, 10microsec - 45min, and ~0.5-5 keV resolution to locate sources to 10arcsec and enable black holes to be surveyed and studied on all scales. With 5sigma survey sensitivity (0.5-1y) Fx(40-80 keV) ~5 x 10^-13 cgs, or comparable to the ROSAT soft X-ray (0.3-2.5 keV) sky survey, a large sample (~2-4 x 10^4) of obscured AGN will be identified and a complete sample of accreting stellar mass BHs in the Galaxy will be found. The all-sky/all-time coverage will allow rare events to be measured, such as possible stellar disruption flares from dormant AGN out to ~200 Mpc. A large sample (~2-3/day) of GRBs will be located (<~10arcsec) at sensitivities and bandwidths much greater than previously and likely yield the highest redshift events and constraints on Pop III BHs. An outline of the mission design from the ongoing concept study is presented.

  8. X-ray absorption spectral studies of copper(II) mixed ligand complexes having ethylenediamine as one of the ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Shikha; Joshi, S. K.; Hinge, V. K.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

    2014-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectra of copper(II) mixed ligand complexes, having ethylenediamine (en) as one of the ligands, have been recorded at the K-edge of copper at the dispersive extended X- ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beamline (BL-8) at the 2.5 GeV INDUS-2 Synchrotron, RRCAT, Indore, India. The samples studied are: Cu(en)2(ClO4)2, Cu(en)2Br2.H2O and Cu(en)2SO4. The data obtained has been processed using EXAFS data analysis program Athena. The K-edge has been found to split in two edges K and K' in each of the complex. The energies of the edges K(EK) and K'(EK') and the principal absorption maximum A(EA) have been determined from the derivative spectra. The chemical shift has been utilized to determine the oxidation state of copper in the complexes and to estimate effective nuclear charge (ENC) on the absorbing atom. The EXAFS data has been used to determine the bond lengths in the complexes using three different graphical methods. The bond lengths, obtained from one of these methods and the Fourier transformation method, are comparable with each other, showing that both of these methods give phase uncorrected bond lengths.

  9. A combined optical and X-ray study of unobscured type 1 active galactic nuclei - I. Optical spectra and spectral energy distribution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chichuan; Ward, Martin; Done, Chris; Gelbord, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    We present modelling and interpretation of the continuum and emission lines for a sample of 51 unobscured type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). All of these AGNs have high-quality spectra from both XMM-Newton and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We extend the wavelength coverage where possible by adding simultaneous ultraviolet data from the OM onboard XMM-Newton. Our sample is selected based on low reddening in the optical and low gas columns implied by their X-ray spectra, except for one case, the broad absorption line quasar PG 1004+130. They also lack clear signatures for the presence of a warm absorber. Therefore, the observed characteristics of this sample are likely to be directly related to the intrinsic properties of the central engine. To determine the intrinsic optical continuum, we subtract the Balmer continuum and all major emission lines (including Fe II). We also consider possible effects of contamination from the host galaxy. The resulting continuum is then used to derive the properties of the underlying accretion disc. We constrain the black hole masses from spectral fits of the Balmer emission lines and determine the best-fitting value from the modelling of broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In addition to the disc component, many of these SEDs also exhibit a strong soft X-ray excess, plus a power law extending to higher X-ray energies. We fit these SEDs by applying a new broad-band SED model which comprises accretion disc emission, low-temperature optically-thick Comptonization and a hard X-ray tail by introducing the concept of a corona radius. We find that in order to fit the data, the model often requires an additional long-wavelength optical continuum component, whose origin is discussed in this paper. We also find that the photorecombination edge of the Balmer continuum shifts and broadens beyond the standard limit of 3646 Å, implying an electron number density which is far higher than that in the broad-line-region clouds. Our results indicate that the narrow-line type 1 Seyfert galaxies in this sample tend to have lower black hole masses, higher Eddington ratios, softer 2-10 keV band spectra, lower 2-10 keV luminosities and higher ?ox, compared with typical broad-line type 1 Seyfert galaxies, although their bolometric luminosities are similar. We illustrate these differences in properties by forming an average SED for three subsamples, based on the full width at half-maximum velocity width of the H? emission line.

  10. Black Hole Mass Determination In the X-Ray Binary 4U 1630-47: Scaling of Spectral and Variability Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation on the evolution of spectral and timing properties of the Galactic black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its spectral transitions. In particular, we show how a scaling of the correlation of the photon index of the Comptonized spectral component gamma with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), ?(sub L), and mass accretion rate, M, can be applied to the black hole mass and the inclination angle estimates.We analyze the transition episodes observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX satellites.We find that the broadband X-ray energy spectra of 4U 1630-47 during all spectral states can be modeled by a combination of a thermal component, a Comptonized component, and a red-skewed iron-line component. We also establish that gamma monotonically increases during transition from the low-hard state to the high-soft state and then saturates for high mass accretion rates. The index saturation levels vary for different transition episodes. Correlations of gamma versus ?(sub L) also show saturation at gamma (is) approximately 3. Gamma -M and gamma -?(sub L) correlations with their index saturation revealed in 4U 1630-47 are similar to those established in a number of other black hole candidates and can be considered as an observational evidence for the presence of a black hole in these sources. The scaling technique, which relies on XTE J1550-564, GRO 1655-40, and H1743-322 as reference sources, allows us to evaluate a black hole mass in 4U 1630-47 yielding M(sub BH) (is) approximately 10 +/- 0.1 solar masses and to constrain the inclination angle of i (is) approximately less than 70 deg.

  11. Interpretation of the X-ray spectral variation of 1H 0707-495 with a variable double partial covering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Ebisawa, Ken; Sameshima, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495 is known to exhibit significant X-ray spectral variations. Its X-ray energy spectrum is characterized by a strong soft excess emission, an extremely deep iron K-edge structure at ˜ 7 keV, and a putative iron L-line/edge feature at ˜ 1 keV. We have found that the energy spectrum of 1H 0707-495 in 0.5-10 keV is successfully explained by a "variable double partial covering model" where the original continuum spectrum, which is composed of a soft multi-color disk blackbody component and a hard power-law component, is partially covered by two ionized absorption layers with different ionization states and the same partial covering fraction. The lower-ionized and thicker absorption layer primarily explains the iron K-edge feature, and the higher-ionized and thinner absorption layer explains the L-edge feature. We have discovered that the observed significant intensity/spectral variation within ˜ 1 d is mostly explained by varying only the partial covering fraction. In our model, the intrinsic luminosity and spectral shape are hardly variable within ˜ 1 d, while some intrinsic variability above 3 keV is recognized. This is consistent with the picture that the multi-color disk blackbody spectrum is almost invariable on this timescale, and the hard power-law component is more variable. We propose that the observed spectral variation of 1H 0707-495 is caused by three physically independent variations with different timescales; (1) intrinsic luminosity variation over days, (2) variation of partial covering fraction on a timescale of hours, and (3) small intrinsic hard component variation above 3 keV on a timescale of hours or less.

  12. Black hole mass determination in the X-ray binary 4U 1630-47: Scaling of spectral and variability characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seifina, Elena [Moscow M. V. Lomonosov State University/Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky Prospect 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Titarchuk, Lev [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Shaposhnikov, Nikolai, E-mail: seif@sai.msu.ru, E-mail: titarchuk@fe.infn.it, E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: nikolai.v.shaposhnikov@nasa.gov [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation on the evolution of spectral and timing properties of the Galactic black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its spectral transitions. In particular, we show how a scaling of the correlation of the photon index of the Comptonized spectral component ? with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), ? {sub L}, and mass accretion rate, M-dot , can be applied to the black hole mass and the inclination angle estimates. We analyze the transition episodes observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX satellites. We find that the broadband X-ray energy spectra of 4U 1630-47 during all spectral states can be modeled by a combination of a thermal component, a Comptonized component, and a red-skewed iron-line component. We also establish that ? monotonically increases during transition from the low-hard state to the high-soft state and then saturates for high mass accretion rates. The index saturation levels vary for different transition episodes. Correlations of ? versus ? {sub L} also show saturation at ? ? 3. ?-- M-dot and ?-? {sub L} correlations with their index saturation revealed in 4U 1630-47 are similar to those established in a number of other black hole candidates and can be considered as an observational evidence for the presence of a black hole in these sources. The scaling technique, which relies on XTE J1550-564, GRO 1655-40, and H1743-322 as reference sources, allows us to evaluate a black hole mass in 4U 1630-47 yielding M {sub BH} ? 10 ± 0.1 solar masses and to constrain the inclination angle of i ? 70°.

  13. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60keV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings

    2007-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and

  14. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60 keV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings

    2007-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to

  15. Nonthermal X-ray Microflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, S.; Rauscher, E.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) provides unique sensitivity in the 3-15 keV energy range, with an effective area ˜100 times larger than similar past instruments. Along with its high spectral resolution (1 keV) RHESSI is uniquely suited to study small events. Microflares have been observed by Benz & Grigis (2002) and Krucker et al. (2002) to have anomalously steep spectra ( spectral index between -5 and -8) extending down to ˜ 7 keV. Thermal emission is found to dominate below ˜ 7 keV. In many other respects, microflares show properties similar to larger flares. We present single event studies of different types of x-ray microflares. RHESSI observations during quiet times (04-May 10-14; GOES level low B class) reveal a set 5 microflares (>=A Class). These microflares show power law spectra (spectral index of ˜4-8) with little or no thermal emission in the 3- ˜7 keV energy range above the nonthermal part of the spectrum. Other microflares in the same GOES class range, however, have been found which show extremely hard spectra with emission up to 50 keV (power law index ˜2). At lower energies, emission is dominated by a hot thermal component (20 MK). This work was supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033.

  16. An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, D. J. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Williams, G. J. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science (Australia); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Clark, J. N. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science (Australia); Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Putkunz, C. T.; Abbey, B.; Nugent, K. A. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Pfeifer, M. A. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science (Australia); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Legnini, D.; Roehrig, C.; Wrobel, E.; McNulty, I. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Huwald, E. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Riessen, G. van; Peele, A. G. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science (Australia); Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Beetz, T.; Irwin, J.; Feser, M.; Hornberger, B. [Xradia, Inc., 4385 Hopyard Road, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A dedicated in-vacuum coherent x-ray diffraction microscope was installed at the 2-ID-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source for use with 0.7-2.9 keV x-rays. The instrument can accommodate three common implementations of diffractive imaging; plane wave illumination; defocused-probe (Fresnel diffractive imaging) and scanning (ptychography) using either a pinhole, focused or defocused probe. The microscope design includes active feedback to limit motion of the optics with respect to the sample. Upper bounds on the relative optics-to-sample displacement have been measured to be 5.8 nm(v) and 4.4 nm(h) rms/h using capacitance micrometry and 27 nm/h using x-ray point projection imaging. The stability of the measurement platform and in-vacuum operation allows for long exposure times, high signal-to-noise and large dynamic range two-dimensional intensity measurements to be acquired. Finally, we illustrate the microscope's stability with a recent experimental result.

  17. Modeling the Radio to X-ray SED of Galaxies

    E-print Network

    L. Silva; G. L. Granato; A. Bressan; P. Panuzzo

    2002-08-17

    Our multi-wavelength model GRASIL for the SED of galaxies is described, in particular the recent extension to the radio and X-ray range. With our model we can study different aspects of galaxy evolution by exploiting all available spectral observations, where different emission components dominate.

  18. A solar spectral line list between 10 and 200 A modified for application to high spectral resolution X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; Cowan, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A spectral line list for the 10-200 A range is developed from existing solar spectra for application to high spectral resolution measurements of astrophysical plasmas. The solar spectral line lists are merged into a single comprehensive list. The effect of the solar emission measure distribution is removed from the line intensities, which results in a set of emission rates for the lines that can be applied to many optically thin, low density high temperature plasmas in ionization equilibrium. In addition to the measured solar lines, 250 theoretical lines are added to this list. These lines fall in wavelength regions where the existing solar lists have few lines because of limitations in instrumental sensitivity. Also, some lines have been added because the sun has very little plasma at temperatures of about one million K, and consequently these lines are weak or absent in solar spectra. The entire list contains about 600 lines. Finally, predicted spectra of the two RS CVn stars, alpha Aur (Capella) and UX Ari, are presented at 1 and 0.25 A spectral resolution. Also, the solar spectrum is shown at 1 A resolution, and the emission rate spectrum (spectrum not modified by an emission measure distribution) is shown at very high spectral resolution. The predicted spectra for Capella and UX Ari are based on results obtained from the Einstein and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft.

  19. Hyperfine and X-ray investigations of amorphous Fe2Er and Fe2Ce alloys and the effect of hydrogenation on short-range order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafari, M.; Keune, W.; Matsuura, M.; Schletz, K. P.

    1990-07-01

    The effect of hydrogenation on the short-range order of amorphous Fe2Er and Fe2Ce alloys has been investigated by Mössbauer, X-ray and magnetization measurements. The hydrogenation leads to drastic changes in the short-range order. The results of Mössbauer measurements show two different distributions of magnetic hyperfine fields for amorphous Fe2CeH4 alloys (a-Fe2CeH4). For a-Fe2ErH3 alloys we found drastic changes in magnetic structure, which is different from the well-known magnetic structures.

  20. Long-range chemical sensitivity in the sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of substituted thiophenes.

    PubMed

    George, Graham N; Hackett, Mark J; Sansone, Michael; Gorbaty, Martin L; Kelemen, Simon R; Prince, Roger C; Harris, Hugh H; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2014-09-11

    Thiophenes are the simplest aromatic sulfur-containing compounds and are stable and widespread in fossil fuels. Regulation of sulfur levels in fuels and emissions has become and continues to be ever more stringent as part of governments' efforts to address negative environmental impacts of sulfur dioxide. In turn, more effective removal methods are continually being sought. In a chemical sense, thiophenes are somewhat obdurate and hence their removal from fossil fuels poses problems for the industrial chemist. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides key information on thiophenic components in fuels. Here we present a systematic study of the spectroscopic sensitivity to chemical modifications of the thiophene system. We conclude that while the utility of sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra in understanding the chemical composition of sulfur-containing fossil fuels has already been demonstrated, care must be exercised in interpreting these spectra because the assumption of an invariant spectrum for thiophenic forms may not always be valid. PMID:25116792

  1. Circinus X-1: a Laboratory for Studying the Accretion Phenomenon in Compact Binary X-Ray Sources. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson-Saba, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the binary X-ray source Circinus X-1 provide samples of a range of spectral and temporal behavior whose variety is thought to reflect a broad continuum of accretion conditions in an eccentric binary system. The data support an identification of three or more X-ray spectral components, probably associated with distinct emission regions.

  2. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ne?emer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Raj?evi?, Marija; Ja?imovi?, Radojko; Budi?, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-01

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  3. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  4. Evaluation of the GSO:Ce scintillator in the X-ray energy range from 40 to 140 kV for possible applications in medical X-ray imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Nikolopoulos; I. Valais; I. Kandarakis; D. Cavouras; D. Linardatos; I. Sianoudis; A. Louizi; N. Dimitropoulos; D. Vattis; A. Episkopakis; C. Nomicos; G. Panayiotakis

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, under X-ray medical imaging conditions, the X-ray luminescence efficiency (XLE) and the optical quantum gain (OQG) of the Gd2SiO5:Ce scintillator in single crystal form, suitable for tomographic applications. Intrinsic physical properties and light emission characteristics of the Gd2SiO5:Ce scintillator, were also studied. Both experimental and Monte Carlo techniques were used. Various

  5. The characterisation of a secondary fluorescence X-ray tube for medical imaging, security screening and analytical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Dermody; T. Carter; I. D. Jupp; S. J. Hunter

    2000-01-01

    Describes the characterisation of a new prototype secondary fluorescence X-ray tube. This tube allows the user to interchange the secondary target, and thus select the X-ray tube spectrum. Measurements of the focal spot size, intensity the K? fluorescence lines and the spectral purity of the source are presented for a range of secondary targets including tantalum, tungsten, silver, copper and

  6. STELLAR X-RAY SOURCES IN THE CHANDRA COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Civano, F., E-mail: nwright@cfa.harvard.ed [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    We present an analysis of the X-ray properties of a sample of solar- and late-type field stars identified in the Chandra Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), a deep (160 ks) and wide ({approx}0.9 deg{sup 2}) extragalactic survey. The sample of 60 sources was identified using both morphological and photometric star/galaxy separation methods. We determine X-ray count rates, extract spectra and light curves, and perform spectral fits to determine fluxes and plasma temperatures. Complementary optical and near-IR photometry is also presented and combined with spectroscopy for 48 of the sources to determine spectral types and distances for the sample. We find distances ranging from 30 pc to {approx}12 kpc, including a number of the most distant and highly active stellar X-ray sources ever detected. This stellar sample extends the known coverage of the L{sub X}-distance plane to greater distances and higher luminosities, but we do not detect as many intrinsically faint X-ray sources compared to previous surveys. Overall the sample is typically more luminous than the active Sun, representing the high-luminosity end of the disk and halo X-ray luminosity functions. The halo population appears to include both low-activity spectrally hard sources that may be emitting through thermal bremsstrahlung, as well as a number of highly active sources in close binaries.

  7. Flat field anomalies in an x-ray charge coupled device camera measured using a Manson x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J. [National Security Technologies, P.O. Box 2710, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The static x-ray imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the x rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The charge coupled device (CCD) chip is an x-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2kx2k), 24 {mu}m square pixels, and 15 {mu}m thick. A multianode Manson x-ray source, operating up to 10 kV and 10 W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/{delta}E{approx_equal}10. The x-ray beam intensity was measured using an x-ray photodiode that has an accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The x-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within {+-}1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at ten energy bands ranging from 930 to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an x-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  8. Relation between mutation yield and cell lethality over a wide range of x ray and fission neutron doses in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.H.; Rossi, H.H.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1973-01-01

    From effects of neutron irradiation upon cell function; Neuherberg, F. R. Germany (22 Oct 1973). Seeds of maize were exposed to x rays at a dose rate of 1658 to 1845 rad/min; other seeds were exposed to fission neutrons at a dose rate of 27.5 to 198 rad/min. The irradiated seeds and controls were sown in moist soil. When mature the fourth and fifth seedling leaves were harvested and scored for frequency of yellow-green sectors. Tables and graphs are presented to show dose-response data for frequency of yellow-green sectors per leaf, frequency of mutations as a function of absorbed dose, neutron-induced yield of mutations and RBE of neutrons in comparison to x radiation. (HLW)

  9. Stimulated electronic x-ray Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Weninger, Clemens; Purvis, Michael; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A; Bozek, John D; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Brown, Gregory; Rocca, Jorge J; Rohringer, Nina

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate strong stimulated inelastic x-ray scattering by resonantly exciting a dense gas target of neon with femtosecond, high-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). A small number of lower energy XFEL seed photons drive an avalanche of stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering processes that amplify the Raman scattering signal by several orders of magnitude until it reaches saturation. Despite the large overall spectral width, the internal spiky structure of the XFEL spectrum determines the energy resolution of the scattering process in a statistical sense. This is demonstrated by observing a stochastic line shift of the inelastically scattered x-ray radiation. In conjunction with statistical methods, XFELs can be used for stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, with spectral resolution smaller than the natural width of the core-excited, intermediate state. PMID:24476271

  10. Multilayer Coatings for UV Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloushev, Ilko; Tenev, Tihomir; Peyeva, Rumiana; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2010-01-01

    Optical coatings for the UV spectral range play currently a significant role in the modern optical devices. For reducing of manufacturing cost the reliable design is essential. Therefore, better understanding of the optical properties of the used materials is indispensable for the proper design and manufacturing of the multilayer UV coatings. In this work we present some results on the preparation of reflective UV coatings. The implemented materials are magnesium fluoride and lanthanum fluoride. Their optical constants are determined from spectral characteristics of single layers in the 200-800 nm spectral range, obtained by thermal boat evaporation in high vacuum conditions. These results are subsequently used for the analysis of high reflection (HR) stack made of 40 layers deposited by the same deposition process.

  11. X ray spectra of cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Halpern, Jules

    1990-01-01

    X ray spectral parameters of cataclysmic variables observed with the 'Einstein' imaging proportional counter were determined by fitting an optically thin, thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum to the raw data. Most of the sources show temperatures of order a few keV, while a few sources exhibit harder spectra with temperatures in excess of 10 keV. Estimated 0.1 to 3.5 keV luminosities are generally in the range from 10(exp 30) to 10(exp 32) erg/sec. The results are consistent with the x rays originating in a disk/white dwarf boundary layer of non-magnetic systems, or in a hot, post-shock region in the accretion column of DQ Her stars, with a negligible contribution from the corona of the companion. In a few objects column densities were found that are unusually high for interstellar material. It was suggested that the absorption occurs in the system itself.

  12. Theoretical interpretation for 2p - nd absorption spectra of iron, nickel, and copper in X-ray range measured at the LULI2000 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, M.; Arnault, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; de Gaufridy de Dortan, F.; Gilleron, F.; Loisel, G.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Thais, F.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2013-11-01

    The 2p - nd absorption structures in medium Z elements present a valuable benchmark for atomic models since they exhibit a complex dependence on temperature and density. For these transitions lying in the X-ray range, one observes a competition between the spin-orbit splitting and the broadening associated to the excitation of complex structures. Detailed opacity codes based on the HULLAC or FAC suites agree with the statistical code SCO; but in iron computations predict higher peak absorption than measured. An addition procedure on opacities calculated with detailed codes is proposed and successfully tested.

  13. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15?m, high resistivity custom (~30k?-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16?m pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40?V/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9?m epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16?m pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and spectrally resolved without saturation. We present details of our camera design and device performance with particular emphasis on those aspects of interest to single photon counting x-ray astronomy. These features include read noise, x-ray spectral response and quantum efficiency. Funding for this work has been provided in large part by NASA Grant NNX09AE86G and a grant from the Betty and Gordon Moore Foundation.

  14. Soft x-ray time-resolved spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Zhang; Q. L. Yang; B. P. Guo; Han-Ben Niu; Jingzhen Li; Y. C. Wang; Zhong X. Song; Z. L. Liu

    1993-01-01

    The soft x-ray time-resolved spectroscopy is composed of a soft x-ray spectroscopic head and a soft x-ray streak camera. Because the soft x-ray spectroscopic head possesses a spectral resolution of 0.1 angstrom, the performances of the whole system mainly depend on the characteristics of the soft x-ray streak camera. In this paper, therefore, the design features and characterization of the

  15. X-ray reflections on AGN

    E-print Network

    A. C. Fabian

    2005-11-17

    X-ray reflection generates much of the spectral complexity in the X-ray spectra of AGN. It is argued that strong relativistic blurring of the reflection spectrum should commonly be expected from objects accreting at a high Eddington rate. The good agreement found between the local density in massive black holes and the energy density in quasar and AGN light requires that the accretion which built massive black holes was radiatively efficient, involving thin discs extending within 6 gravitational radii. The soft excess found in the spectra of many AGN can be explained by X-ray reflection when such blurring is included in the spectral analysis. Some of the continuum variability and in particular the puzzling variability of the broad iron line can be explained by the strong light bending expected in the region immediately around a black hole. Progress in understanding this behaviour in the brightest sources can be made now with long observations using instruments on XMM-Newton and Suzaku. Future missions like Xeus and Con-X, with large collecting areas, are required to expand the range of accessible objects and to make reverberation studies possible.

  16. An unified timing and spectral model for the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216

    E-print Network

    A. Albano; R. Turolla; G. L. Israel; S. Zane; L. Nobili; L. Stella

    2010-07-30

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are two small classes of X-ray sources strongly suspected to host a magnetar, i.e. an ultra-magnetized neutron star with $B\\approx 10^14-10^15 G. Many SGRs/AXPs are known to be variable, and recently the existence of genuinely "transient" magnetars was discovered. Here we present a comprehensive study of the pulse profile and spectral evolution of the two transient AXPs (TAXPs) XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216. Our analysis was carried out in the framework of the twisted magnetosphere model for magnetar emission. Starting from 3D Monte Carlo simulations of the emerging spectrum, we produced a large database of synthetic pulse profiles which was fitted to observed lightcurves in different spectral bands and at different epochs. This allowed us to derive the physical parameters of the model and their evolution with time, together with the geometry of the two sources, i.e. the inclination of the line-of-sight and of the magnetic axis with respect to the rotation axis. We then fitted the (phase-averaged) spectra of the two TAXPs at different epochs using a model similar to that used to calculate the pulse profiles ntzang in XSPEC) freezing all parameters to the values obtained from the timing analysis, and leaving only the normalization free to vary. This provided acceptable fits to XMM-Newton data in all the observations we analyzed. Our results support a picture in which a limited portion of the star surface close to one of the magnetic poles is heated at the outburst onset. The subsequent evolution is driven both by the cooling/varying size of the heated cap and by a progressive untwisting of the magnetosphere.

  17. A UNIFIED TIMING AND SPECTRAL MODEL FOR THE ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSARS XTE J1810-197 AND CXOU J164710.2-455216

    SciTech Connect

    Albano, A.; Turolla, R.; Nobili, L. [Department of Physics, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Israel, G. L.; Stella, L. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Rome, via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Zane, S. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-10

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are two small classes of X-ray sources strongly suspected to host a magnetar, i.e., an ultra-magnetized neutron star with B {approx} 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} G. Many SGRs/AXPs are known to be variable, and recently the existence of genuinely 'transient' magnetars was discovered. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the pulse profile and spectral evolution of the two transient AXPs (TAXPs) XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216. Our analysis was carried out in the framework of the twisted magnetosphere model for magnetar emission. Starting from three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the emerging spectrum, we produced a large database of synthetic pulse profiles which was fitted to observed light curves in different spectral bands and at different epochs. This allowed us to derive the physical parameters of the model and their evolution with time, together with the geometry of the two sources, i.e., the inclination of the line of sight and the magnetic axis with respect to the rotation axis. We then fitted the (phase-averaged) spectra of the two TAXPs at different epochs using a model similar to that used to calculate the pulse profiles (ntzang in XSPEC) freezing all parameters to the values obtained from the timing analysis and leaving only the normalization free to vary. This provided acceptable fits to XMM-Newton data in all the observations we analyzed. Our results support a picture in which a limited portion of the star surface close to one of the magnetic poles is heated at the outburst onset. The subsequent evolution is driven both by the cooling/varying size of the heated cap and by a progressive untwisting of the magnetosphere.

  18. Nanoscale X-ray imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Sakdinawat; David Attwood

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant progress in the field of soft- and hard-X-ray microscopy, both technically, through developments in source, optics and imaging methodologies, and also scientifically, through a wide range of applications. While an ever-growing community is pursuing the extensive applications of today's available X-ray tools, other groups are investigating improvements in techniques, including new optics, higher spatial resolutions,

  19. X-ray astronomical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the X-ray spectroscopy of celestial X-ray sources, ranging from nearby stars to distant quasars, is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of such spectroscopy as a useful and unique tool in the elucidation of the physical parameters of the sources. The spectroscopic analysis of degenerate and nondegenerate stellar systems, galactic clusters and active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants is discussed.

  20. Fine pitch CdTe-based Hard-X-ray polarimeter performance for space science in the 70-300 keV energy range

    E-print Network

    S. Antier; O. Limousin; P. Ferrando

    2015-05-05

    X-rays astrophysical sources have been almost exclusively characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Nevertheless, more observational parameters are needed because some radiation mechanisms present in neutrons stars or black holes are still unclear. Polarization measurements will play a key role in discrimination between different X-ray emission models. Such a capability becomes a mandatory requirement for the next generation of high-energy space proposals. We have developed a CdTe-based fine-pitch imaging spectrometer, Caliste, able to respond to these new requirements. With a 580-micron pitch and 1 keV energy resolution at 60 keV, we are able to accurately reconstruct the polarization angle and polarization fraction of an impinging flux of photons which are scattered by 90{\\deg} after Compton diffusion within the crystal. Thanks to its high performance in both imaging and spectrometry, Caliste turns out to be a powerful device for high-energy polarimetry. In this paper, we present the principles and the results obtained for this kind of measurements: on one hand, we describe the simulation tool we have developed to predict the polarization performances in the 50-300 keV energy range. On the other hand, we compare simulation results with experimental data taken at ESRF ID15A (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) using a mono-energetic polarized beam tuned between 35 and 300 keV. We show that it is possible with this detector to determine with high precision the polarization parameters (direction and fraction) for different irradiation conditions. Applying a judicious energy selection to our data set, we reach a remarkable sensitivity level characterized by an optimum Quality Factor of 0.78 in the 200-300 keV range. We also evaluate the sensitivity of our device at 70 keV, where hard X-ray mirrors are already available; the measured Q factor is 0.64 at 70 keV.

  1. Long-range structure of Cu(InxGa1-x)3Se5: A complementary neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, S.; Marrón, D. fürtes; León, M.; Feyerherm, R.; Dudzik, E.; Friedrich, E. J.; Tovar, M.; Tomm, Y.; Wolf, C.; Schorr, S.; Schedel-Niedrig, Th.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.; Merino, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Distinguishing the scattering contributions of isoelectronic atomic species by means of conventional x-ray- and/or electron diffraction techniques is a difficult task. Such a problem occurs when determining the crystal structure of compounds containing different types of atoms with equal number of electrons. We propose a new structural model of Cu(InxGa1-x)3Se5 which is valid for the entire compositional range of the CuIn3Se5-CuGa3Se5 solid solution. Our model is based on neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction experiments. These complementary techniques allow the separation of scattering contributions of the isoelectronic species Cu+ and Ga3+, contributing nearly identically in monoenergetic x-ray diffraction experiments. We have found that CuIII3Se5 (III=In,Ga) in its room temperature near-equilibrium modification exhibits a modified stannite structure (space group I4¯2m). Different occupation factors of the species involved, Cu+, In3+, Ga3+, and vacancies have been found at three different cationic positions of the structure (Wyckoff sites 2a, 2b, and 4d) depending on the composition of the compound. Significantly, Cu+ does not occupy the 2b site for the In-free compound, but does for the In-containing case. Structural parameters, including lattice constants, tetragonal distortions, and occupation factors are given for samples covering the entire range of the CuIn3Se5-CuGa3Se5 solid solution. At the light of the result, the denotation of Cu-poor 1:3:5 compounds as chalcopyrite-related materials is only valid in reference to their composition.

  2. Precise measurements of X-ray spectral line wavelengths for multicharged ions in a recombining laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briunetkin, B. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Iu.; Faenov, A. Ia.; Khabibulaev, B. K.; Ermatov, Sh. A.

    1992-09-01

    A method for improving the accuracy of the measurement of spectral line wavelengths of multicharged ions has been proposed and experimentally implemented. The method is based on the spectral recording of radiation from a recombining laser plasma. The wavelengths of series of lines for F VIII, F IX ions were measured with a relative error, Delta lambda/lambda, of (6-8) x 10 exp -5.

  3. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a new X-ray image. The MS IP model has the higher sensitivity and the SR IP and TR IP models are designed for higher resolution. The MS and SR IPs have a thin Mylar coating that protects the sensitive layer. The TR model has no protective layer and is more sensitive at the lower X-ray energies but must be handled more carefully. The raw image data from the Fuji scanner can be converted to units of PSL that are proportional to the photon count. The equation relating PSL to the raw greyscale value is: PSL = (R/100)2(4000/S)exp10{L(G/(2B-1)-1/2)} where R is the resolution in ?m S is the sensitivity setting L is the latitude B is the dynamic range (8 or 16 bits) G is the raw image greyscale value. The IP photon sensitivity is defined as the PSL output per photon input and is a function of the photon energy. Meadowcroft et al in 2008 published the sensitivity for the three types of image plates in the spectral range from 1 to 100 keV. Maddox et al measured the sensitivity for type MS and SR image plates from 8 to 80 keV using the NSTec High Energy X-ray (HEX) source, a fluorescer type X-ray source. The Meadowcroft and Maddox measurements used similar X-ray sources for the higher spectral and the same type of IP scanner, the FLA 7000. There is reasonable agreement between the Maddox and Meadowcroft sensitivity measurements of MS and SR type IP for the at spectral energies above 20 keV, but the Maddox sensitivities are much lower than those of Meadowcroft in the energy range below 20 keV. Recently Bonnet et al published a model for the photon sensitivity based upon the amount of energy deposited and Monte Carlo calculations to incorporate the specifics of the X-ray absorption and the readout process. The model was calibrated for sensitivity using radioactive sources. The model was compared to the previous publications cited. The Bonnet model tends to agree with the Meadocroft measurements at the low spectral energies. The present paper describes the measurement of IP sensitivity in the spectral range from 700 to 8000 eV. The sensitivity in this spectral range had not p

  4. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  5. Spatial distribution and speciation of lead around corroding bullets in a shooting range soil studied by micro-X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vantelon, Delphine; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Scheinost, Andreas C; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution and speciation of Pb in the weathering crust and soil surrounding corroding metallic Pb bullets in a shooting range soil. The soil had a neutral pH, loamy texture, and was highly contaminated with Pb, with total Pb concentrations in the surface soil up to 68 000 mg kg(-1). Undisturbed soil samples containing corroding bullets were collected and embedded in resin, and polished sections were prepared for micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) elemental mapping and micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Bullet weathering crust material was separated from the metallic Pb cores and analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Our results show a steep decrease in total Pb concentrations from the bullet weathering crust into the surrounding soil matrix. The weathering crust consisted of a mixture of litharge [alpha-PbO], hydrocerussite [Pb3(CO3)2-(OH)2], and cerussite [PbCO3], with litharge dominating near the metallic Pb core and cerussite dominating in the outer crust, which is in contact with the soil matrix. On the basis of these results and thermodynamic considerations, we propose that the transition of Pb species after oxidation of Pb(O) to Pb(II) follows the sequence litharge --> hydrocerussite --> cerussite. Consequently, the solubility of cerussite limits the activity of Pb2+ in the soil solution in contact with weathering bullets to < or =1.28 x 10(-6) at pH 7, assuming that the CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) in the soil is equal or larger than in the atmosphere (PCO2 > or = 0.000 35 atm). PMID:16053078

  6. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega.

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Kemp, G E; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Pino, J; Scott, H; Ayers, S; Chen, H; Emig, J; Colvin, J D; Bedzyk, M; Shoup, M J; Agliata, A; Yaakobi, B; Marshall, F J; Hamilton, R A; Jaquez, J; Farrell, M; Nikroo, A; Fournier, K B

    2014-11-01

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the Omega laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2-18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations. PMID:25430189

  7. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, F.; Kemp, G. E.; Regan, S. P.; Barrios, M. A.; Pino, J.; Scott, H.; Ayers, S.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Colvin, J. D.; Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Agliata, A.; Yaakobi, B.; Marshall, F. J.; Hamilton, R. A.; Jaquez, J.; Farrell, M.; Nikroo, A.; Fournier, K. B.

    2014-11-01

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the Omega laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2-18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  8. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, F.; Kemp, G. E.; Barrios, M. A.; Pino, J.; Scott, H.; Ayers, S.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Colvin, J. D.; Fournier, K. B., E-mail: fournier2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Agliata, A.; Yaakobi, B.; Marshall, F. J.; Hamilton, R. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Jaquez, J.; Farrell, M.; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the OMEGA laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2–18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  9. Charge injection device detectors for x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentink, Robert F.; Carbone, Joseph; Aloisi, D. C.; Gibson, Walter M.; MacDonald, Carolyn A.; Hanley, Q. E.; Fields, Robert E.; Denton, M. Bonner

    1994-11-01

    Charge Injection Device (CID) array detectors are well suited for the direct imaging with x- ray and particle beams. In common with CCD detectors, CID arrays have been shown to have good spatial resolution and broad spectral response in the visible range. In addition, CID imagers offer unique architectural features which may be particularly applicable to x-ray and particle beams, including exceptionally large pixel charge capacity, non-destructive pixel readout, and random pixel addressibility. These can dramatically extend the dynamic range, eliminate blooming effects, allow monitoring and dynamic adaptation of application exposure in real-time, improve signal-to-noise by repeated readout and permit the readout of small pixel sub-arrays at exceptionally fast rates. In addition CIDs possess extremely good radiation tolerance. Preliminary results of x-ray measurements with CIDs are presented along with a discussion of potential applications utilizing their unique features.

  10. The SWIRE/Chandra Survey: The X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kilgard, Roy; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Minsun; Polletta, Mari; Lonsdale, Carol; Smith, Harding E.; Surace, Jason; Owen, Frazer N.; Franceschini, A.; Siana, Brian; Shupe, David

    2009-12-01

    We report a moderate-depth (70 ks), contiguous 0.7 deg2 Chandra survey in the Lockman Hole Field of the Spitzer/SWIRE Legacy Survey coincident with a completed, ultra-deep VLA survey with deep optical and near-infrared imaging in-hand. The primary motivation is to distinguish starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including the significant, highly obscured (log N H > 23) subset. Chandra has detected 775 X-ray sources to a limiting broadband (0.3-8 keV) flux ~4 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1. We present the X-ray catalog, fluxes, hardness ratios, and multi-wavelength fluxes. The log N versus log S agrees with those of previous surveys covering similar flux ranges. The Chandra and Spitzer flux limits are well matched: 771 (99%) of the X-ray sources have infrared (IR) or optical counterparts, and 333 have MIPS 24 ?m detections. There are four optical-only X-ray sources and four with no visible optical/IR counterpart. The very deep (~2.7 ?Jy rms) VLA data yield 251 (>4?) radio counterparts, 44% of the X-ray sources in the field. We confirm that the tendency for lower X-ray flux sources to be harder is primarily due to absorption. As expected, there is no correlation between observed IR and X-ray fluxes. Optically bright, type 1, and red AGNs lie in distinct regions of the IR versus X-ray flux plots, demonstrating the wide range of spectral energy distributions in this sample and providing the potential for classification/source selection. Many optically bright sources, which lie outside the AGN region in the optical versus X-ray plots (fr /fx >10), lie inside the region predicted for red AGNs in IR versus X-ray plots, consistent with the presence of an active nucleus. More than 40% of the X-ray sources in the VLA field are radio-loud using the classical definition, RL . The majority of these are red and relatively faint in the optical so that the use of RL to select those AGNs with the strongest radio emission becomes questionable. Using the 24 ?m to radio flux ratio (q 24) instead results in 13 of the 147 AGNs with sufficient data being classified as radio-loud, in good agreement with the ~10% expected for broad-lined AGNs based on optical surveys. We conclude that q 24 is a more reliable indicator of radio-loudness. Use of RL should be confined to the optically selected type 1 AGN.

  11. X-ray Free-electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Feldhaus, J.; /DESY; Arthur, J.; Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC

    2007-02-23

    In a free-electron laser (FEL) the lasing medium is a high-energy beam of electrons flying with relativistic speed through a periodic magnetic field. The interaction between the synchrotron radiation that is produced and the electrons in the beam induces a periodic bunching of the electrons, greatly increasing the intensity of radiation produced at a particular wavelength. Depending only on a phase match between the electron energy and the magnetic period, the wavelength of the FEL radiation can be continuously tuned within a wide spectral range. The FEL concept can be adapted to produce radiation wavelengths from millimeters to Angstroms, and can in principle produce hard x-ray beams with unprecedented peak brightness, exceeding that of the brightest synchrotron source by ten orders of magnitude or more. This paper focuses on short-wavelength FELs. It reviews the physics and characteristic properties of single-pass FELs, as well as current technical developments aiming for fully coherent x-ray radiation pulses with pulse durations in the 100 fs to 100 as range. First experimental results at wavelengths around 100 nm and examples of scientific applications planned on the new, emerging x-ray FEL facilities are presented.

  12. ANS hard X-ray experiment development program. [emission from X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsignault, D.; Gursky, H.; Frank, R.; Kubierschky, K.; Austin, G.; Paganetti, R.; Bawdekar, V.

    1974-01-01

    The hard X-ray (HXX) experiment is one of three experiments included in the Dutch Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, which was launched into orbit on 30 August 1974. The overall objective of the HXX experiment is the detailed study of the emission from known X-ray sources over the energy range 1.5-30keV. The instrument is capable of the following measurements: (1) spectral content over the full energy range with an energy resolution of approximately 20% and time resolution down to 4 seconds; (2) source time variability down to 4 milliseconds; (3) silicon emission lines at 1.86 and 2.00keV; (4) source location to a limit of one arc minute in ecliptic latitude; and (5) spatial structure with angular resolution of the arc minutes. Scientific aspects of experiment, engineering design and implementation of the experiment, and program history are included.

  13. A complementary dual-slope ADC with high frame rate and wide input range for fast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daehee; Cho, Minsik; Kang, Dong-Uk; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong

    2014-02-01

    The single-slope analog-to-digital converter (SS-ADC) is the most commonly used column-level ADC for high-speed industrial, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based X-ray image sensors because of its small chip area (the width of a pixel), its simple circuit structure, and its low power consumption. However, it generally has a long conversion time, so we propose an innovative design: a complimentary dual-slope ADC (CDS-ADC) that uses two opposite ramp signals instead of a single ramp to double the conversion speed. This CDS-ADC occupies only 15% more area than the original SS-ADC. A prototype 12-bit CDS-ADC and a 12-bit SS-ADC were fabricated using a 0.35-µm 1P 4M CMOS process. During comparison of the two, the measured maximum differential non-linearity (DNL) of the CDS-ADC was a 0.49 least significant bit (LSB), the maximum integral non-linearity (INL) was a 0.43 LSB, the effective number of bits (ENOB) was 9.18 bits, and the figure of merit (FOM) was 0.03 pJ/conversion. The total power consumption was 0.031 uW. The conversion time of the new CDS-ADC was half that of the SS-ADC. The proposed dual-slope concept can be extended to further multiply the conversion speed by using multiple pairs of dual-slope ramps.

  14. Millimeter, microwave, hard X-ray, and soft X-ray observations of energetic electron populations in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; White, S. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Lim, J.

    1994-01-01

    We present comparisons of multiwavelength data for a number of solar flares observed during the major campaign of 1991 June. The different wavelengths are diagnostics of energetic electrons in different energy ranges: soft X-rays are produced by electrons with energies typically below 10 keV, hard X-rays by electrons with energies in the range 10-200 keV, microwaves by electrons in the range 100 keV-1 MeV, and millimeter-wavelength emission by electrons with energies of 0.5 MeV and above. The flares in the 1991 June active period were remarkable in two ways: all have very high turnover frequencies in their microwave spectra, and very soft hard X-ray spectra. The sensitivity of the microwave and millimeter data permit us to study the more energetic (greater than 0.3 MeV) electrons even in small flares, where their high-energy bremsstrahlung is too weak for present detectors. The millimeter data show delays in the onset of emission with respect to the emissions associated with lower energy electrons and differences in time profiles, energy spectral indices incompatible with those implied by the hard X-ray data, and a range of variability of the peak flux in the impulsive phase when compared with the peak hard X-ray flux which is two orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding variability in the peak microwave flux. All these results suggest that the hard X-ray-emitting electrons and those at higher energies which produce millimeter emission must be regarded as separate populations. This has implications for the well-known 'number problem' found previously when comparing the numbers of non thermal electrons required to produce the hard X-ray and radio emissions.

  15. Determination of tungsten and molybdenum concentrations from an x-ray range spectrum in JET with the ITER-like wall configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Shumack, A. E.; Maggi, C. F.; Reinke, M.; Lawson, K. D.; Coffey, I.; Pütterich, T.; Brezinsek, S.; Lipschultz, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Chernyshova, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Scholz, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Czarski, T.; Dominik, W.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Zabolotny, W.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Conway, N. J.; contributors, JET

    2015-07-01

    The {{W}45+} and {{W}46+} 3p–4d inner shell excitation lines in addition to M{{o}32+} 2p–3s lines have been identified from the spectrum taken by an upgraded high-resolution x-ray spectrometer. It is found from analysis of the absolute intensities of the {{W}46+} and M{{o}32+} lines that W and Mo concentrations are in the range of ? {{10}-5} and ? {{10}-6}, respectively, with a ratio of ?5% in JET with the ITER-like wall configuration for ELMy H-mode plasmas with a plasma current of 2.0–2.5 MA, a toroidal magnetic field of 2.7 T and a neutral beam injection power of 14–18 MW. For the purpose of checking self-consistency, it is confirmed that the W concentration determined from the {{W}45+} line is in agreement with that from the {{W}46+} line within 20% and that the plasma effective charge determined from the continuum of the first order reflection spectrum is also in agreement with that from the second order within 50%. Further, the determined plasma effective charge is in agreement with that determined from a visible spectroscopy, confirming that the sensitivity of the x-ray spectrometer is valid and that the W and the Mo concentrations are also likely to be valid.

  16. Identification of X-ray spectra in the Na-like to O-like rubidium ions in the range of 3.8-7.3 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Comet, M.; Bonnet, T.; Hannachi, F.; Gobet, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Gosselin, G.; Méot, V.; Morel, P.; Pain, J.-Ch.; Gilleron, F.; Frank, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Blazevic, A.; Dorchies, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Cayzac, W.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-01

    The X-rays emitted by a rubidium plasma source created by the PHELIX laser at an intensity of about 6×1014 W/cm2 were studied. The lines have been measured using Bragg crystals in the wavelength range between 3.8 and 7.3 Å and identified by means of a numerical method developed to describe highly charged rubidium ions in LTE plasma. The experimental plasma temperature, density and charge state distributions have been estimated using non-LTE codes such as CHIVAS and AVERROES. The LTE plasma temperature and density used in the calculations are those allowing to reproduce the calculated NLTE charge state distribution. In order to optimize the use of computational resources, a criterion is established to select the configurations contributing most to the spectra among all those obtained in detailed level accounting based on the MCDF code. Seventy Rb X-rays have been identified among which forty-nine are reported for the first time. The capabilities of our method are demonstrated by the good agreement of our identifications with previously published data when available.

  17. ROSAT Soft X-Ray Properties of the Large Bright Quasar Survey: Modeling of Stacked X-Ray Spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Schartel; Paul J. Green; Scott F. Anderson; Paul C. Hewett; Craig B. Foltz; Bruce Margon; Wolfgang Brinkmann; Henner Fink; Joachim Truemper

    1996-01-01

    We develop and apply a novel method of analysis to study the X-ray spectral\\u000aproperties of 908 QSOs in the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS) that were\\u000aobserved during the soft X-ray ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). Due to the\\u000arelatively short (<600sec) RASS exposure times, only 10% of the QSOs are\\u000adetected in X-rays, so X-ray spectral model fits for

  18. ROSAT soft X-ray properties of the Large Bright Quasar Survey: modelling of stacked X-ray spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Schartel; Paul J. Green; Scott F. Anderson; Paul C. Hewett; Craig B. Foltz; Bruce Margon; Wolfgang Brinkmann; Henner Fink; Joachim Trumper

    1996-01-01

    We develop and apply a novel method of analysis to study the X-ray spectral properties of 908 QSOs in the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS) that were observed during the soft X-ray ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). Due to the relatively short (<=600s) RASS exposure times, only 10 per cent of the QSOs are detected in X-rays, so X-ray spectral model

  19. Applications of simulated x-ray spectra to x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhila, H.; Mouze, D.

    1996-06-01

    When using microfocus x-ray sources for x-ray imaging (x-ray projection microscopy or microradiography), the measured intensities are influenced by the non-monochromaticity of the incident x-ray beam. This affects the transmitted signal in the image pixels and consequently brings about errors in quantitative measurements by x-ray absorption analysis or in tomographic reconstruction. A model developed to predict the spectral distribution of x-rays generated by electron bombardment on a metallic target has been modified to be adapted to transmission targets. It is used here, in combination with a semi-empirical analytical expression for mass attenuation coefficients, to calculate the overall energy transmitted to an x-ray imaging system and thus to simulate any x-ray projection experiment. In particular, spectral purity, which is a measure of the degree of monochromaticity, can be easily evaluated. In this paper simulations are used to evaluate the effect of each part of an imaging system on the spectral purity. Here we are concerned with the effect of target and/or filter thicknesses and the influence on the purity of the selective absorption efficiency of phosphor screens with x-ray energy. As an example, three targets and two kinds of phosphor screen widely in use in x-ray CCD cameras have been considered.

  20. X-ray and UV radiation from accreting nonmagnetic degenerate dwarfs. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kylafis, N. D.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical calculations of X-ray and UV emission from accreting nonmagnetic degenerate dwarfs are reported, which span the entire range of accretion rates and stellar masses. Calculations include the effects of bremsstrahlung, Compton cooling, radiation pressure, albedo of the stellar surface, Compton degradation and free-free abscription of the X-ray spectrum by the accreting matter. Maximum X-ray luminosity for degenerate dwarfs undergoing spherical accretion is found to be 2.2 x 10 to the 36th ergs/s, which is little changed if accretion occurs radially over only a fraction of the stellar surface, so that the emitted radiation escapes without significant scattering. The temperature characterizing the X-ray spectra produced by degenerate dwarfs strongly depends on the stellar mass and the accretion rate, and it is suggested that the correlation between spectral temperature and luminosity is an important signature of degenerate X-ray sources.

  1. Modelling the channel-wise count response of a photon-counting spectral CT detector to a broad x-ray spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Variations among detector channels in CT very sensitively lead to ring artefacts in the reconstructed images. For material decomposition in the projection domain, the variations can result in intolerable biases in the material line integral estimates. A typical way to overcome these effects is to apply calibration methods that try to unify spectral responses from different detector channels to an ideal response from a detector model. However, the calibration procedure can be rather complex and require excessive calibration measurements for a multitude of combinations of x-ray shapes, tissue combinations and thicknesses. In this paper, we propose a channel-wise model for a multibin photon-counting detector for spectral CT. Predictions of this channel-wise model match well with their physical performances, which can thus be used to eliminate ring artefacts in CT images and achieve projection-basis material decomposition. In an experimental validation, image data show significant improvement with respect to ring artefacts compared to images calibrated with flat-fielding data. Projection-based material decomposition gives basis material images showing good separation among individual materials and good quantification of iodine and gadolinium contrast agents. The work indicates that the channel-wise model can be used for quantitative CT with this detector.

  2. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

    2008-10-31

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 ?m square pixels, and 15 ?m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/?E?10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  3. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Diagnose a pain in the abdomen or unexplained nausea Identify suspected problems in the urinary system, such as a kidney stone Identify blockage in the intestine Locate ...

  4. X-Ray Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

  5. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm R. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  6. Spectral hole-burning properties of Sm 2+ ions generated by X-rays in BaFCl: Sm 3+ nanocrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiqiang Liu; Tracy Massil; Hans Riesen

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline BaFCl: Sm3+ is an efficient photoluminescent X-ray storage phosphor which is based on the reduction of Sm3+ to Sm2+ upon exposure to ionizing radiation. We have characterized this storage phosphor by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope, and have investigated it for its suitability in dosimetry and imaging. Sm2+ ions generated by X-rays in nanocrystalline and microcrystalline

  7. Recent X-ray Variability of Eta Car Approaching The X-ray Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.; Swank, J. H.; Ishibashi, K.; Gull, T.; Humphreys, R.; Damineli, A.; Walborn, N.; Hillier, D. J.; Davidson, K.; White, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss recent X-ray spectral variability of the supermassive star Eta Car in the interval since the last X-ray eclipse in 1998. We concentrate on the interval just prior to the next X-ray eclipse which is expected to occur in June 2003. We compare the X-ray behavior during the 2001-2003 cycle with the previous cycle (1996-1998) and note similarities and differences in the temporal X-ray behavior. We also compare a recent X-ray observation of Eta Car obtained with the Chandra high energy transmission grating in October 2002 with an earlier observation from Nov 2002, and interpret these results in terms of the proposed colliding wind binary model for the star. In addition we discuss planned observations for the upcoming X-ray eclipse.

  8. X-ray spectropolarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Baronova, E. O.; Stepanenko, M. M.; Stepanenko, A. M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15

    We have constructed a novel single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter that separates spatially the two perpendicularly polarized components of an x-ray beam. We have tested this device by using an x-ray tube, and confirmed its performance to be satisfactory as expected from its design.

  9. X-rays from Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    You-Hua Chu; Martin A. Guerrero; Robert A. Gruendl

    1999-09-06

    Two sources of X-ray emission are expected from planetary nebulae: the hot central stars with $T_{eff} > 10^5$ K, and shocked fast stellar winds at temperatures of 10$^6 - 10^7$ K. The stellar emission and nebular emission differ in spatial distribution and spectral properties. Observations of X-ray emission from PNe may provide essential information on formation mechanisms and physical conditions of PNe. X-ray emission from PNe has been detected by Einstein and EXOSAT, but significant advances are made only after ROSAT became available. The ROSAT archive contains useful observations of ~80 PNe, of which 13 are detected. Three types of X-ray spectra are seen. Only three PNe are marginally resolved by the ROSAT instruments. In the near future, Chandra will provide X-ray observations with much higher angular and spectral resolution, and help us understand the central stars as well as the hot interiors of PNe.

  10. Hard X-ray emission from high-intensity femtosecond laser plasma and its application to X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grantham; C. Kim; C. DePriest; M. Richardson

    1998-01-01

    We present Laue diffraction experiments using a fs laser plasma X-ray ultrashort pulse source as preliminary experiments for time resolved X-ray Laue diffraction. The Laue method in X-ray diffraction experiments employs an X-ray beam consisting of a range of wavelengths to illuminate a stationary crystal

  11. Optics-free x-ray FEL oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-03-28

    There is a need for an Optics-Free FEL Oscillators (OFFELO) to further the advantages of free-electron lasers and turning them in fully coherent light sources. While SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission) FELs demonstrated the capability of providing very high gain and short pulses of radiation and scalability to the X-ray range, the spectra of SASE FELs remains rather wide ({approx}0.5%-1%) compared with typical short wavelengths FEL-oscillators (0.01%-0.0003% in OK-4 FEL). Absence of good optics in VUV and X-ray ranges makes traditional oscillator schemes with very high average and peak spectral brightness either very complex or, strictly speaking, impossible. In this paper, we discuss lattice of the X-ray optics-free FEL oscillator and present results of initial computer simulations of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. We also discuss main limiting factors and feasibility of X-ray OFFELO.

  12. Relationship between low-Q peak and long-range ordering of ionic liquids revealed by high-energy X-ray total scattering.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kenta; Kohara, Shinji; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-21

    The structures of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([CnmIm(+)][TFSA(-)]) ionic liquids (alkyl-chain length n = 4, 8, 10, and 12) have been studied by high-energy X-ray total scattering at T = 298-453 K. The low-Q peaks observed in the X-ray structure factors S(Q)s at 0.2 < Q < 0.4 A(-1) for n? 8 were almost unchanged up to T = 453 K, whereas they shifted to lower Q values and their peak intensity decreased for n = 10 and 12. The radial distribution functions G(r)s for n? 8 showed no temperature dependence, but the G(r)s in the long r region showed a significant temperature dependence, particularly for r = 15-25 Å for n = 10 and 12. To discuss the relationship between the low-Q peak intensity in S(Q) and the profile of G(r) at long range, we propose a new function S(Qpeak)(r). It is elucidated that the low-Q peak observed for n = 12 is a signature of long-range ordering in the r range 15-25 Å, which corresponds to both of the anion-anion correlations at the first neighbor and the alkyl group aggregates among the C12mIm(+) cations, whereas the anion-anion correlations at the first neighbor are predominant for reproducing the low-Q peaks in the n = 8 and 10 systems. PMID:26089237

  13. The ISO/NASA AGN Key Project with ISO to Study the Far-IR to X-Ray Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars: The Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. J.; Wilkes, B. J.; McLeod, K.; Elvis, M.; Impey, C. D.; Lonsdale, C.; Malkan, M. A.; McDowell, J.

    1998-12-01

    A substantial fraction of the bolometric luminosity of many quasars is emitted in the infrared (Elvis et al. 1994, ApJS, 95, 1). Observations with ISO are expanding the range of quasars which have mid and far infrared data. ISO's advantages over IRAS include better spatial resolution, more bandpasses, and pointed observations which provide deeper flux limits than the IRAS sky survey. We have obtained broad-band photometry for a large sample of quasars as part of a U.S. ISO Key Project. The sample consists of 72 quasars observed with the ISOPHOT instrument in the following bands: 5, 7, 12, 25, 60, 100, 135, and 200 microns. Ninety percent of the quasars in the sample have redshifts less than 1, while the remaining 10% lie in the range 2 < z < 4.7. More than half of the sample consists of luminous X-ray sources, 25% are strong UV emitters, and smaller subgroups contain strong infrared sources, X-ray-quiet objects, red quasars, and BALs. The majority of the targets, 53, were observed in chopped mode. We also have raster map data for 37 quasars, including 18 from the chopped group. Initial batch processing of the chopped data revealed that the fluxes for the brighter objects are generally consistent with IRAS values, although there are systematic differences at 60 um and 100 um. We are exploring a variety of techniques for determining the source flux and detection probability, uncertainties, systematic flux errors, and sky brightness variations. We will present a comprehensive overview of the sample using the most current analysis procedures and discuss any areas where future improvements are likely to be forthcoming. The large number of objects, wide wavelength coverage, and overlap between chopped and raster observing modes makes this sample a useful testbed for comparing observation and reduction techniques and checking the ISO flux calibrations against those from other infrared satellites.

  14. X-ray observations of jets. [radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreier, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of X-ray emission from jets, as observed by the Einstein X-ray Observatory, is reviewed. The X-rays were detected from the jets of 3C273, M87, and Centaurus A. Preliminary results from VLA observations of the Centaurus A jet are also discussed. In all three cases, the data indicate synchrotron radiation, with the spectral index breaking in the range of 10 to the 14th power to 10 to the 15th power Hz; in situ acceleration of the relativistic electrons is required, since the electron lifetimes are significantly shorter than the light travel times from the nucleus. Thermal confinement of the jets is possible in some but not all regions.

  15. Molecular imaging using X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Barty, Anton; Küpper, Jochen; Chapman, Henry N

    2013-01-01

    The opening of hard X-ray free-electron laser facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, has ushered in a new era in structural determination. With X-ray pulse durations down to 10 fs or shorter, and up to 10(13) transversely coherent photons per pulse in a narrow spectral bandwidth, focused irradiances of 10(18) to 10(21) W cm(-2) or higher can be produced at X-ray energies ranging from 500 eV to 10 keV. New techniques for determining the structure of systems that cannot be crystallized and for studying the time-resolved behavior of irreversible reactions at femtosecond timescales are now available. PMID:23331310

  16. Molecular Imaging Using X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, Anton; Küpper, Jochen; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-04-01

    The opening of hard X-ray free-electron laser facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, has ushered in a new era in structural determination. With X-ray pulse durations down to 10 fs or shorter, and up to 1013 transversely coherent photons per pulse in a narrow spectral bandwidth, focused irradiances of 1018 to 1021 W cm-2 or higher can be produced at X-ray energies ranging from 500 eV to 10 keV. New techniques for determining the structure of systems that cannot be crystallized and for studying the time-resolved behavior of irreversible reactions at femtosecond timescales are now available.

  17. Scintillator characterization using the LBL Pulsed X-ray Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Blankespoor, S.C.; Ho, M.H.; West, A.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray system for measuring scintillation properties of compounds in crystal or powdered form. The source is a light-excited x-ray tube that produces 40 x-ray photons (mean energy 18.5 keV) per steradian in each 100 ps fwhm pulse. The repetition rate is adjustable from 0 to 10{sup 7} pulses per second. The fluorescent emanations from the x-ray excited samples are detected with either a sapphire-windowed microchannel plate photomultiplier tube (spectral range 150--650 nm, transit time jitter 40 ps fwhm) or a quartz windowed GaAs(Cs) photomultiplier tube (spectral range 160--930 nm, transit time jitter 4 ns fwhm). Decay time spectra are acquired using a TDC Havina 40 ps fwhm resolution over a 84 ms dynamic range. A computer controlled monochromator can be inserted into the optical path to measure the emission spectrum or wavelength resolved decay time spectrum. A computer controlled sample changer allows up to 64 samples to be measured without intervention.

  18. X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Introduction X-Ray Properties of Elements Electron Binding Energies X-Ray Levels of Few Electron Ions Now Available Order X-Ray Data Booklet http://xdb.lbl.gov/ (1 of 3) [2

  19. X-Ray Absorbed, Broad-Lined, Red AGN and the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Wilkes, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained XMM spectra for five red, 2MASS AGN, selected from a sample observed by Chandra to be X-ray bright and to cover a range of hardness ratios. Our results confirm the presence of substantial absorbing material in three sources which have optical classifications ranging from Type 1 to Type 2, with an intrinsically flat (hard) power law continuum indicated in the other two. The presence of both X-ray absorption and broad optical emission lines with the usual strength suggests either a small (nuclear) absorber or a favored viewing angle so as to cover the X-ray source but not the broad emission line region (BELR). A soft excess is detected in all three Type 1 sources. We speculate that this soft X-ray emission may arise in an extended region of ionized gas, perhaps linked with the polarized (scattered) light which is a feature of these sources. The spectral complexity revealed by XMM emphasizes the limitations of the low S/N Chandra data. Overall, the new XMM results strengthen our conclusions (Wilkes et al. 2002) that the observed X-ray continua of red AGN are unusually hard at energies greater than 2 keV. Whether due to substantial line-of-sight absorption or to an intrinsically hard or reflection-dominated spectrum, these 'red' AGN have an observed spectral form consistent with contributing significantly to the missing had absorbed population of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXRB). When absorption and or reflection is taken into account, all these AGN have power law slopes typical of broad-line (Type 1) AGN (Gamma approximately 1.9). This appears to resolve the spectral paradox which for so long has existed between the CXRB and the AGN thought to be the dominant contributors. It also suggests two scenarios whereby Type 1 AGN/QSOs may be responsible for a significant fraction of the CXRB at energies above 2 keV: 1) X-ray absorbed AGN/QSOs with visible broad emission lines; 2) AGN/QSOs with complex spectra whose hardness greater than 2 keV is not detectable in the typically low S/N data of X-ray surveys. Even if absorption is present in only half of the population, the large number of 'red' AGN suggests a development of unification models, where the continuum source is surrounded, over a substantial solid angle, by the wind or atmosphere of an accretion disk/torus. X-ray observations of such AGN not only provide a check on the presence of absorption, but also a unique probe of the absorbing material. Improved information on their space density, in particular as a function of redshift, will soon be provided by Spitzer-Chandra wide area surveys, allowing better estimates of both the importance of red AGN to the full AGN population and their contribution to the CXRB.

  20. Einstein Observatory magnitude-limited X-ray survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Haisch, B. M.; Stern, R. A.; Bookbinder, J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of an extensive X-ray survey of 380 giant and supergiant stars of spectral types from F to M, carried out with the Einstein Observatory. It was found that the observed F giants or subgiants (slightly evolved stars with a mass M less than about 2 solar masses) are X-ray emitters at the same level of main-sequence stars of similar spectral type. The G giants show a range of emissions more than 3 orders of magnitude wide; some single G giants exist with X-ray luminosities comparable to RS CVn systems, while some nearby large G giants have upper limits on the X-ray emission below typical solar values. The K giants have an observed X-ray emission level significantly lower than F and F giants. None of the 29 M giants were detected, except for one spectroscopic binary.

  1. Soft X-rays from IC443

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shulman; S. Naranan; G. Fritz; H. Friedman

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for a rocket-borne soft X-ray sky survey which scanned the region including the supernova remnant IC 443 and the Crab Nebula using large-area proportional counters. X-ray emission from IC 443 was detected in the energy range from 0.6 to 1.0 keV. Assuming that shock-heated gas is responsible for this X-ray emission, suggestions are made for obtaining agreement

  2. X-Ray Production by V1647 Ori During Optical Outbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, William; Weintraub, David; Grosso, Nicolas; Principe, David; Kastner, Joel; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richmond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pre-main-sequence (PMS) star V1647 Ori has recently undergone two optical/near-infrared (OIR) outbursts that are associated with dramatic enhancements in the stellar accretion rate. Our intensive X-ray monitoring of this object affords the opportunity to investigate whether and how the intense X-ray emission is related to PMS accretion activity. Our analysis of all 14 Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of V1647 Ori demonstrates that variations in the X-ray luminosity of V1647 Ori are correlated with similar changes in the OIR brightness of this source during both (2003-2005 and 2008) eruptions, strongly supporting the hypothesis that accretion is the primary generation mechanism for the X-ray outbursts. Furthermore, the Chandra monitoring demonstrates that the X-ray spectral properties of the second eruption were strikingly similar to those of the 2003 eruption. We find that X-ray spectra obtained immediately following the second outburstduring which V1647 Ori exhibited high X-ray luminosities, high hardness ratios, and strong X-ray variabilityare well modeled as a heavily absorbed (N H 4 1022cm2), single-component plasma with characteristic temperatures (kT X 2-6keV) that are consistently too high to be generated via accretion shocks but are in the range expected for plasma heated by magnetic reconnection events. We also find that the X-ray absorbing column has not changed significantly throughout the observing campaign. Since the OIR and X-ray changes are correlated, we hypothesize that these reconnection events either occur in the accretion stream connecting the circumstellar disk to the star or in accretion-enhanced protostellar coronal activity.

  3. Provenance of Holocene sediment on the Chukchi-Alaskan margin based on combined diffuse spectral reflectance and quantitative X-Ray Diffraction analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, J.D.; Polyak, L.; Grebmeier, J.M.; Darby, D.; Eberl, D.D.; Naidu, S.; Nof, D.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment clay and silt mineral assemblages provide an excellent means of assessing the provenance of fine-grained Arctic sediment especially when a unique mineral assemblage can be tied to specific source areas. The diffuse spectral reflectance (DSR) first derivative measurements and quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (qXRD) on a high-resolution sediment core from the continental slope north of Alaska constrain the sediment mineralogy. DSR results are augmented by measurements on several adjacent cores and compared to surface sediment samples from the northern Alaskan shelf and slope. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we infer that the three leading DSR modes relate to mixtures of smectite + dolomite, illite + goethite, and chlorite + muscovite. This interpretation is consistent with the down core qXRD results. While the smectite + dolomite, and illite + goethite factors show increased variability down core, the chlorite + muscovite factor had highest positive loadings in the middle Holocene, between ca. 6.0 and 3.6??ka. Because the most likely source of the chlorite + muscovite suite in this vicinity lies in the North Pacific, we argue that the oscillations in chlorite + muscovite values likely reflect an increase in the inflow of Pacific water to the Arctic through the Bering Strait. The time interval of this event is associated in other parts of the globe with a non-linear response of the climate system to the decrease in insolation, which may be related to changes in water exchange between the Pacific and Arctic Ocean. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. X-ray spectral measurement of high-temperature plasma parameters in porous targets irradiated with high-power laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, V V; Gol'tsov, A Yu; Koval'skii, N G; Koptyaev, S N [State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Magunov, A I; Pikuz, T A; Skobelev, I Yu; Faenov, A Ya [All-Russia Research Institute of Physicotechnical and Radio Measurements, State Scientific Center, Mendeleevo, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2001-12-31

    The X-ray spectra of multiply charged ions were recorded from planar agar (C{sub 12}H{sub 18}O{sub 9}){sub n} based targets with an average density of 2 mg cm{sup -3} irradiated by high-power laser pulses ({lambda}=1.054 {mu}m, {tau}=2.5 ns, I {approx} 5 x10{sup 13} W cm{sup -2}). The spectra were recorded with a high spectral and spatial resolution employing spherically bent (focusing) crystals of mica and quartz. An analysis of the experimental data obtained by the irradiation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped agar samples allowed us to determine the main parameters of the plasma produced inside the targets. The ion temperature of plasma in low-density porous targets was estimated for the first time to be 1.5 - 2 times higher than the electron temperature. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy

    2007-03-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2% persist between calculated and observed values.

  6. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy [X-Ray Operations and Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron Project, Major Projects Victoria, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); BESSRC-CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

  7. Extended X-Ray Emission around Quasars at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We compare the optical to soft X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) of a sample of bright low-redshift (0.048 less than z less than 0.155), radio-quiet quasars, with a range of thermal models which have been proposed to explain the optical/UV/soft X-ray quasar emission: (a) optically thin emission from an ionized plasma, (b) optically thick emission from the innermost regions of an accretion disk in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries. We presented ROSAT PSPC observations of these quasars in an earlier paper. Here our goals are to search for the signature of thermal emission in the quasar SED, and to investigate whether a single component is dominating at different frequencies. We find that isothermal optically thin plasma models can explain the observed soft X-ray color and the mean OUV color. However, they predict an ultraviolet (1325 Angstrom) luminosity a factor of 3 to 10 times lower than observed. Pure disk models, even in a Kerr geometry, do not have the necessary flexibility to account for the observed OUV and soft X-ray luminosities. Additional components are needed both in the optical and in the soft X-rays (e.g. a hot corona can explain the soft X-ray color). The most constrained modification of pure disk models, is the assumption of an underlying power law component extending from the infrared (3 micrometers) to the X-ray. This can explain both the OUV and soft X-ray colors and luminosities and does not exceed the 3 micrometers luminosity, where a contribution from hot dust is likely to be important. We also discuss the possibility that the observed soft X-ray color and luminosity are dominated by reflection from the ionized surface of the accretion disk. While modifications of both optically thin plasma models and pure disk models might account for the observed SED, we do not find any strong evidence that the OUV bump and soft X-ray emission are one and the same component. Likewise, we do not find any strong argument which definitely argues in favor of thermal models.

  8. Investigation of short range ordering in polymers by means of radial distribution functions derived from X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Wignall; G. W. Longman

    1973-01-01

    Two samples of bisphenol-A polycarbonate, showing marked differences in impact behaviour due to different thermal histories, were investigated by radial distribution function (RDF) methods. The RDF patterns were virtually identical and showed that the short range order (0 to 10 Å) in the samples had been essentially unaffected by the annealing procedures. Most of the intra-molecular distances in the polymer

  9. First Hard X-Ray Detection of the Non-Thermal Emission Around the Arches Cluster: Morphology and Spectral Studies With NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivonos, Roman A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bauer, Franz E.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, JaeSub; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe K(alpha) line emission at 6.4 keV from material that is neutral or in a low ionization state can be produced either by X-ray photoionization or by cosmic-ray particle bombardment or both. In this paper, we report on the first detection of the extended emission around the Arches cluster above 10 keV with the NuSTAR mission, and present results on its morphology and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity of the possible illuminating hard X-ray source. The properties of the observed emission are also in broad agreement with the low-energy cosmic-ray proton excitation scenario. Key words: cosmic rays - Galaxy: center - ISM: general - X-rays: individual (Arches cluster)

  10. X-Ray Attenuation Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ryutov; A. Toor

    2000-01-01

    To minimize the pulse-to-pulse variation, the LCLS FEL must operate at saturation, i.e. 10 orders of magnitude brighter spectral brilliance than 3rd-generation light sources. At this intensity, ultra-high vacuums and windowless transport are required. Many of the experiments, however, will need to be conducted at a much lower intensity thereby requiring a reliable means to reduce the x-ray intensity by

  11. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  12. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Tennant, Allyn; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Girogio; Kaspi, Vicky; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful - yet inexpensive - dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --- particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsiz:e the important physical and astrophysical questions such as mission would address.

  13. Imaging with x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, L.B.; Cauble, B.; Frieders, G.; Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Ress, D.; Trebes, J.E.; Weiland, T.L.

    1993-11-01

    Collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers now operate over a wavelength range extending from 35--300 {Angstrom}. These sources have high peak brightness and are now being utilized for x-ray imaging and plasma interferometry. In this paper we will describe our efforts to probe long scalelength plasmas using Moire deflectrometry and soft x-ray imaging. The progress in the development of short pulse x-ray lasers using a double pulse irradiation technique which incorporates a travelling wave pump will also be presented.

  14. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  15. X-ray imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grachik H. Avetisyan; Alexej K. Erkin; Vladimir B. Kulikov; Vitalij P. Kotov; Yuri A. Kuznetsov; Vladimir M. Trubnikov

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of an investigation into some characteristics of an X-ray imager. The imager is an assembly of modules, each incorporating a linear array of GaAs detectors connected electrically to a CCD multiplexer. The X-ray imager can be used in industrial and medical X-ray diagnostic equipment. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see

  16. X-ray transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.

    1992-03-01

    The computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in general, and x-ray transfer in particular, are reviewed, with emphasis on the difficult problems associated with systems that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some special aspects of x-ray transfer are mentioned. The computer code ALTAIR, developed at LLNL to solve such problems, is described briefly, with an example of x-ray fluorescence in a Seyfert galaxy. Some of the prospects for experimental tests of x-ray radiative transfer theory are considered.

  17. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2014-10-17

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176

  18. A method of calculating 0–20 Å solar X-ray flux and its spectral distribution using 9.1 cm spectroheliograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Sengupta

    1971-01-01

    1–8 Å, 2–12 Å and 8–20 Å non-flare X-ray flux data and 9.1 cm spectroheliograms for 1237 days during the period July 1966 to June 1970 have been studied to derive physical models of ? < 20 Å X-ray emitting regions on the Sun under quiescent (non-flare) conditions. The preferred regions of emission below 20 Å which coincide with the

  19. Spectral and temporal fidelity of a hard x-ray weapons effects simulation test in a high-gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion) facility. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    The MORSE-CG Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the effects of hard X rays from a nuclear weapon. Facility will be an inertial confinement fusion facility for the testing of high-gain deuterium-tritium (DT) pellets, and will produce a pulse of hard X rays and neutrons over a very short time interval. A spherical shell for ⁶LiH with a thickness

  20. X-ray free-electron lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil R. Thompson; Brian W. J. McNeil

    2010-01-01

    With intensities 108–1010 times greater than other laboratory sources, X-ray free-electron lasers are currently opening up new frontiers across many areas of science. In this Review we describe how these unconventional lasers work, discuss the range of new sources being developed worldwide, and consider how such X-ray sources may develop over the coming years.

  1. First hard x-ray detection of the non-thermal emission around the arches cluster: Morphology and spectral studies with NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Krivonos, Roman A.; Tomsick, John A.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Science Lab, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Baganoff, Frederick K. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hong, JaeSub [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: krivonos@ssl.berkeley.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe K? line emission at 6.4 keV from material that is neutral or in a low ionization state can be produced either by X-ray photoionization or by cosmic-ray particle bombardment or both. In this paper, we report on the first detection of the extended emission around the Arches cluster above 10 keV with the NuSTAR mission, and present results on its morphology and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity of the possible illuminating hard X-ray source. The properties of the observed emission are also in broad agreement with the low-energy cosmic-ray proton excitation scenarioþ.

  2. DISCOVERY OF AN EXTENDED X-RAY JET IN AP LIBRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, S.; Wagner, S. J. [Landessternwarte, Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tibolla, O., E-mail: S.Kaufmann@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, Campus Hubland Nord, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2013-10-20

    Chandra observations of the low-energy-peaked BL Lac object (LBL) AP Librae (AP Lib) revealed the clear discovery of a non-thermal X-ray jet. AP Lib is the first LBL with an extended non-thermal X-ray jet that shows emission into the very high energy range. The X-ray jet has an extension of ?15''(? 14 kpc). The X-ray jet morphology is similar to the radio jet observed with Very Large Array at 1.36 GHz emerging in the southeast direction and bends by 50° at a distance of 12'' toward the northeast. The intensity profiles of the X-ray emission studied are consistent with those found in the radio range. The spectral analysis reveals that the X-ray spectra of the core and jet region are both inverse-Compton-(IC)-dominated. This adds to a still small sample of BL Lac objects whose X-ray jets are IC-dominated and thus more similar to the high-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley II sources than to the low-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley I objects, which are usually considered to be the parent population of BL Lac objects.

  3. Cervical spine motion in the sagittal plane (I) range of motion of actually performed movements, an X-ray cinematographic study.

    PubMed

    Van Mameren, H; Drukker, J; Sanches, H; Beursgens, J

    1990-01-01

    A fast method has been developed to determine the position of the outlines of bony structures on X-ray photographs of the cervical spine movements in the sagittal plane (105 mm spot film camera; 4 frames per second; about 10 seconds per complete anteflexion-retroflexion or vice versa). This method corrects for incongruity of the vertebral contours on consecutive frames due to motion in another than the sagittal plane. It also automatically corrects erroneously marked points. This method has been used to determine segmental range of motion (SROM) and total range of motion of the head with respect to the seventh cervical vertebra (TROM). It is shown that SROM may be larger when frames of intermediate instead of extreme positions of the film are considered. In ten test persons without cervical complaints the interindividual variability of SROM turned out to be comparable to the ones found with older methods. Intraindividual variability of SROM and TROM was determined by registration at three different measuring sessions (0, 2 and 10 weeks). This intraindividual variability is high, especially in the cranial and caudal parts of the cervical spine. It is concluded that SROM and TROM are unsuitable to be used as a parameter of cervical spine mobility. PMID:2390411

  4. Highly sensitive x-ray detectors in the low-energy range on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Krishna C.; Muzykov, Peter G.; Russell Terry, J.

    2012-07-01

    Schottky diodes on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers have been fabricated for low-energy x-ray detection. The detectors were highly sensitive to soft x-rays and showed improved response compared to the commercial SiC UV photodiodes. Current-voltage characteristics at 475 K showed low leakage current revealing the possibility of high temperature operation. The high quality of the epi-layer was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and chemical etching. Thermally stimulated current measurements performed at 94-550 K revealed low density of deep levels which may cause charge trapping. No charge trapping on detectors' responsivity in the low x-ray energy was found.

  5. Extinction Columns and Intrinsic X-ray Spectra of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    E-print Network

    Martin Durant; Marten H. van Kerkwijk

    2006-06-23

    The X-ray spectra of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars have long been fit by smooth, empirical models such as the sum of a black-body plus a power law. These reproduce the ~0.5 to 10 keV range well, but fail at lower and higher energies, grossly over-predicting the optical and under-predicting the hard X-ray emission. A poorly constrained source of uncertainty in determining the true, intrinsic spectra, in particular at lower energies, is the amount of interstellar extinction. In previous studies, extinction column densities with small statistical errors were derived as part of the fits of the spectra to simple continuum models. Different choices of model, however, each produced statistically acceptable fits, but a wide range of columns. Here, we attempt to measure the interstellar extinction in a model-independent way, using individual absorption edges of the elements O, Fe, Ne, Mg and Si in X-ray grating spectra taken with XMM-Newton. We find that our inferred equivalent hydrogen column density NH for 4U 0142+61 is a factor of 1.4 lower than the typically quoted value from black-body plus power-law fits, and is now consistent with estimates based on the dust scattering halo and visual extinction. For three other sources, we find column densities consistent with earlier estimates. We use our measurements to recover the intrinsic spectra of the AXPs empirically, without making assumptions on what the intrinsic spectral shapes ought to be. We find that the power-law components that dominate at higher energies do not extend below the thermal peak.

  6. CUBIC - A non-dispersive Diffuse X-ray Background spectrometer. [Cosmic Unresolved X-ray Background Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, David N.; Skinner, Mark A.; Antunes, Alexander J. D.; Catalano, Mark A.; Cocklin, Eric J.; Engel, Leland G.; Entingh, Timothy J.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Green, Roland; Kelly, Douglas A.

    1992-01-01

    The Cosmic Unresolved X-ray Background Instrument using CCDs (CUBIC) is designed to obtain spectral observations of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB) with moderate spectral resolution over the energy range 0.2-10 keV, using mechanically-collimated CCDs. At this time, it is the only planned satellite payload devoted to the study of the spectrum of the DXRB. Over the anticipated 3 year lifetime of the satellite, CUBIC will be able to study up to 50 percent of the sky with 5 x 5 deg spatial resolution for the subkilovolt Galactic diffuse background, and with 10 x 10 deg spatial resolution for the extragalactic diffuse background above 2 keV. CUBIC will obtain high quality nondispersive spectra of soft X-ray emission from the interstellar medium, supernova remnants, and some bright sources, and will make a sensitive seach for line emission or other features in the extragalactic cosmic X-ray background from 2-10 keV.

  7. X-ray streak crystal spectography

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T.; Medecki, H.

    1983-07-01

    We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11/sup 0/ to 38/sup 0/ and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/..delta..E > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given.

  8. Investigation of Luminescence Properties of Lu SiO :Ce (LSO) Powder Scintillator in the X-Ray Radiography Energy Range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stratos L. David; Christos M. Michail; Ioannis G. Valais; Adrianos E. Toutountzis; Panagiotis F. Liaparinos; Dionisis A. Cavouras; Ioannis S. Kandarakis; George S. Panayiotakis

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the light emission efficiency of Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO) powder scintillator under conditions employed in projection X-ray imaging. Although single-crystal LSO has been thoroughly studied in medical imaging energies, the efficiency of powder LSO has not been previously investigated experimentally under X-ray medical radiography conditions. For this purpose, three scintillating screens with a coating thickness of 63.4, 108.4, and

  9. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  10. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  11. X-Rays

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your body. The images show the parts of your body in different shades of black and white. ... Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  12. X-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Most experts feel that the benefits of appropriate x-ray imaging greatly outweigh any risks. Young children and babies in the womb are more sensitive to the risks of x-rays. Tell your health care provider if you think ...

  13. X-Rays

    MedlinePLUS

    ... without detail on a dental X-ray, but teeth show up much lighter. Restorations such as crowns and fillings are even denser than bone. They show up as solid, bright white areas on X-rays. Dental decay and caries (cavities) appear as darker patches. ...

  14. X-Ray Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreev, Ianna; Cedola, Alessia; Pellicia, Daniele; Jark, Werner; Lagomarsino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with the fundamental properties of X-ray waveguides (WGs), whose development is a logical consequence of the theoretical and experimental work on X-ray standing waves. The different coupling modes and the formation of the wavefield inside the WG are reviewed. Some fabrication procedures and relevant applications are also briefly described.

  15. X-Rays

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem set is designed to test students' understanding of x-rays. Students are given wavelengths and asked to calculate minimum potential energy, radiation frequency, and whether or not the mineral can be used as a radiation filter. They are also asked to determine the 2-theta for different crystal face x-ray diffractions given cell edge length and radiation wavelength.

  16. X-ray binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schatz; K. E. Rehm

    2006-01-01

    We review the nuclear astrophysics aspects of accreting neutron stars in\\u000aX-ray binaries. We summarize open astrophysical questions in light of recent\\u000aobservations and their relation to the underlying nuclear physics. Recent\\u000aprogress in the understanding of the nuclear physics, especially of X-ray\\u000abursts, is also discussed.

  17. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical…

  18. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-Ray Emission from Compact Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, M.; Montez, R., Jr.; Kastner, J. H.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Chu, Y.-H.; De Marco, O.; Frank, A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Lopez, J. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sandin, C.; Schönberner, D.; Soker, N.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Steffen, M.; Toalá, J. A.; Ueta, T.; Villaver, E.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ~1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R neb <~ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ~1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ~27% and the point source detection rate to ~36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (lsim 5 × 103 yr), and likewise compact (R neb <~ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (ne >~ 1000 cm-3), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H2 emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  19. X-Ray Emission in Non-AGN Galaxies at z &8771 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchetana; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Jeltema, Tesla; Myers, Adam D.; Aird, James; Bundy, Kevin; Conselice, Christopher; Cooper, Michael; Laird, Elise; Nandra, Kirpal; Willmer, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Using data from the DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey and the All Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey we obtain stacked X-ray maps of galaxies at 0.7?slant z?slant 1.0 as a function of stellar mass. We compute the total X-ray counts of these galaxies and show that in the soft band (0.5–2 kev) there exists a significant correlation between galaxy X-ray counts and stellar mass at these redshifts. The best-fit relation between X-ray counts and stellar mass can be characterized by a power law with a slope of 0.58 ± 0.1. We do not find any correlation between stellar mass and X-ray luminosities in the hard (2–7 kev) and ultra-hard (4–7 kev) bands. The derived hardness ratios of our galaxies suggest that the X-ray emission is degenerate between two spectral models, namely point-like power-law emission and extended plasma emission in the interstellar medium. This is similar to what has been observed in low redshift galaxies. Using a simple spectral model where half of the emission comes from power-law sources and the other half from the extended hot halo we derive the X-ray luminosities of our galaxies. The soft X-ray luminosities of our galaxies lie in the range 1039–8× {{10}40} erg s?1. Dividing our galaxy sample by the criteria U-B\\gt 1, we find no evidence that our results for X-ray scaling relations depend on optical color.

  20. X-ray interferometry with microelectronvolt resolution.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yu V; Lerche, M; Wille, H-C; Gerdau, E; Lucht, M; Rüter, H D; Alp, E E; Khachatryan, R

    2003-01-10

    We demonstrate an interferometer for hard x rays with two back-reflecting sapphire crystal mirrors--a prototype x-ray Fabry-Pérot interferometer. A finesse of 15 and 0.76 mu eV broad Fabry-Pérot transmission resonances are measured by the time response of the interferometer. Interference patterns are observed directly in spectral dependences of reflectivity. PMID:12570613

  1. The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

  2. High-energy processes in Young Stellar Objects -- the radio--X-ray (dis)connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Wolk, Scott; Osten, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    Low-mass young stellar objects show high levels of magnetic activity in a wide spectral range. Powerful flares have been observed from X-ray to radio wavelengths. It has been expected that radio and X-ray emission from YSOs are correlated if magnetic fields close to the star are responsible for both nonthermal radio emission (usually gyrosynchrotron radiation) and thermal hot-plasma X-ray emission (see Guedel & Benz 1994). These high-energy processes strongly influence the surroundings of the YSOs, including irradiation of their disks. A deeper understanding of these processes requires taking into account their manifestations in different spectral ranges. However, the strong variability of YSOs ideally necessitates simultaneous multi-wavelength observations or at least a large sample of sources. While a general correlation of radio and X-ray luminosities of phenomena ranging from solar flares to active stars has been found for more evolved stars, it remains unclear to what degree it applies to YSOs -- particularly their earliest evolutionary stages. Drawing from the latest simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of star-forming regions as well as on archival data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep project, we present an update on the question of whether and how the radio and X-ray properties of YSOs are correlated and what this tells us about high-energy processes in YSOs compared to other classes of active stars. We mostly find a very limited relation between the X-ray and radio fluxes indicating a non-magnetic origin for some of the radio or X-ray emission.

  3. Impacts of chemical amendment and plant growth on lead speciation and enzyme activities in a shooting range soil: an x-ray absorption fine structure investigation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Matsufuru, Hiroki; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanida, Hajime; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In situ chemical immobilization is a practical remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils because of its capability to reduce cost and environmental impacts. We assessed the immobilization effects of poultry waste amendment and plant growth (Panicum maximum Jacq.) on Pb speciation and enzyme activities in shooting range soils. Soil contaminated with Pb was obtained from the top 20 cm of a shooting range. To evaluate Pb mobility in the soil profile treated with plants and immobilizing amendment, we used large columns filled with Pb-contaminated soil (0-20 cm, surface soils) and non-contaminated soil (20-75 cm, subsurface soils). The column study demonstrated that the amendment reduced the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure-extractable Pb in the surface soil by 90% of the Control soil. Lead mobility from the surface to subsurface profiles was significantly attenuated by plant growth but was promoted by the amendment without plant application. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed that the amendment reduced the proportion of PbCO(3) and Pb-organic complexes and transformed them into a more geochemically stable species of Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl with 30 to 35% of the total Pb species. Applications of plant and amendment increased activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase in the surface soil with 2.7- and 1.1-fold greater than those in Control, respectively. The use of amendments in combination with plant growth may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils. PMID:19465717

  4. Millimeter, Microwave, Hard X--ray and Soft X--ray Observations of Energetic Electron Populations in Solar Flares

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    Millimeter, Microwave, Hard X--ray and Soft X--ray Observations of Energetic Electron Populations -- 200 keV, microwaves by electrons in the range 100 keV -- 1 MeV, and millimeter--wavelength emission wavelengths are diagnostics of energetic electrons in different energy ranges: soft X--rays are produced

  5. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of molybdenum over the 13.5-41.5-keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Cookson, David J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Mashayekhi, Ali

    2005-03-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of molybdenum in the x-ray energy range of 13.5-41.5keV to 0.02-0.15 % accuracy. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct where necessary a number of experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for molybdenum and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The imaginary component of the atomic form-factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-15 % persist between the calculated and observed values.

  6. X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  7. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePLUS

    ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? A panoramic x-ray machine consists ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. The digital format also allows the dentist to ...

  8. The X-ray universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Wallace; Giacconi, Riccardo

    This book is a selective and personal history of X-ray astronomy. The X-ray universe is considered along with the sensible world, historical aspects regarding the discovery and utilization of X-rays, the pioneers of X-ray astronomy, the discovery of an X-ray star, the riddle of the X-ray stars, developments leading to the Uhuru (X-ray Explorer) satellite and the study of neutron stars and black holes, the X-ray sky, a telescope for X-rays, the Einstein observatory (HEAO-2), stellar coronas and supernovas, active galaxies and quasars, clusters of galaxies and the missing mass, and the cosmic X-ray background. Attention is also given to NASA's Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility, which will open a permanent window on the X-ray universe.

  9. Re-brightening of Hyper-Luminous X-ray source HLX-1 in ESO 243-49 associated with a spectral softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, O.; Barret, D.; Webb, N.; Farrell, S.

    2010-08-01

    We report on results from our current X-ray monitoring of the Hyper Luminous X-ray source (HLX-1) in the galaxy ESO 243-49 with the Swift-XRT (Farrell et al. 2009, Nature, 460, 73, Wiersema et al. 2010, ApJL, in press, arXiv:1008.4125). The Swift-XRT Photon-Counting light-curve exhibits large variability. During our first Swift-XRT observation on 2008-10-24, the source count rate was around 0.013 c/s.

  10. Instrumental technique in X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed review of the development of instruments for X-ray astronomy is given with major emphasis on nonfocusing high-sensitivity counter techniques used to detect cosmic photons in the energy range between 0.20 and 300 keV. The present status of X-ray astronomy is summarized together with significant results of the Uhuru observations, and photon interactions of importance for the detection of X-rays in space are noted. The three principal devices used in X-ray astronomy (proportional, scintillation, and solid-state counters) are described in detail, data-processing systems for these devices are briefly discussed, and the statistics of nuclear counting as applied to X-ray astronomy is outlined analytically. Effects of the near-earth X-ray environment and atmospheric gamma-ray production on X-ray detection by low-orbit satellites are considered. Several contemporary instruments are described (proportional-counter systems, scintillation-counter telescopes, modulation collimators), and X-ray astronomical satellite missions are tabulated.

  11. Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hohenberger, M.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (XRCE) K-shell sources are being developed for high energy density experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high x-ray fluxes and fluences. Recently, sources with high XRCE in the K-shell x-ray energy range of iron and nickel were investigated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The x-ray conversion efficiency in the 5-9 keV spectral range was determined to be 6.8% ± 0.3%. These targets were 4.1 mm diameter, 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 ?m thick wall supporting a tube of 3 to 3.5 ?m thick stainless steel. The NIF laser deposited ˜460 kJ of 3? light into the target in a 140 TW, 3.3 ns square pulse. The absolute x-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dante x-ray spectrometers. Time resolved images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to follow the heating of the target. Time integrated high-resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range.

  12. X rays in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Hendee, W.R. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    1995-11-01

    For almost a century, x rays have been used for medical imaging and for radiation therapy. Now these two clinical regimes are converging in the latest technology. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. X-Ray Diffraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  14. X-Ray Diffraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matter.org

    This site from the University of London presents a tutorial on several methods of X-ray diffraction, including the powder, rotating crystal, and Laue methods Each section includes interactive Java applets, exercises, and links to a glossary of terms.

  15. X-ray Orbital Modulation of Cygnus X-1

    E-print Network

    Linqing Wen; Wei Cui; Alan M. Levine; Hale V. Bradt

    1999-06-07

    We have analyzed over 2 years of RXTE/ASM data for Cygnus X-1. We have detected the 5.6-day orbital period in Lomb-Scargle periodograms of both light curves and hardness ratios when Cyg X-1 was in the hard state. This detection was made with improved sensitivity and temporal coverage compared with previous detections by other X-ray missions. The folded light curves and hardness ratios show a broad intensity dip accompanied by spectral hardening centered on superior conjunction of the X-ray source. The dip has a duration of about 27% of the orbital period and depth ranging from 8% to 23% of the non-dip intensities in three energy bands. Variability on time scales of hours is often evident within the broad dip in the unfolded data. In contrast, no feature at the orbital period is evident in the periodograms or folded light curves for the soft state. Absorption of X-rays by a stellar wind from the companion star can reproduce the observed X-ray orbital modulations in the hard state. To explain the low orbital modulation in the soft-state data, a reduction of the wind density during the soft state would be required. As an alternative, a partial covering scenario is described which could also account for the lack of the orbital modulation in the soft state.

  16. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique.

    PubMed

    Idir, Mourad; Cywiak, Moisés; Morales, Arquímedes; Modi, Mohammed H

    2011-09-26

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem. PMID:21996845

  17. Atomic Processes in X-ray Photoioinzed Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that photoionization and photoabsorption play a dominant role in determining the state of gas in nebulae surrounding hot stars and in active galaxies. Recent observations of X-ray spectra demonstrate that these processes are also dominant in highly ionized gas near compact objects, and also affect the transmission of X-rays from the majority of astronomical sources. This has led to new insights into the understanding of what is going on in these sources. It has also pointed out the need for accurate atomic cross sections for photoionization and absorption, notably for processes involving inner shells. The xstar code can be used for calculating the heating, ionization and reprocessing of X-rays by gas in a range of ionization states and temperatures. It has recently been updated to include an improved treatment of inner shell transitions in iron. I will review the capabilities of xstar, the atomic data, and illustrate some applications to recent X-ray spectral observations.

  18. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  19. X-ray Spectroscopy of High-Z Elements on Nike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2013-10-01

    Survey X-ray spectrometer covering a spectral range from 0.5 to 19.5 angstroms has been added to the spectroscopic suite of Nike diagnostics. That allows simultaneous observation of both M- and N- spectra of W, Ta and Au with high spectral resolution. Low energy test shots confirmed strong presence of 3-4 transitions of Ni-like W, Ta and Au with X-ray energies as high as 3.5 keV when above mentioned elements were used as the targets. In our continuous effort to support DOE-NNSA's inertial fusion program, the future campaign will cover a wide range of plasma conditions that result in relatively energetic X-ray production. Eventually, absolutely calibrated spectrometers of similar geometry will be fielded at NIF in cooperation with NIF diagnostic group. Survey X-ray spectrometer covering a spectral range from 0.5 to 19.5 angstroms has been added to the spectroscopic suite of Nike diagnostics. That allows simultaneous observation of both M- and N- spectra of W, Ta and Au with high spectral resolution. Low energy test shots confirmed strong presence of 3-4 transitions of Ni-like W, Ta and Au with X-ray energies as high as 3.5 keV when above mentioned elements were used as the targets. In our continuous effort to support DOE-NNSA's inertial fusion program, the future campaign will cover a wide range of plasma conditions that result in relatively energetic X-ray production. Eventually, absolutely calibrated spectrometers of similar geometry will be fielded at NIF in cooperation with NIF diagnostic group. Work supported by US DOE, Defense Programs.

  20. Hybrid x-ray?optical luminescence imaging: Characterization of experimental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, C. M.; Sun, C.; Pratx, G.; Rao, R.; Xing, L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of x-ray luminescence imaging is investigated using a dual-modality imaging system that merges x-ray and optical imaging. This modality utilizes x-ray activated nanophosphors that luminesce when excited by ionizing photons. By doping phosphors with lanthanides, which emit light in the visible and near infrared range, the luminescence is suitable for biological applications. This study examines practical aspects of this new modality including phosphor concentration, light emission linearity, detector damage, and spectral emission characteristics. Finally, the contrast produced by these phosphors is compared to that of x-ray fluoroscopy. Methods: Gadolinium and lanthanum oxysulfide phosphors doped with terbium (green emission) or europium (red emission) were studied. The light emission was imaged in a clinical x-ray scanner with a cooled CCD camera and a spectrophotometer; dose measurements were determined with a calibrated dosimeter. Using these properties, in addition to luminescence efficiency values found in the literature for a similar phosphor, minimum concentration calculations are performed. Finally, a 2.5 cm agar phantom with a 1 cm diameter cylindrical phosphor-filled inclusion (diluted at 10 mg?ml) is imaged to compare x-ray luminescence contrast with x-ray fluoroscopic contrast at a superficial location. Results: Dose to the CCD camera in the chosen imaging geometry was measured at less than 0.02 cGy?s. Emitted light was found to be linear with dose (R2=1) and concentration (R2=1). Emission peaks for clinical x-ray energies are less than 3 nm full width at half maximum, as expected from lanthanide dopants. The minimum practical concentration necessary to detect luminescent phosphors is dependent on dose; it is estimated that subpicomolar concentrations are detectable at the surface of the tissue with typical mammographic doses, with the minimum detectable concentration increasing with depth and decreasing with dose. In a reflection geometry, x-ray luminescence had nearly a 430-fold greater contrast to background than x-ray fluoroscopy. Conclusions: X-ray luminescence has the potential to be a promising new modality for enabling molecular imaging within x-ray scanners. Although much work needs to be done to ensure biocompatibility of x-ray exciting phosphors, the benefits of this modality, highlighted in this work, encourage further study. PMID:20879562

  1. Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: Characterization of experimental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C. M.; Sun, C.; Pratx, G.; Rao, R.; Xing, L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of x-ray luminescence imaging is investigated using a dual-modality imaging system that merges x-ray and optical imaging. This modality utilizes x-ray activated nanophosphors that luminesce when excited by ionizing photons. By doping phosphors with lanthanides, which emit light in the visible and near infrared range, the luminescence is suitable for biological applications. This study examines practical aspects of this new modality including phosphor concentration, light emission linearity, detector damage, and spectral emission characteristics. Finally, the contrast produced by these phosphors is compared to that of x-ray fluoroscopy. Methods: Gadolinium and lanthanum oxysulfide phosphors doped with terbium (green emission) or europium (red emission) were studied. The light emission was imaged in a clinical x-ray scanner with a cooled CCD camera and a spectrophotometer; dose measurements were determined with a calibrated dosimeter. Using these properties, in addition to luminescence efficiency values found in the literature for a similar phosphor, minimum concentration calculations are performed. Finally, a 2.5 cm agar phantom with a 1 cm diameter cylindrical phosphor-filled inclusion (diluted at 10 mg/ml) is imaged to compare x-ray luminescence contrast with x-ray fluoroscopic contrast at a superficial location. Results: Dose to the CCD camera in the chosen imaging geometry was measured at less than 0.02 cGy/s. Emitted light was found to be linear with dose (R{sup 2}=1) and concentration (R{sup 2}=1). Emission peaks for clinical x-ray energies are less than 3 nm full width at half maximum, as expected from lanthanide dopants. The minimum practical concentration necessary to detect luminescent phosphors is dependent on dose; it is estimated that subpicomolar concentrations are detectable at the surface of the tissue with typical mammographic doses, with the minimum detectable concentration increasing with depth and decreasing with dose. In a reflection geometry, x-ray luminescence had nearly a 430-fold greater contrast to background than x-ray fluoroscopy. Conclusions: X-ray luminescence has the potential to be a promising new modality for enabling molecular imaging within x-ray scanners. Although much work needs to be done to ensure biocompatibility of x-ray exciting phosphors, the benefits of this modality, highlighted in this work, encourage further study.

  2. A new precision two-crystal vacuum x-ray spectrometer and the aluminum K series x-ray spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Frank

    1998-12-01

    The design and construction of a precision vacuum two-crystal x-ray spectrometer was completed. The capabilities of the spectrometer were tested by recording several long and short range scans of the aluminum K series spectrum. This was accomplished by coupling the spectrometer to an existing x-ray tube. The aluminum K series spectrum was chosen since it offered a comparison of the results of this work with that of previous studies. It is shown that the spectrometer is capable of repeatable precision angular measurements and high resolution scans. The range of the recorded spectra was 68.25° to 78.75° Bragg angle (1480 eV to 1569 eV). The observed spectra were corrected for background and spectral window smearing and showed previously unobserved lines in the Kalpha3,4 group. The comparison with the previous studies shows no unexpected differences.

  3. A New Route to Phase-Resolved Spectroscopy of Pulsations and QPOs in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A.; Uttley, P.; van der Klis, M.

    2014-07-01

    The accretion disks in neutron star and stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries provide an opportunity to study matter in strong gravitational fields. In particular, using spectral-timing measurements of X-ray emission, we can analyze the inner parts of the accretion disk and corona. Here we present the application of a new spectral-timing technique to carry out phase-resolved spectroscopy of rapid periodic and quasi-periodic signals from X-ray binaries. This technique measures relative phase and does not require ephemerides or exactly periodic signals, so it is applicable to a wide range of data, from X-ray millisecond pulsations to kHz and low-frequency QPOs. The method gives new insight into the physical mechanisms underlying these signals as well as the geometry of the emitting regions.

  4. Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

    2011-09-01

    This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

  5. Optimizing the performance of nickel-like collisionally pumped x-ray lasers. II. Lasers for the wavelength range 50-100Å

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Pert

    2007-01-01

    Soft x-ray lasers operating in the super- 100Å regime and using grazing incidence pumping methods are now established as efficient sources of radiation in this waveband. The concepts underlying this approach are to separate the ionization and excitation phases of the laser, and to match the pumping density of the latter to the optimal for gain generation. It is therefore

  6. Hard X-ray emission cutoff in the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 detected by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Tong, Hao; Guo, Yan-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 has been studied with observations from INTEGRAL. The hard X-ray spectrum in the range 18-500 keV for 4U 0142+61 was derived using nearly nine years of INTEGRAL/IBIS data. We obtained the average hard X-ray spectrum of 4U 0142+61 with all available data. The spectrum of 4U 0142+61 can be fitted with a power law that includes an exponential high energy cutoff. This average spectrum is well fitted by a power law with ? ~ 0.51 ± 0.11 plus a cutoff energy at 128.6 ± 17.2 keV. The hard X-ray flux of the source from 20-150 keV showed no significant variations (within 20%) from 2003-2011. The spectral profiles have some variability over the nine years such that the photon index varies from 0.3-1.5 and the cutoff energies from 110-250 keV. The detection of the high energy cutoff around 130 keV shows some constraints on the radiation mechanisms of magnetars and possibly probes the differences between magnetar and accretion models for this special class of neutron stars. Future HXMT observations could provide stronger constraints on the hard X-ray spectral properties of this source and other magnetar candidates.

  7. ON THE NATURE OF HARD X-RAY EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES OBSERVED WITH XMM-NEWTON

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Bailon, E.; Huerta, E. M.; Krongold, Y. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510-Mexico DF (Mexico); Chavushyan, V. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, CP 72000, Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Schartel, N.; Santos-Lleo, M. [XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, ESA, Villafranca del Castillo, Apartado 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Over the last decade, X-ray surveys have provided outstanding new results due to the lack of the common selection effects present at other wavelengths. Here, we have selected a sample of unidentified sources from the XMM-Newton Slew Survey Catalog, likely to be extragalactic. Five of them were observed with the XMM-Newton observatory. In this work, we present the results of the spectral analysis of these objects in the X-ray and optical bands. Only three of them had useful spectroscopic X-ray data, and follow up observations were carried out in the optical range to determine their coordinates, classification, and redshift. The sources are different types of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with redshifts ranging from 0.059 to 0.386. The properties at both spectral ranges (X-rays and optical) are compatible with the common properties of their types of AGNs. Although the sources were selected by their hard X-ray properties, none of the three detected objects turned out to be an obscured AGN.

  8. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Kuzin, S. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Farnik, F. [Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic); Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Italy, and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Phillips, K. J. H., E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  9. X-Ray Monitoring of GRBs with Lobster Eye Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sveda, L.; Pina, L. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Science, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Inneman, A. [Centre for Advanced X-ray Technologies, Reflex, Novodvorska 994, CZ-142 00 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Pizzichini, G. [IASF/CNR Sezione di Bologna, via P. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-28

    We present here the soft X-ray All-Sky Monitor (ASM). It is based on the current technological capabilities, sensitive in the {approx} 0.1 - 10.0 keV range with angular resolution of {approx} 3 - 4 arcmin, and has a limiting detectable flux {approx} 10-12 erg/s/cm2 for daily scans in the mentioned energy range. The ASM will play a key role in studying transient X-ray sources like XRBs, GRBs, XRFs, X-ray novae, as well as in the study of the long term variability of X-ray sources like XRBs, AGN, or stellar X-ray flares.

  10. Mid-infrared properties of X-ray sources in the Extended Groth Strip

    E-print Network

    P. Barmby; A. Alonso-Herrero; J. L. Donley; E. Egami; G. G. Fazio; A. Georgakakis; J. -S. Huang; E. S. Laird; S. Miyazaki; K. Nandra; S. Q. Park; P. G. Perez-Gonzalez; G. H. Rieke; J. R. Rigby; S. P. Willner

    2006-01-03

    Mid-infrared observations of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are important for understanding of the physical conditions around the central accretion engines. Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of a 300 arcmin^2 region in the Extended Groth Strip are used to select a sample of~150 AGN. The Spitzer instruments IRAC and MIPS detect 68-80% of these sources, which show a wide range of mid-infrared properties. About 40% of the sources have red power-law spectral energy distributions (f_nu ~ nu^alpha, alphamid-IR spectral energy distributions (alpha>0) with their infrared emission dominated by the host galaxy; the remaining 20% are not well-fit by a power law. Published IRAC color criteria for AGN select most of the red sources, but only some of the blue sources. As with all other known methods, selecting AGN with mid-IR colors will not produce a sample that is simultaneously complete and reliable. The IRAC SED type does not directly correspond to X-ray spectral type (hard/soft). The mid-IR properties of X-ray-detected Lyman-break, radio, submillimeter, and optically-faint sources vary widely and, for the most part, are not distinct from those of the general X-ray/infrared source population. X-ray sources emit 6-11% of the integrated mid--IR light, making them significant contributors to the cosmic infrared background.

  11. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-Ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Haugh

    2008-03-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. It determines how accurately NIF can point the laser beams and is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 ?m square pixels, and 15 ?m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 2mA, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/?E?12. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1.5% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. The efficiency pattern follows the properties of Si. The maximum quantum efficiency is 0.71. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation was >8% at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was less than the measurement uncertainty below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris on the CCD chip. The debris showed maximum contrast at the lowest energy used, 930 eV, and disappeared by 4 keV. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  12. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... be placed over the lower part of your spine. You will be asked to hold your breath ... x-ray. The most common reason for lumbosacral spine x-ray is to look for the cause ...

  13. Report of the x ray and gamma ray sensors panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szymkowiak, Andrew; Collins, S.; Kurfess, J.; Mahoney, W.; Mccammon, D.; Pehl, R.; Ricker, G.

    1991-01-01

    Overall five major areas of technology are recommended for development in order to meet the science requirements of the Astrotech 21 mission set. These are: detectors for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, cryogenic detectors for improved x ray spectral and spatial resolution, advanced x ray charge coupled devices (CCDs) for higher energy resolution and larger format, extension to higher energies, liquid and solid position sensitive detectors for improving stopping power in the energy range 5 to 500 keV and 0.2 to 2 MeV. Development plans designed to achieve the desired capabilities on the time scales required by the technology freeze dates have been recommended in each of these areas.

  14. Report of the X ray and gamma ray sensors panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymkowiak, Andrew; Collins, S.; Kurfess, J.; Mahoney, W.; McCammon, D.; Pehl, R.; Ricker, G.

    1991-08-01

    Overall five major areas of technology are recommended for development in order to meet the science requirements of the Astrotech 21 mission set. These are: detectors for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, cryogenic detectors for improved x ray spectral and spatial resolution, advanced x ray charge coupled devices (CCDs) for higher energy resolution and larger format, extension to higher energies, liquid and solid position sensitive detectors for improving stopping power in the energy range 5 to 500 keV and 0.2 to 2 MeV. Development plans designed to achieve the desired capabilities on the time scales required by the technology freeze dates have been recommended in each of these areas.

  15. X-ray emission lines from three Galactic bulge sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, S. D.; Helfand, D. J.; Halpern, J. P.; Kahn, S. M.; Seward, F. D.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopic observations obtained with the Einstein objective grating spectrometer (OGS) and monitor proportional counter (MPC) instruments of three Galactic bulge sources, the globular cluster burst source 1820-30, the burster Serpens X-1, and the GX 9+9 are presented. Joint spectral fits to the OGS and MPC data are consistent for all three sources with either a thermal bremsstrahlung model with temperature ranging from 6 to 10 keV or with a two-component blackbody model, where one component may be associated with the neutron star and one with the accretion disk. The spectra of Serpens X-1 and 1820-30 harden with increases in intensity. The implications of the results for recent models of low-mass X-ray binaries are discussed.

  16. THE SWIRE/CHANDRA SURVEY: THE X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kim, Dong-Woo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilgard, Roy [Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, CT 06459 (United States); Kim, Minsun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 61-1, Hwaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Deajeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Polletta, Mari [INAF-ISAF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, Milano 20133 (Italy); Lonsdale, Carol [The National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VI 22902 (United States); Smith, Harding E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Owen, Frazer N. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento Di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Siana, Brian; Shupe, David [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    We report a moderate-depth (70 ks), contiguous 0.7 deg{sup 2} Chandra survey in the Lockman Hole Field of the Spitzer/SWIRE Legacy Survey coincident with a completed, ultra-deep VLA survey with deep optical and near-infrared imaging in-hand. The primary motivation is to distinguish starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including the significant, highly obscured (log N {sub H} > 23) subset. Chandra has detected 775 X-ray sources to a limiting broadband (0.3-8 keV) flux {approx}4 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We present the X-ray catalog, fluxes, hardness ratios, and multi-wavelength fluxes. The log N versus log S agrees with those of previous surveys covering similar flux ranges. The Chandra and Spitzer flux limits are well matched: 771 (99%) of the X-ray sources have infrared (IR) or optical counterparts, and 333 have MIPS 24 {mu}m detections. There are four optical-only X-ray sources and four with no visible optical/IR counterpart. The very deep ({approx}2.7 {mu}Jy rms) VLA data yield 251 (>4{sigma}) radio counterparts, 44% of the X-ray sources in the field. We confirm that the tendency for lower X-ray flux sources to be harder is primarily due to absorption. As expected, there is no correlation between observed IR and X-ray fluxes. Optically bright, type 1, and red AGNs lie in distinct regions of the IR versus X-ray flux plots, demonstrating the wide range of spectral energy distributions in this sample and providing the potential for classification/source selection. Many optically bright sources, which lie outside the AGN region in the optical versus X-ray plots (f{sub r} /f{sub x} >10), lie inside the region predicted for red AGNs in IR versus X-ray plots, consistent with the presence of an active nucleus. More than 40% of the X-ray sources in the VLA field are radio-loud using the classical definition, R{sub L} . The majority of these are red and relatively faint in the optical so that the use of R{sub L} to select those AGNs with the strongest radio emission becomes questionable. Using the 24 {mu}m to radio flux ratio (q {sub 24}) instead results in 13 of the 147 AGNs with sufficient data being classified as radio-loud, in good agreement with the {approx}10% expected for broad-lined AGNs based on optical surveys. We conclude that q {sub 24} is a more reliable indicator of radio-loudness. Use of R{sub L} should be confined to the optically selected type 1 AGN.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY X-RAY SOURCES WITH TYCHO-2 STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, Robert I.; Britt, C. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wright, N. J.; Jonker, P. G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Maccarone, T. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nelemans, G., E-mail: rih@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525-AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-20

    We identify 69 X-ray sources discovered by the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) that are coincident with or very close to bright stars in the Tycho-2 catalog. Additionally, two other GBS sources are resolved binary companions to Tycho-2 stars where both components are separately detected in X-rays. Most of these are likely to be real matches, but we identify nine objects with large and significant X-ray-to-optical offsets as either detections of resolved binary companions or chance alignments. We collate known spectral types for these objects, and also examine Two Micron All Sky Survey colors, variability information from the All-Sky Automated Survey, and X-ray hardness ratios for the brightest objects. Nearly a third of the stars are found to be optically variable, divided roughly evenly between irregular variations and periodic modulations. All fall among the softest objects identified by the GBS. The sample forms a very mixed selection, ranging in spectral class from O9 to M3. In some cases, the X-ray emission appears consistent with normal coronal emission from late-type stars, or wind emission from early-types, but the sample also includes one known Algol, one W UMa system, two Be stars, and several X-ray bright objects likely to be coronally active stars or binaries. Surprisingly, a substantial fraction of the spectroscopically classified, non-coincidental sample (12 out of 38 objects) have late B or A type counterparts. Many of these exhibit redder near-IR colors than expected for their spectral type and/or variability, and it is likely that the X-rays originate from a late-type companion star in most or all of these objects.

  18. Identification of Galactic Bulge Survey X-Ray Sources with Tycho-2 Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Wright, N. J.; Maccarone, T. J.; Jonker, P. G.; Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Nelemans, G.

    2012-12-01

    We identify 69 X-ray sources discovered by the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) that are coincident with or very close to bright stars in the Tycho-2 catalog. Additionally, two other GBS sources are resolved binary companions to Tycho-2 stars where both components are separately detected in X-rays. Most of these are likely to be real matches, but we identify nine objects with large and significant X-ray-to-optical offsets as either detections of resolved binary companions or chance alignments. We collate known spectral types for these objects, and also examine Two Micron All Sky Survey colors, variability information from the All-Sky Automated Survey, and X-ray hardness ratios for the brightest objects. Nearly a third of the stars are found to be optically variable, divided roughly evenly between irregular variations and periodic modulations. All fall among the softest objects identified by the GBS. The sample forms a very mixed selection, ranging in spectral class from O9 to M3. In some cases, the X-ray emission appears consistent with normal coronal emission from late-type stars, or wind emission from early-types, but the sample also includes one known Algol, one W UMa system, two Be stars, and several X-ray bright objects likely to be coronally active stars or binaries. Surprisingly, a substantial fraction of the spectroscopically classified, non-coincidental sample (12 out of 38 objects) have late B or A type counterparts. Many of these exhibit redder near-IR colors than expected for their spectral type and/or variability, and it is likely that the X-rays originate from a late-type companion star in most or all of these objects.

  19. X-Ray Spectral Analysis of YOHKOH Bragg Crystal Spectrograph Data on a 1992 September 6 Flare: The Blueshift Component and Ion Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takako; Fujiwara, Tomoko; Hanaoka, Yoichiro

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the time evolution of Bragg crystal spectrometer spectra of He-like Ca XIX and Fe XXV ions observed by the Yohkoh satellite for a solar flare on 1992 September 6 at 05:05 UT (M2.4 class). Electron temperatures are derived through a fit of synthetic spectra to the observed Ca XIX and Fe XXV spectra using new evaluated atomic data. Ion density ratios derived from spectra without assuming ionization equilibrium show a time-dependent, nonequilibrium ionization. The shift from equilibrium values indicates an ionizing plasma. For the first time the emission measures are derived from the spectra without assuming ionization equilibrium and solar abundances. Apparent ion temperatures are derived from the line widths of Ca XIX spectra. In the rising phase a blueshifted component is separated from the main component of the Ca XIX spectra. The time variation of these parameters are compared with hard X-rays, soft X-rays, and radio measurements. In the preheating phase, a moderate increase of the amount of thermal plasma is observed with turbulence indicated by the line width. The time evolution of the blueshifted component coincides with that of a burst in hard X-rays and microwaves which are produced by high-energy, nonthermal electrons.

  20. Taking into account the effects of component proximity on the spectral-line profiles of stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. S.; Antokhina, E. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    An exact calculation of CaI ?6439 Å absorption profiles in the spectra of optical stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems is carried out. The calculations are used to revise a formula relating the rotational broadening of lines and the component-mass ratio. In the case of modest (substantial) X-ray heating, failure to take into account the tidal-rotational deformation of the figure of the star leads to overestimation (underestimation) of the mass of the relativistic object. The radial-velocity curves of optical stars are modeled for binary systems with various parameters and X-ray heating powers k x ; corresponding tables of K corrections are presented. Refined values for the component-mass ratio q = 23 ± 1, black-hole mass M x = 8.4 ± 0.5, and optical-star mass M v = 0.36 ± 0.07 for the GS 2023+338 (V404 Cyg) system are presented.

  1. Discovery of X-ray pulsations in SMC X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucke, R.; Yentis, D.; Friedman, H.; Fritz, G.; Shulman, S.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of SMC X-1 from an Aerobee rocket and an Apollo spacecraft have detected X-ray pulsations with a period of 0.716 s. The pulsed fraction in the 1.6-10-keV energy range is 25-35 percent. Evidence for significant pulse-shape and pulsed-fraction changes in the 0.6-1.6-keV range is also presented. The spectrum during both observations is fitted by a photon power law with a spectral index of -0.8 and normalization of 0.040.

  2. X-ray astronomical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of the Goddard group to the history of X-ray astronomy are numerous and varied. One role that the group has continued to play involves the pursuit of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of the X-ray spectra of cosmic sources. The latest development is the selection of the X-ray microcalorimeter for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) study payload. This technology is likely to revolutionize the study of cosmic X-ray spectra.

  3. X-ray microprobe of optical strong-field processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Young; R. W. Dunford; C. Hoehr; E. P. Kanter; B. Krässig; E. R. Peterson; S. H. Southworth; D. L. Ederer; J. Rudati; D. A. Arms; E. M. Dufresne; E. C. Landahl

    2006-01-01

    A time-resolved X-ray microprobe to study optical strong-field processes has been developed. Individual atoms or molecules located within the strong-field environment created by a focused ultrafast laser are probed by undulator-produced X-ray pulses to achieve spatial, temporal, spectral and polarization selectivity. Approximately 106 monochromatic X-rays per 100-ps pulse are focused into a ?10?m spot to selectively probe atoms in focal

  4. POLARIX: a pathfinder mission of X-ray polarimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Costa; Ronaldo Bellazzini; Gianpiero Tagliaferri; Giorgio Matt; Andrea Argan; Primo Attinà; Luca Baldini; Stefano Basso; Alessandro Brez; Oberto Citterio; Sergio Di Cosimo; Vincenzo Cotroneo; Sergio Fabiani; Marco Feroci; Antonella Ferri; Luca Latronico; Francesco Lazzarotto; Massimo Minuti; Ennio Morelli; Fabio Muleri; Lucio Nicolini; Giovanni Pareschi; Giuseppe Di Persio; Michele Pinchera; Massimiliano Razzano; Luigia Reboa; Alda Rubini; Antonio Maria Salonico; Carmelo Sgro; Paolo Soffitta; Gloria Spandre; Daniele Spiga; Alessio Trois

    2010-01-01

    Since the birth of X-ray astronomy, spectral, spatial and timing observation improved dramatically, procuring a wealth of\\u000a information on the majority of the classes of the celestial sources. Polarimetry, instead, remained basically unprobed. X-ray\\u000a polarimetry promises to provide additional information procuring two new observable quantities, the degree and the angle of\\u000a polarization. Polarization from celestial X-ray sources may derive from

  5. X-ray Crystallography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students are introduced to the fundamental principles of X-ray crystallography and "guides students through a series of activities for learning how structural information can be derived from X-ray diffraction patterns." Upon completion of this activity students should be able to describe what can be detected with X-ray crystallography (proteins in particular) and explain the impact of temperature, atom size, and impurities in the test. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity, a test and rubric, central concepts, and their correlation to AAAS standards.

  6. Laboratory Mid-frequency (Kilohertz) Range Seismic Property Measurements and X-ray CT Imaging of Fractured Sandstone Cores During Supercritical CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Chang, C.; Harper, E.

    2014-12-01

    During geological sequestration of CO2, fractures are expected to play a critical role in controlling the migration of the injected fluid in reservoir rock. To detect the invasion of supercritical (sc-) CO2 and to determine its saturation, velocity and attenuation of seismic waves can be monitored. When both fractures and matrix porosity connected to the fractures are present, wave-induced dynamic poroelastic interactions between these two different types of rock porosity—high-permeability, high-compliance fractures and low-permeability, low-compliance matrix porosity—result in complex velocity and attenuation changes of compressional waves as scCO2 invades the rock. We conducted core-scale laboratory scCO2 injection experiments on small (diameter 1.5 inches, length 3.5-4 inches), medium-porosity/permeability (porosity 15%, matrix permeability 35 md) sandstone cores. During the injection, the compressional and shear (torsion) wave velocities and attenuations of the entire core were determined using our Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (short-core resonant bar) technique in the frequency range of 1-2 kHz, and the distribution and saturation of the scCO2 determined via X-ray CT imaging using a medical CT scanner. A series of tests were conducted on (1) intact rock cores, (2) a core containing a mated, core-parallel fracture, (3) a core containing a sheared core-parallel fracture, and (4) a core containing a sheared, core-normal fracture. For intact cores and a core containing a mated sheared fracture, injections of scCO2 into an initially water-saturated sample resulted in large and continuous decreases in the compressional velocity as well as temporary increases in the attenuation. For a sheared core-parallel fracture, large attenuation was also observed, but almost no changes in the velocity occurred. In contrast, a sample containing a core-normal fracture exhibited complex behavior of compressional wave attenuation: the attenuation peaked as the leading edge of the scCO2 approached the fracture; followed by an immediate drop as scCO2 invaded the fracture; and by another, gradual increase as the scCO2 infiltrated into the other side of the fracture. The compressional wave velocity declined monotonically, but the rate of velocity decrease changed with the changes in attenuation.

  7. LiF:Mg,Ti TLD response as a function of photon energy for moderately filtered x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to °Co

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Nunn; S. D. Davis; J. A. Micka; L. A. DeWerd

    2008-01-01

    The response of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a function of photon energy was determined using irradiations with moderately filtered x-ray beams in the energy range of 20-250 kVp relative to the response to irradiations with °Co photons. To determine if the relative light output from LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs per unit air kerma as a function of photon energy can be

  8. The Focusing Optics X-Ray Solar Imager: FOXSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krucker, Saem; Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Turin, Paul; Lin, R. P.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Saito, Shinya; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Tajima, Takaaki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload funded under the NASA Low Cost Access to Space program to test hard x-ray (HXR) focusing optics and position-sensitive solid state detectors for solar observations. Today's leading solar HXR instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) provides excellent spatial (2 arcseconds) and spectral (1 keV) resolution. Yet, due to its use of an indirect imaging system, the derived images have a low dynamic range (typically <10) and sensitivity. These limitations make it difficult to study faint x-ray sources in the solar corona which are crucial for understanding the particle acceleration processes which occur there. Grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive solid state detectors can overcome both of these limitations enabling the next breakthrough in understanding impulsive energy release on the Sun. The FOXSI project is led by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the grazing-incidence optics, while the Astro-H team at JAXA/ISAS has provided double-sided silicon strip detectors. FOXSI is a pathfinder for the next generation of solar hard x-ray spectroscopic imagers. Such observatories will be able to image the non-thermal electrons within the solar flare acceleration region, trace their paths through the corona, and provide essential quantitative measurements such as energy spectra, density, and energy content in accelerated electrons.

  9. ALFT's Soft X-Ray Source Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Panarella

    2002-01-01

    ALFT (www.alft.com) was funded by the Federal and Provincial governments of Canada in 1987 to pursue the objective of making soft X-ray sources for microlithography.For 15 years ALFT has successfully pursued this objective. Recently, the company has found that its sources can complement the synchrotron as provider of soft X-rays for applications that range from biotechnology to nanotechnology.A beam from

  10. Comprehensive analysis of the spectrometric determination of voltage applied to X-ray tubes in the radiography and mammography energy ranges using a silicon PIN photodiode.

    PubMed

    Terini, R A; Pereira, M A G; Künzel, R; Costa, P R; Herdade, S B

    2004-05-01

    This work describes the analysis of factors which affect the results of estimation of the electron accelerating potential (kVp) applied to an X-ray tube, through determination of the end point of the energy spectrum of the emitted radiation beam. Measurements have been performed utilizing two spectrometers each with a silicon PIN photodiode: one operating at room temperature, and the other, a high resolution spectrometer, with a Peltier cooler. Both were directly irradiated by different X-ray beams. Both systems work at low voltage and without liquid nitrogen cooling, thus avoiding the drawbacks presented by germanium detectors. Each kVp value was determined by linear regression of the end of the spectrum, so as to give, simultaneously, the best fit to the experimental data and low standard deviation for the kVp value. Detector energy resolution and calibration, counting statistics and high voltage waveform ripple have been investigated in order to establish better experimental conditions and to optimize measurement time. Results of measurements carried out with X-ray tubes connected to single-phase, three-phase or constant potential units, using additional filtration of Cu, Al or Mo (for mammographic beams), are presented. The variations resulted in kVp uncertainties up to 0.1 kV. PMID:15121703

  11. Quasar X-ray spectra revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri, P.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J.

    1993-01-01

    A sample of 45 quasars observed by the IPC on the Einstein satellite is used to reexamine the relationship of the soft X-ray energy index with radio properties and the optical Fe II emission. The tendency for radio-loud quasars to have systematically flatter X-ray energy indices than radio-quiet quasars is confirmed with the soft X-ray excess having negligible effect. There is a tendency for the flatness of the X-ray slope to correlate with radio core dominance for radio-loud quasars, suggesting that a component of the X-ray emission is relativistically beamed. For the radio-quiet quasars, the soft X-ray energy indices with a mean of about 1.0 are consistent with the indices found at higher energies, although steeper than those observed for Seyfert 1 galaxies where the reflection model gives a good fit to the data. The correlation of Fe II emission line strength with X-ray energy index is confirmed for radio-quiet quasars using a subset of 18 objects. The radio-loud quasars show no evidence for a correlation. This relation suggests a connection between the ionizing continuum and line emission from the broad emission-line region (BELR) of radio-quiet quasars, but in the opposite sense to that predicted by current photoionization models. The correlations of X-ray slope with radio core dominance and Fe II equivalent width within the radio-loud and radio-quiet subclasses, respectively, imply that the observed wide range of X-ray energy indices is real rather than due to the large measuring uncertainties for individual objects.

  12. X-ray spectra of Hercules X-1. 2: Intrinsic beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1 was observed in the energy range 2-24 keV with sufficient temporal resolution to allow detailed study of spectral correlations with the 1.24 sec pulse phase. A region of spectral hardening which extends over approximately the 1/10 pulse phase may be associated with the underlying beam. The pulse shape stability and its asymmetry relative to this intrinsic beam are discussed.

  13. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, A; Ratner, D; Lutman, A A; Turner, J; Welch, J; Decker, F-J; Loos, H; Behrens, C; Gilevich, S; Miahnahri, A A; Vetter, S; Maxwell, T J; Ding, Y; Coffee, R; Wakatsuki, S; Huang, Z

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion. PMID:25744344

  14. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion. PMID:25744344

  15. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A.A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A.A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore »in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  16. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F.-J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-03-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  17. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Observations of an Outburst of Recurrent X-Ray Nova GS 1354-644

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail G. Revnivtsev; Konstantin N. Borozdin; William C. Priedhorsky; Alexey Vikhlinin

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of GS 1354-644 during a modest outburst in 1997-1998. The source is one of a handful of black hole X-ray transients that are confirmed to be recurrent in X-rays. A 1987 outburst of the same source observed by Ginga was much brighter and showed a high\\/soft spectral state. In

  18. Hard X-ray Nano Patterning Using a Sectioned Multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Conley, R.; Cho, I.H.; Kim, J.M.; Yan, H.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G.B.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.

    2011-02-23

    We report a hard x-ray patterning capable of drawing lines with a width below 100 nm using x-rays at 0.165 nm. A specially prepared mask based on multilayer growth technology was used as an x-ray mask effectively. The x-ray Talbot effect in near field was investigated and utilized in the patterning. Since multilayers with a few nanometer layer spacing are readily available, the proposed hard x-ray nano patterning, free of the limit imposed by the Rayleigh criterion in optical range, can potentially be an ultimate optical lithography technique.

  19. Hard X-ray Nano Patterning using a Sectioned Multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    S Lee; I Cho; J Kim; H Yan; R Conley; C Liu; A Macrander; J Maser; G Stephenson; et al.

    2011-12-31

    We report a hard x-ray patterning capable of drawing lines with a width below 100 nm using x-rays at 0.165 nm. A specially prepared mask based on multilayer growth technology was used as an x-ray mask effectively. The x-ray Talbot effect in near field was investigated and utilized in the patterning. Since multilayers with a few nanometer layer spacing are readily available, the proposed hard x-ray nano patterning, free of the limit imposed by the Rayleigh criterion in optical range, can potentially be an ultimate optical lithography technique.

  20. Hard x-ray nano patterning using a sectioned multilayer.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; Cho, I. H.; Kim, J. M.; Yan, H.; Conley, R.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.; Kang, H. C.; Noh, D. Y. (Materials Science Division); ( XSD); (Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology); (Chosun Univ.); (Brookhaven Nat. Lab.)

    2011-01-01

    We report a hard x-ray patterning capable of drawing lines with a width below 100 nm using x-rays at 0.165 nm. A specially prepared mask based on multilayer growth technology was used as an x-ray mask effectively. The x-ray Talbot effect in near field was investigated and utilized in the patterning. Since multilayers with a few nanometer layer spacing are readily available, the proposed hard x-ray nano patterning, free of the limit imposed by the Rayleigh criterion in optical range, can potentially be an ultimate optical lithography technique.

  1. SPECTRAL BOUNDS USING HIGHER ORDER NUMERICAL RANGES

    E-print Network

    Davies, E Brian

    -self-adjoint (NSA) operator on a Hilbert space H. We have Spec(A) Num(A) {z : |z| A }) (1) where Num of the non-self-adjoint (NSA) Anderson model. The result is two papers. In this one we prove some general detailed results for the NSA Anderson model in one space dimension using quadratic numerical ranges

  2. X-ray Binaries in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.

    2014-08-01

    X-rays from binaries in small, metal-deficient galaxies may have contributed significantly to the heating and reionization of the early Universe, depending on their population and spectral shape. We investigate both properties by studying blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) as local analogs to these early galaxies. We constrain the relation of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) to the star-formation rate (SFR) using a Bayesian approach applied to a sample of 25 BCDs. Our results suggest a significant enhancement in the population of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in BCDs compared to near-solar metallicity galaxies. We show that X-ray binaries in the extremely metal-poor galaxies I Zw 18 and VII Zw 403 undergo spectral state transitions. The HMXB spectral shape affects how the emitted X-rays heat the intergalactic medium, thus affecting the 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization.

  3. X-Ray Spacing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Barthelmy

    This site features a collection of single-phase X-ray powder diffraction patterns for the three most intense D values of an extensive list of minerals. The information is presented in the form of tables of interplanar spacings (D), relative intensities, hkl plane. There are also links to more information about each mineral, such as chemical formula, composition, environment, and name origin.

  4. Patterns of variability in Be/X-ray pulsars during giant outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.; Nespoli, E.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The discovery of source states in the X-ray emission of black-hole binaries and neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries constituted a major step forward in the understanding of the physics of accretion onto compact objects. While there are numerous studies on the correlated timing and spectral variability of these systems, very little work has been done on high-mass X-ray binaries, the third major type of X-ray binaries. Accretion-powered pulsars with Be companions represent the most numerous group of high-mass X-ray binaries. When active, they are amongst the brightest extra-solar objects in the X-ray sky and are characterised by dramatic variability in brightness on timescales of days. Aims: The main goal of this work is to investigate whether Be accreting X-ray pulsars display source states and characterise those states through their spectral and timing properties. Methods: We have made a systematic study of the power spectra, energy spectra and X-ray hardness-intensity diagrams of nine Be/X-ray pulsars. Energy spectra were fitted with an absorbed power-law modified by an exponential cutoff. Discrete components such as iron emission lines and cyclotron lines were represented by Gaussian and pseudo-Lorentzian profiles, respectively. Power spectra were fitted by a combination of Lorentzian functions. The evolution of the timing and spectral parameters were monitored through changes over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. Results: We find that Be/X-ray pulsars trace two different branches in the hardness-intensity diagram: the horizontal branch corresponds to a low-intensity state of the source and it is characterised by fast colour and spectral changes and high X-ray variability. The diagonal branch is a high-intensity state that emerges when the X-ray luminosity exceeds a critical limit. The photon index anticorrelates with X-ray flux in the horizontal branch but correlates with it in the diagonal branch. The correlation between quasi-periodic oscillation frequency and X-ray flux reported in some pulsars is also observed if the peak frequency of the broad-band noise that accounts for the aperiodic variability is used. In some sources, a significant correlation between spectral and timing parameters is seen, implying and interplay between the accretion column and the inner accretion disc. Conclusions: The two branches may reflect two different accretion modes, depending on whether the luminosity of the source is above or below a critical value. This critical luminosity is mainly determined by the magnetic field strength, hence it differs for different sources. In this work, the systems that display the two branches have critical luminosities in the range (1-4) × 1037 erg s-1.

  5. Applied X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buynak, C. F.; Bossi, R. H.

    1995-05-01

    The application of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for aircraft and aerospace structures and ancillary equipment has been investigated in the Advanced Development of X-Ray Computed Tomography Applications demonstration (CTAD) program sponsored by the NDE Branch of the Materials Directorate at the Air Force Wright Laboratory. The volumetric feature evaluation capability of X-ray CT offers a quantitative measurement tool for material density/constituents and dimensions. This capability has economic value for improving the evaluation and control of materials and processes used in aircraft/aerospace structures. The CTAD effort has applied CT in a variety of areas such as electronics, closed systems, castings, organic composites and advanced materials and processes, using a wide range of X-ray sources from less than 150 kV to 9 MV. Applications of CT in these areas include configuration control, anomaly detection, geometry acquisition, failure analysis, noninvasive micrography, product development support and engineering fitness for service.

  6. X-ray spectroscopy of plasmas created by the Nike KrF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Deniz, A.; Hardgrove, J. [Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)] [Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States); Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Bodner, S.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R.; McLean, E.; Pronko, M.; Sethian, J.; Stamper, J.; Schmitt, A.; Sullivan, C. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Holland, G.; Laming, M. [SFA Inc., 1401 McCormick Drive, Landover, Maryland 20785 (United States)] [SFA Inc., 1401 McCormick Drive, Landover, Maryland 20785 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The x-ray emission from plasmas created by the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser was characterized using spectroscopic instruments. The targets were thin foils of aluminum and titanium and were irradiated by laser energies in the range 100{endash}1500 J. Using a spherical-crystal imaging spectrometer operating in the 1{endash}2 keV x-ray region, the density, temperature, and opacity of aluminum plasmas were determined with a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m in the direction perpendicular to the target surface. The spectral line ratios indicated that the aluminum plasmas were relatively dense, cool, and optically thick near the target surface.

  7. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kurosawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Richter, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Sorokin, A. A. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tiedtke, K. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tono, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  8. Electron-positron pairs, Compton reflection, and the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; George, Ian M.; Fabian, A. C.; Svensson, Roland; Done, Chris

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that reprocessing of radiation fron nonthermal pair cascades by cold material in the central parts of active galactic nuclei (AGN) gives rise to X-ray and gamma-ray spectra that satisfy current observational constraints. An average 1-30 keV X-ray spectral index alpha(x) of about 0.7 in the compact range 30-300 is obtained for a wide range of Lorentz factors of the injected electrons. The gamma-ray spectra are steep, with alpha(gamma) about two, and satisfy the observational constraints. Radiation from pair cascades exhibits steep power law decreases in soft X-rays similar to those observed in AGN. The overall picture is consistent with AGN having an accretion disk which intercepts and reprocesses a substantial fraction of the nonthermal continuum incident upon it from above and below.

  9. X-ray spectra transmitted through Compton-thick absorbers

    E-print Network

    Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

    1999-04-24

    X-ray spectra transmitted through matter which is optically thick to Compton scattering are computed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Applications to the BeppoSAX data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy in Circinus, and to the spectral modeling of the Cosmic X-ray Background, are discussed.

  10. Energy-selective reconstructions in X-ray computerised tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Alvarez; A. Macovski

    1976-01-01

    All X-ray computerised tomography systems that are available or proposed base their reconstructions on measurements that integrate over energy. X-ray tubes produce a broad spectrum of photon energies and a great deal of information can be derived by measuring changes in the transmitted spectrum. It is shown that for any material, complete energy spectral information may be summarised by a

  11. Introduction of Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy as an Advanced Technique for Plant Biopolymers Research

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R.; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M.; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S.; Hitchcock, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed. PMID:25811457

  12. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed. PMID:25811457

  13. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.-M.; Ding, H.; Ziemer, BP; Molloi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for x-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100?kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7?mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3? × ?3?mm2 in detection area. The angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded x-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of x-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic x-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the x-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory.

  14. High-Resolution Thermal X-Ray Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal pulses from single photons measured. Detector, consists of X-ray absorber, temperature sensor in absorber, and thermal link from absorber to heat sink. X-ray photon detected by measuring temperature rise immediately following absorption of photon. Thermal X-ray detector, tested successfully in prototype, in theory operates as spectrometer that provides 100 times spectral resolution of conventional to detect trace constituents in materials by X-ray fluorescence. Also used for measuring energies of energetic electrons and weak pulses of light.

  15. Tokamak Spectroscopy for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Kevin B.; Finkenthal, M.; Pacella, D.; May, M. J.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mattioli, M.; Leigheb, M.; Rice, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the measured x-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) spectra of three astrophysically abundant elements (Fe, Ca and Ne) from three different tokamak plasmas. In every case, each spectrum touches on an issue of atomic physics that is important for simulation codes to be used in the analysis of high spectral resolution data from current and future x-ray telescopes. The utility of the tokamak as a laboratory test bed for astrophysical data is demonstrated. Simple models generated with the HULLAC suite of codes demonstrate how the atomic physics issues studied can affect the interpretation of astrophysical data.

  16. A High-Efficiency X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer for X-Ray Thomson Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoding; Zhang, Jiyan; Yang, Guohong; Wei, Minxi; Hu, Guangyue; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) has high X-ray diffraction efficiency due to its unique mosaic crystal structure, and thus is very suitable for its application to X-ray Thomson scattering measurement of solid-density plasmas. In this article, by using the K-shell X-ray source from laser-produced Ti plasma, the properties of the HOPG spectrometer are characterized and compared with those of the flat Pentaerythritol (PET) spectrometer. The results show that the diffraction efficiency of the HOPG spectrometer under focusing condition is an order higher than that of the PET spectrometer, while the spectral resolution of the HOPG is about 320, high enough to be used in the measurement of X-ray Thomson scattering spectra.

  17. X-ray scattering and fluorescence in the wind of a massive X-ray binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, W.; Rappaport, S.; Levine, A.; Nagase, F.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral data from the binary X-ray pulsar 4 U 0900 - 40 obtained with the Ginga satellite and covering a range of orbital phases are presented and interpreted using simulated spectra created with a Monte Carlo scattering code. It is found that scattering and fluorescence in a simple spherically symmetric distribution of matter surrounding the companion star can reproduce the eclipse spectrum, as well as the 'soft X-ray-excess' observed during egress and other orbital phases. Reasonably secure values are found for a number of the parameters that characterize the density profile of the stellar wind and atmosphere of the companion star. The Fe abundance is within a factor of about 1.3 of that in the solar neighborhood. It is shown that ionization zones are not critical to understanding the orbital-phase-resolved spectra in this source. It is also found that the contribution by scattering from interstellar dust grains to the observed spectra during eclipse is negligible, while that from diffuse emission from the 'Galactic ridge' is significant.

  18. X-ray lithography masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  19. Detailed X-ray observations of M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinchieri, G.; Fabbiano, G.; Paulumbo, G. G. C.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray observation of M83 with the Einstein Observatory indicates an extent and shape for this emission that are comparable to those in the blue band, although the inner 2-arcmin region shows a relative X-ray excess that may be accounted for by a clustering of bulge-type X-ray sources in the inner region of the plane of the galaxy. A lack of correlation in high resolution X-ray observations is noted between X-ray emission and the spiral arm pattern, suggesting that most of the X-ray emission from the plane of M83 is due to unresolved sources, belonging to the 'smooth' disk population, whose ages are in the 100 million-1 billion year range. Attention is given to six bright sources in the plane and nuclear region of M83, whose high X-ray luminosities suggest that they are close accreting binaries.

  20. Transient outburst mechanisms in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients

    E-print Network

    L. Sidoli

    2009-02-17

    The recent discovery of a new class of recurrent and fast X-ray transient sources, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients, poses interesting questions on the possible mechanisms responsible for their transient X-ray emission. The association with blue supergiants, the spectral properties similar to those of accreting pulsars and the detection, in a few cases, of X-ray pulsations, confirm that these transients are High Mass X-ray Binaries. I review the different mechanisms proposed to explain their transient outbursts and the link to persistent wind accretors. I discuss the different models in light of the new observational results coming from an on-going monitoring campaign of four Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients with Swift.

  1. X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is often held that the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) arises from a region close to the central energy source. Thus X-ray observations may provide the best constraints on the central engine. In particular, the shape of the X-ray continuum gives information about the mechanism for photon generation, X-ray time variability data can constrain the size and mass of the continuum source, and X-ray occultation data give constraints on the relative sizes of the continuum source and the intervening absorbing material (often assumed to be the broad line clouds). In addition, since a fair fraction of the total energy of an AGN is emitted at X-ray wavelengths, direct measurement of the amount and spectral form of this radiation is important for modeling of the optically emitting clouds.

  2. Absolute soft x-ray calibration of laser produced plasmas using a focusing crystal von Hamos spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Tyler; Shevelko, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Absolute x-ray calibration of laser-produced plasmas was performed using a focusing crystal von Hamos spectrometer. The plasmas were created by a high repetition rate Nd-YAG laser (0.53 ?m/200 mJ/3 ns/10 Hz) on massive solid targets (Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, Ta). Cylindrical mica crystal (radius of curvature R=20 mm) and a CCD linear array as a detector (Toshiba model TCD 1304AP) were used in the spectrometer. Both the mica crystal and CCD linear array were absolutely calibrated in a spectral range of ?=7-15 å. The spectrometer was used for absolute spectral measurements and the determination of the plasma parameters. High spectrometer efficiency allows for the monitoring of absolute x-ray spectra, x-ray yield and plasma parameters in each laser shot. This spectrometer is promising for absolute spectral measurements and for monitoring of laser-plasma sources intended for proximity print lithography.

  3. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  4. Encapsulating X-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Joseph M.; Bradley, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor-deposited polymer shields crystals from environment while allowing X rays to pass. Polymer coating transparental to X rays applied to mercuric iodide detector in partial vacuum. Coating protects crystal from sublimation, chemical attack, and electrical degradation.

  5. X-Rays for Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Orthodontic X-rays (also called cephalometric or lateral skull) — This type of X-ray shows the head ... jaws and the relationship of bones in the skull. It helps an orthodontist make an accurate diagnosis ...

  6. Hard X-ray polarimetry with Astrosat-CZTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Rao, A. R.; Bhattacharya, D.; Bhalerao, V. B.; Vagshette, N.; Pawar, P.; Sreekumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray polarimetry is largely an unexplored area of an otherwise mature field of X-ray astronomy. Except for a few early attempts during the 1970s, no dedicated X-ray polarimeter has been flown during the past four decades. On the other hand, the scientific value of X-ray polarization measurement has been well known for a long time, and there has been significant technical progress in developing sensitive X-ray polarimeters in recent years. But there are no approved dedicated X-ray polarimetric experiments to be flown in the near future, so it is important to explore the polarimetric capabilities of other existing or planned instruments and examine whether they can provide significant astrophysical polarization measurements. In this paper, we present experimental results to show that the CZTI instrument onboard the forthcoming Indian astronomy mission, Astrosat, will be able to provide sensitive measurements of X-ray polarization in the energy range of 100-300 keV. CZTI will be able to constrain any intrinsic polarization greater than ~40% for bright X-ray sources (>500 mCrab) within a short exposure of ~100 ks with a 3-sigma confidence level. We show that this seemingly "modest" sensitivity can play a very significant role in addressing long pending questions, such as the contribution of relativistic jets to hard X-rays in black hole binaries and X-ray emission mechanism and geometry in X-ray pulsars.

  7. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 3E: Right ascension range 04h 00m to 07h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  8. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 4E: Right ascension range 08h 00m to 11h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images, The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentaion describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  9. Optimizing the performance of nickel-like collisionally pumped x-ray lasers. II. Lasers for the wavelength range 50-100Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pert, G. J.

    2007-02-01

    Soft x-ray lasers operating in the super- 100Å regime and using grazing incidence pumping methods are now established as efficient sources of radiation in this waveband. The concepts underlying this approach are to separate the ionization and excitation phases of the laser, and to match the pumping density of the latter to the optimal for gain generation. It is therefore of considerable interest to examine whether these ideas can be successfully applied to sub- 100Å lasers. Three problems arise: first the adverse scaling of ionization with temperature for high atomic number ions, second the strong thermal conduction at these temperatures leads to a large hot zone upstream of the absorption, and third the optimum pumping density is greater than the critical density of 1?m wavelength, solid state pump lasers. Using analytic models and simulation we identify a strategy to overcome these problems using a pre-pulse of a mixed harmonic and fundamental radiation of Nd-glass laser radiation followed by the main pumping pulse of the fundamental normally incident. Due to the large upstream thermal zone and the high ionization temperature, we find that the energy required in the pre-pulse is much ( ˜3 times) larger than that in the main, and that the energy needed consequently scales rapidly with the atomic number and therefore decreasing x-ray wavelength. Systems generating output energies of a few tens of ?J are examined at wavelengths between 50 and 70Å .

  10. Fine pitch CdTe-based Hard-X-ray polarimeter performance for space science in the 70-300 keV energy range

    E-print Network

    Antier, S; Ferrando, P

    2015-01-01

    X-rays astrophysical sources have been almost exclusively characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Nevertheless, more observational parameters are needed because some radiation mechanisms present in neutrons stars or black holes are still unclear. Polarization measurements will play a key role in discrimination between different X-ray emission models. Such a capability becomes a mandatory requirement for the next generation of high-energy space proposals. We have developed a CdTe-based fine-pitch imaging spectrometer, Caliste, able to respond to these new requirements. With a 580-micron pitch and 1 keV energy resolution at 60 keV, we are able to accurately reconstruct the polarization angle and polarization fraction of an impinging flux of photons which are scattered by 90{\\deg} after Compton diffusion within the crystal. Thanks to its high performance in both imaging and spectrometry, Caliste turns out to be a powerful device for high-energy polarimetry. In this paper, we present the ...

  11. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 7E: Right ascension range 20h 00m to 23h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  12. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  13. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 5E: Right ascension range 12h 00m to 15h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  14. Are There Intrinsically X-Ray Quiet Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Laor, A.; Elvis, Martin; Mathur, S.; Wills, Beverly J.; Iyomoto, N.; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recent ROSAT studies have identified a significant population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that are notably faint in soft X-rays relative to their optical fluxes. Are these AGN intrinsically X-ray weak or are they just highly absorbed? Brandt, Laor & Wills have systematically examined the optical and UV spectral properties of a well-defined sample of these soft X-ray weak (SXW) AGN drawn from the Boroson & Green sample of all the Palomar Green AGN 00 with z < 0.5. We present ASCA observations of three of these SXW AGN: PG 1011-040, PG 1535+547 (Mrk 486), and PG 2112+059. In general, our ASCA observations support the intrinsic absorption scenario for explaining soft X-ray weakness; both PG 1535+547 and PG 2112+059 show significant column densities (NH is approximately 10(exp 22) - 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of absorbing gas. Interestingly, PG 1011-040 shows no spectral evidence for X-ray absorption. The weak X-ray emission may result from very strong absorption of a partially covered source, or this AGN may be intrinsically X-ray weak. PG 2112+059 is a Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO, and we find it to have the highest X-ray flux known of this class. It shows a typical power-law X-ray continuum above 3 keV; this is the first direct evidence that BAL QSOs indeed have normal X-ray continua underlying their intrinsic absorption. Finally, marked variability between the ROSAT and ASCA observations of PG 1535+547 and PG 2112+059 suggests that the soft X-ray weak designation may be transient, and multi-epoch 0.1-10.0 KeV X-ray observations are required to constrain variability of the absorber and continuum.

  15. Emission Line-Ultraviolet to X-Ray Continuum Correlations: Constraints on the Anisotropy of the Ionizing Continuum in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Ting-Gui Wang; You-Jun Lu; You-Yuan Zhou

    1998-01-15

    Anisotropic emission of the ionizing continuum is a general prediction of the accretion disk models. In this paper, we present the results of correlation analysis of the UV emission line and UV to X-ray continuum properties for a large sample of broad emission line AGNs observed with ROSAT, IUE and HST. We find strong correlations between the CIV/$Ly\\alpha$ ratio, the equivalent width of CIV, and the UV to soft X-ray spectral slope. The results are in good agreement with the photoionization calculation, suggesting that the overall ionizing continuum can well match the observed UV to soft X-ray spectrum. These results are consistent with the assumption of isotropic ionizing continuum shape. Our analysis suggests a small range for the ``big blue bump'' cutoff energy for the objects in this sample, consistent with the similar results of Laor et al. (1997) and Walter & Fink (1993) based on the continuum properties . The mean UV-to-X-ray spectral slope is similar to the soft X-ray spectral slope. This similarity also holds for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects separately. This suggests that the two might be drawn from the same distribution. The two spectral slopes are only weakly correlated. The UV to X-ray spectral index is correlated with absolute optical magnitude. This result confirms the earlier suggestion that the ionizing continua are softer for higher luminosity objects.

  16. Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High amplitude, nearly coherent X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, a long sought goal of X-ray astronomy. Studies carried out over the past year have led to the discovery of burst oscillations in four new sources, bringing to ten the number with confirmed burst oscillations. I review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and indicate how they can be used to probe the physics of neutron stars. For a few burst oscillation sources it has been proposed that the strongest and most ubiquitous frequency is actually the first overtone of the spin frequency and hence that two nearly antipodal hot spots are present on the neutron star. This inference has important implications for both the physics of thermonuclear burning as well as the mass - radius relation for neutron stars, so its confirmation is crucial. I discuss recent attempts to confirm this hypothesis for 4U 1636-53, the source for which a signal at the putative fundamental (290Hz) has, been claimed.

  17. Chandra X-ray Observations of NGC 1316 (Fornax A)

    E-print Network

    Dong-Woo Kim; Giuseppina Fabbiano

    2002-12-23

    We report the results of the Chandra ACIS sub-arcsecond resolution X-ray observation of the archetypal merger radio galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A). We confirm the presence of fine sub-structures in the hot Interstellar Medium (ISM). Some of these are likely to result from interaction with the radio jets, while others may be related to a complex intermingling of different phases of the ISM. We detect a low-luminosity X-ray AGN with Lx = 5 x 1039 erg sec-1 (in 0.3-8 keV) and a G=1.7 power-law energy spectrum. We also detect 81 point sources within the 25th magnitude isophotal ellipse of NGC 1316 (Lx in the range of 2 x 1037 - 2 x 1039 erg sec-1), with hard (kT~5 keV) X-ray spectra, typical of X-ray binaries, and a spatial radial distribution consistent with that of the optical (i.e., stellar) surface brightness. We derive the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of these sources, correcting for the incompleteness at the faint end caused by the presence of the diffuse emission from the hot ISM in the central regions of NGC 1316 and by the widening of the Chandra PSFs at increasing distance from the aim point. With these corrections, the XLF is well reproduced by a single -unbroken- power law with a slope of -1.3 down to our threshold luminosity of ~3 x 1037 erg sec-1. The hot ISM has temperatures in the 0.5 - 0.6 keV range, its surface brightness distribution is more centrally concentrated than that of the point sources, and its temperature appears to decrease at larger radii. These properties suggest that the ISM may be subject to partial winds. Taking into account the spectral complexity of the ISM, and the presence of unresolved low luminosity X-ray sources (which can be inferred from the spectra), we constrain the metal abundance of the hot ISM to be Z = 0.25 - 1.3 solar (90% confidence).

  18. LOFT — Large Observatory for X-ray Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zane, S.; LOFT Detector's Group

    2014-12-01

    LOFT (the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing), is a mission concept that was considered by ESA as a candidate for an M3 mission and has been studied during an extended > 2-years long assessment phase. The mission was specifically designed to perform fast X-ray timing and probe the status of the matter near black holes and neutron stars. The LOFT scientific payload is composed of a Large Area Detector (LAD) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD is a 10 m2-class pointed instrument with ~ 15 times the collecting area of the largest past timing missions (as the Rossi XTE) over the 2-30 keV range (30-80 keV expanded), combined with CCD-class spectral resolution, which holds the capability to revolutionise studies of X-ray variability down to the millisecond time scales. Its ground-breaking characteristic is a mass per unit surface in the range of ~ 10 kg/m2, enabling an effective area of ~ 10 m2 (at 10 keV) at a reasonable weight. The development of such large but light experiment, with low mass and power per unit area, is now made possible by the recent advancements in the field of large-area silicon drift detectors and capillary-plate X-ray collimators. Although the LOFT mission has not been down-selected for launch in the M3 ESA programme (with launch in 2022-2024), during the assessment phase most of the trade off have been closed leading to a robust and well documented design which will be re-proposed in the future ESA calls. In this paper, we will summarize the characteristics of the LAD instrument and briefly describe the status of the detectors design.

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? View larger with caption The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  20. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, X-ray single crystal of new RuCl?(dppb)diamine complexes and their application in hydrogenation of Cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Warad, Ismail; Al-Hussain, Hanan; Al-Far, Rawhi; Mahfouz, Refaat; Hammouti, Belkheir; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2012-09-01

    The preparation of new three trans-[RuCl(2)(dppb)(N-N)] with mixed diamine (N-N) and 1,4-bis-(diphenylphosphino)butane (dppb) ligands, starting from RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3) as precursor is presented. The complexes are characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P{(1)H}NMR, FAB-MS, TG/DTA and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex (2L(1)) crystallizes in the monoclinic unit cells with the space group P2(1). The catalysts are evaluated for their Cinnamic aldehyde hydrogenation. The catalysts show excellent activity and selectivity for the unsaturated carbonyl compound under mild conditions. PMID:22554619