Science.gov

Sample records for x-ray spectral range

  1. Response of diamond photoconductors to soft x-ray in the spectral range 125 {angstrom} to 240 {angstrom}

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Wagner, R.S.; Gullikson, E.

    1995-12-01

    Due to the large bandgap of diamond, it is transparent to the visible spectrum, making it an attractive material for soft x-ray detection. Response of diamond photoconductors fabricated using Polycrystalline chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond to soft x-rays has been measured using x-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma source in the spectral range 125 {Angstrom} to 240 {Angstrom}. These photoconductors have interdigitated electrode structure in order to increase the active area as well as detector sensitivity. Contributions to the detector sensitivity by the photoelectrons is discussed.

  2. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray film detectors in the wavelength range 20--150 {angstrom}

    SciTech Connect

    Fedin, D.A.; Fedorchuk, R.V.; Koshevoi, M.O.; Lukjantsev, I.V.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Gullikson, E.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations of spectral sensitivity, contrast coefficient, and spatial resolution of widely used x-ray films have been undertaken at the P.N. Lebedev Institute. A description of experimental methodologies and results are presented. These studies were carried out using synchrotron radiation in the range of 20--150 {angstrom}. Spectral sensitivity and contrast coefficient dependencies on wavelength for Kodak 10106, DEF, RAR2490, and TPF films and spatial resolution for Kodak 10106 and RAR2490 films are presented and discussed.

  3. An in-vacuum wiggler for SOLEIL Hard X-rays spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Marcouille, O.; Chapuis, L.; Brunelle, P.; Berteaud, P.; Couprie, M.-E.; Filhol, J.-M.; Herbeaux, C.; Marlats, J.-L.; Massal, M.; Mary, A.; Tavakoli, K.; Valleau, M.; Veteran, J.

    2010-06-23

    The production of Hard X-rays has become a tricky problem on medium energy storage rings. It requires Insertion Devices (IDs) with high magnetic field and a large number of periods. To cover the 20-50 keV photon energy range at SOLEIL (2.75 GeV), an in-vacuum wiggler (WSV50) has been preferred to a superconducting ID. The wiggler is composed of 38 periods of 50 mm producing a 2.1 T field at a minimum magnetic gap of 5.5 mm. To minimize the magnetic forces acting between magnet arrays (8.5 tons), a compensation system composed of non magnetic springs has been mounted apart from the magnet system to reduce the mechanical deformations. The wiggler has been assembled step by step by means of a genetic algorithm which minimizes the magnetic errors measured with a flipping coil. This paper presents the mechanical and magnetic design of the wiggler as well as the construction and the magnetic measurements.

  4. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B.; Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M.; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S.

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  5. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    PubMed

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented. PMID:23126955

  6. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  7. Spectral Analysis of X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.

    2011-09-01

    In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), with a particular source, XTE J1701-462, playing a central role. First, I construct and study color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) for a large sample of NS-LMXBs using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data spanning ~15 years. I study in particular detail three sources whose complicated CDs/HIDs are strongly affected by secular motion -- Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1 -- and show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with strong similarities to the transient Z source XTE J1701-462, which was previously shown to have evolved through all subclasses of NS-LMXBs as a result of changes in mass accretion rate. I build on the results for XTE J1701-462, Cyg X-2, and Cir X-1 and rank all the sources in the sample based only on their CD/HID morphology. I speculate that this represents a rough ranking in terms of the relative ranges in mass accretion rate experienced by the sources. Next, I use data from RXTE, Swift, Chandra, and XMM-Newton to study the transition to quiescence and the first ~1200 days of the quiescent phase of XTE J1701-462 following the end of its extraordinarily luminous 19 month outburst in 2006-2007. I find that the crust of the neutron star cooled rapidly during the first ~200 days of quiescence, after having been heated out of thermal equilibrium with the core during the outburst; the source has subsequently shown slower cooling along with sporadic low-level accretion activity. I discuss the implications of the observed cooling behavior and low-level accretion, the former of which yields information on the internal properties of the neutron star. Finally, I use multiple Chandra observations to study the X-ray source populations in the late-type galaxies NGC 6946 and NGC 4485/4490. A particular

  8. High resolution, large spectral range, in variable- included- angle soft X-ray monochromators using a plane VLS grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, Ruben; de Castro, A. R. B.

    2005-02-01

    We give a unified discussion of two different approaches to the design of grazing incidence monochromators with a variable line spacing (VLS) grating for soft X-ray undulator sources. Neither one uses an entrance slit and both work with a fixed position exit slit. In one approach, being constructed at LNLS and designed for the energy range 100range 40

  9. The X-Ray Spectral Evolution of Galactic Black Hole X-Ray Binaries toward Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard. M.; Gallo, Elena; Jonker, Peter G.

    2013-08-01

    Most transient black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) spend the bulk of their time in a quiescent state, where they accrete matter from their companion star at highly sub-Eddington luminosities (we define quiescence here as a normalized Eddington ratio lx = L 0.5-10 keV/L Edd < 10-5). Here, we present Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy for three BHXB systems (H 1743-322, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1752-223) as they fade into quiescence following an outburst. Multiple X-ray observations were taken within one month of each other, allowing us to track each individual system's X-ray spectral evolution during its decay. We compare these three systems to other BHXB systems. We confirm that quiescent BHXBs have softer X-ray spectra than low-hard-state BHXBs, and that quiescent BHXB spectral properties show no dependence on the binary system's orbital parameters. However, the observed anti-correlation between X-ray photon index (Γ) and lx in the low-hard state does not continue once a BHXB enters quiescence. Instead, Γ plateaus to an average langΓrang = 2.08 ± 0.07 by the time lx reaches ~10-5. lx ~ 10-5 is thus an observationally motivated upper limit for the beginning of the quiescent spectral state. Our results are discussed in the context of different accretion flow models and across the black hole mass scale.

  10. X-ray crystal spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 8-18 Å spectral range at the LULI laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, C.; Thais, F.; Loisel, G.; Bougeard, M.

    2010-10-01

    An x-ray crystal spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 8-18 Å spectral range with an average spectral resolution of ⟨λ /δλ⟩˜400. It has been successfully used at the LULI-2000 laser facility (See C. Sauteret, rapport LULI 2001, 88 (2002) at École Polytechnique (France) to measure in the same experimental conditions the 2p-3d transitions of several elements with the neighboring atomic number Z: Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge [G. Loisel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 5, 173 (2009)]. Hence, a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is needed. This spectrometer features two lines of sight. In this example, one line of sight looks through the sample and the other one is looking directly at the backlighter emission. Both are outfitted with a spherical condensing mirror. A TlAP crystal is used for spectral dispersion. Detection is made with an image plate Fuji BAS TR2025, which is sensitive to x rays. We present some experimental results showing the performances of this spectrometer.

  11. X-ray crystal spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 8-18 Å spectral range at the LULI laser facility.

    PubMed

    Reverdin, C; Thais, F; Loisel, G; Bougeard, M

    2010-10-01

    An x-ray crystal spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 8-18 Å spectral range with an average spectral resolution of <λ/δλ> ∼ 400. It has been successfully used at the LULI-2000 laser facility (See C. Sauteret, rapport LULI 2001, 88 (2002) at École Polytechnique (France) to measure in the same experimental conditions the 2p-3d transitions of several elements with the neighboring atomic number Z: Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge [G. Loisel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 5, 173 (2009)]. Hence, a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is needed. This spectrometer features two lines of sight. In this example, one line of sight looks through the sample and the other one is looking directly at the backlighter emission. Both are outfitted with a spherical condensing mirror. A TlAP crystal is used for spectral dispersion. Detection is made with an image plate Fuji BAS TR2025, which is sensitive to x rays. We present some experimental results showing the performances of this spectrometer. PMID:21034025

  12. THE SECOND STAGE OF FERMI@ELETTRA: A SEEDED FEL IN THE SOFT X-RAY SPECTRAL RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Allaria, E.; DeNinno, G.; Fawley, W. M.

    2009-08-14

    The second stage of the FERMI FEL, named FEL-2, is based on the principle of high-gain harmonic generation and relies on a double-seeded cascade. Recent developments stimulated a revision of the original setup, which was designed to cover the spectral range between 40 and 10 nm. The numerical simulations we present here show that the nominal (expected) electron-beam performance allows extension of the FEL spectral range down to 4 nm. A significant amount of third harmonic power can be also expected. We also show that the proposed setup is flexible enough for exploiting future developments of new seed sources, e.g., high harmonic generation in gases.

  13. The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey. II. X-ray spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, P.; Moretti, A.; Tundo, E.; Liu, T.; Rosati, P.; Borgani, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; D'Avanzo, P.

    2014-07-01

    < 0.4. We derive the luminosity-temperature relation for these 46 sources, finding good agreement with previous studies. Conclusions: Thanks to the good X-ray spectral quality and the low background of Swift/XRT, we are able to measure ICM temperatures and X-ray luminosities for the 46 sources with redshifts. Once redshifts are available for the remaining 26 sources, this sample will constitute a well-characterized, flux-limited catalog of clusters distributed over a broad redshift range (0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1.0) providing a statistically complete view of the cluster population with a selection function that allows a proper treatment of any measurement bias. The quality of the SWXCS sample is comparable to other samples available in the literature and obtained with much larger X-ray telescopes. Our results have interesting implications for the design of future X-ray survey telescopes, characterized by good-quality PSF over the entire field of view and low background. Tables 1 and 2 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgCatalog and data products of SWXCS, constantly updated, are made available to the public through the websites http://www.arcetri.astro.it/SWXCS/ and http://swxcs.ustc.edu.cn/

  14. Soft X-ray spectral observations of quasars and high X-ray luminosity Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Krolik, J. H.; Holt, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of the analysis of 28 Einstein SSS observations of 15 high X-ray luminosity (L(x) 10 to the 435 power erg/s) quasars and Seyfert type 1 nuclei are presented. The 0.75-4.5 keV spectra are in general well fit by a simple model consisting of a power law plus absorption by cold gas. The averager spectral index alpha is 0.66 + or - .36, consistent with alpha for the spectrum of these objects above 2 keV. In all but one case, no evidence was found for intrinsic absorption, with an upper limit of 2 x 10 to the 21st power/sq cm. Neither was evidence found for partial covering of the active nucleus by dense, cold matter (N(H) 10 to the 22nd power/sq cm; the average upper limit on the partial covering fraction is 0.5. There is no obvious correlation between spectral index and 0175-4.5 keV X-ray luminosity (which ranges from 3 x 10 to the 43rd to 47th powers erg/s or with other source properties. The lack of intrinsic X-ray absorption allows us to place constraints on the density and temperature of the broad-line emission region, and narrow line emission region, and the intergalactic medium.

  15. Extended range X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray telescope system is described which is comprised of a tubular mount having a collecting region remote from the one axial end. A soft X-ray/XUV subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively soft, near on-axis X-rays/XUV radiation incident on a first portion of the collecting region into a first detector sensitive to relatively soft X-rays/XUV radiation. A hard X-ray subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively hard near on-axis X-rays incident on a second portion of the collecting region into a second detector sensitive to relatively hard X-rays.

  16. High spectral and spatial resolution X-ray transmission radiography and tomography using a Color X-ray Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Matthieu N.; Garrevoet, Jan; Tack, Pieter; Scharf, Oliver; Cormode, David P.; Van Loo, Denis; Pauwels, Elin; Dierick, Manuel; Vincze, Laszlo; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors which provide spectral information on the measured X-ray beam can help to overcome these limitations. In this paper, an energy dispersive CCD detector with high spectral resolution is characterized for use in high resolution radiography and tomography, where a focus is put on the experimental conditions and requirements of both measurement techniques.

  17. A new X-ray spectral observation of NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. E.; Netzer, H.; Arnaud, K. A.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Jahoda, K. M.; Kelley, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Petre, R.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    A new X-ray observation of NGC 1068, in which improved spectral resolution (R is approximately equal to 40) and broad energy range provide important new constraints on models for this galaxy, is reported. The observed X-ray continuum of NGC 1068 from 0.3 to 10 keV is well fitted as the sum of two power-law spectra with no evidence for absorption intrinsic to the source. Strong Fe K emission lines with a total equivalent width of 2700 eV were detected due to iron less ionized than Fe XX and to iron more ionized than Fe XXIII. No evidence was seen for lines due to the recombination of highly ionized oxygen with an upper limit for the O Ly-alpha emission line of 40 eV. The discovery of multiple Fe K and Fe L emission lines indicates a broad range of ionization states for this gas. The X-ray emission from the two components is modeled for various geometries using a photoionization code that calculates the temperature and ionization state of the gas. Typical model parameters are a total Compton depth of a few percent, an inner boundary of the hot component of about 1 pc, and an inner boundary of the warm component of about 20 pc.

  18. Spectral evolution of a long X-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J. H.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    An X-ray burst-like event with a peak intensity 1 1/2 times that of the Crab and a decay time of approximately 100s was observed. Significant spectral changes occurred during the burst. The spectra were best fit by the black form with kT ranging from .87 keV to 2.3 keV. They suggest a source with smaller dimensions than a massive black hole. A weak source was observed after the burst with a 10 keV thermal spectrum and an indication of iron line emission.

  19. Spectral unfolds of PITHON Flash X-ray source.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Riordan, John C.

    2007-11-01

    Using a differential absorption spectrometer we obtained experimental spectral information for the PITHON Flash X-ray Machine located in San Leandro, California at L-3 Communications. Spectral information we obtained pertained to the 200 keV to 800 keV endpoint operation of PITHON. We also obtained data on the temporal behavior of high energy and low energy spectral content.

  20. Comprehensive x-ray spectral code for high energy astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D A; Fournier, K B; Mauche, C W

    2000-08-18

    The aim of this project has been to develop a spectral analysis tool with a level of quality and completeness commensurate to that expected in data from the current generation of X-ray observatories. The code is called LXSS (Livermore X-Ray Spectral Synthesizer). X-ray-emitting astrophysical plasmas are rarely, if ever, in LTE, so they have adopted the detailed level accounting approach, in which rates for processes that populate or depopulate atomic energy levels are treated explicitly. This entails the generation of a large quantity of atomic data, most of which is calculated using ''in-house'' computer codes. Calculations are benchmarked against laboratory data, and spectral models have been used to provide first-time interpretations of astrophysical X-ray spectra. The design of a versatile graphical user interface that allows access to and manipulation of the atomic database comprises the second major part of the project.

  1. Phase Resolved X-ray Spectral Analysis of Soft IPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekon, Yakup

    2016-07-01

    As a subclass of Cataclysmic Variables, Intermediate Polars (IPs) are magnetic systems which mainly show hard X-ray emission. However, there have been an increasing number of systems that also show a soft emission component arising from reprocessed X-rays from the white dwarf limbs. Due to their relatively short periods, they pose as good canditates to perform phase resolved analysis. In this work, X-ray phase resolved spectral analysis of selected IPs with soft X-ray emission components (such as PQ Gem, V2069 Cyg etc.) over the orbital and/or spin periods will be presented. The analyses will help a better understanding of the complex absorption mechanisms and the nature of the soft X-ray emissions in soft IPs.

  2. THE X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES TOWARD QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Gallo, Elena; Jonker, Peter G.

    2013-08-10

    Most transient black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) spend the bulk of their time in a quiescent state, where they accrete matter from their companion star at highly sub-Eddington luminosities (we define quiescence here as a normalized Eddington ratio l{sub x} = L{sub 0.5-10{sub keV}}/L{sub Edd} < 10{sup -5}). Here, we present Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy for three BHXB systems (H 1743-322, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1752-223) as they fade into quiescence following an outburst. Multiple X-ray observations were taken within one month of each other, allowing us to track each individual system's X-ray spectral evolution during its decay. We compare these three systems to other BHXB systems. We confirm that quiescent BHXBs have softer X-ray spectra than low-hard-state BHXBs, and that quiescent BHXB spectral properties show no dependence on the binary system's orbital parameters. However, the observed anti-correlation between X-ray photon index ({Gamma}) and l{sub x} in the low-hard state does not continue once a BHXB enters quiescence. Instead, {Gamma} plateaus to an average ({Gamma}) = 2.08 {+-} 0.07 by the time l{sub x} reaches {approx}10{sup -5}. l{sub x} {approx} 10{sup -5} is thus an observationally motivated upper limit for the beginning of the quiescent spectral state. Our results are discussed in the context of different accretion flow models and across the black hole mass scale.

  3. EXSAA: Environmentally-Induced X-ray Spectral Analysis Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, F. W.; Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Truszkowski, W.

    2005-05-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is one of the principal means of compositional analysis in the lab and in the field: it will be a central tool in NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) missions. No currently available XRF software has the generic functionality to provide the basis for XRF experiment design, instrument development, and data interpretation for the suite of prospective EI missions. In response to this need, we have developed EXSAA (Environmentally-induced X-ray Spectral Analysis Automation), a generic, fast, interactive spectral simulation tool which can be used in assessing broadband continuous spectra being generated and detected during reconnaissance missions and field campaigns involving planetary surfaces. The software produces model spectra of detectable environmentally-induced X-ray spectra from fundamental principles for target characteristics and conditions likely to be experienced in remote or in situ planetary missions. Fluorescence is modeled following Jenkins and DeVries (1967); coherent and Compton scattering following Hubbell (1969). The modeling provided is extensible, and a user interface provides for selection of source, detector characteristics, compositional components, and geometry for known targets. An immediate application of the tool is the prediction for mission planning purposes of X-ray flux to be expected for a range of targets and instrumentation. A longer-term application is the model basis for the recovery of surface composition from actual missions, where some parameters (e.g. source flux) will be known, and others obtained from a Bayesian analysis of the observations. Ultimately, EXSAA could function as part of the agent-based SAA Toolkit being developed by a group of physical scientists, systems engineers, and AI practitioners to automate portions of the spectral analysis process. EXSAA could be called on by human or machine agents to provide an understanding of XRF phenomena for tasks including specifically (1

  4. X-Ray Spectral Evolution of the Crab Pulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.; Pravdo, S. H.; Angelini, L.

    1997-01-01

    The Crab Pulsar was observed with the X-ray detectors on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) on May 2, 1996. The large area, high time resolution, extended energy range, and moderate energy resolution of the RXTE instruments provided an unprecedented measurement of the Crab pulsar spectrum as it evolved in phase across the 33 msec pulse.

  5. Spectral feature variations in x-ray diffraction imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Scott D.; Greenberg, Joel A.

    2016-05-01

    Materials with different atomic or molecular structures give rise to unique scatter spectra when measured by X-ray diffraction. The details of these spectra, though, can vary based on both intrinsic (e.g., degree of crystallinity or doping) and extrinsic (e.g., pressure or temperature) conditions. While this sensitivity is useful for detailed characterizations of the material properties, these dependences make it difficult to perform more general classification tasks, such as explosives threat detection in aviation security. A number of challenges, therefore, currently exist for reliable substance detection including the similarity in spectral features among some categories of materials combined with spectral feature variations from materials processing and environmental factors. These factors complicate the creation of a material dictionary and the implementation of conventional classification and detection algorithms. Herein, we report on two prominent factors that lead to variations in spectral features: crystalline texture and temperature variations. Spectral feature comparisons between materials categories will be described for solid metallic sheet, aqueous liquids, polymer sheet, and metallic, organic, and inorganic powder specimens. While liquids are largely immune to texture effects, they are susceptible to temperature changes that can modify their density or produce phase changes. We will describe in situ temperature-dependent measurement of aqueous-based commercial goods in the temperature range of -20°C to 35°C.

  6. The X-ray spectral evolution and radio-X-ray correlation in radiatively efficient black-hole sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Qingwen; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    We explore X-ray spectral evolution and radio-X-ray correlation simultaneously for four X-ray binaries (XRBs). We find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are anti- and positively correlated to X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F 3-9keV, is below and above a critical flux, F X,crit, which may be regulated by ADAF and disk-corona respectively. We find that the data points with anti-correlation of Γ-F 3-9keV follow the universal radio-X-ray correlation of F R ~ F X b (b ~ 0.5-0.7), while the data points with positive X-ray spectral evolution follow a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (b ~ 1.4, the so-called `outliers track'). The bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) share similar X-ray spectral evolution and radio-X-ray correlation as XRBs in `outliers' track, and we present a new fundamental plane of log L R=1.59+0.28 -0.22 log L X-0.22+0.19 -0.20 log M BH-28.97+0.45 -0.45 for these radiatively efficient BH sources.

  7. X-ray Spectral Measurements of the JMAR High-Power Laser-plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Robert R.; Dozier, Charles M.; Newman, Daniel A.; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Gaeta, Celestino J.; Cassidy, Kelly L.; Powers, Michael F.; Kleindolph, Thomas; Morris, James H.; Forber, Richard A.

    2002-10-01

    X-ray spectra of Cu plasmas at the focus of a four-beam, solid-state diode-pumped laser have been recorded. This laser-plasma X-ray source is being developed for JMAR's lithography systems aimed at high- performance semiconductor integrated circuits. The unique simultaneous overlay of the four sub-nanosecond laser beams at 300 Hertz produces a bright, point-plasma X-ray source. PIN diode measurements of the X-ray output indicate that the conversion efficiency (ratio of X-ray emission energy into 2π steradians to incident laser energy) was approximately 9 percent with average X-ray power yields of greater than 10 Watts. Spectra were recorded on calibrated Kodak DEF film in a curved-crystal spectrograph. A KAP crystal (2d = 26.6 Angstroms) was used to disperse the 900 eV to 3000 eV spectral energies onto the film. Preliminary examination of the films indicated the existence of Cu and Cu XX ionization states. Additional spectra as a function of laser input power were also recorded to investigate potential changes in X-ray yields. These films are currently being analyzed. The analysis of the spectra provide absolute line and continuum intensities, and total X-ray output in the measured spectral range.

  8. Modification of the TASMIP x-ray spectral model for the simulation of microfocus x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The availability of accurate and simple models for the estimation of x-ray spectra is of great importance for system simulation, optimization, or inclusion of photon energy information into data processing. There is a variety of publicly available tools for estimation of x-ray spectra in radiology and mammography. However, most of these models cannot be used directly for modeling microfocus x-ray sources due to differences in inherent filtration, energy range and/or anode material. For this reason the authors propose in this work a new model for the simulation of microfocus spectra based on existing models for mammography and radiology, modified to compensate for the effects of inherent filtration and energy range. Methods: The authors used the radiology and mammography versions of an existing empirical model [tungsten anode spectral model interpolating polynomials (TASMIP)] as the basis of the microfocus model. First, the authors estimated the inherent filtration included in the radiology model by comparing the shape of the spectra with spectra from the mammography model. Afterwards, the authors built a unified spectra dataset by combining both models and, finally, they estimated the parameters of the new version of TASMIP for microfocus sources by calibrating against experimental exposure data from a microfocus x-ray source. The model was validated by comparing estimated and experimental exposure and attenuation data for different attenuating materials and x-ray beam peak energy values, using two different x-ray tubes. Results: Inherent filtration for the radiology spectra from TASMIP was found to be equivalent to 1.68 mm Al, as compared to spectra obtained from the mammography model. To match the experimentally measured exposure data the combined dataset required to apply a negative filtration of about 0.21 mm Al and an anode roughness of 0.003 mm W. The validation of the model against real acquired data showed errors in exposure and attenuation in

  9. X-ray Spectral Measurements of a Dense Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Robert R.; Dozier, Charles M.; Newman, Daniel A.; Petr, Rodney A.; Freshman, Jay; Hoey, David W.; Heaton, John

    2002-10-01

    Absolute intensities of spectra in a dense-plasma-focus (DPF) source have been recorded and analyzed. This DPF source has been identified as one of the more promising sources for X-ray lithography. The source, developed by Science Research Laboratory, Inc., is currently undergoing testing and further development at BAE Systems, Inc. The DPF operates at 60 Hz and produces an average output pulse of ~5 J of X rays into 4π steradians in a continuous operation mode. In all runs, there was an initial number of pulses, typically between 30 to 40, during which the X-ray output increased and the DPF appeared to be undergoing a conditioning process, and after which a "steady-state" mode was achieved where the average X-ray power was relatively constant. Each spectral run was exposed to ~600 J of output, as measured by the PIN. The X-ray spectral region between 0.8 and 3 keV was recorded on Kodak DEF film in a potassium acid phthalate (KAP) convex curved-crystal spectrograph. The source emits neon line radiation from Ne IX and Ne X ionization stages in the 900 to 1300 eV region, suitable for lithographic exposures of photoresist. Two helium-like neon lines contribute more than 50% of the total energy. From continuum shape, plasma temperatures were found to be approximately 170-200 eV. The absolute, integrated spectral outputs were verified to within 30% by comparison with measurements by a PIN detector and a radiachromic X-ray dosimeter.

  10. Global X-ray Spectral Variation of Eta Carinae through the 2003 X-ray Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Corcoran, M. F.; White, N. E.; Gull, T.; Damineli, A.; Davidson, K.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of the X-ray observing campaign of the massive, evolved star Eta Carinae in 2003 around its recent X-ray Minimum, mainly using data from the XMM-Newton observatory. These imaging observations show that the hard X-ray source associated with the Eta Carinae system does not completely disappear in any of the observations during the Minimum. The variation of the spectral shape revealed two emission components. One newly discovered component did not exhibit any variation on kilo-second to year-long timescales, in a combined analysis with earlier ASCA and ROSAT data, and might represent the collision of a high speed outflow from Eta Carinae with ambient gas clouds. The other emission component was strongly variable in flux but the temperature of the hottest plasma did not vary significantly at any orbital phase. Absorption to the hard emission, was about a factor of three larger than the absorption determined from the cutoff of the soft emission, and reached a maximum of approx.4 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm before the Minimum. The thermal Fe\\rm XXV emission line showed significant excesses on both the red and blue sides of the line outside the Minimum and exhibited a large redward excess during the Minimum. This variation in the line profile probably requires an abrupt change in ionization balance in the shocked gas.

  11. ON NEUTRAL ABSORPTION AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION IN X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Reis, R. C.

    2009-12-10

    Current X-ray observatories make it possible to follow the evolution of transient and variable X-ray binaries across a broad range in luminosity and source behavior. In such studies, it can be unclear whether evolution in the low-energy portion of the spectrum should be attributed to evolution in the source, or instead to evolution in neutral photoelectric absorption. Dispersive spectrometers make it possible to address this problem. We have analyzed a small but diverse set of X-ray binaries observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer across a range in luminosity and different spectral states. The column density in individual photoelectric absorption edges remains constant with luminosity, both within and across source spectral states. This finding suggests that absorption in the interstellar medium strongly dominates the neutral column density observed in spectra of X-ray binaries. Consequently, evolution in the low-energy spectrum of X-ray binaries should properly be attributed to evolution in the source spectrum. We discuss our results in the context of X-ray binary spectroscopy with current and future X-ray missions.

  12. Magnetic circular dichroism in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.

    2015-12-01

    An overview of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy in the hard X-ray range is presented. A short historical overview shows how this technique has evolved from the early days of X-ray physics to become a workhorse technique in the modern magnetism research As with all X-ray spectroscopies, XMCD has the advantage of being element specific. Interpretation of the spectra based on magneto-optical sum rules can provide unique information about spin and orbital moment carried by absorbing atom in both amplitude and direction, can infer magnetic interactions from element selective magnetization curves, can allow separation of magnetic and non-magnetic components in heterogeneous systems. The review details the technology currently available for XMCD measurements in the hard X-ray range referring to the ESRF beamline ID12 as an example. The strengths of hard X-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique are illustrated with a wide variety of representative examples, such as actinide based ferromagnets, paramagnetism in metals, pure metallic nanoparticles, exchange spring magnets, half metallic ferromagnets, magnetism at interfaces, and dilute magnetic semiconductors. In this way, we aim to encourage researchers from various scientific communities to consider XMCD as a tool to understanding the electronic and magnetic properties of their samples.

  13. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

    2014-06-10

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F{sub 3-9} {sub keV}, is below and above a critical flux, F{sub X,} {sub crit}, which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} ≳ F{sub X,} {sub crit} have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F{sub X}∝F{sub R}{sup b} and b ∼ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of Γ – F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} either stay in the universal track with b ∼ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  14. Advances toward high spectral resolution quantum X-ray calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. H.; Kelley, R. L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mccammon, D.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal detectors for X-ray spectroscopy combining high spectral resolution and quantum efficiency have been developed. These microcalorimeters measure the energy released in the absorption of a single photon by sensing the rise in temperature of a small absorbing structure. The ultimate energy resolution of such a device is limited by the thermodynamic power fluctuations in the thermal link between the calorimeter and isothermal bath and can in principle be made as low as 1 eV. The performance of a real device is degraded due to noise contributions such as excess 1/f noise in the thermistor and incomplete conversion of energy into phonons. The authors report some recent advances in thermometry, X-ray absorption and thermalization, fabrication techniques, and detector optimization in the presence of noise. These improvements have resulted in a device with a spectral resolution of 17 eV FWHM, measured at 6 keV.

  15. The X-Ray Spectral Changes of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, C. F.; Geldzahler, B. J.; Fomalont, E. B.

    2003-07-01

    Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of Sco X-1 during 1997-1999 have been analyzed for spectral characteristics. All the X-ray branches of Sco X-1 were observed during these epochs. On the basis of our observations, we present a simple model for the behavior of Sco X-1 as a function of accretion rate and angle of the observer's line of sight that explains quantitatively the results of VLBA and RXTE observations. Our model presents a unified view of bright low-mass X-ray binaries as an accretion-driven system in which, at the Eddington accretion rate, material overflows the magnetosphere of the neutron star and quenches the jets of Sco X-1. We present supporting evidence of absorption as a function of X-ray branch. The model explains the two distinct color diagrams of observed Z source horizontal branches as variations in the observed line of sight to the accretion disk. The model also applies to the recently discovered Z traces in atoll sources.

  16. BROADBAND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Takayuki; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    2012-07-10

    Detailed spectral analysis of the Galactic X-ray background emission, or the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), is presented. To study the origin of the emission, broadband and high-quality GRXE spectra were produced from 18 pointing observations with Suzaku in the Galactic bulge region, with a total exposure of 1 Ms. The spectra were successfully fitted by a sum of two major spectral components: a spectral model of magnetic accreting white dwarfs with a mass of 0.66{sup +0.09}{sub -0.07} M{sub Sun} and a softer optically thin thermal emission with a plasma temperature of 1.2-1.5 keV that is attributable to coronal X-ray sources. When combined with previous studies that employed high spatial resolution of the Chandra satellite, the present spectroscopic result gives stronger support to the scenario that the GRXE is essentially an assembly of numerous discrete faint X-ray stars. The detected GRXE flux in the hard X-ray band was used to estimate the number density of the unresolved hard X-ray sources. When integrated over a luminosity range of {approx}10{sup 30}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, the result is consistent with a value that was reported previously by directly resolving faint point sources.

  17. White dwarf mass estimation with a new comprehensive X-ray spectral model of intermediate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu

    A white dwarf (WD) mass is important astrophysical quantity because the WD explodes as a type Ia supernova when its mass reaches the Chandrasekhar mass limit of 1.4 solar mass. Many WD masses in intermediate polars (IPs) were measured with their X-ray spectra emitted from plasma flows channeled by strong magnetic fields of the WDs. For the WD mass estimation, multi-temperature X-ray spectral models have been used which made by summing up X-ray spectra emitted from the top to the bottom of the plasma flow. However, in previous studies, distributions of physical quantities such as temperature and density etc., which are base of the X-ray spectral model, were calculated with assumptions of accretion rate per unit area (call "specific accretion rate") a = 1 g cm(-2) s(-1) and cylindrical geometry for the plasma flows. In fact, a part of the WD masses estimated with the X-ray spectral model is not consistent with that dynamically measured. Therefore, we calculated the physical quantity distributions with the dipolar geometry and the wide range of the specific accretion rate a = 0.0001 - 100 g cm(-2) s(-1) . The calculations showed that the geometrical difference changes the physical quantity distributions and the lower specific accretion rate leads softer X-ray spectrum under a critical specific accretion rate. These results clearly indicate that the previous assumptions are not good approximation for low accretion IPs. We made a new spectral model of the plasma flow with our physical quantity distributions and applied that to Suzaku observations of high and low accretion rate IPs V1223 Sagittarii and EX Hydrae. As a results, our WD masses are almost consistent with the those dynamically measured. We will present the summary of our theoretical calculation and X-ray spectral model, and application to the {¥it Suzaku} observations.

  18. SPECTRAL STATES AND EVOLUTION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Hua; Kaaret, Philip

    2009-05-10

    We examined spectral evolution in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with apparent luminosities of about 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. Based on new results in this paper, and those reported in the literature, two common spectral behaviors were found. Some ULXs in starburst galaxies have varying luminosity (L) but remain in the hard state with power-law spectra and a constant, hard photon index ({gamma}). Other ULXs, such as NGC 5204 X-1, show a correlation between L and {gamma}. We interpret this L-{gamma} correlated phase as an intermediate state with hybrid properties from the thermal dominant and steep power-law states. When the spectra of NGC 5204 X-1 are fitted with a multicolor disk blackbody plus power-law model, the X-ray luminosity increases with the effective temperature of the accretion disk in a manner similar to that found in stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries, suggesting that the emission arises from an accretion disk. The luminosity, disk size, and temperature suggest that NGC 5204 X-1 harbors a compact object more massive than stellar-mass black holes. In contrast, the disk model in IC 342 X-1 is ruled out because the luminosity decreases as the temperature increases; sources with such behavior may represent a class of objects with super-Eddington accretion. Also, we report a peculiar soft spectral feature from IC 342 X-2 and variability on a timescale of 20 ks from Holmberg II X-1. More observations are needed to test these results.

  19. Atomic Spectral Tables for the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedova, L. I.; Kelleher, D. E.; Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.

    2005-01-01

    We have compiled spectral tables for the four cosmically abundant elements Ne Mg Si and S in the wavelength region of interest for the LETG spectrograph of the Chandra X-ray Observatory which is roughly from 20 Å to 170 Å. Wavelengths energy levels spectral classifications and transition probabilities have been tabulated1. We have focused on these elements because rather few data had been compiled for their highly charged ions up to now. The compiled wavelengths and energy levels are all from experimental sources while the transition probabilities originate mainly from recent calculations which have been carried out with advanced multi-configuration computer codes with relativistic Breit-Pauli terms included. All in all data for about 3500 spectral lines of 24 ions have been tabulated with uncertainty estimates for the atomic transition probabilities. 1 L.I. Podobedova D. Kelleher J. Reader and W. L. Wiese J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (in press).

  20. Spectral slicing X-ray telescope with variable magnification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Hildner, E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A telescope for viewing high frequency radiation (soft X-ray, extreme ultraviolet) is described. This telescope has a long focal length with a selection of magnifications despite a short housing. Light enters the telescope and is reflected by the telescope's primary optical system to one of several secondary mirrors at different locations on a movable frame. The secondary mirrors have varying degrees of magnification and select narrow spectral slices of the incident radiation. Thus, both the magnification and effective focal length field of view and wavelength can be altered by repositioning the moving frame. Configurations for spaceborne applications are discussed.

  1. Experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in heated Al and Ge on the Iskra-5 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Pinegin, A V; Suslov, N A

    2012-01-31

    We set forth the data of experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in the 1.1 - 1.6 keV photon energy range for Al and Ge specimens bulk heated by soft X-ray radiation. Two experimental techniques are described: with the use of one facility channel and the heating of specimens by the X-ray radiation from a plane burnthrough target, as well as with the use of four channels and the heating by the radiation from two cylindrical targets with internal input of laser radiation. The X-ray radiation absorption coefficients were studied by way of transmission absorption spectroscopy using backlighting X-ray radiation from a point source. The results of investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients on the 1s - 2p transitions in Al atoms and the 2p - 3d transitions in Ge atoms are presented.

  2. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

  3. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY BINARIES IN CENTAURUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Mark J.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Kraft, Ralph P.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Evans, Daniel A.; Jordan, Andres; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Croston, Judith H.; Brassington, Nicola J.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Goodger, Joanna L.; Kainulainen, Jouni; Woodley, Kristin A.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gilfanov, Marat; Sarazin, Craig L.; Voss, Rasmus [Department of Astrophysics and others

    2013-04-01

    We present a spectral investigation of X-ray binaries (XBs) in NGC 5128 (Cen A), using six 100 ks Chandra observations taken over two months in 2007. We divide our sample into thermally and non-thermally dominated states based on the behavior of the fitted absorption column N{sub H}, and present the spectral parameters of sources with L{sub x} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. The majority of sources are consistent with being neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs) and we identify three transient black hole (BH) LMXB candidates coincident with the dust lane, which is the remnant of a small late-type galaxy. Our results also provide tentative support for the apparent 'gap' in the mass distribution of compact objects between {approx}2-5 M{sub Sun }. We propose that BH LMXBs are preferentially found in the dust lane, and suggest this is because of the younger stellar population. The majority ({approx}70%-80%) of potential Roche lobe filling donors in the Cen A halo are {approx}> 12 Gyr old, while BH LMXBs require donors {approx}> 1 M{sub Sun} to produce the observed peak luminosities. This requirement for more massive donors may also explain recent results that claim a steepening of the X-ray luminosity function with age at L{sub x} {>=} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for the XB population of early-type galaxies; for older stellar populations, there are fewer stars {approx}> 1 M{sub Sun }, which are required to form the more luminous sources.

  4. Investigation of pulsed X-ray radiation of a plasma focus in a broad energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Savelov, A. S. Salakhutdinov, G. Kh.; Koltunov, M. V.; Lemeshko, B. D.; Yurkov, D. I.; Sidorov, P. P.

    2011-12-15

    The results of the experimental investigations of the spectral composition of plasma focus X-ray radiation in the photon energy range of 1.5 keV-400 keV are presented. Three regions in the radiation spectrum where the latter is of a quasi-thermal nature with a corresponding effective temperature are distinguished.

  5. The Extended Range X-Ray Telescope center director's discretionary fund report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Cumings, N. P.; Hildner, E.; Moore, R. L.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An Extended Range X-Ray Telescope (ERXRT) of high sensitivity and spatial resolution capable of functioning over a broad region of the X-ray/XUV portion of the spectrum has been designed and analyzed. This system has been configured around the glancing-incidence Wolter Type I X-ray mirror system which was flown on the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount as ATM Experiment S-056. Enhanced sensitivity over a vastly broader spectral range can be realized by the utilization of a thinned, back-illuminated, buried-channel Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as the X-ray/XUV detector rather than photographic film. However, to maintain the high spatial resolution inherent in the X-ray optics when a CCD of 30 micron pixel size is used, it is necessary to increase the telescope plate scale. This can be accomplished by use of a glancing-incidence X-ray microscope to enlarge and re-focus the primary image onto the focal surface of the CCD.

  6. Unsupervised spectral decomposition of X-ray spectra from galactic black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Modelling the X-ray spectra of accreting black holes often leads to a problem of degeneracy, i.e. multiple distinct models fit the observed data equally well. Even if an apparently good fit is obtained between the data and the model, it does not necessarily imply a match between theory and physical reality. We separate a multivariate signal -- a set of time series of X-ray spectra -- into subcomponents, using linear unsupervised decomposition methods. This analysis will provide a better estimate of the X-ray continuum models needed to fit the X-ray spectra in these sources by taking into an account also the spectral variability in addition to the fitting of the individual spectra. A comparison with the different analysis methods are studied and suggestions made for the future use of these methods in the context of this study. We apply these analysis methods to an archival set of X-ray spectra from a stellar mass black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4. With a sufficiently long set of observations throughout the hardness-intensity diagram (HID) from GX 339-4, the use of unsupervised decomposition methods reveal how the spectral components change across the HID. We will discuss the ramifications of these results.

  7. X-ray signatures: New time scales and spectral features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The millisecond bursts from Cyg X-1 are investigated and the overall chaotic variability for the bulk of the Cyg X-1 emission is compared to that of Sco X-1, showing that the essential character is remarkably similar (i.e. shot noise) although the fundamental time scales involved differ widely, from a fraction of a second (for Cyg X-1) to a fraction of a day (for Sco X-1). Recent OSO-8 observations of spectra features attributable to iron are reviewed. In particular, line emission is discussed within the context of a model for thermal radiation by a hot evolved gas in systems as different as supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies. Newly observed spectral structure in the emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 is reported.

  8. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese

  9. Atomic Spectral Tables for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Wolfgang

    L.I. Podobedova D. E. Kelleher J. Reader and W.L.Wiese National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg MD 20899 USA We have compiled spectral tables for the four cosmically abundant elements Ne Mg Si and S in the wavelength region of interest for the LETG spectrograph of the Chandra X-ray Observatory which is roughly from 20 Å to 170 Å. Wavelengths energy levels spectral classifications and transition probabilities have been tabulated1. We have focused on these elements because rather few data had been compiled for their highly charged ions up to now. The compiled wavelengths and energy levels are all from experimental sources while the transition probabilities originate mainly from recent calculations which have been carried out with advanced multi-configuration computer codes with relativistic Breit-Pauli terms included. All in all data for about 3500 spectral lines of 24 ions have been tabulated with uncertainty estimates for the atomic transition probabilities. 1 L.I. Podobedova D. Kelleher J. Reader and W. L. Wiese J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (in press).

  10. X-ray spectral variability of Seyfert 2 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-García, L.; Masegosa, J.; González-Martín, O.; Márquez, I.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Variability across the electromagnetic spectrum is a property of active galactic nuclei (AGN) that can help constrain the physical properties of these galaxies. Nonetheless, the way in which the changes happen and whether they occur in the same way in every AGN are still open questions. Aims: This is the third in a series of papers with the aim of studying the X-ray variability of different families of AGN. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the variability pattern(s) in a sample of optically selected Seyfert 2 galaxies. Methods: We use the 26 Seyfert 2s in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog with data available from Chandra and/or XMM-Newton public archives at different epochs, with timescales ranging from a few hours to years. All the spectra of the same source were simultaneously fitted, and we let different parameters vary in the model. Whenever possible, short-term variations from the analysis of the light curves and/or long-term UV flux variations were studied. We divided the sample into Compton-thick and Compton-thin candidates to account for the degree of obscuration. When transitions between Compton-thick and thin were obtained for different observations of the same source, we classified it as a changing-look candidate. Results: Short-term variability at X-rays was studied in ten cases, but variations are not found. From the 25 analyzed sources, 11 show long-term variations. Eight (out of 11) are Compton-thin, one (out of 12) is Compton-thick, and the two changing-look candidates are also variable. The main driver for the X-ray changes is related to the nuclear power (nine cases), while variations at soft energies or related to absorbers at hard X-rays are less common, and in many cases these variations are accompanied by variations in the nuclear continuum. At UV frequencies, only NGC 5194 (out of six sources) is variable, but the changes are not related to the nucleus. We report two changing-look candidates, MARK 273 and NGC 7319

  11. Spectral reconstruction of dental X-ray tubes using laplace inverse transform of the attenuation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malezan, A.; Tomal, A.; Antoniassi, M.; Watanabe, P. C. A.; Albino, L. D.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a spectral reconstruction methodology for diagnostic X-ray, using Laplace inverse transform of the attenuation, was successfully applied to dental X-ray equipments. The attenuation curves of 8 commercially available dental X-ray equipment, from 3 different manufactures (Siemens, Gnatus and Dabi Atlante), were obtained by using an ionization chamber and high purity aluminium filters, while the kVp was obtained with a specific meter. A computational routine was implemented in order to adjust a model function, whose inverse Laplace transform is analytically known, to the attenuation curve. This methodology was validated by comparing the reconstructed and the measured (using semiconductor detector of cadmium telluride) spectra of a given dental X-ray unit. The spectral reconstruction showed the Dabi Atlante equipments generating similar shape spectra. This is a desirable feature from clinic standpoint because it produces similar levels of image quality and dose. We observed that equipments from Siemens and Gnatus generate significantly different spectra, suggesting that, for a given operating protocol, these units will present different levels of image quality and dose. This fact claims for the necessity of individualized operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose. The proposed methodology is suitable to perform a spectral reconstruction of dental X-ray equipments from the simple measurements of attenuation curve and kVp. The simplified experimental apparatus and the low level of technical difficulty make this methodology accessible to a broad range of users. The knowledge of the spectral distribution can help in the development of operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose.

  12. Spectral variability of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kajava, Jari J. E.; Poutanen, Juri

    2008-09-30

    We study spectral variability of 11 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) using archived XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We use three models to describe the observed spectra; a power-law, a multi-colour disk (MCD) and a combination of these two models. We find that out of the 11 ULXs in our sample, 7 ULXs show a correlation between the luminosity and the photon index {gamma}(hereafter L--{gamma} correlation). Furthermore, out of the 7 ULXs that have the L--{gamma} correlation, 4 ULXs also show spectral pivoting in the observed energy band. We also find that two ULXs show an L--{gamma} anti-correlation. The spectra of 4 ULXs in the sample can be adequately fitted with a MCD model. We compare these sources to known black hole binaries (BHB) and find that they follow similar paths in their luminosity-temperature (hereafter L--T) diagrams. Finally we show that the 'soft excess' reported for many of these ULXs at {approx}0.2 keV seem to follow a trend L {proportional_to} T{sup -4} when modeled with a power-law plus a 'cool' MCD model. This is contrary to the expected L {proportional_to} T{sup 4} relation that is expected from theory and what is seen for many accreting BHBs.

  13. Conception of broadband stigmatic high-resolution spectrometers for the soft X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, E. A.; Shatokhin, A. N.; Ragozin, E. N.

    2015-04-01

    We formulate an approach to the development of stigmatic high-resolution spectral instruments for the soft X-ray range (λ <= 300 Å), which is based on the combined operation of normalincidence multilayer mirrors (including broadband aperiodic ones) and grazing-incidence reflection gratings with nonequidistant grooves (so-called VLS gratings). A concave multilayer mirror serves to produce a slightly astigmatic image of the radiation source (for instance, an entrance slit), and the diffraction grating produces a set of its dispersed stigmatic spectral images. The width of the operating spectral region is determined by the aperiodic structure of the multilayer mirror and may range up to an octave in wavelength.

  14. Measurement of breast-tissue x-ray attenuation by spectral mammography: solid lesions.

    PubMed

    Fredenberg, Erik; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Willsher, Paula; Moa, Elin; Danielsson, Mats; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Wallis, Matthew G

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of x-ray attenuation is essential for developing and evaluating x-ray imaging technologies. For instance, techniques to distinguish between cysts and solid tumours at mammography screening would be highly desirable to reduce recalls, but the development requires knowledge of the x-ray attenuation for cysts and tumours. We have previously measured the attenuation of cyst fluid using photon-counting spectral mammography. Data on x-ray attenuation for solid breast lesions are available in the literature, but cover a relatively wide range, likely caused by natural spread between samples, random measurement errors, and different experimental conditions. In this study, we have adapted a previously developed spectral method to measure the linear attenuation of solid breast lesions. A total of 56 malignant and 5 benign lesions were included in the study. The samples were placed in a holder that allowed for thickness measurement. Spectral (energy-resolved) images of the samples were acquired and the image signal was mapped to equivalent thicknesses of two known reference materials, which can be used to derive the x-ray attenuation as a function of energy. The spread in equivalent material thicknesses was relatively large between samples, which is likely to be caused mainly by natural variation and only to a minor extent by random measurement errors and sample inhomogeneity. No significant difference in attenuation was found between benign and malignant solid lesions. The separation between cyst-fluid and tumour attenuation was, however, significant, which suggests it may be possible to distinguish cystic from solid breast lesions, and the results lay the groundwork for a clinical trial. In addition, the study adds a relatively large sample set to the published data and may contribute to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in the literature. PMID:26961507

  15. Measurement of breast-tissue x-ray attenuation by spectral mammography: solid lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Willsher, Paula; Moa, Elin; Danielsson, Mats; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wallis, Matthew G.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of x-ray attenuation is essential for developing and evaluating x-ray imaging technologies. For instance, techniques to distinguish between cysts and solid tumours at mammography screening would be highly desirable to reduce recalls, but the development requires knowledge of the x-ray attenuation for cysts and tumours. We have previously measured the attenuation of cyst fluid using photon-counting spectral mammography. Data on x-ray attenuation for solid breast lesions are available in the literature, but cover a relatively wide range, likely caused by natural spread between samples, random measurement errors, and different experimental conditions. In this study, we have adapted a previously developed spectral method to measure the linear attenuation of solid breast lesions. A total of 56 malignant and 5 benign lesions were included in the study. The samples were placed in a holder that allowed for thickness measurement. Spectral (energy-resolved) images of the samples were acquired and the image signal was mapped to equivalent thicknesses of two known reference materials, which can be used to derive the x-ray attenuation as a function of energy. The spread in equivalent material thicknesses was relatively large between samples, which is likely to be caused mainly by natural variation and only to a minor extent by random measurement errors and sample inhomogeneity. No significant difference in attenuation was found between benign and malignant solid lesions. The separation between cyst-fluid and tumour attenuation was, however, significant, which suggests it may be possible to distinguish cystic from solid breast lesions, and the results lay the groundwork for a clinical trial. In addition, the study adds a relatively large sample set to the published data and may contribute to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in the literature.

  16. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  17. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  18. X-ray spectral evolution of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    At z approx. equals 3, the x-ray spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. High-redshift radio-quiet quasars either have large absorbing columns, N(sub H), and steeper power law spectral indices, alpha(sub epsilon), than low redshift quasars, or no absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s. In contrast, the radio-loud quasars at high redshift have substantial absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s to low redshift quasars. Implications for the interpretation of the evolution of the luminosity function of quasars are discussed. If the absorption arises outside the central engine for both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, then radio-quiet quasars differ from the radio-loud quasars in that their emitted power law spectrum has evolved with redshift. We argue that this favors models where quasars are numerous and short-lived, rather than rare and long-lived.

  19. Energy dependence of power-spectral noise in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, Holger; Yu, Wenfei

    2014-08-01

    Black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries show variability on time-scales ranging from milliseconds to years. In the last two decades a detailed phenomenological picture of short-term variability in low-mass X-ray binaries has emerged mainly based on RXTE observations that cover energies above 3 keV. This picture comprises periodic or quasi-periodic variability, seen as spikes or humps in power density spectra, that are superposed on broad noise components. The overall shape of the noise components as well as the occurrence of quasi-periodic oscillations is known to vary with the state of the X-ray binary. We are accomplishing a comprehensive study of archival XMM-Newton observations in timing or burst mode of more than ten black hole and more than thirty neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries to investigate the variability properties of these sources at softer energies where the thermal disk component starts to emerge.Here we present some results of the energy dependence of the noise component in power density spectra: a discussion of the energy dependence of the power spectral state that we found in the “plateau” state of GRS 1915+105 and the intermediate state of 4U 1630-47; the dependence of the break-frequency of the band-limited noise component as well as the quasi-periodic oscillations on the studied energy band in several X-ray binaries like GX 339-4 or Swift J1753.5-0127. We will discuss the implications of these findings for the picture of the accretion geometry in black hole X-ray binaries.

  20. X-ray spectral studies of TeV γ-ray emitting blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzcholska, Alicja; Wagner, Stefan J.

    2016-05-01

    This work is a summary of the X-ray spectral studies of 29 TeV (1012 eV, tera-electron-volt) γ-ray emitting blazars observed with Swift/XRT, especially focusing on sources for which the X-ray regime allows us to study the low- and the high-energy ends of the particle distribution function. Variability studies require simultaneous coverage, ideally sampling different flux states of each source. This is achieved using X-ray observations by disentangling the high-energy end of the synchrotron emission and the low-energy end of the Compton emission, which are produced by the same electron population. We focused on a sample of 29 TeV γ-ray emitting blazars with the best signal-to-noise X-ray observations collected with Swift/XRT in the energy range 0.3-10 keV during 10 yr of Swift/XRT operations. We investigate the X-ray spectral shapes and the effects of different corrections for neutral hydrogen absorption and decompose the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. For five sources (3C 66A, S5 0716+714, W Comae, 4C +21.35 and BL Lacertae) a superposition of both components is observed in the X-ray band, permitting simultaneous, time-resolved studies of both ends of the electron distribution. The analysis of multi-epoch observations revealed that the break energy of the X-ray spectrum varies only by a small factor with flux changes. Flux variability is more pronounced in the synchrotron domain (high-energy end of the electron distribution) than in the Compton domain (low-energy end of the electron distribution). The spectral shape of the Compton domain is stable, while the flux of the synchrotron domain is variable. These changes cannot be described by simple variations of the cut-off energy, suggesting that the high-energy end of the electron distribution is not generally well described by cooling only.

  1. Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors: Large Format X-ray Spectral Imagers for the Next Generation of X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, Megan E.; Mazin, B. A.; Bumble, B.; Golwala, S. R.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Day, P. K.; Harrison, F. A.

    2006-09-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) have the potential to provide megapixel imagers with few eV spectral resolution for future X-ray missions such as Gen-X. MKIDs offer the advantage over many other cryogenic detector technologies that they can be easily multiplexed, so that arrays with many thousand pixels are readily achievable. In addition, the readout electronics can be operated at room temperature, a significant advantage for space applications. MKIDs exploit the dependence of surface impedance of a superconductorwith the quasiparticle density. Quasiparticles are created by absorption of X-rays, with number proportional to the X-ray energy. The impedance change may be sensitively measured using a thin-film resonant circuit. The practical application of MKIDs for photon detection requires a method of efficiently coupling the photon energy to the MKID. To apply the MKID scheme to X-ray detection we pattern tantalum strips with aluminum MKIDs attached at each end. An incident X-ray is absorbed in the Ta and creates millions of quasiparticle excitations, which diffuse to each end of the strip, finally entering the Al resonators where they are trapped and sensed. Simultaneous monitoring of the signal at both ends of the strip allow position and energy determination for each photon. We have demonstrated working strip detectors in the laboratory, and will present our measurements of the quasiparticle diffusion constant and the quasiparticle lifetime in tantalum, the aluminum quasiparticle lifetime, and the energy resolution of the detector. We will also discuss ideas for future detector designs and suggest ultimate performance goals for X-ray astronomy applications.

  2. X-Ray Spectral Variability in NGC 7469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen; Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Tsuruta, Sachiko

    1996-01-01

    component and the lack of ionized absorption edges in the ASCA spectrum by Guainazzi et al. The long-term spectral variability could be explained by relative variability between the power-law and soft excess component normalizations, perhaps implying that hard X-ray reprocessing in thermal material does not dominate on long timescales.

  3. Relations between X-ray timing features and spectral parameters of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, H.; Belloni, T. M.; Kalemci, E.; Motta, S.

    2013-03-01

    We present a study of correlations between spectral and timing parameters for a sample of black hole X-ray binary candidates. Data are taken from GX 339-4, H1743-322 and XTE J1650-500, as the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observed complete outbursts of these sources. In our study we investigate outbursts that happened before the end of 2009 to make use of the high-energy coverage of the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment detector and select observations that show a certain type of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs; type-C). The spectral parameters are derived using the empirical convolution model SIMPL to model the Comptonized component of the emission together with a disc blackbody for the emission of the accretion disc. Additional spectral features, namely a reflection component, a high-energy cut-off and excess emission at 6.4 keV, are taken into account. Our investigations confirm the known positive correlation between photon index and centroid frequency of the QPOs and reveal an anticorrelation between the fraction of up-scattered photons and the QPO frequency. We show that both correlations behave as expected in the `sombrero' geometry. Furthermore, we find that during outburst decay the correlation between photon index and QPO frequency follows a general track, independent of individual outbursts.

  4. SPECTRAL SURVEY OF X-RAY BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-03-15

    Using long-term monitoring data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have selected 23 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to derive broadband X-ray spectra from 3 to {approx}>100 keV. Our sample includes mainly radio-quiet Seyferts, as well as seven radio-loud sources. Given the longevity of the RXTE mission, the greater part of our data is spread out over more than a decade, providing truly long-term average spectra and eliminating inconsistencies arising from variability. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line parameters, Compton reflection strengths, and photon indices, as well as fluxes and luminosities for the hard and very hard energy bands, 2-10 keV and 20-100 keV, respectively. We find tentative evidence for high-energy rollovers in three of our objects. We improve upon previous surveys of the very hard X-ray energy band in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, particularly with respect to confirming and quantifying the Compton reflection component. This survey is meant to provide a baseline for future analysis with respect to the long-term averages for these sources and to cement the legacy of RXTE, and especially its High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment, as a contributor to AGN spectral science.

  5. X-Ray Spectral Study of the Photoionized Stellar Wind in Vela X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Shin; Sako, Masao; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kahn, Steven M.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Nagase, Fumiaki; Paerels, Frederik; Takahashi, Tadayuki; /JAXA, Sagamihara /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Tokyo Metropolitan U. /Kogakuin U. /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.

    2006-07-10

    We present results from quantitative modeling and spectral analysis of the high mass X-ray binary system Vela X-1 obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The observations cover three orbital phase ranges within a single binary orbit. The spectra exhibit emission lines from H-like and He-like ions driven by photoionization, as well as fluorescent emission lines from several elements in lower charge states. The properties of these X-ray lines are measured with the highest accuracy to date. In order to interpret and make full use of the high-quality data, we have developed a simulator, which calculates the ionization and thermal structure of a stellar wind photoionized by an X-ray source, and performs Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photons propagating through the wind. The emergent spectra are then computed as a function of the viewing angle accurately accounting for photon transport in three dimensions including dynamics. From comparisons of the observed spectra with results from the simulator, we are able to find the ionization structure and the geometrical distribution of material in the stellar wind of Vela X-1 that can reproduce the observed spectral line intensities and continuum shapes at different orbital phases remarkably well. We find that the stellar wind profile can be represented by a CAK-model with a star mass loss rate of (1.5-2.0) x 10{sup -6} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}, assuming a terminal velocity of 1100 km s{sup -1}. It is found that a large fraction of X-ray emission lines from highly ionized ions are formed in the region between the neutron star and the companion star. We also find that the fluorescent X-ray lines must be produced in at least three distinct regions: (1) the extended stellar wind, (2) reflection off the stellar photosphere, and (3) in a distribution of dense material partially covering and possibly trailing the neutron star, which may be associated with an accretion wake. Finally, from

  6. X-ray communication based simultaneous communication and ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na

    2015-09-01

    To improve the link efficiency and decrease the payloads in space explorations, a novel simultaneous communication and ranging method based on x-ray communication (XCOM) is proposed in this paper. A delicate signal symbol structure is utilized to achieve simultaneous data transmission and range measurement. With the designed symbol structure, the ranging information is imbedded into the communication signal and transmitted with it simultaneously. The range measurement is realized by the two-way transmission of the range information. To illustrate the proposed method, firstly, the principle of the method is introduced and the signal processing procedure is presented. Then, the performance of the proposed method is analyzed theoretically in various aspects, including the acquisition probability, the bit error rate, the ranging jitter, etc. Besides, numerical experiments are conducted to verify the proposed method and evaluate the system performance. The simulation results show that the proposed method is feasible and that the system performance is influenced by the parameters concerning the signal symbol structure. Compared with the previous methods, the proposed method improves the link efficiency and is beneficial for system miniaturization and integration, which could provide a potential option for future deep space explorations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303).

  7. Spectral and Temporal Characteristics of X-Ray-Bright Stars in the Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagne, Marc; Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Stauffer, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We follow up our deep ROSAT imaging survey of the Pleiades (Stauffer et al. 1994) with an analysis of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray-bright stars in the Pleiades. Raymond & Smith (1977) one and two-temperature models have been used to fit the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) pulse-height spectra of the dozen or so brightest sources associated with late-type Pleiades members. The best-fit temperatures suggest hot coronal temperatures for K, M, and rapidly rotating G stars, and cooler temperatures for F and slowly rotating G stars. In order to probe the many less X-ray-luminous stars, we have generated composite spectra by combining net counts from all Pleiades members according to spectral type and rotational velocity. Model fits to the composite spectra confirm the trend seen in the individual spectral fits. Particularly interesting is the apparent dependence of coronal temperature on L(sub x)/L(sub bol). A hardness-ratio analysis also confirms some of these trends. The PSPC data have also revealed a dozen or so strong X-ray flares with peak X-ray luminosities in excess of approx. 10(exp 30) ergs/sec. We have modeled the brightest of these flares with a simple quasi-static cooling loop model. The peak temperature and emission measure and the inferred electron density and plasma volume suggest a very large scale flaring event. The PSPC data were collected over a period of approx. 18 months, allowing us to search for source variability on timescales ranging from less than a day (in the case of flares) to more than a year between individual exposures. On approximately year-long timescales, roughly 25% of the late-type stars are variable. Since the Pleiades was also intensively monitored by the imaging instruments on the Einstein Observatory, we have examined X-ray luminosity variations on the 10 yr timescale between Einstein and ROSAT and find that up to 40% of the late-type stars are X-ray variable. Since there is only marginal

  8. Possible application of X-ray optical elements for reducing the spectral bandwidth of an X-ray SASE FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaus, J.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneider, J. R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1997-02-01

    A new design for a single pass X-ray SASE FEL is proposed. The scheme consists of two undulators and an X-ray monochromator located between them. The first stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the SASE linear regime. After the exit of the first undulator the electron bunch is guided through a non-isochronous bypass and the X-ray beam enters the monochromator. The main function of the bypass is to suppress the modulation of the electron beam induced in the first undulator. This is possible because of the finite value of the natural energy spread in the beam. At the entrance to the second undulator the radiation power from the monochromator dominates significantly over the shot noise and the residual electron bunching. As a result, the second stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the steady-state regime. The proposed scheme is illustrated for the example of the 6 nm option SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility under construction at DESY. The spectral bandwidth of such a two-stage SASE FEL ( {Δλ}/{λ} ⋍ 5 × 10 -5) is close to the limit defined by the finite duration of the radiation pulse. The average spectral brilliance is equal to 2 × 10 24 photons/(sec×mrad 2×mm 2×0.1% bandwidth) which is by two orders of magnitude higher than the value which could be reached by the conventional SASE FEL.

  9. Small, Fast TES Microcalorimeters with Unprecedented X-ray Spectral Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Driven initially by the desire for X-ray microcalorimeter arrays suitable for imaging the dynamic solar corona, we have developed a transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeter optimization that exhibits a unique combination of high spectral resolving power and a wide X-ray bandpass. These devices have achieved spectral performance of dE approximately 1.3 eV FWHM at 1.5 keV, 1.6 eV at 6 keV, and 2.0 eV at 8 keV, using small TESs (e.g., approximately 35 micron x 35 micron) that operate in a regime in which the superconducting transition is highly current dependent. In order to accommodate high X-ray count rates, the devices sit directly on a solid substrate instead of on membranes, and we use an embedded heatsinking layer to reduce pixel-to-pixel crosstalk. We will present results from devices with a range of TES and absorber sizes, and from device wafers with varied embedded heatsink materials. This contribution will focus on count-rate capabilities, including a discussion of the trade-off between count rate and energy resolution, and the heatsinking design. We will also present preliminary tests of array readout using a code-division multiplexed SQUID readout scheme, which may be necessary to enable large arrays of these fast devices.

  10. Development of a stacked detector system for the x-ray range and its possible applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Daniel; Limousin, Olivier; Meuris, Aline; Pürckhauer, Sabina; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanz, Thomas; Tenzer, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    We have constructed a stacked detector system operating in the X-ray range from 0.5 keV to 250 keV that consists of a Si-based 64×64 DePFET-Matrix in front of a CdTe hybrid detector called Caliste-64. The setup is operated under laboratory conditions that approximate the expected environment of a space-borne observatory. The DePFET detector is an active pixel matrix that provides high count-rate capabilities with a near Fanolimited spectral resolution at energies up to 15 keV. The Caliste-64 hard X-ray camera consists of a 1mm thick CdTe crystal combined with very compact integrated readout electronics, constituting a high performance spectro-imager with event-triggered time-tagging capability in the energy range between 2 keV and 200 keV. In this combined geometry the DePFET detector works as the Low Energy Detector (LED) while the Caliste-64 - as the High Energy Detector (HED) - detects predominantly the high energetic photons that have passed the LED. In addition to the individual optimization of both detectors, we use the setup to test and optimize the performance of the combined detector system. Side-effects like X-ray fluorescence photons, electrical crosstalk, and mutual heating have negative impacts on the data quality and will be investigated. Besides the primary application as a combined imaging detector system with high sensitivity across a broad energy range, additional applications become feasible. Via the analysis of coincident events in both detectors we can estimate the capabilities of the setup to be used as a Compton camera and as an X-ray polarimeter - both desirable functionalities for use in the lab as well as for future X-ray missions.

  11. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  12. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%. PMID:26628136

  13. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  14. Nonthermal X-ray Spectral Flattening toward Low Energies in Early Impulsive Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the low-energy cutoff to nonthermal electron distributions is critical to the calculation of the nonthermal energy in solar flares. The most direct evidence for low-energy cutoffs is flattening of the power-law, nontherma1 X-ray spectra at low energies. However, because of the plasma preheating often seen in flares, the thermal emissions at low energies may hide such spectral flattening of the nonthermal component. We select a category of flares, which we call "early impulsive flares", in which the > 25 keV hard X-ray (HXR) flux increase is delayed by less than 30 s after the flux increase at lower energies. Thus, the plasma preheating in these flares is minimal, so the nonthermal spectrum can be determined to lower energies than in flares with significant preheating. Out of a sample of 33 early impulsive flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopy Imager (RHESSI), 9 showed spectral flattening toward low energies. In these events, the break energy of the double power-law fit to the HXR spectra lies in the range of 10-50 keV, significantly lower than the value we have seen for other flares that do not show such early impulsive emissions. In particular, it correlates with the HXR flux. After correcting the spatially-integrated spectra for albedo from isotropically emitted X-rays and using RHESSI imaging spectroscopy to exclude the extended albedo halo, we find that albedo associated with isotropic or nearly isotropic electrons can only account for the spectral flattening in 3 flares near Sun center. The spectral flattening in the remaining 6 flares is found to be consistent with the existence of a low-energy cutoff in the electron spectrum, falling in the range of 15-50 keV, which also correlates with the HXR flux.

  15. Spectral resolution measurement of an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.

    2008-10-15

    A spectral resolution measurement of the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine utilizing a segmented position-sensitive detector and time-to-digital converter based delay-line readout electronics was performed by using an x-ray tube in a laboratory. The measured spectral resolution is about 12 600, which means the actual energy resolution is 0.32 eV for the x-ray tube's bremsstrahlung peak energy of 4 keV. The results from the spectral resolution measurement are described.

  16. Spectral resolution measurement of an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Nam, U W; Moon, M K; Cheon, J K; Bitter, M; Hill, K

    2008-10-01

    A spectral resolution measurement of the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine utilizing a segmented position-sensitive detector and time-to-digital converter based delay-line readout electronics was performed by using an x-ray tube in a laboratory. The measured spectral resolution is about 12,600, which means the actual energy resolution is 0.32 eV for the x-ray tube's bremsstrahlung peak energy of 4 keV. The results from the spectral resolution measurement are described. PMID:19044479

  17. Spectral brilliance of parametric X-rays at the FAST facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; Seiss, Todd

    2015-06-22

    We discuss the generation of parametric X-rays in the new photoinjector at the FAST (Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology) facility in Fermilab. These experiments will be conducted in addition to channeling X-ray radiation experiments. The low emittance electron beam makes this facility a promising source for creating brilliant X-rays. We discuss the theoretical model and present detailed calculations of the intensity spectrum, energy and angular widths and spectral brilliance under different conditions. Furthermore, we report on expected results with parametric X-rays generated while under channeling conditions.

  18. Practical energy response estimation of photon counting detectors for spectral X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Goo; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2010-04-01

    Spectral X-ray imaging is a promising technique to drastically improve the diagnostic quality of radiography and computed tomography (CT), since it enables material decomposition and/or identification based on the energy dependency of material-specific X-ray attenuation. Unlike the charge-integration based X-ray detectors, photon counting X-ray detectors (PCXDs) can discriminate the energies of incident X-ray photons and thereby multi-energy images can be obtained in single exposure. However, the measured data are not accurate since the spectra of incident X-rays are distorted according to the energy response function (ERF) of a PCXD. Thus ERF should be properly estimated in advance for accurate spectral imaging. This paper presents a simple method for ERF estimation based on a polychromatic X-ray source that is widely used for medical imaging. The method consists of three steps: source spectra measurement, detector spectra reconstruction, and ERF inverse estimation. Real spectra of an X-ray tube are first measured at all kVs by using an X-ray spectrometer. The corresponding detector spectra are obtained by threshold scans. The ERF is then estimated by solving the inverse problem. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the concept of the proposed method.

  19. Extended range X-ray telescope: X-ray microscope design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Kassim, A.; Chao, S.

    1982-01-01

    A glancing incidence X-ray microscope using a confocal hyperboloid ellipsoid mirror was designed to couple optically a Wolter 1 telescope to a CCD focal plane detector. Both the RMS spot size and the point spread function calculations were used to evaluate the resolution, defocusing, and vignetting effects of the system for microscope focal lengths of 1, 1.5, and 2 meters and for magnifications varying from 2 to 10x. For the specific application with the S-056 telescope, a 2 meter, 8x microscope with a fabrication ratio of the microscope mirror length to the inner diameter at hyperboloid ellipsoid intersection of 2.5 was designed to be used with a thinned, back illuminated CCD detector array with 320 by 512, 30 micron pixels.

  20. Possible application of X-ray optical elements for reducing the spectral bandwidth of an X-ray SASE FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaus, J.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneider, J. R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1997-08-01

    A new design for a single pass X-ray Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL is proposed. The scheme consists of two undulators and an X-ray monochromator located between them. The first stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the SASE linear regime. After the exit of the first undulator the electron bunch is guided through a non-isochronous bypass and the X-ray beam enters the monochromator. The main function of the bypass is to suppress the modulation of the electron beam induced in the first undulator. This is possible because of the finite value of the natural energy spread in the beam. At the entrance to the second undulator the radiation power from the monochromator dominates significantly over the shot noise and the residual electron bunching. As a result the second stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the steady-state regime when the input signal bandwidth is small with respect to that of the FEL amplifier. Integral losses of the radiation power in the monochromator are relatively small because grazing incidence optics can be used. The proposed scheme is illustrated for the example of the 6 nm option SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility under construction at DESY. As shown in this paper the spectral bandwidth of such a two-stage SASE FEL (Δλ/λ⋍ 5 × 10-5) is close to the limit defined by the finite duration of the radiation pulse. The average brilliance is equal to 7 × 1024photons/(s × mrad2 × mm2 × 0.1% bandw.) which is by two orders of magnitude higher than the value which could be reached by the conventional SASE FEL. The monochromatization of the radiation is performed at a low level of radiation power (about 500 times less than the saturation level) which allows one to use conventional X-ray optical elements (grazing incidence grating and mirrors) for the monochromator design.

  1. Photon counting spectral CT: improved material decomposition with K-edge-filtered x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2012-03-01

    Photon counting spectral computed tomography (PCSCT) provides material selective CT imaging at a single CT scan and fixed tube voltage. The PCSCT data are acquired in several energy ranges (bins) arranged over the x-ray spectrum. The quasi-monoenergetic CT images are acquired in these energy bins and are used for material decomposition. The PCSCT exhibits inherent limitations when material decomposition is performed using energy bins. For effective material decomposition, the energy bins used for material decomposition should be sufficiently narrow and well separated. However, when narrow bins are used, a large fraction of the detected x-ray counts is lost and statistical noise is increased. Alternatively, the x-ray spectrum can be split into a few larger bins with no gap in between and all detected x-ray photons can be used for material decomposition. However, in this case the energy bins are too wide and not well separated, which results in suboptimal material decomposition. The above contradictory requirements can be resolved if the x-ray photons are physically removed from the regions of the energy spectrum between the energy bins. Such a selective removal can be performed using filtration of the x-ray beam by high-Z filter materials with appropriate positions of K-edge energies. The K-edge filtration of x-rays can, therefore, provide necessary gaps between the energy bins with no dose penalty to the patient. In the current work, we proposed using selective K-edge filtration of x-rays in PCSCT and performed the first experimental investigation of this approach. The PCSCT system included a cadmium zinc telluride semiconductor detector with 2 × 256 pixels and 1 × 1 mm2 pixel size, and five energy bins. The CT phantom had 14 cm diameter and included contrast elements of iodine, gold and calcifications with clinically relevant concentrations. The tube voltages of 60, 90 and 120 kVp were used. K-edge filters based on Ba (Ek = 37.44 keV) were used for a 60 kVp tube

  2. AGN spectral states from simultaneous UV and X-ray observations by XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, J.; Guainazzi, M.; Merloni, A.

    2016-06-01

    The accretion on super-massive black holes is believed to be similar to the accretion on stellar-mass black holes. It has been suggested by Koerding et al. (2006) and Sobolewska et al. (2008) that different types of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) correspond to different spectral states of X-Ray Binaries. We extend previous works by comparing strictly simultaneous UV and X-ray measurements of AGN obtained by the XMM-Newton satellite. The thermal disc component is estimated from the UV flux while the non-thermal flux is constrained from the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity. For sources with available radio-flux measurements, we investigate how the spectral hardness is related to their radio power, radio spectral slope and morphology. Our results suggest that the AGN may spectrally evolve in a similar way as X-ray binaries, however, several problems still remain unclear.

  3. Direct spectral recovery using X-ray fluorescence measurements for material decomposition applications using photon counting spectral X-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell-Ricketts, Tom; Das, Mini

    2014-03-01

    We present investigations into direct, calibration-free recovery of distorted spectral x-ray measurements with the Medipix 2 detector. Spectral x-ray measurements using pixelated photon counting spectral x-ray detectors are subject to significant spectral distortion. For detectors with small pixel size, charge sharing between adjacent electrodes often dominates this distortion. In material decomposition applications, a popular spectral recovery technique employs a calibration phantom with known spectral properties. This works due to the similarity of the attenuation properties of the phantom and the material to be studied. However, this approach may be too simplistic for clinical imaging applications as it assumes the homogeneity (and knowledge) of exactly the properties whose variation accounts entirely for the diagnostic content of the spectral data obtained by the photon counting detector. It may also be difficult to find the right calibration phantom for varying patient size and tissue densities on a case-by-case basis. Thus, it is desirable to develop direct correction strategies, based on the objectively measurable response of the detector. We model analytically the distortion of a spectral signal in a PCSXD by applying Gaussian broadening and a charge-sharing model. The model parameters are fitted to the measured fluorescence of several metals. While we are investigating the methodology using Medipix detectors, it should be applicable to other PCXDs as well.

  4. TW Hya: Spectral Variability, X-Rays, and Accretion Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over ~17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the Hα flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The Hα emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the Hα and Hβ lines is followed by He I (λ5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of ~2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows ~2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  5. TW Hya: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY, X-RAYS, AND ACCRETION DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over {approx}17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the H{alpha} flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The H{alpha} emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H{alpha} and H{beta} lines is followed by He I ({lambda}5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of {approx}2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows {approx}2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  6. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1, that varied by a factor of 4-5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  7. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ~10^40 erg s^-1, that varied by a factor of 4 - 5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  8. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-05-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1, that varied by a factor of 4 - 5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  9. Characteristics of transition radiation in the x-ray spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M.J.

    1986-06-06

    Measurements of soft x-ray production by transition radiation have been performed in a series of experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results have shown that transition radiation is an intense and predictable source of photons in the soft x-ray energy range. This paper will give a brief review of the general properties of the x-ray distributions generated by these sources. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Spectral and temporal properties of the X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 at hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Kendziorra, E .; Kretschmar, P.; Maisack, M.; Mony, B.; Staubert, R.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Pietsch, W.

    1993-01-01

    The binary X-ray pulsar SMC X- 1 has been observed at hard X-rays with the High Energy X-Ray Experiment (HEXE) on nine occasions between Nov. 1987 and March 1989. A thin thermal bremsstrahlung fit to the phase averaged spectrum yields a plasma temperature (14.4 +/- 1.3) keV and a luminosity above (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10 exp 38 erg/s in the 20-80 keV band. Pulse period values have been established for three observations, confirming the remarkably stable spin-up trend of SMC X-1. In one of the three observations the pulse profile was seen to deviate from a dominant double pulsation, while at the same time the pulsed fraction was unusually large. For one observation we determined for the first time the pulsed fraction in narrow energy bands. It increases with photon energy from about 20 percent up to over 60 percent in the energy range from 20 to 80 keV.

  11. The spectral archive of cosmic X-ray sources observed by the Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Clark, George W.; Coyne, Joan M.; Markert, Thomas H.; Saez, Pablo J.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Winkler, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) used the technique of Bragg spectroscopy to study cosmic X-ray sources in the 0.2-3 keV energy range. The high spectral resolving power (E/Delta-E is approximately equal to 100-1000) of this instrument allowed it to resolve closely spaced lines and study the structure of individual features in the spectra of 41 cosmic X-ray sources. An archival summary of the results is presented as a concise record the FPCS observations and a source of information for future analysis by the general astrophysics community. For each observation, the instrument configuration, background rate, X-ray flux or upper limit within the energy band observed, and spectral histograms are given. Examples of the contributions the FPCS observations have made to the understanding of the objects observed are discussed.

  12. X-ray spectral diagnostics of synthetic lanthanide silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsova, A. N.; Guda, A. A.; Soldatov, A. V.; Goettlicher, J.; Taroev, V. K.; Kashaev, A. A.; Suvorova, L. F.; Tauson, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Potassium and rare-earth (Eu, Sm, Yb, Ce) silicate and aluminosilicate crystals are hydrothermally synthesized under isothermal conditions at 500°C and a pressure of 100 MPa. The chemical and structural formulas of the synthesized compounds HK6Eu[Si10O25], K7Sm3[Si12O32], K2Sm[AlSi4O12] · 0.375H2O, K4Yb2[Si8O21], and K4Ce2[Al2Si8O24] are determined. In addition, a synthesis product with Eu, in which the dominant phase is assumed to be K3Eu3+[Si6O15] · 2H2O, is studied. The oxidation state of lanthanides in the silicates under study is determined based on X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. The Eu L 3-, Sm L 3-, Yb L 3-, and Ce L 3-edge X-ray absorption spectra of the studied silicates and reference samples are recorded using a Rigaku R-XAS laboratory spectrometer. As reference samples, Eu2+S, Eu3+F3, Eu 2 3+ O3, Sm 2 3+ O3, Yb 2 3+ O3, Yb3+F3, Yb3+Cl3, Ce 2 3+ O3, and Ce4+O2 are used. Comparison of the absorption edge energies of lanthanide silicates and reference samples shows that Eu, Sm, Yb, and Ce in all the samples studied are in the oxidation state 3+. The synthesized silicates will supplement our knowledge of possible rare-earth minerals existing in hydrothermal systems, which is important for analyzing the distribution spectra of rare elements, which are widely used for diagnostics of geochemical processes and determination of sources of ore materials.

  13. The influence of accretion geometry on the spectral evolution during thermonuclear (type I) X-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajava, Jari J. E.; Nättilä, Joonas; Latvala, Outi-Marja; Pursiainen, Miika; Poutanen, Juri; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Kuulkers, Erik; Galloway, Duncan K.

    2014-12-01

    Neutron star (NS) masses and radii can be estimated from observations of photospheric radius-expansion X-ray bursts, provided the chemical composition of the photosphere, the spectral colour-correction factors in the observed luminosity range, and the emission area during the bursts are known. By analysing 246 X-ray bursts observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from 11 low-mass X-ray binaries, we find a dependence between the persistent spectral properties and the time evolution of the blackbody normalization during the bursts. All NS atmosphere models predict that the colour-correction factor decreases in the early cooling phase when the luminosity first drops below the limiting Eddington value, leading to a characteristic pattern of variability in the measured blackbody normalization. However, the model predictions agree with the observations for most bursts occurring in hard, low-luminosity, island spectral states, but rarely during soft, high-luminosity, banana states. The observed behaviour may be attributed to the accretion flow, which influences cooling of the NS preferentially during the soft state bursts. This result implies that only the bursts occurring in the hard, low-luminosity spectral states can be reliably used for NS mass and radius determination.

  14. Dual-exposure technique for extending the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Abella, M.; Desco, M.; Vaquero, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an approach to extend the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors by combining two acquisitions of the same sample taken with two different x-ray photon flux levels and the same beam spectral configuration. In order to combine both datasets, the response of detector pixels was modelled in terms of mean and variance using a linear model. The model was extended to take into account the effect of pixel saturation. We estimated a joint probability density function (j-pdf) of the pixel values by assuming that each dataset follows an independent Gaussian distribution. This j-pdf was used for estimating the final pixel value of the high-dynamic-range dataset using a maximum likelihood method. The suitability of the pixel model for the representation of the detector signal was assessed using experimental data from a small-animal cone-beam micro-CT scanner equipped with a flat panel detector. The potential extension in dynamic range offered by our method was investigated for generic flat panel detectors using analytical expressions and simulations. The performance of the proposed dual-exposure approach in realistic imaging environments was compared with that of a regular single-exposure technique using experimental data from two different phantoms. Image quality was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and analysis of profiles drawn on the images. The dynamic range, measured as the ratio between the exposure for saturation and the exposure equivalent to instrumentation noise, was increased from 76.9 to 166.7 when using our method. Dual-exposure results showed higher contrast-to-noise ratio and contrast resolution than the single-exposure acquisitions for the same x-ray dose. In addition, image artifacts were reduced in the combined dataset. This technique to extend the dynamic range of the detector without increasing the dose is particularly suited to image samples that contain both low and high attenuation regions.

  15. Spectral x-ray phase contrast imaging for single-shot retrieval of absorption, phase, and differential-phase imagery.

    PubMed

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua

    2014-11-01

    In this Letter, we propose the first single-shot, noninterferometric x-ray imaging method for simultaneous retrieval of absorption, phase, and differential-phase imagery with quantitative accuracy. Our method utilizes a photon-counting spectral x-ray detector in conjunction with a simplified transport-of-intensity equation for coded-aperture phase-contrast imaging to efficiently solve the retrieval problem. This method can utilize an incoherent and polychromatic (clinical or laboratory) x-ray tube and can enable retrieval for a wide range and composition of material properties. The proposed method has been validated via computer simulations and is expected to significantly benefit applications that are sensitive to complexity of measurement, radiation dose and imaging time. PMID:25361350

  16. Spectrally resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray luminescence/fluorescence computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wenxiang; Shen, Haiou; Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    The nanophosphors, or other similar materials, emit near-infrared (NIR) light upon x-ray excitation. They were designed as optical probes for in vivo visualization and analysis of molecular and cellular targets, pathways, and responses. Based on the previous work on x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) and x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT), here we propose a spectrally-resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray luminescence/fluorescence computed tomography (SXLCT or SXFCT) approach to quantify a spatial distribution of nanophosphors (other similar materials or chemical elements) within a biological object. In this paper, the x-ray scattering is taken into account in the reconstruction algorithm. The NIR scattering is described in the diffusion approximation model. Then, x-ray excitations are applied with different spectra, and NIR signals are measured in a spectrally resolving fashion. Finally, a linear relationship is established between the nanophosphor distribution and measured NIR data using the finite element method and inverted using the compressive sensing technique. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and merits of the proposed approach. PMID:21721815

  17. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Brunetti, E.; Vieux, G.; Yang, X.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Maneuski, D.; Montgomery, R.; Smith, G.; Hoek, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Shea, V. O.; Issac, R. C.; Lemos, N. R. C.; Dias, J. M.; and others

    2013-11-15

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

  18. Spectral response calibrations of x-ray diode photocathodes in the 50-5900 eV photon energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Simmons, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray diode photocathodes are employed in diagnostic instruments on the Helen laser at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston, UK. The photocathodes are mainly used in the Dante fast diode array and flat response diodes. These diagnostics enable the soft x-ray spectral emissions of laser irradiated targets to be determined. To derive quantitative spectral information, the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes must be known over the range of x-ray energies of interest. The photocathodes were manufactured in 1982, and were initially calibrated at that time. Since then further measurements have been performed in 1988 and 1999. The photocathodes have been exposed to a wide range of conditions during their lives, ranging from use in experiments to storage in a dry nitrogen environment. Reported here are the results of calibrations performed in 1999 at the soft x-ray calibration facility EXCALIBUR at AWE, Aldermaston, and at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven NY. An assessment of their current condition and an evaluation of the change in their response over time, and the possible reasons for these changes, are made.

  19. An absorption origin for the X-ray spectral variability of MCG-6-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.; Turner, T. J.; Reeves, J. N.

    2008-05-01

    Context: The Seyfert I galaxy MCG-6-30-15 shows one of the best examples of a broad “red wing” of emission in its X-ray spectrum at energies 2 < E < 6.4 keV, commonly interpreted as being caused by relativistically-blurred reflection close to the event horizon of the black hole. Aims: We aim to test an alternative model in which absorption creates the observed spectral shape, explains the puzzling lack of variability of the red wing and reduces the high reflection albedo, substantially greater than unity, that is otherwise inferred at energies E > 20 keV. Methods: We compiled all the available long-exposure, high-quality data for MCG-6-30-15: 522 ks of Chandra hetgs, 282 ks of XMM-Newton pn/rgs and 253 ks of Suzaku xis/pin data. This is the first analysis of this full dataset. We investigated the spectral variability on timescales >20 ks using principal components analysis and fitted spectral models to “flux state” and mean spectra over the energy range 0.5-45 keV (depending on detector). The absorber model was based on the zones previously identified in the high-resolution grating data. Joint fits were carried out to any data that were simultaneous. Results: Multiple absorbing zones covering a wide range of ionisation are required by the grating data, including a highly ionised outflowing zone. A variable partial-covering zone plus absorbed low-ionisation reflection, distant from the source, provides a complete description of the variable X-ray spectrum. A single model fits all the data. We conclude that these zones are responsible for the red wing, its apparent lack of variability, the absorption structure around the Fe Kα line, the soft-band “excess” and the high flux seen in the hard X-ray band. A relativistically-blurred Fe line is not required in this model. We suggest the partial covering zone is a clumpy wind from the accretion disk.

  20. An X-Ray Spectral Classification Algorithm with Application to Young Stellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojnacki, S. M.; Kastner, J. H.; Micela, G.; Feigelson, E. D.; LaLonde, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    A large volume of low signal-to-noise, multidimensional data is available from the CCD imaging spectrometers aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the X-Ray Multimirror Mission (XMM-Newton). To make progress analyzing this data, it is essential to develop methods to sort, classify, and characterize the vast library of X-ray spectra in a nonparametric fashion (complementary to current parametric model fits). We have developed a spectral classification algorithm that handles large volumes of data and operates independently of the requirement of spectral model fits. We use proven multivariate statistical techniques including principal component analysis and an ensemble classifier consisting of agglomerative hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering applied for the first time for spectral classification. The algorithm positions the sources in a multidimensional spectral sequence and then groups the ordered sources into clusters based on their spectra. These clusters appear more distinct for sources with harder observed spectra. The apparent diversity of source spectra is reduced to a three-dimensional locus in principal component space, with spectral outliers falling outside this locus. The algorithm was applied to a sample of 444 strong sources selected from the 1616 X-ray emitting sources detected in deep Chandra imaging spectroscopy of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Classes form sequences in NH, AV, and accretion activity indicators, demonstrating that the algorithm efficiently sorts the X-ray sources into a physically meaningful sequence. The algorithm also isolates important classes of very deeply embedded, active young stellar objects, and yields trends between X-ray spectral parameters and stellar parameters for the lowest mass, pre-main-sequence stars.

  1. X-ray spectral parameters for a sample of 95 active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylenko, A. A.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Fedorova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present a broadband X-ray analysis of a new homogeneous sample of 95 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the 22-month Swift/BAT all-sky survey. For this sample we treated jointly the X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL missions for the total spectral range of 0.5-250 keV. Photon index \\varGamma, relative reflection R, equivalent width of Fe K_{α} line EW_{FeK}, hydrogen column density NH, exponential cut-off energy Ec and intrinsic luminosity L_{corr} are determined for all objects of the sample. We investigated correlations \\varGamma-R, EW_{FeK}-L_{corr}, \\varGamma-Ec, EW_{FeK}-NH. Dependence "\\varGamma-R" for Seyfert 1/2 galaxies has been investigated separately. We found that the relative reflection parameter at low power-law indexes for Seyfert 2 galaxies is systematically higher than for Seyfert 1 ones. This can be related to an increasing contribution of the reflected radiation from the gas-dust torus. Our data show that there exists some anticorrelation between EW_{FeK} and L_{corr}, but it is not strong. We have not found statistically significant deviations from the AGN Unified Model.

  2. The X-ray Spectral Evolution of eta Carinae as Seen by ASCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Fredericks, A. C.; Petre, R.; Swank, J. H.; Drake, S. A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the ASCA X-ray observatory, we examine the variations in the X-ray spectrum of the supermassive star nu Carinae with an unprecedented combination of spatial and spectral resolution. We include data taken during the recent X-ray eclipse in 1997-1998, after recovery from the eclipse, and during and after an X-ray flare. We show that the eclipse variation in the X-ray spectrum is apparently confined to a decrease in the emission measure of the source. We compare our results with a simple colliding wind binary model and find that the observed spectral variations are only consistent, with the binary model if there is significant high-temperature emission far from the star and/or a substantial change in the temperature distribution of the hot plasma. If contamination in the 2-10 keV band is important, the observed eclipse spectrum requires an absorbing column in excess of 10(exp 24)/sq cm for consistency with the binary model, which may indicate an increase in the first derivative of M from nu Carinae near the time of periastron passage. The flare spectra are consistent with the variability seen in nearly simultaneous RXTE observations and thus confirm that nu Carinae itself is the source of the flare emission. The variation in the spectrum during the flare seems confined to a change in the source emission measure. By comparing 2 observations obtained at the same phase in different X-ray cycles, we find that the current, X-ray brightness of the source is slightly higher than the brightness of the source during the last cycle perhaps indicative of a long-term increase in the first derivative of M, not associated with the X-ray cycle.

  3. Experimental measurements of selenium x-ray laser spectral line profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; London, R.A.; Lee, R.W.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1993-03-01

    The authors discuss their recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 {Angstrom} x-ray laser transition in Ne-like Se. These measurements used a high-resolution grating spectrometer and were performed over a wide range of laser amplifier lengths. The data have enabled them to extrapolate the intrinsic line width and to observe the effects of gain-narrowing and saturation on the line profile. They find an intrinsic width which is 1.4 times the Doppler width, they observe gain-narrowing in intermediate length amplifiers, and they observe no re-broadening in long, saturated amplifiers. These results suggest that collisional line-broadening has a significant effect on the line profile and saturation behavior of this laser.

  4. Spectral Evolution of Coronal Hard X-ray Sources during Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, Sam; Lin, R. P.

    2006-06-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) emissions during solar flares are most prominent at chromospheric footpoints of flare loops which reveal where flare-accelerated electrons lose their energy by collision. The lower density in the corona makes it much more difficult to detect coronal HXR emissions, but coronal HXR sources directly reveal insights into the acceleration region (e.g. Masuda et al. 1994). Observations with Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) give for the first time detailed spatial and spectral observations in the HXR range. Initial results of a few events reveal at least two different spectral behavior, possibly indicating two different acceleration mechanisms: (1) Coronal HXR sources with a 'soft-hard-soft' behavior (Battaglia & Benz 2006), and (2) sources that show spectral hardening in time, i.e. a 'soft-hard-harder' behavior (Krucker et al. 2005). After a short review of recent RHESSI observations, we will present statistical results on the spectral evolution of coronal HXR sources of 50 partly occulted limb flares seen by RHESSI.

  5. Timing and spectral studies of the peculiar x-ray binary Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Pablo Miguel Saz

    Cir X-1 is a unique Galactic X-ray binary which was initially classified as a black hole candidate but later reclassified as a neutron star due primarily to the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. In this work, I examine the timing and spectral properties of Cir X-1. FFT analyses are used to study the short (<1 s) timescales while Lomb-Scargle and Phase Dispersion Minimization periodograms are computed to study longer timing properties. I analyze Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPO) in the 1-50 Hz range and divide them into lower frequency (˜3--20 Hz) and higher frequency ones (˜15--50 Hz). The high frequency QPOs decrease in strength (% rms) with increasing frequency, while the lower frequency ones stay constant. The energy dependence of the QPOs implies the frequency is not representative of different locations in the disk. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its softest state is compared to Cyg X-1. Both show breaks. By using scaling arguments, I hypothesize that Cir X-1 has a mass of ˜3 M⊙ , greater than the canonical 1.4 M⊙ mass of a neutron star. I study the energy spectrum evolution of Cir X-1 by constructing both instrument-independent and model-independent color-color diagrams. Spectral fits were performed on USA data, from which physical parameters were derived. The spectral parameters indicate that a two-component model is valid for describing the Cir X-1 spectrum: a multicolor blackbody emission from an accretion disk and a Comptonized emission from a hot plasma (boundary layer or corona). The temperature of the disk remains constant, while there is an indication that the Comptonizing component increases in temperature with orbital phase. From the relative contribution of the disk I infer the neutron star is spinning very rapidly (>1 kHz). The long-term variability of Cir X-1 is studied using data from instruments going back over thirty years. I derive an X-ray ephemeris based showing that the period of Cir X-1 decreases rapidly (P

  6. Timing and Spectral Studies of the Peculiar X-ray Binary Circinus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.

    2003-08-26

    Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) is an X-ray binary displaying an array of phenomena which makes it unique in our Galaxy. Despite several decades of observation, controversy surrounds even the most basic facts about this system. It is generally classified as a Neutron Star (NS) Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB),though this classification is based primarily on the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. It is believed to be in a very eccentric {approx} 16.5 day orbit, displaying periodic outbursts in the radio and other frequency bands (including optical and IR) which reinforce the notion that this is in fact the orbital period. Cir X-1 lies in the plane of the Galaxy, where optical identification of the companion is made difficult due to dust obscuration. The companion is thought to be a low mass star, though a high mass companion has not currently been ruled out. In this work, the author analyzes recent observations of Cir X-1 made with the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, as well as archival observations of Cir X-1 made by a variety of instruments, from as early as 1969. The fast (< 1 s) timing properties of Cir X-1 are studied by performing FFT analyses of the USA data. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the 1-50 Hz range are found and discussed in the context of recent correlations which question the leading models invoked for their generation. The energy dependence of the QPOs (rms increasing with energy) argues against them being generated in the disk and favors models in which the QPOs are related to a higher energy Comptonizing component. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its soft state is compared to that of Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1), the prototypical black hole candidate. Using scaling arguments the author argues that the mass of Cir X-1 could exceed significantly the canonical 1.4 M{circle_dot} mass of a neutron star, possibly partly explaining why this object appears so different to other neutron stars. The spectral evolution of Cir X-1 is

  7. Spectral variability of Cyg X-3. [X ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, P. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Rothschild, R. E.; Saba, J. L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The 1.7-40 keV spectra of Cyg X-3 obtained about a year apart, using the same rocket payload, show large spectral differences. The two observations suggest that while the luminosity of this source remains roughly the same, its spectrum can vary from a featureless blackbody distribution to a flat spectrum which includes strong iron line emission at approximately 6.7 keV. The flux in the line corresponds to an equivalent continuum width of 1.2 keV.

  8. X-RAY SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN NGC 3783

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, R. C.; Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Walton, D. J.; Reynolds, C. S.; Trippe, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Brenneman, L. W.; Nowak, M. A.

    2012-01-20

    NGC 3783 was observed for approximately 210 ks by Suzaku and in this time showed significant spectral and flux variability at both short (20 ks) and long (100 ks) timescales. The full observation is found to consist of approximately six 'spectral periods' where the behavior of the soft (0.3-1.0 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands are somewhat distinct. Using a variety of methods we find that the strong warm absorber present in this source does not change on these timescales, confirming that the broadband variability is intrinsic to the central source. The time-resolved difference-spectra are well modeled with an absorbed power law below 10 keV, but show an additional hard excess at Almost-Equal-To 20 keV in the latter stages of the observation. This suggests that, in addition to the variable power law, there is a further variable component that varies with time but not monotonically with flux. We show that a likely interpretation is that this further component is associated with variations in the reflection fraction or possibly ionization state of the accretion disk a few gravitational radii from the black hole.

  9. [Measurement technology for multi-parameter spectral responsivity of X-ray scintillation crystals].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-hong; Han, Yue-ping; Zhou, Han-chang; Han, Yan

    2010-08-01

    Aimed at the measurement demand for development of better X-ray scintillation crystals, a photoelectrical detector for integrally test the multi-parameter spectral responsivity of scintillation crystals was developed. The conversion spectrum of the scintillation crystal excited by various X-ray energies under the critical focal length could be measured directly through the spectral output interface by one spectrometer, and the photovoltaic effect voltage of the PIN photodiode could be tested through the voltage output interface by one oscilloscope. Furthermore, the output power of fluorescence was calculated using an equivalent circuit. The measurement results show that the conversion efficiency of the scintillator declined along with the current increase of the X-ray tube while it has weak relation with the change in tube voltage. The experimental results show that the method presented in this paper is helpful for testing the scintillator properties. PMID:20939335

  10. Simulation of experimental investigations of X-ray spectral path lengths on Iskra-5 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'kov, S A; Sharov, O O

    2011-10-31

    We describe an improved Slater average-ion model employed in the numerical-theoretical analysis of experimental data, which were obtained in the investigation of X-ray spectral path lengths performed on the Iskra-5 laser facility at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). The proposed model permits determining the spectral characteristics of the X-ray radiation with an accuracy of a few electronvolts. We outline the results of simulations of experiments with X-ray radiation-heated aluminium and germanium specimens of initial thickness of {approx}0.1 mm, in which absorption lines arising from 1s-2p transitions in Al and the absorption band arising from 2p-3d transitions in Ge were recorded.

  11. Simulation of experimental investigations of X-ray spectral path lengths on Iskra-5 laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel'kov, S. A.; Sharov, O. O.

    2011-10-01

    We describe an improved Slater average-ion model employed in the numerical-theoretical analysis of experimental data, which were obtained in the investigation of X-ray spectral path lengths performed on the Iskra-5 laser facility at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). The proposed model permits determining the spectral characteristics of the X-ray radiation with an accuracy of a few electronvolts. We outline the results of simulations of experiments with X-ray radiation-heated aluminium and germanium specimens of initial thickness of ~0.1 mm, in which absorption lines arising from 1s—2p transitions in Al and the absorption band arising from 2p—3d transitions in Ge were recorded.

  12. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.; and others

    2014-08-15

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  13. Temporal and spectral characteristics of solar flare hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Orwig, L. E.; Frost, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar Maximum Mission observations of three flares that impose stringent constraints on physical models of the hard X-ray production during the impulsive phase are presented. Hard X-ray imaging observations of the flares on 1980 November 5 at 22:33 UT show two patches in the 16 to 30 keV images that are separated by 70,000 km and that brighten simultaneously to within 5 s. Observations to O V from one of the footprints show simultaneity of the brightening in this transition zone line and in the total hard X-ray flux to within a second or two. These results suggest but do not require the existence of electron beams in this flare. The rapid fluctuations of the hard X-ray flux within some flares on the time scales of 1 s also provide evidence for electron beams and limits on the time scale of the energy release mechanism. Observations of a flare on 1980 June 6 at 22:34 UT show variations in the 28 keV X-ray counting rate from one 20 ms interval to the next over a period of 10 s. The hard X-ray spectral variations measured with 128 ms time resolution for one 0.5 s spike during this flare are consistent with the predictions of thick-target non-thermal beam model.

  14. Analysis of X-ray Spectra of High-Z Elements obtained on Nike with high spectral and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Yefim; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2014-10-01

    The spectra of multi-charged ions of Hf, Ta, W, Pt, Au and Bi have been studied on Nike krypton-fluoride laser facility with the help of two kinds of X-ray spectrometers. First, survey instrument covering a spectral range from 0.5 to 19.5 angstroms which allows simultaneous observation of both M- and N- spectra of above mentioned elements with high spectral resolution. Second, an imaging spectrometer with interchangeable spherically bent Quartz crystals that added higher efficiency, higher spectral resolution and high spatial resolution to the qualities of the former one. Multiple spectral lines with X-ray energies as high as 4 keV that belong to the isoelectronic sequences of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn were identified with the help of NOMAD package developed by Dr. Yu. Ralchenko and colleagues. In our continuous effort to support DOE-NNSA's inertial fusion program, this campaign covered a wide range of plasma conditions that result in production of relatively energetic X-rays. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  15. 5 to 160 keV continuous-wave x-ray spectral energy distribution and energy flux density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tallon, R.W.; Koller, D.C.; Pelzl, R.M.; Pugh, R.D.; Bellem, R.D. . Microelectronics and Photonics Research Branch)

    1994-12-01

    In 1991, the USAF Phillips Laboratory Microelectronics and Photonics Research Branch installed a low energy x-ray facility (LEXR) for use in microelectronics radiation-effects analysis and research. Techniques developed for measuring the x-ray spectral energy distribution (differential intensity) from a tungsten-target bremsstrahlung x-ray source are reported. Spectra with end-point energies ranging from 20 to 160 keV were recorded. A separate effort to calibrate the dosimetry for the Phillips Laboratory low-energy x-ray facility established a need to know the spectral energy distributions at some point within the facility (previous calibration efforts had relies on spectra obtained from computer simulations). It was discovered that the primary discrepancy between the simulated and measured spectra was in the L- K-line data. The associated intensity (energy flux density) of the measured distributions was found to be up to 30% higher. Based on the measured distributions, predicted device responses were within 10% of the measured response as compared to about 30% accuracy obtained with simulated distributions.

  16. New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.

    2012-09-25

    An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

  17. A search for X-ray reprocessing echoes in the power spectral density functions of AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I. E.; Epitropakis, A.; Pecháček, T.; Dovčiak, M.; McHardy, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a detailed study of the X-ray power spectral density (PSD) functions of 12 X-ray bright AGN, using almost all the archival XMM-Newton data. The total net exposure of the EPIC-pn light curves is larger than 350 ks in all cases (and exceeds 1 Ms in the case of 1H 0707-497). In a physical scenario in which X-ray reflection occurs in the inner part of the accretion disc of AGN, the X-ray reflection component should be a filtered echo of the X-ray continuum signal and should be equal to the convolution of the primary emission with the response function of the disc. Our primary objective is to search for these reflection features in the 5-7 keV (iron line) and 0.5-1 keV (soft) bands, where the X-ray reflection fraction is expected to be dominant. We fit to the observed periodograms two models: a simple bending power-law model (BPL) and a BPL model convolved with the transfer function of the accretion disc assuming the lamp-post geometry and X-ray reflection from a homogeneous disc. We do not find any significant features in the best-fitting BPL model residuals either in individual PSDs in the iron band, soft and full band (0.3-10 keV) or in the average PSD residuals of the brightest and more variable sources (with similar black hole mass estimates). The typical amplitude of the soft and full-band residuals is around 3-5 per cent. It is possible that the expected general relativistic effects are not detected because they are intrinsically lower than the uncertainty of the current PSDs, even in the strong relativistic case in which X-ray reflection occurs on a disc around a fast rotating black hole having an X-ray source very close above it. However, we could place strong constrains to the X-ray reflection geometry with the current data sets if we knew in advance the intrinsic shape of the X-ray PSDs, particularly its high-frequency slope.

  18. X-Ray Spectral Variability Signatures of Flares in BL Lac Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, Markus; Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We are presenting a detailed parameter study of the time-dependent electron injection and kinematics and the self-consistent radiation transport in jets of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. Using a time-dependent, combined synchrotron-self-Compton and external-Compton jet model, we study the influence of variations of several essential model parameters, such as the electron injection compactness, the relative contribution of synchrotron to external soft photons to the soft photon compactness, the electron- injection spectral index, and the details of the time profiles of the electron injection episodes giving rise to flaring activity. In the analysis of our results, we focus on the expected X-ray spectral variability signatures in a region of parameter space particularly well suited to reproduce the broadband spectral energy distributions of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. We demonstrate that SSC- and external-Compton dominated models for the gamma-ray emission from blazars are producing significantly different signatures in the X-ray variability, in particular in the soft X-ray light curves and the spectral hysteresis at soft X-ray energies, which can be used as a powerful diagnostic to unveil the nature of the high-energy emission from BL Lac objects.

  19. Testing the Pairs-Reflection Model with X-Ray Spectral Variability and X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    1997-01-01

    This grant was awarded to Dr. C. Megan Urry of the Space Telescope Science Institute in response to two successful ADP proposals to use archival Ginga and Rosat X-ray data for 'Testing the Pairs-Reflection model with X-Ray Spectral Variability' (in collaboration with Paola Grandi, now at the University of Rome) and 'X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects' (in collaboration with then-graduate student Rita Sambruna, now a post-doc at Goddard Space Flight Center). In addition, post-docs Joseph Pesce and Elena Pian, and graduate student Matthew O'Dowd, have worked on several aspects of these projects. The grant was originally awarded on 3/01/94; this report covers the full period, through May 1997. We have completed our project on the X-ray properties of radio-selected BL Lacs.

  20. X-ray spectral properties of the AGN sample in the northern XMM-XXL field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhu; Merloni, Andrea; Georgakakis, Antonis; Menzel, Marie-Luise; Buchner, Johannes; Nandra, Kirpal; Salvato, Mara; Shen, Yue; Brusa, Marcella; Streblyanska, Alina

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we describe and publicly release a catalogue consisting of 8445 point-like X-ray sources detected in the XMM-XXL north survey. For the 2512 AGN which have reliable spectroscopy from SDSS-III/BOSS, we present the X-ray spectral fitting which has been computed with a Bayesian approach. We have also applied an X-ray spectral stacking method to different sub-samples, selected on the basis of the AGN physical properties (L2-10 keV, z, MBH, λEdd and NH). We confirm the well-known Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect in our luminosity-redshift sub-samples, and argue that such an effect is due to a decrease in the covering factor of a distant obscuring `torus' with increasing X-ray luminosity. By comparing the distribution of the reflection fraction, the ratio of the normalization of the reflected component to the direct radiation, we find that the low-luminosity, low-redshift sub-sample had systematically higher reflection fraction values than the high-redshift, high-luminosity one. On the other hand, no significant difference is found between samples having similar luminosity but different redshift, suggesting that the structure of the torus does not evolve strongly with redshift. Contrary to previous works, we do not find evidence for an increasing photon index at high Eddington ratio. This may be an indication that the structure of the accretion disc changes as the Eddington ratio approaches unity. Comparing our X-ray spectral analysis results with the optical spectral classification, we find that ˜20 per cent of optical type-1 AGN show an X-ray absorbing column density higher than 1021.5 cm- 2, and about 50 per cent of type-2 AGN have an X-ray absorbing column density less than 1021.5 cm- 2. We suggest that the excess X-ray absorption shown in the high-luminosity optical type-1 AGN can be due to small-scale dust-free gas within (or close to) the broad-line region, while in the low-luminosity ones it can be due to a clumpy torus with a large covering factor.

  1. A decade of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Seyfert observations: An RXTE Seyfert spectral database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Barbara Jo

    2008-10-01

    With over forty years of X-ray observations, we should have a grasp on the X- ray nature of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The unification model of Antonucci and Miller (1985) offered a context for understanding observations by defining a "typical" AGN geometry, with observed spectral differences explained by line- of-sight effects. However, the emerging picture is that the central AGN is more complex than unification alone can describe. We explore the unified model with a systematic X-ray spectral study of bright Seyfert galaxies observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) over its first 10 years. We develop a spectral-fit database of 821 time-resolved spectra from 39 Seyfert galaxies fitted to a model describing the effects of an X-ray power-law spectrum reprocessed and absorbed by material in the central AGN region. We observe a relationship between radio and X-ray properties for Seyfert 1s, with the spectral parameters differing between radio-loud and radio-quiet Seyfert 1s. We also find a complex relationship between the Fe K equivalent width ( EW ) and the power-law photon index (Gamma) for the Seyfert 1s, with a correlation for the radio-loud sources and an anti-correlation for the radio- quiet sources. These results can be explained if X-rays from the relativistic jet in radio-loud sources contribute significantly to the observed spectrum. We observe scatter in the EW-Gamma relationship for the Seyfert 2s, suggesting complex environments that unification alone cannot explain. We see a strong correlation between Gamma and the reflection fraction ( R ) in the Seyfert 1 and 2 samples, but modeling degeneracies are present, so this relationship cannot be trusted as instructive of the AGN physics. For the Seyfert 1 sample, we find an anticorrelation between EW and the 2 to 10 keV luminosity ( L x ), also known as the X-ray Baldwin effect. This may suggest that higher luminosity sources contain less material or may be due to a time-lag effect. We do not

  2. New Instruments for Spectrally-Resolved Solar Soft X-ray Observations from CubeSats, and Larger Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Shih, A.; Warren, H. P.; DeForest, C. E.; Woods, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics and evolution of these energetic processes; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport. A better understanding of the thermal plasma informs our interpretation of hard X-ray (HXR) observations of nonthermal particles, improving our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-SDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. An X123-CdTe cadmium-telluride detector is also included for ~5-100 keV HXR spectroscopy with ~0.5-1 keV FWHM resolution. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a pinhole aperture and X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide full-Sun imaging from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. We discuss scaled versions of these instruments, with greater sensitivity and dynamic range, and significantly improved spectral and spatial resolutions for the imager, for deployment on larger platforms such as Small Explorer missions.

  3. Photon interference effect in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Suzuki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Kappen, P.; Korecki, P.; Haack, N.; Materlik, G.

    2002-09-01

    We consider fundamental structures in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range. We formulate the elastic scattering in addition to the photoelectric absorption in recently reported photon interference x-ray absorption fine structure (πXAFS). The simulations show excellent agreement with experimental x-ray absorption spectra for platinum and tungsten powders far above and below the L absorption edges. πXAFS can be as big as in the order of 10% of XAFS, and cannot be easily neglected in detailed analysis of XAFS and related phenomena.

  4. C IV EMISSION AND THE ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH X-RAY SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Proga, Daniel

    2011-10-15

    In the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), two of the parameters that best characterize the range of emission-line properties in quasar broad emission-line regions are the equivalent width and the blueshift of the C IV {lambda}1549 line relative to the quasar rest frame. We explore the connection between these emission-line properties and the UV through X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars. Our sample consists of a heterogeneous compilation of 406 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (at z > 1.54) and Palomar-Green survey (at z < 0.4) that have well-measured C IV emission-line and X-ray properties (including 164 objects with measured {Gamma}). We find that RQ quasars with both strong C IV emission and small C IV blueshifts can be classified as 'hard-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) strong in the X-ray as compared to the UV. On the other hand, RQ quasars with both weak C IV emission and large C IV blueshifts are instead 'soft-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) weak in the X-ray as compared to the UV. This work helps to further bridge optical/soft X-ray 'eigenvector 1' relationships to the UV and hard X-ray. Based on these findings, we argue that future work should consider systematic errors in bolometric corrections (and thus accretion rates) that are derived from a single mean SED. Detailed analysis of the C IV emission line may allow for SED-dependent corrections to these quantities.

  5. Spatial and spectral features of soft diffuse X ray background seen by the Einstein observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micela, G.; Harnden, F. R.; Rosner, R., Jr.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the diffuse soft X-ray background as seen directly by the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) is presented. A source free region of the detector 1 by 1 degree field is used. The background in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV spectral region is viewed. The data covers roughly 5 percent of the sky, with some bias in coverage towards the galactic plane. The moderate energy resolution of the IPC enables the characterization and the production of maps of the background as a function of energy within the Einstein passband. The results are compared with previous observations of the diffuse X-ray background. The implications for galactic structure and for the soft component of the extragalactic X-ray background are discussed.

  6. Platform for spectrally resolved x-ray scattering from imploding capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, D.; Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Yi, A.; Boehm, K.; Bachmann, B.; Divol, L.; Fletcher, L. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L.; Masters, N.; Saunders, A. M.; Weber, C.; Falcone, R. W.; Neumayer, P.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new experimental platform to perform spectrally resolved x-ray scattering measurements of ionization, density and temperature in imploding CH or beryllium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. Scattered x-rays at 9 keV from a zinc He-alpha plasma source at a scattering angle of 120 degrees are highly sensitive to K-shell ionization, while at the same time constraining density and temperature. This platform will allow for x-ray scattering studies of dense plasmas with free electron densities up to 1025 cm-3 giving the possibility to investigate effects of pressure ionization and Pauli blocking on the ablator ionization state right before or shortly after stagnation of the implosion.

  7. Parameterized algorithms for quantitative differentials in spectrally equivalent medical diagnostic x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative equivalence of spectra transmitted by two different elemental filters require a good match in terms of shape and size over the entire energy range of 0-150 keV used in medical diagnostic radiology. However, the photoelectric absorptions and Compton scattering involved in the interaction of x rays with matter at these relatively low photon energies differ in a nonuniform manner with energy and atomic number. By careful choice of thicknesses for filter materials with an atomic number between 12 and 39, when compared with aluminum, it is possible to obtain transmitted beams of the same shape (quality) but not of the same size (quantity). In this paper, calculations have been carried out for the matching of the shapes and sizes of beams transmitted through specified thicknesses of aluminium filter and spectrally equivalent thicknesses of other filter materials (different from aluminium) using FORTRAN source codes traceable to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM), College Park, MD, USA. Parametrized algorithms for the evaluation of quantitative differentials (deficit or surplus) in radiation output (namely, photon fluence, exposure, kerma, energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose) from these transmitted spectrally equivalent beams were developed. These differentials range between 1%, and 4% at 1 mm Al filtration and between 8%, and 25% for filtration of 6 mm Al for different filter materials in comparison with aluminum. Also developed were models for factors for converting measures of photon fluence, exposure-area product, (EAP), and kerma-area product (KAP) to risk related quantities such as energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose from the spectrally equivalent beams. The thicknesses of other filter materials that are spectrally equivalent to given thicknesses of aluminum filter were characterized using polynomial functions. The fact that the use of equivalent spectra in radiological practice can

  8. Parameterized algorithms for quantitative differentials in spectrally equivalent medical diagnostic x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-06-15

    Qualitative and quantitative equivalence of spectra transmitted by two different elemental filters require a good match in terms of shape and size over the entire energy range of 0-150 keV used in medical diagnostic radiology. However, the photoelectric absorptions and Compton scattering involved in the interaction of x rays with matter at these relatively low photon energies differ in a nonuniform manner with energy and atomic number. By careful choice of thicknesses for filter materials with an atomic number between 12 and 39, when compared with aluminum, it is possible to obtain transmitted beams of the same shape (quality) but not of the same size (quantity). In this paper, calculations have been carried out for the matching of the shapes and sizes of beams transmitted through specified thicknesses of aluminium filter and spectrally equivalent thicknesses of other filter materials (different from aluminium) using FORTRAN source codes traceable to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM), College Park, MD, USA. Parametrized algorithms for the evaluation of quantitative differentials (deficit or surplus) in radiation output (namely, photon fluence, exposure, kerma, energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose) from these transmitted spectrally equivalent beams were developed. These differentials range between 1%, and 4% at 1 mm Al filtration and between 8%, and 25% for filtration of 6 mm Al for different filter materials in comparison with aluminum. Also developed were models for factors for converting measures of photon fluence, exposure-area product, (EAP), and kerma-area product (KAP) to risk related quantities such as energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose from the spectrally equivalent beams. The thicknesses of other filter materials that are spectrally equivalent to given thicknesses of aluminum filter were characterized using polynomial functions. The fact that the use of equivalent spectra in radiological practice can

  9. An Unusual Spectral State of an Ultraluminous Very Soft X-Ray Source during Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Di Stefano, R.

    2005-10-01

    We report the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a new outburst of an ultraluminous X-ray source in M101. During a Chandra monitoring observation of M101, M101 ULX-1 was found to be in outburst in 2004 December, the second outburst in 2004. The peak bolometric luminosity is about 3×1040 ergs s-1 (7×1039 ergs s-1 in 0.3-7 keV). The outburst spectra are very soft and can generally be fitted with a blackbody model, with temperatures of 40-80 eV, similar to supersoft X-ray sources in the Milky Way and in the Magellanic Clouds. In one Chandra observation, the source spectrum appears to be harder with a temperature of 150 eV. Such a spectral state is rarely seen in M101 ULX-1, and no X-ray source in the Milky Way shows this kind of spectrum. However, such an unusual spectral state very likely belongs to a new class of X-ray sources, quasi-soft X-ray sources, recently discovered in nearby galaxies. M101 ULX-1 returned to supersoft state in a subsequent XMM-Newton observation. Based on the two outbursts in 2004, the extremely high luminosity (Lbol=1040-1041 ergs s-1), very soft X-ray spectra (kT=40-150 eV), transient behavior, and state transition provide strong evidence that M101 ULX-1 harbors an intermediate-mass black hole.

  10. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A.; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W.; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  11. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSES OF SPECTRAL INDICES OF NONTHERMAL EMISSIONS DERIVED FROM HARD X-RAYS AND MICROWAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Ayumi; Kiyohara, Junko; Takasaki, Hiroyuki; Narukage, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Masuda, Satoshi; Shimojo, Masumi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2013-02-15

    We studied electron spectral indices of nonthermal emissions seen in hard X-rays (HXRs) and microwaves. We analyzed 12 flares observed by the Hard X-Ray Telescope aboard Yohkoh, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and compared the spectral indices derived from total fluxes of HXRs and microwaves. Except for four events, which have very soft HXR spectra suffering from the thermal component, these flares show a gap {Delta}{delta} between the electron spectral indices derived from HXRs {delta} {sub X} and those from microwaves {delta}{sub {mu}} ({Delta}{delta} = {delta} {sub X} - {delta}{sub {mu}}) of about 1.6. Furthermore, from the start to the peak times of the HXR bursts, the time profiles of the HXR spectral index {delta} {sub X} evolve synchronously with those of the microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}}, keeping the constant gap. We also examined the spatially resolved distribution of the microwave spectral index by using NoRH data. The microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}} tends to be larger, which means a softer spectrum, at HXR footpoint sources with stronger magnetic field than that at the loop tops. These results suggest that the electron spectra are bent at around several hundreds of keV, and become harder at the higher energy range that contributes the microwave gyrosynchrotron emission.

  12. pyBLoCXS: Bayesian Low-Count X-ray Spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay; Refsdal, Brian; van Dyk, David; Connors, Alanna; Park, Taeyoung

    2012-04-01

    pyBLoCXS is a sophisticated Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based algorithm designed to carry out Bayesian Low-Count X-ray Spectral (BLoCXS) analysis in the Sherpa environment. The code is a Python extension to Sherpa that explores parameter space at a suspected minimum using a predefined Sherpa model to high-energy X-ray spectral data. pyBLoCXS includes a flexible definition of priors and allows for variations in the calibration information. It can be used to compute posterior predictive p-values for the likelihood ratio test. The pyBLoCXS code has been tested with a number of simple single-component spectral models; it should be used with great care in more complex settings.

  13. X-Ray Spectral and Timing Behavior of Scorpius X-1. Spectral Hardening during the Flaring Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena; Shrader, Chris

    2014-07-01

    We present an analysis of the spectral and timing properties of X-ray emission from the Z-source Sco X-1 during its evolution between the horizontal (HB) and flaring (FB) branches observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 1996-2002 period. We find that the broadband (3-250 keV) energy spectra during all spectral states can be adequately reproduced by a model, consisting of two Comptonized components and an iron line. We suggest that the seed photons of kT s1 <~ 0.7 keV coming from the disk and of temperature kT s2 <~ 1.8 keV coming from the neutron star (NS) are each upscattered by hot electrons of a "Compton cloud" (hereafter the Comptb1 and Comptb2 components, respectively, which are associated with the similarly subscripted parameters). The photon power-law index Γ2 is almost constant (Γ2 ~ 2) for all spectral states. In turn, Γ1 demonstrates a two-phase behavior with the spectral state: Γ1 is quasi-constant at the level Γ1 ~ 2 for the HB-NB and Γ1 is less than 2, namely in the range of 1.3 < Γ1 < 2, when the source traces the FB. We also detect a decrease kT s2 from 1.8 keV to 0.7 keV during the FB. We interpret this apparent quasi-stability of the indices during the HB-NB in the framework of the model in which the spectrum is determined by the Comptonized thermal components. This effect established for the Comptonized spectral components of the Z-source Sco X-1 is similar to what was previously found in the atoll sources 4U 1728-34, GX 3+1 and 4U 1820-30 and the Z-source GX 340+0 through all spectral states. However, we interpret the index reduction phase detected during the FB in Sco X-1 within the framework of a model in which the spectrum at the FB is determined by high radiation pressure from the NS surface.

  14. X-ray spectral and timing behavior of Scorpius X-1. Spectral hardening during the flaring branch

    SciTech Connect

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2014-07-10

    We present an analysis of the spectral and timing properties of X-ray emission from the Z-source Sco X-1 during its evolution between the horizontal (HB) and flaring (FB) branches observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 1996-2002 period. We find that the broadband (3-250 keV) energy spectra during all spectral states can be adequately reproduced by a model, consisting of two Comptonized components and an iron line. We suggest that the seed photons of kT{sub s1} ≲ 0.7 keV coming from the disk and of temperature kT{sub s2} ≲ 1.8 keV coming from the neutron star (NS) are each upscattered by hot electrons of a 'Compton cloud' (hereafter the Comptb1 and Comptb2 components, respectively, which are associated with the similarly subscripted parameters). The photon power-law index Γ{sub 2} is almost constant (Γ{sub 2} ∼ 2) for all spectral states. In turn, Γ{sub 1} demonstrates a two-phase behavior with the spectral state: Γ{sub 1} is quasi-constant at the level Γ{sub 1} ∼ 2 for the HB–NB and Γ{sub 1} is less than 2, namely in the range of 1.3 < Γ{sub 1} < 2, when the source traces the FB. We also detect a decrease kT{sub s2} from 1.8 keV to 0.7 keV during the FB. We interpret this apparent quasi-stability of the indices during the HB–NB in the framework of the model in which the spectrum is determined by the Comptonized thermal components. This effect established for the Comptonized spectral components of the Z-source Sco X-1 is similar to what was previously found in the atoll sources 4U 1728-34, GX 3+1 and 4U 1820-30 and the Z-source GX 340+0 through all spectral states. However, we interpret the index reduction phase detected during the FB in Sco X-1 within the framework of a model in which the spectrum at the FB is determined by high radiation pressure from the NS surface.

  15. Spectral character of optimized undulator insertion devices for the Synchrotron X-ray Source at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Viccaro, P.J.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1987-03-01

    Two general types of undulator x-ray sources are planned for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to be built at Argonne. One is to provide first harmonic radiation tunable over the interval of 7 to 14 keV during the initial phase of operation of the storage ring. This tunability range will increase for the same device to approximately 4.7 to 14 keV during the mature phase of operation. A second device with a smaller period is planned for those cases where the intensity of the third harmonic radiation from the above device is not sufficient. In this case, the undulator will provide 20 keV radiation in the first harmonic. The magnetic design of both devices will be a hybrid type which uses the Nd-Fe-B alloy as the permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur as the pole-tip. As part of the optimization scheme, the magnetic field calculations have been carried out using a version of the two dimensional field code PANDIRA. In this approximation, the width of the undulator is assumed to be infinite. Three dimensional effects associated to finite pole widths have been estimated using experimental results of single pole measurements for a 7 cm period device. In addition, numerical calculations of the spectral characteristics have been done using the magnetic design parameters and taking into account the emittance expected for the APS. On-axis brilliance results as well as expected spectral power densities have been determined.

  16. Thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet: a self-consistent multicolour spectral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullin, I.; Medvedev, P.; Sazonov, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a publicly available spectral model for thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet in an X-ray binary system, inspired by the microquasar SS 433. The jet is assumed to be strongly collimated (half-opening angle Θ ˜ 1°) and mildly relativistic (bulk velocity β = Vb/c ˜ 0.03-0.3). Its X-ray spectrum is found by integrating over thin slices of constant temperature, radiating in optically thin coronal regime. The temperature profile along the jet and corresponding differential emission measure distribution are calculated with full account for gas cooling due to expansion and radiative losses. Since the model predicts both the spectral shape and luminosity of the jet's emission, its normalization is not a free parameter if the source distance is known. We also explore the possibility of using simple X-ray observables (such as flux ratios in different energy bands) to constrain physical parameters of the jet (e.g. gas temperature and density at its base) without broad-band fitting of high-resolution spectra. We demonstrate this approach in application to Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer spectra of SS 433 in its `edge-on' precession phase, when the contribution from non-jet spectral components is expected to be low. Our model provides a reasonable fit to the 1-3 keV data, while some residuals remain at higher energies, which may be partially attributed to a putative reflection component. Besides SS 433, the model might be used for describing jet components in spectra of other Galactic X-ray binary systems (e.g. 4U 1630-47), ULXs (e.g. Holmberg II X-1), and candidate SS 433 analogues like S26 in NGC 7793 and the radio transient in M82.

  17. X-ray spectral survey with XMM-Newton of a complete sample of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, M.; Panessa, F.; Bassani, L.; Dadina, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Comastri, A.; della Ceca, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Gianotti, F.; Ho, L. C.; Malaguti, G.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Piconcelli, E.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Stephen, J.; Trifoglio, M.; Weaver, K. A.

    2006-02-01

    Results obtained from an X-ray spectral survey of nearby Seyfert galaxies using XMM-Newton are reported. The sample was optically selected, well defined, complete in B magnitude, and distance limited: it consists of the nearest (D ⪉22 Mpc) 27 Seyfert galaxies (9 of type 1, 18 of type 2) taken from the Ho et al. (1997a, ApJS, 112, 315) sample. This is one of the largest atlases of hard X-ray spectra of low-luminosity active galaxies ever assembled. All nuclear sources except two Seyfert 2s are detected between 2 and 10 keV, half for the first time ever, and average spectra are obtained for all of them. Nuclear luminosities reach values down to 1038 erg s-1. The shape of the distribution of X-ray parameters is affected by the presence of Compton-thick objects (⪆30% among type 2s). The latter have been identified either directly from their intense FeK line and flat X-ray spectra, or indirectly with flux diagnostic diagrams which use isotropic indicators. After taking into account these highly absorbed sources, we find that (i) the intrinsic X-ray spectral properties (i.e., spectral shapes and luminosities above 2 keV) are consistent between type 1 and type 2 Seyferts, as expected from "unified models"; (ii) Seyfert galaxies as a whole are distributed fairly continuously over the entire range of N_H, between 1020 and 1025 cm-2; and (iii) while Seyfert 1s tend to have lower NH and Seyfert 2s tend to have the highest, we find 30% and 10% exceptions, respectively. Overall the sample is of sufficient quality to well represent the average intrinsic X-ray spectral properties of nearby active galactic nuclei, including a proper estimate of the distribution of their absorbing columns. Finally, we conclude that, with the exception of a few cases, the present study agrees with predictions of unified models of Seyfert galaxies, and extends their validity down to very low luminosities.

  18. Average spectral properties of galactic X-ray binaries with 3 years of MAXI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nazma; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Paul, B.; Nath, Biman B.

    The energy spectra of X-ray binaries (XRBs) have been investigated during the last few decades with many observatories in different energy bands and with different energy resolutions. However, these studies are carried out in selected states of XRBs like during outbursts, transitions, quiescent states, and are always done in limited time windows of pointed observations. It is now possible to investigate the long term averaged spectra of a large number of X-ray binaries with the all sky monitor MAXI, which also has a broad energy band. Here we present the average spectral behaviour of a few representative XRBs. The long term averaged spectrum of Cyg X-1 is described by a sum of two power-laws having Γ_{1} ˜2.8 and Γ_{2} ˜1.2, along with a multi color disk blackbody having an inner disk temperature of 0.5 keV, GX 301-2 is described by a power-law with a high energy cut-off at E_{c} ˜ 15 keV and a blackbody component at 0.2 keV and that of Aql X-1 is described by a multi color disk blackbody at 2 keV and a power-law of Γ ˜ 2.2. We have also constructed the combined X-ray spectrum of the X-ray binaries in the Milky Way, which can be compared to the XRBs spectra of other galaxies observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton. These measurements are also relevant to investigate the X-ray interaction with the ISM and its contribution to the ionizing X-ray background in the early universe.

  19. A Spectral Variability Survey of X-ray Reflection and Absorption in Seyfert AGN using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, Alex

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) is the current longest-running X-ray mission. It has collected data on over 130 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) over its 15-year lifetime. We plan to systematically analyze the broad X-ray spectra of all AGN observed with RXTE to produce the ultimate and complete spectral sample with which to solidify the legacy of RXTE towards AGN science and towards understanding the nature of reprocessing and reflection processes in Seyferts. In many cases, RXTE conducted sustained monitoring spanning a baseline of many years, so our proposed time-averaged spectral analysis reduces the ambiguity inherent in individual snapshots due to source variability, thereby providing the community with long-term average X-ray spectral properties as well as identifying any state changes in sources. We will also perform time- and flux-resolved spectroscopy to search for variability in the Fe K alpha emission line in response to X-ray continuum flux variations to constrain its location via reverberation mapping, e.g., material commensurate with the optical Broad Line Region or a parsec- scale torus. Our proposed work will place important constraints on the location and homogeneity of the Compton-thick circumnuclear accreting gas. We will also search for variations in the line-of-sight column density of absorbing material in Seyferts to test classical Seyfert 1/2 unification schemes against newer models which rely on distributions of clumps of gas and for which X-ray absorption is a viewing-angle dependent probability, and provide observational constraints for these latter models. This research supports NASA Strategic Goal 2 by expanding scientific understanding of the universe in which we live, how the universe works, and how the observable universe came to be.

  20. Rapid spectral and timing variability of Be/X-ray binaries during type ;II outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.

    2008-10-01

    X-ray colour-colour (CD) and colour-intensity (HID) diagrams are powerful tools that allow investigation of spectral variability without assuming any spectral model. These diagrams have been used extensively for low-mass X-ray binaries and black-hole candidates, but very few applications have been found for high-mass X-ray binaries. We investigated the spectral and timing variability of four accreting X-ray pulsars with Be-type companions during major X-ray outbursts. The aim is to define source states based on the properties (noise components) of the aperiodic variability in correlation with the position in the colour-colour diagram. Different spectral states were defined according to the value of the X-ray colours and flux. Transient Be/X-ray binaries exhibit two branches in their colour-colour and colour-intensity diagrams: i) the horizontal branch corresponds to a low-intensity state and shows the highest fractional rms, similar to the the island state in atolls and horizontal branch in Z sources; ii) the diagonal branch corresponds to a high-intensity state, in which the source stays for about 75% of the total duration of the outburst. Despite the complexity of the power spectra due to the peaks of the pulse period and its harmonics, the aperiodic variability of Be/X-ray binaries can be described with a relatively low number of Lorentzian components. Some of these components can be associated with the same type of noise as seen in low-mass X-ray binaries, although the characteristic frequencies are about one order of magnitude lower. The analysis of the CD/HID and power spectra results in two different types of Be/X. While in 4U 0115+63, KS 1947+300 and EXO 2030+375 the hard colour decreases as the count rate decreases, it increases in V0332+53. The pattern traced by V0332+53 then results in a Z-shaped track, similar to the low-mass Z sources, without the flaring branch. In contrast, the horizontal branch in 4U 0115+63, KS 1947+300 and EXO 2030+375 corresponds

  1. Exploring the spectral properties of faint hard X-ray sources with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, E.; Cappi, M.; Bassani, L.; Fiore, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Stephen, J. B.

    2002-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of 41 hard X-ray sources detected serendipitously with high significance (>5sigma in the 2-10 keV band) in seven EPIC performance/verification phase observations. The large collecting area of EPIC allows us to explore the spectral properties of these faint hard X-ray sources with 2 < F2-10 < 80 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 even though the length of the exposures are modest ( ~ 20 ks). Optical identifications are available for 21 sources of our sample. Using a simple power law plus Galactic absorption model we find an average value of the photon index Gamma ~ 1.6-1.7, broadly consistent with recent measurements made at similar fluxes with ASCA and with Chandra stacked spectral analyses. We find that 31 out of 41 sources are well fitted by this simple model and only eight sources require absorption in excess of the Galactic value. Interestingly enough, one third of these absorbed sources are broad line objects, though with moderate column densities. Two sources in the sample are X-ray bright optically quiet galaxies and show flat X-ray spectra. Comparing our observational results with those expected from standard synthesis models of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) we find a fraction of unabsorbed to absorbed sources larger than predicted by theoretical models at our completeness limit of F2-10 ~ 5 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. The results presented here illustrate well how wide-angle surveys performed with EPIC on board XMM-Newton allow population studies of interesting and unusual sources to be made as well as enabling constraints to be placed on some input parameters for synthesis models of the CXB.

  2. Spectrally-resolved Soft X-ray Observations and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry; McTiernan, James; Woods, Thomas N.

    2015-04-01

    Solar X-ray observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during solar flares and quiescent periods. How the corona is heated to its ~1-3 MK nominal temperature remains one of the fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics; heating of plasma to tens of MK during solar flares -- particularly to the hottest observed temperatures of up to ~50 MK -- is also still poorly understood. Soft X-ray emission (~0.1-10 keV; or ~0.1-10 nm) is particularly sensitive to hot coronal plasma and serves as a probe of the thermal processes driving coronal plasma heating. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding these energetic processes, but there have historically been very few such observations. We present new solar soft X-ray spectra from the Amptek X123-SDD, measuring quiescent solar X-ray emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution from two SDO/EVE calibration sounding rocket underflights in 2012 and 2013. Combined with observations from RHESSI, GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, and SDO/AIA, the temperature distribution derived from these data suggest significant hot (5-10 MK) emission from active regions, and the 2013 spectra suggest a low-FIP enhancement of only ~1.6 relative to the photosphere, 40% of the usually-observed value from quiescent coronal plasma. We explore the implications of these findings on coronal heating. We discuss future missions for spectrally-resolved soft X-ray observations using the X123-SDD, including the upcoming MinXSS 3U CubeSat using the X123-SDD and scheduled for deployment in mid-2015, and the CubIXSS 6U CubeSat mission concept.

  3. Use of a priori spectral information in the measurement of x-ray flux with filtered diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, R. E.; Widmann, K.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; MacLaren, S. A.; May, M. J.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    Filtered x-ray diode (XRD) arrays are often used to measure x-ray spectra vs. time from spectrally continuous x-ray sources such as hohlraums. A priori models of the incident x-ray spectrum enable a more accurate unfolding of the x-ray flux as compared to the standard technique of modifying a thermal Planckian with spectral peaks or dips at the response energy of each filtered XRD channel. A model x-ray spectrum consisting of a thermal Planckian, a Gaussian at higher energy, and (in some cases) a high energy background provides an excellent fit to XRD-array measurements of x-ray emission from laser heated hohlraums. If high-resolution measurements of part of the x-ray emission spectrum are available, that information can be included in the a priori model. In cases where the x-ray emission spectrum is not Planckian, candidate x-ray spectra can be allowed or excluded by fitting them to measured XRD voltages. Examples are presented from the filtered XRD arrays, named Dante, at the National Ignition Facility and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  4. Experimental spectral measurements of heavy K-edge filtered beams for x-ray computed mammotomography

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, D J; McKinley, R L; Tornai, M P

    2012-01-01

    A dual modality computed mammotomography (CmT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system for dedicated 3D breast imaging is in development. Using heavy K-edge filtration, the CmT component narrows the energy spectrum of the cone-shaped x-ray beam incident on the patient’s pendant, uncompressed breast. This quasi-monochromatic beam is expected to improve discrimination of tissue with similar attenuation coefficients while restraining absorbed dose to below that of dual view mammography. Previous simulation studies showed the optimal energy that maximizes dose efficiency for a 50/50% adipose/glandular breast is between 30 and 40 keV. This study experimentally validates these results using pre-breast and post-breast spectral measurements made under tungsten tube voltages between 40 and 100 kVp using filter materials with K-edge values ranging from 15 to 70 keV. Different filter material thicknesses are used, approximately equivalent to the 200th and 500th attenuating value layer (VL) thickness. Cerium (K = 40.4 keV) filtered post-breast spectra for 8–18 cm breasts are measured for a range of breast compositions. Figures of merit include mean beam energy, spectral full-width at tenth-maximum, beam hardening and dose for the range of breast sizes. Measurements corroborate simulation results, indicating that for a given dose, a 200th VL of cerium filtration may have optimal performance in the dedicated mammotomography paradigm. PMID:17228108

  5. PIXIE III: a very large area photon-counting CMOS pixel ASIC for sharp X-ray spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Delogu, P.; de Ruvo, P. L.; Vincenzi, A.

    2015-01-01

    PIXIE III is the third generation of very large area (32 × 25 mm2) pixel ASICs developed by Pixirad Imaging Counters s.r.l. to be used in combination with suitable X-ray sensor materials (Silicon, CdTe, GaAs) in hybrid assemblies using flip-chip bonding. A Pixirad unit module based on PIXIE III shows several advances compared to what has been available up to now. It has a very broad energy range (from 2 to 100 keV before full pulse saturation), high speed (100 ns peaking time), high frame rate (larger than 500 fps), dead-time-free operation, good energy resolution (around 2 keV at 20 keV), high photo-peak fraction and sharp spectral separation between the color images. In this paper the results obtained with PIXIE III both in a test bench set-up as well in X-ray imaging applications are discussed.

  6. The Optical and X-ray Spectral Properties of the Swift BAT-detected AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, R.; Lewis, K.; Veilleux, S.; Koss, M.; Keeney, B.

    2010-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), while not focused on a Gamma-ray burst, conducts an all-sky survey in the 14 - 195 keV band. After the first 9 months, the BAT has detected a sample of 153 local (z 0.03) AGN at a flux limit of a few times 10-11 erg/s/cm-2 (Tueller et al. 2007). Since the AGN were detected at very high X-ray energies, they are an unbiased sample towards Compton thin AGN. We present the X-ray and optical spectral properties of a sample of the BAT AGN, including optical spectra obtained from the literature, SDSS, and our own KPNO 2.1-m observations. Among our results, we show that the optically identified Seyfert 1s and 2s have the same distribution of X-ray and [O III] luminosities. We also find that [O III] luminosity is not well-correlated with the hard X-rays and therefore not a good indicator of bolometric luminosity, supporting the results of Melendez et al. (2008).

  7. High spectral resolution measurements of a solar flare hard X-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Schwartz, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported of an intense solar flare hard X-ray burst on June 27, 1980, made with a balloon-borne array of liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector which provided unprecedented spectral resolution (no more than 1 keV FWHM). The hard X-ray spectra throughout the impulsive phase burst fitted well to a double power-law form, and emission from an isothermal 0.1-1 billion K plasma can be specifically excluded. The temporal variations of the spectrum indicate that the hard X-ray burst is made up of two superposed components: individual spikes lasting about 3-15 sec, which have a hard spectrum and a break energy of 30-65 keV; and a slowly varying component characterized by a soft spectrum with a constant low-energy slope and a break energy which increases from 25 kev to at least 100 keV through the event. The double power-law shape indicates that DC electric field acceleration, similar to that occurring in the earth's auroral zone, may be the source of the energetic electrons which produce the hard X-ray emission.

  8. X-Ray Spectral and Timing Observations of Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piraino, S.; Santangelo, A.; Kaaret, P.

    2002-03-01

    We report on a joint BeppoSAX/RXTE observation of the Z-type low-mass X-ray binary Cyg X-2. The source was in the so-called high overall intensity state and in less than 24 hr went through all three branches of the Z track. The continuum X-ray spectrum could be described by the absorbed sum of a soft thermal component, modeled as either a blackbody or a multicolor disk blackbody, and a Comptonized component. The timing power spectrum showed several components, including quasi-periodic oscillations in the range 28-50 Hz while the source was on the horizontal branch (horizontal branch oscillation; HBO). We found that the HBO frequency was well correlated with the parameters of the soft thermal component in the X-ray spectrum. We discuss implications of this correlation for models of the HBO.

  9. Unsupervised spectral decomposition of X-ray binaries with application to GX 339-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, K. I. I.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we explore unsupervised spectral decomposition methods for distinguishing the effect of different spectral components for a set of consecutive spectra from an X-ray binary. We use well-established linear methods for the decomposition, namely principal component analysis, independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Applying these methods to a simulated data set consisting of a variable multicolour disc blackbody and a cutoff power law, we find that NMF outperforms the other two methods in distinguishing the spectral components. In addition, due the non-negative nature of NMF, the resulting components may be fitted separately, revealing the evolution of individual parameters. To test the NMF method on a real source, we analyse data from the low-mass X-ray binary GX 339-4 and found the results to match those of previous studies. In addition, we found the inner radius of the accretion disc to be located at the innermost stable circular orbit in the intermediate state right after the outburst peak. This study shows that using unsupervised spectral decomposition methods results in detecting the separate component fluxes down to low flux levels. Also, these methods provide an alternative way of detecting the spectral components without performing actual spectral fitting, which may prove to be practical when dealing with large data sets.

  10. X-Ray Fluctuation Power Spectral Densities of Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; George, I. M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Kaspi, S.; Lawrence, A.; McHandy, I.; Nandra, K.

    2003-01-01

    By combining complementary monitoring observations spanning long, medium and short time scales, we have constructed power spectral densities (PSDs) of six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs span approx. greater than 4 orders of magnitude in temporal frequency, sampling variations on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to over a year. In at least four cases, the PSD shows a "break," a significant departure from a power law, typically on time scales of order a few days. This is similar to the behavior of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), lower mass compact systems with breaks on time scales of seconds. NGC 3783 shows tentative evidence for a doubly-broken power law, a feature that until now has only been seen in the (much better-defined) PSDs of low-state XRBs. It is also interesting that (when one previously-observed object is added to make a small sample of seven), an apparently significant correlation is seen between the break time scale T and the putative black hole mass M(sub BH), while none is seen between break time scale and luminosity. The data are consistent with the linear relation T = M(sub BH) /10(exp 6.5) solar mass; extrapolation over 6-7 orders of magnitude is in reasonable agreement with XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert 1s and XRBs.

  11. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-Ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Bailey, Catherine N.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Chervenak, Jay A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Daniel P.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, Jack E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall K.

    2010-01-01

    High spectral resolution, high cadence, imaging x-ray spectroscopy has the potential to revolutionize the study of the solar corona. To that end we have been developing transition-edge-sensor (TES) based x-ray micro calorimeter arrays for future solar physics missions where imaging and high energy resolution spectroscopy will enable previously impossible studies of the dynamics and energetics of the solar corona. The characteristics of these x-ray microcalorimeters are significantly different from conventional micro calorimeters developed for astrophysics because they need to accommodate much higher count rates (300-1000 cps) while maintaining high energy resolution of less than 4 eV FWHM in the X-ray energy band of 0.2-10 keV. The other main difference is a smaller pixel size (less than 75 x 75 square microns) than is typical for x-ray micro calorimeters in order to provide angular resolution less than 1 arcsecond. We have achieved at energy resolution of 2.15 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 12 x 12 square micron TES sensor and 34 x 34 x 9.1 micron gold absorber, and a resolution of 2.30 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 35 x 35 micron TES and a 57 x 57 x 9.1 micron gold absorber. This performance has been achieved in pixels that are fabricated directly onto solid substrates, ie. they are not supported by silicon nitride membranes. We present the results from these detectors, the expected performance at high count-rates, and prospects for the use of this technology for future Solar missions.

  12. High-spatial resolution and high-spectral resolution detector for use in the measurement of solar flare hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, U. D.; Orwig, Larry E.

    1988-01-01

    In the areas of high spatial resolution, the evaluation of a hard X-ray detector with 65 micron spatial resolution for operation in the energy range from 30 to 400 keV is proposed. The basic detector is a thick large-area scintillator faceplate, composed of a matrix of high-density scintillating glass fibers, attached to a proximity type image intensifier tube with a resistive-anode digital readout system. Such a detector, combined with a coded-aperture mask, would be ideal for use as a modest-sized hard X-ray imaging instrument up to X-ray energies as high as several hundred keV. As an integral part of this study it was also proposed that several techniques be critically evaluated for X-ray image coding which could be used with this detector. In the area of high spectral resolution, it is proposed to evaluate two different types of detectors for use as X-ray spectrometers for solar flares: planar silicon detectors and high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). Instruments utilizing these high-spatial-resolution detectors for hard X-ray imaging measurements from 30 to 400 keV and high-spectral-resolution detectors for measurements over a similar energy range would be ideally suited for making crucial solar flare observations during the upcoming maximum in the solar cycle.

  13. An X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the AGN NGC 4051

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Triani, Dian; Mendez, Mariano; Kunjaya, Chatief; Putra, Mahasena

    2016-07-01

    NGC 4051 is a narrow line Seyfert galaxy 1 (NLS1), and it is one of the brightest Active Galactic Nuclei in the X-ray band. We analysed the power density and energy spectra of NGC 4051 using all available data obtained with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from 1996 to 2011. We divided the data into several time intervals to study possible changes of the spectral and timing properties of the source. All power spectra show a power-law component, but in one of the time intervals a broad, Loretntzian-like, component at ~0.2 Hz is also required to fit the data. The energy spectra are all well fitted with a reflection component. During a period of 26 months, from 2009 to 2011, NGC 4051 showed significant flaring activity in the hard X-ray band. We analysed the data during that period separately. We discuss the results of the timing and spectral fits in the different intervals, and compare our findings with those previously published using only a fraction of the data.

  14. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Boldt, E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually emerge from an earlier stage at z approx = 4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The conjecture is pursued that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx. 10 to the 8th power years these central black holes are spun-up to a canonical Kerr equilibrium state (A/M = 0.998; Thorne 1974) and shown how they then can lead to spectral evolution involving non-thermal emission extending to gamma rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. That major portion of the CXB remaining after the contribution of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z 1 can account for the gamma ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and 2 missions as well as gamma ray and optical data are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model.

  15. Astro-H: New Spectral Features Seen in High-Resolution X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Odaka, Hirokazu; Astro-H Science Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) microcalorimeter on Astro-H will provide the first high-resolution X-ray spectra of diffuse astrophysical sources. One key new type of science will be charge exchange spectroscopy, wherein highly-ionized metals interact with neutral hydrogen, helium, or other material. This has been detected with modest resolution in comets and planets, and is thought to be the origin of at least some of the 1/4 keV soft X-ray background. We will report on the predicted emission that the Astro-H SXS may detector from all of these sources using the recently released AtomdB Charge Exchange spectral model acx, and comment on possible other sources such as starburst galaxies. The SXS will also observe complex high-resolution spectra from other diffuse sources such as overionized supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. We will discuss these in the context of advanced spectral models using the recently released AtomDB v3.0 data and non-equilibrium models.

  16. Are Spectral and Timing Correlations Similar in Different Spectral States in Black Hole X-Ray Binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkar, M.; Reynolds, M. T.; van der Klis, M.; Altamirano, D.; Miller, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    We study the outbursts of the black hole X-ray binaries MAXI J1659-152, SWIFT J1753.5-0127, and GX 339-4 with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The bandpass of the XRT has access to emission from both components of the accretion flow: the accretion disk and the corona/hot flow. This allows a correlated spectral and variability study, with variability from both components of the accretion flow. We present for the first time a combined study of the evolution of spectral parameters (disk temperature and radius) and timing parameters (frequency and strength) of all power spectral components in different spectral states. Comparison of the correlations in different spectral states shows that the frequency and strength of the power spectral components exhibit dependencies on the disk temperature that are different in the (low-)hard and the hard-intermediate states (HIMSs); most of these correlations that are clearly observed in the HIMS (in MAXI J1659-152 and GX 339-4) are not seen in the (low-)hard state (in GX 339-4 and SWIFT J1753.5-0127). Also, the responses of the individual frequency components to changes in the disk temperature are markedly different from one component to the next. Hence, the spectral-timing evolution cannot be explained by a single correlation that spans both these spectral states. We discuss our findings in the context of the existing models proposed to explain the origin of variability.

  17. Doping evolution of Zhang-Rice singlet spectral weight: A comprehensive examination by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Jiang, M. G.; Luo, C. W.; Lin, J.-Y.; Wu, K. H.; Lee, J. M.; Chen, J. M.; Kuo, Y. K.; Juang, J. Y.; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-10-01

    The total spectral weight S of the emergent low-energy quasiparticles in high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is explored by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to examine the applicability of the Hubbard model, regimes that cover from zero doping to overdoping are investigated. In contrast to results of mean-field theory, we found that S deviates from linear dependence on the doping level p. The slope of S versus p changes continuously throughout the whole doping range with no sign of saturation up to p=0.23. Therefore, the picture of the Zhang-Rice singlet remains intact within the most prominent doping regimes of HTSCs.

  18. Hercules X-1: Spectral Variability of an X-Ray Pulsar in a Stellar Binary System. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    A cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment onboard the Orbiting Solar Observatory 8 (OSO-8), observed Her x-1 continuously for approximately 8 days. Spectral-temporal correlations of the X-ray emission were obtained. The major results concern observations of: (1) iron band emission, (2) spectral hardening (increase in effective x-ray temperature) within the X-ray pulse, and (3) a transition from an X-ray low state to a high state. The spectrum obtained prior to the high state can be interpreted as reflected emission from a hot coronal gas surrounding an accretion disk, which itself shields the primary X-ray source from the line of sight during the low state. The spectral hardening within the X-ray pulse was indicative of the beaming mechanism at the neutron star surface. The hardest spectrum by pulse phase was identified with the line of sight close to the Her x-1 magnetic dipole axis, and the X-ray pencil beam become harder with decreasing angle between the line of sight and the dipole axis.

  19. X-RAY SPECTRAL CUTOFF AND THE LACK OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES M81 X-6 AND HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.; Jithesh, V.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2013-07-10

    We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies {approx}> 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

  20. Single-shot x-ray phase contrast imaging with an algorithmic approach using spectral detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mini; Park, Chan-Soo; Fredette, Nathaniel R.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging has been investigated during the last two decades for potential benefits in soft tissue imaging. Long imaging time, high radiation dose and general measurement complexity involving motion of x-ray optical components have prevented the clinical translation of these methods. In all existing popular phase contrast imaging methods, multiple measurements per projection angle involving motion of optical components are required to achieve quantitatively accurate estimation of absorption, phase and differential phase. Recently we proposed an algorithmic approach to use spectral detection data in a phase contrast imaging setup to obtain absorption, phase and differential phase in a single-step. Our generic approach has been shown via simulations in all three types of phase contrast imaging: propagation, coded aperture and grating interferometry. While other groups have used spectral detector in phase contrast imaging setups, our proposed method is unique in outlining an approach to use this spectral data to simplify phase contrast imaging. In this abstract we show the first experimental proof of our single-shot phase retrieval using a Medipix3 photon counting detector in an edge illumination aperture (also referred to as coded aperture) phase contrast set up as well as for a free space propagation setup. Our preliminary results validate our new transport equation for edge illumination PCI and our spectral phase retrieval algorithm for both PCI methods being investigated. Comparison with simulations also point to excellent performance of Medipix3 built-in charge sharing correction mechanism.

  1. Anomalous x-ray scattering studies of short-, intermediate- and extended-range order in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Armand, P.; Cox, D.E.

    1998-08-01

    The authors present the formalism of anomalous x-ray scattering as applied to partial structure analysis of disordered materials, and give an example of how the technique has been applied, together with that of neutron diffraction, to investigate short-, intermediate- and extended-range order in vitreous germania and rubidium germanate.

  2. Rapid spectral and flux time variations in a solar burst observed at various dm-mm wavelengths and at hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zodivaz, A. M.; Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Takakura, T.; Cliver, E. W.; Tapping, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A solar burst was observed with high sensitivity and time resolution at cm-mm wavelengths by two different radio observatories (Itapetinga and Algonquin), with high spectral time resolution at dm-mm wavelengths by patrol instruments (Sagamore Hill), and at hard X-rays (HXM Hinotori). At the onset of the major burst time structure there was a rapid rise in the spectral turnover frequency (from 5 to 15 GHz), in about 10s, coincident to a reduction of the spectral index in the optically thin part of the spectrum. The burst maxima were not time coincident at the optically thin radio frequencies and at the different hard X-ray energy ranges. The profiles at higher radio frequencies exhibited better time coincidence to the high energy X-rays. The hardest X-ray spectrum (-3) coincided with peak radio emission at the higher frequency (44 GHz). The event appeared to be built up by a first major injection of softer particles followed by other injections of harder particles. Ultrafast time structures were identified as superimposed on the burst emission at the cm-mm high sensitivity data at X-rays, with predominant repetition rates ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 Hz.

  3. Origin of the X-ray broad iron spectral feature in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Hajime

    2016-06-01

    The X-ray spectrum of GRS 1915+105 is known to have a "broad iron spectral feature" in the spectral hard state. Similar spectral features are often observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and other black-hole binaries (BHBs), and several models have been proposed for explaining it. In order to distinguish spectral models, time variation provides an important key. In AGNs, variation amplitude has been found to drop significantly at the iron K-energy band at timescales of ˜10 ks. If spectral variations of black holes are normalized by their masses, the spectral variations of BHBs on timescales of sub-seconds should exhibit similar characteristics to those of AGNs. In this paper, we investigated spectral variations of GRS 1915+105 at timescales down to ˜10 ms. This was made possible for the first time with the Suzaku XIS Parallel-sum clocking (P-sum) mode, which has the CCD energy-resolution as well as a time-resolution of 7.8 ms. Consequently, we found that the variation amplitude of GRS 1915+105 does not drop at the iron K-energy band on any timescales from 0.06 s to 63000 s, and that the entire X-ray flux and the iron feature are independently variable at timescales of hours. These are naturally understood in the framework of the "partial covering" model, in which variation timescales of the continuum flux and partial absorbers are independent. The difference of the energy dependence of the variation amplitude between AGNs and BHBs is presumably due to different mechanisms of the outflow winds, i.e., the partial absorbers are due to UV-line driven winds (AGNs) or thermally driven winds (BHBs).

  4. X-ray spectral analysis of the steady states of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Varniere, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy G.

    2016-04-01

    Of the black hole binaries (BHBs) discovered thus far, GRS 1915+105 stands out as an exceptional source primarily due to its wild X-ray variability, the diversity of which has not been replicated in any other stellar-mass black hole. Although extreme variability is commonplace in its light-curve, about half of the observations of GRS1915+105 show fairly steady X-ray intensity. We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within these steady observations. Our work is based on a vast RXTE/PCA data set obtained on GRS 1915+105 during the course of its entire mission and 10 years of radio data from the Ryle Telescope, which overlap the X-ray data. We find that the steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separate into two regions in a color-color diagram, which we refer to as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS 1915+105 displays significant curvature in the Comptonization component within the PCA band pass suggesting significantly heating from a hot disk present in all states. A new Comptonization model 'simplcut' was developed in order to model this curvature to best effect. A majority of the steady-soft observations display a roughly constant inner disk radius, remarkably reminiscent of canonical soft state black hole binaries. In contrast, the steady-hard observations display a growing disk truncation that is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk, which suggests a magnetically truncated disk. A comparison of X-ray model parameters to the canonical state definitions show that almost all steady-soft observations match the criteria of either thermal or steep power law state, while the thermal state observations dominate the constant radius branch. A large portion 80 % of the steady-hard observations matches the hard state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected. These results combine to suggest that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states, which map to those observed in canonical BHBs.

  5. The Nature of the mHz X-ray QPOs from the Ultraluminous X-ray Source M82 X-1: Timing-Spectral (anti)-correlation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranga Reddy Pasham, Dheeraj; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed all archival XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 in order to search for a correlation between its mHz quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and energy spectral power-law index. These quantities are known to correlate in stellar mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibiting so-called Type-C QPOs. The detection of a similar relation in M82 X-1 would strengthen the identification of its mHz QPOs as Type-C and thus enable more reliable mass estimates by scaling of the QPO frequencies in X-1 to those of Type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We used surface brightness modeling to estimate the count rates produced by X-1 and a nearby (5'') bright source that can contribute substantial flux in XMM-Newton's 15'' (HPD) beam. We thus identify the observations in which M82 X-1 is at least as bright as the nearby source. In these observations we detect mHz QPOs with centroid frequencies spanning the range from 36 mHz to 210 mHz (the lowest and the highest yet reported from X-1). We model the 3-10 keV spectrum and find that the power-law index changes significantly from 1.7 - 2.2 during these observations. With all observations included we find evidence for an anti-correlation between the centroid frequency of the mHz QPOs and the power-law index. The value of the Pearson's correlation coefficient is -0.95. While such an anti-correlation is observed in StMBHs at high Type-C QPO frequencies (5-15 Hz), the frequency range over which it holds in StMBHs is significantly smaller (factor of 1-3) than the QPO range now reported here for X-1, which varies over a factor of 5.8 (36-210 mHz). However, we note that the correlation hinges on the observation with the lowest inferred energy spectral index and for which the fitted count rate ratio of X-1 to the nearby source is 1.1. So the implied anti-correlation needs to be confirmed with either less ``contaminated" observations or higher angular resolution spectral measurements made in tandem

  6. Crosscheck of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony

    2005-07-12

    The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.

  7. Ion-heated thermal Comptonization models and x-ray spectral correlations in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dermer, C.D.

    1989-11-01

    Recent Ginga observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC 4051 and MCG 6-30-15 show a positive correlation between the 2-10 keV luminosity and photon spectral index {alpha}. Similar behavior has also been reported in Exosat and Einstein observations of other active galactic nuclei, and is suggested in hard x-ray low-state data of the galactic black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1. A two-temperature thermal Comptonization model with internal soft-photon production provides a simple explanation for this correlation. The electron temperature, determined by a balance between ion heating and radiative cooling, decreases in response to an enhancement of the soft photon flux, resulting in a softening of the spectrum and an increase in the soft x-ray luminosity. The bulk of the soft photons are produced through pion production in collisions between the hot ions. Pivoting of the spectrum at photon energies {var epsilon} > 50 keV is a consequence of variations in the ion temperature. An important test of the model would be time correlations between soft and hard x-ray bands. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. X-ray spectral variability of LINERs selected from the Palomar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-García, L.; González-Martín, O.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Variability is a general property of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The way in which these changes occur at X-rays is not yet clearly understood. In the particular case of low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) nuclei, variations on the timescales from months to years have been found for some objects, but the main driver of these changes is still debated. Aims: The main purpose of this work is to investigate the X-ray variability in LINERs, including the main driver of these variations, and to search for possible differences between type 1 and 2 objects. Methods: We examined the 18 LINERs in the Palomar sample with data retrieved from the Chandra and/or XMM-Newton archives that correspond to observations gathered at different epochs. All the spectra for the same object were fitted simultaneously to study long-term variations. The nature of the variability patterns were studied by allowing different parameters to vary during the spectral fit. Whenever possible, short-term variations from the analysis of the light curves and long-term UV variability were studied. Results: Short-term variations are not reported in X-rays. Three LINERs are classified as non-AGN candidates in X-rays, all of them are Compton-thick candidates; none of them show variations at these frequencies, and two of them vary in the UV. Long-term X-ray variations were analyzed in 12 out of 15 AGN candidates; about half of them showed variability (7 out of the 12). At UV frequencies, most of the AGN candidates with available data are variable (five out of six). Thus, 13 AGN candidates are analyzed at UV and/or X-rays, ten of which are variable at least in one energy band. None of the three objects that do not vary in X-rays have available UV data. This means that variability on long-timescales is very common in LINERs. These X-ray variations are mainly driven by changes in the nuclear power, while changes in absorptions are found only for NGC 1052. We do not find any difference

  9. An X-ray spectral model for clumpy tori in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo E-mail: lixb@ihep.ac.cn

    2014-05-20

    We construct an X-ray spectral model for the clumpy torus in an active galactic nucleus (AGN) using Geant4, which includes the physical processes of the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering, γ conversion, fluorescence line, and Auger process. Since the electrons in the torus are expected to be bounded instead of free, the deviation of the scattering cross section from the Klein-Nishina cross section has also been included, which changes the X-ray spectra by up to 25% below 10 keV. We have investigated the effect of the clumpiness parameters on the reflection spectra and the strength of the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The volume filling factor of the clouds in the clumpy torus only slightly influences the reflection spectra, however, the total column density and the number of clouds along the line of sight significantly change the shapes and amplitudes of the reflection spectra. The effect of column density is similar to the case of a smooth torus, while a small number of clouds along the line of sight will smooth out the anisotropy of the reflection spectra and the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The smoothing effect is mild in the low column density case (N {sub H} = 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}), whereas it is much more evident in the high column density case (N {sub H} = 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2}). Our model provides a quantitative tool for the spectral analysis of the clumpy torus. We suggest that the joint fits of the broad band spectral energy distributions of AGNs (from X-ray to infrared) should better constrain the structure of the torus.

  10. X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-05-01

    We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color–color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ∼ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ∼ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.

  11. X-Ray Spectral and Temporal Analysis of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy Was 61

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Liming; Wang, Ting-Gui; Ai, Yanli; Yuan, Weimin; Zhou, Hongyan; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of spectrum and variability of the bright reddened narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy Was 61 using 90 ks archival XMM-Newton data. The X-ray spectrum in 0.2-10 keV can be characterized by an absorbed power-law plus soft excess and an Fe Kα emission line. The power-law spectral index remains constant during the flux variation. The absorbing material is mildly ionized, with a column density of 3.2 × 1021 cm-2, and does not appear to vary during the period of the X-ray observation. If the same material causes the optical reddening (E(B-V) ≃ 0.6 mag), it must be located outside the narrow line region with a dust-to-gas ratio similar to the average Galactic value. We detect significant variations of the Fe Kα line during the observational period. A broad Fe Kα line at ≃ 6.7 {{keV}} with a width of ˜0.6 keV is detected in the low flux segment of the first 40 ks exposure, and is absent in the spectra of other segments; a narrow Fe Kα emission line ˜6.4 keV with a width of ˜0.1 keV is observed in the subsequent 20 ks segment, which has a count rate 35% higher and is in the next day. We believe this is due to the change in geometry and kinematics of the X-ray emitting corona. The temperature and flux of soft X-ray excess appear to correlate with the flux of the hard power-law component. Comptonization of disc photons by a warm and optically thick inner disk is preferred to interpret the soft excess, rather than the ionized reflection.

  12. X-Ray Spectral Components Observed in the Afterglow of GRB 130925A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Horesh, Assaf; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at greater than 4 less than 1 significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 x 10 (sup 5) and 10 (sup 6) seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several kiloelectronvolts width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10 (sup 8) centimeters), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  13. The Next Generation Atlas of Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions from Radio to X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhaohui; Brotherton, Michael S.; Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Green, Richard F.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Hines, Dean C.; Kelly, Benjamin J.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Li, Jun; Tang, Baitian; Xie, Yanxia

    2011-09-01

    We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared.

  14. X-RAY SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OBSERVED IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB 130925A

    SciTech Connect

    Bellm, Eric C.; Forster, Karl; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bhalerao, Varun; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Stern, Daniel; and others

    2014-04-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 × 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} s after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10{sup 8} cm), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  15. THE NEXT GENERATION ATLAS OF QUASAR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM RADIO TO X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Zhaohui; Li Jun; Xie Yanxia; Brotherton, Michael S.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Kelly, Benjamin J.; Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Green, Richard F.; Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Ganguly, Rajib; Hines, Dean C.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Tang, Baitian

    2011-09-01

    We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared.

  16. Spectral Interferences Manganese (Mn) - Europium (Eu) Lines in X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanc, Beril; Kaya, Mustafa; Gumus, Lokman; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is widely used for quantitative and semi quantitative analysis of many major, minor and trace elements in geological samples. Some advantages of the XRF method are; non-destructive sample preparation, applicability for powder, solid, paste and liquid samples and simple spectrum that are independent from chemical state. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of the XRF methods such as poor sensitivity for low atomic number elements, matrix effect (physical matrix effects, such as fine versus course grain materials, may impact XRF performance) and interference effect (the spectral lines of elements may overlap distorting results for one or more elements). Especially, spectral interferences are very significant factors for accurate results. In this study, semi-quantitative analyzed manganese (II) oxide (MnO, 99.99%) was examined. Samples were pelleted and analyzed with XRF spectrometry (Bruker S8 Tiger). Unexpected peaks were obtained at the side of the major Mn peaks. Although sample does not contain Eu element, in results 0,3% Eu2O3 was observed. These result can occur high concentration of MnO and proximity of Mn and Eu lines. It can be eliminated by using correction equation or Mn concentration can confirm with other methods (such as Atomic absorption spectroscopy). Keywords: Spectral Interferences; Manganese (Mn); Europium (Eu); X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Spectrum.

  17. Deep galaxy count predictions in the radio, infrared, and X-ray spectral bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The existence of a dominant population of strongly evolving starburst sources at moderate redshift is a plausible explanation for the excess number of faint blue galaxies detected in deep sky surveys. Multiwavelength observations at faint magnitudes would allow the existence of such a population to be confirmed. We use observed luminosity correlations and physical properties of known starburst galaxies to predict their contribution to the deep radio, infrared, and X-ray counts, as well as to the diffuse extragalactic background radiation in these various spectral bands.

  18. Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

  19. The X-ray spectrum and spectral energy distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL quasar with a probable polar outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrington, Robert C.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e. an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Γ = 1.7 or flatter at a >99 per cent confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 1023 cm-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providing good fits. We present several lines of argument that suggest the fraction of X-ray emissions associated with the radio jet is not large. We combine our Chandra data with observations from the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution of FIRST J1556+3517 from radio to X-ray energies. We make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio jet, optical dust reddening and X-ray absorption, in order to recover a probable intrinsic spectrum. The quasar FIRST J1556+3517 seems to be an intrinsically normal radio-quiet quasar with a reddened optical/UV spectrum, a Doppler-boosted but intrinsically weak radio jet and an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars.

  20. Spectral and timing nature of the symbiotic X-ray binary 4U 1954+319: The slowest rotating neutron star in an X-ray binary system

    SciTech Connect

    Enoto, Teruaki; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-05-10

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its ∼5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (∼7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-Kα line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (∼60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (≳ 10{sup 12} G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10{sup 33}-10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1}), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a ∼10{sup 13} G NS, this scheme can explain the ∼5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (∼10{sup 16} G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (∼50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfvén shell for a ∼10{sup 13} G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  1. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  2. RXTE Observations of the Neutron Star Low-Mass X-Ray Binary GX 17+2: Correlated X-Ray Spectral and Timing Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Jeroen; van der Klis, Michiel; Jonker, Peter G.; Wijnands, Rudy; Kuulkers, Erik; Méndez, Mariano; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2002-04-01

    We have analyzed ~600 ks of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and Z source GX 17+2. A study was performed of the properties of the noise components and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) as a function of the broadband spectral properties, with the main goal to study the relation between the frequencies of the horizontal branch (HBO) and upper kHz QPOs. It was found that when the upper kHz QPO frequency is below 1030 Hz these frequencies correlate, whereas above 1030 Hz they anticorrelate. GX 17+2 is the first source in which this is observed. We also found that the frequency difference of the high-frequency QPOs was not constant and that the quality factors (Q-values) of the HBO, its second harmonic, and the kHz QPOs are similar and vary almost hand in hand by a factor of more than 3. Observations of the normal branch oscillations during two type I X-ray bursts showed that their absolute amplitude decreased as the flux from the neutron star became stronger. We discuss these and other findings in terms of models that have been proposed for these phenomena. We also compare the behavior of GX 17+2 and other Z sources with that of black hole sources and consider the possibility that the mass accretion rate might not be the driving force behind all spectral and variability changes.

  3. Radiative Signatures of Reconnection in X-ray Binary Spectral States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    Accreting black holes (BHs) in Galactic X-ray Binary (XRB) systems represent some of the main targets of space-based high-energy observatories such as NASA s RXTE, Chandra, and NuSTAR, as well as the international observatories XMM Newton, INTEGRAL, Suzaku (Astro-E), and Astro-H. The overall radiative energy output (mostly X-rays) is ultimately powered by the conversion of the gravitational potential energy of the matter falling onto a black hole and forming an accretion disk or a hot accretion flow around it. Observationally, these systems are found to cycle between a few discrete spectral states, characterized by different overall X-ray power and spectral hardness: (1) the bright thermal high-soft state, dominated by a soft (1 keV) thermal component attributed to a thin dense accretion disk with a relatively weak corona producing a power-law tail emission to at least 1 MeV; (2) the low-hard state, showing no signs of a thin accretion disk and dominated by a single hard (with index ~ -1.7) power law truncating at about 100 keV; and (3) the bright Steep Power Law state with both a standard thin disk and a powerful coronal power-law (with index about -2.5) emission extending to at least 1 MeV. Explaining the key features of these nonthermal spectra, i.e., their power law indices and high-energy cutoffs, is one of the outstanding problems in high-energy astrophysics. The hard (10keV 1MeV) X-ray emission in these states is believed to be produced by inverse-Compton scattering in relativistically-hot gas, presumably heated by magnetic reconnection processes, and forming either an accretion disk corona or the hot accretion flow itself. Since the radiative cooling time of the energetic electrons in the intense radiation fields found in these systems is very short, the observed non-thermal hard X-ray spectra should directly reflect the instantaneous energy spectra of the electrons accelerated in reconnection events. Recent advances in kinetic simulations of reconnection

  4. Spectral properties of x-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Colmenero, Encarnacion

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha ~ 1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for NH. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law spectral slope of the average NELG is S = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is S = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (< 2 x 10-15erg cm-2 s -1), thus suggesting that NELGs are important contributors to the residual soft (< 2 keV) X-ray background (XRB). Moreover, the spectral slope of this background (S ~ 0.4, 1-10 keV) is harder than that of AGN (S ~ 1), which are known to contribute most of the XRB at higher flux levels. The work presented in this thesis shows unequivocally for the first time that the integrated spectrum of the faintest NELGs (alpha ~ 0.4) is consistent with that of the soft X-ray background, finally reconciling it with the properties of the sources that are thought to

  5. Predicted image quality of a CMOS APS X-ray detector across a range of mammographic beam qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, A.

    2015-09-01

    Digital X-ray detectors based on Complementary Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology have been introduced in the early 2000s in medical imaging applications. In a previous study the X-ray performance (i.e. presampling Modulation Transfer Function (pMTF), Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE)) of the Dexela 2923MAM CMOS APS X-ray detector was evaluated within the mammographic energy range using monochromatic synchrotron radiation (i.e. 17-35 keV). In this study image simulation was used to predict how the mammographic beam quality affects image quality. In particular, the experimentally measured monochromatic pMTF, NNPS and SNR parameters were combined with various mammographic spectral shapes (i.e. Molybdenum/Molybdenum (Mo/Mo), Rhodium/Rhodium (Rh/Rh), Tungsten/Aluminium (W/Al) and Tungsten/Rhodium (W/Rh) anode/filtration combinations at 28 kV). The image quality was measured in terms of Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) using a synthetic breast phantom (4 cm thick with 50% glandularity). The results can be used to optimize the imaging conditions in order to minimize patient's Mean Glandular Dose (MGD).

  6. Spectral properties of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Colmenero, E.

    1998-03-01

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha~1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for N_H. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law slope of the average NELG is alpha = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is alpha = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (<= 2e-15 ergs cm-2 s-1), thus suggesting that NELGs are important contributors to the residual soft (<2 keV) X-ray background (XRB). Moreover, the spectral slope of this background (alpha~0.4, 1-10 keV) is harder than that of AGN (alpha~1), which are known to contribute most of the XRB at higher flux levels. The work presented in this thesis shows unequivocally for the first time that the integrated spectrum of the faintest NELGs (alpha~0.4) is consistent with that of the soft X-ray background, finally reconciling it with the properties of the sources that are thought to

  7. Spectral formation in accreting X-ray pulsars: bimodal variation of the cyclotron energy with luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P. A.; Klochkov, D.; Schönherr, G.; Nishimura, O.; Ferrigno, C.; Caballero, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Wolff, M. T.; Wilms, J.; Staubert, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Accretion-powered X-ray pulsars exhibit significant variability of the cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF) centroid energy on pulse-to-pulse timescales, and also on much longer timescales. Two types of spectral variability are observed. For sources in group 1, the CRSF energy is negatively correlated with the variable source luminosity, and for sources in group 2, the opposite behavior is observed. The physical basis for this bimodal behavior is currently not well understood. Aims: We explore the hypothesis that the accretion dynamics in the group 1 sources is dominated by radiation pressure near the stellar surface, and that Coulomb interactions decelerate the gas to rest in the group 2 sources. Methods: We derive a new expression for the critical luminosity, Lcrit, such that radiation pressure decelerates the matter to rest in sources with X-ray luminosity LX > Lcrit. The formula for Lcrit is based on a simple physical model for the structure of the accretion column in luminous X-ray pulsars that takes into account radiative deceleration, the energy dependence of the cyclotron cross section, the thermodynamics of the accreting gas, the dipole structure of the pulsar magnetosphere, and the diffusive escape of radiation through the column walls. We show that for typical neutron star parameters, Lcrit = 1.5 × 1037 B1216/15 erg s-1, where B12 is the surface magnetic field strength in units of 1012 G. Results: The formula for the critical luminosity is evaluated for five sources, using the maximum value of the CRSF centroid energy to estimate the surface magnetic field strength B12. The results confirm that the group 1 sources are supercritical (LX > Lcrit) and the group 2 sources are subcritical (LX < Lcrit), although the situation is less clear for those highly variable sources that cross over the line LX = Lcrit. We also explain the variation of the CRSF energy with luminosity as a consequence of the variation of the characteristic emission

  8. ISIS: An Interactive Spectral Interpretation System for High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, J. C.; Denicola, L. A.

    The Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS) is designed to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra like those obtained using the grating spectrographs on Chandra and XMM and the microcalorimeter on Astro-E. It is being developed as an interactive tool for studying the physics of X-ray spectrum formation, supporting measurement and identification of spectral features, and interaction with a database of atomic structure parameters and plasma emission models. The current version uses the atomic data and collisional ionization equilibrium models in the Astrophysical Plasma Emission Database (APED) of Brickhouse et.al., and also provides access to earlier plasma emission models including Raymond-Smith and MEKAL. Although the current version focuses on collisional ionization equilibrium plasmas, the system is designed to allow use of other databases to provide better support for studies of non-equilibrium and photoionized plasmas. To maximize portability between Unix operating systems, ISIS is being written entirely in ANSI C using free-software components (CFITSIO, PGPLOT and S-Lang).

  9. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.; Vorberger, J.; Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M.; Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K.; Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T.; Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A.; and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  10. pyblocxs: Bayesian Low-Counts X-ray Spectral Analysis in Sherpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Refsdal, B.; van Dyk, D.; Connors, A.; Park, T.

    2011-07-01

    Typical X-ray spectra have low counts and should be modeled using the Poisson distribution. However, χ2 statistic is often applied as an alternative and the data are assumed to follow the Gaussian distribution. A variety of weights to the statistic or a binning of the data is performed to overcome the low counts issues. However, such modifications introduce biases or/and a loss of information. Standard modeling packages such as XSPEC and Sherpa provide the Poisson likelihood and allow computation of rudimentary MCMC chains, but so far do not allow for setting a full Bayesian model. We have implemented a sophisticated Bayesian MCMC-based algorithm to carry out spectral fitting of low counts sources in the Sherpa environment. The code is a Python extension to Sherpa and allows to fit a predefined Sherpa model to high-energy X-ray spectral data and other generic data. We present the algorithm and discuss several issues related to the implementation, including flexible definition of priors and allowing for variations in the calibration information.

  11. Correlated Temporal and Spectral Variability in Neutron Star and Black Hole X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J.

    2006-01-01

    The variability of neutron star and black hole X-ray sources has several dimensions, because of the roles played by different important time-scales. The variations on time scales of hours, weeks, and months, ranging from 50% to orders of magnitude, arise out of changes in the flow in the disk. The most important driving forces for those changes are probably various possible instabilities in the disk, though there may be effects with other dominant causes. The changes in the rate of flow appear to be associated with changes in the flow's configuration, as the accreting material approaches the compact object, for there are generally correlated changes in both the X-ray spectra and the character of the faster temporal variability. There has been a lot of progress in tracking these correlations, both for Z and Atoll neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, and for black hole binaries. I will discuss these correlations and what they tell us about the physical states of the systems.

  12. Analysis of nuclear materials by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and spectral effects of alpha decay

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, Christopher G

    2009-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectra collected from alpha emitters are complicated by artifacts inherent to the alpha decay process, particularly when using portable instruments. For example, {sup 239}Pu EDXRF spectra exhibit a prominent uranium L X-ray emission peak series due to sample alpha decay rather than source-induced X-ray fluorescence. A portable EDXRF instrument was used to collect spectra from plutonium, americium, and a Pu-contaminated steel sample. The plutonium sample was also analyzed by wavelength dispersive XRF to demonstrate spectral differences observed when using these very different instruments.

  13. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Multispectral Solar Telescope Array is a rocket-borne observatory which encompasses seven compact soft X-ray/EUV, multilayer-coated, and two compact far-UV, interference film-coated, Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. Extensive measurements are presented on the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the X-ray/EUV telescopes. Attention is given to systematic errors and measurement errors.

  14. N132D: Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Imaging and Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucinsky, Paul; Foster, Adam; Gaetz, Terrance; Jerius, Diab; Patnaude, Daniel; Edgar, Richard; Smith, Randall; Blair, William

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the archival XMM-Newton EPIC data (203ks for pn and 556/574ks for MOS1/MOS2) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS data (89ks) of the brightest X-ray supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) N132D. N132D has been classified as an ``O-rich'' remnant based on the UV and optical spectra which show emission from C, O, Ne, Mg, and Si.These spectra of the central optical knots do notshow any emission from elements with Z higher than Si, yet the nulceosynthesis models predict significant quantities of these higher Z elements. Our spectral analysis of the deep XMM data clearly shows emission lines from S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, with indications of other possible features between Ca and Fe. We use a combination of the high resolution images from Chandra and the sensitive spectra from XMM to disentangle the emission from swept-up interstellar material and a possiblehot ejecta component. We interpret these results in the context of a 3,000 year old remnant from a massive progenitor that has exploded into a cavity created by the progenitor. We also present simulations of the Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) spectrum of N132D. We use themodel spectrum developed by the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC) based on the high-resolution data acquired by the Reflection Gratings Spectrometer (RGS) on XMM as the input spectrumfor the X-IFU simulations.

  15. Spectral and Temporal Behavior of Low Mass X-ray Binaries Observed by the Einstein SSS and MPC, and the Broad Band X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, D. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1992-12-01

    An extensive survey of 50 low mass X-ray binaries was carried out using the HEAO-2 Einstein Solid State Spectrometer data (0.5-4.5 keV) with the Monitor Proportional Counter data (1.2-20.0 keV) and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) (0.5-12 keV). Spectra were selected on the basis of intensity and fit with a set of simple and complex spectral models. For all the subclasses, including Eddington-limited bulge sources, bursters, dippers, the soft spectrum black hole candidates, and a few transients in decline, the spectra could be fit acceptably with combinations of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody spectra or a Comptonized spectrum and a blackbody. The results rule out optically thick disk models for the bright Z sources and power law models for bursters. There is a progression of spectra as a function of X-ray luminosity for the bursters, Atoll and Z sources. Interpretation is discussed in terms of separate emission regions, one due to radial accretion onto a neutron star and the optically thick component that appears for higher luminosity due to a boundary layer or to high optical depth to scattering in the flow. A lower temperature blackbody required in some cases could be an expected contribution from the accretion disk. The soft spectrum sources are dominated by blackbody spectra, but for two, low effective area is a problem for the black hole interpretation. The strongest of previously reported low energy X-ray lines due to OVIII or Fe L transitions are confirmed. Similar line emission is seen for several other sources, in particular X0614+091. The photoionized gas in the inner part of an accretion disk corona can give Fe K lines from Fe XXV. BBXRT obtained upper limits for X0614+091 and M15 which are consistent with the coronal model.

  16. An X-Ray Spectral Survey of Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei with ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Eracleous, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    1999-11-01

    We present a uniform and systematic analysis of the 0.6-10 keV X-ray spectra of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed by ASCA. The sample, which is not statistically complete, includes 10 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs), five radio-loud quasars (QSRs), nine narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs), and 10 radio galaxies (RGs) of mixed FR I and FR II types. For several sources the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. The exposure times of the observations and the fluxes of the objects vary over a wide range; as a result, so does the signal-to-noise ratio of the individual X-ray spectra. At soft X-rays, about 50% of NLRGs and 100% of RGs exhibit thermal plasma emission components, with bimodal distributions of temperatures and luminosities. This indicates that the emission in such an object arises in hot gas either in a surrounding cluster or loose group or in a hot corona, consistent with previous ROSAT and optical results. At energies above 2 keV, a hard power-law component (photon index Γ~1.7-1.8) is detected in 90% of cases. The power-law photon indices and luminosities in BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs are similar. This is consistent with simple orientation-based unification schemes for lobe-dominated radio-loud sources in which BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs harbor the same type of central engine. Moreover, excess cold absorption in the range 1021-1024 cm-2 is detected in most (but not all) NLRGs, consistent with absorption by obscuring tori, as postulated by unification scenarios. The ASCA data provide initial evidence that the immediate gaseous environment of the X-ray source of BLRGs may be different than in Seyfert 1 galaxies: absorption edges of ionized oxygen, common in the latter, are detected in only one BLRG. Instead we detect large columns of cold gas in a fraction (~44%-60%) of BLRGs and QSRs, comparable to the columns detected in NLRGs, which is puzzling. This difference hints at different physical and/or geometrical properties of the medium

  17. Spectral softening in the X-RAY afterglow of GRB 130925A as predicted by the dust scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Shao, Lang

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) usually occur in a dense star-forming region with a massive circumburst medium. The small-angle scattering of intense prompt X-ray emission off the surrounding dust grains will have observable consequences and sometimes can dominate the X-ray afterglow. In most of the previous studies, only the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) approximation is employed for describing the scattering process, which works accurately for the typical size of grains (with radius of a ≤ 0.1 μm) in the diffuse interstellar medium. When the size of the grains may significantly increase, as in a more dense region where GRBs would occur, the RG approximation may not be valid enough for modeling detailed observational data. In order to study the temporal and spectral properties of the scattered X-ray emission more accurately with potentially larger dust grains, we provide a practical approach using the series expansions of anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation based on the complicated Mie theory. We apply our calculations to understand the puzzling X-ray afterglow of recently observed GRB 130925A that showed a significant spectral softening. We find that the X-ray scattering scenarios with either AD or RG approximation adopted could well reproduce both the temporal and spectral profile simultaneously. Given the plateau present in the early X-ray light curve, a typical distribution of smaller grains as in the interstellar medium would be suggested for GRB 130925A.

  18. Spectral Softening in the X-Ray Afterglow of GRB 130925A as Predicted by the Dust Scattering Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Shao, Lang

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) usually occur in a dense star-forming region with a massive circumburst medium. The small-angle scattering of intense prompt X-ray emission off the surrounding dust grains will have observable consequences and sometimes can dominate the X-ray afterglow. In most of the previous studies, only the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) approximation is employed for describing the scattering process, which works accurately for the typical size of grains (with radius of a <= 0.1 μm) in the diffuse interstellar medium. When the size of the grains may significantly increase, as in a more dense region where GRBs would occur, the RG approximation may not be valid enough for modeling detailed observational data. In order to study the temporal and spectral properties of the scattered X-ray emission more accurately with potentially larger dust grains, we provide a practical approach using the series expansions of anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation based on the complicated Mie theory. We apply our calculations to understand the puzzling X-ray afterglow of recently observed GRB 130925A that showed a significant spectral softening. We find that the X-ray scattering scenarios with either AD or RG approximation adopted could well reproduce both the temporal and spectral profile simultaneously. Given the plateau present in the early X-ray light curve, a typical distribution of smaller grains as in the interstellar medium would be suggested for GRB 130925A.

  19. The radio/X-ray correlation in Cyg X-3 and the nature of its hard spectral state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Segreto, Alberto; Pooley, Guy G.

    2016-02-01

    We study the radio/X-ray correlation in Cyg X-3. It has been known that the soft and hard X-ray fluxes in the hard spectral state are correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with the radio flux. We show that this implies that the observed ˜1-100 keV flux (which is a fair approximation to the bolometric flux) is completely uncorrelated with the radio flux. We can recover a positive correlation (seen in other sources and expected theoretically) if the soft X-rays are strongly absorbed by a local medium. Then, however, the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-3 in its hard state becomes relatively soft, similar to that of an intermediate spectral state of black hole binaries, but not to their true hard state. We also find the radio spectra in the hard state of Cyg X-3 are hard on average, and the flux distributions of the radio emission and soft X-rays can be described by sums of two lognormal functions. We compare Cyg X-3 with other X-ray binaries using colour-colour, colour-Eddington ratio and Eddington ratio-radio flux diagrams. We find Cyg X-3 to be spectrally most similar to GRS 1915+105, except that Cyg X-3 is substantially more radio loud, which appears to be due to its jet emission enhanced by interaction with the powerful stellar wind from the Wolf-Rayet donor.

  20. Investigation of X-ray spectral response of D-T fusion produced neutron irradiated PIPS detectors for plasma X-ray diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneshwara Raja, P.; Narasimha Murty, N. V. L.; Rao, C. V. S.; Abhangi, Mitul

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the fusion-produced neutron irradiation induced changes in the X-ray spectral response of commercially available Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detectors using the accelerator based D-T generator. After 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation up to a fluence of 3.6× 1010 n/cm2, the energy resolution (i.e. FWHM) of the detectors at room temperature is found to degrade by about 3.8 times that of the pre-irradiated value. From the X-ray spectral characteristics, it has been observed that the room temperature spectral response of PIPS detectors is too poor even at low neutron fluences. Irradiation is also carried out with Am-Be neutron source for studying the effect of scattered neutrons from the reactor walls on the detector performance. Comparative studies of the damage caused by 14.1 MeV neutrons and Am-Be source produced neutrons at the same neutron fluence are carried out by analyzing the irradiated detector characteristics. The degradation in the energy resolution of the detectors is attributed to the radiation induced changes in the detector leakage current. No considerable changes in the full depletion voltage and the effective doping concentration up to the neutron fluence of 3.6× 1010 n/cm2, are observed from the measured C-V characteristics. Partial recovery of the neutron irradiated detector characteristics is discussed.

  1. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B. C., Jr.; Allen, Max J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed seven compact soft X-ray/EUV (XUV) multilayer coated and two compact FUV interference film coated Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes for a rocket borne observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. We report here on extensive measurements of the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the XUV telescopes carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  2. THE FIRST HARD X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-06-10

    We present results of our power spectral density (PSD) analysis of 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of {approx} - 1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For five of the highest signal-to-noise ratio sources, we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGNs, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGNs are similar to the high state of Galactic black holes.

  3. Spectral response compensation for photon-counting clinical x-ray CT using sinogram restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Somesh; Cammin, Jochen; Fung, George S. K.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Taguchi, Katsuyuki

    2012-03-01

    The x-ray spectrum recorded by a photon-counting x-ray detector (PCXD) is distorted due to the following physical effects which are independent of the count rate: finite energy-resolution, Compton scattering, charge-sharing, and Kescape. If left uncompensated, the spectral response (SR) of a PCXD due to the above effects will result in image artifacts and inaccurate material decomposition. We propose a new SR compensation (SRC) algorithm using the sinogram restoration approach. The two main contributions of our proposed algorithm are: (1) our algorithm uses an efficient conjugate gradient method in which the first and second derivatives of the cost functions are directly calculated analytically, whereas a slower optimization method that requires numerous function evaluations was used in other work; (2) our algorithm guarantees convergence by combining the non-linear conjugate gradient method with line searches that satisfy Wolfe conditions, whereas the algorithm in other work is not backed by theorems from optimization theory to guarantee convergence. In this study, we validate the performance of the proposed algorithm using computer simulations. The bias was reduced to zero from 11%, and image artifacts were removed from the reconstructed images. Quantitative K-edge imaging in possible only when SR compensation is done.

  4. Density and atomic number measurements with spectral x-ray attenuation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heismann, B. J.; Leppert, J.; Stierstorfer, K.

    2003-08-01

    X-ray attenuation measurements are widely used in medical and industrial applications. The usual results are one- to three-dimensional representations of the attenuation coefficient μ(r). In this paper, we present the ρZ projection algorithm for obtaining the density ρ(r) and atomic number Z(r) with an energy-resolving x-ray method. As input data the algorithm uses at least two measurements μ1,μ2,… with different spectral weightings of the source spectrum S(E) and/or detector sensitivity D(E). Analytically, ρ is a function of μ1-cμ2, c=const, and Z is a function of μ1/μ2. The full numerical treatment yields ρ(μ1,μ2) and Z(μ1,μ2) with S(E) and D(E) as commutative parametric functions. We tested the method with dual-energy computed tomography measurements of an organic sample and a set of chemical solutions with predefined ρ and Z. The resulting images show ρ and Z as complementary information: The density ρ reflects the morphology of the objects, whereas the atomic number Z=number of electrons/atom describes the material distribution. For our experimental setup we obtain an absolute precision of 0.1 for Z and 20 mg/cm3 for ρ. The ρZ projection can potentially lead to these classes of quantitative information for various scientific, industrial, and medical applications.

  5. A practical material decomposition method for x-ray dual spectral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingjing; Zhao, Xing

    2016-03-17

    X-ray dual spectral CT (DSCT) scans the measured object with two different x-ray spectra, and the acquired rawdata can be used to perform the material decomposition of the object. Direct calibration methods allow a faster material decomposition for DSCT and can be separated in two groups: image-based and rawdata-based. The image-based method is an approximative method, and beam hardening artifacts remain in the resulting material-selective images. The rawdata-based method generally obtains better image quality than the image-based method, but this method requires geometrically consistent rawdata. However, today's clinical dual energy CT scanners usually measure different rays for different energy spectra and acquire geometrically inconsistent rawdata sets, and thus cannot meet the requirement. This paper proposes a practical material decomposition method to perform rawdata-based material decomposition in the case of inconsistent measurement. This method first yields the desired consistent rawdata sets from the measured inconsistent rawdata sets, and then employs rawdata-based technique to perform material decomposition and reconstruct material-selective images. The proposed method was evaluated by use of simulated FORBILD thorax phantom rawdata and dental CT rawdata, and simulation results indicate that this method can produce highly quantitative DSCT images in the case of inconsistent DSCT measurements. PMID:27257878

  6. Final Report of B548129: Spectral Analysis of Soft X-Ray Data from NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Lepson, J K; Jernigan, J G; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-11-09

    We present a summary of work performed under subcontract B548129 'Spectral Analysis of Soft X-Ray Data from NSTX'. This summary is comprised of papers and poster presentations prepared under this subcontract. The X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (XEUS) has been used to monitor the line emission from various impurity ions on NSTX, in particular the K-shell emission of helium-like and hydrogen-like B, C, N, and O. While C VI typically dominates the spectrum, unusually strong emission from N VII has been observed in multiple discharges during the past run campaign. In this case, the nitrogen concentration can exceed that of carbon by an order of magnitude. Time-dependent measurements show that the nitrogen concentration builds up over the course of the discharge and coincides with a build up of boron. In a few cases we observed several unknown lines. These are clearly lines from heavy impurities, possibly molybdenum. Some of these lines can be explained by the emission from Ti XIII.

  7. X-RAY VARIABILITY AND HARDNESS OF ESO 243-49 HLX-1: CLEAR EVIDENCE FOR SPECTRAL STATE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Servillat, Mathieu; Farrell, Sean A.; Lin Dacheng; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A.

    2011-12-10

    The ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which reaches a maximum luminosity of 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} (0.2-10 keV), currently provides the strongest evidence for the existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). To study the spectral variability of the source, we conduct an ongoing monitoring campaign with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), which now spans more than two years. We found that HLX-1 showed two fast rise and exponential decay type outbursts in the Swift XRT light curve with increases in the count rate of a factor {approx}40 separated by 375 {+-} 13 days. We obtained new XMM-Newton and Chandra dedicated pointings that were triggered at the lowest and highest luminosities, respectively. From spectral fitting, the unabsorbed luminosities ranged from 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} to 1.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. We confirm here the detection of spectral state transitions from HLX-1 reminiscent of Galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs): at high luminosities, the X-ray spectrum showed a thermal state dominated by a disk component with temperatures of 0.26 keV at most, and at low luminosities the spectrum is dominated by a hard power law with a photon index in the range 1.4-2.1, consistent with a hard state. The source was also observed in a state consistent with the steep power-law state, with a photon index of {approx}3.5. In the thermal state, the luminosity of the disk component appears to scale with the fourth power of the inner disk temperature, which supports the presence of an optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk. The low fractional variability (rms of 9% {+-} 9%) in this state also suggests the presence of a dominant disk. The spectral changes and long-term variability of the source cannot be explained by variations of the beaming angle and are not consistent with the source being in a super-Eddington accretion state as is proposed for most ULX sources with lower luminosities. All this

  8. On spectral and temporal coherence of x-ray free-electron laser beams.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Lutful; Vartiainen, Ismo; Setälä, Tero; Friberg, Ari T; David, Christian; Makita, Mikako; Turunen, Jari

    2016-06-13

    A model for the coherence properties of free-electron lasers (FELs) in time and frequency domains is introduced within the framework of classical second-order coherence theory of nonstationary light. An iterative phase-retrieval algorithm is applied to construct an ensemble of field realizations in both domains, based on single-pulse spectra measured at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode. Such an ensemble describes the specific FEL pulse train in a statistically averaged sense. Two-time and two-frequency correlation functions are constructed, demonstrating that the hard X-ray free-electron laser at LCLS in this case behaves as a quasistationary source with low spectral and temporal coherence. We also show that the Gaussian Schell model provides a good description of this FEL. PMID:27410327

  9. Spectral X-Ray Diffraction using a 6 Megapixel Photon Counting Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Ryan D.; Pogranichniy, Nicholas R.; Muir, J. Lewis; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Toth, Scott J.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2016-01-01

    Pixel-array array detectors allow single-photon counting to be performed on a massively parallel scale, with several million counting circuits and detectors in the array. Because the number of photoelectrons produced at the detector surface depends on the photon energy, these detectors offer the possibility of spectral imaging. In this work, a statistical model of the instrument response is used to calibrate the detector on a per-pixel basis. In turn, the calibrated sensor was used to perform separation of dual-energy diffraction measurements into two monochromatic images. Targeting applications include multi-wavelength diffraction to aid in protein structure determination and X-ray diffraction imaging. PMID:27041789

  10. X-ray Dust Halos Seen With Extreme Dynamic Range: What Do We Learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Randall

    2008-03-01

    The exquisite angular resolution available with Chandra should allow precision measurements of faint diffuse emission surrounding bright sources, such as the X-ray scattering halos created by interstellar dust. However, the ACIS CCDs suffer from pileup when observing bright sources, and this creates difficulties when trying to extract the scattered halo near the source. The initial study of the X-ray halo around GX13+1 using only the ACIS-I detector done by Smith, Edgar & Shafer (2002) suffered from a lack of sensitivity within 50'' of the source, limiting what conclusions could be drawn. To address this problem, observations of GX13+1 were obtained with the Chandra HRC-I and simultaneously with the RXTE PCA. Combined with the existing ACIS-I data, this allowed measurements of the X-ray halo between 2-1000''. After considering a range of dust models, each assumed to be smoothly distributed with or without a dense cloud along the line of sight, the results show that there is no evidence in this data for a dense cloud near the source, as suggested by Xiang et al. 2005. Finally, although no model leads to formally acceptable results, the Weingartner & Draine (2001) and nearly all of the composite grain models from Zubko, Dwek & Arendt (2004) give poor fits. I thank Dr. Michael Juda of the HRC-I team for providing significant assistance; this work was supported by Chandra Observing Grant GO56144X.

  11. FIRST EVIDENCE FOR SPECTRAL STATE TRANSITIONS IN THE ESO 243-49 HYPERLUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HLX-1

    SciTech Connect

    Godet, O.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A.; Farrell, S. A.; Gehrels, N.

    2009-11-10

    The brightest ultra-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1, with a 0.2-10 keV X-ray luminosity of up to 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, provides the strongest evidence to date for the existence of intermediate mass black holes (BHs). Although small-scale X-ray spectral variability has already been demonstrated, we have initiated a monitoring campaign with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Swift satellite to search for luminosity-related spectral changes and to compare its behavior with the better-studied stellar mass BHs. In this Letter, we report a drop in the XRT count rate by a factor of approx8 which occurred simultaneously with a hardening of the X-ray spectrum. A second observation found that the source had re-brightened by a factor of approx21 which occurred simultaneously with a softening of the X-ray spectrum. This may be the first evidence for a transition between the low/hard and high/soft states.

  12. Linear fitting of multi-threshold counting data with a pixel-array detector for spectral X-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Ryan D.; Pogranichney, Nicholas R.; Muir, J. Lewis; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Toth, Scott J.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments and modeling are described to perform spectral fitting of multi-threshold counting measurements on a pixel-array detector. An analytical model was developed for describing the probability density function of detected voltage in X-ray photon-counting arrays, utilizing fractional photon counting to account for edge/corner effects from voltage plumes that spread across multiple pixels. Each pixel was mathematically calibrated by fitting the detected voltage distributions to the model at both 13.5 keV and 15.0 keV X-ray energies. The model and established pixel responses were then exploited to statistically recover images of X-ray intensity as a function of X-ray energy in a simulated multi-wavelength and multi-counting threshold experiment. PMID:25178010

  13. Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering range.

    PubMed

    Möller, Johannes; Chushkin, Yuriy; Prevost, Sylvain; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2016-07-01

    Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements in the ultra-small-angle range are performed using a long pinhole collimation instrument in combination with two-dimensional photon-counting and high-sensitivity imaging detectors. The feasibility of the presented setup to measure dynamics on different time and length scales pertinent to colloidal systems is shown. This setup offers new research opportunities, such as for example in the investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics in optically opaque, complex systems over length scales from tens of nanometres to several micrometres. In addition, due to the short duration of the X-ray exposure involved in the ultra-small-angle range, possible radiation-induced effects are alleviated. Furthermore, the performance of two different detectors, a photon-counting Pilatus 300K and an integrating FReLoN CCD, are compared, and their applicability for accurate XPCS measurements is demonstrated. PMID:27359141

  14. High-resolution X-ray spectra of solar flares. IV - General spectral properties of M type flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Kreplin, R. W.; Mariska, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The spectral characteristics in selected narrow regions of the X-ray spectrum of class M solar flares are analyzed. High-resolution spectra in the ranges 1.82-1.97, 2.98-3.07, 3.14-3.24 and 8.26-8.53 A, which contain lines important for the determination of electron temperature and departure from ionization equilibrium, were recorded by spaceborne Bragg crystal spectrometers. Temperatures of up to 20,000,000 K are obtained from line ratios during flare rise phases in M as well as X flares, while in the decay phase the calcium temperature can be as low as 8,000,000 K, which is significantly lower than in X flares. Large nonthermal motions (on the order of 130 km/sec at most) are also observed in M as well as X flares, which are largest during the soft X-ray rise phase. Finally, it is shown that the method proposed by Gabriel and Phillips (1979) for detecting departures of electrons from Maxwellian velocity distributions is not sufficiently sensitive to give reliable results for the present data.

  15. Discovery of Spatial and Spectral Structure in the X-Ray Emission from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Hester, J. Jeff; Tennant, Allyn F.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Marshall, Herman L.; Karovska, Margarita; Nichols, Joy S.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and pulsar during orbital calibration. Zeroth-order images with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) readout by the Advanced Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy array (ACIS-S) show a striking richness of X-ray structure at a resolution comparable to that of the best ground-based visible-light observations. The HETG-ACIS-S images reveal, for the first time, an X-ray inner ring within the X-ray torus, the suggestion of a hollow-tube structure for the torus, and X-ray knots along the inner ring and (perhaps) along the inward extension of the X-ray jet. Although complicated by instrumental effects and the brightness of the Crab Nebula, the spectrometric analysis shows systematic variations of the X-ray spectrum throughout the nebula.

  16. Single-step, quantitative x-ray differential phase contrast imaging using spectral detection in a coded aperture setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua

    2015-03-01

    In this abstract we describe the first non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) method that uses only a single-measurement step to retrieve with quantitative accuracy absorption, phase and differential phase. Our approach is based on utilizing spectral information from photon counting spectral detectors in conjunction with a coded aperture PCI setting to simplify the x-ray "phase problem" to a one-step method. The method by virtue of being single-step with no motion of any component for a given projection image has significantly high potential to overcome the barriers currently faced by PCI.

  17. Spectral and temporal behavior of low mass X ray binaries observed with the Einstein SSS and MPC, and the Broad Band X Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Damian Joseph

    An extensive survey of 50 low mass X-ray binaries was carried out using the HEAO-2 Einstein Solid State Spectrometer data (0.5-4.5 keV) with the Monitor Proportional Counter data (1.2-20.0 keV). The SSS provided 160 eV resolution below 4.5 keV with about 200 sq cm of area, 100 times that of grating instruments on Einstein and EXOSAT. Additional observations were obtained with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (0.5-12 keV). Although LMXRB are some of the most luminous X-ray sources and include one of the first X-ray sources discovered, the nature of their emission regions has remained uncertain. Spectra were selected on the basis of intensity and fit with a set of simple and complex spectral models. For all the subclasses, including Eddington-limited bulge sources, bursters, dippers, the soft spectrum black hole candidates, and a few transients in decline, the spectra could be fit acceptably with combinations of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody spectra or a Comptonized spectrum and a blackbody. The results rule out optically thick disk models for the bright Z sources and power law models for bursters. The results suggest a progression of spectra as a function of X-ray luminosity for the bursters, Atoll, and Z sources, in which there are separate emission regions, one optically thin to scattering. The optically thick component that appears for higher luminosity may be due to a boundary layer or to high optical depth to scattering in the flow. A lower temperature blackbody indicated in some cases could be an expected contribution from the accretion disk. The soft spectrum sources are dominated by blackbody spectra, but for two, low effective area of emission is a problem for the black hole interpretation. There did not appear to be any clear selection between models for the sources with high binary orbit inclinations. Column densities for absorption by cold gas were determined simultaneously with the fits. They give distance estimates for the galactic bulge sources

  18. Hard X-ray emission from X-ray bursters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, M.; Liang, E.

    1996-11-01

    Hard X-ray emission from compact objects has been considered a spectral signature of black hole candidates. However, SIGMA and BATSE recently detected transient emission in the energy range 30-200keV from several X-ray bursters (XRBs) believed to contain weakly magnetized neutron stars. At least seven XRBs (including Aquila X-1 and 4U 1608-52) are currently known to produce erratic hard X-ray outbursts with typical durations of several weeks. These results lead us to reconsider theoretical models of high-energy emission from compact objects, and in particular thermal Comptonization models vs. non-thermal models of particle energization and X-ray emission from weakly magnetized neutron stars. We summarize here recent results for magnetic field reconnection models of non-thermal particle acceleration and high-energy emission of accretion disks. For intermediate soft X-ray luminosities below the Eddington limit, non-thermal hard X-ray emission is predicted to have a (broken) power-law spectrum with intensity anticorrelated with the soft X-ray luminosity. Recent GINGA/BATSE data for the XRB 4U 1608-52 are in agreement with the mechanism of emission proposed here: transient hard X-ray emission consistent with a broken power-law spectrum was detected for a sub-Eddington soft X-ray luminosity.

  19. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Cammin, Jochen E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi et al., “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011

  20. Origin of the characteristic X-ray spectral variations of IRAS 13224-3809

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Misaki; Ebisawa, Ken; Sameshima, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) IRAS 13224-3809 is known to exhibit significant X-ray spectral variation, a sharp spectral drop at ˜7 keV, strong soft excess emission, and a hint of an iron L-edge feature, which is very similar to the NLS1 1H 0707-495. We have proposed the "Variable Double Partial Covering (VDPC) model" to explain the energy spectra and spectral variability of 1H 0707-495 (Mizumoto et al. 2014, PASJ, 66, 122). In this model, the observed flux/spectral variations below 10 keV within ˜ a day are primarily caused by change of the partial covering fraction of patchy clouds composed by double absorption layers in the line of sight. In this paper, we apply the VDPC model to IRAS 13224-3809. Consequently, we have found that the VDPC model can explain the observed spectral variations of IRAS 13224-3809 in the 0.5-10 keV band. In particular, we can explain the observed root mean square (RMS) spectra (energy dependence of the fractional flux variation) in the entire 0.5-10 keV band. In addition to the well-known significant drop in the iron K-band, we have found intriguing iron L-peaks in the RMS spectra when the iron L-edge is particularly deep. This feature, which is also found in 1H 0707-495, is naturally explained with the VDPC model, such that the RMS variations increase at the energies where optical depths of the partial absorbers are large. The absorbers have a larger optical depth at the iron L-edge than in the adjacent energy bands, and thus a characteristic iron L-peak appears. On the other hand, just below the iron K-edge, the optical depth is the lowest and the RMS spectrum has a broad dip.

  1. Spectral evolution of microwaves and hard X-rays in the 1989 March 18 flare and its interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo W.; Gary, Dale E.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the time variation of microwave spectra and hard X-ray spectra of 1989 March 18, which are obtained from the Solar Array at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) and the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), respectively. From this observation, it is noted that the hard X-ray spectra gradually soften over 50 - 200 keV on-and-after the maximum phase while the microwaves at 1 - 15 GHz show neither a change in spectral shape nor as rapid a decay as hard X-rays. This leads to decoupling of hard X-rays from the microwaves in the decay phase away from their good correlation seen in the initial rise phase. To interpret this observation, we adopt a view that microwave-emitting particles and hard X-ray particles are physically separated in an inhomogeneous magnetic loop, but linked via interactions with the Whistler waves generated during flares. From this viewpoint, it is argued that the observed decoupling of microwaves from hard X-rays may be due to the different ability of each source region to maintain high energy electrons in response to the Whistler waves passing through the entire loop. To demonstrate this possibility, we solve a Fokker-Planck equation that describes evolution of electrons interacting with the Whistler waves, taking into account the variation of Fokker-Planck coefficients with physical quantities of the background medium. The numerical Fokker-Planck solutions are then used to calculate microwave spectra and hard X-ray spectra for agreement with observations. Our model results are as follows: in a sronger field region, the energy loss by electron escape due to scattering by the waves is greatly enhanced resulting in steep particle distributions that reproduce the observed hard X-ray spectra. In a region with weaker fields and lower density, this loss term is reduced allowing high energy electrons to survive longer so that microwaves can be emitted there in excess of hard X-rays during the decay phase

  2. RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT observations of spectral transitions in bright X-ray binaries in 2005-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Yu, Wen-Fei; Yan, Zhen

    2011-04-01

    We have studied X-ray spectral state transitions that can be seen in the long-term monitoring light curves of bright X-ray binaries from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift during a period of five years from 2005 to 2010. We have applied a program to automatically identify the hard-to-soft (H-S) spectral state transitions in the bright X-ray binaries monitored by the ASM and the BAT. In total, we identified 128 hard-to-soft transitions, of which 59 occurred after 2008. We also determined the transition fluxes and the peak fluxes of the following soft states, updated the measurements of the luminosity corresponding to the H-S transition and the peak luminosity of the following soft state in about 30 bright persistent and transient black hole and neutron star binaries following Yu & Yan, and found the luminosity correlation and the luminosity range of spectral transitions in data between 2008-2010 are about the same as those derived from data before 2008. This further strengthens the idea that the luminosity at which the H-S spectral transition occurs in the Galactic X-ray binaries is determined by non-stationary accretion parameters such as the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate rather than the mass accretion rate itself. The correlation is also found to hold in data of individual sources 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53.

  3. A wide-acceptance Compton spectrometer for spectral characterization of a medical x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Michelle A.; Gehring, A.; Belian, A.; Haines, T.; Hunter, J.; James, M.; Klasky, M.; Mendez, J.; Moir, D.; Sedillo, R.; Shurter, R.; Stearns, J.; Van Syoc, K.; Volegov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of the x-ray spectra used in medical treatment and radiography is important for dose calculations and material decomposition analysis. Indirect measurements via transmission through materials are possible. However, such spectra are challenging to measure directly due to the high photon fluxes. One method of direct measurement is via a Compton spectrometer (CS) method. In this approach, the x-rays are converted to a much lower flux of electrons via Compton scattering on a converter foil (typically beryllium or aluminum). The electrons are then momentum selected by bending in a magnetic field. With tight angular acceptance of electrons into the magnet of ~ 1 deg, there is a linear correlation between incident photon energy and electron position recorded on an image plate. Here we present measurements of Bremsstrahlung spectrum from a medical therapy machine, a Scanditronix M22 Microtron. Spectra with energy endpoints from 6 to 20 MeV are directly measured, using a CS with a wide energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the device and the effects of converter material and collimation on the accuracy of the reconstructed spectra. Approaches toward improving the sensitivity, including the use of coded apertures, and potential future applications to characterization of spectra are also discussed.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral lines in Rb XXIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indu, Khatri; Arun, Goyal; Sunny, Aggarwal; A, K. Singh; Man, Mohan

    2016-03-01

    An extensive theoretical set of atomic data for Rb XXIX in a wide range with L-shell electron excitations to the M-shell has been reported. We have computed energy levels for the lowest 113 fine structure levels of Rb XXIX. The fully relativistic multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock method (MCDF) within the framework of Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian taking quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Breit corrections into account has been adopted for calculations. Radiative data are reported for electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions from the ground level, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. To assess the accuracy of results, we performed analogous calculations using flexible atomic code (FAC). Comparisons are made with existing available results and a good agreement has been achieved. Most of the wavelengths calculated lie in the soft x-ray (SXR) region. Lifetimes for all 113 levels have also been provided for the first time. Additionally, we have provided the spectra for allowed transitions from n = 2 to n = 3 within the x-ray region and also compared our SXR photon wavelengths with experimentally recognized wavelengths. We hope that our results will be beneficial in fusion plasma research and astrophysical applications.

  5. An XMM-Newton spectral survey of 12 μm selected galaxies - I. X-ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, Murray; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-05-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 126 galaxies of the 12 μm galaxy sample. By studying this sample at X-ray wavelengths, we aim to determine the intrinsic power, continuum shape and obscuration level in these sources. We improve upon previous works by the use of superior data in the form of higher signal-to-noise ratio spectra, finer spectral resolution and a broader bandpass from XMM-Newton. We pay particular attention to Compton thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the help of new spectral fitting models that we have produced, which are based on Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray radiative transfer, using both a spherical and torus geometry, and taking into account Compton scattering and iron fluorescence. We use this data to show that with a torus geometry, unobscured sightlines can achieve a maximum equivalent width of the Fe Kα line of ˜150 eV, originally shown by Ghisellini et al. In order for this to be exceeded, the line of sight must be obscured with NH > 1023 cm-2, as we show for one case, NGC 3690. We also calculate flux suppression factors from the simulated data, the main conclusion from which is that for NH≥ 1025 cm-2, the X-ray flux is suppressed by a factor of at least 10 in all X-ray bands and at all redshifts, revealing the biases present against these extremely heavily obscured systems inherent in all X-ray surveys. Furthermore, we confirm previous results from Murphy & Yaqoob that show that the reflection fraction determined from slab geometries is underestimated with respect to toroidal geometries. For the 12 μm selected galaxies, we investigate the distribution of X-ray power-law indices, finding that the mean (<Γ>= 1.90+0.05-0.07 and σΓ= 0.31+0.05-0.05) is consistent with previous works, and that the distribution of Γ for obscured and unobscured sources is consistent with the source populations being the same, in general support of unification schemes. We determine a Compton thick fraction for the X-ray AGN in our sample to

  6. High Resolution Temporal and Spectral Monitoring of Eta Carinae's X-Ray Emission the June Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Henley, D.; Pittard, J. M.; Gull, T. R.; Davidson, K.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The supermassive and luminous star Eta Carinae undergoes strong X-ray variations every 5.5 years when its 2-10 keV X-ray emission brightens rapidly with wild fluctuations before dropping by a factor of 100 to a minimum lasting 3 months. The most recent X-ray "eclipse" began in June 2003 and during this time Eta Carinae was intensely observed throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we report the first results of frequent monitoring of the 2-10 keV band X-ray emission by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer along wit high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the transmission gratings on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We compare these observations to those results obtained during the previous X-ray eclipse in 1998, and interpret the variations in the X-ray brightness, in the amount of absorption, in the X-ray emission measure and in the K-shell emission lines in terms of a colliding wind binary model.

  7. A weighted polynomial based material decomposition method for spectral x-ray CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dufan; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Sen

    2016-05-21

    Currently in photon counting based spectral x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging, pre-reconstruction basis materials decomposition is an effective way to reconstruct densities of various materials. The iterative maximum-likelihood method requires precise spectrum information and is time-costly. In this paper, a novel non-iterative decomposition method based on polynomials is proposed for spectral CT, whose aim was to optimize the noise performance when there is more energy bins than the number of basis materials. Several subsets were taken from all the energy bins and conventional polynomials were established for each of them. The decomposition results from each polynomial were summed with pre-calculated weighting factors, which were designed to minimize the overall noises. Numerical studies showed that the decomposition noise of the proposed method was close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound under Poisson noises. Furthermore, experiments were carried out with an XCounter Filte X1 photon counting detector for two-material decomposition and three-material decomposition for validation. PMID:27082291

  8. A weighted polynomial based material decomposition method for spectral x-ray CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dufan; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Currently in photon counting based spectral x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging, pre-reconstruction basis materials decomposition is an effective way to reconstruct densities of various materials. The iterative maximum-likelihood method requires precise spectrum information and is time-costly. In this paper, a novel non-iterative decomposition method based on polynomials is proposed for spectral CT, whose aim was to optimize the noise performance when there is more energy bins than the number of basis materials. Several subsets were taken from all the energy bins and conventional polynomials were established for each of them. The decomposition results from each polynomial were summed with pre-calculated weighting factors, which were designed to minimize the overall noises. Numerical studies showed that the decomposition noise of the proposed method was close to the Cramer–Rao lower bound under Poisson noises. Furthermore, experiments were carried out with an XCounter Filte X1 photon counting detector for two-material decomposition and three-material decomposition for validation.

  9. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate, T.; Nishizuka, N.; Oi, A.; Ohyama, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  10. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    PubMed

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible. PMID:26698063

  11. Removing Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charged Exchange Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargelin, Brad

    2004-01-01

    feasibility of our longer-range plan. For example, we successfully injected He into EBIT (not a small feat because of the difficulty of maintaining a good vacuum with He and avoiding electrical breakdown) to collect a H-like oxygen CX spectrum. The highest energy CX spectrum recorded with the XRS to date is that of the Ar K-shell emission. These measurements provided the first observation of the relative intensity ratios of resolved He-like singlet and triplet n=2->1 lines. We also carried out measurements of He-like Ne as a function of collision energy (i.e., ion temperature). Significant differences in the resulting x-ray spectra were noted. In all cases, the intensity of high-n H-like Lyman lines is significantly higher than current theoretical CX models predict.

  12. Spectral variability in the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the galactic center region, hard X-ray source GX 1+4 by the GSFC X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 confirm that GX 1+4 is a slow X-ray pulsar. The amount of absorption by cold matter in the spectrum of GX 1+4 varies significantly within a 24 hour period, behavior typical of many X-ray binary systems. The light curve for the pulsations from GX 1+4 appears to be energy dependent.

  13. Creating an X-ray Nebula in the Laboratory: Spectral Diagnostics of Neon Photoionization Experiments on the Z-machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, D. S.; Cohen, D. H.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Liedahl, D. A.; Bailey, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    We report on initial spectroscopic studies of an X-ray photoionized neon plasma, in an attempt to study spectral properties of X-ray nebulae in the laboratory. These experiments, carried out on the Z-machine at Sandia, are optimized to produce a gradient free, X-ray heated and ionized plasma, and to approximate as closely as possible the photoionization-dominated regime. We present results of initial experiments demonstrating the ability to measure K-shell absorption spectra. We also present modeling of future experiments in which we will measure simultaneously the time-resolved absorption and emission spectra of the X-ray photoionized plasma. The emission spectra are expected to be relevant to spectra observed from sources like X-ray binaries. These experiments can help us better understand the new, high-resolution spectra being produced by the Chandra and XMM-Newton telescopes, and to benchmark spectral synthesis codes. This work is supported by the Research Corporation, under grant CC5489 to Swarthmore College and DOE contract DE-FG03-98DP00250 to Prism Computational Sciences.

  14. Quantitative spectromicroscopy from inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, O.; Zborowski, C.; Risterucci, P.; Wiemann, C.; Grenet, G.; Schneider, C. M.; Tougaard, S.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate quantitative, highly bulk-sensitive x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy by analysis of inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range, enabling elemental depth distribution analysis in deeply buried layers. We show results on patterned structures used in electrical testing of high electron mobility power transistor devices with an epitaxial Al0.25Ga0.75N channel and a Ti/Al metal contact. From the image series taken over an energy range of up to 120 eV in the Ti 1s loss feature region and over a typical 100 μm field of view, one can accurately retrieve, using background analysis together with an optimized scattering cross-section, the Ti depth distribution from 14 nm up to 25 nm below the surface. The method paves the way to multi-elemental, bulk-sensitive 3D imaging and investigation of phenomena at deeply buried interfaces and microscopic scales by photoemission.

  15. Image-based spectral distortion correction for photon-counting x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using an image-based method to correct for distortions induced by various artifacts in the x-ray spectrum recorded with photon-counting detectors for their application in breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: The polyenergetic incident spectrum was simulated with the tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) code and carefully calibrated to match the x-ray tube in this study. Experiments were performed on a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) photon-counting detector with five energy thresholds. Energy bins were adjusted to evenly distribute the recorded counts above the noise floor. BR12 phantoms of various thicknesses were used for calibration. A nonlinear function was selected to fit the count correlation between the simulated and the measured spectra in the calibration process. To evaluate the proposed spectral distortion correction method, an empirical fitting derived from the calibration process was applied on the raw images recorded for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms of 8.7, 48.8, and 100.0 mm. Both the corrected counts and the effective attenuation coefficient were compared to the simulated values for each of the five energy bins. The feasibility of applying the proposed method to quantitative material decomposition was tested using a dual-energy imaging technique with a three-material phantom that consisted of water, lipid, and protein. The performance of the spectral distortion correction method was quantified using the relative root-mean-square (RMS) error with respect to the expected values from simulations or areal analysis of the decomposition phantom. Results: The implementation of the proposed method reduced the relative RMS error of the output counts in the five energy bins with respect to the simulated incident counts from 23.0%, 33.0%, and 54.0% to 1.2%, 1.8%, and 7.7% for 8.7, 48.8, and 100.0 mm PMMA phantoms, respectively. The accuracy of the effective attenuation

  16. Recovery of x-ray absorption spectral profile in etched TiO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Keiji; Niibe, Masahito; Kawakami, Retsuo; Nakano, Yoshitaka

    2015-05-15

    Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of plasma-etched TiO{sub 2} thin films were observed using the total fluorescence yield method involving visible emission. The disrupted spectrum recovered its as-grown (nonetched) profile, upon soft x-ray (SX) irradiation. This recovery was investigated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, spatial distribution measurements, exposing recovered samples to air, and NEXAFS measurements of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} particles. The spectral profile recovered upon UV irradiation, and at sample positions outside of the SX irradiation site. The recovered spectral profiles were disrupted again, upon exposure to air. Nonetched ultrafine TiO{sub 2} particles also exhibited a disrupted spectral profile, which was recovered upon SX irradiation. The spectral recovery is explained by a model involving electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies generated by etching.

  17. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: X-ray spectral diagnostics of plasmas heated by picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryunetkin, B. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Faenov, A. Ya; Khakhalin, S. Ya; Kalashnikov, M. P.; Nickles, P. V.; Schnürer, M.

    1993-06-01

    The properties of a magnesium plasma heated by picosecond laser pulses have been determined by x-ray spectral methods. Experiments were carried out at a laser power density ~ 1.5 · 1018 W/cm2. The x-ray spectra were detected by spectrographs with a plane CsAP crystal and a mica crystal bent into part of a spherical surface 10 cm in radius. The experimental data are compared with predictions of a calculation on the time-varying kinetics of multiply charged magnesium ions.

  18. Discovery of Spatial and Spectral Structure in the X-Ray Emission from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M.; Hester, J. J.; Tennant, A. F.; Elsner, R. F.; Schulz, N. S.; Marshall, H. L.; Karovska, M.; Nichols, J. S.; Swartz, D. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and Pulsar During orbital calibration. Zeroth-order images with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) read-out by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy array (ACIS-S) show a striking richness of X-ray structure, at a resolution comparable to that of the best ground-based visible-light observations. The HETG-ACIS-S images reveal, for the first time, an X-ray knots along the inner ring and (perhaps) along the inward extension of the X-ray jet. Although complicated by instrumental effects and the brightness of the Crab Nebula, the spectrometric analysis shows systematic variations of the X-ray spectrum throughout the Nebula.

  19. FULL SPECTRAL SURVEY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2013-08-01

    We have analyzed spectra for all active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line equivalent width (EW), Compton reflection, and photon index, and calculate fluxes and luminosities in the 2-10 keV band for 100 AGN with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to yield high-quality spectral results. We compare these parameters across the different classifications of Seyferts and blazars. Our distributions of photon indices for Seyfert 1s and 2s are consistent with the idea that Seyferts share a common central engine; however, our distributions of Compton reflection hump strengths do not support the classical picture of absorption by a torus and reflection off a Compton-thick disk with type depending only on inclination angle. We conclude that a more complex reflecting geometry such as a combined disk and torus or clumpy torus is likely a more accurate picture of the Compton-thick material. We find that Compton reflection is present in {approx}85% of Seyferts and by comparing Fe line EW's to Compton reflection hump strengths we have found that on average 40% of the Fe line arises in Compton thick material; however, this ratio was not consistent from object to object and did not seem to be dependent on optical classification.

  20. GINGA LAC and Einstein SSS X-ray Spectral Evidence of Abundance Gradients in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E., III; Day, C. S. R.; Hatsukade, I.; Hughes, J. P.

    1993-12-01

    We jointly analyzed the Ginga LAC and Einstein SSS spectra of four cooling flow clusters: A496, A1795, A2142 & A2199. We took advantage of the two instruments' different fields of view (6 arcmin diameter for the SSS, 1times 2 degrees for the LAC) to determine whether there were spatial gradients in temperature, abundances and X-ray absorbing column densities. Each cluster has firm evidence of a relatively cool central component. The inclusion of such cool components in the joint spectral analysis leads to somewhat higher global temperature determinations than are derived from the higher energy LAC data alone. The abundances appear to be centrally enhanced in at least two (A496, A2142) and possibly three (A2199) of the four clusters. In these cases, the central cool component typically has abundances which exceed solar values. We also confirm the presence of large amounts of cold absorbing matter in three of the four clusters (A496, A1795 & A2199) and show that it is likely to be intrinsic to the cluster cooling flows.

  1. Short term X-ray spectral variability of the strong iron-k absorption feature in PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzeu, G.; Reeves, J.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E.; Costa, M.; Braito, V.; O'Brien, P.; Ward, M.; Turner, J.; Miller, L.

    2014-07-01

    We present a recent 500 ks Suzaku and a simultaneous 500 ks XMM-Newton & NuSTAR observations, carried out in 2013, of the nearby (z=0.184) luminous (L_{bol}˜10^{47} erg s^{-1}) quasar PDS 456. Short term X-ray spectral variability, including the presence of a strong and rapidly variable iron-K absorption feature, is observed and subsequently investigated. Here, our attention is focused on the physical interpretation of the short term variability where two models are adopted in the spectral analysis (partial covering vs coronal changes), leading to two valid interpretations. In the partial covering scenario, rapidly varying absorption is due to inhomogeneous dense material and such short timescale changes also entail that that the absorption is due to gas located in the vicinity of the black hole possibly shielding part of the outflow. In the second scenario, the complex spectral variability is due to variations in the intrinsic continuum observed as changes in the soft X-ray spectrum leading subsequent changes in the hard X-ray power-law, possibly induced by Comptonisation in the disc corona. Furthermore it was possible to extrapolate the size and the location of the absorber, its outflowing velocity and a direct estimation of the size of the X-ray emitting region ˜20 R_{g}.

  2. Spectral clustering for optical confirmation and redshift estimation of X-ray selected galaxy cluster candidates in the SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, E.; Takey, A.; Shoukry, A.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a galaxy cluster finding algorithm based on spectral clustering technique to identify optical counterparts and estimate optical redshifts for X-ray selected cluster candidates. As an application, we run our algorithm on a sample of X-ray cluster candidates selected from the third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog (3XMM-DR5) that are located in the Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our method works on galaxies described in the color-magnitude feature space. We begin by examining 45 galaxy clusters with published spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 0.1-0.8 with a median of 0.36. As a result, we are able to identify their optical counterparts and estimate their photometric redshifts, which have a typical accuracy of 0.025 and agree with the published ones. Then, we investigate another 40 X-ray cluster candidates (from the same cluster survey) with no redshift information in the literature and found that 12 candidates are considered as galaxy clusters in the redshift range from 0.29 to 0.76 with a median of 0.57. These systems are newly discovered clusters in X-rays and optical data. Among them 7 clusters have spectroscopic redshifts for at least one member galaxy.

  3. Flat panel X-ray detector with reduced internal scattering for improved attenuation accuracy and dynamic range

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Peter D.; Claytor, Thomas N.; Berry, Phillip C.; Hills, Charles R.

    2010-10-12

    An x-ray detector is disclosed that has had all unnecessary material removed from the x-ray beam path, and all of the remaining material in the beam path made as light and as low in atomic number as possible. The resulting detector is essentially transparent to x-rays and, thus, has greatly reduced internal scatter. The result of this is that x-ray attenuation data measured for the object under examination are much more accurate and have an increased dynamic range. The benefits of this improvement are that beam hardening corrections can be made accurately, that computed tomography reconstructions can be used for quantitative determination of material properties including density and atomic number, and that lower exposures may be possible as a result of the increased dynamic range.

  4. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, M. B. Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J.; Franz, P.

    2014-09-15

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ∼6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  5. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarry, M. B.; Franz, P.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J.

    2014-09-01

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ˜6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  6. A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting instrumental calibration and X-ray spectral models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming; Van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete; Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li E-mail: yamingy@ics.uci.edu E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: meng@stat.harvard.edu

    2014-10-20

    Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

  7. Spectral variations in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Apparao, K. M. V.

    1994-01-01

    We report the X-ray spectra of a binary 4U 0614+09 observed with EXOSAT on five different occasions in 1984 and 1986. In four observations in 1984, the source intensity was 'low' compared to its intensity in the 1986 observation. The source was steady on timescales of 10 to 1000 s in each of the 1984 observations but highly variable during the 1986 variations. The best-fit spectral models for the continuum are a blackbody spectrum plus an emission from a Comptonized region. In addition, a component due to reflection from a cold disk around the source was needed as an absorbiton edge due to cold or ionized iron was seen near 7 keV with good significance in most of the spectra, particularly in the 'low' state. The relation of the hardness ratios with intensity follow the behavior seen in the 'Atoll' sources. We have studied the behavior of the hardness ratios with the variations in the parameters of the best-fit spectral models. Most of the variability is associated with the blackbody component thought to arise from the boundary layer on the surface of the neutron star. During the 'high' state in 1986, the blackbody temperature is higher, its size smaller, and its contribution significantly greater than in the 'low' state. The other notable difference between the two states is the lower opacity in the Comptonized region, and a significantly higher absorption in the 'high' state. A weak line emission (equivalent width = 10 to 40 eV) is detected during the 'high' state. The line energy lies between 6 and 7 keV wh ich implies its origin from ionized iron.

  8. Spectral and Timing Investigations of Dwarf Novae Selected in Hard X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorstensen, John; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2000-01-01

    There are 9 dwarf novae (DN) among the 43 cataclysmic variables (accreting white dwarfs in close binary systems) that were detected during the HEAO-1 all-sky X-ray survey (1977-1979). On the other hand, there are roughly one hundred dwarf novae that are closer and/or optically brighter and yet they were not detected as hard X-ray sources. Two of the HEAO-1 DN show evidence for X-ray pulsations that imply strong magnetic fields on the white dwarf surface, and magnetic CVs are known to be strong X-ray sources. However, substantial flux in hard X-rays may be caused by non-magnetic effects, such as an optically thin boundary layer near a massive white dwarf. We proposed RXTE observations to measure plasma temperatures and to search for X-ray pulsations. The observations would distinguish whether these DN belong to one of (rare) magnetic subclasses. For those that do not show pulsations, the observations support efforts to define empirical relations between X-ray temperature, the accretion rate, and the mass of the white dwarf. The latter is determined via optical studies of the dynamics of the binary constituents.

  9. High dynamic range pixel architecture for advanced diagnostic medical x-ray imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Izadi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Karim S.

    2006-05-15

    The most widely used architecture in large-area amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers is a passive pixel sensor (PPS), which consists of a detector and a readout switch. While the PPS has the advantage of being compact and amenable toward high-resolution imaging, small PPS output signals are swamped by external column charge amplifier and data line thermal noise, which reduce the minimum readable sensor input signal. In contrast to PPS circuits, on-pixel amplifiers in a-Si technology reduce readout noise to levels that can meet even the stringent requirements for low noise digital x-ray fluoroscopy (<1000 noise electrons). However, larger voltages at the pixel input cause the output of the amplified pixel to become nonlinear thus reducing the dynamic range. We reported a hybrid amplified pixel architecture based on a combination of PPS and amplified pixel designs that, in addition to low noise performance, also resulted in large-signal linearity and consequently higher dynamic range [K. S. Karim et al., Proc. SPIE 5368, 657 (2004)]. The additional benefit in large-signal linearity, however, came at the cost of an additional pixel transistor. We present an amplified pixel design that achieves the goals of low noise performance and large-signal linearity without the need for an additional pixel transistor. Theoretical calculations and simulation results for noise indicate the applicability of the amplified a-Si pixel architecture for high dynamic range, medical x-ray imaging applications that require switching between low exposure, real-time fluoroscopy and high-exposure radiography.

  10. X-ray attenuation of adipose breast tissue: in-vitro and in-vivo measurements using spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Erhard, Klaus; Berggren, Karl; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Cederström, Björn; Johansson, Henrik; Lundqvist, Mats; Moa, Elin; Homan, Hanno; Willsher, Paula; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Wallis, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    The development of new x-ray imaging techniques often requires prior knowledge of tissue attenuation, but the sources of such information are sparse. We have measured the attenuation of adipose breast tissue using spectral imaging, in vitro and in vivo. For the in-vitro measurement, fixed samples of adipose breast tissue were imaged on a spectral mammography system, and the energy-dependent x-ray attenuation was measured in terms of equivalent thicknesses of aluminum and poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). For the in-vivo measurement, a similar procedure was applied on a number of spectral screening mammograms. The results of the two measurements agreed well and were consistent with published attenuation data and with measurements on tissue-equivalent material.